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Sample records for microgravity glovebox experiment

  1. Concepts for microgravity experiments utilizing gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Facemire, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The need for glovebox facilities on spacecraft in which microgravity materials processing experiments are performed is discussed. At present such facilities are being designed, and some of their capabilities are briefly described. A list of experiment concepts which would require or benefit from such facilities is presented.

  2. MSG: Microgravity Science Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Baugher, C.R.; Ramachandran, N.; Roark, W.

    1996-12-31

    The capabilities of the Space Station glovebox facility is described. Tentatively scheduled to be launched in 1999, this facility called the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG), will provide a robust and sophisticated platform for doing microgravity experiments on the Space Station. It will provide an environment not only for testing and evaluating experiment concepts, but also serve as a platform for doing fairly comprehensive science investigations. Its design has evolved substantially from the middeck glovebox, now flown on Space Shuttle missions, not only in increased experiment volume but also in significant capability enhancements. The system concept, functionality and architecture are discussed along with technical information that will benefit potential science investigators.

  3. USML-1 microgravity glovebox experiment no. 1 Passive Accelerometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The passive accelerometer system (PAS) is a simple moving ball accelerometer capable of measuring the small magnitude steady relative acceleration that occurs in a low earth orbit spacecraft due to atmospheric drag and the earth's gravity gradient. The accelerometer can be used when the spacecraft continuously rotates during the orbit such that some line of reference in the craft always points along the vector connecting the earth's mass center with the spacecraft mass center. PAS was used successfully on the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1).

  4. Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Mary Etta

    1999-01-01

    MSG is a third generation glovebox for Microgravity Science investigations: SpaceLab Glovebox (GBX); Middeck/MIR Gloveboxes (M/MGBX); and GBX and M/MGBX developed by Bradford Engineering (NL). Previous flights have demonstrated utility of glovebox facilities: Contained environment enables broader range of science experiments; Affords better control of video and photographic imaging (a prime data source); Provides better environmental control than cabin atmosphere; and Useful for contingency operations. MSG developed in response to demands for increased work volume, increased capabilities and additional resources. MSG is multi-user facility to support a wide range of small science and technology investigations: Fluid physics; Combustion science; Material science; Biotechnology (cell culturing and protein crystal growth); Space processing; Fundamental physics; and Technology demonstrations. Topics included in this viewgraph are: MSG capabilities; MSG hardware items; MSG, GSE, and OSE items; MSG development approach; and Science utilization.

  5. Reproducible Crystal Growth Experiments in Microgravity Science Glovebox at the International Space Station (SUBSA Investigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Bonner, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) is the first investigation conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility at the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. 8 single crystals of InSb, doped with Te and Zn, were directionally solidified in microgravity. The experiments were conducted in a furnace with a transparent gradient section, and a video camera, sending images to the earth. The real time images (i) helped seeding, (ii) allowed a direct measurement of the solidification rate. The post-flight characterization of the crystals includes: computed x-ray tomography, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Hall measurements, Atomic Absorption (AA), and 4 point probe analysis. For the first time in microgravity, several crystals having nearly identical initial transients were grown. Reproducible initial transients were obtained with Te-doped InSb. Furthermore, the diffusion controlled end-transient was demonstrated experimentally (SUBSA 02). From the initial transients, the diffusivity of Te and Zn in InSb was determined.

  6. USML-1 Glovebox experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

  7. Cooperation between NASA and ESA for the first microgravity materials science glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    Two major space organizations have collaborated to develop the first microgravity materials science glovebox and 16 materials science experiments. The glovebox and its experiments will fly initially on USML-1, currently scheduled for launch in mid-1992.

  8. Low Stretch PMMA Burning in Microgravity: Status of the Ground-Based Program and New ISS Glovebox Experiment SALSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; T'ien, J. S.; Armstrong, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this ground-based program is to study low stretch diffusion flames burning PMMA as the solid fuel to determine the relationship between buoyant low stretch burning in normal gravity and forced flow low stretch burning in microgravity. The low stretch is generated in normal gravity by using the buoyant convection induced by burning the bottom of a large radius of curvature sample. Low stretch is also generated using the Combustion Tunnel drop tower rig (2.2 and 5.2 second facilities), which provides a forced convective low velocity flow past smaller radius of curvature samples. Lastly, an ISS glovebox investigation is being developed to study low stretch burning of PMMA spheres to obtain long duration testing needed to accurately assess the flammability and burning characteristics of the material in microgravity. A comparison of microgravity experiment results with normal gravity test results allows us to establish a direct link between a material's burning characteristics in normal gravity (easily measured) with its burning characteristics in extraterrestrial environments, including microgravity forced convective environments. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results indicate that it should be possible to understand a material's burning characteristics in the low stretch environment of spacecraft (non-buoyant air movement induced by fans and crew disturbances) by understanding its burning characteristics in an equivalent Earth-based low stretch environment (induced by normal gravity buoyancy). Similarly, Earth-based stretch environments can be made equivalent to those in Lunar- and Martian-surface stretch environments (which would induce partial-gravity buoyancy).

  9. Microgravity Science in Space Flight Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles; Bennett, Nancy; Cockrell, David; Jex, David; Musick, Barry; Poe, James; Roark, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity science studies the influences of gravity on phenomena in fluids, materials processes, combustion, and human cell growth in the low acceleration environment of space flight. During the last decade, the accomplishment of the flight research in the field has evolved into an effective cooperation between the flight crew in the Shuttle and the ground-based investigator using real-time communication via voice and video links. This team structure has led to interactive operations in which the crew performs the experimentation while guided, as necessary, by the science investigator who formulated the investigation and who will subsequently interpret and analyze the data. One of the primary challenges to implementing this interactive research has been the necessity of structuring a means of handling fluids, gases, and hazardous materials in a manned laboratory that exhibits the novelty of weightlessness. Developing clever means of designing experiments in closed vessels is part of the solution- but the space flight requirement for one and two failure-tolerant containment systems leads to serious complications in the physical handling of sample materials. In response to the conflict between the clear advantage of human operation and judgment, versus the necessity to isolate the experiment from the crewmember and the spacecraft environment, the Microgravity Research Program has initiated a series of Gloveboxes in the various manned experiment carriers. These units provide a sealed containment vessel whose interior is under a negative pressure with respect to the ambient environment but is accessible to a crewmember through the glove ports.

  10. Reproducible Te-doped InSb experiments in Microgravity Science Glovebox at the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Churilov, A.; Volz, M. P.; Bonner, W. A.; Duffar, T.

    2008-01-01

    Four Te-doped InSb crystals were directionally solidified under microgravity conditions at the International Space Station (ISS). Three Te-doped InSb crystals were grown at R=5 mm/h. One crystal was grown at R=3.33 mm/h. The distribution of Te was measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The initial transients in Te concentration were found to be consistent, yielding a diffusivity of Te in InSb melts of D=1×10 -5 cm 2/s. One experiment revealed a diffusion controlled final transient. In all experiments, the charge was pressurized by a piston and spring device, to prevent de-wetting.

  11. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  12. Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT): A Linearized State-Space Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Calhoun, Philip C.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Vibration acceleration levels on large space platforms exceed the requirements of many space experiments. The Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) is being built by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to attenuate these disturbances to acceptable levels. G-LIMIT uses Lorentz (voice-coil) magnetic actuators to levitate and isolate payloads at the individual experiment/sub-experiment (versus rack) level. Payload acceleration, relative position, and relative orientation measurements are fed to a state-space controller. The controller, in turn, determines the actuator Currents needed for effective experiment isolation. This paper presents the development of an algebraic, state-space model of g-LIMIT, in a form suitable for optimal controller design. The equations are first derived using Newton's Second Law directly, then simplified to a linear form for the purpose of controller design.

  13. The USML-1 wire insulation flammability glovebox experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Flame spreading tests have been conducted using thin fuels in microgravity where buoyant convection is suppressed. In spacecraft experiments flames were ignited in quiescent atmospheres with an elevated oxygen content, demonstrating that diffusional mechanisms can be sufficient alone to sustain flame spreading. In ground-based facilities (i.e. drop towers and parabolic aircraft) low-speed convection sustains flames at much lower concentrations of atmospheric oxygen than in quiescent microgravity. Ground-based experiments are limited to very thin fuels (e.g., tissue paper); practical fuels, which are thicker, require more test time than is available. The Glovebox Facility provided for the USML 1 mission provided an opportunity to obtain flame spreading data for thicker fuel Herein we report the results from the Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) Experiment performed in the Glovebox Facility. This experiment explored the heating, ignition and burning of 0.65 mm thick polyethylene wire insulation in low-speed flows in a reduced gravity environment. Four tests were conducted, two each in concurrent flow (WIF A and C) and opposed flow (WIF B and D), providing the first demonstration of flame spreading in controlled forced convection conducted in space.

  14. First Post-Flight Status Report for the Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R., III

    2003-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) this year on the second Utilization Flight (UF2). After successful on-orbit activation, the facility began supporting an active microgravity research program. The inaugural NASA experiments operated in the unit were the Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA, A. Ostrogorski, PI), and the Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI, R. Grugel, PI) experiments. Both of these materials science investigations demonstrated the versatility of the facility through extensive use of telescience. The facility afforded the investigators with the capability of monitoring and operating the experiments in real-time and provided several instances in which the unique combination of scientists and flight crew were able to salvage situations which would have otherwise led to the loss of a science experiment in an unmanned, or automated, environment. The European Space Agency (ESA) also made use of the facility to perform a series of four experiments that were carried to the ISS via a Russian Soyuz and subsequently operated by a Belgium astronaut during a ten day Station visit. This imaginative approach demonstrated the ability of the MSG integration team to handle a rapid integration schedule (approximately seven months) and an intensive operations interval. Interestingly, and thanks to aggressive attention from the crew, the primary limitation to experiment thru-put in these early operational phases is proving to be the restrictions on the up-mass to the Station, rather than the availability of science operations.

  15. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Sciences's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jordan, Lee P.

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas.

  16. Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

  17. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  18. Robotic Sample Manipulator for Handling Astromaterials Inside the Geolab Microgravity Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Li,Z.; Tong, S.; Zhong, Y.; Dahiwala, R.; Wang, L.; Porter, F.

    2013-01-01

    Future human and robotic sample return missions will require isolation containment systems with strict protocols and procedures for reducing inorganic and organic contamination. Robotic handling and manipulation of astromaterials may be required for preliminary examination inside such an isolation containment system. In addition, examination of astromaterials in microgravity will require constant contact to secure samples during manipulation. The National Space Grant Foundation exploration habitat (XHab) academic innovative challenge 2012 administered through the NASA advanced exploration systems (AES) deep space habitat (DSH) project awarded funding to the University of Bridgeport team to develop an engineering design for tools to facilitate holding and handling geological samples for analysis in a microgravity glovebox environment. The Bridgeport XHab team developed a robotic arm system with a three-finger gripper that could manipulate geologic samples within the existing GeoLab glovebox integrated into NASA's DSH called the GeoLab Robotic Sample Manipulator (see fig. 1 and 2). This hardware was deployed and tested during the 2012 DSH mission operations tests [1].

  19. NASA Virtual Glovebox: An Immersive Virtual Desktop Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twombly, I. Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey; Bruyns, Cynthia; Montgomery, Kevin; Boyle, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX) integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real- time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  20. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  1. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  2. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  3. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment - Experiment Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) is a candidate experiment competitively peer reviewed and selected for flight definition from the 1996 Fundamental Physics NASA Research Announcement (NRA).

  4. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX): An Immersive Simulation System for Training Astronauts to Perform Glovebox Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station (ISS) has finally arrived, providing researchers on Earth a unique opportunity to study long-term effects of weightlessness and the space environment on structures, materials and living systems. Many of the physical, biological and material science experiments planned for ISS will require significant input and expertise from astronauts who must conduct the research, follow complicated assay procedures and collect data and samples in space. Containment is essential for Much of this work, both to protect astronauts from potentially harmful biological, chemical or material elements in the experiments as well as to protect the experiments from contamination by air-born particles In the Space Station environment. When astronauts must open the hardware containing such experiments, glovebox facilities provide the necessary barrier between astronaut and experiment. On Earth, astronauts are laced with the demanding task of preparing for the many glovebox experiments they will perform in space. Only a short time can be devoted to training for each experimental task and gl ovebox research only accounts for a small portion of overall training and mission objectives on any particular ISS mission. The quality of the research also must remain very high, requiring very detailed experience and knowledge of instrumentation, anatomy and specific scientific objectives for those who will conduct the research. This unique set of needs faced by NASA has stemmed the development of a new computer simulation tool, the Virtual Glovebox (VGB), which is designed to provide astronaut crews and support personnel with a means to quickly and accurately prepare and train for glovebox experiments in space.

  5. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  6. Design/build/mockup of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Benjamin, W.W.; Knight, C.J.; Michelbacher, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    A glovebox was designed, fabricated, and mocked-up for the WIPP Gas Generation Experiments (GGE) being conducted at ANL-W. GGE will determine the gas generation rates from materials in contact handled transuranic waste at likely long term repository temperature and pressure conditions. Since the customer`s schedule did not permit time for performing R&D of the support systems, designing the glovebox, and fabricating the glovebox in a serial fashion, a parallel approach was undertaken. As R&D of the sampling system and other support systems was initiated, a specification was written concurrently for contracting a manufacturer to design and build the glovebox and support equipment. The contractor understood that the R&D being performed at ANL-W would add additional functional requirements to the glovebox design. Initially, the contractor had sufficient information to design the glovebox shell. Once the shell design was approved, ANL-W built a full scale mockup of the shell out of plywood and metal framing; support systems were mocked up and resultant information was forwarded to the glovebox contractor to incorporate into the design. This approach resulted in a glovebox being delivered to ANL-W on schedule and within budget.

  7. Catastrophic Collapse of Particulate Clouds: Implications From Aggregation Experiments in the USML-1 and USML-2 Glovebox. Experiment 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John; Freund, Friedemann; Sauke, Todd; Freund, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with electrostatic aggregation of well-dispersed (nominally, mono-dispersed), freely suspended particles in the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) Glovebox have determined that filamentary aggregates are a universal product of grain interactions in relatively dense particulate clouds. Aggregate growth from the experimental particle clouds primarily involves dipole-dipole interactions for nonconducting materials; dipole interactions account for both attraction between grains as well as the cohesive force that maintains the integrity of the filamentary structures. When a cloud undergoes a turbulent-to-quiescent transition after damping of fluid and ballistic grain motions, aggregation occurs almost instantaneously and the cloud is transformed into a population of "heavier" clusters of material with organized electrical structures. This abrupt transformation could initiate catastrophic gravitational collapse of certain regions of particulate clouds, thus controlling the longevity and fate of cloud systems as diverse as protoplanetary dust disks and volcanic eruption plumes.

  8. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  9. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  10. Support and control system of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, W.W.; Knight, C.J.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E.

    1997-09-01

    A glovebox was designed and fabricated to house test containers loaded with contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. The test containers were designed to simulate the environmental characteristics of the caverns at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The support and control systems used to operate and maintain the Gas Generation Experiment (GGE) include the following: glovebox atmosphere and pressure control, test container support, glovebox operation support, and gas supply and exhaust systems. The glovebox atmosphere and pressure control systems consist of various components used to control both the pressure and quality of the argon atmosphere inside the glovebox. The glovebox pressure is maintained by three separate pressure control systems. The primary pressure control system is designed to maintain the glovebox at a negative pressure with the other two control systems serving as redundant safety backups. The quality of the argon atmosphere is controlled using a purifying bed system that removes oxygen and moisture. Glovebox atmosphere contaminants that are monitored on a continuous or periodic basis include moisture, oxygen, and nitrogen. The gas generation experiment requires the test containers to be filled with brine, leak tested, maintained at a constant temperature, and the gas head space of the test container sampled on a periodic basis. Test container support systems consisting of a brine addition system, leak test system, heating system, and gas sampling system were designed and implemented. A rupture disk system was constructed to provide pressure relief to the test containers. Operational requirements stipulated that test container temperature and pressure be monitored and collected on a continuous basis. A data acquisition system (DAS) was specifically designed to meet these requirements.

  11. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  12. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, plus or minus 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust' and Vacuum Resource 'Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to-the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  13. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG s unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  14. Nucleation of Crystals From Solution in Microgravity (USML-1 Glovebox (GBX) Investigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1994-01-01

    A new method for initiating nucleation from solutions in microgravity which avoids nucleation on container walls and other surfaces is described. This method consists of injecting a small quantity of highly concentrated, heated solution into the interior of a lightly supersaturated, cooler host gowth solution. It was tested successfully on USML-I, producing a large number of LAP crystals whose longest dimension averaged 1 mm.

  15. NASA Virtual Glovebox (VBX): Emerging Simulation Technology for Space Station Experiment Design, Development, Training and Troubleshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Maese, A. Christopher; Cagle, Yvonne; Boyle, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station demonstrates the greatest capabilities of human ingenuity, international cooperation and technology development. The complexity of this space structure is unprecedented; and training astronaut crews to maintain all its systems, as well as perform a multitude of research experiments, requires the most advanced training tools and techniques. Computer simulation and virtual environments are currently used by astronauts to train for robotic arm manipulations and extravehicular activities; but now, with the latest computer technologies and recent successes in areas of medical simulation, the capability exists to train astronauts for more hands-on research tasks using immersive virtual environments. We have developed a new technology, the Virtual Glovebox (VGX), for simulation of experimental tasks that astronauts will perform aboard the Space Station. The VGX may also be used by crew support teams for design of experiments, testing equipment integration capability and optimizing the procedures astronauts will use. This is done through the 3D, desk-top sized, reach-in virtual environment that can simulate the microgravity environment in space. Additional features of the VGX allow for networking multiple users over the internet and operation of tele-robotic devices through an intuitive user interface. Although the system was developed for astronaut training and assisting support crews, Earth-bound applications, many emphasizing homeland security, have also been identified. Examples include training experts to handle hazardous biological and/or chemical agents in a safe simulation, operation of tele-robotic systems for assessing and diffusing threats such as bombs, and providing remote medical assistance to field personnel through a collaborative virtual environment. Thus, the emerging VGX simulation technology, while developed for space- based applications, can serve a dual use facilitating homeland security here on Earth.

  16. SUBSA and PFMI Transparent Furnace Systems Currently in use in the International Space Station Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Gilley, Scott; Ostrogorsky, Aleksander; Grugel, Richard; Smith, Guy; Luz, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) and Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) furnaces were developed for operation in the International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). Both furnaces were launched to the ISS on STS-111, June 4, 2002, and are currently in use on orbit. The SUBSA furnace provides a maximum temperature of 850 C and can accommodate a metal sample as large as 30 cm long and 12mm in diameter. SUBSA utilizes a gradient freeze process with a minimum cooldown rate of 0.5C per min, and a stability of +/- 0.15C. An 8 cm long transparent gradient zone coupled with a Cohu 3812 camera and quartz ampoule allows for observation and video recording of the solidification process. PFMI is a Bridgman type furnace that operates at a maximum temperature of 130C and can accommodate a sample 23cm long and 10mm in diameter. Two Cohu 3812 cameras mounted 90 deg apart move on a separate translation system which allows for viewing of the sample in the transparent hot zone and gradient zone independent of the furnace translation rate and direction. Translation rates for both the cameras and furnace can be specified from 0.5micrometers/sec to 100 micrometers/sec with a stability of +/-5%. The two furnaces share a Process Control Module (PCM) which controls the furnace hardware, a Data Acquisition Pad (DaqPad) which provides signal condition of thermal couple data, and two Cohu 3812 cameras. The hardware and software allow for real time monitoring and commanding of critical process control parameters. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the SUBSA and PFMI systems along with performance data and some preliminary results from completed on-orbit processing runs.

  17. Replication Experiments in Microgravity Liquid Phase Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Randall M.; Johnson, John L.

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable experience exists with sintering on Earth, the behavior under reduced gravity conditions is poorly understood. This study analyzes replica microgravity liquid phase sintering data for seven tungsten alloys (35 to 88 wt pct tungsten) sintered for three hold times (1, 180, or 600 minutes) at 1773 K (1500 °C) using 0.002 pct of standard gravity. Equivalent sintering is performed on Earth using the same heating cycles. Microgravity sintering results in a lower density and more shape distortion. For Earth-based sintering, minimized distortion is associated with low liquid contents to avoid solid settling and slumping. Distortion in microgravity sintering involves viscous spreading of the component at points of contact with the containment crucible. Distortion in microgravity is minimized by short hold times; long hold times allow progressive component reshaping toward a spherical shape. Microgravity sintering also exhibits pore coalescence into large, stable voids that cause component swelling. The microgravity sintering results show good replication in terms of mass change and sintered density. Distortion is scattered but statistically similar between the replica microgravity runs. However, subtle factors, not typically of concern on Earth, emerge to influence microgravity sintering, such that ground experiments do not provide a basis to predict microgravity behavior.

  18. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1993-01-01

    Modeling plays a vital role in providing physical insights into behavior revealed by experiment. The program at the University of Illinois is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena through the analytical and numerical modeling of a variety of configurations undergoing experimental study in NASA's microgravity combustion program. Significant progress has been made in two areas: (1) flame-balls, studied experimentally by Ronney and his co-workers; (2) particle-cloud flames studied by Berlad and his collaborators. Additional work is mentioned below. NASA funding for the U. of Illinois program commenced in February 1991 but work was initiated prior to that date and the program can only be understood with this foundation exposed. Accordingly, we start with a brief description of some key results obtained in the pre - 2/91 work.

  19. Planning Experiments for a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to performing science experiments in a microgravity environment, scientists must understand and appreciate a variety of issues related to that environment. The microgravity conditions required for optimum performance of the experiment will help define an appropriate carrier, drop facility, sounding rocket, free-flyer, or manned orbiting spacecraft. Within a given carrier, such as the International Space Station, experiment sensitivity to vibrations and quasi-steady accelerations should also influence the location and orientation of the experiment apparatus; the flight attitude of the carrier (if selectable); and the scheduling of experiment operations in conjunction with other activities. If acceptable microgravity conditions are not expected from available carriers or experiment scheduling cannot avoid disruptive activities, then a vibration isolation system should be considered. In order to best interpret the experimental results, appropriate accelerometer data must be collected contemporaneously with the experimental data. All of this requires a good understanding of experiment sensitivity to the microgravity environment.

  20. Students build glovebox at Space Science Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Students in the Young Astronaut Program at the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, GA, constructed gloveboxes using the new NASA Student Glovebox Education Guide. The young astronauts used cardboard copier paper boxes as the heart of the glovebox. The paper boxes transformed into gloveboxes when the students pasted poster-pictures of an actual NASA microgravity science glovebox inside and outside of the paper boxes. The young astronauts then added holes for gloves and removable transparent top covers, which completed the construction of the gloveboxes. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  1. Microgravity experiment system utilizing a balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, M.; Ohta, S.; Yamagami, T.; Koma, Y.; Akiyama, H.; Hirosawa, H.; Nishimura, J.

    A system for microgravity experiments by using a stratospheric balloon has been planned and developed in ISAS since 1978. A rocket-shaped chamber mounting the experiment apparatus is released from the balloon around 30 km altitude. The microgravity duration is from the release to opening of parachute, controlled by an on-board sequential timer. Test flights were performed in 1980 and in 1981. In September 1983 the first scientific experiment, observing behaviors and brain activities of fishes in the microgravity circumstance, have been successfully carried out. The chamber is specially equipped with movie cameras and subtransmitters, and its release altitude is about 32 km. The microgravity observed inside the chamber is less than 2.9 × 10-3 G during 10 sec. Engineering aspects of the system used in the 1983 experiment are presented.

  2. IJEMS: Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendle, John R.; Mashl, Steven J.; Hardin, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    The Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification (IJEMS) is a cooperative effort between Iowa State University and the University of Iowa to study the formation of metal-matrix composites in a microgravity environment. Of particular interest is the interaction between the solid/liquid interface and the particles in suspension. The experiment is scheduled to fly on STS-69, Space Shuttle Endeavor on August 3, 1995. This project is unique in its heavy student participation and cooperation between the universities involved.

  3. Microgravity Research Results and Experiences from the NASA Mir Space Station Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schagheck, R. A.; Trach, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Program Office (MRPO) participated aggressively in Phase I of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges to long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both NASA and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about dealing with long duration on orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. Microgravity participation in the NASA Mir Program began with the first joint NASA Mir flight to the Mir Space Station. The earliest participation setup acceleration measurement capabilities that were used throughout the Program. Research, conducted by all Microgravity science disciplines, continued on each subsequent increment for the entire three-year duration of the Program. The Phase I Program included the Microgravity participation of over 30 Fluids, Combustion, Materials, and Biotechnology Sciences and numerous commercially sponsored research payloads. In addition to the research gained from Microgravity investigations, long duration operation of facility hardware was tested. Microgravity facilities operated on Mir included the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Microgravity Glovebox (MGBX), the Biotechnology System (BTS) and the Canadian Space Agency sponsored Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM). The Russian OPTIZONE Furnace was also incorporated into our material science research. All of these efforts yielded significant and useful scientific research data. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this

  4. Microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Yuji

    In JAXA, microgravity experiment system using a high altitude balloon was developed , for good microgravity environment and short turn-around time. In this publication, I give an account of themicrogravity experiment system and a combustion experiment to utilize the system. The balloon operated vehicle (BOV) as a microgravity experiment system was developed from 2004 to 2009. Features of the BOV are (1) BOV has double capsule structure. Outside-capsule and inside-capsule are kept the non-contact state by 3-axis drag-free control. (2) The payload is spherical shape and itsdiameter is about 300 mm. (3) Keep 10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds However, BOV’s payload was small, and could not mount large experiment module. In this study, inherits the results of past, we established a new experimental system called “iBOV” in order toaccommodate larger payload. Features of the iBOV are (1) Drag-free control use for only vertical direction. (2) The payload is a cylindrical shape and its size is about 300 mm in diameter and 700 mm in height. (3) Keep 10-3-10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds We have "Observation experiment of flame propagation behavior of the droplets column" as experiment using iBOV. This experiment is a theme that was selected first for technical demonstration of iBOV. We are conducting the flame propagation mechanism elucidation study of fuel droplets array was placed at regular intervals. We conducted a microgravity experiments using TEXUS rocket ESA and drop tower. For this microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon, we use the Engineering Model (EM) for TEXUS rocket experiment. The EM (This payload) consists of combustion vessel, droplets supporter, droplets generator, fuel syringe, igniter, digital camera, high-speed camera. And, This payload was improved from the EM as follows. (1) Add a control unit. (2) Add inside batteries for control unit and heater of combustion

  5. Test container design/fabrication/function for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, C.J.; Russell, N.E.; Benjamin, W.W.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Michelbacher, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    The gas generation experiments (GGE) are being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL0W) with contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The purpose of the GGE is to determine the different quantities and types of gases that would be produced and the gas-generation rates that would develop if brine were introduced to CH-TRU waste under post-closure WIPP disposal room conditions. The experiment requires that a prescribed matrix of CH-TRU waste be placed in a 7.5 liter test container. After loaded with the CH-TRU waste, brine and inoculum mixtures (consisting of salt and microbes indigenous to the Carlsbad, New Mexico region) are added to the waste. The test will run for an anticipated time period of three to five years. The test container itself is an ASME rated pressure vessel constructed from Hastelloy C276 to eliminate corrosion that might contaminate the experimental results. The test container is required to maintain a maximum 10% head space with a maximum working pressure of 17.25 MPa (2,500 psia). The test container is designed to provide a gas sample of the head space without the removal of brine. Assembly of the test container lid and process valves is performed inside an inert atmosphere glovebox. Glovebox mockup activities were utilized from the beginning of the design phase to ensure the test container and associated process valves were designed for remote handling. In addition, test container processes (including brine addition, sparging, leak detection, and test container pressurization) are conducted inside the glovebox.

  6. Data compression for the microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Anderson, Karen S.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Summers, Anne M.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers present the environment and conditions under which data compression is to be performed for the microgravity experiment. Also presented are some coding techniques that would be useful for coding in this environment. It should be emphasized that researchers are currently at the beginning of this program and the toolkit mentioned is far from complete.

  7. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility, and the Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Sheredy, William A.; Flores, Ginger

    2008-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation, The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, reaction control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG and an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG. In addition, this paper will address possible changes to the MSG utilization process that will be brought about by the transition to ISS as a National Laboratory.

  8. Equations of Motion for the g-LIMIT Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Whorton, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    A desirable microgravity environment for experimental science payloads may require an active vibration isolation control system. A vibration isolation system named g-LIMIT (GLovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology) is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support microgravity science experiments using the microgravity science glovebox. In this technical memorandum, the full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear equations of motion for g-LIMIT are derived. Although the motivation for this model development is control design and analysis of g-LIMIT, the equations are derived for a general configuration and may be used for other isolation systems as well.

  9. Students Test Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students from minority serving institutions and community colleges around the country participated in the Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program. Participants designed, built and flew experiments...

  10. STS-42 Payload Specialist Bondar works with oak seedlings in IML-1 glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar works with oak seedlings using the glovebox located in International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) Rack 5. The five young plants are part of the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) experiment. IML-1 is located in Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB) and is connected to the crew compartment with a tunnel.

  11. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Ferguson, F. T.; Stephens, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    This project is a part of a program at GSFC to study to formation and growth of cosmic dust grain analogs under terrestrial as well as microgravity conditions. Its primary scientific objective is to study the homogeneous nucleation of refractory metal vapors and a variety of their oxides among others, while the engineering, and perhaps a more immediate objective is to develop a system capable of producing mono-dispersed, homogeneous suspensions of well-characterized refractory particles for various particle interaction experiments aboard the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Both of these objectives are to be met by a judicious combination of laboratory experiments on the ground and aboard NASA's KC-135 experimental research aircraft. Major effort during the current reporting period was devoted to the evaluation of our very successful first series of microgravity test runs in Feb. 1990. Although the apparatus performed well, it was decided to 'repackage' the equipment for easier installation on the KC-135 and access to various components. It will now consist of three separate racks: one each for the nucleation chamber, the power subsystem, and the electronic packages. The racks were fabricated at the University of Virginia and the assembly of the repackaged units is proceeding well. Preliminary analysis of the video data from the first microgravity flight series was performed and the results appear to display some trends expected from Hale's Scaled Nucleation Theory of 1986. The data acquisition system is currently being refined.

  12. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Flores, Ginger N.

    2009-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for investigation handling. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the Columbus Laboratory Module. The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a workbench type environment. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/- 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 5000 hours of scientific payload operations. MSG investigations involve research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, plant growth, and life support technologies. MSG is an ideal platform for science investigations and research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRLs) applicable to the Constellation Program. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of future investigations currently planned for operation in the MSG, and potential applications of MSG investigations that can provide useful data to the Constellation Program. In addition, this paper will address

  13. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Lass, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    A hollow sphere model is developed to predict the range of supersaturation ratio values for refractory metal vapors in a proposed experimental nucleation apparatus. Since the experiments are to be carried out in a microgravity environment, the model neglects the effects of convection and assumes that the only transfer of vapors through an inert gas atmosphere is by conduction and molecular diffusion. A consistent set of physical properties data is assembled for the various candidate metals and inert ambient gases expected to be used in the nucleation experiments. Transient partial pressure profiles are computed for the diffusing refractory species for two possible temperature distributions. The supersaturation ratio values from both candidate temperature profiles are compared with previously obtained experimetnal data on a silver-hydrogen system. The model is used to simulate the diffusion of magnesium vapor through argon and other inert gas atmospheres over ranges of initial and boundary conditions. These results identify different combinations of design and operating parameters which are liekly to produce supersaturation ratio values high enough to induce homogeneous nucleation in the apparatus being designed for the microgravity nucleation experiments.

  14. Combustion and structure formation in SHS processes under microgravity conditions: SHS plans for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merzhanov, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines ISMAN suggestions for the joint NASA-RSA project 'Combustion and Structure formation in SHS Processes under Microgravity Conditions'. The basic ideas of this work naturally follow from our almost 30-year experience in the field of SHS. As a matter of fact, we have already obtained some results in the following two directions closely related to the microgravity problem. One is the studies on SHS processes in the field of centrifugal forces. These studies aimed at the intensification of gravity-sensitive SHS processes in multicomponent highly caloric systems forming melts at high overloads (up to 2000 g). In other words, these studies had the objectives that are inverse to those in the microgravity studies. The second group of results directly relates to the microgravity problem and the project under consideration. These experiments played the important role in establishing links between SHS and microgravity.

  15. European Microgravity Facilities for ZEOLITE Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, V.; Minster, O.; Kremer, S.; Kirschhock, C.; Martens, J.; Jacobs, P.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are complex porous silicates. Zeolites are applied as catalysts, adsorbents and sensors. Whereas the traditional applications are situated in the petrochemical area, zeolite catalysis and related zeolite-based technologies have a growing impact on the economics and sustainability of products and processes in a growing number of industrial sectors, including environmental protection and nanotechnology. A Sounding Rocket microgravity experiment led to significant insight in the physical aggregation patterns of zeolitic nanoscopic particles and the occurrence of self-organisation phenomena when undisturbed by convection. The opportunity of performing longer microgravity duration experiments on zeolite structures was recently offered in the frame of a Taxi-Flight to the ISS in November 2002 organized by Belgium and ESA. Two facilities are currently under development for this flight. One of them will use the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the US Lab. Destiny to achieve thermal induced self-organization of different types of Zeosil nanoslabs by heating and cooling. The other facility will be flown on the ISS Russian segment and will allow to form Zeogrids at ambient temperature. On the other hand, the European Space Agency (ESA) is studying the possibility of developing a dedicated insert for zeolite experiments to be used with the optical and diagnostic platform of the Protein Crystallisation Diagnostic Facility (PCDF), that will fly integrated in the European Drawer Rack on the Columbus Laboratory starting in 2004. This paper will present the approach followed by ESA to prepare and support zeolite investigations in microgravity and will present the design concept of these three facilities.

  16. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  17. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard

  18. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  19. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  20. Dust cloud manipulation in microgravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Blum, Jurgen; Ingo Von Borstel, Olaf; Schraepler, Rainer; Balapanov, Daniyar; Cecere, Anselmo

    The European Space Agency’s scientific program Interactions in Cosmic and Atmospheric Particle Systems (ICAPS) [1] attributed for the International Space Station is aimed at increasing our knowledge about dust agglomeration in astrophysical processes mostly related to proto-planetary matter formation. These processes are simulated experimentally in clouds initially composed of about micrometre-sized solid particles. Relatively low gas pressure provides intensive enough particle Brownian motion but considerably reduces the experimentation time at normal gravity. Microgravity removes this problem but long duration experiments result in cloud depletion due to grain diffusion to the chamber walls and particle number density decrease due to agglomeration. The main problem comes from the fact that residual forces quickly sweep away the cloud from the observation volume thus drastically reducing the experiment duration. We developed different cloud manipulation systems that solve these problems and provide additional research opportunities in investigation of dust clouds. Particularly, they counterbalance external perturbations and solve the most challenging task of the increase of particle number concentration (cloud squeezing). There are several driving forces that may be used separately or in combination. Thermophoresis and gas flows induced by thermal creep are most favourable for cloud manipulation because they are nearly independent from particle properties. Electrostatic force allows detect charged particles, while photophoresis is sensitive to particle dimensions. The system provides two main regimes - 1) cloud positioning or displacement and 2) dynamic trapping. In absence of repulsive forces between particles the latter regime leads to cloud squeezing and intensive forced particle agglomeration. The cloud manipulation system additionally provides temperature stabilization or, on the contrary, high temperature variation in the observation volume; formation of

  1. Experiments Developed to Study Microgravity Smoldering Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vergilii, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) research program is to understand and predict smoldering combustion under normal and microgravity (near-zero-gravity) conditions to help prevent and control smolder-originated fires, in both environments. Smoldering is defined as a nonflaming, self-sustaining, propagating, exothermic surface reaction. If a material is sufficiently permeable, smoldering is not confined to its outer surface, but can propagate as a reaction wave through the interior of the material. The MSC program will accomplish its goals by conducting smolder experiments on the ground and in a space-based laboratory, and developing theoretical models of the process. Space-based experiments are necessary because smoldering is a very slow process and, consequently, its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time that can only be achieved in space. Smoldering can occur in a variety of processes ranging from the smolder of porous insulating materials to underground coal combustion. Many materials can sustain smoldering, including wood, cloth, foams, tobacco, other dry organic materials, and charcoal. The ignition, propagation, transition to flaming, and extinction of the smolder reaction are controlled by complex, thermochemical mechanisms that are not well understood. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of the oxidizer and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. The smoldering combustion of porous materials has been studied both experimentally and theoretically, usually in the context of fire safety. Smoldering encompasses a number of fundamental processes, including heat and mass transfer in a porous media; endothermic pyrolysis of combustible material; ignition, propagation, and extinction of heterogeneous exothermic reactions at the solid-gas pore interface; and the onset of gas phase reactions (flaming) from existing surface reactions. Smoldering

  2. The lambda point experiment in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The motivation and potential for performing very high resolution measurements of the heat capacity singularity at the lambda point of helium in microgravity conditions was briefly discussed. It is clear that tests extending deep into the asymptotic region can be performed, where the theoretical predictions take on their simplest form. This advantageous situation should lead to a major improvement in the understanding of the range of applicability of current theoretical ideas in this field. The lambda transition holds out the prospect of giving the maximum advance of any system, and with the application of cryogenic techniques, the potential of this system can be realized. The technology for the initial experiments is already developed, and results could be obtained in 1990.

  3. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments) was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigator (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes thE MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  4. An Overview of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Facility and the Research Performed in the MSG on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Lee P.

    2013-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for investigation handling. The MSG was built by the European Space Agency (ESA) which also provides sustaining engineering support for the facility. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, +/- 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. The MSG has been used for over 14500 hours of scientific payload operations. MSG investigations involve research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, plant growth, and life support technology. The MSG facility is operated by the Payloads Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space flight Center. Payloads may also operate remotely from different telescience centers located in the United States and Europe. The investigative Payload Integration Manager (iPIM) is the focal to assist organizations that have payloads operating in the MSG facility. NASA provides an MSG engineering unit for payload developers

  5. The Strata-1 Experiment on Microgravity Regolith Segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; Leonard, M.; Love, S.; Sanchez, D. P.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Strata-1 experiment exposes four regolith simulants to microgravity for an extended period to study regolith dynamics on small bodies. The experiment is currently operational on the International Space Station for a one-year mission.

  6. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  7. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Microgravity Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein

    1998-01-01

    The second series of MGM experiment was conducted during the STS-89 mission in January 1998. The experiment was previously flow on Atlantis's STS-79 mission in September 1996. Six displacement-controlled, drained triaxial compression experiments were performed at very low effective confining stresses. The confining stresses were in the ranges 0.05, 0.52 and 1.30 kPa. Three experiments were subjected to monotonic loading and unloading cycles while the other three experiments were subjected to cyclic loading. The results show very high peak strength friction angles in the range of 47.6 to 70.0 degrees, which are mainly due to overconsolidation and grain interlocking effects. It was observed that the residual strength levels in the monotonic loading experiments were in the same range as that observed at higher confining stress levels. The dilatancy angles were unusually high in the range of 30 to 31 degrees. All specimens display substantial initial stiffnesses and elastic moduli during unloading and reloading events, which are nearly an order of magnitude higher than conventional theories predict. A periodic instability phenomenon which appears to result from buckling of multiple internal arches and columnar systems, augmented by stick-slips was observed in the experiments. Computed Tomography (CT) measurements revealed valuable data about the internal fabric and the specimens deformation patterns. Uniform diffuse bifurcation with multiple radial shear bands was observed in the specimens tested in a microgravity environment. In the axial direction, two major conical surfaces were developed. Spatial nonsymmetrical deformations were observed in specimens tested in terrestrial laboratory.

  8. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  9. Outline of the microgravity experiment rocket (TR-1A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiyama, Jiro

    1990-06-01

    In 1989, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) decided to conduct the space processing experiment project, using the new microgravity experiment rocket (TR-1A), for the effective utilization of the Japanese Experiment Module, one part of the international space station. The project goal is to obtain the basic know-how of microgravity experiments and experimental devices through the flight opportunity of TR-1A (Test Rocket-1A) rocket. This TR-1A rocket can project a 1500 kg gross payload to about 270 km altitude and remain in a free fall condition about six minutes or more. Obtained microgravity condition is less than 10(exp -9)G. The first flight will be held in 1991, and now the development of the rocket and experimental devices are ongoing. This report describes an outline of the microgravity experiment rocket (TR-1A) and its standing point and prospect in the test rocket family.

  10. Containerless experiments in fluid physics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena associated with the behavior of liquid samples freely suspended in low gravity must be thoroughly understood prior to undertaking detailed scientific studies of the materials under scrutiny. The characteristics of molten specimens under the action of containerless positioning stresses must be identified and separated from the specific phenomena relating to the absence of an overwhelming gravitational field. The strategy designed to optimize the scientific return of reliable experimental data from infrequent microgravity investigations should include the gradual and logical phasing of more sophisticated studies building on the accumulated results from previous flight experiments. Lower temperature fluid physics experiments using model materials can provide a great deal of information that can be useful in analyzing the behavior of high temperature melts. The phasing of the experimental capabilities should, therefore, also include a gradual build-up of more intricate and specialized diagnostic instrumentation and environmental control and monitoring capabilities. Basic physical investigations should also be distinguished from specific materials technology issues. The latter investigations require very specific high temperature (and high vacuum) devices that must be thoroughly mastered on the ground prior to implementing them in space.

  11. Experiments for electromagnetic levitation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willnecker, R.; Egry, I.

    1990-01-01

    Containerless processing is a promising research tool for investigating the properties of undercooled melts and their solidification. For conducting samples RF-electromagnetic levitation offers the possibility to obtain large undercoolings by avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls. On earth, however, strong magnetic fields are needed to compensate the gravitational force which imposes a lower limit on the available temperatures and on the accessible undercooling range. Under microgravity conditions the magnetic positioning fields can be minimized and hence, undercooling becomes feasible under ultra-high vacuum conditions and lower temperatures become accessible. In contrast to other undercooling and solidification techniques, electromagnetic levitation allows for diagnostic measurements during the early steps of nucleation and phase selection. Experiments cover a wide field of research topics: nucleation, directional solidification at high velocities, generation of metastable phases, evolution of microstructures, properties of undercooled liquids. Examples from these classes including experiments selected for the IML-2 mission are discussed with emphasis on technical requirements. An overview is given on the German TEMPUS (electromagnetic levitation facility) program.

  12. Bubble Formation and Transport during Microgravity Materials Processing: Model Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Lee, C. P.

    2003-01-01

    Flow Visualization experiments on the controlled melting and solidification of succinonitrile were conducted in the glovebox facility of the International Space Station (ISS). The experimental samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with pure succinonitrile (SCN) under 450 millibar of nitrogen. Porosity in the samples arose from natural shrinkage, and in some cases by direct insertion of nitrogen bubbles, during solidification of the liquid SCN. The samples were processed in the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus that is placed in the glovebox facility (GBX) aboard the ISS. Experimental processing parameters of temperature gradient and translation speed, as well as camera settings, were remotely monitored and manipulated from the ground Telescience Center (TSC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. During the experiments, the sample is first subjected to a unidirectional melt back, generally at 10 microns per second, with a constant temperature gradient ahead of the melting interface. The temperatures in the sample are monitored by six in situ thermocouples. Real time visualization of the controlled directional melt back shows bubbles of different sizes initiating at the melt interface and, upon dislodging from the melting solid, migrating at different speeds into the temperature field ahead of them, before coming to rest. The thermocapillary flow field set up in the melt, ahead of the interface, is dramatic in the context of the large bubbles, and plays a major role in dislodging the bubble. A preliminary analysis of the observed bubble formation and mobility during melt back and its implication to future microgravity experiments is presented and discussed.

  13. Bubble Formation and Transport during Microgravity Materials Processing: Model Experiments on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Lee, C. P.

    2003-01-01

    Flow Visualization experiments on the controlled melting and solidification of succinonitrile were conducted in the glovebox facility of the International Space Station (ISS). The experimental samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with pure succinonitrile (SCN) under 450 millibar of nitrogen. Porosity in the samples arose from natural shrinkage, and in some cases by direct insertion of nitrogen bubbles, during solidification of the liquid SCN. The samples were processed in the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus that is placed in the glovebox facility (GBX) aboard the ISS. Experimental processing parameters of temperature gradient and translation speed, as well as camera settings, were remotely monitored and manipulated from the ground Telescience Center (TSC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. During the experiments, the sample is first subjected to a unidirectional melt back, generally at 10 microns per second, with a constant temperature gradient ahead of the melting interface. The temperatures in the sample are monitored by six in situ thermocouples. Real time visualization of the controlled directional melt back shows bubbles of different sizes initiating at the melt interface and, upon dislodging from the melting solid, migrating at different speeds into the temperature field ahead of them, before coming to rest. The thermocapillary flow field set up in the melt, ahead of the interface, is dramatic in the context of the large bubbles, and plays a major role in dislodging the bubble. A preliminary analysis of the observed bubble formation and mobility during melt back and its implication to future microgravity experiments is presented and discussed.

  14. Comparison of bioseparation methods for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cohly, Hari H. P.; Rodkey, L. Scott; Barlow, Grant H.; Hymer, Wesley C.

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of the 1-g version of the continuous-flow electrophoresis (CFE) system flown on Space Shuttle missions is compared with the efficiency of a commercial CFE for separating living cells (human kidney, liver, and pituitary-gland cells and T-lymphocytes). In addition, the CFE system and a reciprocal isoelectric focusing (RIEF) system are compared with respect to protein pyrification efficiency. Correlations were made among electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs), secretory functions of cells, and input sample concentrations. A significant reduction in mean and range EPM was observed when input sample concentrations exceeded a low threshohold. This effect was not observed in microgravity experiments conducted at sample concentrations three times greater than the threshold for the controls. Comparison of CFE and RIEF methods showed that there are apparent advantages for each method depending on the product. For example, RIEF purification of urokinase removed more protein impurities, but focused the enzyme at a pH different than the enzyme's known isoelectric point.

  15. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. D.; Bausch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  16. Analysis of Microgravity Experiments Conducted on the Apollo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, R. J.; Wright, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) discusses the microgravity experiments carried out during the later missions of the Apollo program. Microgravity experiments took place during the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 missions and consisted of four experiments in various materials processing concentrations with two of the four experiments taking place over the course of two missions. Experiments consist of composite casting, electrophoresis, heat flow and convection, and liquid transfer. This TM discusses the background, the workup, execution, and results of each experiment. In addition, the historical significance of each experiment to future applications/NASA programs is discussed.

  17. Thickness and Fuel Preheating Effects on Material Flammability in Microgravity from the BASS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Makoto; Johnson, Michael C.; T'ien, James S.

    2013-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burning thin and thick flat samples, acrylic spheres, and candles were conducted. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 40 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and nitrogen dilution on flame appearance, flame growth, and spread rates were determined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. In some cases, a jet of nitrogen was introduced to attempt to extinguish the flame. Microgravity flames were found to be especially sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. The gas phase response is much faster compared to the solid and so as the flow speed is changed, the flame responds with almost no delay. At the lowest speeds examined (less than 1 cms) all the flames tended to become dim blue and very stable. However, heat loss at these very low convective rates is small so the flames can burn for a long time. At moderate flow speeds (between about 1 and 5 cms) the flame continually heats the solid fuel resulting in an increasing fuel temperature, higher rate of fuel vaporization, and a stronger, more luminous flame as time progresses. Only the smallest flames burning acrylic slabs appeared to be adversely influenced by solid conductive heat loss, but even these burned for over 5 minutes before self-extinguishing. This has implications for spacecraft fire safety since a tiny flame might be undetected for a long time. While the small flame is not particularly hazardous if it remains small, the danger is that it might flare up if the air convection is suddenly increased or if the flame spreads into another fuel source.

  18. Summary of Past Microgravity Experiment in Japanese Microgravity Science Field and Future Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Yoda, S.

    2002-01-01

    strategic plan for the early years of the 21st century is described experiments were carried out onboard various flight platforms such as airplanes, sounding rockets, free-flyers, and space shuttles. In Japan, microgravity experiments started with Skylab in 1973. In this first set of experiments, the results were scrutinized with keen interest and the usefulness of microgravity environment was evidenced. In the 1980's, the Japanese sounding rocket TT-500A, which provided microgravity conditions for several minutes, was used to verify the experimental facilities and the operations before long duration microgravity experiments were carried out. With the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) and the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) projects, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) had the opportunity to perform sustained and genuine microgravity experiments. With the twenty-two experiments carried out in the FPMT, the Japanese microgravity community made rapid progress. Following this, space missions such as the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) and the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) were performed. In addition, a series of seven sounding rockets TR-IA were launched to investigate scientific problems and to help develop technologies. Through these flight experiments, material sciences (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace; the diffusion coefficient measurement by shear-cell method; in-situ simultaneous observation of temperature and concentration field by two wavelength Mach-Zehnder microscope Interferometer) became at the forefront of science and technology in the world. measurement, and cell biology, are being carried out as phase C of NASDA strategic research. Research solicitation in microgravity sciences, among other fields, has seen substantial progress since its initiation in 1997. It is hoped that grant awardees will be the potential applicants of ISS flight experiments in the future. The science

  19. Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

  20. NASA's Student Glovebox: An Inquiry-Based Technology Educator's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    2000-01-01

    A glovebox is a sealed container with built-in gloves. Astronauts perform small experiments and test hardware inside of them. Gloveboxes have flown on NASA's space shuttles and on the Russian space station Mir. The International Space Station (ISS) will have a permanent glovebox on the U.S. laboratory, Destiny. This document contains cursory technical information on gloveboxes and glovebox experiments and is intended for use by middle school educators and students. Information is provided on constructing a model glovebox as well as realistic cut-outs to be pasted on the model.

  1. Project JOVE. [microgravity experiments and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate new areas of research pertaining to free surface-interface fluids mechanics and/or microgravity which have potential commercial applications. This paper presents an introduction to ferrohydrodynamics (FHD), and discusses some applications. Also, computational methods for solving free surface flow problems are presented in detail. Both have diverse applications in industry and in microgravity fluids applications. Three different modeling schemes for FHD flows are addressed and the governing equations, including Maxwell's equations, are introduced. In the area of computational modeling of free surface flows, both Eulerian and Lagrangian schemes are discussed. The state of the art in computational methods applied to free surface flows is elucidated. In particular, adaptive grids and re-zoning methods are discussed. Additional research results are addressed and copies of the publications produced under the JOVE Project are included.

  2. Low frequency vibration isolation technology for microgravity space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic acceleration environment observed on Space Shuttle flights to date and predicted for the Space Station has complicated the analysis of prior microgravity experiments and prompted concern for the viability of proposed space experiments requiring long-term, low-g environments. Isolation systems capable of providing significant improvements in this environment exist, but have not been demonstrated in flight configurations. This paper presents a summary of the theoretical evaluation for two one degree-of-freedom (DOF) active magnetic isolators and their predicted response to both direct and base excitations, that can be used to isolate acceleration sensitive microgravity space experiments.

  3. [Biological experiments in microgravity: equilibrium function].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Shipov, A A; Horn, E

    2012-01-01

    The review deals with the investigations of structural and functional modifications in the equilibrium organ (EO) in invertebrates (coelenterates, shells, crustaceans and insects) and vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, rats, primates) on different ontogenetic stages in the condition of microgravity and during readaptation to the Earth's gravity. Results of the investigations detail the adaptive strategy of terrestrial organism in the environment lacking the gravitational components that leads to the discrepancy of an inner model of the body-environment schema constructed by the central nervous system at 1 g and the novel reality. It is manifested by ataxic behavior and increased graviceptors' afferentation against efferent system inactivation. The new condition is defined as a sensibilization phase ensued by the eluding phase: behavior obeys the innate motion strategy, whereas graviceptors' afferentation decreases due to activation of the efferent system. Readaptation to 1 G takes several to 50 days and proceeds as a sequence of slow in motion behavior, ataxia and vestibular sensitization. Reactivity of the gravitosensory system to microgravity was found to be age-dependent. Gain in the EO inertial mass in microgravity and reduction with return to 1 g indicates gravity relevance to EO genesis. PMID:23402139

  4. Fundamental results from microgravity cell experiments with possible commericial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, Charles M.; Fast, Thomas N.; Hinds, Williams E.; Schaefer, R. L.; Callahan, Paul X.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the major milestones are presented for studies in cell biology that were conducted by the Soviet Union and the United States in the upper layers of the atmosphere and in outer space for more than thirty-five years. The goals have changed as new knowledge is acquired and the priorities for the use of microgravity have shifted toward basic research and commercial applications. Certain details concerning the impact of microgravity on cell systems is presented. However, it needs to be emphasized that in planning and conducting microgravity experiments, there are some important prerequisites not normally taken into account. Apart from the required background knowledge of previous microgravity and ground-based experiments, the investigator should have the understanding of the hardware as a physical unit, the complete knowledge of its operation, the range of its capabilities and the anticipation of problems that may occur. Moreover, if the production of commercial products in space is to be manifested, data obtained from previous microgravity experiments must be used to optimize the design of flight hardware.

  5. Microgravity experiments on phase change of self-rewetting fluids.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira; Tanaka, Kotaro

    2004-11-01

    A series of microgravity experiments on self-rewetting fluids has been conducted at the 10-second drop shaft of the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). In all the experiments, 1.5 wt% of 1-butanol aqueous solution were employed as a self-rewetting fluid. The objective of the first experiment was to observe the boiling behavior of two-dimensional adjacent dual vapor bubbles with the aid of a two-wavelength interferometer and tracer particles. A significant difference was observed between a self-rewetting fluid and a normal fluid (CFC-113 in this experiment) in bubble interaction and flow developed along vapor/bubble interface. The second experiment focused on the flow at the bubble/heater contact area and around the three-phase interline, visualized with tracer particles. Differing behavior among three fluids, 1-butanol aqueous solution, CFC-113, and ethanol aqueous solution, was observed. The last microgravity experiment was a demonstration of wickless heat pipes containing three different fluids as a working fluid, 1-butanol aqueous solution, water, and ethanol aqueous solution. The temperature variation of working fluid in the heat pipe was monitored, and the liquid flow returning from the condensation region to the evaporation region was visualized by tracer particles. In addition to microgravity experiments, the performance of conventional heat pipes with 1-butanol aqueous solution was evaluated on the ground, and compared with water heat pipes. Our preliminary results are presented.

  6. STROMAS: A Series of Microgravity Experiments on Bone Forming Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liu; Massimilano, Monticone; Federico, Tortelli; Matalija, Pujic; Alessandra, Ruggiu; Ranieri, Cancedda

    2008-06-01

    We developed a novel 3D in vitro culture system by seeding cells onto porous bioceramics, mimicking the physiological niche of bone turn-over and enhancing cellular differentiation respective to conventional 2D Petri Dish cultures. Having overcome several technological difficulties, in a series of STROMA spaceflight experiments 3D cultures of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and co-cultures of osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors were maintained and conserved in automated bioreactors on orbit. Genechip analysis revealed an inhibition of cell proliferation in microgravity. Unexpectedly, genes related to various processes of neural development were significantly upregulated in microgravity, raising the question on the lineage restriction in BMSC.

  7. Diagnosis in Complex Plasmas for Microgravity Experiments (PK-3 plus)

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Yasuaki; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Adachi, Satoshi

    2008-09-07

    Microgravity gives the complex (dusty) plasmas, where dust particles are embedded in complete charge neutral region of bulk plasma. The dust clouds as an uncompressed strongly coupled Coulomb system correspond to atomic model with several physical phenomena, crystallization, phase transition, and so on. As the phenomena tightly connect to plasma states, it is significant to understand plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature. The present work shows the electron density in the setup for microgravity experiments currently onboard on the International Space Station.

  8. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Ferguson, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary model for diffusion between concentric hemispheres was adapted to the cylindrical geometry of a microgravity nucleation apparatus, and extended to include the effects of radiation and conduction through the containment walls. Computer programs were developed to calculate first the temperature distribution and then the evolving concentration field using a finite difference formulation of the transient diffusion and radiation processes. The following estimations are made: (1) it takes approximately 35 minutes to establish a steady temperature field; (2) magnesium vapors released into the argon environment at the steady temperature distribution will reach a maximum supersaturation ratio of approximately 10,000 in the 20-second period at a distance of 15 cm from the source of vapors; and (3) approximately 750W electrical power will be required to maintain steady operating temperatures within the chamber.

  9. The microgravity environment for experiments on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emily S; Jules, Kenol

    2004-03-01

    Experiments are sent to space laboratories in order to take advantage of the low-gravity environment. However, it is crucial to appreciate the distinction between the real microgravity environment and "weightlessness" or "simulated microgravity". The microgravity in space laboratories may be of much smaller magnitude than the gravitational acceleration on earth. However, it is not zero, nor even one microg (defined as 1e-6 earth gravity). Moreover, the orientation is not uniaxial, as on earth. The net acceleration that acts on a space experiment arises from, e.g., orbital mechanics, atmospheric drag, and thruster firings, and it can act on the experiments in gravity-like ways. In essence, a well-defined, stable 1 g acceleration on the earth's surface is substituted for a complex array of dynamically changing accelerations with ever-changing frequency content, magnitude and direction. This paper will show measured accelerations on the Shuttle from launch to orbit, as well as the latest measurements on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS data presented here represent over 34,790 hours of data obtained from June 2002 to April 2003 during Increments 5 and 6 of the ISS construction cycle. The quasisteady acceleration level on the ISS has been measured to be on the order of a few microg during time allotted to microgravity mode. The vibratory acceleration environment spans a rich spectrum from 0.01-300 Hz.

  10. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  11. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Ferguson, F. T.; Stephens, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the nucleation apparatus suggested by our first microgravity flight campaign are complete. These included a complete 'repackaging' of the equipment into three racks along with an improved vapor spout shutter mechanism and additional thermocouples for gas temperature measurements. The 'repackaged' apparatus was used in two KC-135 campaigns: one during the week of June 3, 1991 consisting of two flights with Mg and two with Zn, and another series consisting of three flights with Zn during the week of September 23, 1991. Our effort then was focused on the analysis of these data, including further development of the mathematical models to generate the values of temperature and supersaturation at the observed points of nucleation. The efforts to apply Hale's Scaled Nucleation Theory to our experimental data have met with only limited success, most likely due to still inadequate temperature field determination. Work on the development of a preliminary particle collector system designed to capture particles from the region of nucleation and condensation, as well as from other parts of the chamber, are discussed.

  12. Analysis of microgravity space experiments Space Shuttle programmatic safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terlep, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of microgravity space experiments space shuttle programmatic safety requirements and recommends the creation of a Safety Compliance Data Package (SCDP) Template for both flight and ground processes. These templates detail the programmatic requirements necessary to produce a complete SCDP. The templates were developed from various NASA centers' requirement documents, previously written guidelines on safety data packages, and from personal experiences. The templates are included in the back as part of this report.

  13. Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP): Past Micro-Gravity Experiments and Future Experimental Plan on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with a growing solid-liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the four decades. For a metallurgist or a material scientist understanding the fundamental physics of such an interaction is relevant for applications that include distribution of reinforcement particles in metal matrix composites, inclusion management in castings, and distribution of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates (flux pinning sites) in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (123) superconducting crystals. The same physics is also applicable to other areas including geological applications (frost heaving in soils) and preservation of biological cells. Experimentally this interaction can be quantified in terms of a critical growth velocity, Vcr, of the SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the advancing interface, and above which the particles are engulfed. Past experimental evidence suggests that this Vcr is an inverse function of the particle radius, R. In order to isolate the fundamental physics that governs such a relationship it is necessary to minimize natural convection at the SLI that is inherent in ground based experiments. Hence for the purpose of producing benchmark data (Vcr vs. R) PEP is a natural candidate for micro-gravity experimentation. Accordingly, experiments with pure Al containing a dispersion of ZrO2 particles and an organic analogue, succinonitrile (SCN) containing polystyrene particles have been performed on the LMS and USMP-4 mission respectively. In this paper we will summarize the experimental data that was obtained during these two micro-gravity missions and show that the results differ compared to terrestrial experiments. We will also discuss the basic elements of our analytical and numerical model and present a comparison of the predictions of these models against micro-gravity experimental data. Finally. we will discuss our future experimental plan that includes the ISS glovebox and MSRRl.

  14. Crewmember working on the spacelab Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialists Bonnie Dunbar and Larry DeLucas in the aft section of the U. S. Microgravity Laboratory-1. Dunbar is preparing to load a sample in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Integrated Furnace Experiment Assembly (IFEA) in rack 9 of the Microgravity Laboratory. DeLucas is checking out the multi-purpose Glovebox Facility.

  15. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Ferguson, F. T.; Stephens, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have embarked on a program to study the formation and growth of cosmic grains. This includes experiments on the homogeneous nucleation of refractory vapors of materials such as magnesium, lead, tin, and silicon oxides. As part of this program, the Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Virginia has undertaken to develop a math model for these experiments, to assist in the design and construction of the apparatus, and to analyze the data once the experiments have begun. Status Reports 1 and 2 addressed the design of the apparatus and the development of math models for temperature and concentration fields. The bulk of this report discusses the continued refinement of these models, and the assembly and testing of the nucleation chamber along with its ancillary equipment, which began in the spring of 1988.

  16. Second United States Microgravity Laboratory: One Year Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasse, M.; McCauley, D.; Walker, C.

    1998-08-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the important and highly successful Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). The USML-2 mission consisted of a pressurized Spacelab module where the crew performed experiments. The mission also included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together, about 36 major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, combustion, and the growth of protein crystals. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  17. Second United States Microgravity Laboratory: One Year Report. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, M (Editor); McCauley, D. (Editor); Walker, C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the important and highly successful Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). The USML-2 mission consisted of a pressurized Spacelab module where the crew performed experiments. The mission also included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together, about 36 major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, combustion, and the growth of protein crystals. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  18. Second United States Microgravity Laboratory: One Year Report. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, M. (Editor); McCauley, D. (Editor); Walker, C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the important and highly successful Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). The USML-2 mission consisted of a pressurized Spacelab module where the crew performed experiments. The mission also included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together, about 36 major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, combustion, and the growth of protein crystals. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  19. Fourth United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Compiler); Curreri, Peter A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  20. Third United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currieri, P. A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Third United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3). The USMP-3 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about seven major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive space station era.

  1. Flocculation and aggregation in a microgravity environment (FAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment to study flocculation phenomena in the constrained microgravity environment of a space shuttle or space station is described. The small size and light weight experiment easily fits in a Spacelab Glovebox. Using an integrated fiber optic dynamic light scattering (DLS) system we obtain high precision particle size measurements from dispersions of colloidal particles within seconds, needs no onboard optical alignment, no index matching fluid, and offers sample mixing and shear melting capabilities to study aggregation (flocculation and coagulation) phenomena under both quiescent and controlled agitation conditions. The experimental system can easily be adapted for other microgravity experiments requiring the use of DLS. Preliminary results of ground-based study are reported.

  2. Electronic availability of microgravity experiments safety and integration requirements documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Jean M.

    1995-01-01

    This follow-on to NASA Contractor Report 195447, Microgravity Experiments Safety and Integration Requirements Document Tree, provides the details for accessing the systems that contain the official, electronic versions of the documents initially researched in NASA Contractor Report 195447. The data in this report serves as a valuable information source for the NASA Lewis Research Center Project Documentation Center (PDC), as well as for all developers of space experiments. The PDC has acquired the hardware, software, ID's, and passwords necessary to access most of these systems and is now able to provide customers with current document information as well as immediate delivery of available documents in either electronic or hard copy format.

  3. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  4. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  5. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's ``double proboscis'' containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  6. STS-26 crewmembers experiment with microgravity and eat on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Mission Specialist John M. Lounge, using a beverage container, experiments with microgravity as Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and MS David C. Hilmers (right) look on. Lounge freefloats as he closes in on a sphere of the red liquid drifting in front of his mouth. Hauck holds a spoon while sipping from a beverage container as he balances a meal tray assembly on his thighs. Hilmers, partially blocked by the open airlock hatch and holding a spoon and a can of food, pauses to watch the experiment. Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF) and forward middeck lockers appear on Lounge's right.

  7. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's double proboscis containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  8. Electrodeposition in microgravity: Ground-based experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, C.; Coble, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Electrodeposition was studied at one-hundreth g and compared with bench studies at 1 g. The low gravity was achieved during KC-135 aircraft parobolic flights. Flow in a simple cobalt cell (1 M CoSO4) operating under typical commercial conditions (10 to 20 mA/sq cm and 1 V) was monitored with a Schlieren optical system. Natural convection was absent at one-hundreth g. Quantitative comparisons on a cobalt cell with shielded electrodes using interferometry were carried out. Fringe shift differences indicate greater semi-infinite linear diffusion at 1 g than at one-hundreth g for cobalt. Since a shielded electrode operates under diffusion controlled conditions, no differences between 1 g and one-hundreth g would be expected. Similar comparisons on a shielded electrode copper cell were inconclusive. Bench codeposition experiments using polystyrene neutral buoyancy particles coupled with a shielded electrode cobalt cell were begun. Tracking of 12 micron particles showed no measurable difference between thermal/Brownian motion when the cell was operational or nonoperational. Initial experiments on codeposition quality showed a strong dependence upon cathode surface preparation in a shielded electrode configuration.

  9. Microgravity Experiment Programs for Students at the Bremen Drop Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM established as a research center and currently headed by Prof. Dr. Claus Lämmerzahl is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM more than 70 scientists, engineers and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important university institutes for space sciences and technologies in Europe as well as worldwide well known in the space community. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM’s ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10 (-6) g (microgravity). The provided quality is one of the purest for experiments under weightlessness worldwide achieved. The scientists may choose between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and a catapult experiment with 9.3 s of weightlessness. Either in the drop or in the worldwide unique catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM are always the same, generally up to 3 times per day. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 6750 launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like Fundamental Physics, Combustion, Fluid Dynamics, Planetary Formation / Astrophysics, Biology and Materials Sciences have been successfully accomplished so far. In our paper we will report and inform about microgravity experiment programs for students like „Drop Your Thesis!“ by ESA and

  10. Nucleation and particle coagulation experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the conditions under which carbon, aluminum oxide, and silicon carbide smokes condense and of the morphology and crystal structure of the resulting grains are essential if the nature of the materials ejected into the interstellar medium and the nature of the grains which eventually became part of the proto solar nebular are to be understood. Little information is currently available on the vapor-solid phase transitions of refractory metals and solids. What little experimental data do exist are, however, not in agreement with currently accepted models of the nucleation process for more volatile materials. The major obstacle to performing such experiments in earth-based laboratories is the susceptibility of these systems to convection. Evaporation of refractory materials into a low-pressure environment with a carefully controlled temperature gradient will produce refractory smokes when the critical supersaturation of the system is exceeded. Measurement of the point at which nucleation occurs, via light scattering or extinction, can not only yield nucleation data but also, information on the chemical composition and crystal structure of the condensate. Experimental requirements are presented.

  11. Adaptive environmental control for optimal results during plant microgravity experiments.

    PubMed

    Kostov, P; Ivanova, T; Dandolov, I; Sapunova, S; Ilieva, I

    2002-01-01

    The SVET Space Greenhouse (SG)--the first and the only automated plant growth facility onboard the MIR Space Station in the period 1990-2000 was developed on a Russian-Bulgarian Project in the 80s. The aim was to study plant growth under microgravity in order to include plants as a link of future Biological Life Support Systems for the long-term manned space missions. An American developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS) was added to the existing SVET SG equipment in 1995 to monitor more environmental and physiological parameters. A lot of long-duration plant flight experiments were carried out in the SVET+GEMS. They led to significant results in the Fundamental Gravitational Biology field--second-generation wheat seeds were produced in the conditions of microgravity. The new International Space Station (ISS) will provide a perfect opportunity for conducting full life cycle plant experiments in microgravity, including measurement of more vital plant parameters, during the next 15-20 years. Nowadays plant growth facilities for scientific research based on the SVET SG functional principles are developed for the ISS by different countries (Russia, USA, Italy, Japan, etc.). A new Concept for an advanced SVET-3 Space Greenhouse for the ISS, based on the Bulgarian experience and "know-how" is described. The absolute and differential plant chamber air parameters and some plant physiological parameters are measured and processed in real time. Using the transpiration and photosynthesis measurement data the Control Unit evaluates the plant status and performs adaptive environmental control in order to provide the most favorable conditions for plant growth at every stage of plant development in experiments. A conceptual block-diagram of the SVET-3 SG is presented.

  12. DAF Glovebox Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.W.; Higgs, R.L.

    2000-11-14

    This document defines how the glovebox project will be managed and executed. It provides a path forward for establishing a glovebox capability in Building 341 of the DAF in time to meet JASPER programmatic requirements as the first user. Note that some elements of the glovebox project have been under way for some time and are more mature than others; other elements are being worked concurrently. This plan serves the following purposes: Assign organizational and individual responsibilities for bringing the glovebox capability online; Coordinate activities between organizations; Facilitate communication between project members and management; and Identify the mechanisms used to manage and control the project. The scope of this plan includes all activities conducted to achieve project objectives, culminating in DOE/NV approval to operate. This plan does not address the issues associated with the steady-state operation of the glovebox.

  13. Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the

  14. Article removal device for glovebox

    DOEpatents

    Guyer, R.H.; Leebl, R.G.

    1973-12-01

    An article removal device for a glovebox is described comprising a conduit extending through a glovebox wall which may be closed by a plug within the glovebox, and a fire-resistant container closing the outer end of the conduit and housing a removable container for receiving pyrophoric or otherwise hazardous material without disturbing the interior environment of the glovebox or adversely affecting the environment outside of the glovebox. (Official Gazette)

  15. Macromolecular crystal growth experiments on International Microgravity Laboratory--1.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J.; McPherson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Macromolecular crystal growth experiments, using satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) and canavalin from jack beans as samples, were conducted on a US Space Shuttle mission designated International Microgravity Laboratory--1 (IML-1), flown January 22-29, 1992. Parallel experiments using identical samples were carried out in both a vapor diffusion-based device (PCG) and a liquid-liquid diffusion-based instrument (CRYOSTAT). The experiments in each device were run at 20-22 degrees C and at colder temperatures. Crystals were grown in virtually every trial, but the characteristics of the crystals were highly dependent on the crystallization technique employed and the temperature experience of the sample. In general, very good results, based on visual inspection of the crystals, were obtained in both PCG and CRYOSTAT. Unusually impressive results were, however, achieved for STMV in the CRYOSTAT instrument. STMV crystals grown in microgravity by liquid-liquid diffusion were more than 10-fold greater in total volume than any STMV crystals previously grown in the laboratory. X-ray diffraction data collected from eight STMV crystals grown in CRYOSTAT demonstrated a substantial improvement in diffraction quality over the entire resolution range when compared to data from crystals grown on Earth. In addition, the extent of the diffraction pattern for the STMV crystals grown in space extended to 1.8 A resolution, whereas the best crystals that were ever grown under conditions of Earth's gravity produced data limited to 2.3 A resolution. Other observations indicate that the growth of macromolecular crystals is indeed influenced by the presence or absence of gravity. These observations further suggest, consistent with earlier results, that the elimination of gravity provides a more favorable environment for such processes. PMID:1303744

  16. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  17. Patch-clamp experiments under micro-gravity.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Klaus; Hanke, Wolfgang

    2002-07-01

    For human based space research it is of high importance to understand the influence of gravity on the properties of single ion channels in biological membranes, as these are involved in about all biological processes. The patch clamp technique is the best established method to investigate electrophysiological properties of single ion channels in detail. Consequently, a patch clamp set-up was designed for the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using this set-up among others, successfully leech neurons have been patched under micro-gravity, delivering data about ion channel behaviour, which were compared to results from bilayer experiments in the drop tower and to results from lab controls under 1 g and under higher gravity.

  18. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments), was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigators, (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the experimental facilities employed to examine reduced gravity fluid flow, (3) discusses the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes the MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  19. The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, C. A.; Jones, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An electronic data base identifying over 800 fluids and materials processing experiments performed in a low-gravity environment has been created at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The compilation, called MICREX (MICrogravity Research Experiments), was designed to document all such experimental efforts performed (1) on U.S. manned space vehicles, (2) on payloads deployed from U.S. manned space vehicles, and (3) on all domestic and international sounding rockets (excluding those of China and the former U.S.S.R.). Data available on most experiments include (1) principal and co-investigators (2) low-gravity mission, (3) processing facility, (4) experimental objectives and results, (5) identifying key words, (6) sample materials, (7) applications of the processed materials/research area, (8) experiment descriptive publications, and (9) contacts for more information concerning the experiment. This technical Memorandum (1) summarizes the historical interest in reduced-gravity fluid dynamics, (2) describes the importance of a low-gravity fluids and materials processing data base, (4) describes the MICREX data base format and computational World Wide Web access procedures, and (5) documents (in hard-copy form) the descriptions of the first 600 fluids and materials processing experiments entered into MICREX.

  20. The Strata-l Experiment on Microgravity Regolith Segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; Leonard, M.; Love, S.; Sanchez, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment studies the segregation of small-body regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). Many asteroids feature low bulk densities, which implies high values of porosity and a mechanical structure composed of loosely bound particles, (i.e. the "rubble pile" model), a prime example of a granular medium. Even the higher-density, mechanically coherent asteroids feature a significant surface layer of loose regolith. These bodies will evolve in response to very small perturbations such as micrometeoroid impacts, planetary flybys, and the YORP effect. A detailed understanding of asteroid mechanical evolution is needed in order to predict the surface characteristics of as-of-yet unvisited bodies, to understand the larger context of samples from sample return missions, and to mitigate risks for both manned and unmanned missions to asteroidal bodies. Due to observation of rocky regions on asteorids such as Eros and Itokawa, it has been hypothesized that grain size distribution with depth on an asteroid may be inhomogeneous: specifically, that large boulders have been mobilized to the surface. In terrestrial environments, this size-dependent sorting to the surface of the sample is called the Brazil Nut Effect. The microgravity and acceleration environment on the ISS is similar that of a small asteroid. Thus, Strata-1 investigates size segregation of regolith in an environment analogous to that of small bodies. Strata-1 consists of four regolith simulants in evacuated tubes, as shown in Figure 1 (Top and Middle). The simulants are (1) a crushed and sieved ordinary chondrite meteorite to simulate an asteroidal surface, (2) a carbonaceous chondrite simulant with a mixture of fine and course particles, and two simplified silicate glass simulants; (3) one with angular and (4) another with spherical particles. These materials were chosen to span a range of granular

  1. Statistical analysis of microgravity experiment performance using the degrees of success scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upshaw, Bernadette; Liou, Ying-Hsin Andrew; Morilak, Daniel P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to identify factors that significantly influence microgravity experiment performance. Investigators developed the 'degrees of success' scale to provide a numerical representation of success. A degree of success was assigned to 293 microgravity experiments. Experiment information including the degree of success rankings and factors for analysis was compiled into a database. Through an analysis of variance, nine significant factors in microgravity experiment performance were identified. The frequencies of these factors are presented along with the average degree of success at each level. A preliminary discussion of the relationship between the significant factors and the degree of success is presented.

  2. Cooling of 3D Granular Gases: Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Kirsten; Wegner, Sandra; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf

    Granular gases are ensembles of macroscopic grains, which move randomly and interact through inelastic collisions. This non-equilibrium statistical system is easy to picture, but still insufficiently understood. Numerous theoretical treatments have been performed, favorably with spherical grains and periodic boundaries, starting from a homogeneous state. Experimentally, such a gas in 3D can only be realized with strong external forcing or in microgravity. We have recently demonstrated that the use of elongated grains facilitates the realization of 3D experiments beyond the Knudsen regime (1). Main findings in a sounding rocket experiment were non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a violation of the equipartition of kinetic energy in the steady state. Rotational degrees of freedom are under-excited. When the excitation is stopped, energy is dissipated, the granular gas is ''cooling''. We present the first quantitative study of the cooling of a granular gas, based on a 3D data evaluation, from drop tower experiments. The evolution of the kinetic energy in translational and rotational degrees of freedom is compared to Haff's law and recent numerical studies. Additionally, we analyze velocity and density distributions.(1) K. Harth et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 144102 (2013) This research was funded by German Aerospace Center DLR Grants 50WM1241 and 50WB1344 and by DFG Grant STA-425/34-1.

  3. Prospective of ultradispersic magnetic particles in biological experiments in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Malashin, S.

    All organisms on Earth use gravity for their lifecycles. Microgravity disturbs the lifecycles significantly: orientation ability is damaged, thermo and mass exchange processes are changed, adaptation mechanisms are destroyed. A recovering the normal life cycle of organism in future long-term mission requires an artificial gravity which is complicate and not realistic with present technologies. We propose to use a magnetic properties of the biological objects for recovering of the gravity-dependent biological processes in organism during space flight. Based on result of magnetic properties investigation in gravity-sensitive plant cells, we have prepared and carried out the experiments on space station MIR. For the experiments, Magnitogravistat device was designed and installed on the station. The aim of the experiment was to replace a gravity factor of plant with a magnetic factor. The magnetic effect is based on the fact, that a magnetic particle of V volume is under the force F=ΔæVHgradH in the magnetic gradient gradH, where Δæ is the difference between the magnetic susceptibility of particle and media. When the particles are placed into the cell, the cell can be managed by the magnetic field. In laboratory experiment the iron-carbon particles of 1-2 um with nanostructurised surface and high adsorption properties have been used. The particles can be suspended in water and adsorbed chemicals including cell metabolites. In strong magnetic field, the particles can be agglomerated and the liquid substrate can be replaced. The local magnetic field near the particles can influence on cell processes. The magnetic field causes a cell differentiation and can influence on cell proliferation. A new space experiment with magnetic particles is planned to get a knowledge on cell influence and to improve a cell metabolism.

  4. Longevity of a Paramecium cell clone in space: Hypergravity experiments as a basis for microgravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yuko; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    We proposed a space experiment aboard International Space Station to explore the effects of microgravity on the longevity of a Paramecium cell clone. Earlier space experiments in CYTOS and Space Lab D-1 demonstrated that Paramecium proliferated faster in space. In combination with the fact that aging process in Paramecium is largely related to the fission age, the results of the proliferation experiment in space may predict that the longevity of Paramecium decreases when measured by clock time. In preparation of the space experiment, we assessed the aging process under hypergravity, which is known to reduce the proliferation rate. As a result, the length of autogamy immaturity increased when measured by clock time, whereas it remained unchanged by fission age. It is therefore expected that autogamy immaturity in the measure of the clock time would be shortened under microgravity. Since the length of clonal life span of Paramecium is related to the length of autogamy immaturity, the result of hypergravity experiment supports the prediction that the clonal longevity of Paramecium under microgravity decreases. Effects of gravity on proliferation are discussed in terms of energetics of swimming during gravikinesis and gravitaxis of Paramecium.

  5. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  6. Foam Experiment Hardware are Flown on Microgravity Rocket MAXUS 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, C.; Löth, K.; Jansson, O.; Holm, P.; Lundin, M.; Schneider, H.; Larsson, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Foam module was developed by Swedish Space Corporation and was used for performing foam experiments on the sounding rocket MAXUS 4 launched from Esrange 29 April 2001. The development and launch of the module has been financed by ESA. Four different foam experiments were performed, two aqueous foams by Doctor Michele Adler from LPMDI, University of Marne la Vallée, Paris and two non aqueous foams by Doctor Bengt Kronberg from YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm. The foam was generated in four separate foam systems and monitored in microgravity with CCD cameras. The purpose of the experiment was to generate and study the foam in microgravity. Due to loss of gravity there is no drainage in the foam and the reactions in the foam can be studied without drainage. Four solutions with various stabilities were investigated. The aqueous solutions contained water, SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate) and dodecanol. The organic solutions contained ethylene glycol a cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and decanol. Carbon dioxide was used to generate the aqueous foam and nitrogen was used to generate the organic foam. The experiment system comprised four complete independent systems with injection unit, experiment chamber and gas system. The main part in the experiment system is the experiment chamber where the foam is generated and monitored. The chamber inner dimensions are 50x50x50 mm and it has front and back wall made of glass. The front window is used for monitoring the foam and the back window is used for back illumination. The front glass has etched crosses on the inside as reference points. In the bottom of the cell is a glass frit and at the top is a gas in/outlet. The foam was generated by injecting the experiment liquid in a glass frit in the bottom of the experiment chamber. Simultaneously gas was blown through the glass frit and a small amount of foam was generated. This procedure was performed at 10 bar. Then the pressure was

  7. Comparative Analysis of Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity. Experiment 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Joseph D.; Lorber, Bernard; Giege, Richard; Koszelak, Stanley; Day, John; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The protein thaumatin was studied as a model macromolecule for crystallization in microgravity environment experiments conducted on two U.S. Space Shuttle missions (second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) and Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)). In this investigation we evaluated and compared the quality of space- and Earth-grown thaumatin crystals using x-ray diffraction analysis and characterized them according to crystal size, diffraction resolution limit, and mosaicity. Two different approaches for growing thaumatin crystals in the microgravity environment, dialysis and liquid-liquid diffusion, were employed as a joint experiment by our two investigative teams. Thaumatin crystals grown under a microgravity environment were generally larger in volume with fewer total crystals. They diffracted to significantly higher resolution and with improved diffraction properties as judged by relative Wilson plots. The mosaicity for space-grown crystals was significantly less than for those grown on Earth. Increasing concentrations of protein in the crystallization chambers under microgravity lead to larger crystals. The data presented here lend further support to the idea that protein crystals of improved quality can be obtained in a microgravity environment.

  8. Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Lin, Chin S.; Knoll, Richard H.; Bentz, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83% by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/sq m). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well as the jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheats for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.86 to 1.1 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 0.97 kW/sq m, a wall superheat of 17.9 C was attained in 10 min of heating. This superheat was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied by a pressure spike of about 38% of the tank pressure at the inception of boiling. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Steady nucleate boiling continued after the explosive boiling. The jet-induced fluid mixing results were obtained for jet Reynolds numbers of 1900 to 8000 and Weber numbers of 0.2 to 6.5. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments

  9. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ross, Howard D.; Frate, David T.; Tien, James S.; Shu, Yong

    1997-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame is used as a model combustion system, in that in microgravity it is one of the only examples of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. Others have used the candle to study a number of combustion phenomena including flame flicker, flame oscillations, electric field effects and enhanced and reduced gravitational effects in flames. The present work is a continuation of a small-scale Shuttle experiment on candle flames. That study showed that the candle flame lifetimes were on the order of 40 seconds, the flames were dim blue after a transient ignition period, and that just prior to extinction the flames oscillated spontaneously for about five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz. The authors postulated that the gas phase in the immediate vicinity of the flame was quasi-steady. Further away from the flame, however, the assertion of a quasi-steady flame was less certain, thus the authors did not prove that a steady flame could exist. They also speculated that the short lifetime of the candle flame was due to the presence of the small, weakly perforated box that surrounded the candle. The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment, with revised hardware, was recently flown aboard the Mir orbiting station, and conducted inside the glovebox facility by Dr. Shannon Lucid. In addition to the purposes described above, the experiments were NASA's first ability to ascertain the merits of the Mir environment for combustion science studies. In this article, we present the results of that experiment. We are also in the process

  10. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  11. Microgravity research results and experiences from the NASA/MIR space station program.

    PubMed

    Schlagheck, R A; Trach, B L

    2003-12-01

    The Microgravity Research Program (MRP) participated aggressively in Phase 1 of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges of long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about long-duration on-orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings.

  12. Microgravity research results and experiences from the NASA/MIR space station program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.; Trach, B. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Microgravity Research Program (MRP) participated aggressively in Phase 1 of the International Space Station Program using the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir Station offered an otherwise unavailable opportunity to explore the advantages and challenges of long duration microgravity space research. Payloads with both National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and commercial backing were included as well as cooperative research with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). From this experience, much was learned about long-duration on-orbit science utilization and developing new working relationships with our Russian partner to promote efficient planning, operations, and integration to solve complexities associated with a multiple partner program. This paper focuses on the microgravity research conducted onboard the Mir space station. It includes the Program preparation and planning necessary to support this type of cross increment research experience; the payloads which were flown; and summaries of significant microgravity science findings.

  13. Gravity amplifies and microgravity decreases circumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana stems: results from a space experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, A; Solheim, B G B; Iversen, T-H

    2009-01-01

    In a microgravity experiment onboard the International Space Station, circumnutations of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Plants were cultivated on rotors under a light:dark (LD) cycle of 16 : 8 h, and it was possible to apply controlled centrifugation pulses. Time-lapse images of inflorescence stems (primary, primary axillary and lateral inflorescences) documented the effect of microgravity on the circumnutations. Self-sustained circumnutations of side stems were present in microgravity but amplitudes were mostly very small. In darkness, centrifugation at 0.8 g increased the amplitude by a factor of five to ten. The period at 0.8 g was c. 85 min, in microgravity roughly of the same magnitude. In white light the period decreased to c. 60 min at 0.8 g (microgravity value not measurable). Three-dimensional data showed that under 0.8 g side stems rotated in both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. Circumnutation data for the main stem in light showed a doubling of the amplitude and a longer period at 0.8 g than in microgravity (c. 80 vs 60 min). For the first time, the importance of gravity in amplifying minute oscillatory movements in microgravity into high-amplitude circumnutations was unequivocally demonstrated. The importance of these findings for the modelling of gravity effects on self-sustained oscillatory movements is discussed.

  14. Physics of Regolith Impacts in Microgravity Experiment (PRIME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian (Technical Monitor); Colwell, Joshua; Sture, S.

    2003-01-01

    Collisions between planetary ring particles and in some protoplanetary disk environments occur at low impact velocities (v less than 1 m/s) . In some regions of Saturn s rings, for example, the typical collision velocity inferred from observations by the Voyager spacecraft and dynamical modeling is a fraction of a centimeter per second. Although no direct observations of an individual ring particle exist, the abundance of dust in planetary rings and protoplanetary disks suggests that larger ring and disk particles are coated with a layer of smaller particles and dust - the "regolith". Because the ring particles and proto-planetesimals are small (cm to m-sized), the regolith is only weakly bound to the surface by gravity. Similarly, secondary impacts on asteroids by large blocks of ejecta from high velocity cratering events result in low velocity impacts into the asteroid regolith, which is also weakly bound by the asteroid s gravity. At the current epoch and throughout their history, low velocity collisions have played an important role in sculpting planetary systems. In a one-Earth-gravity environment, it is not possible to experimentally determine the behavior of impact eject from such low velocity collisions. Impacts typically occur at speeds exceeding the mutual escape velocity of the two bodies. Thus, impacts at speeds on the order of 10 m/sec or less involve objects that are tens of meters across, or smaller. This research program is an experimental study of such low velocity collisions in a microgravity environment. The experimental work builds on the Collisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE), which has flown twice on the space shuttle. The PRIME experimental apparatus is a new apparatus designed specifically for the environment provided on the NASA KC- 135 reduced gravity aircraft.

  15. Microgravity experiments on a granular gas of elongated grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, K.; Trittel, T.; Kornek, U.; Höme, S.; Will, K.; Strachauer, U.; Stannarius, R.

    2013-06-01

    Granular gases represent well-suited systems to investigate statistical granular dynamics. The literature comprises numerous investigations of ensembles of spherical or irregularly shaped grains. Mainly computer models, analytical theories and experiments restricted to two dimensions were reported. In three-dimensions, the gaseous state can only be maintained by strong external excitation, e. g. vibrations or electro-magnetic fields, or in microgravity. A steady state, where the dynamics of a weakly disturbed granular gas are governed by particle-particle collisions, is hard to realize with spherical grains due to clustering. We present the first study of a granular gas of elongated cylinders in three dimensions. The mean free path is considerably reduced with respect to spheres at comparable filling fractions. The particles can be tracked in 3D over a sequence of frames. In a homogeneous steady state, we find non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a lack of equipartition of kinetic energy. We discuss the relations between energy input and vibrating plate accelerations. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editors, the PDF file of this article has been updated to amend some references present in the PDF file submitted to AIP Publishing. The references affected are listed here:[1] (c) K. Nichol and K. E. Daniels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 018001 (2012); [11] (e) P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1993); [17] (b) K. Harth, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 144102 (2013).A LaTeX processing error resulted in changes to the authors reference formatting, which was not detected prior to publication. Due apologies are given to the authors for this oversight. The updated article PDF was published on 12 August 2013.

  16. Phase partitioning, crystal growth, electrodeposition and cosmic ray experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments are contained in one Get Away Special Canister (5 cu ft). The first utilizes microgravity to separate biological cells and to study the mechanism of phase partitioning in 12 separate cuvettes. Two experiments are designed to grow organic crystals by physical vapor transport. One experiment consists of eight electroplating cells with various chemicals to produce surfaces electroplated in microgravity. Some of the surfaces have micron sized particles of hard materials co-deposited during electrodeposition. The fifth experiment intercepts cosmic ray particles and records their paths on photographic emulsions. The first four experiments are controlled by an on-board C-MOS controller. The fifth experiment is totally passive. These are the first in Space. Their purpose is to create new commercial products with microgravity processing.

  17. Morphological Evolution of Directional Solidification Interfaces in Microgravity: An Analysis of Model Experiments Performed on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Grugel, R. N.; Trivedi, R. K.

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments performed using the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) apparatus within the glovebox facility (GBX) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has provided video images of the morphological evolution of a three-dimensional interface in a diffusion controlled regime. The experimental samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with "alloys" of succinonitrile (SCN) and water in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 450 millibar pressure. The compositions of the samples processed and analyzed are 0.25,0.5 and 1.0 wt% water. Experimental processing parameters of temperature gradient and translation speed, as well as camera settings, were remotely monitored and manipulated from the ground Telescience Center (TSC) at the Marshall !3pace Flight Center. During the experiments, the sample was first subjected to a unidirectional melt back, generally at 10 microns per second, with a constant temperature gradient ahead of the melting interface. Following the melt back, the interface was allowed to stabilize before translation is initiated. The temperatures in the sample were monitored by six in situ thermocouples and the position is monitored by an optical linear encoder. For the experiments performed and analyzed, the gradients ranged from 2.5 - 3.3 K/mm and the initial pulling velocities ranged from 0.7 micron per second to 1 micron per second with subsequent transition velocities of up to 100 microns per second. The data provided by the PFMI for analysis includes near-real-time (NRT) video captured on the ground during the experiment runs, ISS Video Tape Recorder (VTR) data dumped from the VTR at the end of the experiment run and recorded on the ground, telemetry data including temperature and position measurements, and limited flight HI-8 tapes in 2 camera views of experiment runs for which tapes have been returned to the investigators from ISS. Because of limited down mass from the ISS

  18. Puck Handling Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscus, J.B.

    2001-01-03

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium in a solid ceramic form. The plutonium, in oxide powder form, will be mixed with uranium oxide powder, ceramic precursors and binders. The combined powder mixture will be milled and possibly granulated; this processed powder will then be dispensed to a (dual action) cold press where it will be formed into green (unsintered) compacts. The compact will have the shape of a puck measuring approximately 3 1/2'' in diameter and 1 3/8'' thick. The green puck, once ejected from the press die, will be picked up by a robot and transferred into the Puck Handling Glovebox. Here the green puck will be inspected and then palletized onto furnace trays. The loaded furnace trays will be stacked/assembled and transported to the furnace where sintering operations will be performed. Finally the sintered pucks will be off loaded, inspected and transferred onto Transfer Trays which will carry the pucks from the Puck Handling Glovebox downstream to subsequent Bagless Transfer Can (BTC) operations. Due to contamination potential and high radiation rates, all Puck Handling Glovebox operations will be performed remotely using robots and specialized automation.

  19. Collision experiments between centimeter-sized protoplanetesimals in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whizin, Akbar; Colwell, Joshua E.; Dove, Adrienne; Brisset, Julie; Cruz, Roberto; Foster, Zach

    2016-10-01

    In the early stages of planet formation in a protoplanetary disk the first coalescing bodies are weakly bound. Conditions in the disk, such as the presence of gas (drag), make further growth through centimeter and meter sized bodies difficult. For centimeter-sized aggregates self-gravity is almost non-existent and electrostatic surface forces such as van der Waals-type forces play a critical role in holding loosely bound rubble-piles together during their early formation. In order to understand how aggregates of this size grow we study the mechanical strengths, material, and collisional properties of cm-sized aggregates. The collisional outcomes between two aggregates can be determined by a set of definable collision parameters and experimental constraints on these parameters will aid in astrophysical models of planet formation. We have carried out a series of microgravity laboratory experiments in which we collide a pair of weakly bound aggregates together. In our free-fall chamber we collide two 3-cm aggregates together at collision velocities ranging from 50 to 220 cm/s and with pressure ~1 mbar. The aggregates are made of mm-sized silica bead particles and require internal cohesion to avoid fragmentation above modest collision speeds, which is supplied by adding H2O (later dehydrated) and between 0 - 0.1 g of a well-mixed liquid adhesive to simulate surface forces and bonds between particles. We measure the compressive strengths of the aggregates (0.5 - 10 kPa), find their coefficients of restitution (CoR), and determine their bouncing and fragmentation thresholds, over a range of velocities and internal strengths. We observed collisional outcomes such as bouncing, erosion (mass-loss), and fragmentation of the aggregates. We find the CoR of the aggregates to have a mean of 0.11 ± 0.1 with no dependence on velocity or strength. Impact velocities above ~2 m/s resulted in fragmentation of our aggregates, higher than the ~1 m/s threshold for porous dust aggregates

  20. Evaluation of advanced light scattering technology for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, W. J.; Rosenblum, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of modern light scattering equipment and the uses it might have in studying processes in microgravity are evaluated. Emphasis is on the resolution of polydisperse systems. This choice was made since a major use of light scattering was expected to be the study of crystal growth of macromolecules in low gravity environments. An evaluation of a modern photon correlation spectrometer and a Mie spectrometer is presented.

  1. Space, the final frontier: A critical review of recent experiments performed in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z

    2016-02-01

    Space biology provides an opportunity to study plant physiology and development in a unique microgravity environment. Recent space studies with plants have provided interesting insights into plant biology, including discovering that plants can grow seed-to-seed in microgravity, as well as identifying novel responses to light. However, spaceflight experiments are not without their challenges, including limited space, limited access, and stressors such as lack of convection and cosmic radiation. Therefore, it is important to design experiments in a way to maximize the scientific return from research conducted on orbiting platforms such as the International Space Station. Here, we provide a critical review of recent spaceflight experiments and suggest ways in which future experiments can be designed to improve the value and applicability of the results generated. These potential improvements include: utilizing in-flight controls to delineate microgravity versus other spaceflight effects, increasing scientific return via next-generation sequencing technologies, and utilizing multiple genotypes to ensure results are not unique to one genetic background. Space experiments have given us new insights into plant biology. However, to move forward, special care should be given to maximize science return in understanding both microgravity itself as well as the combinatorial effects of living in space. PMID:26795156

  2. Space, the final frontier: A critical review of recent experiments performed in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z

    2016-02-01

    Space biology provides an opportunity to study plant physiology and development in a unique microgravity environment. Recent space studies with plants have provided interesting insights into plant biology, including discovering that plants can grow seed-to-seed in microgravity, as well as identifying novel responses to light. However, spaceflight experiments are not without their challenges, including limited space, limited access, and stressors such as lack of convection and cosmic radiation. Therefore, it is important to design experiments in a way to maximize the scientific return from research conducted on orbiting platforms such as the International Space Station. Here, we provide a critical review of recent spaceflight experiments and suggest ways in which future experiments can be designed to improve the value and applicability of the results generated. These potential improvements include: utilizing in-flight controls to delineate microgravity versus other spaceflight effects, increasing scientific return via next-generation sequencing technologies, and utilizing multiple genotypes to ensure results are not unique to one genetic background. Space experiments have given us new insights into plant biology. However, to move forward, special care should be given to maximize science return in understanding both microgravity itself as well as the combinatorial effects of living in space.

  3. Flame propagation experiment of PMMA particle cloud in a microgravity environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Ono, Naomichi; Okuyama, Yozo; Niioka, Takashi

    1994-12-31

    The flame propagation experiments on clouds of purely spherical PMMA particles in a microgravity environment were conducted by using the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) drop shaft, where a microgravity condition of 10{sup {minus}4} g for 10 s is available. The exact measurement of the burning velocity of the particle cloud was impossible due to the particle sedimentation in normal gravity up to now. The particle cloud was created using a fluidized-bed-type device and suspended in the flame propagation tube. The cloud was ignited at the open end of the tube, and the flame speed was measured by charge coupled device (CCD) video camera images. The flame speed in normal gravity was also measured, and the two groups of results were compared. The results showed that the flame speed in normal gravity was considerably larger than for ordinary gaseous flames, since turbulent combustion occurred due to the residual turbulence of the flow and the turbulence generated by the particle sedimentation. On the other hand, in the microgravity environment, when the cloud was ignited 6 s after the release of the capsule, the particles were quiescent and dispersed with sufficient uniformity, indicating the effectiveness of the long duration microgravity environment on the decay of turbulence. The flame speed decreased drastically in comparison with normal gravity cases, but the dependence of the flame speed on the particle concentration was similar to that in normal gravity.

  4. The Microgravity Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    The Microgravity Demonstrator is a tool used to create microgravity conditions in the classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions in order to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. The manual is…

  5. Acoustic Experiment to Measure the Bulk Viscosity of Near-Critical Xenon in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, K. A.; Shinder, I.; Moldover, M. R.; Zimmerli, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    We plan a rigorous test of the theory of dynamic scaling by accurately measuring the bulk viscosity of xenon in microgravity 50 times closer to the critical temperature T(sub c) than previous experiments. The bulk viscosity zeta (or "second viscosity" or "dilational viscosity") will be determined by measuring the attenuation length of sound alpha lambda and also measuring the frequency-dependence of the speed of sound. For these measurements, we developed a unique Helmholtz resonator and specialized electro-acoustic transducers. We describe the resonator, the transducers, their performance on Earth, and their expected performance in microgravity.

  6. Crystal Growth Furnace System Configuration and Planned Experiments on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Hambright, G.; Ainsworth, M.; Fiske, M.; Schaefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is manifested to refly on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission scheduled for launch in September 1995. The CGF was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The refurbishment and reflight program is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Funding and program support for the CGF project is provided to MSFC by the office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications at NASA Headquarters. This paper presents an overview of the CGF system configuration for the USML-2 mission, and provides a brief description of the planned on-orbit experiment operation.

  7. Materials Science Experiments Under Microgravity - A Review of History, Facilities, and Future Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments have been a key issue already since the early days of research under microgravity conditions. A microgravity environment facilitates processing of metallic and semiconductor melts without buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation. Hence, crystal growth of semiconductors, solidification of metallic alloys, and the measurement of thermo-physical parameters are the major applications in the field of materials science making use of these dedicated conditions in space. In the last three decades a large number of successful experiments have been performed, mainly in international collaborations. In parallel, the development of high-performance research facilities and the technological upgrade of diagnostic and stimuli elements have also contributed to providing optimum conditions to perform such experiments. A review of the history of materials science experiments in space focussing on the development of research facilities is given. Furthermore, current opportunities to perform such experiments onboard ISS are described and potential future options are outlined.

  8. Intuition and Experience: Asteroid Surfaces, Meteorites and Planetary Geosciences in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.; Nichols, S.; Kareev, M.; Benoit, P. H.

    2002-09-01

    Planetary scientists considering geological processes that occur in microgravity, such as on the surface of asteroids, face an intrinsic difficulty in that humans have experienced a lifetime of observing Nature under the fairly substantial gravity field of the Earth. In order to accumulate some experience of how geological materials behave under microgravity, we have conducted three sets of experiments on the NASA KC-135 microgravity facility (the "vomit comet"). We examined the behavior of a variety of possible regolith simulants being disturbed under microgravity conditions: sand, iron filings, gravel, and even concrete. Each set of experiments was for a different purpose and the experimental details differed considerably, but some common results were: Particle size sorting of the surface material occurred readily Segregations that occurred early in the process are retained during considerable amounts of subsequent activity There are several implications of these results for planetary science. For instance, since the surface will be so easily disturbed and mineral and phase separations will occur so readily, it can be predicted that the surface of asteroids will reflect these processes and not the internal composition of the asteroid. Thus deductions made by spectroscopic observations of the surface will not simply yield meaningful information about their bulk composition. Similarly, chondrule and metal size sorting appears to be a common feature of meteorites could have occurred on the surfaces of their parent bodies, presumably asteroids, and not necessarily in the protosolar nebular. Furthermore, the nature of the segregations is not always intuitively obvious. In our sand and metal mixtures, iron frequently rose to the surface. Thus care should be taken in applying terrestrial experiences to microgravity situations like the surface of asteroids.

  9. Physics of Colloids in Space: Microgravity Experiment Launched, Installed, and Activated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment is a Microgravity Fluids Physics investigation that is presently located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack on the International Space Station. PCS was launched to the International Space Station on April 19, 2001, activated on May 31, 2001, and will continue to operate about 90 hr per week through May 2002.

  10. Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment II (SHERE II) Microgravity Rheology with Non-Newtonian Polymeric Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Haward, Simon; Hall, Nancy Rabel; Magee, Kevin; McKinley, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of SHERE II is to study the effect of torsional preshear on the subsequent extensional behavior of filled viscoelastic suspensions. Microgravity environment eliminates gravitational sagging that makes Earth-based experiments of extensional rheology challenging. Experiments may serve as an idealized model system to study the properties of lunar regolith-polymeric binder based construction materials. Filled polymeric suspensions are ubiquitous in foods, cosmetics, detergents, biomedical materials, etc.

  11. The First United States Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, C. Blake (Editor); Shea, Charlotte; Mcmahan, Tracy; Accardi, Denise; Mikatarian, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    The United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) is one part of a science and technology program that will open NASA's next great era of discovery and establish the United States' leadership in space. A key component in the preparation for this new age of exploration, the USML-1 will fly in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science. The major components of the USML-1 are the Crystal Growth Furnace, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) Apparatus, and the Drop Physics Module. Other components of USML-1 include Astroculture, Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus, Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project, Protein Crystal Growth, Space Acceleration Measurement System, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment, Zeolite Crystal Growth and Spacelab Glovebox provided by the European Space Agency.

  12. Longevity of Paramecium Cell Clone under Microgravity in Space: Hypergravity Experiment as a Ground Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Mogami, Y.; Baba, S. A.

    We proposed a space experiment aboard International Space Station to explore the effects of the stay under microgravity on the longevity of Paramecium cell clone (Mogami et al., 1999, Adv. Space Res., 23/12, 2087-2090). Former space experiments in CYTOS and Space Lab D-1 demonstrated that Paramecium proliferated faster in space. In combination with the fact that aging process in Paramecium is largely related to the fission age, the results of the proliferation experiment in space may predict that the longevity of Paramecium decreases when measured by clock time. As a ground simulation of the space experiment, we made an experiment to assess the aging process under hypergravity, which is known to reduce the proliferation rate. As a result, the length of autogamy immaturity increased when measured by clock time, whereas it remained unchanged by fission age (Kato et al., 2003, Zool. Sci., 1373-1380). It is therefore expected that autogamy immaturity in the measure of the clock time would be shortened under microgravity. Since the length of clonal life span of Paramecium is related to the length of autogamy immaturity, the result of hypergravity experiment may support the prediction above; i.e. a decrease in the clonal longevity of Paramecium under microgravity in space.

  13. Barrier isolator/glovebox glove dexterity study.

    PubMed

    Park, Young H; Pines, E; Cournoyer, M E

    2010-01-01

    In response to new, stricter safety requirements set out by the federal government, compounding pharmacists are investigating applications and processes appropriate for their facilities. One application, currently used by many industries, was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratories in the early days of defense work. A barrier isolator or "glovebox" is a containment device that allows work within a sealed space while providing protection for people and the environment. The operations at Plutonium Facility (TA-55) in Los Alamos National Laboratories involve various amounts of plutonium. Gloveboxes are used to handle plutonium, and glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. Currently a lead-loaded glove made from Hypalon is used. The lead-loaded gloves are compared to unleaded gloves with respect to dexterity and its effect on the outcome of any task performance. Experiments have been conducted on two models of unleaded gloves (15-mil thick Hypalon gloves and 30-mil thick Hypalon gloves), as well as 30-mil thick lead-loaded gloves. The objective of this research is to study the effect of lead-loaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance. We use inferential statistical analysis of this data to support scientific judgment of the probability that the observed difference between tested gloves is dependable or that any difference noted might have happened by chance.

  14. Cellular changes in microgravity and the design of space radiation experiments.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cell metabolism, secretion and cell-cell interactions can be altered during space flight. Early radiobiology experiments have demonstrated synergistic effects of radiation and microgravity as indicated by increased mutagenesis, increased chromosome aberrations, inhibited development, and retarded growth. Microgravity-induced changes in immune cell functions include reduced blastogenesis and cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, increased cytokine secretions, but inhibited cytotoxic effects and macrophage differentiation. These effects are important because of the high radiosensitivity of immune cells. It is difficult to compare ground studies with space radiation biology experiments because of the complexity of the space radiation environment, types of radiation damage and repair mechanisms. Altered intracellular functions and molecular mechanisms must be considered in the design and interpretation of space radiation experiments. Critical steps in radiocarcinogenesis could be affected. New cell systems and hardware are needed to determine the biological effectiveness of the low dose rate, isotropic, multispectral space radiation and the potential usefulness of radioprotectants during space flight.

  15. Ultrasound Imaging System Implementation and Ignition Protocol for the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Anthenien, Ralph A.; Roslon, Mark; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal earth gravity. Experiments have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in the Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN), an apparatus requiring completely remote operation. Future GAS-CAN experiments will utilize an ultrasound imaging system (UIS) which has been incorporated into the MSC experimental apparatus. Thermocouples are currently used to measure temperature and reaction front velocities. A less intrusive method is desirable, however, as smolder is a very weak reaction and it has been found that heat transfer along the thermocouple is sufficient to affect the smolder reaction. It is expected that the UIS system will eventually replace the existing array of thermocouples as a non-intrusive technique without compromising data acquisition. The UIS measures line of sight permeability, providing information about the reaction front position and extent. Additionally, the ignition sequence of the MSC experiments has been optimized from previous experiments to provide longer periods of self-supported smolder. An ignition protocol of a fixed power to the igniter for a fixed time is now implemented. This, rather than a controlled temperature profile ignition protocol at the igniter surface, along with the UIS system, will allow for better study of the effect of gravity on a smolder reaction.

  16. Design and Performance of an Automated Bioreactor for Cell Culture Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Park, Seul-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of longterm human residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirements for microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32 samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-medium injection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination, the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after each experiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximum speed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at 36°C, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactor above 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminate such bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was used to perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.

  17. Microgravity Experiments on Bubble Removal in the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor - Space (HFB-S)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, H. K.; Niederhaus, C. E.; Robinson, S.; Hudson, E.; Geffert, S. K.; Lupo, P. J.; Gonda, S. R.; Kleis, S. J.; Kizito, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor-Space (HFB-S) is being developed as a possible replacement for the Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel (RWPV) bioreactor currently planned for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The HFB-S is being developed with the ability to remove gas bubbles that may inadvertently enter the system during long duration experiments (approx. 1-3 months). The RWPV has been used in the past with great success on Shuttle flights and Mir missions, but has occasionally experienced problems with gas bubbles entering the fluid-filled vessel. These bubbles are harmful to the cell science, and bubble removal in the RWPV is problematic. The HFB-S has an access port on the rotation axis that allows for bubble removal under specific operating conditions without detrimentally affecting the cell tissue. Experiments on bubble removal with the HFB-S were conducted in the microgravity environment on NASA's KC-135 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The first set of flights provided useful data on bubble trajectories that are validating computational predictions. The second set of flights free-floated the apparatus and tested the most recent configuration of the bioreactor while focusing on the bubble removal process itself. These experiments have shown that gas bubbles can successfully be driven to the removal port and purged in microgravity. The last day's experiments had an excellent microgravity environment due to calm air, and the experience gained in previous flights allowed successful bubble removal 18 out of 35 tries, remarkable given the microgravity time constraints and g-jitter on the KC-135.

  18. Microgravity experiment to understand the effect of convection on PVT crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Thomas, A. S. W.; Glicksman, M. E.; Adam, J. D.; Zhang, H.; Golombeck, J. C.; Watson, C.; Naumman, R.; Nelson, A. E.; Cacioppo, C.; Griffin, J.; Jugrav, M.; Rolin, T.; Seaquist, J.; Daniel, N.

    2003-07-01

    We have carried out very extensive theoretical and experimental studies on the physical vapour transport (PVT) growth of mercurous chloride. A microgravity experiment on the growth of mercurous chloride was designed and performed in the Space Experiment Facility (SEF) transparent furnace that was flown on Spacehab 4 (STS 77). Growth ampoules and cartridges were designed and fabricated to meet the science requirements. Two crystals were grown at the same time in the same furnace in <110> orientation at an speed of 5.5 mm/day and 8 mm/day by physical vapor transport in the microgravity condition to reduce gravity driven convection. The direct observation was made on the interface during the growth of crystals. We observed convex and detached growth for both growth runs.

  19. Cryogenic design of the liquid helium experiment ``critical dynamics in microgravity``

    SciTech Connect

    Moeur, W.A.; Adriaans, M.J.; Boyd, S.T.; Strayer, D.M.; Duncan, R.V. |

    1995-10-01

    Although many well controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven far away from equilibrium as a phase transition occurs. The cryogenic design of an experiment to study the dynamic aspect of critical phenomena is reported here. Measurements of the thermal gradient across the superfluid (He II) -- normal fluid (He I) interface in helium under microgravity conditions will be performed as a heat flux holds the system away from equilibrium. New technologies are under development for this experiment, which is in the definition phase for a space shuttle flight.

  20. Project ISIAH - Experiment on the effects of micro-gravity on hornets' nest building and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brull, Lily

    1992-10-01

    An Israel Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISIAH) aimed at determining whether hornets are capable of retaining their unique ability of orientation under microgravity conditions is described. The Oriental Hornets used in the experiment are capable of building combs in the direction of the gravitational vector and detecting minute changes in gravitational force. Data obtained may be used to facilitate human adaptation to space conditions as well as rehabilitation after returning to earth.

  1. Virtual Glovebox (VGX) Aids Astronauts in Pre-Flight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Virtual Glovebox (VGX) was developed to allow astronauts on Earth to train for complex biology research tasks in space. The astronauts may reach into the virtual environment, naturally manipulating specimens, tools, equipment, and accessories in a simulated microgravity environment as they would do in space. Such virtual reality technology also provides engineers and space operations staff with rapid prototyping, planning, and human performance modeling capabilities. Other Earth based applications being explored for this technology include biomedical procedural training and training for disarming bio-terrorism weapons.

  2. Experiment 2: Vapor Transport Crystal Growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride in Microgravity- USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.; Ge, Y. R.; Hutchins, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The new epitaxial growth experiments of Hg(l-x)Cd(x)Te on (100) CdTe substrates by chemical vapor transport (CVT), using HgI2 as a transport agent, were performed in the transient growth regime of this ternary, heteroepitaxial system at normal and reduced gravity during the USML-2 flight. The surface and interface morphology, the compositional and structural uniformity, and carrier mobility of the epitaxial layer and islands grown in microgravity are measurably improved relative to ground specimens. These observations demonstrate the effects of convective flow on the transport, deposition, and growth processes of this solid-vapor system even in the transient growth regime. The properties of the Hg(l-x)Cd(x)Te layer grown in a microgravity environment compare quite favorably to those of layers obtained by other techniques.

  3. Real-time tracking of objects for a KC-135 microgravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a visual tracking system for use on the Extra-Vehicular Activity Helper/Retriever (EVAHR) is discussed. EVAHR is an autonomous robot designed to perform numerous tasks in an orbital microgravity environment. Since the ability to grasp a freely translating and rotating object is vital to the robot's mission, the EVAHR must analyze range image generated by the primary sensor. This allows EVAHR to locate and focus its sensors so that an accurate set of object poses can be determined and a grasp strategy planned. To test the visual tracking system being developed, a mathematical simulation was used to model the space station environment and maintain dynamics on the EVAHR and any other free floating objects. A second phase of the investigation consists of a series of experiments carried out aboard a KC-135 aircraft flying a parabolic trajectory to simulate microgravity.

  4. Surface tension induced convection in encapsulated liquid metals in a microgravity environment. Experiment MA-041

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. E.; Uelhoff, W.; Adair, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The experiment was designed to detect possible convection caused by a steplike compositional variation in a liquid metal in a microgravity environment. Wetting and nonwetting ampoules were used to try to determine the extent of the stirring effects if they were present. Since stirring effects can be caused by temperature gradients, the temperature gradients were minimized. Steplike compositional variation was created by pressure bonding a lead-0.05 atom percent gold alloy to pure lead. Two diffusion temperatures (923 K and 723 K) were used; if no stirring effects were present, it was hoped that the liquid diffusion parameters for gold in lead could be obtained. Two identifical experimental arrangements were used to compare the transport mechanisms of gold in liquid lead in unit gravity and microgravity environments.

  5. Definition of experiments to investigate fire suppressants in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James J.

    1990-01-01

    Defined and justified here are the conceptual design and operation of a critical set of experiments expected to yield information on suppressants and on suppressant delivery systems under realistic spacecraft-fire conditions (smoldering). Specific experiment parameters are provided on the solid fuel (carbon), oxidants (habitable spacecraft atmospheres), fuel/oxidant supply, mixing mode, and rate (quiescent and finite; ventilated and replenishable), ignition mode, event, and reignition tendency, fire-zone size, fire conditions, lifetime, and consequences (toxicity), suppressants (CO2, H2O, N2) and suppressant delivery systems, and diagnostics. Candidate suppressants were identified after an analysis of how reduced gravity alters combustion, and how these alterations may influence the modes, mechanisms, and capacities of terrestrial agents to suppress unwanted combustion, or fire. Preferred spacecraft suppression concepts included the local, near-quiescent application of a gas, vapor, or mist that has thermophysical fire-suppression activity and is chemically inert under terrestrial (normal gravity) combustion conditions. The scale, number, and duration (about 1 hour) of the proposed low-gravity experiments were estimated using data not only on the limitations imposed by spacecraft-carrier (Shuttle or Space Station Freedom) accommodations, but also data on the details and experience of standardized smolder-suppression experiments at normal gravity. Deliberately incorporated into the conceptual design was sufficient interchangeability for the prototype experimental package to fly either on Shuttle now or Freedom later. This flexibility is provided by the design concept of up to 25 modular fuel canisters within a containment vessel, which permits both integration into existing low-gravity in-space combustion experiments and simultaneous testing of separate experiments to conserve utilities and time.

  6. X-Ray Radiographic Observation of Directional Solidification Under Microgravity: XRMON-GF Experiments on MASER12 Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, G.; NguyenThi, H.; Bogno, A.; Billia, B.; Houltz, Y.; Loth, K.; Voss, D.; Verga, A.; dePascale, F.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Zimmermann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) - Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme entitled XRMON (In situ X-Ray MONitoring of advanced metallurgical processes under microgravity and terrestrial conditions) aims to develop and perform in situ X-ray radiography observations of metallurgical processes in microgravity and terrestrial environments. The use of X-ray imaging methods makes it possible to study alloy solidification processes with spatio-temporal resolutions at the scales of relevance for microstructure formation. XRMON has been selected for MASER 12 sounding rocket experiment, scheduled in autumn 2011. Although the microgravity duration is typically six minutes, this short time is sufficient to investigate a solidification experiment with X-ray radiography. This communication will report on the preliminary results obtained with the experimental set-up developed by SSC (Swedish Space Corporation). Presented results dealing with directional solidification of Al-Cu confirm the great interest of performing in situ characterization to analyse dynamical phenomena during solidification processes.

  7. Microgravity Experiments Safety and Integration Requirements Document Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Jean M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a document tree of the safety and integration documents required to develop a space experiment. Pertinent document information for each of the top level (tier one) safety and integration documents, and their applicable and reference (tier two) documents has been identified. This information includes: document title, revision level, configuration management, electronic availability, listed applicable and reference documents, source for obtaining the document, and document owner. One of the main conclusions of this report is that no single document tree exists for all safety and integration documents, regardless of the Shuttle carrier. This document also identifies the need for a single point of contact for customers wishing to access documents. The data in this report serves as a valuable information source for the NASA Lewis Research Center Project Documentation Center, as well as for all developers of space experiments.

  8. Subcooled Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Microgravity: Terrier-improved Orion Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Benton, John; Kucner, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A microscale heater array was used to study boiling in earth gravity and microgravity. The heater array consisted of 96 serpentine heaters on a quartz substrate. Each heater was 0.27 square millimeters. Electronic feedback loops kept each heater's temperature at a specified value. The University of Maryland constructed an experiment for the Terrier-Improved Orion sounding rocket that was delivered to NASA Wallops and flown. About 200 s of high quality microgravity and heat transfer data were obtained. The VCR malfunctioned, and no video was acquired. Subsequently, the test package was redesigned to fly on the KC-135 to obtain both data and video. The pressure was held at atmospheric pressure and the bulk temperature was about 20 C. The wall temperature was varied from 85 to 65 C. Results show that gravity has little effect on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble was surrounded by smaller bubbles, which eventually merged with the primary bubble. This bubble was formed by smaller bubbles coalescing, but had a constant size for a given superheat, indicating a balance between evaporation at the base and condensation on the cap. Most of the heaters under the bubble indicated low heat transfer, suggesting dryout at those heaters. High heat transfer occurred at the contact line surrounding the primary bubble. Marangoni convection formed a "jet" of fluid into the bulk fluid that forced the bubble onto the heater.

  9. The lambda point experiment in microgravity. [He heat capacity close to phase transition point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment for performing high-resolution measurements of the heat capacity singularity at the lambda point of helium in microgravity conditions is described. By obtaining such measurements in space, it is expected that the intrinsic distortion of the transition would be reduced by at least two orders of magnitude, allowing the theory of cooperative phase transitions to be more effectively tested. Technology developments for the lambda point experiment include a new high-resolution thermometer, an advanced thermal control system, and a reusable flight-qualified superfluid helium dewar.

  10. Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition Experiment Probes Particle Interactions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Everything in the universe is made up of the same basic building blocks - atoms. All physical properties of matter such as weight, hardness, and color are determined by the kind of atoms present and the way they interact with each other. The Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition (CDOT) shuttle flight experiment tested fundamental theories that model atomic interactions. The experiment was part of the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, which flew from October 20 to November 5, 1995.

  11. Large Diameter, Radiative Extinction Experiments with Decane Droplets in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John; Tien, James; Dietrich, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The extinction of a diffusion flame is of fundamental interest in combustion science. Linan, Law, and Chung and Law analytically and experimentally determined an extinction boundary in terms of droplet diameter and pressure for a single droplet due to Damkohler, or blowoff, extinction. More recently, other researchers demonstrated extinction due to finite rate kinetics in reduced gravity for free droplets of heptane. Chao modeled the effect of radiative heat loss on a quasi-steady spherically symmetric single droplet burning in the absence of buoyancy. They determined that for increasing droplet diameter, a second limit can be reached such that combustion is no longer possible. This second, larger droplet diameter limit arises due to radiative heat loss, which increases with increasing droplet and flame diameter. This increase in radiative heat loss arises due to an increase in the surface area of the flame. Recently, Marchese modeled fuel droplets with detailed chemistry and radiative effects, and compared the results to other work. The modeling also showed the importance of radiative loss and radiative extinction Experiments examined the behavior of a large droplet of decane burning in reduced gravity onboard the NASA Lewis DC-9 aircraft, but did not show a radiative extinction boundary due to g-jitter (Variations in gravitational level and direction) effects. Dietrich conducted experiments in the reduced gravity environment of the Space Shuttle. This work showed that the extinction diameter of methanol droplets increased when the initial diameter of the droplets was large (in this case, approximately 5 mm). Theoretical results agreed with these experimental results only when the theory included radiative effects . Radiative extinction was experimentally verified by Nayagam in a later Shuttle mission. The following work focuses on the combustion and extinction of a single fuel droplet. The goal is to experimentally determine a large droplet diameter limit that

  12. Phototropism experiments in microgravity-the Seedling Growth project in the EMCS on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John; Edelmann, Richard; Herranz, Raul; Medina, Francisco Javier; Millar, Katherine

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore important topics in basic plant biology. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seeding Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments. TROPI-1 was the first EMCS experiment, and we discovered a novel red-light-based phototropism in hypocotyls of seedlings grown in microgravity (Millar et al. 2010). In TROPI-2, our experiments were extended to reduced gravity levels and found that 0.1-0.3 g can attenuate the red-light response (Kiss et al. 2012). In addition, we performed gene profiling studies and noted that approximately 280 genes that were differentially regulated at least two-fold in the space samples compared to the ground controls (Correll et al. 2013). Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies and the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings. In SG-1, the red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI-2 was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. As we move forward, the SG-2 experiments (to be launched in 2014), in addition to a continued focus on phototropism, will consider the cell cycle as well as the growth and proliferation of plant cells in microgravity (Matía et al. 2010). Furthermore, the lessons learned from sequential experiments from TROPI-1 to TROPI-2 to SG-1 can provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology. References: Correll M.J., T

  13. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Control of Bubble Motion in Microgravity Using Electric Fields - BCOEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Acquaviva, Tom; Coho, Bill; Grant, Nechelle; Nahra, Henry; Sankaran, Subramanian; Taylor, Al; Julian, Ed; Robinson, Dale; VanZandt, Dave

    2001-01-01

    The BCOEL project focuses on improving pool boiling heat transfer and bubble control in microgravity by exposing the fluid to electric fields. The electric fields induce a body force that can replace gravity in the low gravity environment, and enhance bubble removal from thc heated surface. A better understanding of microgravity effects on boiling with and without electric fields is critical to the proper design of the phase-change-heat-removal equipment for use in space-based applications. The microgravity experiments will focus on the visualization of bubble formation and shape during boiling. Heat fluxes on the boiling surface will be measured, and, together with the measured driving temperature differences, used to plot boiling curvcs for different electric field magnitudes. Bubble formation and boiling processes were found to be extremely sensitive to g-jitter. The duration of the experimental run is critical in order to achieve steady state in microgravity experiments. The International Space Station provides conditions suitable for such experiments. The experimental appararus to be used in the study is described in the paper. The apparatus will be tested in the KC-135 first, and microgravity experiments will be conducted on board of the International Space Station using the Microgravity Science Glovebox as the experimental platform.

  14. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Control of Bubble Motion in Microgravity Using Electric Fields (BCOEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Acquaviva, Tom; Coho, Bill; Grant, Nechelle; Nahra, Henry; Taylor, Al; Julian, Ed; Robinson, Dale; VanZandt, Dave

    2001-01-01

    The BCOEL project focuses on improving pool boiling heat transfer and bubble control in microgravity by exposing the fluid to electric fields. The electric fields induce a body force that can replace gravity in the low gravity environment, and enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. A better understanding of microgravity effects on boiling with and without electric fields is critical to the proper design of the phase-change-heat-removal equipment for use in spacebased applications. The microgravity experiments will focus on the visualization of bubble formation and shape during boiling. Heat fluxes on the boiling surface will be measured, and, together with the measured driving temperature differences, used to plot boiling curves for different electric field magnitudes. Bubble formation and boiling processes were found to be extremely sensitive to g-jitter. The duration of the experimental run is critical in order to achieve steady state in microgravity experiments. The International Space Station provides conditions suitable for such experiments. The experimental apparatus to be used in the study is described in the paper. The apparatus will be tested in the KC-135 first, and microgravity experiments will be conducted on board of the International Space Station using the Microgravity Science Glovebox as the experimental platform.

  15. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirlich, Thomas

    For the design and layout human spacecraft interiors the Neutral Body Posture (NBP) in micro-gravity is of great importance. The NBP has been defined as the stable, replicable and nearly constant posture the body "automatically" assumes when a human relaxes in microgravity. Furthermore the NBP, as published, suggests that there is one standard neutral posture for all individuals. Published experiments from space, parabolic flights and under water on the other hand show strong inter-individual variations of neutral (relaxed) postures. This might originate from the quite small sample sizes of subjects analyzed or the different experiment conditions, e. g. space and under water. Since 2008 a collaborative research project focussing on human postures and motions in microgravity has been ongoing at the Technische Univer-sitüt München (TUM). This collaborative effort is undertaken by the Institute of Astronautics a (LRT) and the Institute of Ergonomics (LfE). Several test campaigns have been conducted in simulated microgravity under water using a specially designed standardized experiment setup. Stereo-metric HD video footage and anthropometric data from over 50 subjects (female and male) has been gathered in over 80 experiments. The video data is analyzed using PCMAN software, developed by the LfE, resulting in a 3D volumetric CAD-based model of each subject and posture. Preliminary and ongoing analysis of the data offer evidence for the existence of intra-individually constant neutral postures, as well as continuously recurring relaxation strate-gies. But as with the data published prior the TUM experiments show quite a large variation of inter-individual postures. These variation might be induced or influenced by the special environmental conditions in the underwater experiment. Thus in present paper ways of stan-dardizing data and applying the findings gathered under water to real microgravity are being discussed. The following influences stemming from the

  16. Ethological experiments on human orientation behavior within a three-dimensional space--in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, C; Campan, R

    1994-01-01

    In weightlessness situation the subject has to realize domestic and professional tasks comparable to those performed under normal gravity, whereas the "body tool" available to him has been placed in new conditions which require significant behavioral changes. The loss of weight, the disappearance or modification of some ideothetic and allothetic cues, notably the absence of gravity for the body's referential verticality have the most obvious effect of diversifying the astronaut's orientations. The vertical position is thus no longer the only one possible. This means that in order to efficiently accomplish his tasks, the subject has to invent new motor strategies which transform the quality of displacements and manipulations on the basis of the new orientation possibilities in a three-dimensional space. The previous ethological studies have dealt, in a global way, with the astronaut's motor behavior in microgravity, revealed according to an exhaustive quantitative description of the behavioral manifestions as a whole in terms of movement, posture and orientation. We now propose focusing more specifically on his spatial behavior in a three-dimensional space in microgravity. Such a situation is an exceptional experimental paradigm since at every moment, the relationships of the body referential to the surrounding space are infinitely variable: a man in space has to extract, process or use spatial information between the referentials of his moving body in all directions of the three-dimensional space and the fixed referentials of the physical environment of the space habitat. Furthermore, in the temporal dynamics, the previous ethological results showed that the behavioral events change according to the duration of the space mission, passing through different adaptative stages from a large behavioral diversity to complete behavioral reorganization. On the first day of his space mission the astronaut has however acquired experience of microgravity through his training

  17. Growth and form of planetary seedlings: results from a microgravity aggregation experiment.

    PubMed

    Blum, J; Wurm, G; Kempf, S; Poppe, T; Klahr, H; Kozasa, T; Rott, M; Henning, T; Dorschner, J; Schräpler, R; Keller, H U; Markiewicz, W J; Mann, I; Gustafson, B A; Giovane, F; Neuhaus, D; Fechtig, H; Grün, E; Feuerbacher, B; Kochan, H; Ratke, L; El Goresy, A; Morfill, G; Weidenschilling, S J; Schwehm, G; Metzler, K; Ip, W H

    2000-09-18

    The outcome of the first stage of planetary formation, which is characterized by ballistic agglomeration of preplanetary dust grains due to Brownian motion in the free molecular flow regime of the solar nebula, is still somewhat speculative. We performed a microgravity experiment flown onboard the space shuttle in which we simulated, for the first time, the onset of free preplanetary dust accumulation and revealed the structures and growth rates of the first dust agglomerates in the young solar system. We find that a thermally aggregating swarm of dust particles evolves very rapidly and forms unexpected open-structured agglomerates.

  18. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-12-31

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ``Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards``. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life.

  19. Biological Experiments in Microgravity Conditions Using Magnetic Micro- and Nano-Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Gravity affects all living organisms on Earth, and plays a role in multiple processes in them. In microgravity conditions (e.g., on board of a spacecraft) many of these processes are disturbed, e.g., spatial orientation is lost, mass and heat exchange is distorted, many adaptive mechanisms no longer function, etc. Negation of these adverse effects by creation of pseudo-gravity to by centrifugation is complicated, expensive and unpractical. We propose to use naturally occurring magnetic heterogeneity of all living cells and high gradient magnetic fields as an alternative approach to negating the adverse effects of microgravity on living systems. In non-uniform magnetic field, magnetically heterogeneous objects experience a system of ponderomotive forces. For a weak magnetic particle, the net ponderomotive magnetic force: Fm = Δχ•V•grad(H2/2), where Δχ is the difference of susceptibilities of the particle and the surrounding media, V is the volume of the particle, grad(H2/2) is the dynamic factor of the magnetic field. We studied magnetic heterogeneity of plant gravity receptor cells, prepared and conducted experiments on board of the space station "Mir" on providing a gravity-like stimulus for flax seedlings using high gradient magnetic field ("Magnetogravistat" experiment). Later, a more sophisticated version of this experiment was flown on STS-107. These experiments provided new data on the mechanisms of plant gravity reception and created a method for substituting gravity for a living organism by a force of a different physical nature, to negate the adverse effects of microgravity. Since the ponderomotive force is proportional to the dynamic factor of the field grad(H2/2), the stronger the field, and the faster it changes over distance, the higher is the dynamic factor and the stronger the ponderomotive force. Therefore, in the small vicinity of a small ferromagnetic particle (preferably metallic micro or nano-particles), the forces are very significant

  20. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Research Plans for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Shaw, Nancy J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.

    2003-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research supporting human exploration of space (strategic research), research of intrinsic scientific importance and impact (fundamental research), and commercial research. The strategic research thrust will build the vital knowledge base needed to enable NASA's mission to explore the Universe and search for life. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, niultiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA- sponsored flight experiments in microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena will be carried out on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper presents an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to enable this research.

  1. Propellant Management in Microgravity- Further Analysis of an Experiment Flown on REXUS-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobino, D.; Zumbrunen, E.; Putzu, R.; Pontelandolfo, P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is about the further analysis of an experiment named CAESAR (stands for Capillarity-based Experiment for Spatial Advanced Research): a sounding rocket experiment carried out by students of hepia within the REXUS program. The authors have launched on REXUS-14 a propellant management experiment based on capillarity to reliably confirm other ground-based cxperiments. In the framework of the present work, the authors present the comparison of CAESAR experimental data with theoretical profiles provided in literature. The objective of this flight was to place several Propellant Management Devices (PMD) in a microgravity environment and acquire images of the fluid distribution around them. The main element of the experiment, called a sponge, is a PMD for space vehicles, often used in satellites. This radial panel shaped device can be used at the bottom of a satellite tank to keep the propellant near the outlet. It is designed to work even if the vehicle undergoes small accelerations, for example during station-keeping maneuvers. The fluid is eccentric but stays on the sponge and near the outlet, so the injection system of the motor is continuously supplied with the propellant. As previously published, the authors have created a buoyancy test bench and have designed another system by magnetic levitation to perform the same experiment on earth. These systems are easier to use and less expensive than a sounding rocket, a parabolic flight or a drop tower (i.e. other system to obtain microgravity on earth), so they will be very useful to make progress in this particular domain of science. They will also allow universities with small funds to work within this spatial field. A previous publication showed, from a qualitative point of view, a good agreement between experiments and theory; however in this paper quantitative comparisons are given. With this demonstrated, hepia can validate its buoyancy test facility with real flight tests.

  2. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  3. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  4. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glovebox using SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1994-08-31

    SAES metal getter material St 198 was chosen for glovebox stripper tests to evaluate its effectiveness of removing tritium from a nitrogen atmosphere. The St 198 material is unique from a number of other metal hydride-based getter materials in that it is relatively inert to nitrogen and can thus be used in nitrogen glovebox atmospheres. Six tritium stripper experiments which mock-up the use of a SAES St 198 stripper bed for a full-scale (10,500 liter) nitrogen glovebox have been completed. Experiments consisted of a release of small quantity of protium/deuterium spiked with tritium which were scaled to simulate tritium releases of 0.1 g., 1.0 g., and 10 g. into the glovebox. The tritium spike allows detection using tritium ion chambers. The St 198 stripper system produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two orders of magnitude in 24 hours (6--8 atmosphere turn-overs) of stripper operation.

  5. Waste handling activities in glovebox dismantling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio; Yoshino, Masanori; Hirano, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The Glovebox Dismantling Facility is a facility to decontaminate and size-reduce after-service gloveboxes in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The wastes generated from these dismantling activities are simultaneously handled and packaged into drums in a bag-out manner. For future waste treatment and disposal, these wastes are separated into material categories. In this paper, we present the basic steps and analyzed data for the waste handling activities. The data were collected from dismantling activities for three gloveboxes (Grinding Pellet Glovebox, Visual Inspection Glovebox, Outer-diameter Screening Glovebox) conducted from 2001-2004. We also describe both current and near-future improvements. (authors)

  6. Material research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langbein, D.

    1984-01-01

    A popular discussion is given of microgravity effects in engineering and medicine gained from Skylab experience. Areas covered include crystal growing, liquid surface properties, diffusion, ferromagnetism, and emulsions.

  7. Strata-1: An International Space Station Experiment into Fundamental Regolith Processes in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; Love, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment will study the evolution of asteroidal regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). Many asteroids feature low bulk densities, which implies high values of porosity and a mechanical structure composed of loosely bound particles, (i.e. the "rubble pile" model), a prime example of a granular medium. Even the higher-density, mechanically coherent asteroids feature a significant surface layer of loose regolith. These bodies are subjected to a variety of forces and will evolve in response to very small perturbations such as micrometeoroid impacts, planetary flybys, and the YORP effect. Our understanding of this dynamical evolution and the inter-particle forces involved would benefit from long-term observations of granular materials exposed to small vibrations in microgravity. A detailed understanding of asteroid mechanical evolution is needed in order to predict the surface characteristics of as-of-yet unvisited bodies, to understand the larger context of samples collected by missions such as OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa 1 and 2, and to mitigate risks for both manned and unmanned missions to asteroidal bodies. Understanding regolith dynamics will inform designs of how to land and set anchors, safely sample/move material on asteroidal surfaces, process large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predict behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces.

  8. Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces. Pt. 2; Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Dhindaw, Brij K.; Catalina, Adrian; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the directional solidification experiments on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) conducted on the space shuttle Columbia during the Life and Microgravity Science Mission are reported. Two pure aluminum (99.999%) 9 mm cylindrical rods, loaded with about 2 vol.% 500 micrometers diameter zirconia particles were melted and resolidified in the microgravity (microg) environment of the shuttle. One sample was processed at step-wise increased solidification velocity, while the other at step-wise decreased velocity. It was found that a pushing-to-engulfment transition (PET) occurred in the velocity range of 0.5 to 1 micrometers. This is smaller than the ground PET velocity of 1.9 to 2.4 micrometers. This demonstrates that natural convection increases the critical velocity. A previously proposed analytical model for PEP was further developed. A major effort to identify and produce data for the surface energy of various interfaces required for calculation was undertaken. The predicted critical velocity for PET was of 0.775 micrometers/s.

  9. [Cell growth and motility in culture (in vitro) under microgravity conditions. The Fibroblast Experiment].

    PubMed

    Tairbekov, M G; Margolis, L B; Baĭbakov, B A; Gabova, A V; Dergacheva, G B

    1994-01-01

    The experiment "Fibroblast" was performed in 1992 on biosatellite "Cosmos-2229" in onboard device "Biobox" designed by the order of European Space Agency. The main objective was elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for the effect of space flight factors, mostly microgravity, on cell culture. We studied time-related changes in growth, motility and some morphological characteristics of the cells in monolayer cultures on a solid substrate and in three-dimensional cultures supported by sponge gels. Studies were carried out on connective tissue cells isolated from the mouse embryos. Comparative after-flight analysis of the cell cultures exposed to space flight and of those under the normal gravity conditions (1 g) on the Earth has revealed some differences. The space flight conditions, mainly microgravity, induced marked changes in morphological characteristics and functional activity of the cultured fibroblasts: changes in the nucleus size and shape, retardation of cell growth and division rate. We believe that these changes may be due to weakening of intercellular contacts and cell adhesion to the substrate. These findings are important both for general biology and space medicine, specifically for the problems of tissue regeneration and wound healing under the conditions of long-term space flight.

  10. GLOVEBOX DISMANTLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Stallings, Ellen; Wilburn, Dianne W.

    2003-02-27

    It has been revealed from the experiences of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities that even a small improvement in performance can result in significant risk reduction and cost savings. For example, Race Scan Ear Mic System, which was originally developed for communications between racecar drivers and crews in loud environments, has been successfully applied to D&D work and proved to enhance worker safety and communications. Glovebox dismantlement is an important and costly process in D&D activities of nuclear facilities. Adequate decontamination and size reduction of the gloveboxes are especially important in this activity because they have the potential to reduce risks and costs significantly. This paper presents some simple approaches to support D&D tasks and discusses their potential advantages. Examples discussed include: Repeated shear wiping of large pipes and ducts; Application of thin layers on radiological counters for uninterrupted use; and Partial use of robotics for glovebox dismantling. The paper also discusses schematics for protecting equipment interiors and/or glovebox inner surfaces from contamination, which may result in significant savings and waste minimization upon future dismantlement. Examples discussed include: Smart coating for contamination prevention; and Protecting equipment by geometrically simple cover.

  11. CATE: A Case Study of an Interdisciplinary Student-Led Microgravity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Dove, A.; Lane, S. S.; Tiller, C.; Whitaker, A.; Lai, K.; Hoover, B.; Benjamin, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Collisional Accretion Experiment (CATE) was designed, built, and flown on NASA's C-9 parabolic flight airplane in less than a year by an interdisciplinary team of 6 undergraduate students under the supervision of two faculty. CATE was selected in the initial NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) solicitation in the Fall of 2013, and the experiment flight campaign was in July 2014. The experiment studied collisions between different particle populations at low velocities (sub-m/s) in a vacuum and microgravity to gain insight into processes in the protoplanetary disk and planetary ring systems. Faculty provided the experiment concept and key experiment design parameters, and the student team developed the detailed hardware design for all components, manufactured and tested hardware, operated the experiment in flight, and analyzed data post-flight. Students also developed and led an active social media campaign and education and public outreach campaign to engage local high school students in the project. The ability to follow an experiment through from conception to flight was a key benefit for undergraduate students whose available time for projects such as this is frequently limited to their junior and senior years. Key factors for success of the program included having an existing laboratory infrastructure and experience in developing flight payloads and an intrinsically simple experiment concept. Students were highly motivated, in part, by their sense of technical and scientific ownership of the project, and this engagement was key to the project's success.

  12. Effect of Microgravity on Sinorhizobium meliloti: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIe) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was innoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were innoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Innoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNA/ate/M by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and ground-grown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(TradeMark) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Bacteria cultivated in microgravity in the

  13. Choroidal responses in microgravity. (SLS-1, SLS-2 and hindlimb-suspension experiments).

    PubMed

    Gabrion, J; Herbute, S; Oliver, J; Maurel, D; Davet, J; Clavel, B; Gharib, C; Fareh, J; Fagette, S; Nguyen, B

    1995-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte shifts occurring during human spaceflight have been reported and investigated at the level of blood, cardiovascular and renal responses. Very few data were available concerning the cerebral fluid and electrolyte adaptation to microgravity, even in animal models. It is the reason why we developed several studies focused on the effects of spaceflight (SLS-1 and SLS-2 programs, carried on NASA STS 40 and 56 missions, which were 9- and 14-day flights, respectively), on structural and functional features of choroid plexuses, organs which secrete 70-90% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and which are involved in brain homeostasis. Rats flown aboard space shuttles were sacrificed either in space (SLS-2 experiment, on flight day 13) or 4-8 hours after landing (SLS-1 and SLS-2 experiments). Quantitative autoradiography performed by microdensitometry and image analysis, showed that lateral and third ventricle choroid plexuses from rats flown for SLS-1 experiment demonstrated an increased number (about x 2) of binding sites to natriuretic peptides (which are known to be involved in mechanisms regulating CSF production). Using electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we studied the cellular response of choroid plexuses, which produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain lateral, third and fourth ventricles. We demonstrated that spaceflight (SLS-2 experiment, inflight samples) induces changes in the choroidal cell structure (apical microvilli, kinocilia organization, vesicle accumulation) and protein distribution or expression (carbonic anhydrase II, water channels,...). These observations suggested a loss of choroidal cell polarity and a decrease in CSF secretion. Hindlimb-suspended rats displayed similar choroidal changes. All together, these results support the hypothesis of a modified CSF production in rats during long-term (9, 13 or 14 days) adaptations to microgravity.

  14. The Operation of Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Bed in Microgravity and Variable Gravity: Experiment and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornchamni, T.; Jovanovic, G.; Atwater, J.; Akse, J.; Wheeler, R.

    Typically, the operation of a conventional fluidized bed relies on the balance of gravitational, buoyancy, and drag forces. In the absence of normal gravity, or under microgravity and variable gravity conditions, the gravitational force must be replaced with an alternative force to restore fluidization. Our work has shown that, given a suitable variable magnetic field design, the resulting magnetic field gradient can create sufficient magnetic force acting upon the ferromagnetic particles to replace or supplement the gravitational force. Therefore, the ferromagnetic granular media can be fluidized in either microgravity or hypogravity. In this paper, we present our experimental and theoretical work leading to a) development of theoretical model based on fundamental principles for the design of the Gradient Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Bed (G-MAFB), and b) practical implementation of the G-MAFB in the filtration and destruction of solid biowaste particles from liquid streams. The G-MAFB system consists of a fluidization column and series of Helmholtz electromagnetic coils, with DC power supply. Each Helmholtz ring is powered and controlled separately. Experiments are performed in both 0g (on board NASA KC- 135) and 1g (laboratory) environments. The experiments in 0g are conducted in a two-dimensional, square cross-section, tapered fluidization column. The tapered shape is introduced to provide additional stability to the fluidization particles. The experiments in 0g prove that the magnetic force has a significant role in keeping the particles from extruding out of the bed. Without the magnetic force, it is impossible to have fluidization in space. Solid waste destruction technologies are needed to support long duration human habitation in space. The current technologies, including supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), microwave powered combustion and fluidized bed incineration, have been applied to the destruction of solid wastes, but none are compatible with

  15. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    An experimental project was initiated to characterize mass loss when heating different polymer glovebox glove material samples to three elevated temperatures, 90, 120, and 150 C. Samples from ten different polymeric gloves that are being considered for use in the tritium gloveboxes were tested. The intent of the study was to determine the amount of material lost. These data will be used in a subsequent study to characterize the composition of the material lost. One goal of the study was to determine which glove composition would least affect the glovebox atmosphere stripper system. Samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The most mass loss was experienced by Jung butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} at 146 C with 12.9% mass loss followed by Piercan Hypalon{reg_sign} at 144 C with 11.4 % mass loss and Jung butyl-Viton{reg_sign} at 140 C with 5.2% mass loss. The least mass loss was experienced by the Jung Viton{reg_sign} and the Piercan polyurethane. Unlike the permeation testing (1) the vendor and fabrication route influences the amount of gaseous species that is evolved. Additional testing to characterize these products is recommended. Savannah River Site (SRS) has many gloveboxes deployed in the Tritium Facility. These gloveboxes are used to protect the workers and to ensure a suitable environment in which to handle tritium gas products. The gas atmosphere in the gloveboxes is purified using a stripper system. The process gas strippers collect molecules that may have hydrogen or its isotopes attached, e.g., waters of hydration, acids, etc. Recently, sulfur containing compounds were detected in the stripper system and the presence of these compounds accelerates the stripper system's aging process. This accelerated aging requires the strippers to be replaced more often which can impact the facility's schedule and

  16. Crystal growth furnace: An overview of the system configuration and planned experiments on the first United States Microgravity Laboratory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, R.; Lee, K. N.; Schaefer, D. A.

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF), currently in the Level IV integration cycle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in preparation for its maiden flight on the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission to be launched in May 1992, has been developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Application Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The project is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, under contract NAS8-36637. This paper presents an overview of CGF system description and the system configuration for the USML-1 mission and also briefly describes the planned on-orbit experiments.

  17. Evaluation of simple deployment mechanism of multiple rovers by microgravity experiments using a drop tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; Yano, Hajime; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Ishigami, Genya

    2012-07-01

    Introduction, Japan has announced the official development of ``Hayabusa-2'', the second sample return mission to a Near-Earth asteroid. When the development is made smoothly, Hayabusa-2 will be launched in 2014. The predecessor spacecraft ``Hayabusa'' made a great success when it returned to the Earth in June 2010 with a capsule containing some particles obtained from S-type asteroid ``Itokawa.'' Rover system, The authors installed a tiny hopping rover called ``MINERVA'' into Hayabusa spacecraft. MINERVA weights only 591[g] but has an autonomous exploration capability on the microgravity environment on the small solar system bodies. MINERVA was successfully deployed from the mother spacecraft on 12 Nov 2005 at the vicinity of the target asteroid. But unfortunately it became a solar orbiting satellite since the relative position and the speed of the mother spacecraft around the target asteroid were worst. Nevertheless it worked well, demonstrating an autnomous capability and had survived until the comunication link was lost. The authors plan to install some rovers also into Hayabusa-2. The total concept is the same but this time multiple rovers are considered. Deployment mechanism, Two rovers are installed in one container and are developed at the same time. The maximum allowed weight for the container including two rovers is 2.5[kg] and we have to seek for a simple and a light-weighted deployment system. We developed a new deployment system drastically sophisticated from the one used for MINERVA in Hayabusa mission. Both the cover and the rovers are pushed by the springs after the tightly winded wire has been cut by the deployment trigger form the spacecraft. The new deployment system enables the following things. The cover and the rovers are deployed in different directions in one action. The uncertainty of the deployment speed is decreased. Microgravity experiment, Thanks to the courtesy of DLR (German Aerospace Center) based on the international cooperation

  18. Experiment 3: Zeolite Crystal Growth in Microgravity- The USML-2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive use of zeolites and their impact on the world's economy leads to many efforts to characterize their structure, and to improve the knowledge base for nucleation and growth of these crystals. The Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) experiment on USML-2 aims to enhance the understanding of nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals while attempting to provide a means of controlling the defect concentration in microgravity. Zeolites A, X, Beta, and Silicalite were grown during the 16-day USML-2 mission. The solutions where the nucleation event was controlled yielded larger and more uniform crystals of better morphology and purity than their terrestrial/control counterparts. Space-grown Beta crystals were free of line defects while terrestrial/controls had substantial defects.

  19. Fluorescent and dispersion experiments on biological membranes under micro-gravity.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Klaus; Piqueira, J R C; Hanke, Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    Almost all biological processes, especially those involved in signal reception and signal transduction, depend on the physical and physiological properties of biological membranes. It has been shown, that neuronal tissue and the speed of the action potential (AP) which is the basic neuronal unit of all nervous activity, is sensitive to changes in gravity as well as to other weak external forces. We strongly suppose the membrane to be the most important factor in gravitational responses although it is very difficult to observe the effects of gravity changes on these fragile thermodynamic systems. Therefore we developed two different experiments to measure the structural changes and the lateral membrane tension of spheroid cells under microgravity.

  20. Particle aggregation in microgravity: Informal experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Pettit, Donald R.; Messenger, Scott R.

    2014-05-01

    We conducted experiments in space to investigate the aggregation of millimeter- and submillimeter-sized particles in microgravity, an important early step in planet formation. Particulate materials included salt (NaCl), sugar (sucrose), coffee, mica, ice, Bjurböle chondrules, ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite meteorite fragments, and acrylic and glass beads, all triply confined in clear plastic containers. Angular submillimeter particles rapidly and spontaneously formed clusters strong enough to survive turbulence in a protoplanetary nebula. Smaller particles generally aggregated more strongly and quickly than larger ones. We observed only a weak dependence of aggregation time on particle number density. We observed no strong dependence on composition. Round, smooth particles aggregated weakly or not at all. In a mixture of particle types, some phases aggregated more readily than others, creating selection effects that controlled the composition of the growing clumps. The physical process of aggregation appears to be electrostatic in nature.

  1. Investigation of surface tension driven convection as a feasibility study for a micro-gravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The work performed for the feasibility study of a microgravity surface tension driven convection experiment was reviewed. An experimental investigation of the onset of convection in shallow fluid layers heated uniformly from below and cooled from above by an air layer was made. Results are discussed in relation to the formation of Benard cells. The onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection in thin fluid layers heated uniformly from below were studied experimentally. It was found that in thin fluid layers the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection is preceded by subcritical convective motions. Secondly, it was found that the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection in non-Boussinesq fluid layers takes place in the form of hexagonal cells at Rayleigh numbers larger than the critical Rayleigh number R sub C = 1708 which determines the onset of convection in Boussinesq fluid layers.

  2. Effect of Microgravity on Material Undergoing Melting and Freezing: the TES Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, David; Jacqmin, David; Szaniszlo, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This experiment is the first to melt and freeze a high temperature thermal energy storage (TES) material under an extended duration of microgravity. It is one of a series to validate an analytical computer program that predicts void behavior of substances undergoing phase change under microgravity. Two flight experiments were launched in STS-62. The first, TES-1, containing lithium fluoride in an annular volume, performed flawlessly in the 22 hours of its operation. Results are reported in this paper. A software failure in TES-2 caused its shutdown after 4 seconds. A computer program, TESSIM, for thermal energy storage simulation is being developed to analyze the phenomena occurring within the TES containment vessel. The first order effects, particularly the surface tension forces, have been incorporated into TESSIM. TESSIM validation is based on two types of results. First is the temperature history of various points of the containment structure, and second, upon return from flight, the distribution of the TES material within the containment vessel following the last freeze cycle. The temperature data over the four cycles showed a repetition of results over the third and fourth cycles. This result is a confirmation that any initial conditions prior to the first cycle had been damped out by the third cycle. The TESSIM simulation showed a close comparison with the flight data. The solidified TES material distribution within the containment vessel was obtained by a tomography imaging process. The frozen material was concentrated toward the colder end of the annular volume. The TESSIM prediction showed the same pattern. With the general agreement of TESSIM and the data, a computerized visual representation can be shown which accurately shows the movement and behavior of the void during the entire freezing and melting cycles.

  3. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  4. R and D work on the constrained vapor bubble system for a microgravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, P. C., Jr.; Plawsky, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    We are working with Project Scientists R. Balasubramanian and Sang Young Son, and a NASA Projects Team headed by Sue Motil at the Glenn Research Center on the design and development of an experimental system for use on the International Space Station during the year 2006. John Eustace is the coordinator for the flight experiment at Zin-Tech (previously Northrop-Grumman) for the design and development of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVBHX, cell which will fit into the Light Microscope Module, LMM. Good progress is being made. The CDR for the LMM being developed was held on December 10-1 1,2003. Experimental results obtained under microgravity conditions will be compared with those obtained at Rensselaer. Basic and applied research at Rensselaer continues on the experimental and theoretical details associated with passive phase change heat transfer processes controlled by interfacial forces in the CVBHX. The extensive results of our current research are presented in the 23 external publications listed below. Twenty-two external presentations have been given. Briefly, evaporation/condensation data from both vertical and horizontal CVBHX systems were obtained and analyzed for both polar (wetting) and apolar (partially wetting) fluids. The vertical system is axi-symmetric, but strongly effected by gravity. Whereas, the horizontal system is asymmetric, but weakly effected by gravity. Therefore, there will be significant differences in the operation of the cell in the earth s environment versus the operation under microgravity conditions. Due to its relative large size, the system s performance should be optimum under micro-gravity conditions, where the CVBHX should be a very effective passive heat exchanger. The CVBHX was found to be an ideal experimental setup in which to study the effects of interfacial phenomena on both the evaporation and drop-wise condensation processes. The optical technique (Image Analyzing Interferometry, IAI), which is based on

  5. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  6. Robust Control for The G-Limit Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Many microgravity science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent acceleration environment. The g-LIMIT vibration isolation system will provide isolation for Microgravity Science Glovebox experiments in the International Space Station. While standard control system technologies have been demonstrated for these applications, modern control methods have the potential for meeting performance requirements while providing robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H infinity methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/mu controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  7. Results of Microgravity Fluid Dynamics Captured With the Spheres-Slosh Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapilli, Gabriel; Kirk, Daniel; Gutierrez, Hector; Schallhorn, Paul; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Moder, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SPHERES-Slosh Experiment (SSE) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and presents on-orbit results with data analysis. In order to predict the location of the liquid propellant during all times of a spacecraft mission, engineers and mission analysts utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These state-of-the-art computer programs numerically solve the fluid flow equations to predict the location of the fluid at any point in time during different spacecraft maneuvers. The models and equations used by these programs have been extensively validated on the ground, but long duration data has never been acquired in a microgravity environment. The SSE aboard the ISS is designed to acquire this type of data, used by engineers on earth to validate and improve the CFD prediction models, improving the design of the next generation of space vehicles as well as the safety of current missions. The experiment makes use of two Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) connected by a frame. In the center of the frame there is a plastic, pill shaped tank that is partially filled with green-colored water. A pair of high resolution cameras records the movement of the liquid inside the tank as the experiment maneuvers within the Japanese Experimental Module test volume. Inertial measurement units record the accelerations and rotations of the tank, making the combination of stereo imaging and inertial data the inputs for CFD model validation.

  8. Result of Microgravity Fluid Dynamics Captured with the SPHERES-Slosh Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapilli, Gabriel; Kirk, Daniel; Gutierrez, Hector; Schallhorn, Paul; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Moder, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SPHERES-Slosh Experiment (SSE) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and presents on-orbit results with data analysis. In order to predict the location of the liquid propellant during all times of a spacecraft mission, engineers and mission analysts utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These state-of-the-art computer programs numerically solve the fluid flow equations to predict the location of the fluid at any point in time during different spacecraft maneuvers. The models and equations used by these programs have been extensively validated on the ground, but long duration data has never been acquired in a microgravity environment. The SSE aboard the ISS is designed to acquire this type of data, used by engineers on earth to validate and improve the CFD prediction models, improving the design of the next generation of space vehicles as well as the safety of current missions. The experiment makes use of two Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) connected by a frame. In the center of the frame there is a plastic, pill shaped tank that is partially filled with green-colored water. A pair of high resolution cameras records the movement of the liquid inside the tank as the experiment maneuvers within the Japanese Experimental Module test volume. Inertial measurement units record the accelerations and rotations of the tank, making the combination of stereo imaging and inertial data the inputs for CFD model validation.

  9. Results of Microgravity Fluid Dynamics Captured with the Spheres-Slosh Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapilli, Gabriel; Kirk, Daniel Robert; Gutierrez, Hector; Schallhorn, Paul; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Jeffrey Moder

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SPHERES-Slosh Experiment (SSE) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and presents on-orbit results with data analysis. In order to predict the location of the liquid propellant during all times of a spacecraft mission, engineers and mission analysts utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These state-of-the-art computer programs numerically solve the fluid flow equations to predict the location of the fluid at any point in time during different spacecraft maneuvers. The models and equations used by these programs have been extensively validated on the ground, but long duration data has never been acquired in a microgravity environment. The SSE aboard the ISS is designed to acquire this type of data, used by engineers on earth to validate and improve the CFD prediction models, improving the design of the next generation of space vehicles as well as the safety of current missions. The experiment makes use of two Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) connected by a frame. In the center of the frame there is a plastic, pill shaped tank that is partially filled with green-colored water. A pair of high resolution cameras records the movement of the liquid inside the tank as the experiment maneuvers within the Japanese Experimental Module test volume. Inertial measurement units record the accelerations and rotations of the tank, making the combination of stereo imaging and inertial data the inputs for CFD model validation.

  10. Human posture in microgravity: An experiment on EUROMIR '95 to verify and improve a simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colford, Nicholas; Giorgi, Pier Luigi; Gaia, Enrico; Cotronei, Vittorio

    1995-10-01

    An anthropometric mannequin implemented in robotic modelling software has proved very useful in the simulation of static and semi-dynamic reachability envelopes. Its prediction of working postures has been verified to some extent during neutral buoyancy trials. While a robotic solution is useful for static analyses or rough estimates of simple movements, more realistic movement strategies need to be identified directly measuring astronauts' in-orbit behaviour. A set of experiments is to be performed as part of the EUROMIR '95 mission to the MIR orbiting station in which dynamic posture (i.e. posture and movement) measurements will be taken using the ELITE system. The data and analyses of the data will be used to animate the Alenia anthopometric mannequin and to develop movement algorithms more similar to those of a person in microgravity than the robotic solutions currently employed. This paper presents the experiments to be performed and the changes to Alenia's mannequin that will allow the model to effect movements according to the experimental results. It is aimed at expanding the dialog between the biomechanical and human factors disciplines started in this experiment to other potential end-users of the experimental results.

  11. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  12. Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity. Video 3 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83 percent by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/m(exp 2)). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 deg C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well a jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min. of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments suggest that as Bond number approaches zero the flow pattern produced by an axial jet and the mixing time can be predicted by the Weber number. This is video 3 of 4.

  13. Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity. Video 1 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83 percent by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/m(exp 2)). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 deg C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well a jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min. of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments suggest that as Bond number approaches zero the flow pattern produced by an axial jet and the mixing time can be predicted by the Weber number. This is video 1 of 4.

  14. Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity. Video 2 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83 percent by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/m(exp 2)). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 deg C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well a jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min. of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments suggest that as Bond number approaches zero the flow pattern produced by an axial jet and the mixing time can be predicted by the Weber number. This is video 2 of 4.

  15. Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity. Video 4 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83 percent by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/m(exp 2)). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 deg C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well a jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min. of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments suggest that as Bond number approaches zero the flow pattern produced by an axial jet and the mixing time can be predicted by the Weber number. This is video 4 of 4.

  16. Interface Configuration Experiments (ICE) Explore the Effects of Microgravity on Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) is actually a series of experiments that explore the striking behavior of liquid-vapor interfaces (i.e., fluid surfaces) in a low gravity environment under which major shifts in liquid position can arise from small changes in container shape or contact angle. Although these experiments are designed to test current mathematical theory, there are numerous practical applications that could result from these studies. When designing fluid management systems for space-based operations, it is important to be able to predict the locations and configurations that fluids will assume in containers under low-gravity conditions. The increased ability to predict, and hence control, fluid interfaces is vital to systems and/or processes where capillary forces play a significant role both in space and on the Earth. Some of these applications are in general coating processes (paints, pesticides, printing, etc.), fluid transport in porous media (ground water flows, oil recovery, etc.), liquid propellant systems in space (liquid fuel and oxygen), capillary-pumped loops and heat pipes, and space-based life-support systems. In space, almost every fluid system is affected, if not dominated, by capillarity. Knowledge of the liquid-vapor interface behavior, and in particular the interface shape from which any analysis must begin, is required as a foundation to predict how these fluids will react in microgravity and on Earth. With such knowledge, system designs can be optimized, thereby decreasing costs and complexity, while increasing performance and reliability. ICE has increased, and will continue to increase this knowledge, as it probes the specific peculiarities of current theory upon which our current understanding of these effects is based. Several versions of ICE were conducted in NASA Lewis Research Center's drop towers and on the space shuttle during the first and second United States Microgravity Laboratory missions (USML-1 and USML-2

  17. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  18. Comparative Soot Diagnostics Experiment Looks at the Smoky World of Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    From an economic standpoint, soot is one of the most important combustion intermediates and products. It is a major industrial product and is the dominant medium for radiant heat transport in most flames used to generate heat and power. The nonbuoyant structure of most flames of practical interest (turbulent flames) makes the understanding of soot processes in microgravity flames important to our ability to predict fire behavior on Earth. In addition, fires in spacecraft are considered a credible possibility. To respond to this risk, NASA has flown fire (or smoke) detectors on Skylab and the space shuttles and included them in the International Space Station design. The design of these detectors, however, was based entirely on normal gravity (1g) data. The detector used in the shuttle fleet is an ionization detector, whereas the system planned for the space station uses forward scattering of near-infrared light. The ionization detector, which is similar to smoke detectors used in homes, has a comparative advantage for submicron particulates. In fact, the space shuttle model uses a separation system that makes it blind to particles larger than a micron (believed to be dust). In the larger size range, the lightscattering detector is most sensitive. Without microgravity smoke data, the difference in the particle size sensitivities of the two detectors cannot be evaluated. As part of the Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD) experiment, these systems were tested to determine their response to particulates generated during long periods of low gravity. This experiment provided the first such measurements toward understanding soot processes on Earth and for designing and implementing improved spacecraft smoke detection systems. The objectives of CSD were to examine how particulates form from a variety of sources and to quantify the performance of several diagnostic techniques. The sources tested included four overheated materials (paper, silicone rubber, Teflon-coated (Du

  19. Social Media and Student Engagement in a Microgravity Planetary Science Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, S. S.; Lai, K.; Hoover, B.; Whitaker, A.; Tiller, C.; Benjamin, S.; Dove, A.; Colwell, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Collisional Accretion Experiment (CATE) is a planetary science experiment funded by NASA's Undergraduate Instrumentation Program (USIP). CATE is a microgravity experiment to study low-velocity collisions between cm-sized particles and 0.1-1.0 mm-sized particles in vacuum to better understand the conditions for accretion in the protoplanetary disk as well as collisions in planetary ring systems. CATE flew on three parabolic airplane flights in July, 2014, using NASA's "Weightless Wonder VI" aircraft. A significant part of the project was documenting the experience of designing, building, testing, and flying spaceflight hardware from the perspective of the undergraduates working on the experiment. The outreach effort was aimed at providing high schools students interested in STEM careers with a first-person view of hands-on student research at the university level. We also targeted undergraduates at the University of Central Florida to make them aware of space research on campus. The CATE team pursued multiple outlets, from social media to presentations at local schools, to connect with the public and with younger students. We created a website which hosted a blog, links to media publications that ran our story, videos, and galleries of images from work in the lab throughout the year. In addition the project had Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts. These social media outlets had much more traffic than the website except during the flight week when photos posted on the blog generated significant traffic. The most effective means of communicating the project to the target audience, however, was through face-to-face presentations in classrooms. We saw a large increase in followers on Twitter and Instagram as the flight campaign got closer and while we were there. The main source of followers came after we presented to local high school students. These presentations were made by the undergraduate student team and the faculty mentors (Colwell and Dove).

  20. Fundamental Research Applied To Enable Hardware Performance in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheredy, William A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA sponsors microgravity research to generate knowledge in physical sciences. In some cases, that knowledge must be applied to enable future research. This article describes one such example. The Dust and Aerosol measurement Feasibility Test (DAFT) is a risk-mitigation experiment developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by NASA and ZIN Technologies, Inc., in support of the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME). SAME is an investigation that is being designed for operation in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of DAFT is to evaluate the performance of P-Trak (TSI Incorporated, Shoreview, MN)--a commercially available condensation nuclei counter and a key SAME diagnostic- -in long-duration microgravity because of concerns about its ability to operate properly in that environment. If its microgravity performance is proven, this device will advance the state of the art in particle measurement capabilities for space vehicles and facilities, such as aboard the ISS. The P-Trak, a hand-held instrument, can count individual particles as small as 20 nm in diameter in an aerosol stream. Particles are drawn into the device by a built-in suction pump. Upon entering the instrument, these particles pass through a saturator tube where they mix with an alcohol vapor (see the following figure). This mixture then flows through a cooled condenser tube where some of the alcohol condenses onto the sample particles, and the droplets grow in a controlled fashion until they are large enough to be counted. These larger droplets pass through an internal nozzle and past a focused laser beam, producing flashes of light that are sensed by a photodetector and then counted to determine particle number concentration. The operation of the instrument depends on the proper internal flow and recycling of isopropyl alcohol in both the vapor and liquid phases.

  1. An Experimental and Computational Study on Soot Formation in a Coflow Jet Flame Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Bin; Cao, Su; Giassi, Davide; Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Smooke, Mitchell D.; Long, Marshall B.

    2014-01-01

    Upon the completion of the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) in March 2012, a comprehensive and unique set of microgravity coflow diffusion flame data was obtained. This data covers a range of conditions from weak flames near extinction to strong, highly sooting flames, and enabled the study of gravitational effects on phenomena such as liftoff, blowout and soot formation. The microgravity experiment was carried out in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on board the International Space Station (ISS), while the normal gravity experiment was performed at Yale utilizing a copy of the flight hardware. Computational simulations of microgravity and normal gravity flames were also carried out to facilitate understanding of the experimental observations. This paper focuses on the different sooting behaviors of CH4 coflow jet flames in microgravity and normal gravity. The unique set of data serves as an excellent test case for developing more accurate computational models.Experimentally, the flame shape and size, lift-off height, and soot temperature were determined from line-of-sight flame emission images taken with a color digital camera. Soot volume fraction was determined by performing an absolute light calibration using the incandescence from a flame-heated thermocouple. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the chemically reacting flow, and the soot evolution was modeled by the sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on an axisymmetric computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting system of fully coupled, highly nonlinear equations was solved by a damped, modified Newtons method. The microgravity sooting flames were found to have lower soot temperatures and higher volume fraction than their normal gravity counterparts. The soot distribution tends to shift from the centerline of the flame to the wings from normal gravity to

  2. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Knowledge for Use on Earth and Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan; Shaw, Nancy J.; Hill, Myron E.; Gati, Frank G.

    2002-12-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. The purpose of the Fluid Physics Program is to support the goals of NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise which seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research and to develop commercial opportunities, while building the vital knowledge base needed to enable efficient and effective systems for protecting and sustaining humans during extended space flights. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, multiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA-sponsored fluid physics and transport phenomena studies will be carried out on the International Space Station in the Fluids Integrated Rack, in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper will present an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to achieve this research.

  3. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Knowledge for Use on Earth and Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan; Shaw, Nancy J.; Hill, Myron E.; Gati, Frank G.

    2002-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. The purpose of the Fluid Physics Program is to support the goals of NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise which seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research and to develop commercial opportunities, while building the vital knowledge base needed to enable efficient and effective systems for protecting and sustaining humans during extended space flights. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, multiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA-sponsored fluid physics and transport phenomena studies will be carried out on the International Space Station in the Fluids Integrated Rack, in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper will present an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to achieve this research.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  5. Analytical determination of space station response to crew motion and design of suspension system for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make analytical determination of the acceleration produced by crew motion in an orbiting space station and define design parameters for the suspension system of microgravity experiments. A simple structural model for simulation of the IOC space station is proposed. Mathematical formulation of this model provides the engineers a simple and direct tool for designing an effective suspension system.

  6. Experiments and Model Development for the Investigation of Sooting and Radiation Effects in Microgravity Droplet Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Mun Young; Yozgatligil, Ahmet; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kazakov, Andrei; Dobashi, Ritsu

    2001-01-01

    Today, despite efforts to develop and utilize natural gas and renewable energy sources, nearly 97% of the energy used for transportation is derived from combustion of liquid fuels, principally derived from petroleum. While society continues to rely on liquid petroleum-based fuels as a major energy source in spite of their finite supply, it is of paramount importance to maximize the efficiency and minimize the environmental impact of the devices that burn these fuels. The development of improved energy conversion systems, having higher efficiencies and lower emissions, is central to meeting both local and regional air quality standards. This development requires improvements in computational design tools for applied energy conversion systems, which in turn requires more robust sub-model components for combustion chemistry, transport, energy transport (including radiation), and pollutant emissions (soot formation and burnout). The study of isolated droplet burning as a unidimensional, time dependent model diffusion flame system facilitates extensions of these mechanisms to include fuel molecular sizes and pollutants typical of conventional and alternative liquid fuels used in the transportation sector. Because of the simplified geometry, sub-model components from the most detailed to those reduced to sizes compatible for use in multi-dimensional, time dependent applied models can be developed, compared and validated against experimental diffusion flame processes, and tested against one another. Based on observations in microgravity experiments on droplet combustion, it appears that the formation and lingering presence of soot within the fuel-rich region of isolated droplets can modify the burning rate, flame structure and extinction, soot aerosol properties, and the effective thermophysical properties. These observations led to the belief that perhaps one of the most important outstanding contributions of microgravity droplet combustion is the observation that in the

  7. MUSC information system ARIADNE: a consistent tool for support of experiment planning, execution and scientific evaluation of microgravity-experiments.

    PubMed

    Wilke, D; Ohm, S; Padeken, D; Hanz, H

    1992-07-01

    One of the main tasks of DLR-MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center) is to accompany an experiment's complete life-cycle, thus supporting the investigators. This task starts with the preparation of experiments, continues with their execution and finally leads to the evaluation of the respective measurement results. A computer-based information system facilitates these tasks. Considerable effort has been taken in order to make a detailed as well as modular design--as a result the system can now be applied for any mission. ARIADNE mainly supports three phases, all using the same consistent database. 1. The first phase of experiment preparation is supported by--the acquisition and maintenance of general and basic data by user entries into the database, and the support of the integration of partially similar experiment proposals into a timeline as planned which is composed by activities. 2. The support during experiment execution consists of--real-time data acquisition and control (i.e. on-line database generation and display after processing) including experiment monitoring, enabling of fast replanning. 3. The support ARIADNE provides for experiment evaluation includes--the selection of series of measurements belonging to the specified experiment (parts), further processing and evaluation of the collected data, which must partly be done in real-time and partly post-mission and, creation of back-up's of the processing results. The ARIADNE database consists of a relational ORACLE-part (for numerical and character data), a bibliographic part, a program-library, and a realtime-part (BAPAS). The open design of ARIADNE allows interfaces to stored special data (such as graphics, images, archives) as well as several interfaces to other systems, such as CUIS, MARS-MDB, EXPRES, etc.

  8. Microgravity experiments on flame spread along fuel-droplet arrays at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, Masato; Oyagi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Naoya; Wakashima, Yuichiro; Kikuchi, Masao; Yoda, Shinichi

    2006-08-15

    Microgravity experiments on droplet-array combustion were conducted under high-ambient-temperature conditions. n-Decane droplet arrays suspended on SiC fibers were inserted into a high-temperature combustion chamber and were ignited at one end to initiate the flame spread in high-temperature air. Flame-spread modes, burning behavior after the flame spread, and flame-spread rate were examined at different ambient temperatures. Experimental results showed that the appearance of flame-spread modes and the flame-spread rate were affected by the ambient temperature. The flame-spread rate increased with the ambient temperature. These facts are discussed based on the temperature effects on the droplet heating and the development of a flammable-mixture layer around the next droplet. A simple model was introduced to analyze these effects. The effects of the ambient temperature on the appearance of group combustion of the array after the flame spread and the scale effect in the flame spread are also discussed. (author)

  9. Mechanistic Analysis of Glovebox Fire Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.T.; McClure, P.R.

    1999-06-13

    Propagation of a fire that originates in a single glovebox to other locations in the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is conceivable only if transport of hot combustion gases to other locations causes ignition of combustible materials elsewhere in the system (i.e., flashover). This paper describes a model developed, using the MELCOR computer code, to calculate the generation and transport of combustion gas mass and energy during postulated glovebox fire accident scenarios. The accident scenarios involved a wide spectrum of glovebox operating and potential fire conditions to determine whether flashover conditions could occur at locations outside the burning glovebox: o A variety of combustible material characteristics was considered (e.g., type, quantity, and combustion properties of combustible material). o A spectrum of safety system operating conditions was considered (e.g., glovebox ventilation system operating normally vs an inoperative exhaust fan; drop-box fir e damper closure vs failure to close). o A range of analytical modeling assumptions was considered (e.g., the extent to which heat transfer between hot combustion gases and the glovebox walls is represented in the model). Example results of these calculations are presented to illustrate the benefits obtained and lessons learned by using a computational tool like MELCOR for this analysis.

  10. Automation of the LANL ARIES lathe glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P. C.; Staab, T. A.; Nelson, D. C.; Santistevan, W. W.; Brown, W. G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an automation system required for material handling within a glovebox. The Advanced Recovery and Integration Extraction System (ARIES) located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) enables workers to dismantle nuclear weapons, separating the plutonium from other weapon components. The ARIES line consists of several gloveboxes that allow the 'pit' or trigger of a nuclear weapon to be dismantled and the plutonium stored in a safe form. The Lathe glovebox is the first step in the ARIES line and is used to cut the pit open to be dismantled. There are several methods for doing this, however there are advantages to using the lathe over other methods for this process. In general, this system will give the ARIES line the capability to handle a wider range of pit types. The system consists of a lathe, a 4 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robot, a glovebox that houses them, and a universal controller that resides outside the glovebox and controls all equipment. This paper will present the design and possible implementation of this lathe automation system. It will cover the system requirements, the mechanical hardware used within the glovebox, the control system and software, and operation procedures for various tasks.

  11. Single Droplet Combustion of Decane in Microgravity: Experiments and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Ikegam, M.; Xu, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data on single droplet combustion of decane in microgravity and compares the results to a numerical model. The primary independent experiment variables are the ambient pressure and oxygen mole fraction, pressure, droplet size (over a relatively small range) and ignition energy. The droplet history (D(sup 2) history) is non-linear with the burning rate constant increasing throughout the test. The average burning rate constant, consistent with classical theory, increased with increasing ambient oxygen mole fraction and was nearly independent of pressure, initial droplet size and ignition energy. The flame typically increased in size initially, and then decreased in size, in response to the shrinking droplet. The flame standoff increased linearly for the majority of the droplet lifetime. The flame surrounding the droplet extinguished at a finite droplet size at lower ambient pressures and an oxygen mole fraction of 0.15. The extinction droplet size increased with decreasing pressure. The model is transient and assumes spherical symmetry, constant thermo-physical properties (specific heat, thermal conductivity and species Lewis number) and single step chemistry. The model includes gas-phase radiative loss and a spherically symmetric, transient liquid phase. The model accurately predicts the droplet and flame histories of the experiments. Good agreement requires that the ignition in the experiment be reasonably approximated in the model and that the model accurately predict the pre-ignition vaporization of the droplet. The model does not accurately predict the dependence of extinction droplet diameter on pressure, a result of the simplified chemistry in the model. The transient flame behavior suggests the potential importance of fuel vapor accumulation. The model results, however, show that the fractional mass consumption rate of fuel in the flame relative to fuel vaporized is close to 1.0 for all but the lowest ambient oxygen mole

  12. Institutional glovebox safety committee (IGSC) annual report FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Roybal, Richard F; Lee, Roy J

    2011-01-04

    The Institutional Glovebox Safety Committee (IGSC) was chartered to minimize and/or prevent glovebox operational events. Highlights of the IGSC's third year are discussed. The focus of this working committee is to address glovebox operational and safety issues and to share Lessons Learned, best practices, training improvements, and glovebox glove breach and failure data. Highlights of the IGSC's third year are discussed. The results presented in this annual report are pivotal to the ultimate focus of the glovebox safety program, which is to minimize work-related injuries and illnesses. This effort contributes to the LANL Continuous Improvement Program by providing information that can be used to improve glovebox operational safety.

  13. Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics Experiments and Facilities for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, Richard W.; Kohl, Fred J.; Weiland, Karen J.; Zurawski, Robert L.; Hill, Myron E.; Corban, Robert R.

    2001-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program supports both ground-based and flight experiment research in the disciplines of Combustion Science and Fluid Physics. Combustion Science research includes the areas of gas jet diffusion flames, laminar flames, burning of droplets and misting fuels, solids and materials flammability, fire and fire suppressants, turbulent combustion, reaction kinetics, materials synthesis, and other combustion systems. The Fluid Physics discipline includes the areas of complex fluids (colloids, gels, foams, magneto-rheological fluids, non-Newtonian fluids, suspensions, granular materials), dynamics and instabilities (bubble and drop dynamics, magneto/electrohydrodynamics, electrochemical transport, geophysical flows), interfacial phenomena (wetting, capillarity, contact line hydrodynamics), and multiphase flows and phase changes (boiling and condensation, heat transfer, flow instabilities). A specialized International Space Station (ISS) facility that provides sophisticated research capabilities for these disciplines is the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF consists of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Shared Accommodations Rack and is designed to accomplish a large number of science investigations over the life of the ISS. The modular, multiuser facility is designed to optimize the science return within the available resources of on-orbit power, uplink/downlink capacity, crew time, upmass/downmass, volume, etc. A suite of diagnostics capabilities, with emphasis on optical techniques, will be provided to complement the capabilities of the subsystem multiuser or principal investigator-specific experiment modules. The paper will discuss the systems concept, technical capabilities, functionality, and the initial science investigations in each discipline.

  14. Coarsening Experiment Being Prepared for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures-2 (CSLM-2) experiment is a materials science space flight experiment whose purpose is to investigate the kinetics of competitive particle growth within a liquid matrix. During coarsening, small particles shrink by losing atoms to larger particles, causing the larger particles to grow. In this experiment, solid particles of tin will grow (coarsen) within a liquid lead-tin eutectic matrix. The preceding figures show the coarsening of tin particles in a lead-tin eutectic as a function of time. By conducting this experiment in a microgravity environment, we can study a greater range of solid volume fractions, and the effects of sedimentation present in terrestrial experiments will be negligible. The CSLM-2 experiment is slated to fly onboard the International Space Station. The experiment will be run in the Microgravity Science Glovebox installed in the U.S. Laboratory module.

  15. COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

  16. Synthesis and Migratory-Insertion Reactivity of CpMo(CO)[subscript3](CH[subscript3]): Small-Scale Organometallic Preparations Utilizing Modern Glovebox Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whited, Matthew T.; Hofmeister, Gretchen E.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments are described for the reliable small-scale glovebox preparation of CpMo(CO)[subscript 3](CH[subscript 3]) and acetyl derivatives thereof through phosphine-induced migratory insertion. The robust syntheses introduce students to a variety of organometallic reaction mechanisms and glovebox techniques, and they are easily carried out…

  17. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  18. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single grain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three-dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction.

  19. Solid surface combustion experiment flame spread in a quiescent, microgravity environment implications of spread rate and flame structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundy, Matthew; West, Jeff; Thomas, Peter C.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Tang, Lin; Altenkirch, Robert A.; Sacksteder, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    A unique environment in which flame spreading, a phenomenon of fundamental, scientific interest, has importance to fire safety is that of spacecraft in which the gravitational acceleration is low compared with that of the Earth, i.e., microgravity. Experiments aboard eight Space Shuttle missions between October 1990 and February 1995 were conducted using the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) payload apparatus in an effort to determine the mechanisms of gas-phase flame spread over solid fuel surfaces in the absence of any buoyancy induced or externally imposed oxidizer flow. The overall SSCE effort began in December of 1984. The SSCE apparatus consists of a sealed container, approximately 0.039 cu m, that is filled with a specified O2/N2 mixture at a prescribed pressure. Five of the experiments used a thin cellulosic fuel, ashless filter paper, 3 cm wide x 10 cm long, 0.00825 cm half-thickness, ignited in five different ambient conditions. Three of the experiments, the most recent, used thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples 0.635 cm wide x 2 cm long, 0.32 cm half-thickness. Three experiments, STS 41, 40 and 43, were designed to evaluate the effect of ambient pressure on flame spread over the thin cellulosic fuel while flights STS 50 and 47 were at the same pressure as two of the earlier flights but at a lower oxygen concentration in order to evaluate the effect of ambient oxygen level on the flame spread process at microgravity. For the PMMA flights, two experiments, STS 54 and 63, were at the same pressure but different oxygen concentrations while STS 64 was at the same oxygen concentration as STS 63 but at a higher pressure. Two orthogonal views of the experiments were recorded on 16 mm cine-cameras operating at 24 frames/s. In addition to filmed images of the side view of the flames and surface view of the burning samples, solid- and gas-phase temperatures were recorded using thermocouples. The experiment is battery powered and follows an automated

  20. Crystal Growth Furnace - An overview of the system configuration and planned experiments on the First United States Microgravity Laboratory mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Schaefer, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) system configuration for the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission is reviewed, and the planned on-orbit experiments are briefly described. The CGF is configured to accommodate four scientific experiments involving crystal growth which are based on the classical Bridgman method and CVT method, including vapor transport crystal growth of mercury cadmium telluride; crystal growth of mercury zinc telluride by directional solidification; seeded Bridgman growth of zinc-doped cadmium telluride; and Bridgman growth of selenium-doped gallium arsenide.

  1. In-Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/1) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub ct),, for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s/l interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  2. In Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stafanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/l) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub cr) for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s,1 interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  3. Non-linear effects in a spherical convection experiments with temperature dependent fluid properties: Microgravity experiment and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, F.; Futterer, B.; Egbers, C.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal convection is one important driving mechanism of flow in the earth mantle. Setting up a self-gravitating buoyancy in a spherical shell geometry is the limiting factor for laboratory experiments to analyze velocity flow structures and heat transport. The geophysical flow model 'GeoFlow II', which is located at the Columbus module on the ISS, realizes such a central gravity. Under microgravity conditions a central dielectrophoretic force field is applied to a fluid filled spherical annulus. In contrast to the first mission 'GeoFlow I' the electro-hydrodynamical volume expansion coefficient of the working fluid has a strong dependence on the temperature and leads to pattern, which are related to a strong temperature dependent viscosity of the fluid. Even though the oil's viscosity itself is temperature-dependent, too, the maximum of viscosity contrast is only up to 1.5. The optical measurement of the fluid flow is based on the Wollaston shearing interferometry, since the on orbit setup avoids the use of measurement particles. This technique leads to fringe patterns. Simulations with RESPECT and GAIAA tend to verify the experimentally observed patterns by different numerical models.

  4. BUNDLE - A Novel Furnace for Performing Controlled Directional Solidification Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Edgar J.; Griffin, Mark R.; Hammond, Monica S.; Johnson, Martin L.; Grugel, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a novel directional solidification furnace prototype for processing metals and alloys experiments in a microgravity environment. The BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in Liquid Experiment) furnace is intended to accommodate the science requirements of Flight Definition Principle Investigators studying cellular/dendritic growth in aluminum and lead alloys at processing temperatures up to 1200 C. The furnace implements a number of innovative features to achieve high thermal gradients and quench rates in a low-power, light-weight design. These include a pyrolytic boron nitride/graphite composite heating element surrounded by layers of self-supporting refractory metal shielding, and a graphite fiber enhanced cold zone allowing high levels of heat extraction from the sample crucible. Novel to the BUNDLE design is an in-situ helium gas quench capability that ensures rapid freezing of the solidifying region (mushy zone) of the metal sample within the furnace without sample disturbance prior to quenching; this is a stringent requirement for subsequent analysis and understanding of microstructural development. The experiment hardware concept features multiple furnaces that may be "bundled" together so many samples, currently up to eight, can be processed at one time. The design of BUNDLE is flexible enough to be implemented on the Shuttle and Space Station in a number of locations (SpaceHab, Express Rack, MPESS, ISPR, etc). BUNDLE prototype furnaces have directionally solidified and quenched 1cm diameter lead - 5.8 weight percent antimony and aluminum - 4 weight percent copper alloys. Quenching of the mushy zone, as recorded by in-situ thermocouples, occurred on the order of 0.5 seconds or less, a rate within the PI's requirements. Subsequent metallographic examination revealed the solidified microstructure to be, as expected, unidirectional. Both the dendrite tips and the eutectic reaction were planar in nature

  5. BUNDLE: A Novel Furnace for Performing Controlled Directional Solidification Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Edgar J.; Griffin, Mark R.; Hammond, Monica S.; Johnson, Martin L.; Grugel, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a novel directional solidification furnace prototype for processing metals and alloys experiments in a microgravity environment. The BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in Liquid Experiment) furnace is intended to accommodate the science requirements of Flight Definition Principle Investigators studying cellular/dendritic growth in aluminum and lead alloys at processing temperatures up to 1200 C. The furnace implements a number of innovative features to achieve high thermal gradients and quench rates in a low-power, light-weight design. These include a pyrolytic boron nitride/graphite composite heating element surrounded by layers of self-supporting refractory metal shielding, and a graphite fiber enhanced cold zone allowing high levels of heat extraction from the sample crucible. Novel to the BUNDLE design is an in-situ helium gas quench capability that ensures rapid freezing of the solidifying region (mushy zone) of the metal sample within the furnace without sample disturbance prior to quenching; this is a stringent requirement for subsequent analysis and understanding of microstructural development. The experiment hardware concept features multiple furnaces that may be "bundled" together so many samples, currently up to eight, can be processed at one time. The design of BUNDLE is flexible enough to be implemented on the Shuttle and Space Station in a number of locations (SpaceHab, Express Rack, MPESS, ISPR, etc). BUNDLE prototype furnaces have directionally solidified and quenched 1cm diameter lead - 5.8 weight percent antimony and aluminum - 4 weight percent copper alloys. Quenching of the mushy zone, as recorded by in-situ thermocouples, occurred on the order of 0.5 seconds or less, a rate within the PI's requirements. Subsequent metallographic examination revealed the solidified microstructure to be, as expected, unidirectional. Both the dendrite tips and the eutectic reaction were planar in nature

  6. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant.

  7. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  8. The Origin of Chondrites: Metal-Silicate Separation Experiments Under Microgravity Conditions, Experiment 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. R.; Franzen, M.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.; Holley, A.; Myers, M.; Godsey, R.; Czlapinski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Chondrites are categorized into different groups by several properties, including the metal-to-silicate ratio. Various processes have been suggested to produce distinct metal/silicate ratios, some based on sorting in the early solar nebular and others occurring after accretion on the parent body. Huang et al. suggested that a weak gravitational field accompanied by degassing, could result in metal/silicate separation on parent bodies. We suggest that asteroids were volatile-rich, at least early in their histories. Spectroscopic evidence from asteroid surfaces indicates that one-third of all asteroids maybe rich in clays and hydrated minerals, similar to carbonaceous chondrites. Internal and/or external heating could have caused volatiles to evaporate and pass through a surface dust layer. Spacecraft images of asteroids show they have a thick regoliths. Housen, and Asphaug and Nolan proposed that even a 10 km diameter asteroid could potentially have a significant regolith. Grain size and grain density sorting could occur in the unconsolidated layer by the process known as fluidization. This process occurs when an upward stream of gas is passed through a bed of particles which are lifted against a gravitational force. Fluidization is commonly used commercially to sort particulates. This type of behavior is based upon the bed, as a whole, and differs from aerodynamic sorting. Two sets of reduced gravity experiments were conducted during parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. The first experiment employed 310 tubes of 2.5 cm diameter, containing mixtures of sand and metal grains. A gas source was used to fluidize the mixture at reduced gravity conditions and mixtures were analyzed after the flight. However, this experiment did not allow a description of the fluidization as a function of gravity. A second experiment was conducted on the KC-135 aircraft in the summer of 2001, consisting of two Plexiglas cylinders containing a metal/silicate mixture, and video

  9. Flight Computer Processing Avionics for Space Station Microgravity Experiments: A Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Howard; Liggin, Karl; Crawford, Kevin; Humphries, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for ways to reduce the costs and schedule and minimize the technical risks during the development of microgravity programs. One of the more prominent ways to minimize the cost and schedule is to use off-the-shelf hardware (OTS). However, the use of OTS often increases the risk. This paper addresses relevant factors considered during the selection and utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) flight computer processing equipment for the control of space station microgravity experiments. The paper will also discuss how to minimize the technical risks when using COTS processing hardware. Two microgravity experiments for which the COTS processing equipment is being evaluated for are the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) and the Self-diffusion in Liquid Elements (SDLE) experiment. Since MSFC is the lead center for Microgravity research, EDSE and SDLE processor selection will be closely watched by other experiments that are being designed to meet payload carrier requirements. This includes the payload carriers planned for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of EDSE is to continue to investigate microstructural evolution of, and thermal interactions between multiple dendrites growing under diffusion controlled conditions. The purpose of SDLE is to determine accurate self-diffusivity data as a function of temperature for liquid elements selected as representative of class-like structures. In 1999 MSFC initiated a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) effort to investigate and determine the optimal commercial data bus architecture that could lead to faster, better, and lower cost data acquisition systems for the control of microgravity experiments. As part of this effort various commercial data acquisition systems were acquired and evaluated. This included equipment with various form factors, (3U, 6U, others) and equipment that utilized various bus structures, (VME

  10. Adaptation of Motility Analysis Apparatus for Space Science and Microgravity Ground-Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1996-01-01

    Previous space flight studies have described unfavorable effects of microgravity on testicular morphology and spermatogenesis (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik flight, 9/29/87 - 10/12/87). The flight animals demonstrated small reductions in testicular and epididymal size, the phenomenon explained as resulting water loss. Yet, light microscopic histological preparations revealed few spermatozoa in the rete testis of the flight males compared to control animals. The cause for this finding was subjectively assessed to be due to "the anatomical dislocation of the organs... and a disturbance in testicular blood supply". Unfortunately, the reported effects of microgravity on the reproductive processes (particularly within males) are few and divergent. If habitation in space is a futuristic goal, more objective testing (of male and female gametes) in a microgravity environment will provide insight to the developmental potential of these reproductive cells. As part of the Marshall Space Flight Centers' Summer Faculty Fellowship Program within the Biophysics Branch, a key component of the research investigation was to develop a test to evaluate individual cell motility and orientation in varying gravitational environments, using computerized assessment of sperm cell concentration, morphology and motility to provide objective, quantitative experimental control. In previous work performed jointly by the author and a NASA colleague, it has been shown that macroscopic motile aggregates of spermatozoa were not altered by the absence of microgravity. Variations in the number of normal versus abnormal sperm due to microgravity influences have yet to be established. It is therefore of interest to monitor the cytoskeletal matrix (microtubulin) of these organisms as a possible indicator of cell viability and/or function.

  11. 2014 AFCI Glovebox Event Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Joseph Lenard

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary INL missions is to support development of advanced fuels with the goal of creating reactor fuels that produce less waste and are easier to store. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Glovebox in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) is used for several fuel fabrication steps that involve transuranic elements, including americium. The AFCI glove box contains equipment used for fuel fabrication, including an arc melter – a small, laboratory-scale version of an electric arc furnace used to make new metal alloys for research – and an americium distillation apparatus. This overview summarizes key findings related to the investigation into the releases of airborne radioactivity that occurred in the AFCI glovebox room in late August and early September 2014. The full report (AFCI Glovebox Radiological Release – Evaluation, Corrective Actions and Testing, INL/INL-15-36996) provides details of the identified issues, corrective actions taken as well as lessons learned

  12. Microheater Array Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

  13. Production of low-density plasma by coaxially segmented rf discharge for void-free dusty cloud in microgravity experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Suzukawa, Wataru; Ikada, Reijiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Iizuka, Satoru

    2006-03-20

    A technique is presented for producing a low density plasma by introducing a coaxially segmented parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge for void-free dusty-cloud formation. Main plasma for the dusty plasma experiment is produced in a central core part of the parallel-plate discharge, while a plasma for igniting the core plasma discharge is produced in the periphery region surrounding the core plasma. The core plasma density can be markedly decreased to reduce the ion drag force, which is important for a formation of void-free dusty cloud under microgravity.

  14. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single gain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three- dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction. Electrostatic forces are generally under-estimated for their role in causing agglomeration of dispersed grains in particulate clouds, or their role in affecting the internal frictional relationships in packed granular masses. We believe that electrostatic, in particular dipole-mediated processes

  15. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  16. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  17. Microgravity experiments on the effect of internal flow on solidification of Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Alaina B; Matson, Douglas M; Hyers, Robert W

    2006-09-01

    A new hypothesis has been developed to explain the effect of internal fluid flow on the lifetime of a metastable phase in solidifying Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The hypothesis shows excellent agreement with available experimental results, but microgravity experiments are required for complete validation. Certain Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel alloys solidify from an undercooled melt by a two-step process in which the metastable ferrite phase forms first followed by the stable austenite phase. Recent experiments using containerless processing techniques have shown that the lifetime of the metastable phase is strongly influenced by flow within the molten sample. Simulations using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package, FIDAP, were performed to determine the time required for collision of dendrites and compared to experimental delay time. If the convective velocities are strong enough to bend the primary arms, then the secondary arms of adjacent dendrites can touch. The points of collision form low-angle boundaries and result in high-energy sites that can serve as nuclei for the transformation to the stable phase. It has been determined that the convective velocities in electrostatic levitation (ESL) are not strong enough to cause collision. However, in ground-based electromagnetic levitation (EML), the convective velocities are strong enough to cause the dendrites to deflect so that the secondary arms of adjacent dendrites collide. There is quantitative agreement between the numerically determined time to collision and the experimentally observed delay time in EML. The strong internal velocity due to convection within the EML samples is the reason for the observed difference in delay times between ESL and EML. Microgravity testing is essential because the significant change in nucleation behavior occurs between the ranges accessible by ground-based ESL and EML. Testing in microgravity using EML will permit a large range of internal convective velocities including

  18. Mass transport phenomena during solidification in microgravity; preliminary results of the first Mephisto flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, J. J.; Garandet, J. P.; Rouzaud, A.; Camel, D.

    1994-06-01

    The MEPHISTO space facility flew on the Columbia space shuttle in October 1992. The preliminary scientific results, mainly based on the analysis of the Seebeck signal, are presented in this paper. Valuable information was obtained for both planar and cellular solidification regimes. It is shown that mass transfer in the melt during the flight was principally diffusive; however, even in microgravity, slow growth rates may result in significant convective transport. A tentative interpretation of the Seebeck signal for destabilized interfaces is also proposed.

  19. Preliminary Simulations of the Ullage Dynamics in Microgravity During the Jet Mixing Portion of Tank Pressure Control Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Moder, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The results of CFD simulations of microgravity tank pressure control experiments performed on the Space Shuttle are presented. A 13.7 liter acrylic model tank was used in these experiments. The tank was filled to an 83 percent fill fraction with Freon refrigerant to simulate cryogenic propellants stored in space. In the experiments, a single liquid jet near the bottom of the tank was used for mixing the tank. Simulations at a range of jet Weber numbers were performed. Qualitative comparisons of the liquid and gas interface dynamics observed and recorded in the experiments and those computed are shown and discussed. The simulations were able to correctly capture jet penetration of the ullage, qualitatively reproduce ullage shapes and dynamics, as well as the final equilibrium position of the ullage.

  20. Preliminary Simulations of the Ullage Dynamics in Microgravity during the Jet Mixing Portion of Tank Pressure Control Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Moder, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The results of CFD simulations of microgravity tank pressure control experiments performed on the Space Shuttle are presented. A 13.7 liter acrylic model tank was used in these experiments. The tank was filled to an 83 percent fill fraction with Freon refrigerant to simulate cryogenic propellants stored in space. In the experiments, a single liquid jet near the bottom of the tank was used for mixing the tank. Simulations at a range of jet Weber numbers were performed. Qualitative comparisons of the liquid and gas interface dynamics observed and recorded in the experiments and those computed are shown and discussed. The simulations were able to correctly capture jet penetration of the ullage, qualitatively reproduce ullage shapes and dynamics, as well as the final equilibrium position of the ullage.

  1. Toward Understanding Pore Formation and Mobility during Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment Investigation (PFMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Luz, Paul; Jeter, Linda; Volz, Martin P.; Spivey, Reggie; Smith, G.

    2003-01-01

    The generation and inclusion of detrimental porosity, e.g., pipes and rattails can occur during controlled directional solidification processing. The origin of these defects is generally attributed to gas evolution and entrapment during solidification of the melt. On Earth, owing to buoyancy, an initiated bubble can rapidly rise through the liquid melt and pop at the surface; this is obviously not ensured in a low gravity or microgravity environment. Clearly, porosity generation and inclusion is detrimental to conducting any meaningful solidification-science studies in microgravity. Thus it is essential that model experiments be conducted in microgravity, to understand the details of the generation and mobility of porosity, so that methods can be found to eliminate it. In hindsight, this is particularly relevant given the results of the previous directional solidification experiments conducted in Space. The current International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) investigation addresses the central issue of porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification processing in microgravity. The study will be done using a transparent metal-analogue material, succinonitrile (SCN) and succinonitrile-water 'alloys', so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made during the experiments. Succinonitrile is particularly well suited for the proposed investigation because it is transparent, it solidifies in a manner analogous to most metals, it has a convenient melting point, its material properties are well characterized and, it has been successfully used in previous microgravity experiments. The PFMI experiment will be launched on the UF-2, STS-111 flight. Highlighting the porosity development problem in metal alloys during microgravity processing, the poster will describe: (i) the intent of the proposed experiments, (ii) the theoretical rationale behind using SCN as the study material for

  2. Toward Understanding Pore Formation And Mobility During Controlled Directional Solidification In A Microgravity Environment Investigation (PFMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.; Luz, P.; Jeter, L.; Volz, M. P.; Spivey, R.; Smith, G. A.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The generation and inclusion of detrimental porosity, e.g., "pipes" and "rattails" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing. The origin of these defects is generally attributed to gas evolution and entrapment during solidification of the melt. On Earth, owing to buoyancy, an initiated bubble can rapidly rise through the liquid melt and "pop" at the surface; this is obviously not ensured in a low gravity or microgravity environment. Clearly, porosity generation and inclusion is detrimental to conducting any meaningful solidification-science studies in microgravity. Thus it is essential that model experiments be conducted in microgravity, to understand the details of the generation and mobility of porosity, so that methods can be found to eliminate it. In hindsight, this is particularly relevant given the results of the previous directional solidification experiments conducted in Space. The current International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) investigation addresses the central issue of porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification processing in microgravity. The study will be done using a transparent metal-analogue material, succinonitrile (SCN) and succinonitrile-water "alloys", so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made during the experiments. Succinonitrile is particularly well suited for the proposed investigation because it is transparent, it solidifies in a manner analogous to most metals, it has a convenient melting point, its material properties are well characterized and, it has been successfully used in previous microgravity experiments. The PFMI experiment will be launched on the UF-2, STS-111 flight. Highlighting the porosity development problem in metal alloys during microgravity processing, the poster will describe: (i) the intent of the proposed experiments, (ii) the theoretical rationale behind using SCN as the study material for

  3. Robotic system for glovebox size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    KWOK,KWAN S.; MCDONALD,MICHAEL J.

    2000-03-02

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing technologies for glovebox size reduction in the DOE nuclear complex. A study was performed for Kaiser-Hill (KH) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) on the available technologies for size reducing the glovebox lines that require size reduction in place. Currently, the baseline approach to these glovebox lines is manual operations using conventional mechanical cutting methods. The study has been completed and resulted in a concept of the robotic system for in-situ size reduction. The concept makes use of commercially available robots that are used in the automotive industry. The commercially available industrial robots provide high reliability and availability that are required for environmental remediation in the DOE complex. Additionally, the costs of commercial robots are about one-fourth that of the custom made robots for environmental remediation. The reason for the lower costs and the higher reliability is that there are thousands of commercial robots made annually, whereas there are only a few custom robots made for environmental remediation every year. This paper will describe the engineering analysis approach used in the design of the robotic system for glovebox size reduction.

  4. Unprincipled microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, James

    2014-05-01

    I argue that the key principle of microgravity is what I have called elsewhere the Lorentzian strategy. This strategy may be seen as either a reverse-engineering approach or a descent with modification approach, but however one sees if the method works neither by attempting to propound a theory that is the quantum version of either an extant or generalized gravitation theory nor by attempting to propound a theory that is the final version of quantum mechanics and finding gravity within it. Instead the method works by beginning with what we are pretty sure is a good approximation to the low-energy limit of whatever the real microprocesses are that generate what we experience as gravitation. This method is powerful, fruitful, and not committed to principles for which we have, as yet, only scant evidence; the method begins with what we do know and teases out what we can know next. The principle is methodological, not ontological.

  5. Experiments to be flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: The US experiments on the first international microgravity laboratory, from concept to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.; Lashbrook, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    The current life cycle of NASA ARC-managed flight experiments is presented. The two main purposes are: (1) to bring to the attention of biologists, and in particular cell and plant biologists, some of the requirements for flying a life science experiment in space; and (2) to introduce the subject to biologists embarking on studies in the field and to delineate some of the specific requirements that will be encountered by an ARC-managed microgravity experiment. This is not intended to be an exhaustive encyclopedia of all techniques used to prepare an experiment to evaluate the effect of microgravity on plant and animal cells. However, many of the requirements are the same for all biological systems and for other NASA centers. Emphasis is on the principle investigator's (PI's) involvement in the activities required for successful completion of major reviews. The PI support required for activities other than these reviews is also discussed, as are the interactions between ARC and the PI that will be required as problems or questions arise throughout experiment and payload development. It is impossible to predict the extent of this activity because it varies according to the complexity of the experiment and the flight experience of the PI.

  6. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. This apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  7. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  8. CARINA - A space vehicle with re-entry capabilities for microgravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, G.; Sansone, A.; Ricciardi, A.

    1992-08-01

    An Italian autonomous space vehicle with recovery capabilities, named CARINA (Capsula di Rientro Non Abitata), is described with special attention given to the technological developments in areas pertaining to the reentry system, including reentry aerothermodynamics and the design of the thermal protection system. Consideration is also given to the configuration of the CARINA vehicle (comprised of the expendable Service Module and the Apollo-like Reentry Module), the subsystems and their performances, the mission life cycle, the microgravity utilization aspects, and the programmatic aspects.

  9. Methanol Droplet Extinction in Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Nitrogen Mixtures in Microgravity: Results from the International Space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the need to understand the flammability limits of condensed-phase fuels in microgravity, isolated single droplet combustion experiments were carried out in the Combustion Integrated Rack Facility onboard the International Space Station. Experimental observations of methanol droplet combustion and extinction in oxygen/carbon-dioxide/nitrogen mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressure in quiescent microgravity environment are reported for initial droplet diameters varying between 2 mm to 4 mm in this study.The ambient oxygen concentration was systematically lowered from test to test so as to approach the limiting oxygen index (LOI) at fixed ambient pressure. At one atmosphere pressure, ignition and some burning were observed for an oxygen concentration of 13% with the rest being nitrogen. In addition, measured droplet burning rates, flame stand-off ratios, and extinction diameters are presented for varying concentrations of oxygen and diluents. Simplified theoretical models are presented to explain the observed variations in extinction diameter and flame stand-off ratios.

  10. Five biomedical experiments flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: Lessons learned from developing these experiments on the first international microgravity mission from concept to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lashbrook, J. J.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous problems associated with accommodating complex biological systems in microgravity in the flexible laboratory systems installed in the Orbiter cargo bay. This presentation will focus upon some of the lessons learned along the way from the University laboratory to the IML-1 Microgravity Laboratory. The First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission contained a large number of specimens, including: 72 million nematodes, US-1; 3 billion yeast cells, US-2; 32 million mouse limb-bud cells, US-3; and 540 oat seeds (96 planted), FOTRAN. All five of the experiments had to undergo significant redevelopment effort in order to allow the investigator's ideas and objectives to be accommodated within the constraints of the IML-1 mission. Each of these experiments were proposed as unique entities rather than part of the mission, and many procedures had to be modified from the laboratory practice to meet IML-1 constraints. After a proposal is accepted by NASA for definition, an interactive process is begun between the Principal Investigator and the developer to ensure a maximum science return. The success of the five SLSPO-managed experiments was the result of successful completion of all preflight biological testing and hardware verification finalized at the KSC Life Sciences Support Facility housed in Hangar L. The ESTEC Biorack facility housed three U.S. experiments (US-1, US-2, and US-3). The U.S. Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility housed GTHRES and FOTRAN. The IML-1 mission (launched from KSC on 22 Jan. 1992, and landed at Dryden Flight Research Facility on 30 Jan. 1992) was an outstanding success--close to 100 percent of the prelaunch anticipated science return was achieved and, in some cases, greater than 100 percent was achieved (because of an extra mission day).

  11. International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Astronaut Roberta Bondar works with the Gravity Threshold Experiment, one of the experiments conducted in the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF), using oat seedlings in the glovebox in the IML-1 science module. Plants respond to gravity (gravitropism). The Gravity Threshold Experiment investigates the changes that occur when plants are exposed to different levels and durations of gravity. The experiment uses a centrifuge to determine the sensitivity and threshold of the gravity-detecting mechanism of the oat plant. Gravity Threshold also studies how a growing plant responds to altered gravitational fields and how microgravity affects a plant's structure. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research with the international partners. The participating space agencies included: NASA, the 14-nation European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), The French National Center of Space Studies (CNES), the German Space Agency and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DAR/DLR), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the IML-1 mission was launched on January 22, 1992 aboard the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-42).

  12. Entering "A NEW REALM" of KIBO Payload Operations - Continuous efforts for microgravity experiment environment and lessons learned from real time experiment operations in KIBO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, K.; Goto, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.

    2011-12-01

    On January 22nd, 2011(JST), KOUNOTORI2 (H-II Transfer Vehicle: HTV2) was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center toward the International Space Station (ISS) and two new JAXA payload racks, Kobairo rack and MSPR (Multi-purpose Small Payload Rack) were transferred to ISS/KIBO (Japanese Experiment Module: JEM). In addition to Saibo rack and Ryutai rack which are already in operation in KIBO, in total 4 Japanese experiment payload racks start operations in KIBO. Then KIBO payload operations embark on a new realm, full utilization phase. While the number and variety of microgravity experiments become increasing, simultaneous operation constraints should be considered to achieve multitask payload operations in ISS/KIBO and ever more complicated cooperative operations between crewmember and flight control team/science team are required. Especially for g-jitter improvement in ISS/KIBO, we have greatly advanced cooperative operations with crewmember in the recent increment based on the microgravity data analysis results. In this paper, newly operating Japanese experiment payloads characteristics and some methods to improve g-jitter environment are introduced from the front line of KIBO payload operations.

  13. Investigation of microgravity effects on basic imune functions on the cellular level - The TRIPLELUX-B experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich

    Hemocytes are the primary defence of the Blue Mussel against invading microorganisms and foreign particles. The hemocytes of mussels as part of the immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the universal validity of innate immune responses. The hemocytes of mussels have a lot in common with macrophages of higher organisms. They are able to detect the presence of microorganisms and kill these microorganisms by phagocytosis. The phagocy-tosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The signals of the im-muno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The primary aim of Triplelux B is to investigate under space flight conditions the effect of microgravity on the ability of isolated Blue Mussel hemocytes to perform phagocytosis. As a secondery objectiv, the results expected will allow to conclude whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The components of the fully automated AEC (Advanced Experimental Containment) will be demonstrated. The AEC of the TRIPLELUX-B experiment will contribute to a real time operational monitoring for immunotoxicity testing for earth. Blue mussels have been used repeatedly for monitoring imunotoxicity and genotoxicity in coastal waters. Based on the AEC an automatet measuring device will allow "real time monitoring" providing observations of immunotoxicity in coastal and inland waters.

  14. Motor System Development Depends on Experience: A Microgravity Study of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Kerry D.; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kalb, Robert; Hillman, Dean; DeFelipe, Javier; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Animals move about their environment by sensing their surroundings and making adjustments according to need. All animals take the force of gravity into account when the brain and spinal cord undertake the planning and execution of movements. To what extent must animals learn to factor in the force of gravity when making neural calculations about movement? Are animals born knowing how to respond to gravity, or must the young nervous system learn to enter gravity into the equation? To study this issue, young rats were reared in two different gravitational environments (the one-G of Earth and the microgravity of low Earth orbit) that necessitated two different types of motor operations (movements) for optimal behavior. We inquired whether those portions of the young nervous system involved in movement, the motor system, can adapt to different gravitational levels and, if so, the cellular basis for this phenomenon. We studied two groups of rats that had been raised for 16 days in microgravity (eight or 14 days old at launch) and compared their walking and righting (ability to go from upside down to upright) and brain structure to those of control rats that developed on Earth. Flight rats were easily distinguished from the age-matched ground control rats in terms of both motor function and central nervous system structure. Mature surface righting predominated in control rats on the day of landing (R+O), while immature righting predominated in the flight rats on landing day and 30 days after landing. Some of these changes appear to be permanent. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: (1) Many aspects of motor behavior are preprogrammed into the young nervous system. In addition, several aspects of motor behavior are acquired as a function of the interaction of the developing organism and the rearing environment; (2) Widespread neuroanatomical differences between one-G- and microgravity-reared rats indicate that there is a structural basis for the adaptation

  15. A Proposal for an Experiment in Space: Laser Welding of Ceramics in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favuzza, M.; Camiolo, F.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramics are brittle because of their strong covalent or ionic bonds. Brittleness is not the only limitation of ceramics, also the presence of generally up to 20% porosity and the presence of microcracks (c.a. 25%) make ceramics rarely used for advanced applications. Often metals and composites are preferred for certain applications because of its higher fracture toughness. Nevertheless, there are also many advantages in using ceramics if compared to metals and composites such as high hardness, strength retention over a broad temperature range, wear and acid resistance, thermal shock resistance, possibility to be ground with a very smooth surface to high tolerances and low cost. Hence, during the last years, the ceramics market for engineering applications is to be considered in expansion. By keeping into consideration that today a values of KIC25 MPa m1/2 can be attained for some types of ceramics, one of the main factors that influences the utilisation of ceramics for engineering structures is the strong difficulty in joining its together. Most of the modern "Advanced Ceramics" are, in fact, highly-reactive so that its manufacturing and sintering procedures must be carried out only under controlled atmosphere. All that make the possibility to join advanced ceramics by any heat treatment basically impossible under normal conditions. Today, uses of that kind of ceramics are generally restricted to advanced small structural shapes. Starting from the consideration that a future possibility to join ceramics with a safe joint would be really important for structural applications especially where high wear and acid resistance is necessary, the aim of this paper is to show as, according to our theory, a first step of laser welding of reactive ceramics is possible under microgravity and oxigen deficiency conditions. It is enough to think about a satellite or a part of the ISS made from absolutely fire, chemical and wear proof ceramic parts assembled directly on space by

  16. In situ and real time characterization of interface microstructure in 3D alloy solidification: benchmark microgravity experiments in the DECLIC-Directional Solidification Insert on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A.; Chen, L.; Bergeon, N.; Billia, B.; Gu, Jiho; Trivedi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical microstructure formation and selection during solidification processing, which has a major influence on the properties in the use of elaborated materials, occur during the growth process. In situ observation of the solid-liquid interface morphology evolution is thus necessary. On earth, convection effects dominate in bulk samples and may strongly interact with microstructure dynamics and alter pattern characterization. Series of solidification experiments with 3D cylindrical sample geometry were conducted in succinonitrile (SCN) -0.24 wt%camphor (model transparent system), in microgravity environment in the Directional Solidification Insert of the DECLIC facility of CNES (French space agency) on the International Space Station (ISS). Microgravity enabled homogeneous values of control parameters over the whole interface allowing the obtaining of homogeneous patterns suitable to get quantitative benchmark data. First analyses of the characteristics of the pattern (spacing, order, etc.) and of its dynamics in microgravity will be presented.

  17. A MCNP model of gloveboxes in a plutonium processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    A room in the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glovebox for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glovebox will be located in a room containing other gloveboxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. A MCNP model of the room and gloveboxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glovebox and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glovebox. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

  18. Local and Global Bifurcations of Flow Fields During Physical Vapor Transport: Application to a Microgravity Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, W. M. B.; Singh, N. B.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The local bifurcation of the flow field, during physical vapor transport for a parametric range of experimental interest, shows that its dynamical state ranges from steady to aperiodic. Comparison of computationally predicted velocity profiles with laser doppler velocimetry measurements shows reasonable agreement in both magnitude and planform. Correlation of experimentally measured crystal quality with the predicted dynamical state of the flow field shows a degradation of quality with an increase in Rayleigh number. The global bifurcation of the flow field corresponding to low crystal quality indicates the presence of a traveling wave for Ra = 1.09 x 10(exp 5). For this Rayleigh number threshold a chaotic transport state occurs. However, a microgravity environment for this case effectively stabilizes the flow to diffusive-advective and provides the setting to grow crystals with optimal quality.

  19. Operation of magnetically assisted fluidized beds in microgravity and variable gravity: experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornchamni, T.; Jovanovic, G. N.; Reed, B. P.; Atwater, J. E.; Akse, J. R.; Wheeler, R. R.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of solid waste into useful resources in support of long duration manned missions in space presents serious technological challenges. Several technologies, including supercritical water oxidation, microwave powered combustion and fluidized bed incineration, have been tested for the conversion of solid waste. However, none of these technologies are compatible with microgravity or hypogravity operating conditions. In this paper, we present the gradient magnetically assisted fluidized bed (G-MAFB) as a promising operating platform for fluidized bed operations in the space environment. Our experimental and theoretical work has resulted in both the development of a theoretical model based on fundamental principles for the design of the G-MAFB, and also the practical implementation of the G-MAFB in the filtration and destruction of solid biomass waste particles from liquid streams.

  20. Operation of magnetically assisted fluidized beds in microgravity and variable gravity: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Sornchamni, T; Jovanovic, G N; Reed, B P; Atwater, J E; Akse, J R; Wheeler, R R

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of solid waste into useful resources in support of long duration manned missions in space presents serious technological challenges. Several technologies, including supercritical water oxidation, microwave powered combustion and fluidized bed incineration, have been tested for the conversion of solid waste. However, none of these technologies are compatible with microgravity or hypogravity operating conditions. In this paper, we present the gradient magnetically assisted fluidized bed (G-MAFB) as a promising operating platform for fluidized bed operations in the space environment. Our experimental and theoretical work has resulted in both the development of a theoretical model based on fundamental principles for the design of the G-MAFB, and also the practical implementation of the G-MAFB in the filtration and destruction of solid biomass waste particles from liquid streams. PMID:15846878

  1. Operation of magnetically assisted fluidized beds in microgravity and variable gravity: experiment and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sornchamni, T.; Jovanovic, G. N.; Reed, B. P.; Atwater, J. E.; Akse, J. R.; Wheeler, R. R.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of solid waste into useful resources in support of long duration manned missions in space presents serious technological challenges. Several technologies, including supercritical water oxidation, microwave powered combustion and fluidized bed incineration, have been tested for the conversion of solid waste. However, none of these technologies are compatible with microgravity or hypogravity operating conditions. In this paper, we present the gradient magnetically assisted fluidized bed (G-MAFB) as a promising operating platform for fluidized bed operations in the space environment. Our experimental and theoretical work has resulted in both the development of a theoretical model based on fundamental principles for the design of the G-MAFB, and also the practical implementation of the G-MAFB in the filtration and destruction of solid biomass waste particles from liquid streams. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-03

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment.

  3. A 6 D.O.F. opto-inertial tracker for virtual reality experiments in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaoui, Mohamed; Wormell, Dean; Altshuler, Yury; Foxlin, Eric; McIntyre, Joseph

    2001-08-01

    Gravity plays a role in many different levels of human motor behavior. It dictates the laws of motion of our body and limbs, as well as of the objects in the external world with which we wish to interact. The dynamic interaction of our body with the world is molded within gravity's constraints. The role played by gravity in the perception of visual stimuli and the elaboration of human movement is an active research theme in the field of Neurophysiology. Conditions of microgravity, coupled with techniques from the world of virtual reality, provide a unique opportunity to address these questions concerning the function of the human sensorimotor system [1]. The ability to measure movements of the head and to update in real time the visual scene presented to the subject based on these measurements is a key element in producing a realistic virtual environment. A variety of head-tracking hardware exists on the market today [2-4], but none seem particularly well suited to the constraints of working with a space station environment. Nor can any of the existing commercial systems meet the more stringent requirements for physiological experimentation (high accuracy, high resolution, low jitter, low lag) in a wireless configuration. To this end, we have developed and tested a hybrid opto-inertial 6 degree-of-freedom tracker based on existing inertial technology [5-8]. To confirm that the inertial components and algorithms will function properly, this system was tested in the microgravity conditions of parabolic flight. Here we present the design goals of this tracker, the system configuration and the results of 0g and 1g testing.

  4. A 6 D.O.F. opto-inertial tracker for virtual reality experiments in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Zaoui, M; Wormell, D; Altshuler, Y; Foxlin, E; McIntyre, J

    2001-01-01

    Gravity plays a role in many different levels of human motor behavior. It dictates the laws of motion of our body and limbs, as well as of the objects in the external world with which we wish to interact. The dynamic interaction of our body with the world is molded within gravity's constraints. The role played by gravity in the perception of visual stimuli and the elaboration of human movement is an active research theme in the field of Neurophysiology. Conditions of microgravity, coupled with techniques from the world of virtual reality, provide a unique opportunity to address these questions concerning the function of the human sensorimotor system. The ability to measure movements of the head and to update in real time the visual scene presented to the subject based on these measurements is a key element in producing a realistic virtual environment. A variety of head-tracking hardware exists on the market today, but none seem particularly well suited to the constraints of working with a space station environment. Nor can any of the existing commercial systems meet the more stringent requirements for physiological experimentation (high accuracy, high resolution, low jitter, low lag) in a wireless configuration. To this end, we have developed and tested a hybrid opto-inertial 6 degree-of-freedom tracker based on existing inertial technology. To confirm that the inertial components and algorithms will function properly, this system was tested in the microgravity conditions of parabolic flight. Here we present the design goals of this tracker, the system configuration and the results of 0g and 1g testing. PMID:11669131

  5. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  6. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  7. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line.

  8. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  9. Microgravity effects on Drosophila melanogaster development and aging: Comparative analysis of the results of the fly experiment in the Biokosmos 9 biosatellite flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, R.; González-Jurado, J.; Calleja, M.; Garesse, R.; Maroto, M.; Ramírez, E.; Holgado, M. C.; de Juan, E.; Miquel, J.

    The results are presented of the exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to microgravity conditions during a 15-day biosatellite flight, Biokosmos 9, in a joint ESA-URSS project. The experimental containers were loaded before launch with a set of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R larvae so that imagoes were due to emerge half-way through the flight. A large number of normally developed larvae were recovered from the space-flown containers. These larvae were able to develop into normal adults confirming earlier results that Drosophila melanogaster of a wild-type constitution can develop normally in the absence of gravity. However, microgravity exposure clearly enhances the number of growing embryos laid by the flies and possibly slows down the developmental pace of the microgravity-exposed animals. Due to some problems in the experimental set-up, this slowing down needs to be verified in future experiments. No live adult that had been exposed to microgravity was recovered from the experiment, so that no life span studies could be carried out, but adult males emerged from the recovered embryos showed a slight shortening in life span and a lower performance in other experimental tests of aging. This agrees with the results of previous experiments performed by our groups.

  10. Delta L: An Apparatus for Measuring Macromolecular Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, is was necessary to develop new hardware that could measure the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same solution conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of a crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta L. Delta L consists of fluids, optics, and data acquisition, sub-assemblies. Temperature control is provided for the crystal growth chamber. Delta L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Delta L prototype hardware has been assembled. This paper will describe an overview of the design of Delta L and present preliminary crystal growth rate data.

  11. Microgravity Outreach and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Program has been actively developing classroom activities and educator's guides since the flight of the First United States Microgravity Laboratory. In addition, various brochures, posters, and exhibit materials have been produced for outreach efforts to the general public and to researchers outside of the program. These efforts are led by the Microgravity Research Outreach/Education team at Marshall Space Flight Center, with classroom material support from the K-12 Educational Program of The National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion (NCMR), general outreach material development by the Microgravity Outreach office at Hampton University, and electronic/media access coordinated by Marshall. The broad concept of the NCMR program is to develop a unique set of microgravity-related educational products that enable effective outreach to the pre-college community by supplementing existing mathematics, science, and technology curricula. The current thrusts of the program include summer teacher and high school internships during which participants help develop educational materials and perform research with NCMR and NASA scientists; a teacher sabbatical program which allows a teacher to concentrate on a major educational product during a full school year; frequent educator workshops held at NASA and at regional and national teachers conferences; a nascent student drop tower experiment competition; presentations and demonstrations at events that also reach the general public; and the development of elementary science and middle school mathematics classroom products. An overview of existing classroom products will be provided, along with a list of pertinent World Wide Web URLs. Demonstrations of some hands on activities will show the audience how simple it can be to bring microgravity into the classroom.

  12. Free collisions in a microgravity many-particle experiment. III. The collision behavior of sub-millimeter-sized dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, Stefan; Blum, Jürgen; Weidling, René; Güttler, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    We conducted micro-gravity experiments to study the outcome of collisions between sub-mm-sized dust agglomerates consisting of μm-sized SiO2 monomer grains at velocities of several cm s-1. Prior to the experiments, we used X-ray computer tomography (nano-CT) imaging to study the internal structure of these dust agglomerates and found no rim compaction so that their collision behavior is not governed by preparation-caused artefacts. We found that collisions between these dust aggregates can lead either to sticking or to bouncing, depending mostly on the impact velocity. While previous collision models derived the transition between both regimes from contact physics, we used the available empirical data from these and earlier experiments to derive a power law relation between dust-aggregate mass and impact velocity for the threshold between the two collision outcomes. In agreement with earlier experiments, we show that the transition between both regimes is not sharp, but follows a shallower power law than predicted by previous models (Güttler, C., Blum, J., Zsom, A., Ormel, C.W., Dullemond, C.P. [2010]. Astron. Astrophys. 513, A56). Furthermore, we find that sticking between dust aggregates can lead to the formation of larger structures. Collisions between aggregates-of-aggregates can lead to growth at higher velocities than homogeneous dust agglomerates.

  13. Sounding Rocket Microgravity Experiments Elucidating Diffusive and Radiative Transport Effects on Flame Spread over Thermally-Thick Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Hegde, U.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Deering, J. L.; Tang, L.; Altenkirch, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of 6-minute microgravity combustion experiments of opposed flow flame spread over thermally-thick PMMA has been conducted to extend data previously reported at high opposed flows to almost two decades lower in flow. The effect of flow velocity on flame spread shows a square root power law dependence rather than the linear dependence predicted by thermal theory. The experiments demonstrate that opposed flow flame spread is viable to very low velocities and more robust than expected from the numerical model, which predicts that at very low velocities (less than 5 centimeters per second), flame spread rates fall off more rapidly as flow is reduced. It is hypothesized that the enhanced flame spread observed in the experiments may be due to three- dimensional hydrodynamic effects, which are not included in the zero-gravity, two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The effect of external irradiation was found to be more complex that the model predicted over the 0-2 Watts per square centimeter range. In the experiments, the flame compensated for the increased irradiation by stabilizing farther from the surface. A surface energy balance reveals that the imposed flux was at least partially offset by a reduced conductive flux from the increased standoff distance, so that the effect on flame spread was weaker than anticipated.

  14. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  15. Flammability Aspects of a Cotton-Fiberglass Fabric in Opposed and Concurrent Airflow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Johnston, Michael C.; T'ien, James

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity combustion tests burning fabric samples were performed aboard the International Space Station. The cotton-fiberglass blend samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 40 cm/s. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed on flame appearance, flame growth, and spread rates were determined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. For the opposed flow configuration, the flame quickly reached steady spread for each flow speed, and the spread rate was fastest at an intermediate value of flow speed. These tests show the enhanced flammability in microgravity for this geometry, since, in normal gravity air, a flame self-extinguishes in the opposed flow geometry (downward flame spread). In the concurrent flow configuration, flame size grew with time during the tests. A limiting length and steady spread rate were obtained only in low flow speeds ( 10 cm/s) for the short-length samples that fit in the small wind tunnel. For these conditions, flame spread rate increased linearly with increasing flow. This is the first time that detailed transient flame growth data was obtained in purely forced flows in microgravity. In addition, by decreasing flow speed to a very low value (around 1 cm/s), quenching extinction was observed. The valuable results from these long-duration experiments validate a number of theoretical predictions and also provide the data for a transient flame growth model under development.

  16. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  17. Thermocapillary flow instabilities in an annulus under microgravity — results of the experiment magia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, D.; Benz, S.

    We investigated thermocapillary flow in an annular gap with outer heater container of radius R 1 = 40 mm and inner cooled cylinder of R 2 = 20 mm and with an adjustable height h, 2.5 ≤ h ≤ 20 mm. The gap was filled flat up to the rim with the 0.65 cSt silicone oil hexamethyldisiloxane (Prandtl number Pr = 6.7). The temperature differences ΔT, 0 K ≤ ΔT ≤ 40 K between outer and inner wall generated thermocapillary flow in the free upper surface and various flow structures have been observed under microgravity. We identified hydrothermal waves for small h and more complicated oscillations for larger h. For small h and small ΔT the multiroll structure was visible via IR-images of the free surface: concentric steady convection rolls with the same sense of rotation, embedded into the main thermocapillary roll. We measured the critical Marangoni number Ma c for the transition to time-dependent flow in the aspect ratio range A = h/(R 1 - R 2), 0.125 ≤ A ≤ 1, where it was virtually constant Ma c ≈ 5 · 10 4. We report and discuss a steady temperature asymmetry, changing its direction from time to time, as recorded by the IR-camera. This symmetry breaking is most probably due to slowly changing residual acceleration in the satellite.

  18. A Study of Ion Drag for Ground and Microgravity Dusty Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Taylor; Thomas, Edward

    2015-11-01

    This presentation presents the results of a recent study of the interaction between charged dust particles and plasma ions through the ion drag force in a dc glow discharge plasma. Measurements of the dust particles motion are carried out using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). When an electrostatic perturbation is applied to the dust cloud, the particle motion, in response to the perturbation, is shown to reverse direction as the gas pressure is increased. An analysis of the dust particle motion and background plasma parameters suggests that there is a competition between the ion drag and electric forces on the particles. These forces are calculated for a range of pressures using detailed measurements of the plasma parameters carried out by a single Langmuir probe. The analysis of these measurements suggests that a change in the relative magnitude of the Coulomb collision ion drag compared to the electric force is a probable explanation for the observed reversal of direction of motion as the neutral gas pressure is increased. The application of these results to microgravity studies of dusty plasmas will be discussed. Support provided by NASA-JPL (JPL-RSA 1471384).

  19. Particle Engulfment and Pushing Micro-Gravity Experiments and Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Mukherjee, S.; Sen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenon of interaction of particles with solid-liquid interfaces that results in particle engulfment or pushing (PEP) has been Studied since mid 1960's. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (frost heaving in soil), it was recognized early that understanding particle behavior at solidifying interfaces mi ht yield 9 practical benefits in other fields. In metallurgical applications the issue is the location of particles with respect to grain boundaries at the end of solidification. Considerable amount of experimental and theoretical research was lately focused on applications to metal matrix composites produced by casting; or spray forming techniques. Another application of PEP is in the growing of Y1Ba2CU3O7-delta(123) superconductor crystals from an undercooled liquid. The oxide melt contains Y2Ba1CU1O5 (211) precipitates, which act as flux pinning sites. The paper presents results of PEP micro-gravity research performed by the authors on two shuttle missions using metallic and polymeric materials. In addition. a discussion on the theoretical aspects of the physics of PEP is offered. Analytical and numerical models for planar solidification interfaces developed by the authors are used to explain the experimental results. Shortcomings of steady-state models are emphasized. A numerical model that includes the effect of the solutal field and of natural convection is introduced. A discussion of phenomena associated with dendritic solidification based on experimental observations is also offered. A mechanism of engulfment is proposed.

  20. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  1. DISMANTLING OF GLOVEBOXES FOR MOX FUEL FABRICATION BY A GLOVEBOX DISMANTLING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, S.; Kashiro, K.; Tobita, N.

    2002-02-25

    The Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) installed a glovebox dismantling facility (GBDF) in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) of the Tokai works. The purpose of GBDF is to dismantle after-service gloveboxes for the MOX pellet fabrication process in PFPF (GBMPs) for safely storing and recovering the hold-up MOX powder from GBMPs. GBDF has a function of a glovebox for preventing scattering radioactive nuclides and is used for dismantling after-service gloveboxes repeatedly for decreasing the quantity of secondary wastes. Remote-controlled devices such as an arm-type robot, and plasma arc cutting systems are installed in it for the purposes of decreasing irradiation dose and increasing work efficiency respectively. Following items are considered as merits for the application of remote-controlled devices to the dismantling works in comparison with the ordinary dismantling method: improving working conditions, no capability of injury and inhalation contamination area; decreasing irradiation dose of workers; decreasing generation of secondary wastes; and decreasing personal cost.

  2. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  3. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  4. NASA's Student Glovebox: An Inquiry-Based Technology Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This inquiry-based activity discusses the development of a glovebox like those used on the International Space Station and Space Shuttle. A glovebox is a box used for experimentation in which the user inserts hands into gloved access holes in order to work in the box. Activities concerning the study of liquid droplets are included to give students…

  5. Note: Efficient, low-cost cooling system for gloveboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.; Marioneck, T.; Dronskowski, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cooling within gloveboxes is often restricted to expensive refrigerated bath circulators or small temperature differences. Here, we present a sturdy, inexpensive cooling system which matches various glovebox types and can be readily fabricated by a mechanical workshop in a few days. The system is suitable for cold plates of areas up to 150 cm2 and temperatures as low as -100 °C.

  6. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  7. Parabolic maneuvers of the Swiss Air Force fighter jet F-5E as a research platform for cell culture experiments in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Marc; Bradacs, Gesine; Hilliger, Andre; Hürlimann, Eva; Engeli, Stephanie; Thiel, Cora S.; Zeitner, Peter; Denier, Beat; Binggeli, Markus; Syburra, Thomas; Egli, Marcel; Engelmann, Frank; Ullrich, Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Long-term sensitivity of human cells to reduced gravity has been supposed since the first Apollo missions and was demonstrated during several space missions in the past. However, little information is available on primary and rapid gravi-responsive elements in mammalian cells. In search of rapid-responsive molecular alterations in mammalian cells, short-term microgravity provided by parabolic flight maneuvers is an ideal way to elucidate such initial and primary effects. Modern biomedical research at the cellular and molecular level requires frequent repetition of experiments that are usually performed in sequences of experiments and analyses. Therefore, a research platform on Earth providing frequent, easy and repeated access to real microgravity for cell culture experiments is strongly desired. For this reason, we developed a research platform onboard the military fighter jet aircraft Northrop F-5E "Tiger II". The experimental system consists of a programmable and automatically operated system composed of six individual experiment modules, placed in the front compartment, which work completely independent of the aircraft systems. Signal transduction pathways in cultured human cells can be investigated after the addition of an activator solution at the onset of microgravity and a fixative or lysis buffer after termination of microgravity. Before the beginning of a regular military training flight, a parabolic maneuver was executed. After a 1 g control phase, the parabolic maneuver starts at 13,000 ft and at Mach 0.99 airspeed, where a 22 s climb with an acceleration of 2.5 g is initiated, following a free-fall ballistic Keplerian trajectory lasting 45 s with an apogee of 27,000 ft at Mach 0.4 airspeed. Temperature, pressure and acceleration are monitored constantly during the entire flight. Cells and activator solutions are kept at 37 °C during the entire experiment until the fixative has been added. The parabolic flight profile provides up to 45 s of

  8. Growth and development, and auxin polar transport in higher plants under microgravity conditions in space: BRIC-AUX on STS-95 space experiment.

    PubMed

    Ueda, J; Miyamoto, K; Yuda, T; Hoshino, T; Fujii, S; Mukai, C; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    1999-12-01

    The principal objectives of the space experiment, BRIC-AUX on STS 95, were the integrated analysis of the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings in space and a study of the effects of microgravity conditions in space on auxin polar transport in these segments. Microgravity significantly affected the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings were the most oriented toward about 40 to 60 degrees from the vertical. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings were curved at random during space flight but coleoptiles were almost straight. Finally the growth inhibition of these seedlings in space was also observed. Roots of some pea seedlings grew toward to the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Extensibilities of cell walls of the third internode of etiolated pea epicotyls and the top region of etiolated maize coleoptiles, which were germinated and grown under microgravity conditions in space, were significantly low as compared with those grown on the ground of the earth. Activities of auxin polar transport in the second internode segments of etiolated pea seedlings and coleoptile segments of etiolated maize seedlings were significantly inhibited and promoted, respectively, under microgravity conditions in space. These results strongly suggest that auxin polar transport as well as the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on the earth.

  9. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  10. Microwave Dielectrophoretic Levitation In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports propose use of dielectrophoresis in microwave resonant cavities to levitate samples of materials for containerless processing in microgravity in vacuum or in any suitable atmosphere. Also describe experiments undertaken to verify feasibility of proposal.

  11. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  12. Microgravity science and applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Robert A.; Newcomb, John F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of NASA's microgravity science and applications program. It describes the program mission and goals and provides an overview of the process used to develop experimental concepts into actual flight experiments. The paper then overviews the present ground-based research and flight experiment portions of the microgravity science and applications program, examines recent results, and outlines flights planned for the near future.

  13. Experiment 13: The Study of Dopant Segregation Behavior During the Growth of GaAs in Microgravity on USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, David H.; Kaforey, Monica L.; Bly, J. M.; Chait, Arnon; Kafalas, James; Carlson, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the segregation behavior of selenium doped gallium arsenide (Se/GaAs) during directional solidification in the microgravity environment was conducted using the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) aboard the second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). Two crystals were successfully processed on USML-2, which lasted from October 20 to November 7, 1995. The first sample was processed for 67 hours, 45 minutes (MET 5/04:53:45-8/00:23:50) and included 19 hours of growth at 0.5 microns/sec which yielded 3.42 cm of sample length, and 5 hours of growth at 1.5 microns/sec which yielded 2.7 cm of sample. During the second experiment, the furnace temperature was adjusted to move the melt-solid interface position towards the hot end of the furnace. The second sample was processed for 50 hours, 10 minutes (MET 8/18:48:49-10/21:58:54) and included 11 hours of growth at 0.5 microns/sec which yielded 1.98 cm of sample, and 1 hour, 25 minutes of growth at 5.0 microns/sec which yielded 2.6 cm of sample. This sample provides an order of magnitude change in growth rate and reproduces one of the growth rates used during USML-1. In contrast to the results from USML-1, no voids were present in either crystal grown on USML-2. The absence of voids in either sample indicates that growth rate changes alone were not responsible for the formation of voids found in the crystals grown on USML-1. Sections of the ground-based and flight crystals grown on USML-2 were cut and polished. All of the interface demarcation lines expected from the current pulse interface demarcation (CPID) system have been identified. These measurements have been analyzed for interface positions, interface shapes, and growth rates. Using a newly developed technique, based on experimental and numerical results, the seeding interface reproducibility from run to run was <= 2.5 mm. The seeding interface position could be controllably moved, with respect to the furnace zones, by adjusting the control

  14. Sheet-like and plume-like thermal flow in a spherical convection experiment performed under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, D.; Futterer, B.; Plesa, A.; Krebs, A.; Zaussinger, F.; Egbers, C.

    2013-12-01

    In mantle dynamics research, experiments, usually performed in rectangular geometries in Earth-based laboratories, have the character of ';exploring new physics and testing theories' [1]. In this work, we introduce our spherical geometry experiments on electro-hydrodynamical driven Rayleigh-Benard convection that have been performed for both temperature-independent (`GeoFlow I'), and temperature-dependent fluid viscosity properties (`GeoFlow II') with a measured viscosity contrast up to 1.5. To set up a self-gravitating force field, we use a high voltage potential between the inner and outer boundaries and a dielectric insulating liquid and perform the experiment under microgravity conditions at the ISS [2, 3]. Further, numerical simulations in 3D spherical geometry have been used to reproduce the results obtained in the `GeoFlow' experiments. For flow visualisation, we use Wollaston prism shearing interferometry which is an optical method producing fringe pattern images. Flow pattern differ between our two experiments (Fig. 1). In `GeoFlow I', we see a sheet-like thermal flow. In this case convection patterns have been successfully reproduced by 3D numerical simulations using two different and independently developed codes. In contrast, in `GeoFlow II' we obtain plume-like structures. Interestingly, numerical simulations do not yield this type of solution for the low viscosity contrast realised in the experiment. However, using a viscosity contrast of two orders of magnitude or higher, we can reproduce the patterns obtained in the `GeoFlow II' experiment, from which we conclude that non-linear effects shift the effective viscosity ratio [4]. References [1] A. Davaille and A. Limare (2009). In: Schubert, G., Bercovici, D. (Eds.), Treatise on Geophysics - Mantle Dynamics. [2] B. Futterer, C. Egbers, N. Dahley, S. Koch, L. Jehring (2010). Acta Astronautica 66, 193-100. [3] B. Futterer, N. Dahley, S. Koch, N. Scurtu, C. Egbers (2012). Acta Astronautica 71, 11-19. [4

  15. An application of miniscale experiments on Earth to refine microgravity analysis of adiabatic multiphase flow in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothe, Paul H.; Martin, Christine; Downing, Julie

    1994-01-01

    Adiabatic two-phase flow is of interest to the design of multiphase fluid and thermal management systems for spacecraft. This paper presents original data and unifies existing data for capillary tubes as a step toward assessing existing multiphase flow analysis and engineering software. Comparisons of theory with these data once again confirm the broad accuracy of the theory. Due to the simplicity and low cost of the capillary tube experiments, which were performed on earth, we were able to closely examine for the first time a flow situation that had not previously been examined appreciably by aircraft tests. This is the situation of a slug flow at high quality, near transition to annular flow. Our comparison of software calculations with these data revealed overprediction of pipeline pressure drop by up to a factor of three. In turn, this finding motivated a reexamination of the existing theory, and then development of a new analytical and is in far better agreement with the data. This sequence of discovery illustrates the role of inexpensive miniscale modeling on earth to anticipate microgravity behavior in space and to complete and help define needs for aircraft tests.

  16. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Chang, P.; T'ien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study both experimentally and numerically the behavior of a candle flame burning in a microgravity environment. Two space experiments (Shuttle and Mir) have shown the candle flame in microgravity to be small (approximately 1.5 cm diameter), dim blue, and hemispherical. Near steady flames with very long flame lifetimes (up to 45 minutes in some tests) existed for many of the tests. Most of the flames spontaneously oscillated with a period of approximately 1 Hz just prior to extinction). In a previous model of candle flame in microgravity, a porous sphere wetted with liquid fuel simulated the evaporating wick. The sphere, with a temperature equal to the boiling temperature of the fuel, was at the end of an inert cone that had a prescribed temperature. This inert cone produces the quenching effect of the candle wax in the real configuration. Although the computed flame shape resembled that observed in the microgravity experiment, the model was not able to differentiate the effect of wick geometry, e.g., a long vs. a short wick. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical model of the candle flame. The primary focus has been to more realistically account for the actual shape of the candle.

  17. Microgravity Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  18. Experiments And Model Development For The Investigation Of Sooting And Radiation Effects In Microgravity Droplet Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yozgatligil, Ahmet; Choi, Mun Young; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kazakov, Andrei; Dobashi, Ritsu

    2003-01-01

    This study involves flight experiments (for droplets between 1.5 to 5 mm) and supportive ground-based experiments, with concurrent numerical model development and validation. The experiments involve two fuels: n-heptane, and ethanol. The diagnostic measurements include light extinction for soot volume fraction, two-wavelength pyrometry and thin-filament pyrometry for temperature, spectral detection for OH chemiluminescence, broadband radiometry for flame emission, and thermophoretic sampling with subsequent transmission electron microscopy for soot aerosol property calculations.

  19. Institutional Glovebox Safety Committee (IGSC) Annual Report FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Peabody, Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Chemical and metallurgical operations involving plutonium, beryllium, and other materials in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons program account for most activities performed in gloveboxes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the month of January 2007, two workers were injured in separate glovebox operations in which a break in a glovebox glove resulted in plutonium penetration into the skin. As a corrective action, the Institutional Glovebox Safety Committee (IGSC) was created under the authority of the Institutional Worker Safety and Security Team (IWSST) with membership made up of those workers and/or managers representing glovebox operations across the Lab. Since then, the IGSC has made numerous inroads in the areas of glovebox operational issues, 'Lessons Learned', 'best practice', training, and unplanned glove openings. Communication of these topics improves the safety configuration of the glovebox system and contributes to the Lab's scientific and technological excellence by increasing its operational safety. In this report, highlights of the IGSC's first year, and assessment of its effectiveness, and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  20. Microgravity Flammability of PMMA Rods in Concurrent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity experiments burning cast PMMA cylindrical rods in axial flow have been conducted aboard the International Space Station in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility using the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) flow duct, as part of the BASS-II experiment. Twenty-four concurrent-flow tests were performed, focusing on finding flammability limits as a function of oxygen and flow speed. The oxygen was varied by using gaseous nitrogen to vitiate the working volume of the MSG. The speed of the flow parallel to the rod was varied using a fan at the entrance to the duct. Both blowoff and quenching limits were obtained at several oxygen concentrations. Each experiment ignited the rod at the initially hemispherical stagnation tip of the rod, and allowed the flame to develop and heat the rod at a sufficient flow to sustain burning. For blowoff limit tests, the astronaut quickly turned up the flow to obtain extinction. Complementary 5.18-second Zero Gravity Facility drop tests were conducted to compare blowoff limits in short and long duration microgravity. For quenching tests, the flow was incrementally turned down and the flame allowed to stabilize at the new flow condition for at least the solid-phase response time before changing it again. Quenching was observed when the flow became sufficiently weak that the flame could no longer provide adequate heat flux to compensate for the heat losses (conduction into the rod and radiation). A surface energy balance is presented that shows the surface radiative loss exceeds the conductive loss into the rod near the limit. The flammability boundary is shown to represent a critical Damkohler number, expressed in terms of the reaction rate divided by the stretch rate. For the blowoff branch, the boundary exhibits a linear dependence on oxygen concentration and stretch rate, indicating that the temperature at blowoff must be fairly constant. For the quenching branch, the dominance of the exponential nature of

  1. Confocal microscopy in microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.; Brakenhoff, G. J.; Woldringh, C. L.; Aalders, J. W. G.; Imhof, J. P.; van Kralingen, P.; Mels, W. A.; Schreinemakers, P.; Zegers, A.

    We have studied the application and the feasibility of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) in microgravity research. Its superior spatial resolution and 3D imaging capabilities and its use of light as a probe, render this instrument ideally suited for the study of living biological material on a (sub-)cellular level. In this paper a number of pertinent biological microgravity experiments is listed, concentrating on the direct observation of developing cells and cellular structures under microgravity condition. A conceptual instrument design is also presented, aimed at sounding rocket application followed by Biorack/Biolab application at a later stage.

  2. Minimizing glovebox glove breaches, Part 4: control charts

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Lee, M.B.; Schreiber, S.

    2007-07-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebox gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, e.g., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation determine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. (authors)

  3. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  4. Glovebox for GeoLab Subsystem in HDU1-PEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia; Calaway, Michael J.; Bell, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The GeoLab glovebox was designed to enable the preliminary examination, by astronauts, of geological samples collected from the surface of another planetary body. The collected information would then aid scientists in making decisions about sample curation and prioritization for return to Earth for study. This innovation was designed around a positive- pressure-enriched nitrogen environment glovebox to reduce sample handling contamination. The structure was custom-designed to fit in section H of NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit 1 Pressurized Excursion Module (HDU1- PEM). In addition, the glovebox was designed to host analytical instruments in a way that prevents sample contamination.

  5. The Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated

  6. Amphibian development in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of experiments performed by the U.S. Biosatellites 1 and 2 and the Gemini VIII and XII missions and by the Soviet Salyut and Soyuz missions on the effect of gravity on the development of prefertilized amphibian egg and, in particular, of the vestibular system of amphibian embryo are described. In these experiments, the condition of microgravity was reached only after the prefertilized eggs were in the early stages of first cell division or in the blastula stage. No significant changes were observed in the morphology of the embryos or in the vestibular system of embyos developed, respectively, for 2-5 days or 20 days under conditions of microgravity. Experiments planned for future spaceflights are discussed.

  7. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  8. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Don Gillies, a materials scientist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  9. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  10. Low impact plutonium glovebox D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A dilemma often encountered in decontamination and decommissioning operations is the lack of choice as to the location where the work is to be performed. Facility siting, laboratory location, and adjacent support areas were often determined based on criteria, which while appropriate at the time, are not always the most conducive to a D&D project. One must learn to adapt and cope with as found conditions. High priority research activities, which cannot be interrupted, may be occurring in adjacent non-radiological facilities in the immediate vicinity where highly contaminated materials must be handled in the course of a D&D operation. The execution of a project within such an environment involves a high level of coordination, cooperation, professionalism and flexibility among the project, the work force and the surrounding occupants. Simply moving occupants from the potentially affected area is not always an option and much consideration must be given in the selection of the D&D methodology to be employed and the processes to be implemented. Determining project boundaries and the ensuring that adjacent occupants are included in the planning/scheduling of specific operations which impact their work area are important in the development of the safety envelope. Such was the case in the recent D&D of 61 gloveboxes contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic nuclides at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site. The gloveboxes, which were used in Department of Energy research and development program activities over the past 30 years, were decontaminated to below transuranic waste criteria, size reduced, packaged and removed from Building 212 by Argonne National Laboratory personnel in conjunction with Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. with essentially no impact to adjacent occupants.

  11. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-03-11

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  12. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  13. Microgravity research at the University of Mexico: Experiments in payload G-006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta-Fabi, Ricardo; Mendieta-Jimenez, Javier

    1988-01-01

    The experiments contained in the G-006 payload related to thin film vapor deposition, vacuum variations in a chamber vented to space, solidification of a Zn-Al-Cu alloy, and multiple location temperature monitoring for thermal model validation are described in detail. A discussion of the expected results is presented, together with the methods selected to conduct the postflight analysis, and finally, a overview of the future activities in this field.

  14. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  15. MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS

    SciTech Connect

    COURNOYER, MICHAEL E.; LEE, MICHELLE B.; SCHREIBER, STEPHEN B.

    2007-02-05

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGIP) was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, i.e., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation detennine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

  16. Screening and Identification of Cryopreservative Agents for Human Cellular Biotechnology Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love,J.; Elliott, T.; Das, G. C.; Hammond, D. K.; Schwarzkopf, R. J.; Jones, L. B.; Baker, T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been used as a standard cryopreservative agent for mammalian cell culture; however, prolonged exposure of thawed cells to DMSO can alter cell growth. While DMSO is easily eliminated in ground-based experiments, removal of DMSO in flight-based experiments is more difficult due to various on-orbit constraints. Failure of cryopreservation is due to a number of factors, including intracellular ice formation, solute effect, and apoptotic cell death following thawing. One objective of this study is to identify and characterize an alternative cryopreservative that could be used on the International Space Station (ISS). We systematically screened for potential permeating and non-permeating agents using a human colorectal carcinoma cell line, MIP-101. Cells were suspended in cryopreservation solution and frozen either following a two-step procedure involving initial cooling at -1 C/min overnight followed by storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor, or by freezing cells directly in the LN2 vapor phase at -10 C/min. Ability to preserve cellular function after one cycle of freeze-thawing was assessed by the recovery of viable cells in short and long-term cell culture experiments. Results showed that permeating preservatives glycerol (G) and ethylene glycol (EG) had an efficacy (80-110%) comparable to, if not better than, 7.5% DMSO; but, propylene glycol (PG) had a somewhat lesser efficacy. Among the non-permeating preservatives, trehalose, raffinose, and dextran exhibited significant protective effect (50-80%) relative to that offered by 7.5% DMSO, but at -10 C and not at -1 C/min cooling rate. Preliminary data thus suggest that a combination of permeating and non-permeating agents may have improved efficacy as a cryoprotectant and serve as an alternate to DMSO for experimentation on ISS.

  17. Structural and Dynamic Phenomena in the ``Plasma Kristall-4'' Experiments under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Thoma, M. H.; Höfner, H.; Kretschmer, M.; Fink, M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-11-01

    New results from the recent experiments using the "Plasma Kristall-4", "PK-4", onboard of the parabolic flight plane A-300 Zero-G are presented. These are: a) structural and dynamics properties of dusty plasma clouds containing elongated dust particles—microrods; b) formation of a boundary-free dust cluster due to attractive forces caused by ion fluxes in a bulk plasma region; c) shock wave in dusty plasma driven by the electrical manipulative electrode in polarity switching direct current discharge. Physical models of the observed phenomena are presented and discussed. Universal possibilities of the "PK-4" setup are demonstrated.

  18. Results from On-Board CSA-CP and CDM Sensor Readings During the Burning and Suppression of Solids II (BASS-II) Experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Miller, Fletcher J.; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Link, Shmuel; T'ien, James S.; Wichman, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    For the first time on ISS, BASS-II utilized MSG working volume dilution with gaseous nitrogen (N2). We developed a perfectly stirred reactor model to determine the N2 flow time and flow rate to obtain the desired reduced oxygen concentration in the working volume for each test. We calibrated the model with CSA-CP oxygen readings offset using the Mass Constituents Analyzer reading of the ISS ambient atmosphere data for that day. This worked out extremely well for operations, and added a new vital variable, ambient oxygen level, to our test matrices. The main variables tested in BASS-II were ambient oxygen concentration, ventilation flow velocity, and fuel type, thickness, and geometry. BASS-II also utilized the on-board CSA-CP for oxygen and carbon monoxide readings, and the CDM for carbon dioxide readings before and after each test. Readings from these sensors allow us to evaluate the completeness of the combustion. The oxygen and carbon dioxide readings before and after each test were analyzed and compared very well to stoichiometric ratios for a one step gas-phase reaction. The CO versus CO2 followed a linear trend for some datasets, but not for all the different geometries of fuel and flow tested. Lastly, we calculated the heat release rates during each test from the oxygen consumption and burn times, using the constant 13.1 kJ of heat released per gram of oxygen consumed. The results showed that the majority of the tests had heat release rates well below 100 Watts.

  19. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  20. Protein crystallization in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Aibara, S; Shibata, K; Morita, Y

    1997-12-01

    A space experiment involving protein crystallization was conducted in a microgravity environment using the space shuttle "Endeavour" of STS-47, on a 9-day mission from September 12th to 20th in 1992. The crystallization was carried out according to a batch method, and 5 proteins were selected as flight samples for crystallization. Two of these proteins: hen egg-white lysozyme and co-amino acid: pyruvate aminotransferase from Pseudomonas sp. F-126, were obtained as single crystals of good diffraction quality. Since 1992 we have carried out several space experiments for protein crystallization aboard space shuttles and the space station MIR. Our experimental results obtained mainly from hen egg-white lysozyme are described below, focusing on the effects of microgravity on protein crystal growth.

  1. Bubble-Free Containers For Liquids In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, Dale M.; Antar, Basil L.

    1995-01-01

    Reports discuss entrainment of gas bubbles during handling of liquids in microgravity, and one report proposes containers filled with liquids in microgravity without entraining bubbles. Bubbles are troublesome in low-gravity experiments - particularly in biological experiments. Wire-mesh cage retains liquid contents without solid wall, because in microgravity, surface tension of liquid exerts sufficient confining force.

  2. Microgravity Program strategic plan, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The all encompassing objective of the NASA Microgravity Program is the use of space as a lab to conduct research and development. The on-orbit microgravity environment, with its substantially reduced buoyancy forces, hydrostatic pressures, and sedimentation, enables the conduction of scientific studies not possible on Earth. This environment allows processes to be isolated and controlled with an accuracy that cannot be obtained in the terrestrial environment. The Microgravity Science and Applications Div. has defined three major science categories in order to develop a program structure: fundamental science, including the study of the behavior of fluids, transport phenomena, condensed matter physics, and combustion science; materials science, including electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics; and biotechnology, focusing on macromolecular crystal growth as well as cell and molecular science. Experiments in these areas seek to provide observations of complex phenomena and measurements of physical attributes with a precision that is enabled by the microgravity environment.

  3. Interpreting the International Space Station Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric M.; Humphreys, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. A physical environment with very low-levels of acceleration and vibration has been accomplished by both the free fall associated with orbital flight and the design of the International Space Station. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. The Space Acceleration Measurement System has been in operation for nearly four years on the ISS measuring the microgravity environment in support of principal investigators and to characterize the ISS microgravity environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project functions as a detective to ascertain the source of disturbances seen in the ISS microgravity environment to allow correlation between that environment and experimental data. Payload developers need to predict the microgravity environment that will be imposed upon an experiment and ensure that the science and engineering requirements will be met. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is developing n interactive tool to predict the microgravity environment at science payloads based on user defined operational scenarios. These operations (predictions and post-analyses) allow a researcher to examine the microgravity acceleration levels expected to exist when their experiment is operated and then receive an analysis of the environment which existed during their experiment operations. Presented in this paper will be descriptions of the environment predictive tool and an investigation into a previously unknown disturbance in the ISS microgravity environment.

  4. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  5. Experiment on aggregation of red cells under microgravity on STS 51-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dintenfass, L.; Osman, P.; Maguire, B.; Jedrzejczyk, H.

    Kinetics and morphology of aggregation of red cells were studied using automatic slit-capillary photo-viscometers, one situated on the middeck of the space shuttle `Discovery', and the other in the ground laboratory at KSC. Experiments were run simultaneously, blood samples being adjusted to haematocrit of 0.30 using native plasma, at temp. of 25°C, and anticoagulated by EDTA. Donors included patients with myocardial infarction, insulin-dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Macro and microphotographs were obtained during flow and statis. There was a striking difference in the morphology of aggregates formed in space and on the ground. Aggregates formed under zero gravity showed rouleaux formation, while the same blood samples showed severe clumping on the ground, in all patients blood. Normal blood showed rouleaux on the ground, but a random swarm-like pattern in space. The shape of the red cells remained normal under zero gravity.

  6. Retrofit of an Engineered Glove-port to a Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Rael, P.E.D.; Cournoyer, M.E.Ph.D.; Chunglo, S.D.; Vigil, T.J.; Schreiber, P.E.S.

    2008-07-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility (TA-55), various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are routinely handled such that the spread of radiological contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox coupled with adequate negativity providing primary confinement). The current technique for changing glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. 1300 pairs of gloves are replaced each year at TA-55, generating approximately 500 m{sup 3}/yr of transuranic (TRU) waste and Low Level Waste (LLW) waste that represents an annual disposal cost of about 4 million dollars. By retrofitting the LANL 8'' glove-port ring, a modern 'Push-Through' technology is utilized. This 'Push-Through' technology allows relatively fast glove changes to be done by operators with much less training and experience and without breaching containment. A dramatic reduction in waste is realized; exposure of the worker to residual contamination reduced, and the number of breaches due to installation issues is eliminated. In the following presentation, the evolution of the 'Push- Through' technology, the features of the glove-port retrofit, and waste savings are discussed. (author)

  7. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  8. Extensional Rheology Experiment Developed to Investigate the Rheology of Dilute Polymer Solutions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, Kirk A.

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of fluid is viscosity; that is, the fluid resists forces that cause it to flow. This characteristic, or parameter, is used by manufacturers and end-users to describe the physical properties of a specific material so that they know what to expect when a material, such as a polymer, is processed through an extruder, a film blower, or a fiber-spinning apparatus. Normally, researchers will report a shear viscosity that depends on the rate of an imposed shearing flow. Although this type of characterization is sufficient for some processes, simple shearing experiments do not provide a complete picture of what a processor may expect for all materials. Extensional stretching flows are common in many polymer-processing operations such as extrusion, blow molding, and fiber spinning. Therefore, knowledge of the complete rheological (ability to flow and be deformed) properties of the polymeric fluid being processed is required to accurately predict and account for the flow behavior. In addition, if numerical simulations are ever able to serve as a priori design tools for optimizing polymer processing operations such as those described above, an accurate knowledge of the extensional viscosity of a polymer system and its variation with temperature, concentration, molecular weight, and strain rate is critical.

  9. Vapor Growth of Binary and Ternary Chalcogenides in Preparation for Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the bulk crystal growth of some technologically important semiconducting chalcopyrites, such as ZnTe, CdS, ZnSe and ZnS, vapor growth techniques have significant advantages over melt growth techniques due to the high melting points of these materials. The realization of routine production of high-quality single crystals of these semiconductors requires a fundamental, systematic and in-depth study on the PVT growth process and crystal growth by vapor transport in low gravity offers a set of unique conditions for this study. Previously, two reasons have been put forward to account for this. The first is weight-related reductions in crystal strain and defects. These are thought to be caused by the weight of the crystals during processing at elevated temperatures and retained on cooling, particularly for materials with a low yield strength. The second, and more general, reason is related to the reduction in density-gradient driven convection. The PVT crystal growth process consists of essentially three processes: sublimation of the source material, transport of the vapor species and condensation of the vapor species to form the crystal. The latter two processes can be affected by the convection caused by gravitational accelerations on Earth. Reductions in such convection in low gravity is expected to yield a nearly diffusion-limited growth condition which results in more uniform growth rates (on the microscopic scale) and hence greater crystalline perfection and compositional homogeneity. The reduction of convective contamination by performing flight experiments in a reduced gravity environment will help to understand the relation between fluid phase processes (growth parameters) and defect and impurity incorporation in grown crystals.

  10. Microgravity and Macromolecular Crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Snell, Edward H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Macromolecular crystal growth has been seen as an ideal experiment to make use of the reduced acceleration environment provided by an orbiting spacecraft. The experiments are small, simply operated and have a high potential scientific and economic impact. In this review we examine the theoretical reasons why microgravity should be a beneficial environment for crystal growth and survey the history of experiments on the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on unmanned spacecraft, and on the Mir space station. Finally we outline the direction for optimizing the future use of orbiting platforms.

  11. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  12. Determining the Radiation Damage Effect on Glovebox Glove Material.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Balkey, J. J.; Andrade, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Material Technology (NMT) Division has the largest inventory of glove box gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The minimization of unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures, is a primary concern in the daily operations in NMT Division facilities, including the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at TA-55 and Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility. Glovebox gloves in these facilities are exposed to elevated temperatures and exceptionally aggressive radiation environments (particulate {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu). Predictive models are needed to estimate glovebox glove service lifetimes, i.e. change-out intervals. Towards this aim aging studies have been initiated that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on previously reported mechanical data of thermally aged hypalon glove samples. Specifications for 30 mil tri-layered hypalon/lead glovebox gloves (TLH) and 15 mil hypalon gloves (HYP) have already been established. The relevant mechanical properties are shown on Table 1. Tensile strength is defined as the maximum load applied in breaking a tensile test piece divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece (Also termed maximum stress and ultimate tensile stress). Ultimate elongation is the elongation at time of rupture (Also termed maximum strain). The specification for the tensile test and ultimate elongation are the minimum acceptable values. In addition, the ultimate elongation must not vary 20% from the original value. In order to establish a service lifetimes for glovebox gloves in a thermal environment, the mechanical properties of glovebox glove materials were studied.

  13. Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI): An International Space Station Glovebox Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A.; Jeter, L.; Luz, P.; Volz, M. P.; Spivey, R.; Smith, G.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. It is detrimental to material properties and precludes obtaining meaningful scientific results. On Earth, density differences allow an initiated bubble can rise through the liquid and "pop" at the surface resulting in a sound casting. This is not likely to occur in a microgravity environment and, unfortunately, a number of experiments conducted in microgravity have suffered from porosity effects. The current investigation is a systematic effort towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification in a microgravity environment. This will be investigated by utilizing a transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. The talk will cover the porosity problem, the details of the proposed experiments and the experimental hardware, and the expectations from the microgravity experiments.

  14. Computer modeling for optimal placement of gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Hench, K.W.; Olivas, J.D.; Finch, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components (pits) in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. Historically, the location of gloveboxes in a processing area has been determined without benefit of industrial engineering studies to ascertain the optimal arrangement. The opportunity exists for substantial cost savings and increased process efficiency through careful study and optimization of the proposed layout by constructing a computer model of the fabrication process. This paper presents an integrative two- stage approach to modeling the casting operation for pit fabrication. The first stage uses a mathematical technique for the formulation of the facility layout problem; the solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a computer simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.

  15. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    As part of the characterization of various glovebox glove material from four vendors, the permeability of gas through each type as a function of temperature was determined and a discontinuity in the permeability with temperature was revealed. A series of tests to determine the viscoelastic properties of the glove materials as a function of temperature using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was initiated. The glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were -60 C for butyl, -30 C for polyurethane, -16 C Hypalon{reg_sign}, - 16 C for Viton{reg_sign}, and -24 C for polyurethane-Hypalon{reg_sign}. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} and butyl-Viton{reg_sign} composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

  16. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 1; Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Vale, W.; Sawchenko, P.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular, and endocrine system of the rat occur as a result of short-term spaceflight. Since pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of these systems, and since the results of an earlier spaceflight mission (Spacelab 3, 1985) showed that GH cell function was compromised in a number of post-flight tests, we repeated and extended the 1985 experiment in two subsequent spaceflights: the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 (in 1987) and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 (in 1989). The results of these later two flight experiments are the subject of this report. They document repeatable and significant changes in the GH cell system of the spaceflown rat in several post-flight tests.

  17. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for th legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU's).

  18. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Research Plans for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    A peer-reviewed research program in Microgravity Combustion Science has been chartered by the Physical Sciences Research Division of the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research. The scope of these investigations address both fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics of interest to NASA. From this pool of research, flight investigations are selected which benefit from access to a microgravity environment. Fundamental research provides insights to develop accurate simulations of complex combustion processes and allows developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion (fires, explosions). Through its spacecraft fire safety program, applied research is conducted to decrease risks to humans living and working in space. The Microgravity Combustion Science program implements a structured flight research process utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) and two of its premier facilities- the Combustion Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility and the Microgravity Science Glovebox - to conduct space-based research investigations. This paper reviews the current plans for Microgravity Combustion Science research on the International Space Station from 2003 through 2012.

  19. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.; Schreiber, S.

    2006-07-01

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMT Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)

  20. Coarsening Experiment Prepared for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures-2 (CSLM-2) experiment is a materials science spaceflight experiment whose purpose is to investigate the kinetics of competitive particle growth within a liquid matrix. During coarsening, small particles shrink by losing atoms to larger particles, causing the larger particles to grow. In this experiment, solid particles of tin will grow (coarsen) within a liquid lead-tin eutectic matrix. The following figures show the coarsening of tin particles in a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) eutectic as a function of time. By conducting this experiment in a microgravity environment, we can study a greater range of solid volume fractions, and the effects of sedimentation present in terrestrial experiments will be negligible. The CSLM-2 experiment flew November 2002 on space shuttle flight STS-113 for operation on the International Space Station, but it could not be run because of problems with the Microgravity Science Glovebox in the U.S. Laboratory module. Additional samples will be sent to ISS on subsequent shuttle flights.

  1. Comparison of deliverable and exhaustible pressurized air flow rates in laboratory gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate the maximum credible flow rates of pressurized air into Plutonium Process Support Laboratories gloveboxes. Classical equations for compressible fluids were used to estimate the flow rates. The calculated maxima were compared to another`s estimates of glovebox exhaust flow rates and corresponding glovebox internal pressures. No credible pressurized air flow rate will pressurize a glovebox beyond normal operating limits. Unrestricted use of the pressurized air supply is recommended.

  2. The TRIPLE LUX-A Experiment for BIOLAB/ISS- Combined Effects of Microgravity and Cosmic Radiation on the Oxidative Burst of Mammalian Macrophageal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, K.; Sromicki, J.; Hock, B.; Ullrich, O.

    2008-06-01

    Phagocytes, the prominent cells of innate immunity, are responsible for the removal of foreign invaders, apoptotic as well as cancer cells. In a flight experiment in the BIOLAB facility on the ISS we will investigate the combined effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the oxidative burst, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), of the macrophageal cell line NR8383. A chemiluminescence assay (luminol) is used to determine the amount of ROS during phagocytosis of zymosan in a kinetic approach. Ground control experiments for the TRIPLE LUX-A flight experiment on a fast rotating 2D clinostat showed that the selected cell line responds to simulated weightlessness by an increase of ROS production.

  3. Effect of Microgravity on Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were inoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Inoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNAlater(tM) by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C. S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and groundgrown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(tm) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Preliminary analysis' of Experiment 1 confirms that

  4. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  5. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  6. Candle Flames in Microgravity: USML-1 Results - 1 Year Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Dietrich, D. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the sustained behavior of a candle flame in microgravity determined in the glovebox facility aboard the First United States Microgravity Labomtofy. In a quiescent, microgmvjfy environment, diffusive transport becomes the dominant mode of heat and mass transfer; whether the diffusive transport rate is fast enough to sustain low-gravity candle flames in air was unknown to this series of about 70 tests. After an initial transient in which soot is observed, the microgravity candle flame in air becomes and remains hemispherical and blue (apparently soot-Ne) with a large flame standoff distance. Near flame extinction, spontaneous flame oscillations are regularly observed; these are explained as a flashback of flame through a premixed combustible gas followed by a retreat owed to flame quenching. The frequency of oscillations can be related to diffusive transport rates, and not to residual buoyant convective flow. The fact that the flame tip is the last point of the flame to survive suggests that it is the location of maximum fuel reactivity; this is unlike normal gravity, where the location of maximum fuel reactivity is the flame base. The flame color, size, and shape behaved in a quasi-steady manner; the finite size of the glovebox, combined with the restricted passages of the candlebox, inhibited the observation of true steady-state burning. Nonetheless, through calculations, and inference from the series of shuttle tests, if is concluded that a candle can burn indefinitely in a large enough ambient of air in microgravity. After igniting one candle, a second candle in close pximity could not be lit. This may be due to wax coating the wick and/or local oxygen depletion around the second, unlit candle. Post-mission testing suggests that simultaneous ignition may overcome these behaviors and enable both candles to be ignited.

  7. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  8. The Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Goulart, Carla V.

    1992-01-01

    Crew operations associated with nonhuman life sciences research on Space Station Freedom will be conducted in the Life Sciences Glovebox, whose enclosed work volume must accommodate numerous life science procedures. Two candidate Glovebox work volume concepts have been developed: one in which two operators work side-by-side, and another that conforms to the reach envelope of a single operator. Six test volunteers tested the concepts according to preestablished operational criteria. The wrap-around, single-operator concept has been judged the superior system.

  9. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  10. 30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS WERE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE AT THE PLANT, BECAUSE OF THE RADIOACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS USED. PLUTONIUM GIVES OFF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES, GAMMA PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND IS ALSO PYROPHORIC. AS A RESULT, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS THAT INCLUDE CONTAINMENT, FILTERING, SHIELDING, AND CREATING AN INERT ATMOSPHERE. PLUTONIUM WAS HANDLED WITHIN GLOVEBOXES THAT WERE INTERCONNECTED AND RAN SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET IN LENGTH (5/5/70). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. NASA PPO microgravity projects support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Janice F.

    1993-01-01

    Work progress is reported in brief. A summary of this information is provided below. An in-depth study was performed to evaluate a new European designed Borack Freezer/Cooler for possible shuttle middeck flight to support advanced protein crystal growth (APCG) experimentation. A statement of work was prepared for the design and development of a glovebox for proposed flight in the shuttle middeck. Work was also initiated to perform an analysis of low-g accelerometer data relative to Fluid Experiment System (FES) experiment options on the IML-1 mission. This work was undertaken in an effort to determine if abnormally low-g accelerations during the mission were responsible for anomalies which occurred during FES/Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) experiment operations. A comprehensive review was made on a revised edition of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual.

  12. Direct Observation of Controlled Melting and Resolidification of Succinonitrile Mixtures in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Lee, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    In support of the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) direct observation of experiments on the controlled melting and subsequent resolidification of succinonitrile were conducted in the glovebox facility (GBX) of the International Space Station (ISS). Samples were prepared on ground by filling glass tubes, 1 cm ID and approximately 30 cm in length, with pure succinonitrile (SCN) and SCN-Water mixtures under 450 millibar of nitrogen. Experimental processing parameters of temperature gradient and translation speed, as well as camera settings, were remotely monitored and manipulated from the ground Telescience Center (TSC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Sample temperatures are monitored by six in situ thermocouples. Real time visualization during melt back revealed bubbles of different sizes initiating at the solid/liquid interface, their release, interactions, and movement into the temperature field ahead of them. Subsequent re-solidification examined planar interface breakdown and the transition to steady-state dendritic growth. A preliminary analysis of the observed phenomena and its implication to future microgravity experiments is presented and discussed.

  13. Lessons from the space experiment SL-J/FMPT/L7: the effect of microgravity on chicken embryogenesis and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Suda, T

    1998-05-01

    Thirty fertilized chicken eggs preincubated for 0, 7, and 10 days on earth (10 eggs each) were flown in the space shuttle "Endeavour" and further incubated for 7 days under microgravity. Twenty out of 30 eggs (nine out of ten 10-day-old eggs; 10 out of ten 7-day-old eggs; 1 out of ten 0-day-old eggs) were recovered alive after landing. The only living embryo of the 0-day-old egg died 24 days after launch, and was comparable to a 16-day-old embryo when it died. The high mortality of the 0-day-old eggs appeared to be related to the specific inner structure of the egg. The yolk (specific gravity, 1.029) would not have separated from the albumen (1.040) during space flight. The subtle difference in specific gravity between the yolk and the albumen appeared to play a critical role in early chick embryogenesis. All the tissues, including cartilage and bone, were formed normally in 7- and 10-day-old chicken embryos during space flight. When the 7- and 10-day-old embryos recovered at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) were further incubated on earth, they hatched normally. No appreciable changes were recognized in these chicks. The reason for these unexpected results is not known. Further space experiments are needed to explain the failure of the effects of microgravity on chicken embryogenesis.

  14. Crystallization of Hard Sphere Colloids in Microgravity: Results of the Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition, CDOT on USML-2. Experiment 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Chaikin, P. M.; Li, Min; Russel, W. B.; Ottewill, R. H.; Rogers, R.; Meyer, W. V.

    1998-01-01

    Classical hard spheres have long served as a paradigm for our understanding of the structure of liquids, crystals, and glasses and the transitions between these phases. Ground-based experiments have demonstrated that suspensions of uniform polymer colloids are near-ideal physical realizations of hard spheres. However, gravity appears to play a significant and unexpected role in the formation and structure of these colloidal crystals. In the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle, crystals grow purely via random stacking of hexagonal close-packed planes, lacking any of the face-centered cubic (FCC) component evident in crystals grown in 1 g beyond melting and allowed some time to settle. Gravity also masks 33-539 the natural growth instabilities of the hard sphere crystals which exhibit striking dendritic arms when grown in microgravity. Finally, high volume fraction "glass" samples which fail to crystallize after more than a year in 1 g begin nucleation after several days and fully crystallize in less than 2 weeks on the Space Shuttle.

  15. Electrocrystallization in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Electrocrystallization under microgravity conditions is proposed as a potential method of crystallization that would be almost completely free of fluid convection. Such crystallization may result in purer, more perfect, and larger crystals than is possible under normal gravity conditions. Observations made and data collected during the crystallization process under convection-free conditions should add to our knowledge of the crystallization process. The proposed method would allow easy comparison of crystals growth in space with those grown under normal gravity conditions. Nine types of electrocrystallization are presented: an example of each is discussed. Electrocrystallization is compared with the compartmental crystallization method used by 3M Corporation in recent shuttle experiments.

  16. Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The MSL-1 payload first flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-83) April 4-8, 1997. Due to a fuel cell problem, the mission was cut short, and the payload flew again on Columbia (STS-94) July 1-17, 1997. The MSL-1 investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Twenty-nine experiments were performed and represented disciplines such as fluid physics, combustion, materials science, biotechnology, and plant growth. Four accelerometers were used to record and characterize the microgravity environment. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  17. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Smith, Craig D.; Smith, H. Wilson; Vijay-Kumar, Senadhi; Senadhi, Shobha E.; Ealick, Steven E.; Carter, Daniel C.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    The crystals of most proteins or other biological macromolecules are poorly ordered and diffract to lower resolutions than those observed for most crystals of simple organic and inorganic compounds. Crystallization in the microgravity environment of space may improve crystal quality by eliminating convection effects near growing crystal surfaces. A series of 11 different protein crystal growth experiments was performed on U.S. Space Shuttle flight STS-26 in September 1988. The microgravity-grown crystals of gamma-interferon D1, porcine elastase, and isocitrate lyase are larger, display more uniform morphologies, and yield diffraction data to significantly higher resolutions than the best crystals of these proteins grown on earth.

  18. Microgravity Researchers to Investigate Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide -- a semiconductor material -- can be grown in nanoclusters. Small molecules of cadmium sulfide, shown here, can be prepared by traditional chemical methods. However, if larger, more uniform nanoparticles of cadmium sulfide could be fabricated, they may be used to improve electronic devices such as light emitting diodes and diode lasers. Using a NASA grant, Dr. Jimmy Mays of the University of Alabama at Birmingham is studying whether microgravity will enhance the size and shape of a nanoparticle. This experiment is managed by the Microgravity Research Program Office at NASA's Marshall Spce Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  19. [Adaptation to new environments: microgravity].

    PubMed

    Serova, L V

    2005-01-01

    Review and analysis of the experiments with Wastar rats in microgravity onboard "Cosmos" biosatellites allows to conclude that adaptive potentials of mammals in space flights lasting up to 1/50 th of their life span are enough for rapid elimination of microgravity-induced metabolic and structural alterations on return to Earth, for maintenance of adequate reactions to acute and chronic stressors in the post-flight period, for normal reproductive function and life span. Consideration is given to individual differences in body responses to the micro-g environment.

  20. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  1. Polydiacetylene Films Prepared in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Naumann, Robert J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A diffusive/kinetic rate equation was developed for the growth of polydiacetylene films from solution and compared with a microgravity experiment. The model takes into account both the kinetics of thin film growth and the diffusive transport limitations inherent to microgravity. In order to apply this model, measurements of the density and the ultraviolet extinction coefficient of the films, as well as of the diffusion coefficient of the monomer/solvent system, were made. The thin films grown in microgravity were predicted by the model to grow to a thickness of 0.148 micron, versus 0.150 micron for the ground control films. The flight films grew to 0.102 micron.

  2. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  3. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  4. Supercritical microgravity droplet vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, J.; Curtis, E.; Farrell, P.

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical droplet vaporization is an important issue in many combustion systems, such as liquid fueled rockets and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. In order to study the details of droplet behavior at these conditions, an experiment was designed to provide a gas phase environment which is above the critical pressure and critical temperature of a single liquid droplet. In general, the droplet begins as a cold droplet in the hot, high pressure environment. In order to eliminate disruptions to the droplet by convective motion in the gas, forced and natural convection gas motion are required to be small. Implementation of this requirement for forced convection is straightforward, while reduction of natural convection is achieved by reduction in the g-level for the experiment. The resulting experiment consists of a rig which can stably position a droplet without restraint in a high-pressure, high temperature gas field in microgravity. The microgravity field is currently achieved by dropping the device in the NASA Lewis 2.2 second drop tower. The performance of the experimental device and results to date are presented.

  5. Critical dynamics in microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, R.; Boyd, S.; Akau, R.; Gianoulakis, S.

    1996-05-01

    Although many well-controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven very far away from equilibrium as the transition occurs. Here we propose to measure the thermal gradient across the superfluid (HeII)-normal fluid (HeI) interface in microgravity conditions as a function of the heat flux Q used to make the measurements. Microgravity conditions are required (1) to avoid the hydrostatic pressure variation along the height of the helium column (a concern for Q<0.1 {mu}W {center_dot}cm {sup {minus}2}), (2) avoid convection in He-I for Q> 3 {mu}W {center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} in our apparatus, and (3) to increase the Q=O interfacial width from its value of a few tens of microns on Earth to about a millimeter in orbit. New technologies described in this paper are under development for this experiment, which is in definition for Space Shuttle flight.

  6. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  7. Glovebox characterization and barrier integrity testing using fluorescent powder

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing the spread of contamination and testing the barrier integrity of a new glovebox during material transfer operations and glove change-outs using fluorescent powder. Argonne National Laboratory-West has performed this test on several new gloveboxes prior to putting them into service. The test is performed after the glovebox has been leak tested and all systems have been verified to be operational. The purpose of the test is to show that bag-in/bag-out operations and glove change-outs can be accomplished without spreading the actual contaminated material to non-contaminated areas. The characterization test also provides information as to where contamination might be expected to build-up during actual operations. The fluorescent powder is used because it is easily detectable using an ultra-violet light and disperses in a similar fashion to radioactive material. The characterization and barrier integrity test of a glovebox using fluorescent powder provides a visual method of determining areas of potential contamination accumulation and helps evaluate the ability to perform clean transfer operations and glove change-outs.

  8. Preparation of a glovebox for casting enriched plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronquillo, R. D.; Trujillo, C. M.; Trujillo, C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Prepare existing glovebox for casting, heat treating and storing enriched plutonium, Upgrade seismic systems to reduce dispersion hazard, Upgrade atmospheric systems to reduce oxidation of plutonium, Upgrade vacuum system to prevent oxidation, InstalI/upgrade induction heating systems to melt plutonium and heat mold

  9. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  10. DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost.

  11. Secondary metabolism in simulated microgravity and space flight.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin

    2011-11-01

    Space flight experiments have suggested that microgravity can affect cellular processes in microorganisms. To simulate the microgravity environment on earth, several models have been developed and applied to examine the effect of microgravity on secondary metabolism. In this paper, studies of effects of space flight on secondary metabolism are exemplified and reviewed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the current models used for simulating microgravity. This discussion is both significant and timely to researchers considering the use of simulated microgravity or space flight to explore effects of weightlessness on secondary metabolism. PMID:22180084

  12. Side-wall gas 'creep' and 'thermal stress convection' in microgravity experiments on film growth by vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1989-01-01

    While 'no-slip' boundary conditions and the Navier-Stokes equations of continuum fluid mechanics have served the vapor transport community well until now, it is pointed out that transport conditions within highly nonisothermal ampoules are such that the nonisothermal side walls 'drive' the dominant convective flow, and the familiar Stokes-Fourier-Fick laws governing the molecular fluxes of momentum, energy, and (species) mass in the 'continuum' field equations will often prove to be inadequate, even at Knudsen numbers as small as 0.001. The implications of these interesting gas kinetic phenomena under microgravity conditions, and even under 'earth-bound' experimental conditions, are outlined here, along with a tractable approach to their systematic treatment.

  13. Diffusive transport processes in microgravity: the DCMIX project and the path to DCMIX-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triller, Thomas; Köhler, Werner

    2016-07-01

    Thermodiffusion describes the demixing of a system under the influence of an external temperature gradient which drives diffusive mass fluxes. Over the years, several (ground based) optical techniques have been employed for measuring thermodiffusion: Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering (TDFRS), Optical Digital Interferometry (ODI) or Optical Beam Deflection (OBD). Most of these experiments use the same mechanism for the detection of demixing: light passes through a thermodiffusion cell, in which a well defined temperature gradient is applied on the sample. Diffusive fluxes change the concentration profile across the cell, and therefore the refractive index profile. This refractive index change is detected and mapped to the concentration using proper optical contrast factors. In particular ternary and higher multicomponent systems can suffer from thermosolutal convective instabilities. Therefore, the DCMIX project, a collaboration between several international research teams, ESA and Roscosmos, spearheads a measurement campaign on the ISS, utilizing SODI (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox. Several ternary mixtures have been selected for measurement, all exhibiting unique properties. DCMIX-1 consisted of tetralin/isobutylbenzene/dodecane, a good model for hydrocarbon mixtures. DCMIX-2 was the system toluene/methanol/cyclohexane, which has a miscibility gap and allows to study critical behavior. DCMIX-3 is planned for the end of 2016 and will be an aqueous mixture of water/ethanol/triethylene-glycol. After a setback in 2014, when DCMIX-3 samples were lost with the explosion of the unmanned Orb3 vehicle, the project is now underway and will be ready for analysis at the beginning of 2017. As preparation for this, the methodology developed for data analysis has been applied to the DCMIX-1 data, especially aiming for the identification of stable quantities, which allow utilization of

  14. Cytopathologic observations of the lung of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster) on-board the space shuttle, Columbia, during the Second International Microgravity Laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Yamashita, M; Izumi-Kurotani, A; Koike, H; Asashima, M

    1995-10-01

    Four adult female Japanese newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, were carried for 15 days aboard the orbiting space shuttle, Columbia, in July of 1994, as part of the Second International Microgravity Laboratory, IML-2 aquatic animal experiments. These previously fertilized newts, after stimulation with chorionic gonadotropin by a spaceflight adapted injection procedure, deposited numerous eggs for study of early development during weightlessness. The primitive saccular lungs of the two newts which survived the spaceflight revealed by TEM marked pulmonary cytopathologic changes including basal laminar separation, microvillar degeneration, and cytoplasmic granular changes in the primary granulated pneumocytes. Also, intracellular edema in the pulmonary collagenous matrix and vacuolar changes in the ciliated pulmonary lining cell type and in vascular endothelial cells were observed. These changes, triggered by the spaceflight, and not seen in controls also relying on respiration via the skin, may reflect a chronic mild hypoxia as it is known that newts undergoing oviposition are subject to increased oxygen demand.

  15. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  16. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  17. Burning in Outer Space: Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard; Aldushin, Anatoly

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of combustion can lead to significant technological advances, such as less polluting, more fuel-efficient vehicles. Unfortunately, gravity can interfere with the study of combustion. Gravity drags down gases that are cooler- and, therefore, denser-than heated gases. This movement mixes the fuel and the oxidizer substance that promotes burning. Because of this mixing, an observer cannot necessarily distinguish what is happening as a result of the natural combustion process and what is caused, by the pull of gravity. To remove this uncertainty, scientists can conduct experiments that simulate the negation of gravity through freefall. This condition is known as a microgravity environment. A micro-gravity experiment may take place in a chamber that is dropped down a hole or from a high-speed drop tower. The experiment also be conducted in an airplane or a rocket during freefall in a parabolic flight path. This method provides less than a minute of microgravity at most. An experiment that requires the prolonged absence of gravity may necessitate the use of an orbiting spacecraft as a venue. However, access to an orbital laboratory is difficult to acquire. High-end computing centers such as the NCCS can provide a practical alternative to operating in microgravity. Scientists can model phenomena such as combustion without gravitys observational interference. The study of microgravity combustion produces important benefits beyond increased observational accuracy. Certain valuable materials that are produced through combustion can be formed with a more uniform crystal structure-and, therefore, improved structural quality-when the pull of gravity is removed. Furthermore, understanding how fires propagate in the absence of gravity can improve fire safety aboard spacecraft.

  18. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  19. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Apel, D M; Neal, G E; Castro, J M; Michelotti, R A

    2010-01-21

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.

  20. Polymethylmethacrylate combustion in a narrow channel apparatus simulating a microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornand, Garrett Randall

    Fire safety is an important part of engineering when human lives are at stake. From everyday homes to spacecraft that can cost hundreds of millions of dollars. The research in this thesis attempts to provide scientific evidence that the apparatus in question successfully simulates microgravity and can possibly replace NASA's current test method for spacecraft fire safety. Flame spread tests were conducted with thermally thick and thermally thin polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples to study flame spread behavior in response to environmental changes. The tests were conducted using the San Diego State University Narrow Channel Apparatus (SDSU NCA) as well as within the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS). The SDSU NCA can suppress buoyant flow in horizontally spreading flames, and is currently being investigated as a possible replacement or complement to NASA's current material flammability test standard for non-metallic solids, NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1. The buoyant suppression attained in the NCA allows tests to be conducted in a simulated microgravity environment-a characteristic that NASA's Test 1 lacks since flames present in Test 1 are driven by buoyant flows. The SDSU NCA allows for tests to be conducted at various opposed flow oxidizer velocities, oxygen percent by volume, and total pressure to mimic various spacecraft and habitat atmospheres. Tests were conducted at 1 atm pressure, thin fuel thickness of 50 and 75 microns, thick fuel thickness ranging from 3 mm to 5.6 mm, opposed oxidizer velocity ranging from 10 to 25 cm/s, and oxygen concentration by volume at 21, 30, and 50 percent. The simulated microgravity flame spread results were then compared to true microgravity experiments including; testing conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) under the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) research, NASA's 5.2 second Drop Tower, and Micro-Gravity Laboratory's (MGLAB) 4.5 second Drop Tower. Data was also

  1. Toward a microgravity research strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations of the Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council are found in the Summary and Recommendations in the front of the report. The CMGR recommends a long-range research strategy. The main rationale for the microgravity research program should be to improve our fundamental scientific and technical knowledge base, particularly in the areas that are likely to lead to improvements in processing and manufacturing on earth. The CMGR recommends research be categorized as Biological science and technology, Combustion, Fluid science, Fundamental phenomena, Materials, and Processing science and technology. The committee also recommends that NASA apply a set of value criteria and measurement indicators to define the research and analysis program more clearly. The CMGR recommends that the funding level for research and analysis in microgravity science be established as a fixed percentage of the total program of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division in order to build a strong scientific base for future experiments. The committee also recommends a cost-effective approach to experiments. Finally the CMGR recommends that a thorough technical review of the centers for commercial development of space be conducted to determine the quality of their activities and to ascertain to what degree their original mission has been accomplished.

  2. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  3. Severe disruption of the cytoskeleton and immunologically relevant surface molecules in a human macrophageal cell line in microgravity-Results of an in vitro experiment on board of the Shenzhou-8 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Goelz, Nadine; Simmet, Dana Michaela; Engeli, Stephanie; Birlem, Maria; Dumrese, Claudia; Karer, Anissja; Hunziker, Sandra; Biskup, Josefine; Konopasek, Shalimar; Suh, Durie; Hürlimann, Eva; Signer, Christoph; Wang, Anna; Sang, Chen; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Ullrich, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    During spaceflight the immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body. During the SIMBOX (Science in Microgravity Box) mission on Shenzhou-8, we investigated microgravity-associated long-term alterations in macrophageal cells, the most important effector cells of the immune system. We analyzed the effect of long-term microgravity on the cytoskeleton and immunologically relevant surface molecules. Human U937 cells were differentiated into a macrophageal phenotype and exposed to microgravity or 1g on a reference centrifuge on-orbit for 5 days. After on-orbit fixation, the samples were analyzed with immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopy after landing. The unmanned Shenzhou-8 spacecraft was launched on board a Long March 2F (CZ-2F) rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) and landed after a 17-day-mission. We found a severely disturbed actin cytoskeleton, disorganized tubulin and distinctly reduced expression of CD18, CD36 and MHC-II after the 5 days in microgravity. The disturbed cytoskeleton, the loss of surface receptors for bacteria recognition, the activation of T lymphocytes, the loss of an important scavenger receptor and of antigen-presenting molecules could represent a dysfunctional macrophage phenotype. This phenotype in microgravity would be not capable of migrating or recognizing and attacking pathogens, and it would no longer activate the specific immune system, which could be investigated in functional assays. Obviously, the results have to be interpreted with caution as the model system has some limitations and due to numerous technical and biological restrictions (e.g. 23 °C and no CO2 supply during in-flight incubation). All parameter were carefully pre-tested on ground. Therefore, the experiment could be adapted to the experimental conditions available on Shenzhou-8.

  4. [Spatial orientation under microgravity].

    PubMed

    Koizuka, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    On Earth, humans are constantly exposed to the gravity. During head and body tilts, the otolith organs sense changes in head orientation with respect to the gravitational vertical. These graviceptors also transduce transient linear acceleration generated by translational head motion and centripetal acceleration during rotation about a distant axis. When individuals are rotated at a constant velocity in a centrifuge, they sense the direction of the summed gravitational and centripetal acceleration as the vertical in the steady state. Consequently they experience a roll-tilt of the body when upright and oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out. This perception of tilt has been called the somatogravic illusion. Under the microgravity, the graviceptors no longer respond during static tilt of the head or head and body, but they are still activated by linear acceleration. Adaptation to weightlessness early in space flight has been proposed to entail a reinterpretation of the signals from the graviceptors (primarily the otolith organs), so that on return to Earth pitch or roll of the head with respect to the vertical is sensed as fore-aft or left-right translation. In this article, formulation of the spatial orientation on the earth and under microgravity was described.

  5. New findings and instrumentation from the NASA Lewis microgravity facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of fundamental combustion and fluid physics in a microgravity environment is a relatively new scientific endeavor. The microgravity environment enables a new range of experiments to be performed since: buoyancy-induced flows are nearly eliminated; normally obscured forces and flows may be isolated; gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated; and larger time or length scales in experiments become permissible. Unexpected phenomena have been observed, with surprising frequency, in microgravity experiments, raising questions about the degree of accuracy and completeness of the classical understanding. An overview is provided of some new phenomena found through ground-based, microgravity research, the instrumentation used in this research, and plans for new instrumentation.

  6. Numerical investigation of solidification and CET of the transparent alloy NPG-37.5 wt.% DC in microgravity “TRACE” experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadein, M.; Wu, M.; Sturz, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-03-01

    A solidification experiment “TRACE” of the transparent alloy Neopentylglycol (NPG)-37.5wt.% D-Camphor (DC) was conducted on-board the sounding rocket TEXUS-47 in low-gravity environment to investigate the columnar growth and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). To improve the fundamental understanding of solidification and CET in microgravity, the current laboratory scale experiment was tried to be numerically reproduced by a recently developed 5-phase volume averaging model. The temperature gradient in the solidification cell is applied to the simulation. In absence of melt flow, the calculated cooling curves, columnar tip position, tip undercooling and velocity, and number density of equiaxed crystals were compared to the results of in-situ real-time observations of the experiment. The CET could be predicted at position close to that of experiment. Simulation reveals the competitive growth between the columnar and equiaxed crystals before CET. Modelling parameters of equiaxed nucleation and columnar tip growth are the key to regulate this competition and to locate the CET. Experimental verification of modelling parameters considering melt flow is intended in the future work.

  7. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

  8. Equipping a glovebox for waste form testing and characterization of plutonium bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, M.; Johnson, S.G.; Musick, C.A.; Moschetti, T.L.

    1997-09-01

    The recent decision by the Department of Energy to pursue a hybrid option for the disposition of weapons plutonium has created the need for additional facilities that can examine and characterize waste forms that contain Pu. This hybrid option consists of the placement of plutonium into stable waste forms and also into mixed oxide fuel for commercial reactors. Glass and glass-ceramic waste forms have a long history of being effective hosts for containing radionuclides, including plutonium. The types of tests necessary to characterize the performance of candidate waste forms include: static leaching experiments on both monolithic and crushed waste forms, microscopic examination, and density determination. Frequently, the respective candidate waste forms must first be produced using elevated temperatures and/or high pressures. The desired operations in the glovebox include, but are not limited to the following: (1) production of vitrified/sintered samples, (2) sampling of glass from crucibles or other vessels, (3) preparing samples for microscopic inspection and monolithic and crushed static leach tests, and (4) performing and analyzing leach tests in situ. This paper will describe the essential equipment and modifications that are necessary to successfully accomplish the goal of outfitting a glovebox for these functions.

  9. Peak pressures from hydrogen deflagrations in the PFP thermal stabilization glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1998-08-11

    This document describes the calculations of the peak pressures due to hydrogen deflagrations in the glovebox used for thermal stabilization (glovebox HC-21A) in PFP. Two calculations were performed. The first considered the burning of hydrogen released from a 7 inch Pu can in the Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC) section of the glovebox. The peak pressure increase was 12400 Pa (1.8 psi). The second calculation considered burning of the hydrogen from 25 g of plutonium hydride in the airlock leading to the main portion of the glovebox. Since the glovebox door exposes most of the airlock when open, the deflagration was assumed to pressurize the entire glovebox. The peak pressure increase was 3860 Pa (0.56 psi).

  10. Transient heat transfer program for glovebox process vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, D.E.; Frigo, A.A.; Bailey, J.L.

    1997-09-01

    A software program has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to aid in designing process vessels to be used in gloveboxes. The Transient Heat Transfer Program for Glovebox Process Vessels provides engineers with a method of analyzing the heat transfer characteristics of vessels during heating and cooling of metals, salts, and other materials. The user need only provide information on the components and geometry of the vessel and a few operating conditions. The program approximates the changes in the internal vessel temperature over a number of time steps. This temperature information can then be used to estimate parameters that are needed in the vessel design. These parameters include insulation thickness, amount of heat shielding, and heater size. This software has been designed for ease of use. A background in the thermal sciences is not necessary to use it.

  11. DMA Modulus as a Screening Parameter for Compatibility of Polymeric Containment Materials with Various Solutions for use in Space Shuttle Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Protein crystals are grown in microgravity experiments inside the Space Shuttle during orbit. Such crystals are basically grown in a five-component system containing a salt, buffer, polymer, organic and water. During these experiments, a number of different polymeric containment materials must be compatible with up to hundreds of different PCG solutions in various concentrations for durations up to 180 days. When such compatibility experiments are performed at NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) simultaneously on containment material samples immersed in various solutions in vials, the samples are rather small out of necessity. DMA4 modulus was often used as the primary screening parameter for such small samples as a pass/fail criterion for incompatibility issues. In particular, the TA Instruments DMA 2980 film tension clamp was used to test rubber O-rings as small in I.D. as 0.091 in. by cutting through the cross-section at one place, then clamping the stretched linear cord stock at each end. The film tension clamp was also used to successfully test short length samples of medical/surgical grade tubing with an O.D. of 0.125 in.

  12. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  13. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  14. FLEXIBLE NEUTRON SHIELDING FOR A GLOVEBOX WITHIN THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Walsh

    2007-07-01

    Neutron shielding was desired to reduce worker exposure during handling of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) in a glovebox at the Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the unusual shape of the glovebox, standard methods of neutron shielding were impractical and would have interfered with glovebox operations. A silicon-based, boron-impregnated material was chosen due to its flexibility. This paper discusses the material, the installation, and the results from neutron source testing.

  15. Activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and other mammalian cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental findings reviewed in this chapter support the following conclusions: Proliferation. Human T-lymphocytes, associated with monocytes as accessory cells, show dramatic changes in the centrifuge, in the clinostat and in space. In free-floating cells the mitogenic response is depressed by 90% in microgravity, whereas in cells attached to a substratum activation is enhanced by 100% compared to 1-G ground and inflight controls. The duration of phase G1 of the mitotic cycle of HeLa cells is reduced in hypergravity, resulting in an increased proliferation rate. Other systems like Friend cells and WI38 human embryonic lung cells do not show significant changes. Genetic expression and signal transduction. T-lymphocytes and monocytes show important changes in the expression of cytokines like interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. The data from space experiments in Spacelab, Space Shuttle mid-deck, and Biokosmos have helped to clarify certain aspects of the mechanism of T-cell activation. Epidermoid A431 cells show changes in the genetic expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun in the clinostat and in sounding rockets. Membrane function, in particular the binding of ligates as first messengers of a signal, is not changed in most of the cell systems in microgravity. Morphology and Mortility. Free cells, lymphocytes in particular, are able to move and form aggregates in microgravity, indicating that cell-cell contacts and cell communications do take place in microgravity. Dramatic morphological and ultrastructural changes are not detected in cells cultured in microgravity. Important experiments with single mammalian cells, including immune cells, were carried out recently in three Spacelab flights, (SL-J, D-2, and IML-2 in 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively). The results of the D-2 mission have been published in ref. 75; those of the IML-2 mission in ref. 76. Finally, many cell biology experiments in space have suffered

  16. Cellular consequences of the microgravity environment on lymphocyte function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Microgravity induces a cascade of changes in cell morphology and function. Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is an analog to many aspects of microgravity and is used to model microgravity for ground-based experiments. We found that lymphocyte activation and locomotion were significantly down-regulated in spaceflight and in the RWV. Using this analog culture system, we have isolated a signal transduction lesion either at the level of, or upstream from, Protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Analysis of expression and adaptation by gene array experiments and immunoblotting to identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down-regulated in modeled microgravity indicating that events governing cell shape might warrant special attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites which are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes.

  17. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The subjective straight-ahead direction is a very basic perceptual reference for spatial orientation and locomotion. The perceived straight-ahead along the horizontal and vertical meridian is largely determined by both otolith and somatosensory inputs which are altered in microgravity. The Straight Ahead in Microgravity (SAM) experiment will be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how this spatial processing changes as a function of spaceflight. METHODS Data will be collected before the flight, at one-month intervals during long-duration stay (180 days) on board ISS, and after return to Earth. Control studies will also be performed during parabolic flights. Three different protocols will be used in each test session: (1) Fixation: The subject will be asked to look at actual targets (normal vision) and then to imagine these same targets (occluded vision) in the straight-ahead direction. Targets will be located at near distance (arm s length, 0.5m), medium distance (1 m), and far distance (beyond 2 m). This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted forward and backward by an operator. (2) Saccades: The subject will be asked to make horizontal and vertical saccades, first relative to the spacecraft interior reference system, and then relative to the subject s head reference system. This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted in roll or in pitch by an operator. (3) Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR): The subject will be asked to stare at actual visual targets (normal vision) at various distances (near, medium, far) in the straight-ahead direction. Vision will then be occluded, and the subject will be asked to continue staring at the same imagined targets while he/she is passively translated forward-backward, up-down, or side-to-side. The subject's body motion will

  18. Survey of Technologies to Support Reuse of Gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; P. A. Pinson

    1998-11-01

    This report is a summary of ideas and technologies available to support reuse of plutonium gloveboxes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). This work is the second of two deliverables in the task to enhance glovebox design for longevity and reusability at TA-55. The report presents several design change suggestions to be evaulated for their feasibility by LANL glovebox designers. The report also describes some techniques to be evaluated by LANL for their usefulness in reducing glovebox waste.

  19. Experiment K-6-22. Growth hormone regulation, synthesis and secretion in microgravity. Part 1: Somatotroph physiology. Part 2: Immunohistochemical analysis of hypothalamic hormones. Part 3: Plasma analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R.; Vale, W.; Hymer, W.; Sawchenko, P.; Vasques, M.; Krasnov, I.; Kaplanski, A.; Victorov, I.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the 1887 mission were: (1) to determine if the results of the SL-3 pituitary gland experiment (1) were repeatable; and (2) to determine what effect a longer mission would have on the rat pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) system. In the 1887 experiment two issues were considered especially important. First, it was recognized that cells prepared from individual rat pituitary glands should be considered separately so that the data from the 5 glands could be analyzed in a statistically meaningful way. Second, results of the SL-3 flight involving the hollow fiber implant and HPLC GH-variant experiments suggested that the biological activity of the hormone had been negatively affected by flight. The results of the 1887 experiment documented the wisdom of addressing both issues in the protocol. Thus, the reduction in secretory capacity of flight cells during subsequent extended cell culture on Earth was documented statistically, and thereby established the validity of the SL-3 result. The results of both flight experiments thus support the contention that there is a secretory lesion in pituitary GH cells of flight animals. The primary objective of both missions was a clear definition of the effect of spaceflight on the GH cell system. There can no longer be any reasonable doubt that this system is affected in microgravity. One explanation for the reason(s) underlying the better known effects of spaceflight on organisms, viz. changes in bone, muscle and immune systems may very well rest with such changes in bGH. In spite of the fact that rats in the Cosmos 1887 flight were on Earth for two days after flight, the data show that the GH system had still not recovered from the effects of flight. Many questions remain. One of the more important concerns the GRF responsiveness of somatotrophs after flight. This will be tested in an upcoming experiment.

  20. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  1. Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Role in ISS Acceleration Data Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station will be accomplished by two accelerometer systems. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System will record the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances will be accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Due to the dynamic nature of the microgravity environment and its potential to influence sensitive experiments, Principal Investigators require distribution of microgravity acceleration in a timely and straightforward fashion. In addition to this timely distribution of the data, long term access to International Space Station microgravity environment acceleration data is required. The NASA Glenn Research Center's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project will provide the means for real-time and post experiment distribution of microgravity acceleration data to microgravity science Principal Investigators. Real-time distribution of microgravity environment acceleration data will be accomplished via the World Wide Web. Data packets from the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II will be routed from onboard the International Space Station to the NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center. Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' ground support equipment located at the Telescience Support Center will be capable of generating a standard suite of acceleration data displays, including various time domain and frequency domain options. These data displays will be updated in real-time and will periodically update images available via the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services web page.

  2. Capillary brazing under microgravity (TEXUS-II) and 1g conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, K.; Phlippovich, N.; Stickler, R.; Bathke, W.

    Experiments of vacuum brazing under both microgravity and 1-g conditions show the effect of hydrostatic pressure on ga-filling. The absence of buoyancy forces under microgravity affects the microstructure of the solidified braze in the joint.

  3. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  4. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Knight, C.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization.The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights.Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system.We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon Inc (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells for a time period of forty eight hours exposure.Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  5. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization. The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights. Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system and nervous system. We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes and astrocyte cells to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon, Inc. (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells up to a time period of 120 hours exposure. Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  6. [Early Development under Microgravity Conditions].

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to various aspects of early development under the space flight conditions. The different possible cell mechanosensors are considered. Structural and functional changes in the cells, predominantly, in non-muscle ones, were discussed. The results of the different experiments with the embryos of fish, amphibians, birds and mammals under microgravity conditions are shown discussing possible reasons for the development of morphological changes. PMID:26591615

  7. HB-Line Dissolution of Glovebox Floor Sweepings

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    Two candidate flowsheets for dissolving glovebox floor sweepings in the HB-Line Phase I geometrically favorable dissolver have been developed.Dissolving conditions tested and modified during the laboratory program were based on the current processing scheme for dissolving high-fired Pu-238 oxide in HB-Line. Subsequent adjustments made to the HB-Line flowsheet reflected differences in the dissolution behavior between high-fired Pu-238 oxide and the MgO sand/PuF{sub 4}/PuO{sub 2} mixture in glovebox floor sweepings. Although both candidate flowsheets involved two separate dissolving steps and resulted incomplete dissolution of all solids, the one selected for use in HB-Line will require fewer processing operations and resembles the initial flowsheet proposed for dissolving sand, slag, and crucible material in F-Canyon dissolvers. Complete dissolution of glovebox floor sweepings was accomplished in the laboratory by initially dissolving between 55 and 65{degree} in a 14 molar nitric acid solution. Under these conditions, partial dissolution of PuF{sub 4} and complete dissolution of PuO{sub 2} and MgO sand were achieved in less than one hour. The presence of free fluoride in solution,uncomplexed by aluminum, was necessary for complete dissolution of the PuO{sub 2}.The remaining PuF{sub 4} dissolved following addition of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) to complex the fluoride and heating between 75 and 85{degree}C for an additional hour. Precipitation of magnesium and/or aluminum nitrates could occur before, during, and after transfer of product solutions. Both dilution and/or product solution temperature controls may be necessary to prevent precipitation of these salts. Corrosion of the dissolver should not be an issue during these dissolving operations. Corrosion is minimized when dissolving at 55-65{degree}C for one to three hours at a maximum uncomplexed free fluoride concentration of 0.07 molar and by dissolving at 75-85{degree}C at a one to one aluminum to

  8. Candle Flames in Microgravity Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This video of a candle flame burning in space was taken by the Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment on the Russian Mir space station. It is actually a composite of still photos from a 35mm camera since the video images were too dim. The images show a hemispherically shaped flame, primarily blue in color, with some yellow early int the flame lifetime. The actual flame is quite dim and difficult to see with the naked eye. Nearly 80 candles were burned in this experiment aboard Mir. NASA scientists have also studied how flames spread in space and how to detect fire in microgravity. Researchers hope that what they learn about fire and combustion from the flame ball experiments will help out here on Earth. Their research could help create things such as better engines for cars and airplanes. Since they use very weak flames, flame balls require little fuel. By studying how this works, engineers may be able to design engines that use far less fuel. In addition, microgravity flame research is an important step in creating new safety precautions for astronauts living in space. By understanding how fire works in space, the astronauts can be better prepared to fight it.

  9. Development of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Bacillus subtilis Cells Exposed to Microgravity: the BRIC-18 Experiment to the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Moeller, Ralf; Nicholson, Wayne; Narvel, Raed

    Increased pathogenicity of opportunistic bacteria during long-term spaceflight is considered an astronaut risk. Because only a limited pharmacy can be carried on long-duration missions, the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics is a concern for mission planning. In support of the BRIC-18 experiment to the ISS, we have performed ground-based experiments to address the question whether simulated microgravity affects the frequency of resistance to the model antibiotics rifampicin (RFM) and trimethoprim (TMP). In these experiments, the model bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were cultivated for 6 days at ISS ambient temperature in 10-ml High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) on two 4-place clinostats (Synthecon) oriented either vertically (V) or horizontally (H). Cells were harvested, enumerated and plated onto medium containing RFM (5 micrograms/ml). The frequency of mutation to RFM resistance was calculated, and RFM-resistant mutants were plated onto medium containing the second antibiotic, TMP (5 micrograms/ml) to determine the frequency of mutation to double (RFM+TMP) resistance. After 6 days of cultivation, V-cultures showed higher cell densities and than H-cultures for both bacteria. However, only in B. subtilis did V-cultures show higher frequencies of mutation to RFM resistance than H-cultures. Launch of BRIC-18 to the ISS is currently scheduled for March 16, 2014 and return 30 days later. Results from both the spaceflight and ground control experiments will be presented. Supported by NASA-SAIP fellowship to R.N. and NASA grant (NNX12AN70G) to P.F.-C., R.M., and W.L.N.

  10. Cavitation studies in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobel, Philippe; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed; Dorsaz, Nicolas; de Bosset, Aurele

    The hydrodynamic cavitation phenomenon is a major source of erosion for many industrial systems such as cryogenic pumps for rocket propulsion, fast ship propellers, hydraulic pipelines and turbines. Erosive processes are associated with liquid jets and shockwaves emission fol-lowing the cavity collapse. Yet, fundamental understanding of these processes requires further cavitation studies inside various geometries of liquid volumes, as the bubble dynamics strongly depends the surrounding pressure field. To this end, microgravity represents a unique platform to produce spherical fluid geometries and remove the hydrostatic pressure gradient induced by gravity. The goal of our first experiment (flown on ESA's parabolic flight campaigns 2005 and 2006) was to study single bubble dynamics inside large spherical water drops (having a radius between 8 and 13 mm) produced in microgravity. The water drops were created by a micro-pump that smoothly expelled the liquid through a custom-designed injector tube. Then, the cavitation bubble was generated through a fast electrical discharge between two electrodes immersed in the liquid from above. High-speed imaging allowed to analyze the implications of isolated finite volumes and spherical free surfaces on bubble evolution, liquid jets formation and shock wave dynamics. Of particular interest are the following results: (A) Bubble lifetimes are shorter than in extended liquid volumes, which could be explain by deriving novel corrective terms to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. (B) Transient crowds of micro-bubbles (smaller than 1mm) appeared at the instants of shockwaves emission. A comparison between high-speed visualizations and 3D N-particle simulations of a shock front inside a liquid sphere reveals that focus zones within the drop lead to a significantly increased density of induced cavitation. Considering shock wave crossing and focusing may hence prove crucially useful to understand the important process of cavitation erosion

  11. Experiment Document for 01-E077 Microgravity Investigation of Crew Reactions in 0-G (MICRO-G)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment Document (ED) serves the following purposes: a) It provides a vehicle for Principal Investigators (PIS) to formally specify the requirements for performing their experiments. b) It provides a technical Statement of Work (SOW). c) It provides experiment investigators and hardware developers with a convenient source of information about Human Life Sciences (HLS) requirements for the development and/or integration of flight experiment projects. d) It is the primary source of experiment specifications for the HLS Research Program Office (RPO). Inputs from this document will be placed into a controlled database that will be used to generate other documents.

  12. Weightlessness and Microgravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, David

    1991-01-01

    The term "microgravity" has begun to appear in science texts as a substitute for "weightlessness." Presents examples to clarify three common misconceptions about gravity and weightlessness. Further examines these and other examples with respect to microgravity to make distinctions between the terms and avoid additional misconceptions. (MDH)

  13. Ukrainian Program for Material Science in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    Ukrainian Program for Material Sciences in Microgravity O.P. Fedorov, Space Research Insti-tute of NASU -NSAU, Kyiv, The aim of the report is to present previous and current approach of Ukrainian research society to the prospect of material sciences in microgravity. This approach is based on analysis of Ukrainian program of research in microgravity, preparation of Russian -Ukrainian experiments on Russian segment of ISS and development of new Ukrainian strategy of space activity for the years 2010-2030. Two parts of issues are discussed: (i) the evolution of our views on the priorities in microgravity research (ii) current experiments under preparation and important ground-based results. item1 The concept of "space industrialization" and relevant efforts in Soviet and post -Soviet Ukrainian research institutions are reviewed. The main topics are: melt supercooling, crystal growing, testing of materials, electric welding and study of near-Earth environment. The anticipated and current results are compared. item 2. The main experiments in the framework of Ukrainian-Russian Research Program for Russian Segment of ISS are reviewed. Flight installations under development and ground-based results of the experiments on directional solidification, heat pipes, tribological testing, biocorrosion study is presented. Ground-based experiments and theoretical study of directional solidification of transparent alloys are reviewed as well as preparation of MORPHOS installation for study of succinonitrile -acetone in microgravity.

  14. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1994-01-01

    Two KC-135 flight campaigns have been conducted to date which are specifically dedicated to study bubble formation in microgravity. The first flight was conducted during March 14-18, 1994, and the other during June 20-24, 1994. The results from the June 1994 flight have not been analyzed yet, while the results from the March flight have been partially analyzed. In the first flight three different experiments were performed, one with the specific aim at determining whether or not cavitation can take place during any of the fluid handling procedures adopted in the shuttle bioprocessing experiments. The other experiments were concerned with duplicating some of the procedures that resulted in bubble formation, namely the NCS filling procedure and the needle scratch of a solid surface. The results from this set of experiments suggest that cavitation did not take place during any of the fluid handling procedures. The results clearly indicate that almost all were generated as a result of the breakup of the gas/liquid interface. This was convincingly demonstrated in the scratch tests as well as in the liquid fill tests.

  15. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio (girls), and the COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio (boys), participated. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  16. Radiative Ignition and the Transition to Flame Spread Investigated in the Japan Microgravity Center's 10-sec Drop Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Radiative Ignition and Transition to Spread Investigation (RITSI) is a shuttle middeck Glovebox combustion experiment developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), and Aerospace Design and Fabrication (ADF). It is scheduled to fly on the third United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3) mission in February 1996. The objective of RITSI is to experimentally study radiative ignition and the subsequent transition to flame spread in low gravity in the presence of very low speed air flows in two- and three-dimensional configurations. Toward this objective, a unique collaboration between NASA, NIST, and the University of Hokkaido was established to conduct 15 science and engineering tests in Japan's 10-sec drop shaft. For these tests, the RITSI engineering hardware was mounted in a sealed chamber with a variable oxygen atmosphere. Ashless filter paper was ignited during each drop by a tungsten-halogen heat lamp focused on a small spot in the center of the paper. The flame spread outward from that point. Data recorded included fan voltage (a measure of air flow), radiant heater voltage (a measure of radiative ignition energy), and surface temperatures (measured by up to three surface thermocouples) during ignition and flame spread.

  17. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  18. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, James Patton

    1998-02-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  19. Controlling particulates, temperature, and tritium in an inert glovebox for a weapons program

    SciTech Connect

    Purson, J.D.; Powers, D.; Walthers, C.; Navarro, C.; Newman, E.; Romero, J.; Jenkins, R.

    1996-07-01

    A glovebox is described in which several environmental parameters are controlled and monitored. Included in these are particulate, tritium, water vapor, oxygen and temperature. The paper details the design rationale and process and describes the glovebox, presently in use for neutron generator production.

  20. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  1. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  2. Ballistocraft: a novel facility for microgravity research.

    PubMed

    Mesland, D; Paris, D; Huijser, R; Lammertse, P; Postema, R

    1995-05-01

    One of ESA's aims is to provide the microgravity research community with various microgravity exposure facilities. Those facilities include drop towers, sounding rockets, and parabolic flights on board aircraft, in addition to orbital spacecraft. Microgravity flights are usually achieved using large aircraft like the French 'Caravelle' that offer a large payload volume and where a person can be present to perform the experiments and to participate as a human test-subject. However, the microgravity community is also very interested in a flexible, complementary facility that would allow frequent and repetitive exposure to microgravity for a laboratory-type of payload. ESA has therefore undertaken a study of the potential of using a 'ballistocraft', a small unmanned aircraft, to provide a low-cost facility for short-duration (30-40 seconds) microgravity experimentation. Fokker Space & Systems performed the study under an ESA contract, supported by Dutch national funding. To assess the ballistocraft, a simple breadboard of the facility was built and flight tests were performed. The ability of the on-board controller to achieve automated parabolic flights was demonstrated, and the performance of the controller in one-g level flights, and in flights with both zero-g and partial-g setpoints, was evaluated. The partial-g flights are a unique and valuable feature of the facility. PMID:14971373

  3. The Use of Microgravity Simulators for Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Richards, Stephanie E.; Wade, Randall I.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Fritsche, Ralph F.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The spaceflight environment is known to influence biological processes ranging from stimulation of cellular metabolism to possible impacts on cellular damage repair, suppression of immune functions, and bone loss in astronauts. Microgravity is one of the most significant stress factors experienced by living organisms during spaceflight, and therefore, understanding cellular responses to altered gravity at the physiological and molecular level is critical for expanding our knowledge of life in space. Since opportunities to conduct experiments in space are scarce, various microgravity simulators and analogues have been widely used in space biology ground studies. Even though simulated microgravity conditions have produced some, but not all of the biological effects observed in the true microgravity environment, they provide test beds that are effective, affordable, and readily available to facilitate microgravity research. A Micro-g Simulator Center is being developed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to offer a variety of microgravity simulators and platforms for Space Biology investigators. Assistance will be provided by both KSC and external experts in molecular biology, microgravity simulation, and engineering. Comparisons between the physical differences in microgravity simulators, examples of experiments using the simulators, and scientific questions regarding the use of microgravity simulators will be discussed.

  4. Default network connectivity decodes brain states with simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Liao, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Shen, Hui; Liu, Yadong; Liu, Xufeng; Hu, Dewen

    2016-04-01

    With great progress of space navigation technology, it becomes possible to travel beyond Earth's gravity. So far, it remains unclear whether the human brain can function normally within an environment of microgravity and confinement. Particularly, it is a challenge to figure out some neuroimaging-based markers for rapid screening diagnosis of disrupted brain function in microgravity environment. In this study, a 7-day -6° head down tilt bed rest experiment was used to simulate the microgravity, and twenty healthy male participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and after the simulated microgravity experiment. We used a multivariate pattern analysis approach to distinguish the brain states with simulated microgravity from normal gravity based on the functional connectivity within the default network, resulting in an accuracy of no less than 85 % via cross-validation. Moreover, most discriminative functional connections were mainly located between the limbic system and cortical areas and were enhanced after simulated microgravity, implying a self-adaption or compensatory enhancement to fulfill the need of complex demand in spatial navigation and motor control functions in microgravity environment. Overall, the findings suggest that the brain states in microgravity are likely different from those in normal gravity and that brain connectome could act as a biomarker to indicate the brain state in microgravity.

  5. Default network connectivity decodes brain states with simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Liao, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Shen, Hui; Liu, Yadong; Liu, Xufeng; Hu, Dewen

    2016-04-01

    With great progress of space navigation technology, it becomes possible to travel beyond Earth's gravity. So far, it remains unclear whether the human brain can function normally within an environment of microgravity and confinement. Particularly, it is a challenge to figure out some neuroimaging-based markers for rapid screening diagnosis of disrupted brain function in microgravity environment. In this study, a 7-day -6° head down tilt bed rest experiment was used to simulate the microgravity, and twenty healthy male participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and after the simulated microgravity experiment. We used a multivariate pattern analysis approach to distinguish the brain states with simulated microgravity from normal gravity based on the functional connectivity within the default network, resulting in an accuracy of no less than 85 % via cross-validation. Moreover, most discriminative functional connections were mainly located between the limbic system and cortical areas and were enhanced after simulated microgravity, implying a self-adaption or compensatory enhancement to fulfill the need of complex demand in spatial navigation and motor control functions in microgravity environment. Overall, the findings suggest that the brain states in microgravity are likely different from those in normal gravity and that brain connectome could act as a biomarker to indicate the brain state in microgravity. PMID:27066149

  6. Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Dodge, Robert L

    2011-01-11

    Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

  7. Pyrochemical Glovebox Line Replacement and Modernization Effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D. K.; McNeese, James A.; Cantrell, W. S.; Garcia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), as part of the stockpile stewardship mission, is developing the capability to manufacture replacement pits for the United States nuclear weapon stockpile. Part of this effort requires that the various manufacturing activities formerly performed at the Rocky Flats be reconstructed at LANL, modernized to improve operation, and re-certified for pit production. Part of this effort requires that new pyrochemical metal production facilities be installed in TA-55 to replace existing outdated equipment. The purpose of this effort is design, build/procure, assemble, cold test, and support installation activities for ten pyrochemical processing gloveboxes and processing support equipment for insertion into a selected PF-4 laboratory. Eight of the gloveboxes will be connected to a common trolley tunnel with a state-of-the-art automated transport system that can access each glovebox. Five of those gloveboxes will be designed to accommodate standard water-cooled pyrochemical processing furnaces with appropriate lift mechanisms for handling the furnace products and processing hardware. Another glovebox will be designed to accommodate an improved breaking press that will be designed/procured to break alpha metal up to a thickness of l-inch, eliminate introduction of hydraulic oil to the glovebox environment, provide appropriate shielding for prevention of glovebox damage due to shrapnel projectiles, and use interchangeable impact tools in order to be able to process both contaminated and clean metals with the same machine. In addition, a storage glovebox and a distillation glovebox (already developed) will be attached to the transport system. Two other gloveboxes, one accommodating two casting furnaces and another storage glovebox, will be installed in the laboratory independent of the transport system. A transfer system (trolley) will be incorporated to handle material flow between the pyrochemical furnace gloveboxes, the press glovebox

  8. Operational considerations for the Space Station Life Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Bosley, John J.; Vogelsong, Kristofer; Schnepp, Tery A.; Phillips, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory (USL) module on Space Station will house a biological research facility for multidisciplinary research using living plant and animal specimens. Environmentally closed chambers isolate the specimen habitats, but specimens must be removed from these chambers during research procedures as well as while the chambers are being cleaned. An enclosed, sealed Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is the only locale in the USL where specimens can be accessed by crew members. This paper discusses the key science, engineering and operational considerations and constraints involving the LSG, such as bioisolation, accessibility, and functional versatility.

  9. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  10. Exobiological implications of dust aggregation in planetary atmospheres: An experiment for the gas-grain simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. L.; Schwartz, D. E.; Marshall, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) will provide a microgravity environment where undesirable environmental effects are reduced, and thus, experiments involving interactions between small particles and grains can be more suitably performed. Slated for flight aboard the Shuttle in 1992, the ESA glovebox will serve as a scientific and technological testbed for GGSF exobiology experiments as well as generating some basic scientific data. Initial glovebox experiments will test a method of generating a stable, mono-dispersed cloud of fine particles using a vibrating sprinkler system. In the absence of gravity and atmospheric turbulence, it will be possible to determine the influence of interparticle forces in controlling the rate and mode of aggregation. The experimental chamber can be purged of suspended matter to enable multiple repetitions of the experiments. Of particular interest will be the number of particles per unit volume of the chamber, because it is suspected that aggregation will occur extremely rapidly if the number exceeds a critical value. All aggregation events will be recorded on high-resolution video film. Changes in the experimental procedure as a result of surprise events will be accompanied by real-time interaction with the mission specialist during the Shuttle flight.

  11. Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, Richard; Jahns, Gary

    1988-12-01

    Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew during the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment.

  12. Wireless Drop Tower for Microgravity Demonstrations. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Microgravity-the absence or reduction of some of the effects of gravity-is an important attribute of free-fall. In microgravity (often incorrectly called zero-g), water no longer flows "downhill" and neither do smoke or steam bubbles rise. This changes a number of chemical and physical activities. Experiments in combustion, fluid behavior,…

  13. Experiment for investigation of the dynamic behaviour of fluid in a surface tension tank under microgravity condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, K.; Netter, G.

    This paper describes a tank/fluid dynamic experiment created by ERNO which is scheduled to be executed for a flight in a MAUS container of SSCP project. The experiment will be conducted to determine the low-g fluid dynamic effects as a reaction due to the excitation. Out of this response, measurements the dynamic parameters of fluid/tank system will be evaluated. In parallel, analytical investigations result in the form of an equivalent mechanical model. The experimental data, obtained by using a small diameter tank, will be compared with the predictions of the mechanical model. The design concept of experiment requires an extremely sensitive and precise measurement system since slosh forces on the order of 0.01 N will be expected. One-g functional test data and results from zero-g aircraft flight are presented.

  14. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  15. Using the PROGRESS transport spacecraft in structure of the International Space Station for realization of scientific experiments under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Barmin, I; Bryukhanov, N; Egorov, A; Filatov, I; Markov, A; Senchenkov, A; Tsvetkov, V

    2002-01-01

    The problem is considered of using the PROGRESS transport spacecraft, which will deliver the payload on the ISS, as a free flying platform for realization of space experiments. For maintenance of the ISS 5-6 PROGRESS flights per year are planned. Usually after delivery of the payload the PROGRESS undocks from the ISS and burns down in the Earth atmosphere. However, the operating conditions of its onboard systems allow to prolong operation and to make free flight near to the station and repeatedly to be docked to it. It is offered to use this possibility for performing experiments on Material Science.

  16. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Klein-Nulend, J

    1998-05-01

    Bone cells, in particular osteocytes, are extremely sensitive to mechanical stress, a quality that is probably linked to the process of mechanical adaptation (Wolff's law). The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely a flow of an interstitial fluid along the surface of the osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin synthesis and expression of inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS-2 or inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2), an enzyme that mediates the induction of bone formation by mechanical loading in vivo. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, as well as on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained simply as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under weightlessness conditions. However, under microgravity conditions, the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered, as gravity has been shown to determine the pattern of microtubular orientation assembled in vitro. Therefore, it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under microgravity conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to the disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In vitro experiments on the International Space Station should test this hypothesis experimentally.

  17. Growth of electronic materials in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    A growth experiment aimed at growing two selenium-doped gallium arsenide crystals, each of which are one inch in diameter and 3.45 inches in length, is described. Emphasis is placed on the effect of microgravity on the segregation behavior of electronic materials. The lessons learned from the 1975 ASTP mission have been incorporated in this experiment.

  18. Simulated microgravity influenced the expression of DNA damage repair genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Jiawei, Liu; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Ionizing radiation and microgravity were considered to be the most important stress factors of space environmental the respective study of the biological effects of the radiation and microgravity carried out earlier, but the interaction of the effects of radiation with microgravity started later, and due to difference of the materials and methods the result of this experiment were not consistent. To further investigate the influence of microgravity on the expression of the radiation damage repair genes, the seed of Arabidopsis (Col) and its gravity-insensitive mutant (PIN2) were exposed to 0.1Gy of the dose of energetic carbon-ion beam radiation (LET = 30KeV / μm), and the germinated seed were than fixed in the 3D random positioning apparatus immediately for a 10-day simulated microgravity. By measuring the deflection angle of root tip and the changes of the expression of Ku70 and RAD51 protein, we investigated the impact of microgravity effect on radiation damage repair systems. The results shown that radiation, microgravity and microgravity with radiation could increase the angle of the root of the Col significantly, but no obvious effect on PIN2 type. The radiation could increase the expression of Ku70 significantly in both Col and PIN2, microgravity does not affect the expression, but the microgravity with radiation could decrease the expression of Ku70. This result shown that the microgravity could influence the radiation damage repair systems in molecular level. Moreover, our findings were important to understand the molecular mechanism of the impact of microgravity effect on radiation damage repair systems in vivo.

  19. Life sciences, biotechnology, and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Lanhan, J. W.; Morrison, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) studies on rats flown aboard Spacelab 3 are discussed, and evidence for the direct effect of microgravity on cell function is reviewed. SL-3 rat GH cells were found to experience a secretory lesion (they contained more hormone per cell, but released less per cell relative to controls). Pituitary cell culture experiments on the STS-8 mission showed that GH cells did not subsequently release as much hormone as did control cells, indicating a secretory lesion. Changes in bone and muscle noted in SL-3 rats are related to GH cell findings.

  20. Microgravity combustion science: A program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The promise of microgravity combustion research is introduced by way of a brief survey of results, the available set of reduced gravity facilities, and plans for experimental capabilities in the Space Station era. The study of fundamental combustion processes in a microgravity environment is a relatively new scientific endeavor. A few simple, precursor experiments were conducted in the early 1970's. Today the advent of the U.S. space shuttle and the anticipation of the Space Station Freedom provide for scientists and engineers a special opportunity, in the form of long duration microgravity laboratories, and need, in the form of spacecraft fire safety and a variety of terrestrial applications, to pursue fresh insight into the basic physics of combustion. The microgravity environment enables a new range of experiments to be performed since buoyancy-induced flows are nearly eliminated, normally obscured forces and flows may be isolated, gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated, and larger time or length scales in experiments become permissible. The range of experiments completed to date was not broad, but is growing. Unexpected phenomena have been observed often in microgravity combustion experiments, raising questions about the degree of accuracy and completion of our classical understanding and our ability to estimate spacecraft fire hazards. Because of the field's relative immaturity, instrumentation has been restricted primarily to high-speed photography. To better explain these findings, more sophisticated diagnostic instrumentation, similar to that evolving in terrestrial laboratories, is being developed for use on Space Station Freedom and, along the way, in existing microgravity facilities.

  1. Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

  2. NanoRocks: A Long-Term Microgravity Experiment to Stydy Planet Formation and Planetary Ring Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, J.; Colwell, J. E.; Dove, A.; Maukonen, D.; Brown, N.; Lai, K.; Hoover, B.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of the NanoRocks experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), which simulates collisions that occur in protoplanetary disks and planetary ring systems. A critical stage of the process of early planet formation is the growth of solid bodies from mm-sized chondrules and aggregates to km-sized planetesimals. To characterize the collision behavior of dust in protoplanetary conditions, experimental data is required, working hand in hand with models and numerical simulations. In addition, the collisional evolution of planetary rings takes place in the same collisional regime. The objective of the NanoRocks experiment is to study low-energy collisions of mm-sized particles of different shapes and materials. An aluminum tray (~8x8x2cm) divided into eight sample cells holding different types of particles gets shaken every 60 s providing particles with initial velocities of a few cm/s. In September 2014, NanoRocks reached ISS and 220 video files, each covering one shaking cycle, have already been downloaded from Station. The data analysis is focused on the dynamical evolution of the multi-particle systems and on the formation of cluster. We track the particles down to mean relative velocities less than 1 mm/s where we observe cluster formation. The mean velocity evolution after each shaking event allows for a determination of the mean coefficient of restitution for each particle set. These values can be used as input into protoplanetary disk and planetary rings simulations. In addition, the cluster analysis allows for a determination of the mean final cluster size and the average particle velocity of clustering onset. The size and shape of these particle clumps is crucial to understand the first stages of planet formation inside protoplanetary disks as well as many a feature of Saturn's rings. We report on the results from the ensemble of these collision experiments and discuss applications to planetesimal formation and planetary ring

  3. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  4. Microgravity Simulation Facility (MSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The Microgravity Simulator Facility (MSF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) was established to support visiting scientists for short duration studies utilizing a variety of microgravity simulator devices that negate the directional influence of the "g" vector (providing simulated conditions of micro or partial gravity). KSC gravity simulators can be accommodated within controlled environment chambers allowing investigators to customize and monitor environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, CO2, and light exposure.

  5. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  6. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  7. Requalification of the 235-F Metallograph Facility gloveboxes for use in the 773-A plutonium immobilization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, S.S; Hidlay, J.

    1997-10-16

    A concern has been identified regarding the viability of redesigning and requalifying existing glovebox lines for use as glovebox lines integral to future mission activities in the 773-A laboratory building at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Bechtel Savannah River Inc. (BSRI) design engineering team has been requested to perform an evaluation which would investigate the reuse of these existing gloveboxes versus the procurement of completely new glovebox systems. The existing glovebox lines were manufactured for the Plutonium (Pu) Metallograph Facility, Project 3253, located in building 235-F at SRS. These gloveboxes were designed as independent, fully functional Pu `metal` and Pu `oxide` processing glovebox systems for this facility. These gloveboxes, although fully installed, have never processed radioactive material. The proposed use for these gloveboxes are: (1) to utilize the Pu `metal` glovebox system for the primary containment associated with the Pre-Processing/Re-Processing Laboratory for obtaining radioactive glass compound viscometer analysis and (2) to utilize the Pu `oxide` glovebox system for primary containment associated with the Pu `Can in Can` Demonstration for proof of principle testing specific to long term Pu immobilization and storage technology. This report presents objective evidence that supports the engineering judgment indicating the existing gloveboxes can be requalified for the proposed uses indicated above. SRS has the ability to duplicate the test parameters, with site forces, that will meet or exceed the identical acceptance criteria established to qualify the existing gloveboxes. The qualification effort will be a documented procedure using the leak test criteria characteristic of the original glovebox purchase. Two equivalent tests will be performed, one for post modification leak test acceptance and one for post installation leak test acceptance. (Abstract Truncated).

  8. Combustion Of Interacting Droplet Arrays In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.

    2003-01-01

    Theory and experiments involving single droplet combustion date back to 1953, with the first microgravity work appearing in 1956. The problem of a spherical droplet burning in an infinite, quiescent microgravity environment is a classical problem in combustion research with the classical solution appearing in nearly every textbook on combustion. The microgravity environment offered by ground-based facilities such as drop towers and space-based facilities is ideal for studying the problem experimentally. A recent review by Choi and Dryer shows significant advances in droplet combustion have been made by studying the problem experimentally in microgravity and comparing the results to one dimensional theoretical and numerical treatments of the problem. Studying small numbers of interacting droplets in a well-controlled geometry represents a logical step in extending single droplet investigations to more practical spray configurations. Studies of droplet interactions date back to Rex and co-workers, and were recently summarized by Annamalai and Ryan. All previous studies determined the change in the burning rate constant, k, or the flame characteristics as a result of interactions. There exists almost no information on how droplet interactions a effect extinction limits, and if the extinction limits change if the array is in the diffusive or the radiative extinction regime. Thus, this study examined experimentally the effect that droplet interactions have on the extinction process by investigating the simplest array configuration, a binary droplet array. The studies were both in normal gravity, reduced pressure ambients and microgravity facilities. The microgravity facilities were the 2.2 and 5.2 second drop towers at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the 10 second drop tower at the Japan Microgravity Center. The experimental apparatus and the data analysis techniques are discussed in detail elsewhere.

  9. Free collisions in a microgravity many-particle experiment - II: The collision dynamics of dust-coated chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitz, E.; Güttler, C.; Weidling, R.; Blum, J.

    2012-03-01

    The formation of planetesimals in the early Solar System is hardly understood, and in particular the growth of dust aggregates above millimeter sizes has recently turned out to be a difficult task in our understanding (Zsom, A., Ormel, C.W., Güttler, C., Blum, J., Dullemond, C.P. [2010]. Astron. Astrophys., 513, A57). Laboratory experiments have shown that dust aggregates of these sizes stick to one another only at unreasonably low velocities. However, in the protoplanetary disk, millimeter-sized particles are known to have been ubiquitous. One can find relics of them in the form of solid chondrules as the main constituent of chondrites. Most of these chondrules were found to feature a fine-grained rim, which is hypothesized to have formed from accreting dust grains in the solar nebula. To study the influence of these dust-coated chondrules on the formation of chondrites and possibly planetesimals, we conducted collision experiments between millimeter-sized, dust-coated chondrule analogs at velocities of a few cm s-1. For 2 and 3 mm diameter chondrule analogs covered by dusty rims of a volume filling factor of 0.18 and 0.35-0.58, we found sticking velocities of a few cm s-1. This velocity is higher than the sticking velocity of dust aggregates of the same size. We therefore conclude that chondrules may be an important step towards a deeper understanding of the collisional growth of larger bodies. Moreover, we analyzed the collision behavior in an ensemble of dust aggregates and non-coated chondrule analogs. While neither the dust aggregates nor the solid chondrule analogs show sticking in collisions among their species, we found an enhanced sicking efficiency in collisions between the two constituents, which leads us to the conjecture that chondrules might act as “catalyzers” for the growth of larger bodies in the young Solar System.

  10. Dexterity tests data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M

    2008-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alphaemitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces and airborne contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Through an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGJP). A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management owning glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (the weakest component of this safety significant system) would perform in these aggressive environments. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) glovebox gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) had been the workhorse of programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduced the amount of mixed TRU waste. This effort contributes to Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In the following report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded glovebox gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

  11. Compendium of Information for Interpreting the Microgravity Environment of the Orbiter Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Science experiments are routinely conducted on the NASA shuttle orbiter vehicles. Primarily, these experiments are operated on such missions to take advantage of the microgravity (low-level acceleration) environment conditions during on-orbit operations. Supporting accelerometer instruments are operated with the experiments to measure the microgravity acceleration environment in which the science experiments were operated. Tne Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) Project at NASA Lewis Research Center interprets these microgravity acceleration data and prepares mission summary reports to aid the principal investigators of the scientific experiments in understanding the microgravity environment. Much of the information about the orbiter vehicle and the microgravity environment remains the same for each mission. Rather than repeat that information in each mission summary report, reference information is presented in this report to assist users in understanding the microgravity-acceleration data. The characteristics of the microgravity acceleration environment are first presented. The methods of measurement and common instruments used on orbiter missions are described. The coordinate systems utilized in the orbiter and accelerometers are described. Some of the orbiter attitudes utilized in microgravity related missions are illustrated. Methods of data processing are described and illustrated. The interpretation of the microgravity acceleration data is included with an explanation of common disturbance sources. Instructions to access some of the acceleration data and a description of the orbiter thrusters are explained in the appendixes. A microgravity environment bibliography is also included.

  12. The past, present, and future of National Aeronautics and Space Administration spaceflight diet in support of microgravity rodent experiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Yu, Diane; Girten, Beverly E; Cohen, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Rodents have been the most frequently flown animal model used to study physiological responses to the space environment. In support of future of space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) envisions an animal research program focused on rodents. Therefore, the development of a rodent diet that is suitable for the spaceflight environment including long duration spaceflight is a high priority. Recognizing the importance of nutrition in affecting spaceflight physiological responses and ensuring reliable biomedical and biological science return, NASA developed the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB) as a standard diet for rodent spaceflight. Depending on future animal habitat hardware and planned spaceflight experiments, modification of the NuRFB or development of a new diet formulation may be needed, particularly for long term spaceflights. Research in this area consists primarily of internal technical reports that are not readily accessible. Therefore, the aims of this contribution are to provide a brief history of the development of rodent spaceflight diets, to review the present diet used in rodent spaceflight studies, and to discuss some of the challenges and potential solutions for diets to be used in future long-term rodent spaceflight studies. PMID:24012282

  13. The past, present, and future of National Aeronautics and Space Administration spaceflight diet in support of microgravity rodent experiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Yu, Diane; Girten, Beverly E; Cohen, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Rodents have been the most frequently flown animal model used to study physiological responses to the space environment. In support of future of space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) envisions an animal research program focused on rodents. Therefore, the development of a rodent diet that is suitable for the spaceflight environment including long duration spaceflight is a high priority. Recognizing the importance of nutrition in affecting spaceflight physiological responses and ensuring reliable biomedical and biological science return, NASA developed the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB) as a standard diet for rodent spaceflight. Depending on future animal habitat hardware and planned spaceflight experiments, modification of the NuRFB or development of a new diet formulation may be needed, particularly for long term spaceflights. Research in this area consists primarily of internal technical reports that are not readily accessible. Therefore, the aims of this contribution are to provide a brief history of the development of rodent spaceflight diets, to review the present diet used in rodent spaceflight studies, and to discuss some of the challenges and potential solutions for diets to be used in future long-term rodent spaceflight studies.

  14. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  15. Firsthand Perspective on the Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Extended periods of microgravity simply cannot be created on Earth and rely on orbiting spacecraft in low earth orbit. These low microgravity levels are one of the most critical resources for most experiments being conducted aboard the space shuttle and those proposed for the International Space Station. A second critical resource for successfully conducting many of these experiments in space is the presence of human beings. Trained mission specialists and payload specialists become the eyes and ears of the scientists on the ground. In their function as in-flight technicians and "observers" they are important for reporting first hand the progress of the experiments, as well as being on call to trouble shoot malfunctioning equipment and, make necessary repairs. Unfortunately, as important as astronauts are to the successful performance of many experiments, they can be in conflict with the first goal of achieving as pristine a microgravity environment as possible. A simple astronaut sneeze has been calculated to induce a perturbation of 10(exp -5) g which may adversely affect some of the more sensitive experiments. A first hand perspective of what it is like to work in this environment and ways crewmembers can work more effectively to minimize disturbances will be discussed as well as ways that the ground can assist crewmembers to protect the microgravity environment.

  16. Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and

  17. Second United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A. (Editor); McCauley, Dannah E. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2), flown in March 1994, carried four major microgravity experiments plus a sophisticated accelerometer system. The USMP program is designed to accommodate experiments requiring extensive resources short of a full Spacelab mission. The four USMP-2 experiments dealt with understanding fundamental aspects of materials behavior, three with the formation of crystals from melts and one with the critical point of a noble gas. This successful, scientifically rich mission also demonstrated telescience operations.

  18. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  19. Embryogenic plant cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1991-01-01

    In view of circumstantial evidence for the role of gravity (g) in shaping the embryo environment, normal embryo development may not occur reliably and efficiently in the microgravity environment of space. Attention must accordingly be given to those aspects of higher plant reproductive biology in space environments required for the production of viable embryos in a 'seed to seed to seed' experiment. It is suggested that cultured cells can be grown to be morphogenetically competent, and can be evaluated as to their ability to simulate embryogenic events usually associated with fertilized eggs in the embryo sac of the ovule in the ovary.

  20. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  1. Physiological effects of microgravity on bone cells.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir; Xiao, Wei-Zhong; Iftikhar, Salman; Zhao, Fan; Li, Di-Jie; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2014-06-01

    Life on Earth developed under the influence of normal gravity (1g). With evidence from previous studies, scientists have suggested that normal physiological processes, such as the functional integrity of muscles and bone mass, can be affected by microgravity during spaceflight. During the life span, bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks but also adapts for efficiency. The lack of weight-bearing forces makes microgravity an ideal physical stimulus to evaluate bone cell responses. One of the most serious problems induced by long-term weightlessness is bone mineral loss. Results from in vitro studies that entailed the use of bone cells in spaceflights showed modification in cell attachment structures and cytoskeletal reorganization, which may be involved in bone loss. Humans exposed to microgravity conditions experience various physiological changes, including loss of bone mass, muscle deterioration, and immunodeficiency. In vitro models can be used to extract valuable information about changes in mechanical stress to ultimately identify the different pathways of mechanotransduction in bone cells. Despite many in vivo and in vitro studies under both real microgravity and simulated conditions, the mechanism of bone loss is still not well defined. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent research on bone cells under microgravity conditions based on advances in the field.

  2. Burning Candles in the Microgravity of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel; Ross, Howard; Tien, James

    1997-01-01

    The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment was designed to study how long candle flames can be sustained in microgravity, how the flames behave prior to extinction, and the how two closely spaced candle flames behave. The scientists hope that one day the results will help resolve age-old questions regarding the effects of gravity on certain types of flames (low momentum diffusion flames, or candle flames) and their ability to burn without the presence of gravity. This information will provide a better understanding of fires on spacecraft and could lead to advances in fire detection and extinction techniques.

  3. Expression of Contractile Protein Isoforms in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Page A. W.

    1996-01-01

    The general objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of space flight parameters, including microgravity, on ontogenesis and embryogenesis of Japanese quail. Nine U.S. and two Russian investigators are cooperating in this study. Specific objectives of the participating scientists include assessing the gross and microscopic morphological and histological development of the embryo, as well as the temporal and spacial development of specific cells, tissues, and organs. Temporally regulated production of specific proteins is also being investigated. Our objective is to determine the effects of microgravity on developmentally programmed expression of Troponin T and I isoforms known to regulate cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction.

  4. Does water foam exist in microgravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caps, H.; Delon, G.; Vandewalle, N.; Guillermic, R. M.; Pitois, O.; Biance, A. L.; Saulnier, L.; Yazhgur, P.; Rio, E.; Salonen, A.; Langevin, D.

    2014-05-01

    Liquid foams are omnipresent in everyday life, but little is understood about their properties. On Earth, the liquid rapidly drains out of the foam because of gravity, leading to rupture of the thin liquid films between bubbles. Several questions arise: are liquid foams more stable in microgravity environments? Can pure liquids, such as water, form stable foams in microgravity whereas they do not on Earth? In order to answer these questions, we performed experiments both in parabolic flights and in the International Space Station.

  5. Microgravity science and applications projects and payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of work conducted by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA is presented. The goals of the program are the development and implementation of a reduced-gravity research, science and applications program, exploitation of space for human benefits, and the application of reduced gravity research for the development of advanced technologies. Space research of fluid dynamics and mass transport phenomena is discussed and the facilities available for reduced gravity experiments are presented. A program for improving communication with the science and applications communities and the potential use of the Space Station for microgravity research are also examined.

  6. Characterization of Microgravity Environment on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoung; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the microgravity analysis results using dynamic response data collected during the first phase of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Although MiSDE was designed and performed to verify structural dynamic models, it also provided information for determining microgravity characteristics of the structure. This study analyzed ambient responses acquired during orbital day-to-night and night-to-day transitions, crew treadmill and ergometer exercises, and intentional crew activities. Acceleration levels for one-third octave bands were calculated to characterize the microgravity environment of the station. Spectrograms were also used to analyze the time transient nature of the responses. Detailed theoretical background and analysis results will also be included in the final draft.

  7. GLOVEBOX WINDOWS, FIRE PROTECTION AND VOICES FROM THE PAST

    SciTech Connect

    Till, W

    2009-04-15

    'Study the past--what is past is prologue'. These words appear as the motto on a pair of statues at the National Archives Building in Washington DC. They are also the opening sentence in the preface of a document written in August of 1956 entitled 'A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities--June 1945 thru December 1955'. This document, one of several written by D.F. Hayes of the Safety and Fire Protection Branch, Division of Organization and Personnel, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Washington DC, and many others are often forgotten even though they contain valuable glovebox fire protection lessons for us today.

  8. The US Microgravity Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Contents include the following: space science; earth science; human exploration and development of space; aerospace technology; and biological physical research; microgravity research strategic; microgravity research; space shuttle flight operations; and international space station preparation

  9. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  10. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  11. Melting processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, M.; Lupulescu, A.; Koss, M.

    The Rensselaer Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (RIDGE) uses the large data archive amassed through a series of three NASA-supported microgravity experiments (IDGE/USMP-2, -3, and -4), all of which flew aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The IDGE instruments aboard USMP-2 and -3 provided in-flight CCD images, and 35-mm films (postflight). USMP-4 also allowed streaming of near-real-time video. Using 30 fps video data, it became possible for the first time to study both freezing and melting sequences for high-purity pivalic acid (PVA). We report on the melting process observed for PVA crystal fragments, observed under nearly ideal convection-free conditions. Conduction-limited melting processes are of importance in orbital melting of materials, meteoritic genesis, mushy-zone evolution, and in fusion weld pools where length scales for thermal buoyancy are restricted. Microgravity video show clearly that PVA dendrites melt into fragments that shrink at accelerating rates to extinction. The melting paths of individual fragments follow characteristic time dependences derived from theory. The theoretical melting kinetics against which the experimental observations are carefully compared is based on conduction-limited quasi-static melting under shape-preserving conditions. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found for the stable melting of needle-shaped prolate spheroidal PVA crystal fragments with aspect ratios near C /A = 12.

  12. Proboscis container shapes for the USML-2 interface configuration experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1995-05-01

    Small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. Such behavior suggests a means for managing fluids in microgravity and, as one specific possible application, for the accurate determination of contact angle. In connection with this application, the authors discuss certain containers designed for the forthcoming USML-2 Glovebox Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) and depict their behavior in preliminary drop tower experiments. The containers are in the form of a circular cylinder with two diametrically opposed {open_quotes}proboscis{close_quotes} protrusions. These shapes are based on the canonical (single) proboscis containers introduced mathematically, which have the properties in the absence of gravity that (i) fluid rises arbitrarily high over the entire proboscis for contact angles less than or equal to a critical value and (ii) the size of the proboscis can be made relatively as large a portion of the container cross section as desired. These properties allow overcoming some of the practical limitations of wedge containers; for the latter too little fluid may participate in the shift at a critical contact angle to be easily observable. The authors include some background material, where computational results for the double proboscis containers are presented.

  13. The Biophysics Microgravity Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical microgravity research on the International Space Station using biological materials has been ongoing for several decades. The well-documented substantive effects of long duration microgravity include the facilitation of the assembly of biological macromolecules into large structures, e.g., formation of large protein crystals under micro-gravity. NASA is invested not only in understanding the possible physical mechanisms of crystal growth, but also promoting two flight investigations to determine the influence of µ-gravity on protein crystal quality. In addition to crystal growth, flight investigations to determine the effects of shear on nucleation and subsequent formation of complex structures (e.g., crystals, fibrils, etc.) are also supported. It is now considered that long duration microgravity research aboard the ISS could also make possible the formation of large complex biological and biomimetic materials. Investigations of various materials undergoing complex structure formation in microgravity will not only strengthen NASA science programs, but may also provide invaluable insight towards the construction of large complex tissues, organs, or biomimetic materials on Earth.

  14. Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled growth cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz growth cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the growth cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the growth of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm

  15. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  16. Flame Structure and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, D. A.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Recent results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop tower are reported. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in a microgravity laminar ethylene/air flame. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported experiments including the Flight Project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this paper.

  17. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  18. Enhancements in Glovebox Design Resulting from Laboratory-Conducted FIre Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Wunderlich, Gregory M.; Mcentire, James R.; Richmond, William G.

    2013-06-14

    The primary mission of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project was to disassemble nuclear weapons pits and convert the resulting special nuclear materials to a form suitable for further disposition. Because of the nature of materials involved, the fundamental system which allowed PDCF to perform its mission was a series of integrated and interconnected gloveboxes which provided confinement and containment of the radioactive materials being processed. The high throughput planned for PDCF and the relatively high neutron and gamma radiation levels of the pits required that gloveboxes be shielded to meet worker dose limits. The glovebox shielding material was required to contain high hydrogen concentrations which typically result in these materials being combustible. High combustible loadings created design challenges for the facility fire suppression and ventilation system design. Combustible loading estimates for the PDCF Plutonium (Pu) Processing Building increased significantly due to these shielding requirements. As a result, the estimates of combustible loading substantially exceeded values used to support fire and facility safety analyses. To ensure a valid basis for combustible loading contributed by the glovebox system, the PDCF Project funded a series of fire tests conducted by the Southwest Research Institute on door panels and a representative glovebox containing Water Extended Polyester (WEP) radiological shielding to observe their behavior during a fire event. Improvements to PDCF glovebox designs were implemented based on lessons learned during the fire test. In particular, methods were developed to provide high levels of neutron shielding while maintaining combustible loading in the glovebox shells at low levels. Additionally, the fire test results led to design modifications to mitigate pressure increases observed during the fire test in order to maintain the integrity of the WEP cladding. These changes resulted in significantly

  19. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  20. Visualization of Thin Liquid Crystal Bubbles in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C. S.; Clark, N. A.; Maclennan, J. E.; Glaser, M. A.; Tin, P.; Stannarius, R.; Hall, N.; Storck, J.; Sheehan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands in Space (OASIS) experiment exploits the unique characteristics of freely suspended liquid crystals in a microgravity environment to advance the understanding of fluid state physics.