Science.gov

Sample records for microorganisms laboratory set

  1. Laboratory studies of ocean mixing by microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-11-01

    Ocean mixing plays a major role in nutrient and energy transport and is an important input to climate models. Recent studies suggest that the contribution of fluid transport by swimming microorganisms to ocean mixing may be of the same order of magnitude as winds and tides. An experimental setup has been designed in order to study the mixing efficiency of vertical migration of plankton. To this end, a stratified water column is created to model the ocean's density gradient. The vertical migration of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) within the water column is controlled via luminescent signals on the top and bottom of the column. By fluorescently labelling portions of the water column, the stirring of the density gradient by the animals is visualized and quantified. Preliminary results show that the vertical movement of these organisms produces enhanced mixing relative to control cases in which only buoyancy forces and diffusion are present.

  2. Dynamic size spectrometry of airborne microorganisms: Laboratory evaluation and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yinge; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    Bioaerosol samplers need to be calibrated for the microorganisms of interest. The Aerosizer, a relatively new aerodynamic size spectrometer, is shown to be a suitable dynamic instrument for the evaluation and calibration of such samplers in the laboratory, prior to their use in the field. It provides the necessary reference count against which the microbiological response of the sampler can be compared. It measures the health-significant aerodynamic diameters of microorganisms down to 0.5 μm, thus including most of the bacteria, fungi and pollen found in outdoor and indoor air environments. Comparison tests with a laser size spectrometer indicate that the suspension of microorganisms needs to be washed several times before aerosolization to avoid coating of the airborne microorganisms with nutrients and microbial slime from the suspension, and to reduce the residue particles to sizes below the lowest size of the aerosolized microorganisms.

  3. Final Technical Report. Origins of subsurface microorganisms: Relating laboratory microcosm studies to a geologic time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas; Amy, Penny S.; Phillips, Fred M.

    1998-12-01

    This project was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Deep Subsurface Science Program. It was part of a larger effort to determine the origins of subsurface microorganisms. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the origins of subsurface microorganisms: (1) microorganisms were deposited at the time of (or shortly after) geologic deposition of rocks and sediments (the in situ survival hypothesis), and (2) microorganisms have been transported from surface environments to subsurface rocks and sediments since the time of geologic deposition (transport hypothesis). These two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Depending on the geological setting, either one or both of these hypotheses may best explain microbial origins. Our project focused on the in situ survival hypothesis. We tested the hypothesis that microorganisms (individuals populations and communities) can survive long-term sequestration within subsurface sediments. Other objectives were to identify geologic conditions that favor long-term survival, identify physiological traits of microorganisms that favor long-term survival, and determine which groups of microorganisms are most likely to survive long-term sequestration in subsurface sediments. We tested this hypothesis using a combination of pure culture techniques in laboratory microcosms under controlled conditions and field experiments with buried subsurface sediments.

  4. Biosafety Guidelines for Handling Microorganisms in the Teaching Laboratory: Development and Rationale†

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Elizabeth A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The safe handling of microorganisms in the teaching laboratory is a top priority. However, in the absence of a standard set of biosafety guidelines tailored to the teaching laboratory, individual educators and institutions have been left to develop their own plans. This has resulted in a lack of consistency, and differing levels of biosafety practices across institutions. Influenced by the lack of clear guidelines and a recent outbreak of Salmonella infections that was traced back to teaching laboratory exposures, the Education Board of the American Society for Microbiology charged a task force to develop a uniform set of biosafety guidelines for working with microorganisms in the teaching laboratory. These guidelines represent best practices for safely handling microbes, based on the safety requirements found in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL). Guidelines for safely handling microbes at both biosafety level 1 (BSL1) and biosafety level 2 (BSL2) were developed. The guidelines are brief by design for ease of use and are accompanied by an extensive appendix containing explanatory notes, sample documents, and additional resources. These guidelines provide educators with a clear and consistent way to safely work with microorganisms in the teaching laboratory. PMID:23858356

  5. Control of Fuel Microorganisms with Magnetic Devices: Laboratory Investigation with Hormoconis Resinae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Aircraft Materials Technical Memorandum 408 CONTROL OF FUEL MICROORGANISMS WITH MAGNETIC DEVICES: LABORATORY INN, ESTIGATION WITH HORMOCONIS RESINAE...LABORATORY Aircraft Materials Technical Memorandum 408 CONTROL OF FUEL MICROORGANISMS WITH MAGNETIC DEVICES: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION WITH HORMOCONIS...presence of a grey black material , which probably arose from the magneticmaterial in the device. This material was most likely responsible for the

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  7. HEW to Set Laboratory Safety Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) proposed guidelines for laboratories using chemical carcinogens. The guidelines are designed to provide protection for laboratory workers and their environment from exposure to all types of carcinogenic agents. (GA)

  8. Simulating Planetary Dynamics in a Laboratory Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-04-01

    The technological feats of rovers on planets and the stunning images that these and other space missions return from celestial bodies in the solar system tend to dominate public perception of what it means to be a planetary scientist. However, many planetary scientists are also involved with experimental planetary science research in the laboratory.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evidence for Long-Term Starvation Survival of Microorganisms in Subsurface Terrestrial Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Murphy, E.M.; Amy, P.S.; Haldeman, D.L.; Ringelberg, D. B. |

    1997-12-31

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUX IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS INDICATES THAT INHABITANT MICROORGANISMS EXPERIENCE SEVERE NUTRIENT LIMITATION. USING LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS, WE HAVE BEEN TESTING STARVATION SURVIVAL IN SUBSURFACE MICROORGANISMS. IN MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT STRAINS OF TWO COMMONLY ISOLATED SUBSURFACE GENERA, ARTHROBACTER AND PSEUDOMONAS, ARE ABLE TO MAINTAIN VIABILITY IN LOW-NUTRIENT, NATURAL SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FOR OVER ONE YEAR. THESE NON-SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA UNDERGO RAPID INITIAL MINIATURIZATION FOLLOWED BY A STABILIZATION OF CELL SIZE. MEMBRANE LIPID PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID (PLFA) PROFILES OF THE PSEUDOMONAS ARE CONSISTENT WITH ADAPTATION TO NUTRIENT STRESS; ARTHROBACTER APPARENTLY RESPONDS TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION WITHOUT ALTERING MEMBRANE PLFA. TO TEST SURVIVABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS OVER A GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE, WE CHARACTERIZED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN A SEQUENCE OF UNSATURATED SEDIMENTS RANGING IN AGE FROM MODEM TO {gt}780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in Eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass-balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of Microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable Microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the markup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different Porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities.

  10. Laboratory, Field, and Modeling Studies of Aerobic Cometabolism of CAHs by Butane-Utilizing Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, M.; Semprini, L.; Dolan, M. E.; McCarty, P. L.; Hopkins, G. D.

    2002-12-01

    The ability of butane-utilizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize a mixture of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in laboratory microcosms and in an in-situ field demonstration was modeled using parameter values measured in laboratory experiments. The butane grown culture was inoculated into soil and groundwater microcosms and exposed to butane with several repeated additions of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) at aqueous concentrations of 200 μg/L, 100 μg/L, and 200 μg/L, respectively. The utilization of butane and the transformation of the CAH mixture in the batch microcosms were simulated using differential equations accounting for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with cell growth and decay, substrate utilization, transformation product toxicity, and substrate inhibition of CAH transformation. Both competitive inhibition kinetics and mixed inhibition kinetics, determined in prior laboratory studies, were included in the model construct. The equations were solved simultaneously using fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration. The batch microcosm experimental results were simulated well with parameter values determined independently in culture kinetic studies, with some minor adjustments. Having adequately defined the parameter values from laboratory studies, the biotransformation model was combined with 1-D advective-dispersive transport to simulate the results of in-situ bioremediation tests conducted at the Moffett Field Test Facility in CA. The butane-utilizing culture was injected into a 7 m subsurface test site and exposed to alternating pulses of oxygen and butane, along with TCA (150 μg/L), 1,1-DCE (50 μg/L) and 1,1-DCA (150 μg/L). The model simulated well the transient transformation of the CAHs in response to different butane and oxygen pulse cycles and injection concentrations. Model simulations correlated well with field results and indicated that better remediation

  11. Bacterial vaginosis: prevalence in outpatients, association with some micro-organisms and laboratory indices.

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, L; Coffetti, N; Dalvai, G; Lorusso, L; Lorenzi, M

    1989-01-01

    Seven hundred and ninety three women were investigated, aged between 16 and 78 years, to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and some associated micro-organisms, and to discuss the significance of laboratory indices correlated to this pathology. BV was diagnosed on the basis of four distinct criteria: a positive result of the test for amines with 10% KOH (odour-test), the presence of clue cells on fresh microscopic examination, a pH greater than 4.5 and direct Gram stain positive (the presence of more than 40 Gram negative or Gram variable coccobacilli per microscopic field by 1000 magnifications under oil immersion). The total prevalence of BV was 20.5% (163); similar percentages were found in both fertile and pregnant women, whereas a lower percentage (12.7%) was found in menopausal women. Gardnerella vaginalis was present in 235 (29.6%) of the 793 women, in 144 (88.3%) of the 163 with BV and in 91 (14.4%) of the 630 women without BV. Mobiluncus species was present in 8.2% (65) of the total population, in 38.6% (63) of the women with BV and only in two (0.3%) of the women without BV. In the women with BV lower percentages were found for Trichomonas vaginalis, yeasts, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The absence of a definite relationship between BV and cultural isolation of G vaginalis is confirmed whereas the role played by Mobiluncus spp still has to be clarified. It is concluded that it is not necessary to screen with all four laboratory indices. Two positive indices from a panel of three (excluding pH greater than 4.5 and direct Gram stain positive in the same panel) allows the correct diagnosis of BV in almost all cases. PMID:2515148

  12. Integrating teaching and research in the field and laboratory settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kaseke, K. F.; Daryanto, S.; Ravi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Field observations and laboratory measurements are great ways to engage students and spark students' interests in science. Typically these observations are separated from rigorous classroom teaching. Here we assessed the potential of integrating teaching and research in the field and laboratory setting in both US and abroad and worked with students without strong science background to utilize simple laboratory equipment and various environmental sensors to conduct innovative projects. We worked with students in Namibia and two local high school students in Indianapolis to conduct leaf potential measurements, soil nutrient extraction, soil infiltration measurements and isotope measurements. The experience showed us the potential of integrating teaching and research in the field setting and working with people with minimum exposure to modern scientific instrumentation to carry out creative projects.

  13. Ozone inactivation of resistant microorganisms: Laboratory analysis and evaluation of the efficiency of plants.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Pauline; Martinelli, Laure; Talvy, Samuel; Chauveheid, Eric; Haut, Benoît

    2012-11-15

    In this work, the ozone inactivation of resistant microorganisms is studied and a method to assess the efficiency of a drinking water plant to inactivate resistant microorganisms using ozone is proposed. This method aims at computing the fraction of resistant microorganisms that are not inactivated at the exit of an ozonation step by evaluating the duration of the lag phase of the ozone inactivation of these microorganisms and the contact time distribution of these microorganisms with the ozone in the step. To evaluate the duration of the lag phase of the ozone inactivation of resistant pathogenic microorganisms, an experimental procedure is proposed and applied to Bacillus subtilis spores. The procedure aims at characterizing the ozone inactivation kinetics of B. subtilis spores for different temperature and ozone concentration conditions. From experimental data, a model of the ozone inactivation of B. subtilis spores is built. One of the parameters of this model is called the lag time and it measures the duration of the lag phase of the ozone inactivation of B. subtilis spores. This lag time is identified for different temperature and ozone concentration conditions in order to establish a correlation between this lag time and the temperature and ozone concentration conditions. To evaluate the contact time distribution between microorganisms and the ozone in a disinfection step of a drinking water plant, a computational fluid dynamics tool is used. The proposed method is applied to the ozonation channel of an existing drinking water plant located in Belgium and operated by Vivaqua. Results show that lag times and contact times are both in the same order of magnitude of a few minutes. For a large range of temperatures and ozone concentrations in the Tailfer ozonation channel and for the highest hydraulic flow rate applied, a significant fraction of resistant microorganisms similar to B. subtilis spores is not inactivated.

  14. Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Monocytotropic Ehrlichiosis in a Commercial Laboratory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Juan P.; Hogrefe, Wayne; Seaton, Brent; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory diagnostic issues of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME) were investigated in a retrospective case study conducted at a national reference laboratory (Focus Technologies, formerly MRL Reference Laboratory), and at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, during 1997 and 1998. Standard questionnaires were sent to physicians for each laboratory-diagnosed patient 2 days to 2 weeks after immunofluorescent antibody assay results were available. Among the 41 cases for which data were obtained, 32 (78%) were definite cases of HME, and 9 (22%) were probable cases of HME. Tick bite or exposure to ticks was recorded in more than 97% of cases. The most prominent clinical findings were fever, abdominal tenderness, and regional lymphadenopathy. There was an association between age and severity of illness. The main laboratory findings included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Clinical and laboratory findings were nonspecific and were not good predictors of the severity of illness. The 90% of patients who received doxycycline treatment underwent rapid clinical improvement with a favorable outcome. The usual duration of effective treatment with doxycycline was 7 to 10 days. This retrospective study is unique because it was based in a commercial reference laboratory setting that receives specimens from different geographic locations. The clinical and laboratory information from 41 patients provides insight into the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of HME. PMID:12965923

  15. TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING

    SciTech Connect

    Don B. Shirey, III

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

  16. Improving Laboratory and Clinical Hematology Services in Resource Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Allen, Angela; Allen, Stephen; Olivieri, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    The difficulties in establishing and delivering reliable clinical hematology and laboratory services in resource-limited settings are well recognized. However, much can be achieved by better use of existing resources through a concerted quality improvement approach. The recommendations of this article are based in part upon work in the thalassemias, inherited disorders of hemoglobin that are widely prevalent in Asia, which may serve as a model that is applicable to other common, chronic disorders in resource-poor settings. Available resources are highlighted and recommendations made regarding approaches to improving services. Over the last few years, a number of low and middle-income countries, obtaining support from appropriate governmental sources, have identified and overcome difficulties and significantly improved clinical services for patients with thalassemia.

  17. An investigation and evaluation on species and characteristics of pathogenic microorganisms in Chinese local hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Lü, Xiaoli; Cao, Weiping; Zhang, Chunxia; Xu, Rongfa; Meng, Xu; Chen, Keping

    2015-12-01

    There are currently great concerns about the level of bacterial contamination in hospitals, as well as resistance to antimicrobial agents. The species and characteristics of microbes in Chinese hospitals are closely related to healthcare safety and the prevention and control of infections. However, data on the exposure of patients to microbes in Chinese hospitals are limited. The present study investigated the genera of microorganisms in Chinese hospitals. We evaluated their characteristics, such as antibiotic susceptibility, tolerance to disinfectants, and toxicity, using silkworms (Bombyx mori) as an animal model. Twenty-six distinct bacterial strains were isolated, and their genera were determined by sequencing their 16S rDNA regions. Twenty-five strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and six strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The results of minimal inhibitory concentration testing showed that eight strains were resistant to a chlorine-containing disinfectant, and 12 strains were resistant to Povidone-iodine. Following the injection of bacterial cultures into the silkworm hemolymph, 15 strains killed all of the silkworms within 5 d. Additionally, bacterial strain 14 killed all of silkworms within 12 h with a median lethal dose of 4 × 10(4) colony-forming units/larva. This study provides useful information for healthcare safety in Chinese hospitals.

  18. Theme: Land Laboratories--Urban Settings, Liability, Natural Resources Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "With a Little Imagination"; "From Fallow to Fertile"; "Operating a School Enterprise in Agriculture"; "Using a Nontraditional Greenhouse to Enhance Lab Instruction"; "Risk Management for Liability in Operating Land Laboratories"; "Working Land and Water Laboratory for Natural…

  19. Identification and Characterization of Early Mission Phase Microorganisms Residing on the Mars Science Laboratory and Assessment of Their Potential to Survive Mars-like Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephanie A.; Benardini, James N., III; Anderl, David; Ford, Matt; Wear, Emmaleen; Schrader, Michael; Schubert, Wayne; DeVeaux, Linda; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Childers, Susan E.

    2017-03-01

    Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface. Approximately 66% (237) of the 358 microorganisms identified are related to members of the Bacillus genus, although surprisingly, 22% of all isolates belong to non-spore-forming genera. A small number could grow by reduction of potential growth substrates found on Mars, such as perchlorate and sulfate, and many were resistant to desiccation and ultraviolet radiation (UVC). While most isolates either grew in media containing ≥10% NaCl or at 4°C, many grew when multiple physiological stresses were applied. The study yields details about the microorganisms that inhabit the surfaces of spacecraft after microbial reduction measures, information that will help gauge whether microorganisms from Earth pose a forward contamination risk that could impact future planetary protection policy.

  20. SETTING UP A LABORATORY AB INITIO IN A REMOTE LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, OH has operated a pilot plant approximately 5 kilometers from its main research facility. Originally, this Tet and Evaluation (T&E) facility was sited to be adjacent to the City of Cincinnati's...

  1. The Role of Language Laboratory in English Language Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Abdelaziz

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at determining the relationship between language labs and the effective ways of mastering better performance of English language. The study raised two questions. They are "Is language laboratory useful in teaching English to Saudi students?" And "How do language labs help in improving students' performance?"…

  2. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  3. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  4. Identification and Characterization of Early Mission Phase Microorganisms Residing on the Mars Science Laboratory and Assessment of Their Potential to Survive Mars-like Conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie A; Benardini, James N; Anderl, David; Ford, Matt; Wear, Emmaleen; Schrader, Michael; Schubert, Wayne; DeVeaux, Linda; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Childers, Susan E

    2017-03-01

    Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface. Approximately 66% (237) of the 358 microorganisms identified are related to members of the Bacillus genus, although surprisingly, 22% of all isolates belong to non-spore-forming genera. A small number could grow by reduction of potential growth substrates found on Mars, such as perchlorate and sulfate, and many were resistant to desiccation and ultraviolet radiation (UVC). While most isolates either grew in media containing ≥10% NaCl or at 4°C, many grew when multiple physiological stresses were applied. The study yields details about the microorganisms that inhabit the surfaces of spacecraft after microbial reduction measures, information that will help gauge whether microorganisms from Earth pose a forward contamination risk that could impact future planetary protection policy. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spore-Bioburden-MSL-Curiosity-Contamination-Mars. Astrobiology 17, 253-265.

  5. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    .5%) strains, no identification was given and for 69 (38.7%) strains, an incorrect identification was obtained. Our study demonstrates that both systems gave a high level (above 85%) of correct identification for a wide range of microorganisms. However, VITEK MS gave more misidentification when the microorganism analysed was not present in the database, compared to Bruker Biotyper. This should be taken into account when this technology is used alone for microorganism identification in a public health laboratory, where isolates received are often difficult to identify and/or unusual microorganisms.

  6. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    (54.5%) strains, no identification was given and for 69 (38.7%) strains, an incorrect identification was obtained. Our study demonstrates that both systems gave a high level (above 85%) of correct identification for a wide range of microorganisms. However, VITEK MS gave more misidentification when the microorganism analysed was not present in the database, compared to Bruker Biotyper. This should be taken into account when this technology is used alone for microorganism identification in a public health laboratory, where isolates received are often difficult to identify and/or unusual microorganisms. PMID:26658918

  7. Nomenclature and basic concepts in automation in the clinical laboratory setting: a practical glossary.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Dalamaga, Maria; Panoutsopoulos, Konstantinos; Dima, Kleanthi

    2013-01-01

    In the early 80s, the word automation was used in the clinical laboratory setting referring only to analyzers. But in late 80s and afterwards, automation found its way into all aspects of the diagnostic process, embracing not only the analytical but also the pre- and post-analytical phase. While laboratories in the eastern world, mainly Japan, paved the way for laboratory automation, US and European laboratories soon realized the benefits and were quick to follow. Clearly, automation and robotics will be a key survival tool in a very competitive and cost-concious healthcare market. What sets automation technology apart from so many other efficiency solutions are the dramatic savings that it brings to the clinical laboratory. Further standardization will assure the success of this revolutionary new technology. One of the main difficulties laboratory managers and personnel must deal with when studying solutions to reengineer a laboratory is familiarizing themselves with the multidisciplinary and technical terminology of this new and exciting field. The present review/glossary aims at giving an overview of the most frequently used terms within the scope of laboratory automation and to put laboratory automation on a sounder linguistic basis.

  8. Microorganism immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  9. Role of microorganisms in emission of nitrous oxide and methane in pulse cultivated soil under laboratory incubation condition.

    PubMed

    Jena, Jyotsnarani; Ray, Sanak; Srichandan, Haragobinda; Das, Anuradha; Das, Trupti

    2013-03-01

    Soil from a pulse cultivated farmers land of Odisha, India, have been subjected to incubation studies for 40 consecutive days, to establish the impact of various nitrogenous fertilizers and water filled pore space (WFPS) on green house gas emission (N2O & CH4). C2H2 inhibition technique was followed to have a comprehensive understanding about the individual contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers towards the emission of N2O. Nevertheless, low concentration of C2H2 (5 ml: flow rate 0.1 kg/cm(2)) is hypothesized to partially impede the metabolic pathways of denitrifying bacterial population, thus reducing the overall N2O emission rate. Different soil parameters of the experimental soil such as moisture, total organic carbon, ammonium content and nitrate-nitrogen contents were measured at regular intervals. Application of external N-sources under different WFPS conditions revealed the diverse role played by the indigenous soil microorganism towards green house gas emission. Isolation of heterotrophic microorganisms (Pseudomonas) from the soil samples, further supported the fact that denitrification might be prevailing during specific conditions thus contributing to N2O emission. Statistical analysis showed that WFPS was the most influential parameter affecting N2O formation in soil in absence of an inhibitor like C2H2.

  10. Coordinate Geometry. Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This is one of a series of geometry modules developed for use by secondary students in a laboratory setting. This module includes: (1) Pythagorean Theorem (with review of radicals); (2) Basic Coordinate Geometry (distance and midpoint, slope, slope of parallels and perpendiculars, and equation of a line); (3) Selecting Coordinates; (4) Coordinate…

  11. Parallels, How Many? Geometry Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Sheila; And Others

    This is one of a series of geometry modules developed for use by secondary students in a laboratory setting. This module was conceived as an alternative approach to the usual practice of giving Euclid's parallel postulate and then mentioning that alternate postulates would lead to an alternate geometry or geometries. Instead, the student is led…

  12. Summary information and data sets for NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.

  13. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  14. Summary information and data sets for NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.

  15. Effectiveness of five-day-old 10% bleach in a student microbiology laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In the student laboratory, 10% bleach (sodium hypochlorite) is used to disinfect benches before and after work, and when a spill occurs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines recommend diluting bleach daily. In a student laboratory setting, the organisms in use are known and may include only selected standard bacteria. Diluting bleach daily is time consuming and wastes bleach. We hypothesized that 10% bleach stored in low density polyethylene (LDPE) wash bottles would maintain sufficient chlorine concentration to be effective against the organisms used in the student laboratory for five days, so that bleach could be diluted weekly instead of daily. Approximately 3 x 10(6) CFU of each bacterium were spotted to a laboratory bench surface in duplicate and allowed to air dry. One spot was individually cleaned with five-day old 10% bleach following the same protocol as student laboratories. The second spot was uncleaned and sampled as a control. Contact plates containing D/E Neutralizing agar were touched to the spots, incubated overnight at 35 degrees C and examined for growth. An uninoculated spot was also sampled as a background control. A total of 22 different organisms were tested, representing the major groups of organisms used in the student laboratories. All organisms tested were eliminated by the five-day old bleach. All uncleaned spots showed dense growth. The background control had no growth. Reducing the dilution of bleach to once a week rather than daily will save time and money, which can then be devoted to more teaching and curriculum responsibilities, while still maintaining laboratory safety.

  16. Setting priorities for action plans at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C.

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes work done by Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Subcontract Number 9-XQ2-Y3837-1 with the University of California. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of setting priorities for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) deficiencies at Los Alamos. The deficiencies were identified by a DOE Tiger Team that visited LANL in the fall of 1991, and by self assessments done by the Laboratory. ADA did the work described here between October 1991 and the end of September 1992. The ADA staff working on this project became part of a Risk Management Team in the Laboratory`s Integration and Coordination Office (ICO). During the project, the Risk Management Team produced a variety of documents describing aspects of the action-plan prioritization system. Some of those documents are attached to this report. Rather than attempt to duplicate their contents, this report provides a guide to those documents, and references them whenever appropriate.

  17. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  18. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Getchell, Rodman G; McClure, Carol A; Garver, Kyle A

    2011-09-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  19. Combining laboratory data sets from multiple institutions using the logical observation identifier names and codes (LOINC).

    PubMed

    Baorto, D M; Cimino, J J; Parvin, C A; Kahn, M G

    1998-07-01

    A standard set of names and codes for laboratory test results is critical for any endeavor requiring automated data pooling, including multi-institutional research and cross-facility patient care. This need has led to the development of the logical observation identifier names and codes (LOINC) database and its test-naming convention. This study is an expansion of a pilot study using LOINC to exchange laboratory data between Columbia University Medical Center in New York and Barnes Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis, where we described complexities and ambiguities that arose in the LOINC coding process (D.M. Baorto, J.J. Cimino, C.A. Parvin, M.G. Kahn, Proc. Am. Med. Inf. Assoc. 1997). For the present study, we required the same two medical centers to again extract raw laboratory data from their local information system for a defined patient population, translate tests into LOINC and provide aggregate data which could then be used to compare laboratory utilization. Here we examine a larger number of tests from each site which have been recoded using an updated version of the LOINC database. We conclude that the coding of local tests into LOINC can often be complex, especially the 'Kind of Property' field and apparently trivial differences in choices made by individual institutions can result in nonmatches in electronically pooled data. In the present study, 75% of failures to match the same tests between different institutions using LOINC codes were due to differences in local coding choices. LOINC has the potential to eliminate the need for detailed human inspection during the pooling of laboratory data from diverse sites and perhaps even a built-in capability to adjust matching stringency by selecting subsets of LOINC fields required to match. However, a quality standard coding procedure is required and examples highlighted in this paper may require special attention while mapping to LOINC.

  20. Factors in the Selection of Surface Disinfectants for Use in a Laboratory Animal Setting.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Michael V; Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle; Treger, Janet A; Cushman, Jesse D; Grogan, Tristan R; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Lawson, Gregory W

    2016-03-01

    Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the 'gold standard' for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. This study was designed to identify disinfectants that are as effective as hypochlorite solutions but more acceptable for use in a laboratory animal setting. An antiviral disinfectant-efficacy assay was developed by using viral vectors that expressed green fluorescence protein as surrogates for wild-type viruses of concern in laboratory animals. Efficacy testing revealed that most of the products were highly effective when used against viral vectors in suspension. However, when the disinfectants were challenged by buffering virus in protein or drying virus on nonporous surfaces, the hypochlorite and peroxymonosulfate products performed the best. Review of safety data sheets for the agents indicated that a peroxide-based product was considerably safer than the other products tested and that the pH of most products was not conducive to disposal down a drain. Behavioral testing of Swiss Webster, C57Bl/6, and BALB/c mice showed that the hypochlorite- and peroxide-based products were clearly aversive, given that the mice consistently avoided these products. All of these factors must be considered when choosing the appropriate disinfectant.

  1. Factors in the Selection of Surface Disinfectants for Use in a Laboratory Animal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Campagna, Michael V; Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle; Treger, Janet A; Cushman, Jesse D; Grogan, Tristan R; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Lawson, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the ‘gold standard’ for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. This study was designed to identify disinfectants that are as effective as hypochlorite solutions but more acceptable for use in a laboratory animal setting. An antiviral disinfectant-efficacy assay was developed by using viral vectors that expressed green fluorescence protein as surrogates for wild-type viruses of concern in laboratory animals. Efficacy testing revealed that most of the products were highly effective when used against viral vectors in suspension. However, when the disinfectants were challenged by buffering virus in protein or drying virus on nonporous surfaces, the hypochlorite and peroxymonosulfate products performed the best. Review of safety data sheets for the agents indicated that a peroxide-based product was considerably safer than the other products tested and that the pH of most products was not conducive to disposal down a drain. Behavioral testing of Swiss Webster, C57Bl/6, and BALB/c mice showed that the hypochlorite- and peroxide-based products were clearly aversive, given that the mice consistently avoided these products. All of these factors must be considered when choosing the appropriate disinfectant. PMID:27025810

  2. Social setting, intuition and experience in laboratory experiments interact to shape cooperative decision-making.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2015-07-22

    Recent studies suggest that cooperative decision-making in one-shot interactions is a history-dependent dynamic process: promoting intuition versus deliberation typically has a positive effect on cooperation (dynamism) among people living in a cooperative setting and with no previous experience in economic games on cooperation (history dependence). Here, we report on a laboratory experiment exploring how these findings transfer to a non-cooperative setting. We find two major results: (i) promoting intuition versus deliberation has no effect on cooperative behaviour among inexperienced subjects living in a non-cooperative setting; (ii) experienced subjects cooperate more than inexperienced subjects, but only under time pressure. These results suggest that cooperation is a learning process, rather than an instinctive impulse or a self-controlled choice, and that experience operates primarily via the channel of intuition. Our findings shed further light on the cognitive basis of human cooperative decision-making and provide further support for the recently proposed social heuristics hypothesis.

  3. Long term laboratory corrosion monitoring of calcine bin set materials exposed to zirconia calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk, W.J.

    1994-06-01

    Corrosion testing of Type 1025 carbon steel, 405, 304, 304L, 316L, and 347 stainless steels, and 6061-T6 aluminum were conducted in synthetic zirconia calcine to model long term corrosion performance of bin set material. Testing was conducted over a period of 17 years. The existing calcine bin set {number_sign}1 is constructed of Type 405 stainless steel, 2 through 4 are constructed of Type 304 stainless steel and 5 through 7 are constructed of Type 304L stainless steel. The highest rate observed for Type 304L stainless steel was 8.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} inches per month. This would equal a wall thickness loss of about 5 mils after 500 years of storage. Currently, the established schedule for removal of corrosion test coupons from the calcine storage bins is at the end of the 10th, 100th, 250th, and 450th year of solid storage service. Very low corrosion rates and metal oxide data determined from the long term laboratory test, in conjunction with corrosion rates from the coupon assessment of the second bin set, indicate this schedule should be revised from 10 years to 50 years for the first assessment.

  4. Laboratory and Field Studies of Fracture Flow and Its Extension in Underground Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hudson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Basic studies of fracture flow, such as the cubic law, were widely cited for over four decades and used in understanding processes in fractured media. We evaluate the fracture flow law implications and its extensions. The understanding of fluid flow through fractured rocks is important for progress in the many existing and proposed engineering projects dedicated to the support of mankind. Moreover, the characterization of this understanding is crucial during the use of the supporting computer modeling—which is becoming evermore ambitious and ubiquitous. The calculations and resultant outputs need to be validated, both in order to ensure appropriate engineering decisions and because there is increasing emphasis on the use of the Earth's resources, their sustainability and more accountability of engineers' decisions. Within this context, there remain many unknowns: how do we establish the geometrical and hydro-geological properties of fractures in a specific rock mass?; how do we establish the link between the hydro-geological fracture properties and other variables such as the in situ stress state?; and how do we validate the results at the full scale? Concurrently with the laboratory and numerical studies of fracture flows, we have made progresses in developing underground research laboratories (URLs) in both hard and soft rocks, in housing large halls for particle detections at great depths, and in testing the energy and resource recovery capacities and the waste disposal potentials through borehole complexes. In addition to existing worldwide networks for radioactive wastes, we initiate comparisons of different underground laboratories and facilities, including also physics laboratories and borehole complexes. The 2011-2012 findings of a Commission for the International Society for Rock Mechanics on URL Networking are summarized. Side drifts of roadway tunnels, dedicated facilities with tunneling and shafting to reach desired depths, and levels in active and

  5. Remembrance of Things Future: Prospective Memory in Laboratory, Workplace, and Everyday Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    2010-01-01

    In this review, oriented to the human factors community, I will summarize and provide a perspective on recent research and theory on prospective memory. This will not be an exhaustive review of literature, which is already available in two excellent recent books that provide a wealth of detail on the current state of experimental research (Kliegel, McCaniel, & Einstein, 2008; McDaniel & Einstein, 2007; also see Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996, for a still relevant overview of the field as it was emerging). Rather, I will explore the limits of existing experimental paradigms and theory, Vvilich, in my opinion, fail to capture some critical aspects of performance outside the laboratory. I will also review the relatively few studies in workplace and everyday settings and will discuss several studies that attempt to bridge between the bulk of experimental studies and these few naturalistic studies. Finally, I will describe countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to forgetting to perform intended tasks, and I will propose a research agenda that would extend existing experimental and theoretical approaches and would support human factors practitioners by generating information on a wide range of issues relevant to prospective memory performance in natural settings.

  6. Classifying Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

  7. Effects of ostracism and sex on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-09-01

    Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use.

  8. Analytical Validation of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 Detection in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Riel, Stacy L; Haley, Lisa; Lu, Changxue; Chen, Yan; Silberstein, John; Zhu, Yezi; Zheng, Gang; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Gocke, Christopher D; Partin, Alan W; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Luo, Jun; Eshleman, James R

    2017-01-01

    Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) often are treated with drugs that target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Constitutively active AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7) lacks the ligand-binding domain and, if detected in circulating tumor cells, may be associated with resistance to these agents. We validated an AR-V7 assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory. Circulating tumor cells were isolated, and mRNA was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of reference transcripts (beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), prostate-specific transcripts (prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostate-specific antigen, and AR-full length), and AR-V7 was performed. Specimens for validation included an AR-V7 expressing prostate cancer (LNCaP95), 38 peripheral blood controls, and 21 blood samples from CRPC patients. The assay detected as few as five LNCaP95 cells spiked into peripheral blood, showing high analytical sensitivity. Multiple inter-run and intrarun replicates of LNCaP95 cell line experiments yielded similar cycle threshold values for all genes, showing high analytical precision (AR-V7 cycle threshold CV of 0.67%). All 38 healthy control samples were negative for AR-V7, showing high diagnostic specificity (100%). The diagnostic accuracy was confirmed by concurrent testing of 21 CRPC samples in the research laboratory and the clinical diagnostic laboratory: concordance in AR-V7 status was achieved in all cases (positive in 4, negative in 17) (100% accuracy). This first validated clinical assay detects the AR-V7 with high analytical sensitivity, precision, specificity, and accuracy.

  9. A set up of a modern analytical laboratory for wastewaters from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Natalia; Dahl, Olli

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of analytical techniques allowing rapid, selective, sensitive, and reliable determination of aqueous pollutants is of crucial importance for the protection of the environment. This critical review summarizes the advanced analytical techniques suggested over the last ten years together with already established methods, and evaluates whether they are fit for wastewater quality assessment considering the area of application, interferences, limit of detection, calibration function, and precision. The key parameters of wastewater quality assessment are: total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), organochlorines (AOX), nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and toxicity. Chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, photocatalytic oxidation with semiconductor nanofilms and atomic emission spectrometry, optical fibre sensors and chemiluminescence, amperometric mediated biosensors and microbial fuel cells, respirometry and bioluminescence measurements are just part of the proposed wastewater analyst's toolkit. The diversity of fundamental phenomena and the captivating elegance of interdisciplinary applications involved in the development of wastewater analytical techniques should attract the interest of a wide scientific audience including analytical chemists, chemical physicists, microbiologists and environmentalists. To conclude, we suggest a laboratory set up for the analysis of wastewaters from the pulp and paper industry.

  10. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Raka; Verma, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care. PMID:26957863

  11. Microorganism billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Wahl, Colin; Lukasik, Joseph; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of a body with this empirical reflection law inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square obstacles, where the departure angle dictates the possibility of trapping or diffusive trajectories.

  12. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  13. Environmentally relevant microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Baker, P W

    2000-01-01

    The development of molecular microbial ecology in the 1990s has allowed scientists to realize that microbial populations in the natural environment are much more diverse than microorganisms so far isolated in the laboratory. This finding has exerted a significant impact on environmental biotechnology, since knowledge in this field has been largely dependent on studies with pollutant-degrading bacteria isolated by conventional culture methods. Researchers have thus started to use molecular ecological methods to analyze microbial populations relevant to pollutant degradation in the environment (called environmentally relevant microorganisms, ERMs), although further effort is needed to gain practical benefits from these studies. This review highlights the utility and limitations of molecular ecological methods for understanding and advancing environmental biotechnology processes. The importance of the combined use of molecular ecological and physiological methods for identifying ERMs is stressed.

  14. Microorganisms and psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, E. W.; Noah, P. W.; Skinner, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested previously that psoriasis is best explained as a distinctive inflammatory response to a variety of microbial stimuli, all acting primarily through activation of the alternative complement pathway. For the past several years we have conducted a "Problem Psoriasis Clinic" based on that premise. Patients are questioned, examined, and subjected to microbiologic laboratory investigations in an attempt to identify possibly relevant microorganisms, and then are treated with antibiotics. This article lists the most commonly found microorganisms in psoriasis patients and describes the usual treatment for each. Results obtained with this approach compare favorably with those achieved with more usual anti-psoriasis treatments. We recommend that a microbiologic investigation and a trial of antimicrobial treatment should precede any plan to treat psoriasis patients with anything more than the simplest topical agents. PMID:8040907

  15. Implementing and Measuring the Level of Laboratory Service Integration in a Program Setting in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Henry; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Ikani, Patrick Anibbe; Balogun, Oluseyi; Sanwo, Olusola; Ochei, Kingsley; Ekanem, Maurice; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Background The surge of donor funds to fight HIV&AIDS epidemic inadvertently resulted in the setup of laboratories as parallel structures to rapidly respond to the identified need. However these parallel structures are a threat to the existing fragile laboratory systems. Laboratory service integration is critical to remedy this situation. This paper describes an approach to quantitatively measure and track integration of HIV-related laboratory services into the mainstream laboratory services and highlight some key intervention steps taken, to enhance service integration. Method A quantitative before-and-after study conducted in 122 Family Health International (FHI360) supported health facilities across Nigeria. A minimum service package was identified including management structure; trainings; equipment utilization and maintenance; information, commodity and quality management for laboratory integration. A check list was used to assess facilities at baseline and 3 months follow-up. Level of integration was assessed on an ordinal scale (0 = no integration, 1 = partial integration, 2 = full integration) for each service package. A composite score grading expressed as a percentage of total obtainable score of 14 was defined and used to classify facilities (≤80% FULL, 25% to 79% PARTIAL and <25% NO integration). Weaknesses were noted and addressed. Results We analyzed 9 (7.4%) primary, 104 (85.2%) secondary and 9 (7.4%) tertiary level facilities. There were statistically significant differences in integration levels between baseline and 3 months follow-up period (p<0.01). Baseline median total integration score was 4 (IQR 3 to 5) compared to 7 (IQR 4 to 9) at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). Partial and fully integrated laboratory systems were 64 (52.5%) and 0 (0.0%) at baseline, compared to 100 (82.0%) and 3 (2.4%) respectively at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). Discussion This project showcases our novel approach to measure the status of each

  16. Evaluating a College-Prep Laboratory Exercise for Teenaged Homeschool Students in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, Daniel A.; Parrish, Cameron A.; Whitehead, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    We devised a half-day laboratory exercise for a group of 10th grade homeschooled students enrolled in an honors-level high school general chemistry course organized by a collective of homeschooling families associated with local Christian churches. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the students met the learning objectives of the exercise. The…

  17. Plasma kinetic effects on interfacial mix in settings relevant to inertial confinement fusion and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K.; Fernández, J. C.; Bang, W.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Hamilton, C. E.; Palaniyappan, S.; Santiago Cordoba, M. A.; Hegelich, B. M.; Dyer, G.; Roycroft, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mixing of high-Z/low-Z interfaces in dense plasma media is a problem of importance for understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion experiments and recent experiments at the LANL Trident facility. In this presentation, we apply the VPIC particle-in-cell code with a binary collision model to explore kinetic effects of the atomic mixing. Comparisons are made to published analytic theory and hybrid modeling results and conditions are identified under which plasma kinetic behavior may lead to anomalously rapid atomic mixing. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  18. Usefulness of the Paralens™ Fluorescent Microscope Adaptor for the Identification of Mycobacteria in Both Field and Laboratory Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Walter; Armstrong, Derek; Atteberry, Suzanne; Dewbrey, Euline; Smith, Diane; Hooper, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in laboratories has traditionally been demonstrated using the fluorochrome method, which requires a fluorescent microscope or the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method employing light microscopy. Low sensitivity of the ZN method and high costs of fluoroscopy make the need for a more effective means of diagnosis a top priority, especially in developing countries where the burden of tuberculosis is high. The QBC ParaLens™ attachment (QBC Diagnostic Inc., Port Matilda, PA) is a substitute for conventional fluoroscopy in the identification of AFB. To evaluate the efficacy of the ParaLens LED (light-emitting diode) system, the authors performed a two-part study, looking at usefulness, functionality and durability in urban/rural health clinics around the world, as well as in a controlled state public health laboratory setting. In the field, the ParaLens was durable and functioned well with various power sources and lighting conditions. Results from the state laboratory indicated agreement between standard fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent microscopy using the ParaLens. This adaptor is a welcome addition to laboratories in resource-limited settings as a useful alternative to conventional fluoroscopy for detection of mycobacterial species. PMID:20556200

  19. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed Central

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  20. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  1. A New Population Dataset on Dust Devil Pressure Drops : Setting the Stage for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-09-01

    A quarter of a century ago in the first in-situ study of dust devils on Mars, Ryan and Lucich (1983) rue that 'Unfortunately, we have been unable to find a terrestrial data set that permits a one-to-one comparison with our Mars data'. Remarkably, this state of affairs has largely persisted. Here I present a set of fixed station terrestrial field data, enabled by recent technological developments, which enables a direct comparison with dust devils (as indicated by vortex pressure drops) from Mars Pathfinder, Phoenix, and hopefully MSL Curiosity.

  2. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Rapid Setting Cementitious Materials for Large Crater Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    pavement fill material used during preparation of the test craters...60 Figure 43. Filling the proportional mixer with Rapid Set DOT cement...87 Figure 84. Section 2 of Crater 4 was filled with a portion of the material from Batch 6

  3. Useful Material Efficiency Green Metrics Problem Set Exercises for Lecture and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    A series of pedagogical problem set exercises are posed that illustrate the principles behind material efficiency green metrics and their application in developing a deeper understanding of reaction and synthesis plan analysis and strategies to optimize them. Rigorous, yet simple, mathematical proofs are given for some of the fundamental concepts,…

  4. Making Comparisons: Ratios. Topical Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lyle; And Others

    The objectives of this module on making comparisons and ratios include using ratios to compare sets of objects and expressing ratios as decimals or fractions in lowest terms. The module provides six experiments. An envelope of manipulatives accompanies each of the first three experiments. The fourth experiment requires a multispeed bicycle. The…

  5. Efficacy of a Methylphenidate Transdermal System versus t.i.d. Methylphenidate in a Laboratory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Schentag, Jerome; Ballow, Charles H.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Meichenbaum, David L.; Forehand, Gregory L.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Tresco, Katy E.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Coles, Erika K.; Gonzalez, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To test the efficacy and tolerability of the methylphenidate transdermal formulation (MTS) against immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in a 12-hr analog classroom setting. Method: A total of nine boys ages 6 to 9 years, medicated with MPH for ADHD, complete a within-subject, double-blind study. For the purpose of the…

  6. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  7. 3D numerical simulations of dense water cascading in an idealised laboratory setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobus, F.; Shapiro, G. I.; Maqueda, M. A. M.; Huthnance, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The sinking of dense waters flowing from shelf seas down the continental slope "cascading" contributes to ocean ventilation and water mass formation (notably in the Antarctic) and hence ocean circulation. It is also deemed to affect carbon cycling by providing an efficient mechanism of export of carbon-rich surface waters to a greater depth thus contributing to the "carbon pump". Cascading occurs where dense water - formed by cooling, evaporation or ice-formation with brine rejection over the shallow continental shelf - spills over the shelf edge and descends the continental slope as a near-bottom gravity current. During its descent, the plume is modified by mixing and entrainment, and detaches off the slope when reaching its neutral buoyancy level. Cascading over steep bottom topography is studied here in numerical experiments using POLCOMS, a 3D ocean circulation model which utilizes a terrain-following s-coordinate system (Wobus et al, 2011). The model setup is based on a previously conducted (Shapiro and Zatsepin, 1997) laboratory experiment of a continuous dense water flow from a central source on a conical slope in a rotating tank. The governing parameters of the experiments are the density difference between plume and ambient water, the flow rate, the speed of rotation and (in the model) diffusivity and viscosity. The descent of the dense flow as characterised by the length of the plume as a function of time is studied for a range of physical and model parameters. Very good agreement between the model and the laboratory results is shown in dimensional and non-dimensional variables. It is confirmed that a hydrostatic model is capable of reproducing the essential physics of cascading on a very steep slope if the model correctly resolves velocity veering in the bottom boundary layer. Experiments changing the height of the bottom Ekman layer (by changing viscosity) and modifying the plume from a 2-layer system to a stratified regime (by enhancing diapycnal

  8. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  9. Development of Laboratory Testing Criteria for Evaluating Cementitious, Rapid-Setting Pavement Repair Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    components. Blended calcium sulfo- aluminate cement, calcium aluminate cement, gypsum cement, polymers, and ultrafine portland cement are common rapid...Blended calcium sulfo- aluminate and calcium aluminate cements may be categorized as high-alumina cements. Ultrafine portland cement Ultrafine...requiring care to prevent flash-setting of large batches. High alumina High-alumina materials use monocalcium aluminate (CaO-Al2O3) as the primary

  10. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  11. Comparison of histomorphology and DNA preservation produced by fixatives in the veterinary diagnostic laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Craft, William F; Conway, Julia A; Dark, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Histopathology is the most useful tool for diagnosis of a number of diseases, especially cancer. To be effective, histopathology requires that tissues be fixed prior to processing. Formalin is currently the most common histologic fixative, offering many advantages: it is cheap, readily available, and pathologists are routinely trained to examine tissues fixed in formalin. However, formalin fixation substantially degrades tissue DNA, hindering subsequent use in diagnostics and research. We therefore evaluated three alternative fixatives, TissueTek(®) Xpress(®) Molecular Fixative, modified methacarn, and PAXgene(®), all of which have been proposed as formalin alternatives, to determine their suitability for routine use in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This was accomplished by examining the histomorphology of sections produced from fixed tissues as well as the ability to amplify fragments from extracted DNA. Tissues were sampled from two dogs and four cats, fixed for 24-48 h, and processed routinely. While all fixatives produced acceptable histomorphology, formalin had significantly better morphologic characteristics than the other three fixatives. Alternative fixatives generally had better DNA amplification than formalin, although results varied somewhat depending on the tissue examined. While no fixative is yet ready to replace formalin, the alternative fixatives examined may be useful as adjuncts to formalin in diagnostic practices.

  12. Laboratory-based surveillance of Clostridium difficile strains circulating in the Australian healthcare setting in 2012.

    PubMed

    Collins, Deirdre A; Putsathit, Papanin; Elliott, Briony; Riley, Thomas V

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has risen in prominence in Australia recently. We conducted laboratory-based surveillance of CDI to examine C. difficile circulating in Australia in October/November 2012. We collected 542 isolates from all States and Territories of Australia except the Northern Territory. The most common ribotypes (RTs) were RTs 014/020 (25.5%), 002 (10.5%), 056 (5.9%) and 070 (4.2%). The survey results were compared with results from a similar Australian survey conducted in 2010. Proportions of RTs 014/020 and 002 remained similar, while RTs 056 (5.9%), 015 (4.1%), 017 (3.3%) and 244 (2.4%) increased in prevalence. Basic clinical and demographic data were available for 338 cases. The majority were healthcare facility-associated (HCFA-CDI, 51.5%) while 17.5% were community-associated (CA-CDI). While no RTs were associated with CA-CDI, RTs 056 and 126 were recently found in Australian production animals, indicating a possible community health threat in Australia.

  13. Psychosocial stress based on public speech in humans: is there a real life/laboratory setting cross-adaptation?

    PubMed

    Jezova, D; Hlavacova, N; Dicko, I; Solarikova, P; Brezina, I

    2016-07-01

    Repeated or chronic exposure to stressors is associated with changes in neuroendocrine responses depending on the type, intensity, number and frequency of stress exposure as well as previous stress experience. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to real-life psychosocial stressors related to public performance can cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress induced by public speech under laboratory setting. The sample consisted of 22 healthy male volunteers, which were either actors, more precisely students of dramatic arts or non-actors, students of other fields. The stress task consisted of 15 min anticipatory preparation phase and 15 min of public speech on an emotionally charged topic. The actors, who were accustomed to public speaking, responded with a rise in salivary cortisol as well as blood pressure to laboratory public speech. The values of salivary cortisol, systolic blood pressure and state anxiety were lower in actors compared to non-actors. Unlike non-actors, subjects with experience in public speaking did not show stress-induced rise in the heart rate. Evaluation of personality traits revealed that actors scored significantly higher in extraversion than the subjects in the non-actor group. In conclusion, neuroendocrine responses to real-life stressors in actors can partially cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress under laboratory setting. The most evident adaptation was at the level of heart rate responses. The public speech tasks may be of help in evaluation of the ability to cope with stress in real life in artists by simple laboratory testing.

  14. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly.

  15. Performance of the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast in a clinical laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Pia; Piiparinen, Heli; Mannonen, Laura; Auvinen, Eeva; Lappalainen, Maija

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a real-time RT-PCR for the detection of enteroviruses (EVs) and rhinoviruses (RVs) and to assess the performance of the xTAG RVP Fast assay in comparison to a direct fluorescent assay (DFA), a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and the EV/RV RT-PCR assay developed in this study. The performance of the RVP Fast assay was assessed in the analysis of 373 nasopharyngeal samples. For the viruses of the DFA panel, detection rates of 27.6% and 23.8% were obtained by RVP and DFA, respectively, in analysis of a set of 297 samples collected in 2009-2010. These results show statistically significant superiority of the RVP Fast assay (P=0.049). For RSV, hMPV, EV, and RV, detection rates of 48.0% and 45.2% were achieved by RVP and RT-PCR, respectively. For individual targets, increased detection of EV/RV (P=0.043) and decreased detection of influenza A virus (P=0.004) by RVP in comparison to real-time RT-PCR was observed. The results of the present study imply the need to adjust the InfA component of the RVP Fast assay to also cover the InfA(H1N1) 2009 virus.

  16. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices.

  17. The laboratory confirmation of suspected measles cases in settings of low measles transmission: conclusions from the experience in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Vance; Rota, Jennifer; Izurieta, Héctor; Carrasco, Peter; Bellini, William

    2004-01-01

    The Americas have set a goal of interrupting indigenous transmission of measles using a strategy developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This strategy includes recommendations for vaccination activities to achieve and sustain high immunity in the population and is complemented by sensitive epidemiological surveillance systems developed to monitor illnesses characterized by febrile rash, and to provide effective virological and serological surveillance. A key component in ensuring the success of the programme has been a laboratory network comprising 22 national laboratories including reference centres. Commercially available indirect enzyme immunoassay kits (EIA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM)-class antibodies are currently being used throughout the region. However, because there are few or no true measles cases in the region, the positive predictive value of these diagnostic tests has decreased. False-positive results of IgM tests can also occur as a result of testing suspected measles cases with exanthemata caused by Parvovirus B19, rubella and Human herpesvirus 6, among others. In addition, as countries maintain high levels of vaccination activity and increased surveillance of rash and fever, the notification of febrile rash illness in recently vaccinated people can be anticipated. Thus, managers in the measles elimination programme must be prepared to address the interpretation of a positive result of a laboratory test for measles IgM when clinical and epidemiological data may indicate that the case is not measles. The interpretation of an IgM-positive test under different circumstances and the definition of a vaccine-related rash illness in a setting of greatly reduced, or absent, transmission of measles is discussed. PMID:15640921

  18. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds: extending laboratory studies to study free-flying migrants in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A; Tøttrup, Anders P; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-09-01

    For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can either be located from the ground or from aircraft (conventional tracking), or from space. Alternatively, positional information obtained by onboard equipment (e.g., GPS units) can be transmitted to receivers in space. Use of these tracking methods has provided a wealth of information on migratory behaviors that are otherwise very difficult to study. Here, we focus on the progress in understanding certain components of the migration-orientation system. Comparably exciting results can be expected in the future from tracking free-flying migrants in the wild. Use of orientation cues has been studied in migrating raptors (satellite telemetry) and thrushes (conventional telemetry), highlighting that findings in the natural setting may not always be as expected on the basis of cage-experiments. Furthermore, field tracking methods combined with experimental approaches have finally allowed for an extension of the paradigmatic displacement experiments performed by Perdeck in 1958 on the short-distance, social migrant, the starling, to long-distance migrating storks and long-distance, non-socially migrating passerines. Results from these studies provide fundamental insights into the nature of the migratory orientation system that enables experienced birds to navigate and guide inexperienced, young birds to their species-specific winter grounds.

  19. Evidence-based approach to the maintenance of laboratory and medical equipment in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Robert; Keane, Allison

    2010-07-01

    Much of the laboratory and medical equipment in resource-poor settings is out-of-service. The most commonly cited reasons are (1) a lack of spare parts and (2) a lack of highly trained technicians. However, there is little data to support these hypotheses, or to generate evidence-based solutions to the problem. We studied 2,849 equipment-repair requests (of which 2,529 were out-of-service medical equipment) from 60 resource-poor hospitals located in 11 nations in Africa, Europe, Asia, and Central America. Each piece of equipment was analyzed by an engineer or an engineering student and a repair was attempted using only locally available materials. If the piece was placed back into service, we assumed that the engineer's problem analysis was correct. A total of 1,821 pieces of medical equipment were placed back into service, or 72%, without requiring the use of imported spare parts. Of those pieces repaired, 1,704 were sufficiently documented to determine what knowledge was required to place the equipment back into service. We found that six domains of knowledge were required to accomplish 99% of the repairs: electrical (18%), mechanical (18%), power supply (14%), plumbing (19%), motors (5%), and installation or user training (25%). A further analysis of the domains shows that 66% of the out-of-service equipment was placed back into service using only 107 skills covering basic knowledge in each domain; far less knowledge than that required of a biomedical engineer or biomedical engineering technician. We conclude that a great majority of laboratory and medical equipment can be put back into service without importing spare parts and using only basic knowledge. Capacity building in resource-poor settings should first focus on a limited set of knowledge; a body of knowledge that we call the biomedical technician's assistant (BTA). This data set suggests that a supported BTA could place 66% of the out-of-service laboratory and medical equipment in their hospital back

  20. Using confidence-based marking in a laboratory setting: A tool for student self-assessment and learning

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Deborah A.; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Confidence-based marking (CBM), developed by A. R. Gardner-Medwin et al., has been used for many years in the medical school setting as an assessment tool. Our study evaluates the use of CBM in the neuroanatomy laboratory setting, and its effectiveness as a tool for student self-assessment and learning. Methods The subjects were 224 students enrolled in Neuroscience I over a period of four trimesters. Regional neuroanatomy multiple choice question (MCQ) quizzes were administered the week following topic presentation in the laboratory. A total of six quizzes was administered during the trimester and the MCQ was paired with a confidence question, and the paired questions were scored using a three-level CBM scoring scheme. Results Spearman's rho correlation coefficients indicated that the number of correct answers was correlated highly with the CBM score (high, medium, low) for each topic. The χ2 analysis within each neuroscience topic detected that the distribution of students into low, medium, and high confidence levels was a function of number of correct answers on the quiz (p < .05). Pairwise comparisons of quiz performance with CBM score as the covariate detected that the student's level of understanding of course content was greatest for information related to spinal cord and medulla, and least for information related to midbrain and cerebrum. Conclusion CBM is a reliable strategy for challenging students to think discriminately-based on their knowledge of material. The three-level CBM scoring scheme was a valid tool to assess student learning of core neuroanatomic topics regarding structure and function. PMID:23519005

  1. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  2. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  3. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Progress report, June 1, 1990--May 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  4. Automated systems for identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Stager, C E; Davis, J R

    1992-01-01

    Automated instruments for the identification of microorganisms were introduced into clinical microbiology laboratories in the 1970s. During the past two decades, the capabilities and performance characteristics of automated identification systems have steadily progressed and improved. This article explores the development of the various automated identification systems available in the United States and reviews their performance for identification of microorganisms. Observations regarding deficiencies and suggested improvements for these systems are provided. PMID:1498768

  5. Robustness of NMR-based metabolomics to generate comparable data sets for olive oil cultivar classification. An inter-laboratory study on Apulian olive oils.

    PubMed

    Piccinonna, Sara; Ragone, Rosa; Stocchero, Matteo; Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful technique in olive oil fingerprinting, but its analytical robustness has to be proved. Here, we report a comparative study between two laboratories on olive oil (1)H NMR fingerprinting, aiming to demonstrate the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in generating comparable data sets for cultivar classification. Sample preparation and data acquisition were performed independently in two laboratories, equipped with different resolution spectrometers (400 and 500 MHz), using two identical sets of mono-varietal olive oils. Partial Least Squares (PLS)-based techniques were applied to compare the data sets produced by the two laboratories. Despite differences in spectrum baseline, and in intensity and shape of peaks, the amount of shared information was significant (almost 70%) and related to cultivar (same metabolites discriminated between cultivars). In conclusion, regardless of the variability due to operator and machine, the data sets from the two participating units were comparable for the purpose of classification.

  6. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  7. How to set up a microsurgical laboratory on small animal models: organization, techniques, and impact on residency training.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, A; Frati, A; Santoro, A; Lenzi, J; Delfini, R; Pannarale, L; Gaudio, E; D'Andrea, G; Cantore, G P

    2009-01-01

    Microsurgical training is mandatory for the optimal education of modern neurosurgeons. Even though this is a widely acknowledged statement and a lot of institutions around the world practice training in laboratory, the recent literature lacks tip and tricks on how to start a laboratory from scratch, what would be a convenient anesthesia, and what kind of exercises are appropriate. We present our experience in 16 microsurgical training courses settled up at our institutions. Two hundred eleven rodents were dissected. We will describe the organization of the laboratory and of the training courses and we will discuss its practical impact on the residency program.

  8. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  9. Viability of Selected Microorganisms in Hydrocarbon Fuels.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, H G; Carroll, M T; Owen, H P; Pritchard, D J

    1963-11-01

    A laboratory study of the viability of selected microorganisms in a hydrocarbon fuel medium was carried out on 19 species of microorganisms, representative of the types found as natural contaminants in aircraft fuels. More species remained viable when inoculated in pure cultures than when inoculated in mixed (composite) cultures. Of the 19 species selected, 10 were still viable after 3 months and 5 were viable after 4 months in the pure culture inoculants. In the complete composite culture inoculant, the bacterial species which were viable at the end of 4 months were the same as those found in the pure culture inoculant. No fungi remained viable in the complete composite cultures after a 3-week period. The microorganisms which remain viable in a hydrocarbon fuel medium are considered indicative of a satisfactory inoculum to be used as a test culture in laboratory analysis of mechanical control techniques.

  10. A review on laboratory tests’ utilization: A trigger for cutting costs and quality improvement in health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Meidani, Zahra; Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Farrokhian, Alireza; Haghighat, Masomeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the role of laboratory tests as a central part of controlling health expenditure, this study intends to investigate laboratory tests overutilization in Iran to pave the way for future interventions. Methods: Inappropriate laboratory utilization was reviewed in a cross-sectional survey through the retrospective analysis of 384 medical records at a tertiary center. To pave the way for future intervention, overutilization tests were classified into two categories, inappropriate and inefficient, and then they were analyzed. Frequency analysis was used to analysis patient’s age, gender, hospital wards, length of stay, and diagnosis as well as inappropriate test and inefficient tests. Results: A total of 143 (1.50 %) of the tests were inefficient and was ordered due to laboratory errors including hemolysis, inefficient sampling, or absurd results. 2522 (26.40%) of the tests were inappropriate and stem from failure to meet medical/clinical appropriateness criteria. Conclusion: Whereas, inappropriate test ordering was more frequent than inefficient tests, the initial improvement strategy should focus on physicians’ test ordering behavior through conducting proper teaching strategies, ongoing audit and educational feedback, implementing health information technology tools and employing laboratory practice guidelines (LPGs) and testing algorithms. Conducting continuous quality improvement cycle for laboratory services and training of personnel involved in blood sampling is recommended for inefficient tests. PMID:27493909

  11. Measuring micro-organism gas production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Pearson, A. O.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Transducer, which senses pressure buildup, is easy to assemble and use, and rate of gas produced can be measured automatically and accurately. Method can be used in research, in clinical laboratories, and for environmental pollution studies because of its ability to detect and quantify rapidly the number of gas-producing microorganisms in water, beverages, and clinical samples.

  12. Micro-organ device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); von Gustedt-Gonda, legal representative, Iris (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  13. Micro-Organ Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  14. Microorganisms in Food--Their Significance and Methods of Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, S.

    1980-01-01

    Described are laboratory methods for enumerating microorganisms in food. These methods are utilized to determine if foods are potentially hazardous to the consumer due to high concentrations of microorganisms. Discussed are indicator organisms, including coliforms, interococci, yeasts, and molds; food poisoning organisms (staphylococci and…

  15. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  16. Active Learning: A Small Group Histology Laboratory Exercise in a Whole Class Setting Utilizing Virtual Slides and Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodgood, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Histology laboratory instruction is moving away from the sole use of the traditional combination of light microscopes and glass slides in favor of virtual microscopy and virtual slides. At the same time, medical curricula are changing so as to reduce scheduled time for basic science instruction as well as focusing on student-centered learning…

  17. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  18. Microorganism identification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, R. E.

    1985-07-02

    An identification technique for micro-organisms in which a dilute solution of a culture medium containing an unknown micro-organism has added thereto an emissive agent such as a radioactive amino acid to produce a mix of emissive products that depends on the metabolic mechanism of the micro-organism. After a predetermined incubation period, the reaction is arrested and the solution layered onto a gel plate where it is subjected to electrophoresis. The plate is then autoradiographed by exposing the gel to a sensitive photographic film for a period sufficient to produce thereon a characteristic band pattern functioning as an identifier for the micro-organism. Identification may be effected by comparing the identifier for the unknown with a collection of identifiers for known micro-organisms to find a match with one of these known identifiers. The comparison is preferably carried out by scanning the unknown identifier to produce a signal which is compared with signals representing known identifiers stored in a computer which, when a match is found, yields identification data. Alternatively, the emissive products, after separation, may be detected by direct scanning to provide an identifier signal for computer processing.

  19. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Fedi, M. E.; Gueli, A. M.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented.

  20. Elastohydrodynamics of flagellated microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2016-11-01

    The swimming motion of many microorganisms and cells are achieved by the waving deformation of their cilia and flagella. The typical structure of flagella and cilia contains nine doublets of parallel microtubules in a cylindrical arrangement surrounding one pair of microtubules in the center. The dynein molecular motors internally drive the sliding motion between the neighboring microtubules and cause the bending motion of the flagella and cilia and drive the microorganism swimming motion. In this work, we develop a numerical model for a microorganism swimming by an internally self-driven filament. Our numerical method captures the interaction between the elasticity of the flagellum and the surround fluid. The no-slip boundary conditions are satisfied by an iterative distributed Lagrangian multiplier method. We also investigate the effects of the non-Newtonian fluid rheology on the motion of an elastic flagellum near a wall.

  1. Micro-Organ Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steven R.; Leslie, Julia; Chang, Robert C.; Starly, Binil; Sun, Wei; Culbertson, Christopher; Holtorf, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Micro-organ devices (MODs) are being developed to satisfy an emerging need for small, lightweight, reproducible, biological-experimentati on apparatuses that are amenable to automated operation and that imp ose minimal demands for resources (principally, power and fluids). I n simplest terms, a MOD is a microfluidic device containing a variety of microstructures and assemblies of cells, all designed to mimic a complex in vivo microenvironment by replicating one or more in vivo micro-organ structures, the architectures and composition of the extr acellular matrices in the organs of interest, and the in vivo fluid flows. In addition to microscopic flow channels, a MOD contains one or more micro-organ wells containing cells residing in microscopic e xtracellular matrices and/or scaffolds, the shapes and compositions o f which enable replication of the corresponding in vivo cell assembl ies and flows.

  2. Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Raman, Babu; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Podar, Mircea; Elkins, James G

    2012-01-01

    Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  3. Microorganisms and Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information to update Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology No. 111, "Microorganisms and Man," by W. C. Noble and Jay Naidoo (Edward Arnold, 1979). Topics include: (1) food poisoning; (2) airborn infections in man; (3) infection in animals and plants; and (4) biodegradation and biosynthesis. (JN)

  4. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  5. Following the Rules Set by Accreditation Agencies and Governing Bodies to Maintain In-Compliance Status: Applying Critical Thinking Skills When Evaluating the Need for Change in the Clinical Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Karen M; Levy, Kimberly Y; Reese, Erika M

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining an in-compliance clinical laboratory takes continuous awareness and review of standards, regulations, and best practices. A strong quality assurance program and well informed leaders who maintain professional networks can aid in this necessary task. This article will discuss a process that laboratories can follow to interpret, understand, and comply with the rules and standards set by laboratory accreditation bodies.

  6. Use of iterative OASIS with low resolution SAD laboratory X-ray source (Cr Kα) data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvanayagam, S.; Velmurugan, D.; Yamane, T.; Suzuki, A.

    2009-12-01

    Anomalous scattering methods are widely used for phasing macromolecular structures. OASIS program works on a direct methods procedure and is used to break the phase ambiguity intrinsic in a single wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) experiment. An iterative phasing/model-building procedure for processing SAD data includes the initial direct method phasing of SAD data, density modification, automatic model building and direct methods phasing of SAD data with feed back from partial structure information. This dual-space procedure has been tested on two experimental Cr Kα SAD data sets, 2.3 Å for S-SAD and 2.4 Å for I-SAD, of an enzyme glucose isomerase with an approximate molecular weight of 44 kDa (388 residues). HYSS in PHENIX was used to locate the anomalous scatterers for both the data sets (11 sulfurs for 2.3 Å data and 9 iodines for 2.4 Å data). Phasing and density modification were carried out using OASIS, DM and model building was then carried out using ARP/wARP. Two iterative cycles were necessary for the successful structure solution and refinement of the 2.3 Å data set which built 384 residues out of 388. Regular ARP/wARP failed for the 2.4 Å resolution data and hence the modified version of REFMAC5 was used in ARP/wARP. A successful model could be built after three iterative cycles of OASIS using this modified version which built 382 residues out of 388 residues. Minimal manual model building was required at this stage and the structure determination was completed using regular REFMAC5. All the computations mentioned here were carried out using Pentium IV PC.

  7. Performance of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in laboratory routine diagnosis from a high burden setting

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting. PMID:27598243

  8. Performance of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in laboratory routine diagnosis from a high burden setting.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira de

    2016-09-01

    Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting.

  9. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  10. Dutasteride reduces alcohol's sedative effects in men in a human laboratory setting and reduces drinking in the natural environment

    PubMed Central

    Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy; Feinn, Richard; Arias, Albert J.; Oncken, Cheryl; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical studies support the hypothesis that endogenous neuroactive steroids mediate some effects of alcohol. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dutasteride inhibition of 5α-reduced neuroactive steroid production on subjective responses to alcohol in adult men. Methods Using a within-subject factorial design, 70 men completed four randomly ordered monthly sessions in which pretreatment with 4 mg dutasteride or placebo was paired with a moderate dose of alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo beverage. The pharmacologic effect of dutasteride was measured by an assay of serum androstanediol glucuronide. Self-reports of alcohol effects were obtained at 40-min intervals following alcohol administration using the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and the Alcohol Sensation Scale (SS). We used linear mixed models to examine the effects of dutasteride and alcohol on BAES and SS responses and the interaction of dutasteride with the GABRA2 alcohol dependence-associated polymorphism rs279858. We also examined whether exposure to dutasteride influenced drinking in the weeks following each laboratory session. Results A single 4-mg dose of dutasteride produced a 70 % reduction in androstanediol glucuronide. Dutasteride pretreatment reduced alcohol effects on the BAES sedation and SS anesthesia scales. There was no interaction of dutasteride with rs279858. Heavy drinkers had fewer heavy drinking days during the 2 weeks following the dutasteride sessions and fewer total drinks in the first week after dutasteride. Conclusions These results provide evidence that neuroactive steroids mediate some of the sedative effects of alcohol in adult men and that dutasteride may reduce drinking, presumably through its effects on neuroactive steroid concentrations. PMID:24557088

  11. Detecting the presence of microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Judd R. (Inventor); Stoner, Glenn E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium which is in contact with a measuring electrode and a reference electrode and detecting a change in potential between the electrodes caused by the presence of the microorganisms in the medium with a high impedance potentiometer.

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy of biofluids for disease screening or diagnosis: translation from the laboratory to a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alana L; Gajjar, Ketan B; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin, Francis L; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L

    2014-04-01

    There remains a need for objective and cost-effective approaches capable of diagnosing early-stage disease in point-of-care clinical settings. Given an increasingly ageing population resulting in a rising prevalence of chronic diseases, the need for screening to facilitate the personalising of therapies to prevent or slow down pathology development will increase. Such a tool needs to be robust but simple enough to be implemented into clinical practice. There is interest in extracting biomarkers from biofluids (e.g., plasma or serum); techniques based on vibrational spectroscopy provide an option. Sample preparation is minimal, techniques involved are relatively low-cost, and data frameworks are available. This review explores the evidence supporting the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to generate spectral biomarkers of disease in biofluids. We extend the inter-disciplinary nature of this approach to hypothesise a microfluidic platform that could allow such measurements. With an appropriate lightsource, such engineering could revolutionize screening in the 21(st) century.

  13. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Girija, A. S. Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The microorganisms namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were procured from American Type Cell Culture (ATCC) and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) were revived and lawn cultured. The antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp was tested using agar well diffusion method on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were determined by microbroth dilution method. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. Results The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus (13.6 mm) and Streptococcus sanguis (13.6 mm), whereas, it showed a medium and low activity for Streptococcus oralis (11.3 mm), Streptococcus mutans (10.6 mm) and Streptococcus

  14. Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG Assay in the Diagnostic Laboratory Setting for Assessment of Immune Status

    PubMed Central

    Bartelt, Uwe; Knotek, Frank; Bunn, Kristina; Strobel, Sirpa; Dietz, Klaus; Enders, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Rubella in early pregnancy bears a high risk for congenital defects (e.g., cataracts, hearing loss, and heart disease) and for long-term sequelae in the newborn. Despite implementation of vaccination programs in many regions, the threat of devastating consequences from congenital rubella virus infection remains and careful screening of maternal immune status before and during pregnancy helps to reduce the risk. This study compared the performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay with that of other assays routinely used for screening. Samples from 1,090 women undergoing routine antenatal care were tested using the Elecsys and Enzygnost Rubella IgG assays and the hemagglutination inhibition test. Samples with hemagglutination inhibition titers of <32 (n = 148) were additionally tested using the Vidas, AxSYM, Liaison, and Architect Rubella IgG assays. Agreement of qualitative results from the Elecsys, Enzygnost, and hemagglutination inhibition assays was good in all samples. All assays showed 100.0% specificity. In samples with hemagglutination inhibition titers of <32, the Elecsys, AxSYM, and Enzygnost assays showed higher sensitivity (>90.0%) than the other immunoassays (78.6 to 82.4%). The Elecsys assay reported significantly higher rubella virus IgG levels than the other immunoassays across the whole set of 1,090 samples, with the largest bias and deviation from limits of agreement in Bland-Altman analysis. In conclusion, the Elecsys assay is highly sensitive and specific with regard to qualitative results and suitable for routine automated screening. However, given the considerable variation between quantitative results from different immunoassays, testing methods should be documented and the same assay used throughout an individual's antenatal follow-up wherever possible. PMID:23345585

  15. Effect of two commercial herbicides on life history traits of a human disease vector, Aedes aegypti, in the laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alexandra; Murrell, Ebony G; Klein, Talan; Noden, Bruce H

    2016-07-01

    Some mosquito species utilize the small niches of water that are abundant in farmland habitats. These niches are susceptible to effects from agricultural pesticides, many of which are applied aerially over large tracts of land. One principal form of weed control in agricultural systems involves the development of herbicide-tolerant crops. The impact of sub-agricultural levels of these herbicides on mosquito survival and life-history traits of resulting adults have not been determined. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two commercial herbicides (Beyond and Roundup) on the survivorship, eclosion time, and body mass of Aedes aegypti. First instar A. aegypti larvae were exposed to varying concentrations (270, 550 and 820 μg/m(2) of glyphosate and 0.74, 1.49, 2.24 μL imazamox/m(2)), all treatments being below recommended application rates, of commercial herbicides in a controlled environment and resulting adult mosquitoes were collected and weighed. Exposure to Roundup had a significant negative effect on A. aegypti survivorship at medium and high sub-agricultural application concentrations, and negatively affected adult eclosion time at the highest concentration. However, exposure to low concentrations of Beyond significantly increased A. aegypti survivorship, although adult female mass was decreased at medium sub-agricultural concentrations. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of two different herbicides, which can occur in rural larval habitats as a result of spray drift, can affect the same species of mosquito in both positive and negative ways depending on the herbicide applied. The effects of commercial herbicides on mosquito populations could have an important effect on disease transmission within agricultural settings, where these and other herbicides are extensively applied to reduce weed growth.

  16. SenseWearMini and Actigraph GT3X Accelerometer Classification of Observed Sedentary and Light-Intensity Physical Activities in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Feehan, Lynne M; Goldsmith, Charles H; Leung, April Y F; Li, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of SenseWear Mini (SWm) and Actigraph GT3X (AG3) accelerometers to differentiate between healthy adults' observed sedentary and light activities in a laboratory setting. Methods: The 22 participants (15 women, 7 men), ages 19 to 72 years, wore SWm and AG3 monitors and performed five sedentary and four light activities for 5 minutes each while observed in a laboratory setting. Performance was examined through comparisons of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Correct identification of both types of activities was examined using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Both monitors demonstrated excellent ability to identify sedentary activities (sensitivity>0.89). The SWm monitor was better at identifying light activities (specificity 0.61-0.71) than the AG3 monitor (specificity 0.27-0.47) and thus also showed a greater ability to correctly identify both sedentary and light activities (SWm AUC 0.84; AG3 AUC 0.62-0.73). Conclusions: SWm may be a more suitable monitor for detecting time spent in sedentary and light-intensity activities. This finding has clinical and research relevance for evaluation of time spent in lower intensity physical activities by sedentary adults.

  17. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  18. Leakage of CO2 from sub-seafloor CO2 storage sites to the seabed; Impacts on sediment microorganisms and geochemical parameters during in situ and laboratory leakage experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigstad, L. J.; Hannisdal, B.; Hoffmann, F. U.; Sweetman, A. K.; Baumberger, T.; Eickmann, B.; Røy, H.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1996, 14 million tons of CO2 extracted from natural gas have been injected into the Utsira Formation, a saline aquifer at ~1000 m depth in the North Sea. The injected CO2 covers today an area of 4 x 2 km2. At present, there are three international treaties protecting the oceans, and all three allow CO2 storage in sub-seabed geological formations. One of these, the EU Directive 2009/31, states that monitoring must take place before, during and after CO2 storage in order to detect leakage of CO2 and significant adverse effects on the surrounding environment. However, few environmental studies have investigated the potential impacts of a CO2 leakage on the microbial life and geochemical conditions in seafloor sediment. To remedy this, we performed two experiments with abrupt CO2 acidification on the top 10 cm of the seafloor close to the North Sea storage site: 1) One laboratory CO2 acidification experiment on undisturbed sediment cores from the seafloor overlying the CO2 storage site (80 m water depth). The continuous flow of CO2 acidified seawater (pH 6.4) with 20 000 μatm pCO2 over the cores lasted for 1.5 months with sediment core terminations at regular intervals. 2) In situ CO2 acidification experiments carried out on the seafloor at 350 m water depth, with life span of 40 hours and exposure to 20 000 μatm pCO2. Both experiments showed increased O2 consumption in the water overlying the CO2 acidified sediment relative to the control sediment, indicating a rise in metabolic activity due to the treatment. After about 12 hours of acidification and throughout the laboratory experimental period, an increase in macrofauna burial activity could be seen, with dead/dying macrofauna appearing on the sediment surface. The pyrosequencing amplicon dataset obtained after bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA amplification (RNA level) was subjected to multivariate analyses (PCA, NMDS), revealing changes in the active community on phylum, class and OTU levels. Changes were

  19. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  20. Twenty-four mini-pool HCV RNA screening in a routine clinical virology laboratory setting: a six-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening strategy was re-evaluated after a six-year continuous routine use in a clinical virology laboratory, at which more than half of newly diagnosed hepatitis C patients are intravenous drug users. Pools of 24 samples were prepared from 20,448 anti-HCV negative serum samples and tested using an automated commercial PCR assay with a lower limit of detection of 50 IU/ml. After detection of anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patients, responsible physicians provided follow-up samples. Thirty-eight (0.19%) anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive samples from 30 patients (28 intravenous drug users) were detected. Follow-up samples were available for 27/30 patients. Twenty, six and one patient seroconverted in the second, third and fourth available samples, respectively. The interval between the first HCV RNA positive and the first available anti-HCV positive sample was 17-517 days. The costs of detecting a single anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patient were 1227 Euros. Combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening is a useful and cost effective strategy, not only in blood-transfusion settings but also in a routine clinical virology laboratory, at which a significant proportion of the tested population belongs to a high-risk population.

  1. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Donald E.; Shockley, Keith R.; Chang, Lara S.; ...

    2002-01-01

    Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus , the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus , and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima . An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putativemore » proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.« less

  2. Gravitaxis in unicellular microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.

    1999-01-01

    Orientation of organisms with respect to the gravitational field of the Earth has been studied for more than 100 years in a number of unicellular microorganisms including flagellates and ciliates. Several hypotheses have been developed how the weak stimulus is perceived. Intracellular statoliths have been found to be involved in gravitaxis of Loxodes, while no specialized organelles have been detected in other ciliates, e.g. Paramecium. Also in the slime mold Physarum no specialized gravireceptors have been identified yet. In the flagellate Euglena gracilis the whole cell body, which is denser than the surrounding medium, seems to act as a statolith pressing onto the lower membrane where it activates mechanosensitive ion channels. Similar results were obtained for the ciliate Paramecium. In contrast to the flagellate Euglena, several ciliates have been found to show gravikinesis, which is defined as a dependence of the swimming velocity on the direction of movement in the gravity field.

  3. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    PubMed

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology.

  4. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  5. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from blood cultures, set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Chihiro; Kasahara, Mayumi; Nakata, Chiyo; Munakata, Machiko; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2007-02-01

    A study was made of the antimicrobial susceptibility to and efficacy of various kinds of antimicrobial agents against 179 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from blood cultures at Kansai Medical University Hospital from 1990 through 2004. The annual detection rate was highest in 1994, at 22 strains (6.5%). There were 9 multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.0%). Among 14 antimicrobial agents tested for measurements, ciprofloxacin (CPFX) showed the best minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 value, of 0.25 microg/ml, followed by pazufloxacin (PZFX) and biapenem (BIPM), each at 0.5 microg/ml. When the period of 15 years was divided into three stages, the MIC50 value for each antimicrobial agent was highest in the middle stage (1995 to 1999). Assuming that the percentage of sensitive strains according to the breakpoints set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) represents the antimicrobial susceptibility rate, amikacin (AMK) showed the best value, of 85.5%. According to the sepsis breakpoint set by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC), the efficacy of CPFX showed the highest rate (77.1%) of all the antimicrobial agents tested. Among beta-lactams, BIPM showed the highest efficacy rate, of 67.0%. When the efficacy rates were compared with each other, the difference in efficacy rate between the breakpoint set by the CLSI and the sepsis breakpoint set by the JSC was large for beta-lactams. Comparisons made based on the CLSI criteria showed no difference in cross-resistance rates between CPFX, meropenem (MEPM), and BIPM. However, when comparisons were made using the JSC sepsis breakpoint, MEPM showed a cross-resistance rate of 87.8%, while the rate for BIPM was lower, at 56.1%, with the chi2 test showing a significant difference, at P = 0.0014. In accordance with the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics theory that has been advocated, breakpoints which are more suitable for the clinical setting in Japan should

  6. Methods, compounds and systems for detecting a microorganism in a sample

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr, Bill W.; Fitch, J. Patrick; Gardner, Shea N.; Williams, Peter L.; Wagner, Mark C.

    2016-09-06

    Methods to identify a set of probe polynucleotides suitable for detecting a set of targets and in particular methods for identification of primers suitable for detection of target microorganisms related polynucleotides, set of polynucleotides and compositions, and related methods and systems for detection and/or identification of microorganisms in a sample.

  7. Microorganisms in honey.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, J A; Cliver, D O

    1996-08-01

    Knowledge of the moisture and temperature conditions influencing growth of microorganisms in honey has long been used to control the spoilage of honey. However, the need for additional microbiological data on honey will increase as new technologies for, and uses of honey develop. Microorganisms in honey may influence quality or safety. Due to the natural properties of honey and control measures in the honey industry, honey is a product with minimal types and levels of microbes. Microbes of concern in post-harvest handling are those that are commonly found in honey (i.e., yeasts and spore-forming bacteria), those that indicate the sanitary or commercial quality of honey (i.e., coliforms and yeasts), and those that under certain conditions could cause human illness. Primary sources of microbial contamination are likely to include pollen, the digestive tracts of honey bees, dust, air, earth and nectar, sources which are very difficult to control. The same secondary (after-harvest) sources that influence any food product are also sources of contamination for honey. These include air, food handlers, cross-contamination, equipment and buildings. Secondary sources of contamination are controlled by good manufacturing practices. The microbes of concern in honey are primarily yeasts and spore-forming bacteria. Total plate counts from honey samples can vary from zero to tens of thousands per gram for no apparent reason. Most samples of honey contain detectable levels of yeasts. Although yeast counts in many honey samples are below 100 colony forming units per gram (cfu/g), yeasts can grow in honey to very high numbers. Standard industry practices control yeast growth. Bacterial spores, particularly those in the Bacillus genus, are regularly found in honey. The spores of C. botulinum are found in a fraction of the honey samples tested-normally at low levels. No vegetative forms of disease-causing bacterial species have been found in honey. Bacteria do not replicate in honey

  8. Social evolution theory for microorganisms.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Gardner, Andy; Diggle, Stephen P

    2006-08-01

    Microorganisms communicate and cooperate to perform a wide range of multicellular behaviours, such as dispersal, nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation and quorum sensing. Microbiologists are rapidly gaining a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these behaviours, and the underlying genetic regulation. Such behaviours are also interesting from the perspective of social evolution - why do microorganisms engage in these behaviours given that cooperative individuals can be exploited by selfish cheaters, who gain the benefit of cooperation without paying their share of the cost? There is great potential for interdisciplinary research in this fledgling field of sociomicrobiology, but a limiting factor is the lack of effective communication of social evolution theory to microbiologists. Here, we provide a conceptual overview of the different mechanisms through which cooperative behaviours can be stabilized, emphasizing the aspects most relevant to microorganisms, the novel problems that microorganisms pose and the new insights that can be gained from applying evolutionary theory to microorganisms.

  9. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  10. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms.

  11. Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... examine and identify bacteria and other microorganisms. Molecular biology technologists perform complex protein and nucleic acid tests ... medical laboratory scientist degree, includes courses in chemistry, biology, microbiology, math, and statistics. Coursework emphasizes laboratory skills, ...

  12. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  13. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  14. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  15. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  16. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  17. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  18. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina Louise; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  19. Engineering Microorganisms for Energy Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    focus for the Department of Energy. Microorganisms are simpler than plants; they have smaller genomes and proteomes, and are eas- ier to manipulate and...opportunity. The synergy between research into biofuel production by microorgan- isms and the Genomes to Life program is important and should be fully...producing energy: this is an important problem in basic energy science, whose solution will require synergistic interactions with genomics , synthetic and

  20. Sensor arrays for detecting microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Freund, Michael S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A sensor array for detecting a microorganism comprising first and second sensors electrically connected to an electrical measuring apparatus, wherein the sensors comprise a region of nonconducting organic material and a region of conducting material compositionally that is different than the nonconducting organic material and an electrical path through the regions of nonconducting organic material and the conducting material. A system for identifying microorganisms using the sensor array, a computer and a pattern recognition algorithm, such as a neural net are also disclosed.

  1. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  2. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Microbiology Laboratory: Impact of Selective Susceptibility Reporting on Ciprofloxacin Utilization and Susceptibility of Gram-Negative Isolates to Ciprofloxacin in a Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Seah, J.; Chan, A.; Downing, M.; Johnstone, J.; Matukas, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of selective susceptibility reporting on ciprofloxacin utilization and Gram-negative susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in a hospital setting. Historically at our institution, the microbiology laboratory practice was to report ciprofloxacin susceptibility for all Enterobacteriaceae regardless of susceptibility to other agents. A selective reporting policy was implemented which involved the suppression of ciprofloxacin susceptibility to Enterobacteriaceae when there was lack of resistance to the antibiotics on the Gram-negative panel. Ciprofloxacin utilization (measured in defined daily doses [DDD] per 1,000 patient days) was collected before and after the intervention and compared to moxifloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. Monthly susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin was tabulated. An interrupted time series analysis using segmented regression was performed. The mean monthly ciprofloxacin utilization decreased from 87 (95% CI, 83.7 to 91.2) to 39 (95% CI, 35.0 to 44.0) DDD per 1,000 patient days before and after the implementation of selective reporting, respectively. There was an immediate and sustained reduction in ciprofloxacin usage at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postintervention (P < 0.001). A compensatory increase in amoxicillin-clavulanate use was noted starting at 6 months postintervention and persisted for the study period (P < 0.027). Susceptibility of E. coli, but not that of P. aeruginosa, to ciprofloxacin was higher than predicted starting 12 months after the intervention (P < 0.05). In conclusion, selective reporting of ciprofloxacin susceptibly may be a useful intervention to reduce targeted antimicrobial utilization and improve Gram-negative susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. This approach should be considered as part of a broader multimodal antimicrobial stewardship program. PMID:27385708

  4. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  5. A novel 15N tracer approach for the quantification of N2 and N2O emissions from soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro-ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification has received great interest by biogeochemists in the last decades, the magnitude of N2lossesand related N2:N2O ratios from soils still are largely unknown due to methodical constraints. We present a novel 15N tracer approach, based on a previous developed tracer method to study denitrification in pure bacterial cultures which was modified for the use on soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up. The method uses a background air in the incubation vessels that is replaced with a helium-oxygen gas mixture with a 50-fold reduced N2 background (2 % v/v). This method allows for a direct and sensitive quantification of the N2 and N2O emissions from the soil with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry after 15N labelling of denitrification N substrates and minimises the sensitivity to the intrusion of atmospheric N2 at the same time. The incubation set up was used to determine the influence of different soil moisture levels on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture soil in Queensland/Australia. The soil was labelled with an equivalent of 50 μg-N per gram dry soil by broadcast application of KNO3solution (4 at.% 15N) and incubated for 3 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. The headspace of the incubation vessel was sampled automatically over 12hrs each day and 3 samples (0, 6, and 12 hrs after incubation start) of headspace gas analysed for N2 and N2O with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DELTA V Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany(. In addition, the soil was analysed for 15N NO3- and NH4+ using the 15N diffusion method, which enabled us to obtain a complete N balance. The method proved to be highly sensitive for N2 and N2O emissions detecting N2O emissions ranging from 20 to 627 μN kg

  6. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  7. Monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms associated with aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Smith, P; Alday-Sanz, V; Matysczak, J; Moulin, G; Lavilla-Pitogo, C R; Prater, D

    2013-08-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code recommends that programmes forthe monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms associated with aquatic animals be initiated by the appropriate authorities. This paper discusses the classes of bacteria to be studied in such programmes and the methods of sample collection to be employed. It also discusses the susceptibility test protocols appropriate for use in such programmes, the interpretive criteria that should be applied to the data they generate and the form in which the output of such programmes should be reported. The authors argue that it is essential that all monitoring and surveillance programmes should employ standardised and internationally harmonised susceptibility test methods to the greatest extent possible. With respect to bacteria capable of infecting aquatic animals, it is recommended that the set of consensus-based standards and guidelines published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute be adopted as the basis for international harmonisation of test protocols, as they are significantly more developed than any alternatives. It is further recommended that, for the purpose of evaluating antimicrobial resistance trends, such as emerging resistance, the data generated by these protocols should be interpreted by the application of epidemiological cut-off values. However, as yet, internationally agreed cut-off values have been produced for only one species. Thus, for many species, authorities will be obliged to set their own local and laboratory-specific cut-off values. It is recommended that laboratories use a statistical and standardised method of establishing such local cut-off values. Internationally harmonised standard test protocols and interpretive criteria have, to a large extent, been developed to monitor antimicrobial resistance in bacterial species capable of infecting humans. These methods can also be applied to microorganisms

  8. Role of secondary level laboratories in strengthening quality at primary level health facilities' laboratories: an innovative approach to ensure accurate HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria test results in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Paterniti, Antonio D; Redfield, Robert R; Marinucci, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Providing regular external quality assessment of primary level laboratories and timely feedback is crucial to ensure the reliability of testing capacity of the whole laboratory network. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of primary level laboratories in Southwest Showa Zone in Ethiopia. An external quality assessment protocol was devised whereby from among all the samples collected on-site at 4 health centers (HCs), each HC sent to a district hospital (DH) on a weekly basis 2 TB slides (1 Ziehl-Neelsen stained and another unstained), 2 malaria slides (1 Giemsa stained and another unstained), and 2 blood samples for HIV testing (1 whole blood and another plasma) for a comparative analysis. Similarly, the DH preserved the same amount and type of specimens to send to each HC for retesting. From October to November 2011, 192 single-blinded specimens were rechecked: 64 TB slides, 64 malaria slides, and 64 blood specimens for HIV testing. The analyses demonstrated an overall agreement of 95.3% (183/192) between the test and the retest, and 98.4% (63/64), 92.2% (59/64,) and 95.3% (61/64) for TB microscopy, malaria microscopy, and HIV rapid testing, respectively. Of the total TB slides tested positive, 20/23 (87%) were quantified similar in both laboratories. The agreement on HIV rapid testing was 100% (32/32) when plasma samples were tested either at HC (16/16) or at DH (16/16), while when whole blood specimens were tested, the agreement was 87.5% (14/16) and 93.8% (15/16) for samples prepared by HCs and DH, respectively. Results of this new approach proved that secondary laboratories could play a vital role in assuring laboratory qualities at primary level HCs, without depending on remotely located national and regional laboratories to provide this support.

  9. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: potential and challenges for Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Hebe M; Lozada, Mariana; Olivera, Nelda L

    2012-01-01

    The marine environments of Argentina have a remarkable extension, as well as high biological productivity and biodiversity of both macro- and microorganisms. Despite having a great potential for biotechnological applications, the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. In this review, we study the research topics and the interactions among Argentinean laboratories, by analyzing current articles published on biotechnology-related marine microbiology by researchers of this country. In addition, we identify the challenges and opportunities for Argentina to take advantage of the genetic potential of its marine microorganisms. Finally, we suggest possible actions that could improve the development of this research field, as well as the utilization of this knowledge to solve societal needs.

  10. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  11. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomass can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.

  12. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    DOE PAGES

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; ...

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomassmore » can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.« less

  13. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda) SJA c-D-GalNAx *Triticum vulgaris (wheat) WGA a-D-GlcNAc * Ulex europaeus UEA - I a-L-Fucose Ulex europaeus UEA -II (D...shaped forms. The suspensions were then used in the lectin assays. Lectins which did not agglutinate with any of the spores included LPA, lotus, UEA - I ...RCA-II, SBA, APA, BSAI-1, B. cereus 9634 B SA -11 , conA, LPA, WGA, Ilotus , B.. cereus 13472 UEA - I , UEA -II, MPA, PEA, RPA, BPA, DBA, STA, SJA, PHA

  14. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    investigated for the selective agglutination of coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci. An agglutination slide test employing Mangifera ... indica (mango) extract, wheat germ agglutinin (WC.A), and crude Limulus polyphemus (horseshoe crab’ lectin was found to agglutinate 96% (79 of 82) of...M. indica extract was prepared from the dried seeds of commercially purchased mangoes. The seeds were pulverized in a CRC micromill and extracted

  15. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; John, J.; Castro, V. A.; Cruz, P.; Buttner, L. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including (1) the host#s susceptibility, (2) the host#s exposure to the infectious disease agent, and (3) the concentration of the infectious agent, and (4) the characteristics of the infectious agent. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire#s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The first accomplishment of the SWAB experiment was the incorporation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria. The use of this molecular technique has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to conventional methodology. This increased efficiency in bacterial speciation provides a better understanding of the microbial ecology and the potential risk to the crew. Additional SWAB studies focused on the use of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequencebased

  16. Comparison of the identification and ease of use of two alarm sound sets by critical and acute care nurses with little or no music training: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Atyeo, J; Sanderson, P M

    2015-07-01

    The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to learn and remember, especially clinicians with little prior formal music training. An alarm sound set proposed by Patterson and Edworthy in 1986 might improve performance for such participants. In this study, 31 critical and acute care nurses with less than one year of formal music training identified alarm sounds while they calculated drug dosages. Sixteen nurses used the IEC and 15 used the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set. The mean (SD) percentage of alarms correctly identified by nurses was 51.3 (25.6)% for the IEC alarm set and 72.1 (18.8)% for the Patterson-Edworthy alarms (p = 0.016). Nurses using the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set reported that it was easier to distinguish between alarm sounds than did nurses using the IEC alarm sound set (p = 0.015). Principles used to construct the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sounds should be adopted for future alarm sound sets.

  17. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fairlamb, Alan H; Gow, Neil A R; Matthews, Keith R; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-06-24

    Eukaryotic microbial pathogens are major contributors to illness and death globally. Although much of their impact can be controlled by drug therapy as with prokaryotic microorganisms, the emergence of drug resistance has threatened these treatment efforts. Here, we discuss the challenges posed by eukaryotic microbial pathogens and how these are similar to, or differ from, the challenges of prokaryotic antibiotic resistance. The therapies used for several major eukaryotic microorganisms are then detailed, and the mechanisms that they have evolved to overcome these therapies are described. The rapid emergence of resistance and the restricted pipeline of new drug therapies pose considerable risks to global health and are particularly acute in the developing world. Nonetheless, we detail how the integration of new technology, biological understanding, epidemiology and evolutionary analysis can help sustain existing therapies, anticipate the emergence of resistance or optimize the deployment of new therapies.

  18. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  19. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Fairlamb, Alan H.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Matthews, Keith R.; Waters, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbial pathogens are major contributors to illness and death globally. Although much of their impact can be controlled by drug therapy as with prokaryotic microorganisms, the emergence of drug resistance has threatened these treatment efforts. Here, we discuss the challenges posed by eukaryotic microbial pathogens and how these are similar to, or differ from, the challenges of prokaryotic antibiotic resistance. The therapies used for several major eukaryotic microorganisms are then detailed, and the mechanisms that they have evolved to overcome these therapies are described. The rapid emergence of resistance and the restricted pipeline of new drug therapies pose considerable risks to global health and are particularly acute in the developing world. Nonetheless, we detail how the integration of new technology, biological understanding, epidemiology and evolutionary analysis can help sustain existing therapies, anticipate the emergence of resistance or optimize the deployment of new therapies. PMID:27572976

  20. Biomachining: metal etching via microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Tena, Estíbaliz; Barona, Astrid; Gallastegui, Gorka; Rodríguez, Adrián; López de Lacalle, L Norberto; Elías, Ana

    2017-05-01

    The use of microorganisms to remove metal from a workpiece is known as biological machining or biomachining, and it has gained in both importance and scientific relevance over the past decade. Conversely to mechanical methods, the use of readily available microorganisms is low-energy consuming, and no thermal damage is caused during biomachining. The performance of this sustainable process is assessed by the material removal rate, and certain parameters have to be controlled for manufacturing the machined part with the desired surface finish. Although the variety of microorganisms is scarce, cell concentration or density plays an important role in the process. There is a need to control the temperature to maintain microorganism activity at its optimum, and a suitable shaking rate provides an efficient contact between the workpiece and the biological medium. The system's tolerance to the sharp changes in pH is quite limited, and in many cases, an acid medium has to be maintained for effective performance. This process is highly dependent on the type of metal being removed. Consequently, the operating parameters need to be determined on a case-by-case basis. The biomachining time is another variable with a direct impact on the removal rate. This biological technique can be used for machining simple and complex shapes, such as series of linear, circular, and square micropatterns on different metal surfaces. The optimal biomachining process should be fast enough to ensure high production, a smooth and homogenous surface finish and, in sum, a high-quality piece. As a result of the high global demand for micro-components, biomachining provides an effective and sustainable alternative. However, its industrial-scale implementation is still pending.

  1. Set-up of large laboratory-scale chromatographic separations of poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives of the growth hormone-releasing factor 1-29 analogue.

    PubMed

    Piquet, G; Gatti, M; Barbero, L; Traversa, S; Caccia, P; Esposito, P

    2002-01-25

    In this paper we report the scale-up of the purification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives of the growth hormone-releasing factor 1-29, from laboratory scale (100 mg of bulk starting material) to larger scale (3 g of bulk), through the use of a cation-exchange TSK-SP-5PW chromatographic column. A one-step purification process capable of purifying large amounts of mono-PEGylated GRF species from the crude reaction mixture was developed. A simple, straightforward stepwise gradient elution separation was developed at laboratory scale and then scaled up with a larger column packed with a chromatographic resin with the same chemistry which maintained the laboratory-scale separation profile. Active material recovery and material purity remained constant through the scale-up from the 13-microm stationary phase to the 25-microm larger column. Overall, the gram GRF equivalent/batch process scale showed to be quite reproducible, and could be considered as a good platform for scale up to production scale.

  2. Studying marine microorganisms from space.

    PubMed

    Pedrós-Alió, C; Simó, R

    2002-12-01

    Microorganisms are but a few micrometers in diameter and are not visible to the naked eye. Yet, the large numbers of microorganisms present in the oceans and the global impact of their activities make it possible to observe them from space. Here a few examples of how microorganisms can be studied from satellites are presented. The first case is the best known: the main pigment used in photosynthesis (chlorophyll a) can be determined from satellites. These kinds of studies have contributed a tremendous amount of understanding about the distribution and dynamics of primary production in the oceans. Two other examples will concern analysis of heterotrophic prokaryotic production and estimates of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and flux to the atmosphere. These three processes are of fundamental importance for the functioning of the biosphere. Marine microbes carry out about half of the total primary production in the planet. A substantial fraction of the respiration in the oceans is due to the activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes. Finally, the flux of DMS to the atmosphere is believed to constitute one of the mechanisms by which the biota can regulate climate. The global implications of microbial processes in the oceans can only be addressed with the help of satellites.

  3. Microorganisms in closed periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Abou-Rass, M; Bogen, G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the microorganisms of strictly selected closed periapical lesions associated with both refractory endodontic therapy and pulpal calcification. Definitive criteria were established that assured complete clinical isolation of the periapical lesion from the oral and periodontal environment. A total of 13 criteria-referenced lesions were selected from 70 patients with endodontic surgical indications. A well controlled culturing method was used in all cases and samples were taken by one clinician at three separate sites during each surgery. Samples taken at the surgical window and within the body of the lesion served as controls, whilst a third sample was taken at the apex. In all 13 cases, samples taken from the apex yielded microorganisms comprising 63.6% obligate anaerobes and 36.4% facultative anaerobes. Prevalence of the isolated species was 31.8% for Actinomyces sp., 22.7% Propionibacterium sp., 18.2% Streptococcus sp., 13.6% Staphlyococcus sp., 4.6% Porphyromonas gingivalis, 4.6% Peptostreptococcus micros and 4.6% Gram-negative enterics. The results of this investigation indicate that closed periapical lesions associated with calcified teeth or those resistant to root canal treatment harbour bacteria. The inability to eradicate all root canal microorganisms during root canal treatment, along with anatomical factors, may allow further bacterial colonization of the root apex and surrounding periapical tissues, and consequently prevent healing.

  4. Performance evaluation of the latest fully automated hematology analyzers in a large, commercial laboratory setting: a 4-way, side-by-side study.

    PubMed

    Bourner, G; Dhaliwal, J; Sumner, J

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-Dynacare is a Canadian-based community laboratory partnership formed in the mid-1990s through the merger of 3 prominent Ontario medical diagnostic laboratories. Laboratory Corporation of America acquired an interest in the GD partnership in mid 2002. We service more than 10,000 community-based Canadian clinicians, hospital partners, and private clients with an integrated customer-focused system that includes specimen collection, transportation, and results reporting services. With more than 1,700 highly qualified medical, technical, and support staff and a network of laboratories, Gamma Dynacare aims to be at the forefront of technological innovation to better service the clinician base and ultimately deliver better patient care. We were looking for a hematology analyzer that would allow. (1) standardization throughout Ontario in our 4 largest sites and (2) better performance to effectively handle aged samples and minimize slide review. To select the best, most productive hematology analyzer for our environment, it was decided to perform a side-by-side comparison of the top hematology analyzers from Abbott (Cell-Dyn 3500), Beckman Coulter (LH 750), Bayer (Advia 120), and Sysmex (XE 2100), utilizing the same samples. CBC, differential and reticulocyte parameters were all evaluated according to CLSI (formerly NCCLS) and established hematology analyzer evaluation guidelines. We assessed each analyzer for precision, linearity, carryover, stability, differential capabilities, slide review rates, and throughput (clean bench studies). Two hundred samples were assessed for differential and morphology flagging on each analyzer using the reference 400 cell manual differential for comparison. Throughput was assessed by analyzing 700 consecutive samples representative of our workload mix. Stability studies at 24 hours showed that the Beckman Coulter LH 750 was least affected by EDTA, effect with minimal changes in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hematocrit. Both

  5. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  6. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  7. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  8. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  9. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior...

  10. Predatory Microorganisms Would Help Reclaim Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjaminson, Morris A.; Lehrer, Stanley

    1995-01-01

    Wastewater-reclamation systems of proposed type use predatory, nonpathogenic microorganisms to consume pathogenic microorganisms. Unlike some other wastewater-reclamation systems, these systems do not require use of toxic chemicals, intense heat, or ionizing radiation (conductivity rays or ultraviolet) to destroy microorganisms.

  11. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrifugation, fractioning, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). In addition, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed. The SIP experiments indicated bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes (family Ruminococcaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (genus Sphingopyxis) were the dominant MTBE degraders. Previous studies have suggested a role for Firmicutes in anaerobic MTBE degradation; however, the putative MTBE-degrading microorganism in the current study is a novel MTBE-degrading phylotype within this phylum. Two archaeal phylotypes (genera Methanosarcina and Methanocorpusculum) were also enriched in the heavy fractions, and these organisms may be responsible for minor amounts of MTBE degradation or for the uptake of metabolites released from the primary MTBE degraders. Currently, limited information exists on the microorganisms able to degrade MTBE under anaerobic conditions. This work represents the first application of DNA-based SIP to identify anaerobic MTBE-degrading microorganisms in laboratory microcosms and therefore provides a valuable set of data to definitively link identity with anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:22327600

  12. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  13. Multicenter evaluation of BD Veritor System and RSV K-SeT for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Stijn; Verfaillie, Charlotte; Boel, An; Van Vaerenbergh, Kristien; Vanlaere, Elke; Vankeerberghen, Anne; De Beenhouwer, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The recently introduced BD Veritor System RSV laboratory kit (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) with automatic reading was evaluated and compared with the RSV K-SeT (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using 248 nasopharyngeal aspirates of children younger than 6 years old with respiratory tract infection. Compared to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction as gold standard, both tests had an identical sensitivity of 78.1% and a specificity of 96.8% and 95.8% for the BD Veritor System and RSV K-SeT, respectively. Both antigen tests can be used to reliably confirm RSV in young children. However, a negative result does not definitively exclude the presence of RSV.

  14. To what extent is clinical and laboratory information used to perform medication reviews in the nursing home setting? the CLEAR study

    PubMed Central

    Mestres Gonzalvo, Carlota; Hurkens, Kim PGM; de Wit, Hugo AJM; van Oijen, Brigit PC; Janknegt, Rob; Schols, Jos MGA; Mulder, Wubbo J; Verhey, Frans R; Winkens, Bjorn; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent laboratory data, actual medication, medical history, and/or drug indication influence the quality of medication reviews for nursing home patients. Methods Forty-six health care professionals from different fields were requested to perform medication reviews for three different cases. Per case, the amount of information provided varied in three subsequent stages: stage 1, medication list only; stage 2, adding laboratory data and reason for hospital admission; and stage 3, adding medical history/drug indication. Following a slightly modified Delphi method, a multidisciplinary team performed the medication review for each case and stage. The results of these medication reviews were used as reference reviews (gold standard). The remarks from the participants were scored, according to their potential clinical impact, from relevant to harmful on a scale of 3 to −1. A total score per case and stage was calculated and expressed as a percentage of the total score from the expert panel for the same case and stage. Results The overall mean percentage over all cases, stages, and groups was 37.0% when compared with the reference reviews. For one of the cases, the average score decreased significantly from 40.0% in stage 1, to 30.9% in stage 2, and 27.9% in stage 3; no significant differences between stages was found for the other cases. Conclusion The low performance, against the gold standard, of medication reviews found in the present study highlights that information is incorrectly used or wrongly interpreted, irrespective of the available information. Performing medication reviews without using the available information in an optimal way can have potential implications for patient safety. PMID:26056459

  15. Identification of micro-organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    Manual presents detailed laboratory procedures for identifying aerobic or microaerobic bacteria, yeast or yeastible organisms, and filamentous fungi and conducting other microbiological or immunological evaluations of samples taken from human subjects. Standardized procedures should be useful to researchers and clinicians in laboratories, hospitals and other biological test facilities.

  16. Experimental scale and dimensionality requirements for reproducing and studying coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes in the intermediate scale laboratory settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautz, Andrew; Illangasekare, Tissa; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Helmig, Rainer; Heck, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Past investigations of coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes have been constrained to two extremes, small laboratory bench-scale and field scale testing. In recognition of the limitations of studying the scale-dependency of these fundamental processes at either extreme, researchers have recently begun to promote the use of experimentation at intermediary scales between the bench and field scales. A requirement for employing intermediate scale testing to refine heat and mass transport theory regarding land-atmosphere-vegetative processes is high spatial-temporal resolution datasets generated under carefully controlled experimental conditions in which both small and field scale phenomena can be observed. Field experimentation often fails these criteria as a result of sensor network limitations as well as the natural complexities and uncertainties introduced by heterogeneity and constantly changing atmospheric conditions. Laboratory experimentation, which is used to study three-dimensional (3-D) processes, is often conducted in 2-D test systems as a result of space, instrumentation, and cost constraints. In most flow and transport problems, 2-D testing is not considered a serious limitation because the bypassing of flow and transport due to geo-biochemical heterogeneities can still be studied. Constraining the study of atmosphere-soil-vegetation interactions to 2-D systems introduces a new challenge given that the soil moisture dynamics associated with these interactions occurs in three dimensions. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed as evermore intricate and specialized experimental apparatuses like the climate-controlled wind tunnel-porous media test system at CESEP are being constructed and used for these types of studies. The purpose of this study is to therefore investigate the effects of laboratory experimental dimensionality on observed soil moisture dynamics in the context of bare-soil evaporation and evapotranspiration

  17. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  18. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  19. The survival of terrestrial microorganisms in space at orbital altitudes during Gemini satellite experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Hemenway, C L

    1968-01-01

    In a previous series of rocket- and satellite-borne experiments, microorganisms were exposed to space between altitudes of 60 to 460 km for periods between 3 minutes and 4 months. The results showed that some of the unprotected microorganisms survived the direct exposure for up to 17 hours. Complete survival was found when the microorganisms were shielded from nonpenetrating radiation. These results made it desirable to systematically study the lethal influence of the space environment on a wider spectrum of unprotected microorganisms over various exposure periods. This communication presents the results of exposure experiments on board the Gemini XII satellite. The microorganisms were dried on plastic coated aluminum plates using techniques which will be described elsewhere. During the flight of the Gemini XII space capsule, the microorganisms were directly exposed to space for approximately 6 1/2 hours. After the successful completion of the Gemini XII mission the payload was returned to the laboratory for elution and titration of the microorganisms using techniques described elsewhere. The results showed that again survival of some microorganisms had occurred. An attempt is made to integrate these results with data obtained in previously published experiments.

  20. The Association Between Use of a Clinical Decision Support Tool and Adherence to Monitoring for Medication-Laboratory Guidelines in the Ambulatory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lau, B.; Overby, C. L.; Wirtz, H. S.; Devine, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Stage 2 Meaningful Use criteria require the use of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) on high priority health conditions to improve clinical quality measures. Although CDSS hold great promise, implementation has been fraught with challenges, evidence of their impact is mixed, and the optimal method of content delivery is unknown. Objective The authors investigated whether implementation of a simple clinical decision support (CDS) tool was associated with improved prescriber adherence to national medication-laboratory monitoring guidelines for safety (hepatic function, renal function, myalgias/rhabdomyolysis) and intermediate outcomes for antidiabetic (Hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c) and antihyperlipidemic (low density lipoprotein; LDL) medications prescribed within a diabetes registry. Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted in three phases of CDS implementation (2008–2009): pre-, transition-, and post-Prescriptions evaluated were ordered from an electronic health record within a multispecialty medical group. Adherence was evaluated within and without applying guideline-imposed time constraints. Results Forty-thousand prescriptions were ordered over three timeframes. For hepatic and renal function, the proportion of prescriptions for which labs were monitored at any time increased from 52% to 65% (p<0.001); those that met time guidelines, from 14% to 21% (p<0.001). Only 6% of required labs were drawn to monitor for myalgias/rhabdomyolysis, regardless of timeframe. Over 90% of safety labs were within normal limits. The proportion of labs monitored at any time for LDL increased from 56% to 64% (p<0.001); those that met time guidelines from 11% to 17% (p<0.001). The proportion of labs monitored at any time for HbA1c remained the same (72%); those that met time guidelines decreased from 45% to 41% (p<0.001). Conclusion A simple CDS tool may be associated with improved adherence to guidelines. Efforts are needed to confirm

  1. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  2. [Instrumental technics for the detection of microorganisms in brewing].

    PubMed

    Orive, M

    1995-03-01

    Although modern production techniques keep microorganism levels very low in both finished beer and in beer process, there is still concern about early detection and prevention of accidental proliferation of brewery spoilage microorganisms. Traditional microbiological techniques can detect such low levels, but no results are obtained before 3 to 6 days of incubation. That is why rapid or even "instant" techniques are a main objective of research in the brewing industry. In this work, some instrumental techniques (DEFT, MMCF, impedance, pH, immunology and PCR based techniques, bioluminometry) are described and considered from the point of view of their regular use in brewery Microbiological Quality Assurance Laboratories. Real case experiences are brought forward.

  3. Tarnish of dental alloys by oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, T K; Vaidyanathan, J; Linke, H A; Schulman, A

    1991-11-01

    Five dental alloys, on exposure to blood and chocolate media with and without inoculated microorganisms, showed varying degrees of tarnish. The results indicated a composition-dependent tarnish behavior of alloys in microorganism-inoculated media, indicating a potential role for the oral microorganisms in inducing clinically observed tarnish of dental alloys. Actinomyces viscosus and periodontal pocket specimens show a similarity in their activity to induce tarnish in base metal-containing dental alloys.

  4. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  5. Biocorrosion produced by Thiobacillus-like microorganisms.

    PubMed

    López, A I; Marín, I; Amils, R

    1994-01-01

    Biocorrosion can be produced by many different microorganisms through diverse mechanisms. The biocorrosion produced by acidophilic microorganisms of the genus Thiobacillus is based on the production of sulfuric acid and ferric ion from pyrites or related mineral structures, as a result of the chemolithotrophic metabolism of these microorganisms. The products of this aerobic respiration are also powerful oxidant elements, which can produce chemical oxidations of other metallic structures. The Tinto River, a very unusual extremophilic habitat (pH around 2, and high concentration of ferric ion), product of the growth of strict chemolithotrophic microorganisms, is discussed as a model case.

  6. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  7. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  8. Environmental laboratory design

    SciTech Connect

    Newill, R.F.

    1996-11-01

    An effective, efficient laboratory building, operating at a reasonable cost within performance parameters set by the owner, determines quality control, employee morale and retention, operating costs, maintenance costs and renovation costs for the next thirty years. For better or worse, a new laboratory is managerial policy cast in stone. This paper, based on the author`s environmental laboratory design experience, offers an understanding of the relationship between costs, flexibility, function and quality in environmental laboratory design and construction. The comments are generally structured around publicly owned laboratories, with notes regarding private laboratories where appropriate.

  9. [Granulomatous diseases and pathogenic microorganism].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshikazu; Suga, Moritaka

    2008-02-01

    Granuloma formation is a chronic inflammatory reaction where macrophage system and other inflammatory cells are involved. After some antigen exposure and processing, T cells, macrophages, epithelioid cells, and giant cell are activated, and granulomas are formed. Granuloma is considered as a defense mechanism against antigens, which stay in the organs without inactivation. Granulomas including fibroblasts extra-cellular matrix surround and isolate the antigens. Granulomas are classified to noninfectious granulomas and infectious granulomas. However recent studies revealed pathogenic microorganism are suspected to be a cause of granuloma in non-inflammatory diseases. Balance between pathogenic microorganisms and defense mechanisms of the host might be important in the special immunologic reaction. In some cases, it is hard to clearly classify infectious and noninfectious granulomas. Recently, Eishi et al. reported that latent infection of Propionibacterium acnes might be cause of sarcoidosis. Several hypersensitivity pneumonias are considered to be caused by exogenous microorganisms. The symposium was organized to know and clarify the new mechanisms of non-infectious granulomatous lung diseases and pathogenic microorganisms. This report is a summary of a symposium entitled "Granulomatous Diseases and Pathogenic Microorganism", organized in the 82nd Japanese Society for Tuberculosis (president Dr. Mitsunori Sakatani, M.D.). 1. Imaging of Granulomatous Lung Diseases: Masanori AKIRA (Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a useful tool in the evaluation of parenchymal changes in patients with a granulomatous lung disease. In sarcoidosis, the HRCT findings include small, well-defined nodules in relation to lymphatic roots, lymph node enlargement, and middle or upper lobe predominance. The appearances of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis include ill-defined centrilobular

  10. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  11. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, O.; Sudo, R.

    1980-05-01

    The biodegradation of PCB's by microorganisms and the degradation pathway of PCB's are investigated. Experimental methods and materials are described. Only several strains of bacteria, Achromobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and soil microorganisms were able to decompose PCB's. A possible relationships between the structure and biodegradability of related biphenyl compounds was examined. (5 diagrams, 11 graphs, 18 references, 1 table)

  12. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  13. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  14. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  15. Microorganisms and typical organic matter responsible for lacustrine "black bloom".

    PubMed

    Feng, Ziyan; Fan, Chengxin; Huang, Weiyi; Ding, Shiming

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the causation of the black substance in lacustrine "black bloom" is of great significance for forecasting and preventing black bloom in many waters of the world. In this research, an array of black bloom was simulated in a laboratory to investigate how microorganisms and organic matter affect black bloom. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are the main biological factor, and protein is the key organic factor contributing to lacustrine black bloom. The black colour of black bloom is strongly associated with a relatively high SRB population density. Hydrogen sulphide concentration can serve as a predictor of black bloom.

  16. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Methylphenidate Tablet in Children 6–12 Years of Age with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory Classroom Setting

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Ann C.; Kollins, Scott H.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Marraffino, Andrea; Sikes, Carolyn R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (MPH XR-ODTs) represent a new technology for MPH delivery. ODTs disintegrate in the mouth without water and provide a pharmacokinetic profile that is consistent with once-daily dosing. This study sought to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this novel MPH XR-ODT formulation in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting. Methods: Children aged 6–12 years with ADHD (n = 87) were enrolled in this randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, laboratory classroom study. The MPH XR-ODT dose was titrated to an optimized dose during a 4-week open-label period and maintained on that dose for 1 week. Participants (n = 85) were then randomized to receive their optimized dose of MPH XR-ODT or placebo once daily for 1 week (double blind), culminating in a laboratory classroom testing day. Efficacy was evaluated using the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Attention, Deportment, and Combined scores along with Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP; Attempted and Correct) assessments. Onset and duration of drug action were also evaluated as key secondary endpoints. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results: The average SKAMP-Combined score on the classroom study day was significantly better for the MPH XR-ODT group (n = 43) than for the placebo group (n = 39; p < 0.0001). The effect was evident at 1 hour and lasted through 12 hours postdose. The average SKAMP-Attention, SKAMP-Deportment, PERMP-A, and PERMP-C scores were indicative of significantly greater ADHD symptom control for the MPH XR-ODT group. The most common AEs reported were decreased appetite, upper abdominal pain, headache, insomnia, upper respiratory tract

  17. Survival of Microorganisms in Nature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-07

    number) Survival of bacteria; Death of bacteria; Cysts; Dormancy; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Azotobacter; Chemotaxis; Micrococcus luteus ; Predation...attracted to and rapidly destroys (lyses) added Micrococcus luteus cells. There is also attack of predator on predator in this system. DO 1 DIT1 473 Oor I OV...and on laboratory media. 4 1 SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT RESULTS Micrococcus luteus was shown to survive only poorly in soil (Casida, 1980a). This was

  18. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology.

  19. Laboratory Turnaround Time

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT. PMID:18392122

  20. Effectiveness of chitosan against wine-related microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bağder Elmaci, Simel; Gülgör, Gökşen; Tokatli, Mehmet; Erten, Hüseyin; İşci, Asli; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial action of chitosan against wine related microorganisms, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Oeonococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was examined in laboratory media. In order to assess the potential applicability of chitosan as a microbial control agent for wine, the effect of chitosan, applied individually and/or in combination with sulphur dioxide (SO2), on the growth of microorganisms involved in various stages of winemaking and on the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae was investigated. Of the seven wine-related microorganisms studied, S. cerevisiae exhibited the strongest resistance to antimicrobial action of chitosan in laboratory media with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) greater than 2 g/L. L. hilgardii, O. oeni and B. bruxellensis were the most susceptible to chitosan since they were completely inactivated by chitosan at 0.2 g/L. The MIC of chitosan for L. plantarum, H. uvarum and Z. bailii was 2, 0.4 and 0.4 g/L, respectively. In wine experiments, it was found that chitosan had a retarding effect on alcoholic fermentation without significantly altering the viability and the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae. With regard to non-Saccharomyces yeasts (H. uvarum and Z. bailii) involved in winemaking, the early deaths of these yeasts in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae were not probably due to the antimicrobial action of chitosan but rather due to ethanol produced by the yeasts. The complex interactions between chitosan and wine ingredients as well as microbial interactions during wine fermentation considerably affect the efficacy of chitosan. It was concluded that chitosan was worthy of further investigation as an alternative or complementary preservative to SO2 in wine industry.

  1. [Micro-organism translocation and acute anastomosis inflammation after stomach resection].

    PubMed

    Gulov, M K; Kurbonov, K M

    2003-10-01

    The results of examination of 42 patients with an acute anastomositis after performance of gastric resection were analyzed. Clinical classification was elaborated for detailed interpretation of the anastomosits diagnosis and choice of therapy. Close correlative inter-relatioship between severity of anastomositis and degree of gastric mucosa colonization by micro-organisms was established basing on analysis of the laboratory and bacteriological investigations results.

  2. The quest for industrial enzymes from microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shotaro

    2017-01-01

    Satoshi Ōmura, Professor Emeritus at Kitasato University, was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of a substance of tremendous value to mankind from a microorganism. As a researcher who regularly deals with enzymes produced by microorganisms and a person engaged in microorganism-based business, Professor Ōmura's Nobel Prize fills me with great pride and joy. It is perhaps not surprising that this Nobel Prize-winning research would emerge from Asia, specifically Japan, where people live in harmony with nature rather than try to conquer it. At Amano Enzyme Inc., we devote ourselves to searching for novel enzymes from microorganisms. While incorporating my own experiences, I will recount the stories of a few discoveries of valuable enzyme-producing microbes in soil and bacterial strain libraries. I will also briefly introduce microbial strain library construction as a tool for facilitating the identification of the desired producing bacteria.

  3. PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED MICROORGANISMS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research investigated the effects of blending and chemical addition before analysis of the concentration of microorganisms in stormwater runoff to determine whether clumped or particle-associated organisms play a significant role. All organisms, except for Escherichia coli, ...

  4. Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Characterization of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Advances in instrumentation, proteomics, and bioinformatics have contributed to the successful applications of mass spectrometry (MS) for detection, identification, and classification of microorganisms. These MS applications are based on the detection of organism-specific biomarker molecules, which allow differentiation between organisms to be made. Intact proteins, their proteolytic peptides, and nonribosomal peptides have been successfully utilized as biomarkers. Sequence-specific fragments for biomarkers are generated by tandem MS of intact proteins or proteolytic peptides, obtained after, for instance, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. In combination with proteome database searching, individual biomarker proteins are unambiguously identified from their tandem mass spectra, and from there the source microorganism is also identified. Such top-down or bottom-up proteomics approaches permit rapid, sensitive, and confident characterization of individual microorganisms in mixtures and are reviewed here. Examples of MS-based functional assays for detection of targeted microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus anthracis, in environmental or clinically relevant backgrounds are also reviewed.

  5. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  6. Microorganisms in desert rocks: the edge of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Wierzchos, Jacek; de los Ríos, Asunción; Ascaso, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge on microbial communities inhabiting endolithic habitats in the arid and hyper-arid regions of our planet. In these extremely dry environments, the most common survival strategy is to colonize the interiors of rocks. This habitat provides thermal buffering, physical stability, and protection against incident UV radiation, excessive photosynthetically active radiation, and freeze-thaw events. Above all, through water retention in the rocks' network of pores and fissures, moisture is made available. Some authors have argued that dry environments pose the most extreme set of conditions faced by microorganisms. Microbial cells need to withstand the biochemical stresses created by the lack of water, along with temperature fluctuations and/or high salinity. In this review, we also address the variety of ways in which microorganisms deal with the lack of moisture in hyper-arid environments and point out the diversity of microorganisms that are able to cope with only the scarcest presence of water. Finally, we discuss the important clues to the history of life on Earth, and perhaps other places in our solar system, that have emerged from the study of extreme microbial ecosystems.

  7. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  8. Active microorganisms as drivers of dynamic processes in soil: integration of basic teaching into research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally lecture courses, seminars and even practical training are disconnected from real experimental studies and from ongoing research projects. As a result students passively participate in lectures and are helpless when they come to the laboratory to prepare their BSc or MSc theses. We introduce a training course, which is developed for Bachelor students to integrate the basic knowledge on soil microbiology and modern microbiological methods in ecological studies. The training course is focused on the importance of active microbial biomass as biogeochemical driver of soil processes. According to our concept soil functioning is closely related to and depends on the microbial activities, and only active microorganisms drive all processes. Despite this importance of active microorganisms, the most of methods are focused on the estimation of the total microbial biomass and fail to evaluate its activity. Our course demonstrates how the active physiological state of soil microorganisms can be related to the activity indicators such as respiration, molecular biomarkers and viable cell compartments (ATP, PLFA, RNA) determined in situ in soil. Each lecture begins with the set of provocative questions "What is wrong?" which help students to activate their knowledge from previous lectures. Information on on-going soil incubation experiments is integrated in the lectures as a special block. The students are required not only to learn the existing methods but to compare them and to evaluate critically the applicability of these methods to explain the results of on-going experiments. The seminars foreseen within training course are focused on critical discussions of the protocols and their adaptations to current experimental tasks. During practical part of training courses the students are associated in small research groups with a certain ecological tasks. Each group uses soil sub-samples from ongoing experiments and thus, the experimental data obtaining during the

  9. An introduction to the hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, J. M.; Pushkin, D. O.; Shum, H.

    2014-09-01

    This manuscript is a summary of a set of lectures given at the Geilo School 2013 Soft Matter Confinement: from Biology to Physics. It aims to provide an introduction to the hydrodynamics that underlies the way in which microorganisms, such as bacteria and algae, and fabricated microswimmers, swim. We focus on two features peculiar to bacterial swimming: the Scallop theorem and the dipolar nature of the far flow field. We discuss the consequences of these to the velocity field of a swimmer suspension and to the motion of passive tracers as a bacterium swims past.

  10. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  11. Ordinary stoichiometry of extraordinary microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Neveu, M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Anbar, A D; Elser, J J

    2016-01-01

    All life on Earth seems to be made of the same chemical elements in relatively conserved proportions (stoichiometry). Whether this stoichiometry is conserved in settings that differ radically in physicochemical conditions (extreme environments) from those commonly encountered elsewhere on the planet provides insight into possible stoichiometries for putative life beyond Earth. Here, we report measurements of elemental stoichiometry for extremophile microbes from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Phototrophic and chemotrophic microbes were collected in locations spanning large ranges of temperature (24 °C to boiling), pH (1.6-9.6), redox (0.1-7.2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen), and nutrient concentrations (0.01-0.25 mg L(-1) NO2-, 0.7-12.9 mg L(-1) NO3-, 0.01-42 mg L(-1) NH4 (+), 0.003-1.1 mg L(-1) P mostly as phosphate). Despite these extreme conditions, the microbial cells sampled had a major and trace element stoichiometry within the ranges commonly encountered for microbes living in the more moderate environments of lakes and surface oceans. The cells did have somewhat high C:P and N:P ratios that are consistent with phosphorus (P) limitation. Furthermore, chemotrophs and phototrophs had similar compositions with the exception of Mo content, which was enriched in cells derived from chemotrophic sites. Thus, despite the extraordinary physicochemical and biological diversity of YNP environments, life in these settings, in a stoichiometric sense, remains much the same as we know it elsewhere.

  12. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  13. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products.

  14. The steam laboratory of the Institut de Médecine Navale du Service de Santé des Armées: a set of tools in the service of the French Navy.

    PubMed

    Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Schmid, Bruno

    2004-09-01

    Accidental exposure to hot water steam is a potential risk in the French Navy, and particularly on nuclear submarines or ships. Direct human exposure to this extreme environment during an accident leads to death in a short time. In order to protect the crew members of the French Navy, a laboratory was created at the Institut de Médecine Navale du Service de Santé des Armées (IMNSSA). A set of tools was developed to study the effects of exposure to hot water steam atmospheres on human physiology and on the protective capacities of textile fabrics and equipment. A testing device allows the quantification of the protective capacities of fabrics under steam stresses. A thermal manikin and a steam climatic chamber allow the evaluation of the protective capacities of equipment. The tests on fabrics and on garments were in good agreement. Water vapour impermeable fabrics and garments provide greater protection in steamy conditions. Moreover, the thicker the sample or garment, the higher the protection it gives. Care should be taken to verify that fabrics keep their thermal characteristics under steam stress. These characteristics, measured under standard comfortable conditions, are not always indicative of the protective abilities of the fabrics under steamy conditions.

  15. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  16. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  17. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  18. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  19. Enhanced Characterization of Microorganisms in the Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the space shuttles are enclosed environments where crewmembers may spend long periods of time. Currently, crewmembers spend approximately a period of 6 months in the ISS. It is known that these prolonged stays in space may result in weakening of the immune system. Therefore, exposure to opportunistic pathogens or high concentrations of environmental microorganisms may compromise the health of the crew. The detection of biocontaminants in spacecraft environments utilizes culture-based methodology, omitting greater than 90% of all microorganisms including pathogens such as Legionella and Cryptosporidium. Culturable bacteria and fungi have been the only allergens studied; the more potent allergens, such as those from dust mites, have never been tested for in spacecraft environments. In addition, no attempts have been made to monitor microbial toxins in spacecrafts. The present study utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) as a novel approach for monitoring microorganisms in the spacecraft environment. QPCR is a molecular biology technique that does not rely on the physiological state of the organisms for identification, thereby enabling detection of both culturable and non-culturable organisms. In this project, specific molecular primers and probes were utilized for the detection and quantitation of two fungi of concern in indoor environments, Aspergillus fumigatus and Stachybotrys chartarum. These organisms were selected because of the availability of PCR primers and probes, and to establish the sample processing and analysis methodology that may be employed with additional organisms. Purification methods and QPCR assays were optimized for the detection of these organisms in air, surface, and water; and sample processing and analysis protocols were developed. Preliminary validation of these protocols was conducted in the laboratory with air, surface, and water samples seeded with known

  20. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Giver, L. J.; White, M. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community.

  1. Metabolic activity of microorganisms in evaporites.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Giver, L J; White, M R; Mancinelli, R L

    1994-06-01

    Crystalline salt is generally considered so hostile to most forms of life that it has been used for centuries as a preservative. Here, we present evidence that prokaryotes inhabiting a natural evaporite crust of halite and gypsum are metabolically active while inside the evaporite for at least 10 months. In situ measurements demonstrated that some of these "endoevaporitic" microorganisms (probably the cyanobacterium Synechococcus Nageli) fixed carbon and nitrogen. Denitrification was not observed. Our results quantified the slow microbial activity that can occur in salt crystals. Implications of this study include the possibility that microorganisms found in ancient evaporite deposits may have been part of an evaporite community.

  2. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  3. Microorganisms in the aetiology of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Morre, S; Stooker, W; Lagrand, W; van den Brule, A J C; Niessen, H

    2000-01-01

    Recent publications have suggested that infective pathogens might play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This review focuses on these microorganisms in the process of atherosclerosis. The results of in vitro studies, animal studies, tissue studies, and serological studies will be summarised, followed by an overall conclusion concerning the strength of the association of the microorganism with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The role of the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori, and the viruses human immunodeficiency virus, coxsackie B virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, and measles virus will be discussed. Key Words: atherosclerosis • Chlamydia pneumoniae • Helicobacter pylori PMID:11041053

  4. [Proteomic applications in the Clinical Microbiology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Vega Castaño, Silvia; Ferreira, Laura; Sánchez Juanes, Fernando; González Buitrago, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is rapidly becoming a new routine resource in Clinical Microbiology laboratories. Its usefulness for bacterial identification is now generally accepted, although there is still some reluctance as regards specific bacterial groups and some other microorganisms, such as moulds. There are other potential applications of this technology in Clinical Microbiology, which are beginning to be developed. A review is presented on the current data on the identification of microorganisms, including the most problematic groups, such as mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria and moulds. We also analyse its applications for direct sample identification, its impact on pathogenic characteristics of microorganisms, and its potential epidemiological applications. Finally, we review the studies published on its applications for determining antimicrobial susceptibility, and its applications on amplicons, instead of microorganism protein extracts.

  5. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a 13CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified 13C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly 13C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more 13C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic 13CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. PMID:26740559

  6. [Modern Approaches to the Creation of Industrial Microorganism Strains].

    PubMed

    Debabov, V G

    2015-04-01

    Microorganism producer strains are the basis of industrial biotechnology. Their properties determine the economical parameters of the production. Methods of rational design (metabolic engineering) and combinatorial methods of mutagenesis and selection (laboratory evolution, adaptive evolution, protein and genomic shuffling) are used for the construction of microorganism strains. Combination of these methods is frequently used. Modern strains usually do not contain plasmids and markers of drug resistance. All changes are introduced into the chromosome by the methods of homologous and site-specific recombination. The sum of such approaches is called recombineering. Gene expression is carried out at the optimal level under the control of promoters of a certain power (frequently regulated). Knowledge of a complete genomic sequence is almost a mandatory condition for the use of methods of metabolic engineering. Bioinformatics significantly assists in the selection of enzymes and the search for necessary genes and metabolic reactions. Measurement of metabolic fluxes largely assists in the construction of strains. The current level of science makes it possible to construct metabolic pathways de novo in strains for the production of chemicals and biofuel. Carbon dioxide has potential as a raw material for microbiological industry; therefore, the study of CO2 fixation by acetogens and electrogens is a promising direction of studies.

  7. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies.

  8. Environmental mutagens may be implicated in the emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Emiko; Nishie, Makiko; Takumi, Shota; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Nishi, Junichiro; Yoshiie, Kiyotaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Minoru; Komatsu, Masaharu; Aoyama, Kohji; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Takeuchi, Toru

    2011-04-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms is an important medical and social problem. Drug-resistant microorganisms are thought to grow selectively in the presence of antibiotics. Most clinically isolated drug-resistant microorganisms have mutations in the target genes for the drugs. While any of the many mutagens in the environment may cause such genetic mutations, no reports have yet described whether these mutagens can confer drug resistance to clinically important microorganisms. We investigated how environmental mutagens might be implicated in acquired resistance to antibiotics in clinically important microorganisms, which causes human diseases. We selected mutagens found in the environment, in cigarette smoke, or in drugs, and then exposed Pseudomonas aeruginosa to them. After exposure, the incidence of rifampicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa strains markedly increased, and we found mutations in genes for the antibiotic-target molecule. These mutations were similar to those found in drug-resistant microorganisms isolated from clinical samples. Our findings show that environmental mutagens, and an anticancer drug, are capable of inducing drug-resistant P. aeruginosa similar to strains found in clinical settings.

  9. Survival of microorganisms in a rock bed under conditions simulating solar heat storage.

    PubMed

    Zervins, A; Babcock, M; Stone, R W

    1981-05-01

    A laboratory-scale unit containing about 360 kg of washed river gravel was designed to [ill] the use of rocks for heat storage. The unit was operated under varying conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and the addition of volatile nutrients over a 4-month period. Effluent air and rock surfaces were monitored for the presence of microorganisms. After 2 weeks, virtually no microorganisms were detected in the effluent air except when dry soil or compost was added as the inoculum. A small number of heat-resistant bacteria, but no fungi, were found to survive on the rock surfaces. Microorganisms isolated were either sporeforming bacteria or actinomycetes closely resembling Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. Microbial colonization of rock beds used for solar heat storage does not appear likely under routine operation.

  10. Modelling of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Introduction in Closed Artificial Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, N. S.; Brilkov, A. V.; Ganusov, V. V.; Kargatova, T. V.; Maksimova, E. E.; Popova, L. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of introducing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEM) into simple biotic cycles of laboratory water microcosms was investigated. The survival of the recombinant strain Escherichia coli Z905 (Apr, Lux+) in microcosms depends on the type of model ecosystems. During the absence of algae blooming in the model ecosystem, the part of plasmid-containing cells E. coli decreased fast, and the structure of the plasmid was also modified. In conditions of algae blooming (Ankistrodesmus sp.) an almost total maintenance of plasmid-containing cells was observed in E.coli population. A mathematics model of GEM's behavior in water ecosystems with different level of complexity has been formulated. Mechanisms causing the difference in luminescent exhibition of different species are discussed, and attempts are made to forecast the GEM's behavior in water ecosystems.

  11. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  12. Microorganism lipid droplets and biofuel development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingmei; Zhang, Congyan; Shen, Xipeng; Zhang, Xuelin; Cichello, Simon; Guan, Hongbin; Liu, Pingsheng

    2013-12-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids as a source of energy and carbon. However, recent research has emerged that the organelle is involved in lipid synthesis, transportation, and metabolism, as well as mediating cellular protein storage and degradation. With the exception of multi-cellular organisms, some unicellular microorganisms have been observed to contain LDs. The organelle has been isolated and characterized from numerous organisms. Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in LDs can be in excess of 50% of the dry weight in some microorganisms, and a maximum of 87% in some instances. These microorganisms include eukaryotes such as yeast and green algae as well as prokaryotes such as bacteria. Some organisms obtain carbon from CO2 via photosynthesis, while the majority utilizes carbon from various types of biomass. Therefore, high TAG content generated by utilizing waste or cheap biomass, coupled with an efficient conversion rate, present these organisms as bio-tech 'factories' to produce biodiesel. This review summarizes LD research in these organisms and provides useful information for further LD biological research and microorganism biodiesel development.

  13. The genomics of probiotic intestinal microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Seppo; Nurmi, Jussi; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    An intestinal population of beneficial commensal microorganisms helps maintain human health, and some of these bacteria have been found to significantly reduce the risk of gut-associated disease and to alleviate disease symptoms. The genomic characterization of probiotic bacteria and other commensal intestinal bacteria that is now under way will help to deepen our understanding of their beneficial effects. PMID:15998456

  14. Metagenomics: Application of Genomics to Uncultured Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Metagenomics (also referred to as environmental and community genomics) is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of microorganisms. The development of metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. This evidence was derived from analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the environment, an approach that avoided the bias imposed by culturing and led to the discovery of vast new lineages of microbial life. Although the portrait of the microbial world was revolutionized by analysis of 16S rRNA genes, such studies yielded only a phylogenetic description of community membership, providing little insight into the genetics, physiology, and biochemistry of the members. Metagenomics provides a second tier of technical innovation that facilitates study of the physiology and ecology of environmental microorganisms. Novel genes and gene products discovered through metagenomics include the first bacteriorhodopsin of bacterial origin; novel small molecules with antimicrobial activity; and new members of families of known proteins, such as an Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter, RecA, DNA polymerase, and antibiotic resistance determinants. Reassembly of multiple genomes has provided insight into energy and nutrient cycling within the community, genome structure, gene function, population genetics and microheterogeneity, and lateral gene transfer among members of an uncultured community. The application of metagenomic sequence information will facilitate the design of better culturing strategies to link genomic analysis with pure culture studies. PMID:15590779

  15. Polar Marine Microorganisms and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Verde, C; Giordano, D; Bellas, C M; di Prisco, G; Anesio, A M

    2016-01-01

    The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature. The indigenous populations of Antarctic and Arctic microorganisms are endowed with genetic and physiological traits that allow them to live and effectively compete at the temperatures prevailing in polar regions. Some genes, e.g. glycosyltransferases and glycosylsynthetases involved in the architecture of the cell wall, may have been acquired/retained during evolution of polar strains or lost in tropical strains. This present work focusses on temperature and its role in shaping microbial adaptations; however, in assessing the impacts of climate changes on microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in polar oceans, it should not be forgotten that physiological studies need to include the interaction of temperature with other abiotic and biotic factors.

  16. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  17. Biodegradation of Guanidinium By Aquatic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    almost 300 ( malathion ) times higher than the upper value of the estimate.2 1 ,2 5 From the estimated yields and kinetic data for Hansen Creek...6 Most Probable Number Estimations ......................................... 8 Kinetics of...16 4. Kinetic Parameters for Hansen Creek Enrichment Microorganisms ........... 18 5. Most Probable Numbers (MPN) of Guanidinium Degrading

  18. Metabolism of Peptides by Rumen Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms utilize tryptic peptides from Chlorella protein, forming carbon dioxide, volatile fatty acids, and bacterial protein. Peptide carbon is more efficiently converted into bacterial protein than is amino acid carbon. A progressive degradation of the peptides was demonstrated by use of columns of Sephadex G-25. PMID:6035045

  19. FT-IR spectroscopy of microorganisms at the Robert Koch Institute: experiences gained during a successful project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    The characterization and identification of microorganisms by infrared or Raman spectroscopy is probably one of the best developed and most frequent applications of biomedical vibrational spectroscopy. The serial types of dedicated instruments for routine FT-IR characterizations of microorganisms are now available on the market and already used in routine microbiological laboratories. The experiences gained to date, especially the necessity to define standards for sampling and measurement procedures and the details of how data compatibility between different laboratories is achieve will be discussed as well as the problem to establish validated reference data bases for objective species or strain identifications.

  20. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  1. Nature's Helpers: Using Microorganisms to Remove Trichloroethene (TCE) from Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. G.; Krajmlanik-Brown, R.; Fajardo-Williams, D.; Halloum, I.

    2015-12-01

    Organic chlorinated solvents, such as perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), are toxic pollutants threatening ground water quality worldwide and present at many superfund sites. Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising, green, efficient, and sustainable approach to remove PCE and TCE contamination from soil and groundwater. Under anaerobic conditions, specialized microorganisms (dechlorinators) can reduce these chlorinated ethenes to ethene, an innocuous product, and gain energy for growth by a process known as reductive dechlorination. Dechlorinators are most often present in the environment and in dechlorinating cultures alongside other microbes such as fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens. Fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens syntrophically provide essential nutrients and growth factors to dechlorinators, most specifically to the only members able to reduce TCE all the way to ethene: Dehalococcoides; unfortunately, they also compete with dechlorinators for electron donors. My laboratory devises reductive chlorination platforms to study competition and syntrophy among Dehalococcoides, and other microbes to optimize remediation reactions and transport in the subsurface. We look at competing processes present as part of the natural soil chemistry and microbiology and address these challenges through a combination of enrichment techniques, molecular microbial ecology (deep sequencing), water chemistry, and electron balances. We have applied knowledge gathered in my laboratory to: 1) enrich microbial dechlorinating cultures capable of some of the fastest rates of TCE to ethene dechlorination ever reported, and 2) successfully design and operate three different continuous dechlorinating reactor types. We attribute our successful reactor operations to our multidisciplinary approach which links microbiology and engineering. Our reactors produce robust dechlorinating cultures used for in-situ bioaugmentation of PCE and TCE at contaminated sites

  2. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-06-01

    Global warming can be slowed, and perhaps reversed, only when society replaces fossil fuels with renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives. The best option is bioenergy: the sun's energy is captured in biomass and converted to energy forms useful to modern society. To make a dent in global warming, bioenergy must be generated at a very high rate, since the world today uses approximately 10 TW of fossil-fuel energy. And, it must do so without inflicting serious damage on the environment or disrupting our food supply. While most bioenergy options fail on both counts, several microorganism-based options have the potential to produce large amounts of renewable energy without disruptions. In one approach, microbial communities convert the energy value of various biomass residuals to socially useful energy. Biomass residuals come from agricultural, animal, and a variety of industrial operations, as well as from human wastes. Microorganisms can convert almost all of the energy in these wastes to methane, hydrogen, and electricity. In a second approach, photosynthetic microorganisms convert sunlight into biodiesel. Certain algae (eukaryotes) or cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) have high lipid contents. Under proper conditions, these photosynthetic microorganisms can produce lipids for biodiesel with yields per unit area 100 times or more than possible with any plant system. In addition, the non-lipid biomass can be converted to methane, hydrogen, or electricity. Photosynthetic microorganisms do not require arable land, an advantage because our arable land must be used to produce food. Algae or cyanobacteria may be the best option to produce bioenergy at rates high enough to replace a substantial fraction of our society's use of fossil fuels.

  3. Enumerating Microorganism Surrogates for Groundwater Transport Studies Using Solid-Phase Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Margaret E; Blaschke, A Paul; Schauer, Sonja; Zessner, Matthias; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on the pollution of groundwater with pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. tracer studies for groundwater transport, are constrained by their potential health risk. Thus, microspheres are often used in groundwater transport studies as non-hazardous surrogates for pathogenic microorganisms. Even though pathogenic microorganisms occur at low concentrations in groundwater, current detection methods of microspheres (spectrofluorimetry, flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy) have rather high detection limits and are unable to detect rare events. Solid-phase cytometry (SPC) offers the unique capability of reliably quantifying extremely low concentrations of fluorescently labelled microorganisms or microspheres in natural waters, including groundwater. Until now, microspheres have been used in combination with SPC only for instrument calibration purposes and not for environmental applications. In this study, we explored the limits of the SPC methodology for its applicability to groundwater transport studies. The SPC approach proved to be a highly sensitive and reliable enumeration system for microorganism surrogates down to a minimum size of 0.5 μm, in up to 500 ml of groundwater, and 0.75 μm, in up to 1 ml of turbid surface water. Hence, SPC is proposed to be a useful method for enumerating microspheres for groundwater transport studies in the laboratory, as well as in the field when non-toxic, natural products are used.

  4. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Quarterly report ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, G.T.; Sperl, P.L.

    1992-12-31

    Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which can be exploited through simple supplementation to support the growth of microorganisms which aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix. Other compounds which may serve as nutritional sources for microorganisms are added to reservoirs during production and operation of oil fields. These materials include sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, volatile fatty acids, nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors, phosphorous-containing scale inhibitors and trace elements. Our experiments show that, with minimal supplementation, growth of naturally-occurring microorganisms can be used to produce viscosifying agents to aid oil recovery. This natural microflora is also capable of removing sulfide from oil reservoirs and preventing the formation of new sulfide leading to both more oil recovery and increased value of the produced oil. The metabolic products of these microorganisms are Co{sub 2}, water, N{sub 2} and oxidized forms of sulfur, all of which are environmentally innocuous. Laboratory experiments with both defined mixtures of microorganisms as well as mixed populations both release more oil from sand pack columns.

  5. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  6. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  7. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  8. A Selected Bibliography on Microbiological Laboratory Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Reference sources on microbiological laboratory design are cited. Subjects covered include--(1) policies and general requirements, (2) ventilated cabinets, (3) animal isolation equipment, (4) air handling, ventilation, and filtration, (5) germicidal ultraviolet irradiation, (6) aerosol test facilities, (7) process production of microorganisms, and…

  9. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  10. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  11. Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Moon, Inkyu; Yeom, Seokwon

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we address the identification of biological microorganisms using microscopic integral imaging (II). II senses multi-view directional information of 3D objects illuminated by incoherent light. A micro-lenslet array generates a set of elemental images by projecting a 3D scene onto a detector array. In computational reconstruction of II, 3D volumetric scenes are numerically reconstructed by means of a geometrical ray projection method. The identification of the biological samples is performed using the 3D volume of the reconstructed object. In one approach, the multivariate statistical distribution of the reference sample is measured in 3D space and compared with an unknown input sample by means of statistical discriminant functions. The multivariate empirical cumulative density of the 3D volume image is determined for classification. On the other approach, the graph matching technique is applied to 3D volumetric images with Gabor feature extraction. The reference morphology is identified in unknown input samples using 3D grids. Experimental results are presented for the identification of sphacelaria alga and tribonema aequale alga. We present experimental results for both 3D and 2D imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D identification of microorganisms using II.

  12. Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Bahram; Moon, Inkyu; Yeom, Seokwon

    2006-12-11

    In this paper, we address the identification of biological microorganisms using microscopic integral imaging (II). II senses multi-view directional information of 3D objects illuminated by incoherent light. A micro-lenslet array generates a set of elemental images by projecting a 3D scene onto a detector array. In computational reconstruction of II, 3D volumetric scenes are numerically reconstructed by means of a geometrical ray projection method. The identification of the biological samples is performed using the 3D volume of the reconstructed object. In one approach, the multivariate statistical distribution of the reference sample is measured in 3D space and compared with an unknown input sample by means of statistical discriminant functions. The multivariate empirical cumulative density of the 3D volume image is determined for classification. On the other approach, the graph matching technique is applied to 3D volumetric images with Gabor feature extraction. The reference morphology is identified in unknown input samples using 3D grids. Experimental results are presented for the identification of sphacelaria alga and tribonema aequale alga. We present experimental results for both 3D and 2D imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D identification of microorganisms using II.

  13. Antibiosis of vineyard ecosystem fungi against food-borne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña; Salazar, Óscar; Vicente, M Francisca; Bills, Gerald F

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation extracts from fungi isolated from vineyard ecosystems were tested for antimicrobial activities against a set of test microorganisms, including five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus EP167, Acinetobacter baumannii (clinically isolated), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) and Candida albicans MY1055) and two probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17 and Lactobacillus brevis LCH23). A total of 182 fungi was grown in eight different media, and the fermentation extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 71 fungi produced extracts active against at least one pathogenic microorganism, but not against any probiotic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus EP167 was more susceptible to antimicrobial fungi broth extracts than Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Identification of active fungi based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequence analysis revealed that species in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Xylariales dominated. Differences in antimicrobial selectivity were observed among isolates from the same species. Some compounds present in the active extracts were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial metabolites produced by vineyard ecosystem fungi may potentially limit colonization and spoilage of food products by food-borne pathogens, with minimal effect on probiotic bacteria.

  14. Host-microorganism interactions in lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Benjamin J; Gollwitzer, Eva S

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, the airways were thought to be sterile unless infected; however, a shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of bacterial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique steady-state microbiota. This paradigm shift is changing the way that respiratory research is approached, with a clear need now to consider the effects of host-microorganism interactions in both healthy and diseased lungs. We propose that akin to recent discoveries in intestinal research, dysbiosis of the airway microbiota could underlie susceptibility to, and progression and chronicity of lung disease. In this Opinion article, we summarize current knowledge of the airway microbiota and outline how host-microorganism interactions in the lungs and other tissues might influence respiratory health and disease.

  15. Characterization of Microorganisms by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Catherine E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-10-02

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for characterization and analysis of microorganisms, specifically bacteria, is described here as a rapid screening tool. The objective of this technique is not comprehensive protein analysis of a microorganism but rather a rapid screening of the organism and the accessible protein pattern for characterization and distinction. This method is based on the ionization of the readily accessible and easily ionizable portion of the protein profile of an organism that is often characteristic of different bacterial species. The utility of this screening approach is yet to reach its full potential but could be applied to food safety, disease outbreak monitoring in hospitals, culture stock integrity and verification, microbial forensics or homeland security applications.

  16. Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Charron, Guillaume; Samani, Pedram; Dubé, Alexandre K; Sylvester, Kayla; James, Brielle; Almeida, Pedro; Sampaio, José Paulo; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2014-02-22

    Exploring the ability of organisms to locally adapt is critical for determining the outcome of rapid climate changes, yet few studies have addressed this question in microorganisms. We investigated the role of a heterogeneous climate on adaptation of North American populations of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. We found abundant among-strain variation for fitness components across a range of temperatures, but this variation was only partially explained by climatic variation in the distribution area. Most of fitness variation was explained by the divergence of genetically distinct groups, distributed along a north-south cline, suggesting that these groups have adapted to distinct climatic conditions. Within-group fitness components were correlated with climatic conditions, illustrating that even ubiquitous microorganisms locally adapt and harbour standing genetic variation for climate-related traits. Our results suggest that global climatic changes could lead to adaptation to new conditions within groups, or changes in their geographical distributions.

  17. [Mixotrophy in microorganisms: ecological and cytophysiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Matantseva, O V; Skarlato, S O

    2013-01-01

    Mixotrophy is the ability to combine autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition. It is widely spread in various microorganisms, particularly in such important plankton groups as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Mixotrophy has a significant impact on our comprehension of the matter and energy flows in marine ecosystems, and therefore, it is an object of much attention for several recent decades. Nevertheless, the precise data on the balance of auto- and heterotrophy during the mixotrophic growth have been absent so far, which is due, first of all, to insufficient understanding of physiological and molecular ground of this phenomenon. In this review we discuss some ecological and cytophysiological aspects of investigation of mixotrophy in microorganisms as well as possible reasons for relatively slow progress in this area.

  18. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  19. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  20. Desferrioxamine as immunomodulatory agent during microorganism infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, A; Meyer, D

    2009-01-01

    Southern Africa is burdened with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) infections as well as conditions of iron (Fe) overload. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is used to treat HIV-infection, many drugs exist for the treatment of tuberculosis (new solutions are also being sought because of the existence of multi drug resistant strains of M.tuberculosis) and Fe chelators are commonly used to treat Fe overload. Chelators have also been shown to inhibit the multiplication of numerous microorganisms and hence there are publications suggesting a role for chelators like desferrioxamine (DFO) in the dual treatment of microorganism infection and excess iron. Excess iron fuels pathogen survival which in turn lowers host cell functionality (manifested as altered proliferation, cytokine secretion, etc); withholding iron (via a chelator) reverses the process, even more so when the cells are chelated for longer periods of time. Chelation with DFO is reviewed here by commenting on its immunomodulatory effect.

  1. [Advances in gene engineering of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Debabov, V G

    1987-10-01

    A novel branch of national economy--biotechnology is being developed, based on genetic engineering. The construction of strains using the methods of molecular cloning has led to-date to creation of new biotechnological processes. Further advance in biotechnology would be mainly promoted by the possibilities of application of gene engineering to reorganization of industrially important microorganisms. These are bacilli employed for production of vitamins, enzymes, insecticides; streptomycetes--the producers of antibiotics; yeasts applied in bakery industry, in production of fodder proteins; pseudomonads which will be helpful in development of effective biological means for protection of environment, etc. So, vector molecules based on plasmids and phages have been constructed for best-studied representatives of industrial microorganisms, the methods of introduction into the cell of hybrid DNA molecules worked out, the problems of optimization of foreign gene expression being currently solved.

  2. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  3. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  4. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  5. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  6. Investigation to identify paint coatings resistive to microorganism growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. W.; Kemp, H. T.

    1971-01-01

    All selected coatings contain nutrients that support microbial growth and survival. Incorporation of microbiocidal agents into coatings more susceptible to attack is recommended for improved inhibition of microorganism growth and for increased protection against deterioration of coatings by microorganisms.

  7. MODELING THE FATE OF MICROORGANISMS IN WATER, WASTEWATER, AND SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The natural environment is filled with microorganisms, most of which are natural residents and colonize various ecological niches. These microorganisms either live independently within the environment, or live in association with various host organisms. There also are places and ...

  8. Ecological role of energy taxis in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Gladys; Greer-Phillips, Suzanne; Zhulin, Igor B

    2004-02-01

    Motile microorganisms rapidly respond to changes in various physico-chemical gradients by directing their motility to more favorable surroundings. Energy generation is one of the most important parameters for the survival of microorganisms in their environment. Therefore it is not surprising that microorganisms are able to monitor changes in the cellular energy generating processes. The signal for this behavioral response, which is called energy taxis, originates within the electron transport system. By coupling energy metabolism and behavior, energy taxis is fine-tuned to the environment a cell finds itself in and allows efficient adaptation to changing conditions that affect cellular energy levels. Thus, energy taxis provides cells with a versatile sensory system that enables them to navigate to niches where energy generation is optimized. This behavior is likely to govern vertical species stratification and the active migration of motile cells in response to shifting gradients of electron donors and/or acceptors which are observed within microbial mats, sediments and soil pores. Energy taxis has been characterized in several species and might be widespread in the microbial world. Genome sequencing revealed that many microorganisms from aquatic and soil environments possess large numbers of chemoreceptors and are likely to be capable of energy taxis. In contrast, species that have a fewer number of chemoreceptors are often found in specific, confined environments, where relatively constant environmental conditions are expected. Future studies focusing on characterizing behavioral responses in species that are adapted to diverse environmental conditions should unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying sensory behavior in general and energy taxis in particular. Such knowledge is critical to a better understanding of the ecological role of energy taxis.

  9. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  10. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  11. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  12. Protein languages differ depending on microorganism lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Grzymski, Joseph J; Marsh, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups-a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage-utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text-identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function.

  13. Fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activity in oral microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, M B; Dahlén, G; Linde, A

    1983-01-01

    Samples were taken from blood accumulated in dental alveoli after surgical removal of mandibular third molars, from subgingival plaque of teeth with advanced periodontal destructions, from teeth with infected necrotic pulps, and from subjects suffering from angular cheilitis. Of the microorganisms subcultured from these samples, 116 strains were assayed for enzymes degrading fibrinogen and fibrin. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen were assayed with the thin-layer enzyme assay cultivation technique. This assay involves the cultivation of microorganisms on culture agars applied over fibrinogen-coated polystyrene surfaces. Enzymes degrading fibrin were assayed with both a plate assay and a tube assay, in which fibrin was mixed with a microbial culture medium. Microorganisms degrading fibrinogen or fibrin or both were isolated from all sampling sites. Activity was mainly detected in strains of Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptococcus, Propionibacterium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most Fusobacterium strains degraded fibrinogen only. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen as well as enzymes degrading fibrin via activation of plasminogen were revealed in strains of Clostridium, S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. It was generally found that fibrinogen was degraded by more strains than was fibrin, which indicates that different proteases may be involved. PMID:6345573

  14. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  15. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  16. Protein Languages Differ Depending on Microorganism Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Grzymski, Joseph J.; Marsh, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups–a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage–utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text–identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function. PMID:24828817

  17. Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use.

    PubMed

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh; Frisvad, Jens C; Gerds, Monica L; Hammes, Walter P; Harnett, James; Huys, Geert; Laulund, Svend; Ouwehand, Arthur; Powell, Ian B; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ter Schure, Eelko; Van Boven, Aart; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Zgoda, Annabelle; Tuijtelaars, Sandra; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2012-03-15

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on "the history of use", "traditional food", or "general recognition of safety". Authoritative lists of microorganisms with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The "2002 IDF inventory" has become a de facto reference for food cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature.

  18. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  19. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Project technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1993-08-01

    The development of group-specific, 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface microorganisms is described. Because portions of the 16S RRNA molecule are unique to particular organisms or groups, these unique sequences can serve as targets for hybridization probes with varied specificity. Target sequences for selected microbial groups have been identified by analysis of the available RRNA sequence data for subsurface microbes. Hybridization probes for these target sequences were produced and their effectiveness and specificity tested with RNA cell blot and in situ hybridizations. Selected probes were used to study phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microbes and to classify these organisms into the specific groups that the probes are designed to detect. To date, this work has been performed on the P24 and C10 borehole isolates from the Savannah River Site. The probes will also be used, with in situ hybridizations, to detect and monitor selected microbial groups in freshly collected subsurface samples and laboratory microcosms in collaboration with other investigators. In situ hybridizations permit detection of selected microbial types without the necessity to isolate and culture them in the laboratory.

  1. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  2. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  3. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  4. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  5. 40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of claim. A person who...

  6. Sensory Transduction in Microorganisms 2008 Gordon Research Conference (January 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Ann M. Stock

    2009-04-08

    Research into the mechanisms involved in the sensing and responses of microorganisms to changes in their environments is currently very active in a large number of laboratories worldwide. An increasingly wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species are being studied with regard to their sensing of diverse chemical and physical stimuli, including nutrients, toxins, intercellular signaling molecules, redox indicators, light, pressure, magnetic fields, and surface contact, leading to adaptive responses affecting motile behavior, gene expression and/or development. The ease of manipulation of microorganisms has facilitated application of a broad range of techniques that have provided comprehensive descriptions of cellular behavior and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Systems and their molecular components have been probed at levels ranging from the whole organism down to atomic resolution using behavioral analyses; electrophysiology; genetics; molecular biology; biochemical and biophysical characterization; structural biology; single molecule, fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy; computational modeling; bioinformatics and genomic analyses. Several model systems such as bacterial chemotaxis and motility, fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus, and motility and development in Dictyostelium discoideum have traditionally been a focus of this meeting. By providing a basis for assessment of similarities and differences in mechanisms, understanding of these pathways has advanced the study of many other microbial sensing systems. This conference aims to bring together researchers investigating different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial systems using diverse approaches to compare data, share methodologies and ideas, and seek to understand the fundamental principles underlying sensory responses. Topic areas include: (1) Receptor Sensing and Signaling; (2) Intracellular Signaling (two-component, c-di-GMP, c-AMP, etc.); (3) Intracellular Localization and

  7. Feldspars as a source of nutrients for microorganisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, J.R.; Bennett, P.C.; Choi, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential macronutrients necessary for the survival of virtually all living organisms. In groundwater systems, these nutrients can be quite scarce and can represent limiting elements for growth of subsurface microorganisms. In this study we examined silicate sources of these elements by characterizing the colonization and weathering of feldspars in situ using field microcosms. We found that in carbon-rich anoxic groundwaters where P and N are scarce, feldspars that contain inclusions of P-minerals such as apatite are preferentially colonized over similar feldspars without P. A microcline from S. Dakota, which contains 0.24% P2O5 but ,1 mmol/ g NH , was heavily colonized 1 4 and deeply weathered. A similar microcline from Ontario, which has no detectable P or NH , was barren of attached organisms and completely unweathered after one year. An- 1 4 orthoclase (0.28% P2O5, ;1 mmol/g NH ) was very heavily colonized and weathered, 1 4 whereas plagioclase specimens (,0.01% P, ,1 mmmol/g NH ) were uncolonized and 1 4 unweathered. In addition, the observed weathering rates are faster than expected based on laboratory rates. We propose that this system is particularly sensitive to the availability of P, and the native subsurface microorganisms have developed biochemical strategies to aggressively scavenge P (or some other essential nutrient such as Fe31 ) from resistant feldspars. The result of this interaction is that only minerals containing P will be signifi- cantly colonized, and these feldspars will be preferentially destroyed, as the subsurface microbial community scavenges a limiting nutrient.

  8. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  9. Discovery of the Collaborative Nature of Science with Undergraduate Science Majors and Non-Science Majors through the Identification of Microorganisms Enriched in Winogradsky Columns.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jasmine; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Forster, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Today's science classrooms are addressing the need for non-scientists to become scientifically literate. A key aspect includes the recognition of science as a process for discovery. This process relies upon interdisciplinary collaboration. We designed a semester-long collaborative exercise that allows science majors taking a general microbiology course and non-science majors taking an introductory environmental science course to experience collaboration in science by combining their differing skill sets to identify microorganisms enriched in Winogradsky columns. These columns are self-sufficient ecosystems that allow researchers to study bacterial populations under specified environmental conditions. Non-science majors identified phototrophic bacteria enriched in the column by analyzing the signature chlorophyll absorption spectra whereas science majors used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the general bacterial diversity. Students then compiled their results and worked together to generate lab reports with their final conclusions identifying the microorganisms present in their column. Surveys and lab reports were utilized to evaluate the learning objectives of this activity. In pre-surveys, nonmajors' and majors' answers diverged considerably, with majors providing responses that were more accurate and more in line with the working definition of collaboration. In post-surveys, the answers between majors and nonmajors converged, with both groups providing accurate responses. Lab reports showed that students were able to successfully identify bacteria present in the columns. These results demonstrate that laboratory exercises designed to group students across disciplinary lines can be an important tool in promoting science education across disciplines.

  10. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism

    PubMed Central

    van Kessel, Maartje A.H.J.; Speth, Daan R.; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H.; Op den Camp, Huub J.M.; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S.M.; Lücker, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is considered to first be oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and/or archaea (AOA), and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Described by Winogradsky already in 18901, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle2. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth-rates but higher growth-yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms3. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here, we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding on the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26610025

  11. Exposure to airborne microorganisms in furniture factories.

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Skórska, Czesława; Cholewa, Grazyna; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Milanowski, Janusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in 2 furniture factories located in eastern Poland. In one factory furniture were made from fibreboards and chipboards while in the other from beech wood. It was found that the concentration of total microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air of the facility using beech wood for furniture production (mean 10.7 x (3) cfu/m(3), range 3.3 27.5 x (3) cfu/m(3)) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to microbial concentration in the facility using fibre- and chipboards (mean 3.6 x (3) cfu/m(3), range 1.9-6.2 x (3) cfu/m(3)). On average, the commonest microorganisms in the air of the furniture factories were corynebacteria (Corynebacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium spp.) which formed 18.1-50.0% of the total airborne microflora, and fungi (mostly Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Absidia spp. and yeasts) which formed 6.2-54.4% of the total count. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the furniture factories varied within fairly wide limits and were between 15.0-62.4%. Altogether, 28 species or genera of bacteria and 12 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of examined factories, of which respectively 8 and 7 species or genera were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. In conclusion, the workers of furniture factories are exposed to relatively low concentrations of airborne microorganisms which do not exceed the suggested occupational exposure limits. Nevertheless, the presence of allergenic and/or immunotoxic microbial species in the air of factories poses a potential risk of respiratory disease, in particular in sensitive workers.

  12. Extremophilic microorganisms as candidates for extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckbach, Joseph; Oren, Aharon

    2000-12-01

    Microbial life is found all over the globe. Diverse communities are even found in such places in which extreme conditions with respect of temperature, salinity, pH, and pressure prevail. Many of these environments were until recently considered too harsh to harbor microbial life. The micro-organisms adapted to an existence at the edge of life are termed extremophiles. They include members of the Prokaryotes (domains Archaea and Bacteria) and the Eukarya, including algae and protozoa. Extremophilic microbes thrive at low and high temperatures -- from subzero levels to above the boiling point of water, at both sides of the pH scale -- in acidic as well as in alkaline media, in hypersaline environments with salt concentrations of up to saturation, at high pressure, both in the deep sea and in the terrestrial deep subsurface where they are exposed to pressures of hundreds of atmospheres, and in other extreme conditions. In many cases they tolerate combinations of more than one environmental stress factor. Some of the extremophiles may be considered as 'living fossils' since their environment resembles the conditions that may have existed during the time life arose on Earth, more than 3.5 billion years ago. In view of these properties the extremophilic micro-organisms may be considered as model organisms when exploring the possibilities of the existence of extraterrestrial life. For example, the microbes discovered in ice cores recovered from the depth of the Lake Vostok in Antarctica may serve as a model simulating conditions prevailing in the permafrost subsurface of Mars or Jupiter's moon Europa. Microbial life in the Dead Sea or in Great Salt Lake may resemble halophilic life forms that may exist elsewhere in the universe, adapted to life at low water activities. Likewise, hyperthermophilic micro-organisms present on Earth in hot springs, hydrothermal vents and other sites heated by volcanic activity in terrestrial or marine areas, may resemble life forms that may

  13. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  14. Biofilms: Survival Mechanisms of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Donlan, Rodney M.; Costerton, J. William

    2002-01-01

    Though biofilms were first described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the theory describing the biofilm process was not developed until 1978. We now understand that biofilms are universal, occurring in aquatic and industrial water systems as well as a large number of environments and medical devices relevant for public health. Using tools such as the scanning electron microscope and, more recently, the confocal laser scanning microscope, biofilm researchers now understand that biofilms are not unstructured, homogeneous deposits of cells and accumulated slime, but complex communities of surface-associated cells enclosed in a polymer matrix containing open water channels. Further studies have shown that the biofilm phenotype can be described in terms of the genes expressed by biofilm-associated cells. Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents by one or more mechanisms. Biofilm-associated microorganisms have been shown to be associated with several human diseases, such as native valve endocarditis and cystic fibrosis, and to colonize a wide variety of medical devices. Though epidemiologic evidence points to biofilms as a source of several infectious diseases, the exact mechanisms by which biofilm-associated microorganisms elicit disease are poorly understood. Detachment of cells or cell aggregates, production of endotoxin, increased resistance to the host immune system, and provision of a niche for the generation of resistant organisms are all biofilm processes which could initiate the disease process. Effective strategies to prevent or control biofilms on medical devices must take into consideration the unique and tenacious nature of biofilms. Current intervention strategies are designed to prevent initial device colonization, minimize microbial cell attachment to the device, penetrate the biofilm matrix and kill the associated cells, or remove the device from the patient. In the future, treatments may be based on inhibition of genes

  15. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Biocatalysis and biotransformation of resveratrol in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan-Zhen; Liu, Ruo-Xue; Wang, Dong-Peng; Wang, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a major stilbene phytoalexin, is a valuable polyphenol that has been recognized for its benefits to human health. Resveratrol has antioxidant and antitumor effects and promotes longevity. It is used in medicine, health care products, cosmetics, and other industries. Therefore, a sustainable source for resveratrol production is required. This review describes the metabolic engineering of microorganisms, the biotransformation and biosynthesis of endophytes and the oxidation or degradation of resveratrol. We compare various available methods for resveratrol production, and summarize the practical challenges facing the microbial production of resveratrol. The future research direction for resveratrol is also discussed.

  17. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  18. Temperature response of Antarctic cryptoendolithic photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; Meyer, M. A.; Chen, M.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Growth responses to temperatures between 12.5 [degrees] C and 25 degrees C were determined for five photosynthetic microorganisms isolated from the Ross Desert cryptoendolithic community. Among eukaryotic algae, two strains of Trebouxia sp. have an upper temperature limit of 20 degrees C, and two strains of Hemichloris antarctica of 25 degrees C. The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp., in contrast, grows at temperatures above 25 degrees C. These and earlier studies suggest that the eukaryotic algae of the Antarctic cryptoendolithic community have an upper temperature limit near 25 degrees C.

  19. Resistance of soil microorganisms to starvation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Alexander, M.

    1972-01-01

    Most groups of soil microorganisms died when exposed to prolonged starvation in a carbon-free solution, but the relative abundance of Bacillus and actinomycetes increased with time. Certain nonspore-forming bacteria also persisted. The ability of individual soil isolates to endure starvation in solution was not correlated with their glycogen content or rate of endogenous respiration. However, cells of the resistant populations were rich in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, whereas the starvation-susceptible bacteria generally contained little of this substance. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was used rapidly in cells deprived of exogenous sources of carbon.

  20. Green biosynthesis of floxuridine by immobilized microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Sinisterra, Jose V; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-06-01

    This work describes an efficient, simple, and green bioprocess for obtaining 5-halogenated pyrimidine nucleosides from thymidine by transglycosylation using whole cells. Biosynthesis of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (floxuridine) was achieved by free and immobilized Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 27013 with an 80% and 65% conversion occurring in 1 h, respectively. The immobilized biocatalyst was stable for more than 4 months in storage conditions (4 °C) and could be reused at least 30 times without loss of its activity. This microorganism was able to biosynthesize 2.0 mg L(-1) min(-1) (60%) of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine in 3 h. These halogenated pyrimidine 2'-deoxynucleosides are used as antitumoral agents.

  1. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  2. A contribution to set a legal framework for biofertilisers.

    PubMed

    Malusá, E; Vassilev, N

    2014-08-01

    The extensive research, production and use of microorganisms to improve plant nutrition have resulted in an inconsistent definition of the term "biofertiliser" which, in some cases, is due to the different microbial mechanisms involved. The rationale for adopting the term biofertiliser is that it derives from "biological fertiliser", that, in turn, implies the use of living microorganisms. Here, we propose a definition for this kind of products which is distinguishing them from biostimulants or other inorganic and organic fertilisers. Special emphasis is given to microorganism(s) with multifunctional properties and biofertilisers containing more than one microorganism. This definition could be included in legal provisions regulating registration and marketing requirements. A set of rules is also proposed which could guarantee the quality of biofertilisers present on the market and thus foster their use by farmers.

  3. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    PubMed

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  4. [Rapid identification of microorganisms by mass spectrometry in a blood culture system. Comparison of two procedures].

    PubMed

    Cattani, María E; Posse, Tamara; Hermes, Ricardo L; Kaufman, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms is critical in hospitalized infected patients. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for detecting and identifying microorganisms causing bacteremia or sepsis. The introduction of mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) in microbiology laboratories, especially in microorganisms growing in blood culture bottles, provides rapid identification. This study evaluates the performance of the Maldi Sepsityper Biotyper procedure (hereinafter, MS) compared to that of an in-home method (hereinafter, HF). Eight hundred and forty (840) positive blood culture bottles were processed using the HF procedure, 542 of which were also processed using MS. The organisms were identified in 670 (79.76%) and 391 (72.14%) bottles respectively (p = 0,0013). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of both procedures for identifying microorganisms directly from positive blood culture bottles. However, the HF procedure proved to be more effective than MS, especially in the presence of Gram positive organisms.

  5. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-11

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak

  6. Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the

  7. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  8. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  9. Evolution of microorganism locomotion induced by starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibona, G. J.

    2007-07-01

    The search strategies of many organisms play a fundamental role in their competition to survive in a given environment. In this context, the propulsion systems of microorganisms have evolved during life history, to optimize the suitable use of energy they take from nutrients. Starting from a model for the motion of Brownian objects with internal energy depot, we show that the propulsion system of microorganisms has an optimal regimen while searching for new sources of food. Bacteria with a too low or too high energy expenditure in propulsion, moving in a nutrient-depleted environment, do not reach remote distances. In this sense, the mean square displacement has a maximum for a finite value of the propulsion rate. Species using the most efficient locomotion system have a considerable advantage for survival in hostile environments, a common situation in the ocean. Moreover, we found the existence of a lower size limit for useful locomotion. This suggests that, for organisms whose linear dimensions are below a certain threshold, it is advantageous not to use any propulsion mechanism at all, a result that is in agreement with what is observed in nature.

  10. Nonenzymatic microorganism identification based on ribosomal RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Jeffrey T.; Pierini, Alicia M.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.; Read, Betsy; Bechtel, James H.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Effective defense against biological warfare (BW) agents requires rapid, fieldable and accurate systems. For micro- organisms like bacteria and viruses, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a valuable target with multiple advantages of species specificity and intrinsic target amplification. Vegetative and spore forms of bacteria contain approximately 104 copies of rRNA. Direct detection of rRNA copies can eliminate some of the interference and preparation difficulties involved in enzymatic amplification methods. In order to apply the advantages of rRNA to BW defense, we are developing a fieldable system based on 16S rRNA, physical disruption of the micro-organism, solid phase hybridization, and fluorescence detection. Our goals include species-specific identification, complete operation from raw sample to identification in 15 minutes or less, and compact, fieldable instrumentation. Initial work on this project has investigated the lysis and hybridization steps, the species-specificity of oligonucleotides probes, and the development of a novel electromagnetic method to physically disrupt the micro- organisms. Target bacteria have been Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). Continuing work includes further development of methods to rapidly disrupt the micro-organisms and release the rRNA, improved integration and processing, and extension to bacterial and mammalian viruses like MS2 and vesicular stomatitis virus.

  11. Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.

    PubMed

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-04-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens.

  12. The cellular slime mold: eukaryotic model microorganism.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Hideko

    2009-04-01

    Cellular slime molds are eukaryotic microorganisms in the soil. They feed on bacteria as solitary amoebae but conditionally construct multicellular forms in which cell differentiation takes place. Therefore, they are attractive for the study of fundamental biological phenomena such as phagocytosis, cell division, chemotactic movements, intercellular communication, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis. The most widely used species, Dictyostelium discoideum, is highly amenable to experimental manipulation and can be used with most recent molecular biological techniques. Its genome and cDNA analyses have been completed and well-annotated data are publicly available. A larger number of orthologues of human disease-related genes were found in D. discoideum than in yeast. Moreover, some pathogenic bacteria infect Dictyostelium amoebae. Thus, this microorganism can also offer a good experimental system for biomedical research. The resources of cellular slime molds, standard strains, mutants, and genes are maintained and distributed upon request by the core center of the National BioResource Project (NBRP-nenkin) to support Dictyostelium community users as well as new users interested in new platforms for research and/or phylogenic consideration.

  13. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  14. Venturing into new realms? Microorganisms in space.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles; Rettberg, Petra

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges of science is the determination of whether extraterrestrial life exists. Although potential habitable areas might be available for complex life, it is more likely that microbial life could exist in space. Many extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes have been found to be able to withstand numerous, combined environmental factors, such as high or low temperatures and pressures, high-salt conditions, high doses of radiation, desiccation or nutrient limitations. They may even survive the transit from one planet to another. Terrestrial Mars-analogue sites are one focus of researchers, in order to understand the microbial diversity in preparation for upcoming space missions aimed at the detection of life. However, such missions could also pose a risk with respect to contamination of the extraterrestrial environment by accidentally transferred terrestrial microorganisms. Closer to the Earth, the International Space Station is the most enclosed habitat, where humans work and live-and with them numerous microorganisms. It is still unknown how microbes adapt to this environment, possibly even creating a risk for the crew. Information on the microbiology of the ISS will have an impact on the planning and implementation of long-term human spaceflights in order to ensure a safe, stable and balanced microbiome on board.

  15. Microorganisms Resistant to Free-Living Amoebae

    PubMed Central

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human “Troy,” and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens. PMID:15084508

  16. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  17. Virtual robotics laboratory for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1995-09-01

    We report on work currently underway to put a robotics laboratory onto the Internet in support of teaching and research in robotics and artificial intelligence in higher education institutions in the UK. The project is called Netrolab. The robotics laboratory comprises a set of robotics resources including a manipulator, a mobile robot with an on-board monocular active vision head and a set of sonar sensing modules, and a set of laboratory cameras to allow the user to see into the laboratory. The paper will report on key aspect of the project aimed at using multimedia tools and object-oriented techniques to network the robotics resources and to allow them to be configured into complex teaching and experimental modules. The paper will outline both the current developments of Netrolab and provide a perspective on the future development of networked virtual laboratories for research.

  18. Food Microbiology--Design and Testing of a Virtual Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Steve; Stewart, Terry

    2010-01-01

    A web-based virtual laboratory exercise in identifying an unknown microorganism was designed for use with a cohort of 3rd-year university food-technology students. They were presented with a food-contamination case, and then walked through a number of diagnostic steps to identify the microorganism. At each step, the students were asked to select 1…

  19. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  20. Managing a Computer Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macey, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues concerning the initial setup and the everyday operational problems of managing a computer teaching laboratory. Addresses such issues as setting policies on laboratory access, dealing with a high student-per-machine ratio, provisions for maintenance, obtaining hardware and software upgrades, staffing, data security, and networking…

  1. Mathematics Laboratory Focus, Fall, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Joan P.

    Procedures to be followed in the development of a mathematics laboratory at Somerset County College are presented in this paper. Introductory material outlines the advantages of a laboratory setting in independent and self-directed study; and highlights the two basic characteristics of successful lab programs (i.e., their comprehensiveness in…

  2. Minerals and Microorganisms in Evaporite Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Brigmon, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional analysis of evaporite environments have either focused on the geology or the halophilic organisms. It is relatively rare that the two have been combined and even rarer that both disciplines have been incorporated in comparing evaporite sites. The variation in evaporite environments does influence microbial ecology and fossilization processes as each site varies in pH, temperature, presence or absence springs, and spring chemistry. Understanding the evaporite environments is important for planetary scientists as they serve as analogs for evaluating extraterrestrial materials, including the potential for water and ultimately life. For example Mars lander, rover and orbital missions have identified the evaporite signatures of gypsum, carbonates and chlorides, all indicating that water existed at sometime in the planets geological history. Terrestrial evaporite sites all possess halophilic tolerant life. In some instances such as the Dead Sea, Israel, it is restricted to microbial life, but in other sites there are higher life forms. The microbes associated with these evaporite sites can produce biofilms as a method to develop their own microenvironments. Microorganisms can be observed colonizing specific ecological niches or gradients can be created by these environments. These gradients occur due the localized drying and weathering patterns that create different soil chemistry. The microorganisms in turn colonize specific areas more suitable to their specific metabolic needs. For example, under anaerobic conditions with sulfur and methane prevalent methanogenic and/or sulfur reducing microbial species may be observed. However, under similar chemistry environments with the exception of aerobic conditions sulfur oxidizer and/or methanotrophic microorganism may occur. Because of their conspicuous colored pigments purple sulfur bacteria are frequently observed in anoxic zones of lakes, sulfur springs, and stratified evaporite crusts. Some of these bacteria

  3. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  4. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  5. Nontraditional method of evaluating disinfectants: with isolated microorganisms from the food factory.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection in the food industry are critical in the production process, and the efficacy of the disinfectants used is frequently debated. Several factors are involved in the effectiveness of a disinfectant agent. It is important to consider the number and type of microorganism present as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the water; these factors vary from industry to industry and they determine efficacious disinfection. In the laboratory it is possible to evaluate disinfectants to be used in a particular factory, even though these are different from those reported by international organizations. Some useful practices are: 1. To use cultures of microorganisms isolated in one's own lab instead of reference cultures. 2. To use as a diluter the water that is used daily in the factory under question. 3. To compare different disinfectant products under identical conditions of time and temperature.

  6. MALDI-TOF MS: an upcoming tool for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewa, Markus; Sparbier, Katrin; Maier, Thomas; Schubert, Sören

    2013-12-01

    MALDI-TOF MS profiling for microorganism detection has already been demonstrated in the 1990s, but has evolved to the first-line identification method in many laboratories just during the past five years. While this application of MALDI-TOF MS has proven its broad applicability, accuracy, robustness, and cost-effectiveness it is of particular interest to expand the capabilities of the mass spectrometric platform. Resistance detection is the most desirable further application of MALDI-TOF MS in microbiology, but maybe also the most challenging. Different approaches have been published regarding diverse antibiotic drugs and distinct microorganism classes. The current review shall give an overview about the developments of the recent years and their potential to get transformed in clinical useful assays in the future.

  7. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picard, Aude A.; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  8. Assessing antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in sanitary sewage.

    PubMed

    Kaeseberg, Thomas; Blumensaat, Frank; Zhang, Jin; Krebs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The release of antimicrobial substances into surface waters is of growing concern due to direct toxic effects on all trophic levels and the promotion of antibiotic resistance through sub-inhibitory concentration levels. This study showcases (1) the variation of antibiotics in sanitary sewage depending on different timescales and (2) a method to assess the antibiotic resistance based on an inhibition test. The test is based on the measurement of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in wastewater samples with increasing concentrations of the selected antibiotic agents. The following antibiotics were analysed in the present study: clarithromycin (CLA) was selected due to its high toxicity to many microorganisms (low EC50), ciprofloxacin (CIP) which is used to generally fight all bacteria concerning interstitial infections and doxycyclin (DOX) having a broad spectrum efficacy. Results show that CLA inhibited the OUR by approximately 50% at a concentration of about 10 mg L⁻¹, because Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli are resistant, whereas CIP inhibited about 90% of the OUR at a concentration equal to or greater than 10 mg L⁻¹. In the case of DOX, a moderate inhibition of about 38% at a concentration of 10 mg L⁻¹ was identified, indicating a significant antibiotic resistance. The results are consistent with the corresponding findings from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Thus, the presented inhibition test provides a simple but robust alternative method to assess antibiotic resistance in biofilms instead of more complex clinical tests.

  9. Implementing Best Practices and Validation of Cryopreservation Techniques for Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David; Ryan, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Authentic, well preserved living organisms are basic elements for research in the life sciences and biotechnology. They are grown and utilized in laboratories around the world and are key to many research programmes, industrial processes and training courses. They are vouchers for publications and must be available for confirmation of results, further study or reinvestigation when new technologies become available. These biological resources must be maintained without change in biological resource collections. In order to achieve best practice in the maintenance and provision of biological materials for industry, research and education the appropriate standards must be followed. Cryopreservation is often the best preservation method available to achieve these aims, allowing long term, stable storage of important microorganisms. To promulgate best practice the Organisation for Economic Development and Co-operation (OECD published the best practice guidelines for BRCs. The OECD best practice consolidated the efforts of the UK National Culture Collections, the European Common Access to Biological Resources and Information (CABRI) project consortium and the World Federation for Culture Collections. The paper discusses quality management options and reviews cryopreservation of fungi, describing how the reproducibility and quality of the technique is maintained in order to retain the full potential of fungi. PMID:22629202

  10. Biological contamination of Mars. I. Survival of terrestrial microorganisms in simulated Martian environments.

    PubMed

    Scher, S; Packer, E; Sagan, C

    1964-01-01

    It has been postulated that the accidental introduction of terrestrial microorganisms to other planets during the course of space exploration might impede or bias the detection of organic matter and possible indigenous organisms, and thereby confuse subsequent studies of extraterrestrial life. To assess the likelihood of biological contamination of Mars, we have applied the principle of natural selection on a laboratory scale. Terrestrial microorganisms were collected from a variety of environments, including regions of high alkalinity, low mean daily temperature, and low annual rainfall. The air-dried soils were then subjected to a simulated Martian environment involving 12-hour freeze-thaw cycles from about -60 degrees C to about +20 degrees C; atmospheres of 95 per cent nitrogen, 5 percent carbon dioxide and low moisture content: < or = 0.1 atm pressure; and a total ultraviolet dose at 2537 angstrom of 10(9) erg cm-2. In some experiments, organic supplements were provided. Survivors were scored on supplemented agar. Preliminary results indicate a wide variety of survivors, even when no organic supplements were introduced. Survivors included obligate and facultative anaerobic spore-formers and non-spore-forming facultative anaerobic bacteria. Diurnal freezing and thawing was continued for six months. There was no significant loss of viability after the first freeze-thaw cycle. An extensive literature survey shows that survival of terrestrial microorganisms under individual simulated Martian conditions has been known for decades. The present investigation shows the absence of pronounced synergistic effects inhibiting survival. The probable existence of organic matter and moisture on Mars, at least in restricted locales and times, makes it especially likely that terrestrial microorganisms can also reproduce on Mars. The demonstration that all samples of terrestrial soil tested contain a population of microorganisms which survive in simulated Martian environments

  11. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

  12. Feeding, Swimming and Navigation of Colonial Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkegaard, Julius; Bouillant, Ambre; Marron, Alan; Leptos, Kyriacos; Goldstein, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Animals are multicellular in nature, but evolved from unicellular organisms. In the closest relatives of animals, the choanoflagellates, the unicellular species Salpincgoeca rosetta has the ability to form colonies, resembling true multicellularity. In this work we use a combination of experiments, theory, and simulations to understand the physical differences that arise from feeding, swimming and navigating as colonies instead of as single cells. We show that the feeding efficiency decreases with colony size for distinct reasons in the small and large Péclet number limits, and we find that swimming as a colony changes the conventional active random walks of microorganism to stochastic helices, but that this does not hinder effective navigation towards chemoattractants.

  13. Early photosynthetic microorganisms and environmental evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microfossils which are preserved as shrivelled kerogenous residues provide little information about cellular organization and almost none about the metabolic properties of the organisms. The distinction between prokaryotic vs eukaryotic, and phototrophic vs chemo- and organotrophic fossil microorganisms rests entirely on morphological comparisons with recent counterparts. The residual nature of the microbial fossil record promotes the conclusion that it must be biased toward (a) most abundant organisms, (b) those most resistant to degradation, and (c) those inhabiting environments with high preservation potential e.g., stromatolites. These criteria support the cyanophyte identity of most Precambrian microbial fossils on the following grounds: (1) as primary producers they dominate prokaryotic communities in modern extreme environments, e.g., intertidal zone; (2) several morphological counterparts of modern cyanophytes and microbial fossils have been established based on structure, cell division patterns and degradation sequences. The impact of anaerobic and oxygenic microbial photosynthesis on the evolution of Precambrian environments is discussed.

  14. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Madison S

    2016-12-01

    Recent experiments have shown that many species of microorganisms leave a solid surface at a fixed angle determined by steric interactions and near-field hydrodynamics. This angle is completely independent of the incoming angle. For several collisions in a closed body this determines a unique type of billiard system, an aspecular billiard in which the outgoing angle is fixed for all collisions. We analyze such a system using numerical simulation of this billiard for varying tables and outgoing angles, and also utilize the theory of one-dimensional maps and wavefront dynamics. When applicable we cite results from and compare our system to similar billiard systems in the literature. We focus on examples from three broad classes: the ellipse, the Bunimovich billiards, and the Sinai billiards. The effect of a noisy outgoing angle is also discussed.

  15. Catabolism of dimethylsulphoniopropionate: microorganisms, enzymes and genes.

    PubMed

    Curson, Andrew R J; Todd, Jonathan D; Sullivan, Matthew J; Johnston, Andrew W B

    2011-10-11

    The compatible solute dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) has important roles in marine environments. It is an anti-stress compound made by many single-celled plankton, some seaweeds and a few land plants that live by the shore. Furthermore, in the oceans it is a major source of carbon and sulphur for marine bacteria that break it down to products such as dimethyl sulphide, which are important in their own right and have wide-ranging effects, from altering animal behaviour to seeding cloud formation. In this Review, we describe how recent genetic and genomic work on the ways in which several different bacteria, and some fungi, catabolize DMSP has provided new and surprising insights into the mechanisms, regulation and possible evolution of DMSP catabolism in microorganisms.

  16. Cellulases from psychrophilic microorganisms: a review.

    PubMed

    Kasana, Ramesh C; Gulati, Arvind

    2011-12-01

    Cellulases are hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze total hydrolysis of cellulose into sugars. Cellulases are produced by various groups of microorganisms and animals; however, psychrophiles are the ideal candidates for the production of enzymes active at low temperature and stable under alkaline conditions, in the presence of oxidants and detergents, which are in large demand as laundry additives. The cellulases from psychrophiles also find application in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. Research work on cellulase has been done over the last six decades, but there is no exclusive review available on the cellulases from psychrophiles. This review is an attempt to fill this gap by providing all the relevant information exclusively for cellulases from psychrophiles, with a focus on the present status of knowledge on their activity, molecular characteristics, gene cloning, statistical experimental designs, crystal structure, and strategies for the improvement of psychrophilic cellulases.

  17. On micro-organisms of the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Imshenetsky, A A; Lysenko, S V; Kazakov, G A; Ramkova, N V

    1976-01-01

    The lower parts of the biosphere are well studied since various live beings are found in oceans and at the bottom of large hollows. Contrary to this, we have no data about the upper boundaries of the biosphere. Samples were obtained with the help of specially constructed analysers which were installed in meteorological rockets and reached an altitude of 100 km. With the help of methods completely excluding the possibility of contamination of analysers with outside microflora it became possible to prove that earth microbes carried by air currents are present in the stratosphere. At an altitude of 48-77 km Circinella muscae, Asp. niger, Penicillium notatum were found as well as mycobacterium and micrococcus. The correlation of these cultures with external factors is studied and the weight of one conidium or one cell in isolated micro-organisms is estimated. These investigations will continue.

  18. Breakdown of plastics and polymers by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kawai, F

    1995-01-01

    The interest in environmental issues is still growing and there are increasing demands to develop materials which do not burden the environment significantly. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-miscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires both biochemical insight and understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms. It is now widely requested that polymeric materials come from renewable resources instead of petrochemical sources. The microbial production of polymeric and oligomeric materials is also described.

  19. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  20. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  1. Practical aspects of sampling for organic dusts and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Morey, P R

    1990-01-01

    Air sampling for organic dusts and microorganisms was carried out in silos when moldy silage was discarded through the discharge chute. Concentrations of respirable dust and airborne viable microorganisms exceeded 20 mg/m3 and 1 x 10(9)/m3, respectively, when dry silage was removed from silos. Much lower concentrations of dust and microorganisms were present when wet silage was discarded. Impinger and filter cassette samplers were equally effective in collecting the hardy spores present in silage dusts.

  2. Mineral stimulation of subsurface microorganisms: release of limiting nutrients from silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roger, Jennifer Roberts; Bennett, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the weathering of silicate minerals in many subsurface environments, but an unanswered question is whether the mineral plays an important role in the microbial ecology. Silicate minerals often contain nutrients necessary for microbial growth, but whether the microbial community benefits from their release during weathering is unclear. In this study, we used field and laboratory approaches to investigate microbial interactions with minerals and glasses containing beneficial nutrients and metals. Field experiments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, where silicate weathering is substantially accelerated in the contaminated zone, revealed that phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe)-bearing silicate glasses were preferentially colonized and weathered, while glasses without these elements were typically barren of colonizing microorganisms, corroborating previous studies using feldspars. In laboratory studies, we investigated microbial weathering of silicates and the release of nutrients using a model ligand-promoted pathway. A metal-chelating organic ligand 3,4 dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4 DHBA) was used as a source of chelated ferric iron, and a carbon source, to investigate mineral weathering rate and microbial metabolism.In the investigated aquifer, we hypothesize that microbes produce organic ligands to chelate metals, particularly Fe, for metabolic processes and also form stable complexes with Al and occasionally with Si. Further, the concentration of these ligands is apparently sufficient near an attached microorganism to destroy the silicate framework while releasing the nutrient of interest. In microcosms containing silicates and glasses with trace phosphate mineral inclusions, microbial biomass increased, indicating that the microbial community can use silicate-bound phosphate inclusions. The addition of a native microbial consortium to microcosms containing silicates or glasses with iron oxide inclusions correlated to

  3. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  4. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Buelter, Thomas [Denver, CO; Meinhold, Peter [Denver, CO; Feldman, Reid M. Renny [San Francisco, CA; Hawkins, Andrew C [Parker, CO; Urano, Jun [Irvine, CA; Bastian, Sabine [Pasadena, CA; Arnold, Frances [La Canada, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  5. Ultrasonic manipulation of locomotive microorganisms and evaluation of their activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Kitamura, Norio; Terauchi, Masaki

    2002-12-01

    Acoustic manipulation of locomotive microorganisms, i.e., euglena and paramecia, was conducted by using ultrasonic standing waves of ˜3 MHz. Microorganisms were trapped at the intersections of the nodes in the two orthogonal standing waves and were transferred horizontally and vertically by the suitable ultrasonic frequency change. Aggregation of microorganisms was also observed in the process of the cyclic frequency change. The trapping efficiency depended on both ultrasonic power density and the activity of microorganisms. The effects of water temperature and illumination on their activity were evaluated by measuring the ultrasonic trapping efficiency.

  6. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  7. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    2017-01-01

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes.

  8. Global microbial commons: institutional challenges for the global exchange and distribution of microorganisms in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Exchanges of microorganisms between culture collections, laboratories and researchers worldwide have historically occurred in an informal way. These informal exchanges have facilitated research activities, and, as a consequence, our knowledge and exploitation of microbial resources have advanced rapidly. During the last decades of the twentieth century, the increasing economic importance of biotechnology and the introduction of new legislation concerning the use of and access to biological resources has subjected exchanges of genetic resources to greater controls. Their access and distribution are more strictly regulated and, therefore, exchanges are becoming more and more formalized. This paper analyzes one of the main drivers of the movement toward more formal worldwide exchange regimes, which is increasing global interdependency of access to genetic resources. Its main finding is that formalization of exchange practices as such is not necessarily leading to more restrictive licensing conditions. The goal of further formalization and harmonization of institutional frameworks should therefore be to provide the broadest possible access to essential research materials (within the constraints set by biosecurity and quality management requirements), while maximizing the reciprocity benefits of access and exchange (which motivate the exchange practices to start with).

  9. Creating the laboratory`s future; A strategy for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    ``Creating The Laboratory`s Future`` describes Livermore`s roles and responsibilities as a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory and sets the foundation for decisions about the Laboratory`s programs and operations. It summarizes Livermore`s near-term strategy, which builds on recent Lab achievements and world events affecting their future. It also discusses their programmatic and operational emphases and highlights program areas that the authors believe can grow through application of Lab science and technology. Creating the Laboratory`s Future reflects their very strong focus on national security, important changes in the character of their national security work, major efforts are under way to overhaul their administrative and operational systems, and the continuing challenge of achieving national consensus on the role of the government in energy, environment, and the biosciences.

  10. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  11. Roles of laboratories and laboratory systems in effective tuberculosis programmes.

    PubMed

    Ridderhof, John C; van Deun, Armand; Kam, Kai Man; Narayanan, P R; Aziz, Mohamed Abdul

    2007-05-01

    Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that laboratories are systems that require quality standards, appropriate human resources, and attention to safety in addition to supplies and equipment. To prepare the laboratory networks for new diagnostics and expanded capacity, we need to focus efforts on strengthening quality management systems (QMS) through additional resources for external quality assessment programmes for microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular diagnostics. QMS should also promote development of accreditation programmes to ensure adherence to standards to improve both the quality and credibility of the laboratory system within TB programmes. Corresponding attention must be given to addressing human resources at every level of the laboratory, with special consideration being given to new programmes for laboratory management and leadership skills. Strengthening laboratory networks will also involve setting up partnerships between TB programmes and those seeking to control other diseases in order to pool resources and to promote advocacy for quality standards, to develop strategies to integrate laboratories functions and to extend control programme activities to the private sector. Improving the laboratory system will assure that increased resources, in the form of supplies, equipment and facilities, will be invested in networks that are capable of providing effective testing to meet the goals of the Global Plan to Stop TB.

  12. Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

  13. Physiological Ecology of Microorganisms in Subglacial Lake Whillans.

    PubMed

    Vick-Majors, Trista J; Mitchell, Andrew C; Achberger, Amanda M; Christner, Brent C; Dore, John E; Michaud, Alexander B; Mikucki, Jill A; Purcell, Alicia M; Skidmore, Mark L; Priscu, John C

    2016-01-01

    SLW water column. Heterotrophic metabolisms utilizing acetate and formate as electron donors yielded less energy than chemolithotrophic metabolisms when calculated in terms of energy density, which supports experimental results that showed chemoautotrophic activity in excess of heterotrophic activity. The microbial communities of subglacial lake ecosystems provide important natural laboratories to study the physiological and biogeochemical behavior of microorganisms inhabiting cold, dark environments.

  14. Physiological Ecology of Microorganisms in Subglacial Lake Whillans

    PubMed Central

    Vick-Majors, Trista J.; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Achberger, Amanda M.; Christner, Brent C.; Dore, John E.; Michaud, Alexander B.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Purcell, Alicia M.; Skidmore, Mark L.; Priscu, John C.

    2016-01-01

    water column. Heterotrophic metabolisms utilizing acetate and formate as electron donors yielded less energy than chemolithotrophic metabolisms when calculated in terms of energy density, which supports experimental results that showed chemoautotrophic activity in excess of heterotrophic activity. The microbial communities of subglacial lake ecosystems provide important natural laboratories to study the physiological and biogeochemical behavior of microorganisms inhabiting cold, dark environments. PMID:27833599

  15. The hidden face of academic researches on classified highly pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic microorganisms and toxins are manipulated in academic laboratories for fundamental research purposes, diagnostics, drugs and vaccines development. Obviously, these infectious pathogens represent a potential risk for human and/or animal health and their accidental or intentional release (biosafety and biosecurity, respectively) is a major concern of governments. In the past decade, several incidents have occurred in laboratories and reported by media causing fear and raising a sense of suspicion against biologists. Some scientists have been ordered by US government to leave their laboratory for long periods of time following the occurrence of an incident involving infectious pathogens; in other cases laboratories have been shut down and universities have been forced to pay fines and incur a long-term ban on funding after gross negligence of biosafety/biosecurity procedures. Measures of criminal sanctions have also been taken to minimize the risk that such incidents can reoccur. As United States and many other countries, France has recently strengthened its legal measures for laboratories' protection. During the past two decades, France has adopted a series of specific restriction measures to better protect scientific discoveries with a potential economic/social impact and prevent their misuse by ill-intentioned people without affecting the progress of science through fundamental research. French legal regulations concerning scientific discoveries have progressively strengthened since 2001, until the publication in November 2011 of a decree concerning the "PPST" (for "Protection du Potentiel Scientifique et Technique de la nation", the protection of sensitive scientific data). Following the same logic of protection of sensitive scientific researches, regulations were also adopted in an order published in April 2012 concerning the biology and health field. The aim was to define the legal framework that precise the conditions for authorizing

  16. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  17. Nitrogen utilization pathways of soil microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinggera, J.; Geisseler, D.; Merbach, I.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. In terrestrial ecosystems N occurs predominantly in the form of organic matter. Here, soil microorganisms can use two possible mechanisms for the uptake of organic N: the direct route and the mobilization-immobilization-turnover (MIT) route. In the direct route simple organic molecules are taken up directly into the cell. The deamination occurs inside the cell and only the surplus N is released into the soil solution. In the second route, the deamination occurs outside the cell and all N is mineralized before assimilation. To determine the importance of the different N uptake pathways of soil microorganisms an incubation experiment (21 days, 20°C) is currently being carried out. Corn leaves with different C to N ratios (20, 40) and (NH4)2SO4 have been added to three soils (Haplic Chernozem, FAO) with different fertilization histories (300dt/ha farmyard manure every second year, mineral NPK fertilizer, no fertilization) from the long-term experiment at Bad Lauchstädt. Contents of NH4+, NO3- and microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic), CO2 production, potential protease activity, gross N mineralization and mineralization of added amino acids will be determined after 3, 7 and 21 days. Preliminary results show that the protease activity (without addition of corn residues) decreased in the order manure-fertilized soil (18.26 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > Soil with mineral NPK fertilizer (17.45 mg tyrosine kg-1 soil h-1) > unfertilized soil (11.34 mg tyrosine kg-1 oven dry soil h-1). The turnover of amino acids after 24h was higher for the manure-fertilized soil (99.5% of the added amino acids were consumed) than for the NPK- fertilized and unfertilized soils (76%). The effects of the fertilization histories on the temporal dynamics of the different biological properties (Cmic, Nmic), CO2 production, protease activity and N mineralization rates will be presented.

  18. Behavior of pollutant-degrading microorganisms in aquifers: Predictions for genetically engineered organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krumme, M.L.; Smith, R.L.; Egestorff, J.; Thiem, S.M.; Tiedje, J.M.; Timmis, K.N.; Dwyer, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    Bioremediation via environmental introductions of degradative microorganisms requires that the microbes survive in substantial numbers and effect an increase in the rate and extent of pollutant removal. Combined field and microcosm studies were used to assess these abilities for laboratory-grown bacteria. Following introduction into a contaminated aquifer, viable cells of Pseudomonas sp. B13 were present in the contaminant plume for 447 days; die-off was rapid in pristine areas. In aquifer microcosms, survival of B13 and FR120, a genetically engineered derivative of B13 having enhanced catabolic capabilities for substituted aromatics, was comparable to B13 field results; both bacteria degraded target pollutants in microcosms made with aquifer samples from the aerobic zone of the pollutant plume. Results suggest that field studies with nonrecombinant microorganisms may be coupled to laboratory studies with derivative strains to estimate their bioremediative efficacy. Furthermore, laboratory strains of bacteria can survive for extended periods of time in nature and thus may have important bioremediative applications. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  19. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.

    PubMed

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change.

  20. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  1. Rapid Identification of Micro-Organisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-26

    laboratory microbiology usually base definitive identification of organisms upon growth characteristics in culture, noviable bacteria in samples are excluded...permeant cationic fluorescent dyes as probes for flow cytometry of NP in eukaryotic cells and bacteria, including cyanine , rhodamLne, safranin, and...substrates substrates substrates MDBRAME oxacya- oxacarbo- indocar- thiacar- styryl, indb-& POTENTIAL nines cyanines bocya- bocya- dyes thiadi- .1nines

  2. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  3. Career research opportunities for the medical laboratory scientist.

    PubMed

    McGlasson, David L

    2011-01-01

    Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) typically practice in hospital laboratories; however there are multiple alternatives in research. This article details the advantages of working in a variety of research laboratory settings. These include public institutions, federal laboratory workplaces, private facilities, and industry settings. A view of the different research laboratory settings such as public institutions, federal laboratory workplaces, private facilities, and industry settings will be provided. An assessment on how MLS professionals can prepare for a career in research is outlined and the report concludes with a brief summary of the various aspects of the research setting.

  4. Genome-based microorganism classification using coalition formulation game.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung Chang; Han, Gyu-Bum; Cho, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Genome-based microorganism classification is the one of interesting issues in microorganism taxonomy. However, the advance in sequencing technology requires a low-complex algorithm to process a great amount of bio sequence data. In this paper, we suggest a coalition formation game for microorganism classification, which can be implemented in distributed manner. We extract word frequency feature from microorganism sequences and formulate the coalition game model that considers the distance among word frequency features. Then, we propose a coalition formation algorithm for clustering microorganisms with feature similarity. The performance of proposed algorithm is compared with that of conventional schemes by means of an experiment. According to the result, we showed that the correctness of proposed distributed algorithm is similar to that of conventional centralized schemes.

  5. Polyhydroxybutyrate: plastic made and degraded by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hankermeyer, C R; Tjeerdema, R S

    1999-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) offers many advantages over traditional petrochemically derived plastics. In addition to its complete biodegradability, PHB is formed from renewable resources. It possesses better physical properties than polypropylene for food packaging applications and is completely nontoxic. The poor low-impact strength of PHB is solved by incorporation of hydroxyvalerate monomers into the polymer to produce polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV), which is commercially marketed under the trade name Biopol. Like PHB, PHBV completely degrades into carbon dioxide and water under aerobic conditions. Microbial synthesis of PHB is the best method for industrial production because it ensures the proper stereochemistry for biodegradation. Microorganisms synthesize and store PHB under nutrient-limited conditions and degrade and metabolize it when the limitation is removed. Current production employs Alcaligenes eutrophus because it grows efficiently on glucose as a carbon source, accumulates PHB up to 80% of its dry weight, and is able to synthesize PHBV when propionic acid is added to the feedstock. PHBV is currently 16 times the price of polypropylene. However, the development of transgenic PHA-producing organisms is expected to greatly reduce its cost. Benefits of using transgenic systems include lack of a depolymerase system, ability to use faster-growing organisms, production of highly purified polymers, and ability to utilize inexpensive carbon sources. Because transgenic plants may someday result in the evolution of plastic crops that could lower the price of PHA to a competitive level, future research will surely focus on such recombinant DNA techniques.

  6. Snow as a habitat for microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoham, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    There are three major habitats involving ice and snow, and the microorganisms studied from these habitats are most eukaryotic. Sea ice is inhabited by algae called diatoms, glacial ice has sparse populations of green algai cal desmids, and the temporary and permanent snows in mountainous regions and high latitudes are inhabited mostly by green algal flagellates. The life cycle of green algal flagellates is summarized by discussing the effects of light, temperature, nutrients, and snow melts. Specific examples of optimal conditions and environmental effects for various snow algae are given. It is not likely that the eukaryotic snow algae presented are candidated for life on the planet Mars. Evolutionally, eukaryotic cells as know on Earth may not have had the opportunity to develop on Mars (if life evolved at all on Mars) since eukaryotes did not appear on Earth until almost two billion years after the first prokaryotic organisms. However, the snow/ice ecosystems on Earth present themselves as extreme habitats were there is evidence of prokaryotic life (eubacteria and cyanbacteria) of which literally nothing is known. Any future surveillances of extant and/or extinct life on Mars should include probes (if not landing sites) to investigate sites of concentrations of ice water. The possibility of signs of life in Martian polar regions should not be overlooked.

  7. Rapidly evolving microorganisms with high biofuel tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyawahare, Saurabh; Zhang, Qiucen; Lang, Wendy; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Replacing non-renewable energy sources is one of the biggest and most exciting challenges of our generation. Algae and bacteria are poised to become major renewable biofuels if strains can be developed that provide a high,consistent and robust yield of oil. One major stumbling block towards this goal is the lack of tolerance to high concentrations of biofuels like isobutanol. Using traditional bioengineering techniques to remedy this face the hurdle of identifying the correct pathway or gene to modify. But the multiplicity of interactions inside a cell makes it very hard to determine what to modify a priori. Instead, we propose a technology that does not require prior knowledge of the genes or pathways to modify. In our approach that marries microfabrication and ecology, spatial heterogeneity is used as a knob to speed up evolution in the desired direction. Recently, we have successfully used this approach to demonstrate the rapid emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance in as little as ten hours. Here, we describe our experimental results in developing new strains of micro-organisms with high oil tolerance. Besides biofuel production, our work is also relevant to oil spill clean-ups.

  8. Evaluation of actinide biosorption by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Happel, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional methods for removing metals from aqueous solutions include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment and evaporation. The removal of radionuclides from aqueous waste streams has largely relied on ion exchange methods which can be prohibitively costly given increasingly stringent regulatory effluent limits. The use of microbial cells as biosorbants for heavy metals offers a potential alternative to existing methods for decontamination or recovery of heavy metals from a variety of industrial waste streams and contaminated ground waters. The toxicity and the extreme and variable conditions present in many radionuclide containing waste streams may preclude the use of living microorganisms and favor the use of non-living biomass for the removal of actinides from these waste streams. In the work presented here, we have examined the biosorption of uranium by non-living, non-metabolizing microbial biomass thus avoiding the problems associated with living systems. We are investigating biosorption with the long term goal of developing microbial technologies for the remediation of actinides.

  9. Effectiveness of ozone against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Huth, Karin C; Quirling, Martina; Lenzke, Stefanie; Paschos, Ekaterini; Kamereck, Klaus; Brand, Korbinian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2011-06-01

    Ozone has been proposed as an adjunct antiseptic in periodontitis therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of gaseous/aqueous ozone, in comparison with that of the established antiseptic chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), against periodontal microorganisms. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Parvimonas micra in planktonic or biofilm cultures were exposed, for 1 min, to gaseous ozone, aqueous ozone, CHX, or phosphate-buffered saline (control). None of the agents was able to substantially reduce the A. actinomycetemcomitans count in biofilm cultures. In contrast, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. micra could be eliminated by 2% CHX or by ozone gas at 53 gm(-3) . Significantly greater antimicrobial effects were observed against planktonic cultures than against biofilm-associated bacteria. The rate of killing was influenced by the species of bacteria, and by the type and concentration of agent. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of aqueous ozone (20 μg ml(-1) ) or gaseous ozone (≥ 4 gm(-3) ) compared with 2% CHX but they were more effective than 0.2% CHX. Therefore, high-concentrated gaseous and aqueous ozone merit further investigation as antiseptics in periodontitis therapy. A safe system for applying gaseous ozone into the periodontal pocket that avoids inhalation still needs to be developed.

  10. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W. ); Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA )

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  11. Autonomous support for microorganism research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleet, Mary L.; Miller, Mark S.; Shipley, Derek, E.; Smith, Jeff D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The payload is designed to be compatible with the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) launch vehicle, an orbiter middeck locker interface, and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with in-flight reprogrammability. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pH, light, gravity levels, vibrations, and radiation are provided for environmental regulation and experimental data collection. Additional experimental data acquisition includes optical density measurement, microscopy, video, and film photography. On-board full data storage capabilities are provided. A fluid transfer mechanism is utilized for inoculation, sampling, and nutrient replenishment of experiment cultures. In addition to payload design, representative experiments were developed to ensure scientific objectives remained compatible with hardware capabilities. The project is defined to provide biological data pertinent to extended duration crewed space flight including crew health issues and development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). In addition, opportunities are opened for investigations leading to commercial applications of space, such as pharmaceutical development, modeling of terrestrial diseases, and material processing.

  12. Autonomous support for microorganism research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, M. W.; Klaus, D. M.; Fleet, M. L.; Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.; Smith, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design for performing on-orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The payload is designed to be compatible with the COMmercial Experiment Transported (COMET) launch vehicle, an orbiter middeck locker interface, and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with inflight reprogrammability. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pH, light, gravity levels, vibration, and radiation are provided for environmental regulation and experimental data collection. Additional experiment data acquisition includes optical density measurement, microscopy, video, and file photography. Onboard full data storage capabilities are provided. A fluid transfer mechanism is utilized for inoculation, sampling, and nutrient replenishment of experiment cultures. In addition to payload design, representative experiments were developed to ensure scientific objectives remained compatible with hardware capabilities. The project is defined to provide biological data pertinent to extended duration crewed space flight including crew health issues and development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). In addition, opportunities are opened for investigations leading to commercial applications of space, such as pharmaceutical development, modeling of terrestrial diseases, and material processing.

  13. Pumice slurry as a crossinfection hazard in nonclinical (teaching) dental technology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verran, J; Winder, C; McCord, J F; Maryan, C J

    1997-01-01

    This research sought to compare the microbiological status of pumice slurry in clinical and nonclinical dental laboratories. Samples were inoculated onto selective and nonselective media. Resultant colonies were counted and identified to genus or species level. In the nonclinical laboratory, counts were constant at approximately 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g. Pseudomonads, staphylococci and Bacillus spp comprised the major pumice contaminants in both laboratories. It was concluded that nonclinical laboratories are not immune from the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in pumice slurry. Disinfection reduces contamination by oral microorganisms.

  14. [Progress of environmental monitoring and biological containment system on genetically engineered microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wu, Yijun

    2008-03-01

    With the development of biological technology, many genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for special purposes have been constructed and developed, but their practical applications in the field are still limited because GEMs may cause new environmental contaminations. To minimize the potential risks, the organisms released to environment need to be monitored and restricted for their distribution. In the laboratory conditions, the GEMs can be wiped off when required using some new biological technologies. The recent progress of research on the monitoring methods and active biological containment system for GEMs were reviewed in this paper.

  15. The production of coenzyme Q10 in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cluis, Corinne P; Pinel, Dominic; Martin, Vincent J

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 has emerged as a valuable molecule for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Therefore, research into producing and optimizing coenzyme Q10 via microbial fermentation is ongoing. There are two major paths being explored for maximizing production of this molecule to commercially advantageous levels. The first entails using microbes that naturally produce coenzyme Q10 as fermentation biocatalysts and optimizing the fermentation parameters in order to reach industrial levels of production. However, the natural coenzyme Q10-producing microbes tend to be intractable for industrial fermentation settings. The second path to coenzyme Q10 production being explored is to engineer Escherichia coli with the ability to biosynthesize this molecule in order to take advantage of its more favourable fermentation characteristics and the well-understood array of genetic tools available for this bacteria. Although many studies have attempted to over-produce coenzyme Q10 in E. coli through genetic engineering, production titres still remain below those of the natural coenzyme Q10-producing microorganisms. Current research is providing the knowledge needed to alleviate the bottlenecks involved in producing coenzyme Q10 from an E. coli strain platform and the fermentation parameters that could dramatically increase production titres from natural microbial producers. Synthesizing the lessons learned from both approaches may be the key towards a more cost-effective coenzyme Q10 industry.

  16. RNA polymerase gene, microorganism having said gene and the production of RNA polymerase by the use of said microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Kotani, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Nobutsugu; Obayashi, Akira

    1991-01-01

    SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase is produced by cultivating a new microorganism (particularly new strains of Escherichia coli) harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene and recovering SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase from the culture broth. SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene is provided as are new microorganisms harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene.

  17. A new ultrasonic high-throughput instrument for rapid DNA release from microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hohnadel, Marisa; Felden, Luc; Fijuljanin, Demir; Jouette, Sébastien; Chollet, Renaud

    2014-04-01

    Rapid detection methods for microbiological contamination are requested by many industries that respond to public health concerns. The control laboratories are replacing traditional culturing methods with faster assays based on nucleic acid amplification technologies, such as real-time PCR. However, an optimal nucleic acid sample preparation method is critical for the sensitivity and specificity of such tools. A high-throughput automated external ultrasonic device was developed for rapid lysing of microorganisms. Based on Ct values obtained from real-time PCR, there was efficient DNA release from the 16 microorganisms tested, including Gram positive and negative bacteria, bacterial spores, yeasts and spores of molds. Linearity of the lysis method was also demonstrated for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Candida albicans and the spores of Aspergillus brasiliensis, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) between 0.90 and 0.98. After sonication, PCR analysis of the lysates revealed earlier Ct values (0.83 to 7.49) for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. enterica compared to the bead-beating method of lysis. These results demonstrated more efficient DNA release from bacteria with the ultrasonication system. Nevertheless, for fungi, the Ct values were 0.94 to 1.61 later for sonication than for bead beating. This study demonstrates that 4min of sonication with this new automated high-throughput instrument allows for the efficient lysis of a large range of microorganisms.

  18. Optical and dielectric sensors based on antimicrobial peptides for microorganism diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael R; Avelino, Karen Y P S; Ribeiro, Kalline L; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Maria D L; Andrade, Cesar A S

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural compounds isolated from a wide variety of organisms that include microorganisms, insects, amphibians, plants, and humans. These biomolecules are considered as part of the innate immune system and are known as natural antibiotics, presenting a broad spectrum of activities against bacteria, fungi, and/or viruses. Technological innovations have enabled AMPs to be utilized for the development of novel biodetection devices. Advances in nanotechnology, such as the synthesis of nanocomposites, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have permitted the development of nanostructured platforms with biocompatibility and greater surface areas for the immobilization of biocomponents, arising as additional tools for obtaining more efficient biosensors. Diverse AMPs have been used as biological recognition elements for obtaining biosensors with more specificity and lower detection limits, whose analytical response can be evaluated through electrochemical impedance and fluorescence spectroscopies. AMP-based biosensors have shown potential for applications such as supplementary tools for conventional diagnosis methods of microorganisms. In this review, conventional methods for microorganism diagnosis as well new strategies using AMPs for the development of impedimetric and fluorescent biosensors are highlighted. AMP-based biosensors show promise as methods for diagnosing infections and bacterial contaminations as well as applications in quality control for clinical analyses and microbiological laboratories.

  19. Co-Cultivation—A Powerful Emerging Tool for Enhancing the Chemical Diversity of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Marmann, Andreas; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wenhan; Wang, Bingui; Proksch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived bacteria and fungi are promising sources of novel bioactive compounds that are important for drug discovery programs. However, as encountered in terrestrial microorganisms there is a high rate of redundancy that results in the frequent re-discovery of known compounds. Apparently only a part of the biosynthetic genes that are harbored by fungi and bacteria are transcribed under routine laboratory conditions which involve cultivation of axenic microbial strains. Many biosynthetic genes remain silent and are not expressed in vitro thereby seriously limiting the chemical diversity of microbial compounds that can be obtained through fermentation. In contrast to this, co-cultivation (also called mixed fermentation) of two or more different microorganisms tries to mimic the ecological situation where microorganisms always co-exist within complex microbial communities. The competition or antagonism experienced during co-cultivation is shown to lead to a significantly enhanced production of constitutively present compounds and/or to an accumulation of cryptic compounds that are not detected in axenic cultures of the producing strain. This review highlights the power of co-cultivation for increasing the chemical diversity of bacteria and fungi drawing on published studies from the marine and from the terrestrial habitat alike. PMID:24549204

  20. Optical and dielectric sensors based on antimicrobial peptides for microorganism diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael R.; Avelino, Karen Y. P. S.; Ribeiro, Kalline L.; Franco, Octavio L.; Oliveira, Maria D. L.; Andrade, Cesar A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural compounds isolated from a wide variety of organisms that include microorganisms, insects, amphibians, plants, and humans. These biomolecules are considered as part of the innate immune system and are known as natural antibiotics, presenting a broad spectrum of activities against bacteria, fungi, and/or viruses. Technological innovations have enabled AMPs to be utilized for the development of novel biodetection devices. Advances in nanotechnology, such as the synthesis of nanocomposites, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have permitted the development of nanostructured platforms with biocompatibility and greater surface areas for the immobilization of biocomponents, arising as additional tools for obtaining more efficient biosensors. Diverse AMPs have been used as biological recognition elements for obtaining biosensors with more specificity and lower detection limits, whose analytical response can be evaluated through electrochemical impedance and fluorescence spectroscopies. AMP-based biosensors have shown potential for applications such as supplementary tools for conventional diagnosis methods of microorganisms. In this review, conventional methods for microorganism diagnosis as well new strategies using AMPs for the development of impedimetric and fluorescent biosensors are highlighted. AMP-based biosensors show promise as methods for diagnosing infections and bacterial contaminations as well as applications in quality control for clinical analyses and microbiological laboratories. PMID:25191319

  1. Diversity and Transport of Microorganisms in Intertidal Sands of the California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Yamahara, Kevan M.; Sassoubre, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Forced by tides and waves, large volumes of seawater are flushed through the beach daily. Organic material and nutrients in seawater are remineralized and cycled as they pass through the beach. Microorganisms are responsible for most of the biogeochemical cycling in the beach; however, few studies have characterized their diversity in intertidal sands, and little work has characterized the extent to which microbes are transported between different compartments of the beach. The present study uses next-generation massively parallel sequencing to characterize the microbial community present at 49 beaches along the coast of California. In addition, we characterize the transport of microorganisms within intertidal sands using laboratory column experiments. We identified extensive diversity in the beach sands. Nearly 1,000 unique taxa were identified in sands from 10 or more unique beaches, suggesting the existence of a group of “cosmopolitan” sand microorganisms. A biogeographical analysis identified a taxon-distance relationship among the beaches. In addition, sands with similar grain size, organic carbon content, exposed to a similar wave climate, and having the same degree of anthropogenic influence tended to have similar microbial communities. Column experiments identified microbes readily mobilized by seawater infiltrating through unsaturated intertidal sands. The ease with which microbes were mobilized suggests that intertidal sands may represent a reservoir of bacteria that seed the beach aquifer where they may partake in biogeochemical cycling. PMID:24747906

  2. Isolation of porphyran-degrading marine microorganisms from the surface of red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Sumi, Toshihisa; Yoshiki, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Yumi; Abe, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Shiduo; Sanematsu, Seigo; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    Marine microorganisms degrading porphyran (POR) were found on the surface of thalli of Porphyra yezoensis. Fifteen crude microorganism groups softened and liquefied the surface of agar-rich plate medium. Among these, 11 microorganism groups degraded porphyran that consisted of sulfated polysaccharide in Porphyra yezoensis. Following isolation, 7 POR-degradable microorganisms were isolated from the 11 POR-degradable microorganism groups.

  3. Screening of microorganisms from Antarctic surface water and cytotoxicity metabolites from Antarctic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanhong; Yang, Kangli; Liu, Jia; Sun, Mi; Zhu, Jiancheng; Lv, Mei; Kang, Daole; Wang, Wei; Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The Antarctic is a potentially important library of microbial resources and new bioactive substances. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from surface water samples collected from different sites of the Antarctic. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay-based cytotoxicity-tracking method was used to identify Antarctic marine microorganism resources for antitumor lead compounds. The results showed that a total of 129 Antarctic microorganism strains were isolated. Twelve strains showed potent cytotoxic activities, among which a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as N11-8 was further studied. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that N11-8 belongs to the genus Bacillus. Fermented active products of N11-8 with molecular weights of 1-30 kDa had higher inhibitory effects on different cancaer cells, such as BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, U251 human glioma cells, RKO human colon carcinoma cells, A549 human lung carcinoma cells, and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. However, they displayed lower cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. However, they displayed lower cytotoxicity against HFL1 human normal fibroblast lung cells. Microscopic observations showed that the fermented active products have inhibitory activity on BEL-7402 cells similar to that of mitomycin C. Further studies indicated that the fermented active products have high pH and high thermal stability. In conclusion, most strains isolated in this study may be developed as promising sources for the discovery of antitumor bioactive substances. The fermented active products of Antarctic marine Bacillus sp. N11- 8 are expected to be applied in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  4. The Special Child: Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This laboratory manual was designed for use by students in postsecondary courses that prepare them to be child caregivers or directors. The workbook is especially useful for students in lecture-laboratory courses on mainstreaming children with special needs into regular child care settings. This manual, designed as a laboratory experience guide…

  5. AMT's Position on Physician's Office Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMT Events, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The following standards are affirmed by the American Medical Technologists organization: (1) regardless of the size of the laboratory setting, the patient deserves the highest quality of laboratory service available; (2) certified personnel should be employed by physicians in office laboratories; (3) quality control should be mandatory and…

  6. Modeling microorganism transport and survival in the subsurface.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Scott A; Wang, Yusong; Kim, Hyunjung; Torkzaban, Saeed; Šimůnek, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    An understanding of microbial transport and survival in the subsurface is needed for public health, environmental applications, and industrial processes. Much research has therefore been directed to quantify mechanisms influencing microbial fate, and the results demonstrate a complex coupling among many physical, chemical, and biological factors. Mathematical models can be used to help understand and predict the complexities of microbial transport and survival in the subsurface under given assumptions and conditions. This review highlights existing model formulations that can be used for this purpose. In particular, we discuss models based on the advection-dispersion equation, with terms for kinetic retention to solid-water and/or air-water interfaces; blocking and ripening; release that is dependent on the resident time, diffusion, and transients in solution chemistry, water velocity, and water saturation; and microbial decay (first-order and Weibull) and growth (logistic and Monod) that is dependent on temperature, nutrient concentration, and/or microbial concentration. We highlight a two-region model to account for microbe migration in the vicinity of a solid phase and use it to simulate the coupled transport and survival of species under a variety of environmentally relevant scenarios. This review identifies challenges and limitations of models to describe and predict microbial transport and survival. In particular, many model parameters have to be optimized to simulate a diversity of observed transport, retention, and survival behavior at the laboratory scale. Improved theory and models are needed to predict the fate of microorganisms in natural subsurface systems that are highly dynamic and heterogeneous.

  7. Impedance microflow cytometry for viability studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Berardino, Marco; Hebeisen, Monika; Hessler, Thomas; Ziswiler, Adrian; Largiadèr, Stephanie; Schade, Grit

    2011-02-01

    Impedance-based Coulter counters and its derivatives are widely used cell analysis tools in many laboratories and use normally DC or low frequency AC to perform these electrical analyses. The emergence of micro-fabrication technologies in the last decade, however, provides a new means of measuring electrical properties of cells. Microfluidic approaches combined with impedance spectroscopy measurements in the radio frequency (RF) range increase sensitivity and information content and thus push single cell analyses beyond simple cell counting and sizing applications towards multiparametric cell characterization. Promising results have been shown already in the fields of cell differentiation and blood analysis. Here we emphasize the potential of this technology by presenting new data obtained from viability studies on microorganisms. Impedance measurements of several yeast and bacteria strains performed at frequencies around 10 MHz enable an easy discrimination between dead and viable cells. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of antibiotics and other reagents, as well as cell starvation can also be monitored easily. Control analyses performed with conventional flow cytometers using various fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide, oxonol) indicate a good correlation and further highlight the capability of this device. The label-free approach makes on the one hand the use of usually expensive fluorochromes obsolete, on the other hand practically eliminates laborious sample preparation procedures. Until now, online cell monitoring was limited to the determination of viable biomass, which provides rather poor information of a cell culture. Impedance microflow cytometry, besides other aspects, proposes a simple solution to these limitations and might become an important tool for bioprocess monitoring applications in the biotech industry.

  8. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors.

  9. Biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Theresa M; Seech, Alan G; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T

    2005-08-01

    The organochlorine pesticide Lindane is the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Technical grade Lindane contains a mixture of HCH isomers which include not only gamma-HCH, but also large amounts of predominantly alpha-, beta- and delta-HCH. The physical properties and persistence of each isomer differ because of the different chlorine atom orientations on each molecule (axial or equatorial). However, all four isomers are considered toxic and recalcitrant worldwide pollutants. Biodegradation of HCH has been studied in soil, slurry and culture media but very little information exists on in situ bioremediation of the different isomers including Lindane itself, at full scale. Several soil microorganisms capable of degrading, and utilizing HCH as a carbon source, have been reported. In selected bacterial strains, the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the initial degradation of Lindane have been cloned, sequenced, expressed and the gene products characterized. HCH is biodegradable under both oxic and anoxic conditions, although mineralization is generally observed only in oxic systems. As is found for most organic compounds, HCH degradation in soil occurs at moderate temperatures and at near neutral pH. HCH biodegradation in soil has been reported at both low and high (saturated) moisture contents. Soil texture and organic matter appear to influence degradation presumably by sorption mechanisms and impact on moisture retention, bacterial growth and pH. Most studies report on the biodegradation of relatively low (< 500 mg/kg) concentrations of HCH in soil. Information on the effects of inorganic nutrients, organic carbon sources or other soil amendments is scattered and inconclusive. More in-depth assessments of amendment effects and evaluation of bioremediation protocols, on a large scale, using soil with high HCH concentrations, are needed.

  10. Nitrogen acquisition by plants and microorganisms in a temperate grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qianyuan; Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Han, Jessie Yc; Tian, Yuqiang; Ouyang, Hua; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is common in most terrestrial ecosystems, often leading to strong competition between microorganisms and plants. The mechanisms of niche differentiation to reduce this competition remain unclear. Short-term 15N experiments with NH4+, NO3‑, and glycine were conducted in July, August and September in a temperate grassland to evaluate the chemical, spatial and temporal niche differentiation by competition between plants and microorganisms for N. Microorganisms preferred NH4+ and NO3‑, while plants preferred NO3‑. Both plants and microorganisms acquired more N in August and September than in July. The soil depth had no significant effects on microbial uptake, but significantly affected plant N uptake. Plants acquired 67% of their N from the 0–5 cm soil layer and 33% from the 5–15 cm layer. The amount of N taken up by microorganisms was at least seven times than plants. Although microorganisms efficiently compete for N with plants, the competition is alleviated through chemical partitioning mainly in deeper soil layer. In the upper soil layer, neither chemical nor temporal niche separation is realized leading to strong competition between plants and microorganisms that modifies N dynamics in grasslands.

  11. Nitrogen acquisition by plants and microorganisms in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianyuan; Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Han, Jessie Yc; Tian, Yuqiang; Ouyang, Hua; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-03-10

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is common in most terrestrial ecosystems, often leading to strong competition between microorganisms and plants. The mechanisms of niche differentiation to reduce this competition remain unclear. Short-term (15)N experiments with NH4(+), NO3(-), and glycine were conducted in July, August and September in a temperate grassland to evaluate the chemical, spatial and temporal niche differentiation by competition between plants and microorganisms for N. Microorganisms preferred NH4(+) and NO3(-), while plants preferred NO3(-). Both plants and microorganisms acquired more N in August and September than in July. The soil depth had no significant effects on microbial uptake, but significantly affected plant N uptake. Plants acquired 67% of their N from the 0-5 cm soil layer and 33% from the 5-15 cm layer. The amount of N taken up by microorganisms was at least seven times than plants. Although microorganisms efficiently compete for N with plants, the competition is alleviated through chemical partitioning mainly in deeper soil layer. In the upper soil layer, neither chemical nor temporal niche separation is realized leading to strong competition between plants and microorganisms that modifies N dynamics in grasslands.

  12. Nitrogen acquisition by plants and microorganisms in a temperate grassland

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianyuan; Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Han, Jessie Yc; Tian, Yuqiang; Ouyang, Hua; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is common in most terrestrial ecosystems, often leading to strong competition between microorganisms and plants. The mechanisms of niche differentiation to reduce this competition remain unclear. Short-term 15N experiments with NH4+, NO3−, and glycine were conducted in July, August and September in a temperate grassland to evaluate the chemical, spatial and temporal niche differentiation by competition between plants and microorganisms for N. Microorganisms preferred NH4+ and NO3−, while plants preferred NO3−. Both plants and microorganisms acquired more N in August and September than in July. The soil depth had no significant effects on microbial uptake, but significantly affected plant N uptake. Plants acquired 67% of their N from the 0–5 cm soil layer and 33% from the 5–15 cm layer. The amount of N taken up by microorganisms was at least seven times than plants. Although microorganisms efficiently compete for N with plants, the competition is alleviated through chemical partitioning mainly in deeper soil layer. In the upper soil layer, neither chemical nor temporal niche separation is realized leading to strong competition between plants and microorganisms that modifies N dynamics in grasslands. PMID:26961252

  13. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  14. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation.

  15. Soil microorganisms determine the sorption of radionuclides within organic soil systems.

    PubMed

    Parekh, N R; Poskitt, J M; Dodd, B A; Potter, E D; Sanchez, A

    2008-05-01

    The potential of soil microorganisms to enhance the retention of (137)Cs and (85)Sr in organic systems was assessed in a series of experiments. A biologically active, 'mineral-free', organic material, produced under laboratory conditions from leaves, was used as the uptake matrix in all experiments to minimise potential interference from competing clay minerals. Biological uptake and release were differentiated from abiotic processes by comparing the sorption of radionuclides in sterilised organic material with sterile material inoculated with soil extracts or single fungal strains. Our results show conclusively that living components of soil systems are of primary importance in the uptake of radionuclides in organic material. The presence of soil microorganisms significantly enhanced the retention of Cs in organic systems and approximately 70% of the Cs spike was strongly (irreversibly) bound (remained non-extractable) in the presence of microorganisms compared to only approximately 10% in abiotic systems. Sorption of (85)Sr was not significantly influenced by the presence of soil microorganisms. A non-linear temperature response was observed for the retention in biotic systems with increased uptake at between 10 and 30 degrees C and lower retention at temperatures above or below the optimum range. The optimum temperatures for biological uptake were between 15 and 20 degrees C for Cs, and 25 and 30 degrees C for Sr. Our results indicate that single strains of soil and saprotrophic fungi make an important contribution to the sorption of Cs and Sr in organic systems, but can only account for part of the strong, irreversible binding observed in biotic systems. Single strains of soil fungi increased the amount of non-extractable (137)Cs (by approximately 30%) and (85)Sr (by approximately 20%) in the organic systems as compared to abiotic systems, but the major fraction of (137)Cs and (85)Sr sorbed in systems inoculated with saprotrophic fungi remained extractable.

  16. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  17. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  18. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  19. Vectors and Fomites: An Investigative Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamo, Joseph A.; Gealt, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a laboratory model system for introductory microbiology students that involves hands-on studies of bacteria vectored in soil nematodes. Describes a series of experiments designed to demonstrate vector-fomite transmission, bacterial survival, and disinfectant activity. Introduces the concept of genetically engineered microorganisms and the…

  20. Restructuring a General Microbiology Laboratory into an Investigative Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigative laboratory sequence based upon the isolation and characterization of soil bacteria to aid microbiology teachers in providing students with activities that expose them to basic techniques of microbiology as well as demonstrates the scientific process and the experimental analysis of microorganisms. (ZWH)

  1. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  2. Industrially useful microorganisms isolated from deep underground science and engineering laboratory (DUSEL) mine biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry in the United States has come of age as a result of the effort to remove the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline. Replacement of this oxygenate in the U.S. has led to the establishment of bioethanol as a major industry. To fully achieve the goal of ...

  3. Identification of microorganisms grown on chromogenic media by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Lüthje, Petra; Pranada, Arthur B; Carruthers-Lay, Duncan; Desjardins, Marc; Gaillot, Olivier; Wareham, David; Ciesielczuk, Holly; Özenci, Volkan

    2017-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and chromogenic media are widely used in clinical microbiology laboratories to facilitate the rapid selection and identification of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether usage of chromogenic media limits the diagnostic performance of MALDI-TOF MS for microbial identification. A total of 386 microorganisms collected and analyzed at five laboratories were included. Isolates were cultured on relevant chromogenic media and non-selective agar plates in parallel and identified using the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS. Among the tested isolates, no misidentification was recorded and there was no medium-related difference in the identification level. However, score values were overall slightly but significantly lower for isolates grown on chromogenic media. In conclusion, the use of chromogenic culture media tested here had no relevant impact on MALDI-TOF MS performance for diagnostic purposes.

  4. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  5. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  6. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  7. Metabolite induction via microorganism co-culture: a potential way to enhance chemical diversity for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Samuel; Bohni, Nadine; Schnee, Sylvain; Schumpp, Olivier; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-11-01

    Microorganisms have a long track record as important sources of novel bioactive natural products, particularly in the field of drug discovery. While microbes have been shown to biosynthesize a wide array of molecules, recent advances in genome sequencing have revealed that such organisms have the potential to yield even more structurally diverse secondary metabolites. Thus, many microbial gene clusters may be silent under standard laboratory growth conditions. In the last ten years, several methods have been developed to aid in the activation of these cryptic biosynthetic pathways. In addition to the techniques that demand prior knowledge of the genome sequences of the studied microorganisms, several genome sequence-independent tools have been developed. One of these approaches is microorganism co-culture, involving the cultivation of two or more microorganisms in the same confined environment. Microorganism co-culture is inspired by the natural microbe communities that are omnipresent in nature. Within these communities, microbes interact through signaling or defense molecules. Such compounds, produced dynamically, are of potential interest as new leads for drug discovery. Microorganism co-culture can be achieved in either solid or liquid media and has recently been used increasingly extensively to study natural interactions and discover new bioactive metabolites. Because of the complexity of microbial extracts, advanced analytical methods (e.g., mass spectrometry methods and metabolomics) are key for the successful detection and identification of co-culture-induced metabolites. This review focuses on co-culture studies that aim to increase the diversity of metabolites obtained from microbes. The various strategies are summarized with a special emphasis on the multiple methods of performing co-culture experiments. The analytical approaches for studying these interaction phenomena are discussed, and the chemical diversity and biological activity observed among the

  8. Abundance, diversity, and dynamics of viruses on microorganisms in activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Otawa, Kenichi; Lee, Sang Hyon; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We examined the abundance of viruses on microorganisms in activated sludge and the dynamics of their community structure. Direct counting with epifluorescence microscopy and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were applied to 20 samples from 14 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) treating municipal, industrial, or animal wastewater. Furthermore, to observe the dynamics of viral community structure over time, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was operated for 58 days. The concentrations of virus particles in the wwtps, as quantified by epifluorescence microscopy, ranged from 4.2 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(9) mL-1. PFGE, improved by the introduction of a higher concentration of Tris-EDTA buffer in the DNA extraction step, was successfully used to profile DNA viruses in the activated sludge. Most of the samples from different wwtps commonly had bands in the 40-70 kb range. In the monitoring of viral DNA size distribution in the laboratory-scale reactor, some bands were observed stably throughout the experimental period, some emerged during the operation, and others disappeared. Rapid emergence and disappearance of two intense bands within 6 days was observed. Our data suggest that viruses--especially those associated with microorganisms--are abundant and show dynamic behavior in activated sludge.

  9. From the Lab to the Farm: An Industrial Perspective of Plant Beneficial Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Parnell, J Jacob; Berka, Randy; Young, Hugh A; Sturino, Joseph M; Kang, Yaowei; Barnhart, D M; DiLeo, Matthew V

    2016-01-01

    Any successful strategy aimed at enhancing crop productivity with microbial products ultimately relies on the ability to scale at regional to global levels. Microorganisms that show promise in the lab may lack key characteristics for widespread adoption in sustainable and productive agricultural systems. This paper provides an overview of critical considerations involved with taking a strain from discovery to the farmer's field. In addition, we review some of the most effective microbial products on the market today, explore the reasons for their success and outline some of the major challenges involved in industrial production and commercialization of beneficial strains for widespread agricultural application. General processes associated with commercializing viable microbial products are discussed in two broad categories, biofertility inoculants and biocontrol products. Specifically, we address what farmers desire in potential microbial products, how mode of action informs decisions on product applications, the influence of variation in laboratory and field study data, challenges with scaling for mass production, and the importance of consistent efficacy, product stability and quality. In order to make a significant impact on global sustainable agriculture, the implementation of plant beneficial microorganisms will require a more seamless transition between laboratory and farm application. Early attention to the challenges presented here will improve the likelihood of developing effective microbial products to improve crop yields, decrease disease severity, and help to feed an increasingly hungry planet.

  10. From the Lab to the Farm: An Industrial Perspective of Plant Beneficial Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, J. Jacob; Berka, Randy; Young, Hugh A.; Sturino, Joseph M.; Kang, Yaowei; Barnhart, D. M.; DiLeo, Matthew V.

    2016-01-01

    Any successful strategy aimed at enhancing crop productivity with microbial products ultimately relies on the ability to scale at regional to global levels. Microorganisms that show promise in the lab may lack key characteristics for widespread adoption in sustainable and productive agricultural systems. This paper provides an overview of critical considerations involved with taking a strain from discovery to the farmer’s field. In addition, we review some of the most effective microbial products on the market today, explore the reasons for their success and outline some of the major challenges involved in industrial production and commercialization of beneficial strains for widespread agricultural application. General processes associated with commercializing viable microbial products are discussed in two broad categories, biofertility inoculants and biocontrol products. Specifically, we address what farmers desire in potential microbial products, how mode of action informs decisions on product applications, the influence of variation in laboratory and field study data, challenges with scaling for mass production, and the importance of consistent efficacy, product stability and quality. In order to make a significant impact on global sustainable agriculture, the implementation of plant beneficial microorganisms will require a more seamless transition between laboratory and farm application. Early attention to the challenges presented here will improve the likelihood of developing effective microbial products to improve crop yields, decrease disease severity, and help to feed an increasingly hungry planet. PMID:27540383

  11. Marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Nam, Seung Yun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-11-01

    The use of marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a relatively new field of research with considerable prospects. This method is eco-friendly, time saving, and inexpensive and can be easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. The increasing need to develop simple, nontoxic, clean, and environmentally safe production methods for nanoparticles and to decrease environmental impact, minimize waste, and increase energy productivity has become important in this field. Marine microorganisms are tiny organisms that live in marine ecosystems and account for >98% of biomass of the world's ocean. Marine microorganisms synthesize metallic nanoparticles either intracellularly or extracellularly. Marine microbially-produced metallic nanoparticles have received considerable attention in recent years because of their expected impact on various applications such as medicine, energy, electronic, and space industries. The present review discusses marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications.

  12. Multiorganismal Insects: Diversity and Function of Resident Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests. PMID:25341109

  13. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  14. Recovery of microorganisms from potentially lethal radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, Joseph; Lucht, Lisa; Blank, Greg

    1995-02-01

    Dose response curves for inactivation of microorganisms are central in the design of any process intending to use irradiation for the improvement of the microbiological quality of any treated materials, be it food or medical supplies. Under some conditions a fraction of irradiated microorganisms is able to recover from a potentially lethal dose. This recovery phenomenon must be considered in determining the efficacy of irradiation in microbial inactivation. In this work the recovery phenomenon was examined in eleven species of microorganisms. Variables examined included dose, radiation type, post-irradiation holding temperature, and nutritient medium used to culture the organism. Kinetics of damage repair and fixation were also examined. Results indicate that, for certain species of microorganisms, recovery can significantly lower the killing efficacy of irradiation.

  15. MICROORGANISMS IN BIOSOLIDS: ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPMENT, STANDARDIZATION, AND VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss pathogens of concern in biosolids, the analytical techniques used to evaluate microorganisms in biosolids, and to discuss standardization and validation of analytical protocols for microbes within such a complex matrix. Implicatio...

  16. Effective Dynamics of Microorganisms That Interact with Their Own Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, W. Till; Gelimson, Anatolij; Zhao, Kun; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. We explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behavior of individual microorganisms when diffusive spreading of the trail is negligible on the time scale of the microorganism using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle and a finite-width trail. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a stochastic integral equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. For a moderate coupling strength below an emergent critical value, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position after a phase of superdiffusive reorientation. We report experimental verification of a seemingly counterintuitive perpendicular alignment mechanism that emerges from the model.

  17. Microorganisms meet solid minerals: interactions and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daphne H P; Kumar, Amit; Cao, Bin

    2016-08-01

    In natural and engineered environments, microorganisms often co-exist and interact with various minerals or mineral-containing solids. Microorganism-mineral interactions contribute significantly to environmental processes, including biogeochemical cycles in natural ecosystems and biodeterioration of materials in engineered environments. In this mini-review, we provide a summary of several key mechanisms involved in microorganism-mineral interactions, including the following: (i) solid minerals serve as substrata for biofilm development; (ii) solid minerals serve as an electron source or sink for microbial respiration; (iii) solid minerals provide microorganisms with macro or micronutrients for cell growth; and (iv) (semi)conductive solid minerals serve as extracellular electron conduits facilitating cell-to-cell interactions. We also highlight recent developments in harnessing microbe-mineral interactions for biotechnological applications.

  18. Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Angela E

    2015-01-07

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests.

  19. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  20. Establishing Drug Resistance in Microorganisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Hagan, Nathan S.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method to determine drug resistance in bacteria based on mass spectrometry is presented. In it, a mass spectrum of an intact microorganism grown in drug-containing stable isotope-labeled media is compared with a mass spectrum of the intact microorganism grown in non-labeled media without the drug present. Drug resistance is determined by predicting characteristic mass shifts of one or more microorganism biomarkers using bioinformatics algorithms. Observing such characteristic mass shifts indicates that the microorganism is viable even in the presence of the drug, thus incorporating the isotopic label into characteristic biomarker molecules. The performance of the method is illustrated on the example of intact E. coli, grown in control (unlabeled) and 13C-labeled media, and analyzed by MALDI TOF MS. Algorithms for data analysis are presented as well.

  1. Establishing drug resistance in microorganisms by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Demirev, Plamen A; Hagan, Nathan S; Antoine, Miquel D; Lin, Jeffrey S; Feldman, Andrew B

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method to determine drug resistance in bacteria based on mass spectrometry is presented. In it, a mass spectrum of an intact microorganism grown in drug-containing stable isotope-labeled media is compared with a mass spectrum of the intact microorganism grown in non-labeled media without the drug present. Drug resistance is determined by predicting characteristic mass shifts of one or more microorganism biomarkers using bioinformatics algorithms. Observing such characteristic mass shifts indicates that the microorganism is viable even in the presence of the drug, thus incorporating the isotopic label into characteristic biomarker molecules. The performance of the method is illustrated on the example of intact E. coli, grown in control (unlabeled) and (13)C-labeled media, and analyzed by MALDI TOF MS. Algorithms for data analysis are presented as well.

  2. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Malusá, E.; Sas-Paszt, L.; Ciesielska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield. PMID:22547984

  3. How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into

  4. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  5. Marine Microorganisms: perspectives for getting involved in cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Intriago, Pablo

    2012-08-29

    The production of ethanol has been considered as an alternative to replace part of the petroleum derivate. Brazil and the US are the leading producers, but more environmentally friendly alternatives are needed. Lignocellulose has an enormous potential but technology has to be still improve in order to economically produce ethanol. The present paper reviews the potential and problems of this technology and proposes the study of a group of microorganisms with the largest genetic pool, marine microorganism.

  6. Rotary Apparatus Concentrates And Separates Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus concentrates and separates swimming micro-organisms of different species into concentric rings in fluid. Fluid containing high concentration of desired species removed by use of small scoop placed into fluid at radius of one of rings formed by that species. Micro-organisms concentrated into concentric rings by combined dynamic effects of upward and horizontal components of swimming, rotation of dish, gravitation, and viscosity.

  7. Marine Microorganisms: perspectives for getting involved in cellulosic ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol has been considered as an alternative to replace part of the petroleum derivate. Brazil and the US are the leading producers, but more environmentally friendly alternatives are needed. Lignocellulose has an enormous potential but technology has to be still improve in order to economically produce ethanol. The present paper reviews the potential and problems of this technology and proposes the study of a group of microorganisms with the largest genetic pool, marine microorganism. PMID:22931793

  8. Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

    2014-07-29

    The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  9. New therapeutic approaches by using microorganism-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Amedei, A; D'Elios, M M

    2012-01-01

    The role of natural products as a source for remedies has been recognized since ancient times. Despite major scientific and technological progress in combinatorial chemistry, drugs derived from natural product still make an enormous contribution to drug discovery today. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic candidate compounds since a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, marine organisms and microorganisms. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi have been invaluable to discover drugs and lead compounds. These microorganisms produce a large variety of antimicrobial agents which have evolved to give their hosts an advantage over their competitors in the microbiological world. The screening of microorganisms became highly popular after the discovery of penicillin but in recent years the list of antibacterial agents (bacteria- or fungi-derived) has increased considerably with the arrival of cephalosporins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, rifamycins, and chloramphenicol. Although most of the drugs derived from microorganisms are used in antibacterial therapy, some microbial metabolites have provided lead compounds in other fields of medicine. For example: the fungal metabolite lovastatin, which was the lead compound for a series of drugs that lower cholesterol levels, the ciclosporin (fungal metabolite) currently used to suppress the immune response after transplantation operations and sirolimus- a bacterium-derived macrolide- used in the treatment of some cancers. The aim of this review is to analyze the current uses and the future applications in therapeutic treatments of microorganism-derived products (MdPs) and discuss the results obtained in the some clinical trials.

  10. Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

    2008-12-01

    Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

  11. Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of pollutants with bioluminescent microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; González-Pleiter, Miguel; Angeles Muñoz-Martín, M

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with the use of bioluminescent microorganisms in environmental monitoring, particularly in the assessment of the ecotoxicity of pollutants. Toxicity bioassays based on bioluminescent microorganisms are an interesting complement to classical toxicity assays, providing easiness of use, rapid response, mass production, and cost effectiveness. A description of the characteristics and main environmental applications in ecotoxicity testing of naturally bioluminescent microorganisms, covering bacteria and eukaryotes such as fungi and dinoglagellates, is reported in this chapter. The main features and applications of a wide variety of recombinant bioluminescent microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, are also summarized and critically considered. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and hormesis are two important concepts in ecotoxicology; bioluminescent microorganisms have played a pivotal role in their development. As pollutants usually occur in complex mixtures in the environment, the use of both natural and recombinant bioluminescent microorganisms to assess mixture toxicity has been discussed. The main information has been summarized in tables, allowing quick consultation of the variety of luminescent organisms, bioluminescence gene systems, commercially available bioluminescent tests, environmental applications, and relevant references.

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  13. Aseptic laboratory techniques: volume transfers with serological pipettes and micropipettors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-31

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (μl) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: ·Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. ·Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility. ·Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. ·Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. ·Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. ·State accuracy limitations for micropipettors.

  14. Native and heterologous production of bacteriocins from gram-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Mabel; Jaramillo, Diana; Melendez, Adelina Del Pilar; J Alméciga-Diaz, Carlos; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    In nature, microorganisms can present several mechanisms for setting intercommunication and defense. One of these mechanisms is related to the production of bacteriocins, which are peptides with antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocins can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria are of particular interest due to the industrial use of several strains that belong to this group, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms. In this work, we will review recent tendencies in the field of invention and state of art related to bacteriocin production by Gram-positive microorganism. Hundred-eight patents related to Gram-positive bacteriocin producers have been disclosed since 1965, from which 57% are related bacteriocins derived from Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus strains. Surprisingly, patents regarding heterologous bacteriocins production were mainly presented just in the last decade. Although the major application of bacteriocins is concerned to food industry to control spoilage and foodborne bacteria, during the last years bacteriocin applications have been displacing to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and plant disease resistance and growth promotion.

  15. Vibrational spectroscopy as a probe to rapidly detect, identify, and characterize micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Lamfarraj, Hasnae; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Pina, Patrick; Delavenne, Marc; Witthuhn, Fabienne; Allouch, Pierre; Manfait, Michel

    1999-04-01

    Fast and exact identification of a great number of microorganisms is becoming a serious challenge. Differentiation and identification of microorganisms is today mainly achieved by the use of a variety of distinct techniques based on morphological, serological aspects and a set of biochemical test. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques can be complementary and useful methods in this field due to their rapidity, 'fingerprinting' capabilities, and the molecular information that they can provide. Using SERS at Ag colloids, we have conducted pilot studies to rapidly detect and identify bacterial clinical strains. Using a Raman microspectrometer equipped with a He/Ne laser, a first attempt to record SERS spectra was made on colloidal solutions. Spectra were of good quality but not very reproducible due to the movement of the microorganisms. Strains were then put in presence of Ag colloids and direct on-plate analysis was performed. Spectra were more reproducible, with diminished fluorescence, and reveal characteristic cellular-level information. Different growth conditions and colloid preparations have been tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli clinical strains, responsible for nosocomial infections, have been our first test samples. An attempt has also been made to record SERS data from gold colloids in view of future measurement in the near-IR. Spectroscopic data are compared with ATR-FTIR results.

  16. An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

  17. Initial copper stress strengthens the resistance of soil microorganisms to a subsequent copper stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Yu-Rong; Ma, Yi-Bing; Hu, Hang-Wei; He, Ji Zheng

    2014-05-01

    To improve the prediction of essential ecosystem functioning under future environmental disturbances, it is of significance to identify responses of soil microorganisms to environmental stresses. In this study, we collected polluted soil samples from field plots with eight copper levels ranging from 0 to 3,200 mg Cu kg(-1) soil. Then, the soils with 0 and 3,200 mg Cu kg(-1) were selected to construct a microcosm experiment. Four treatments were set up including Cu0-C and Cu3200-C without further Cu addition, and Cu0-A and Cu3200-A with addition of 57.5 mg Cu kg(-1) soil. We measured substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and potential nitrification rate (PNR). Furthermore, the abundance of bacterial, archaeal 16S rRNA genes, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea amoA genes were determined through quantitative PCR. The soil microbial communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). For the field samples, the SIR and PNR as well as the abundance of soil microorganisms varied significantly between eight copper levels. Soil microbial communities highly differed between the low and high copper stress. In the microcosm experiment, the PNR and SIR both recovered while the abundance of soil microorganisms varied irregularly during the 90-day incubation. The differences of microbial communities measured by pairwise Bray-Curtis dissimilarities between Cu0-A and Cu0-C on day 0 were significantly higher after subsequent stress than before. However, the differences of microbial communities between Cu3200-A and Cu3200-C on day 0 changed little between after subsequent stress and before. Therefore, initial copper stress could increase the resistance of soil microorganisms to subsequent copper stress.

  18. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  19. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  20. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  1. Thermally evolved gas analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru: Implications for the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2009-07-01

    TEGA, one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander, performed differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer (MS) that was used to analyze samples delivered to the instrument via a robotic arm. The samples were heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000 °C. The power required for heating can be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process can be analyzed with the evolved gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolyzer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya in southern Peru (a possible analog to Mars), to which we have added with microorganisms ( Salmonella typhimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) in order to investigate the effect of the soil matrix on the TEGA response. Between 20 and 40 mg of soil, with or without ˜5 mg of lyophilized microorganism biomass (dry weight), were placed in the pyrolyzer and heated from room temperature to 1200 °C in 1 h at a heating rate of 20 °C/min. The volatiles released were transferred to a MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 10 to 200 m/z. In addition, ˜20 mg of each microorganism without a soil matrix were analyzed. As expected, there were significant differences in the gases released from microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix, under similar heating conditions. Furthermore, samples from the most arid environments had significant differences compared with less arid soils

  2. Holographic microscopy for in situ studies of microorganism motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, J.; Hu, S.; Jericho, S.; Lindensmith, C.

    2011-12-01

    Robust technologies for the detection and identification of microorganisms at low concentrations in complex liquid media are needed for numerous applications: environmental and medical microbiology, food safety, and for the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System. The best current method for microbial enumeration is specific labeling with fluorescent dyes followed by high-resolution light microscopy. However, fluorescent techniques are difficult to use in situ in extreme environments (such as the Arctic and Antarctic or the open ocean) due to the fragility of the instruments and their high power demands. In addition, light microscopic techniques rarely provide insight into microbial motility behaviors. Tracking single cells would provide important insight into the physics of micron-scale motility as well as into key microbial phenomena such as surface attachment and invasiveness. An alternative to traditional light microscopy that is attracting increasing attention is holographic microscopy. Holographic microscopy works by illuminating the object of interest with coherent light from a laser. The light reflected from (or transmitted through) the object is then combined with a coherent reference beam to create an interference pattern that contains the phase and intensity information required to reconstruct a three dimensional image of the object. The interference pattern is recorded on a high resolution detector and can be used to computationally reconstruct a 3D image of the object. The lateral resolution of the image depends upon the wavelength of the light used, the laser power, camera quality, and external noise sources (vibration, stray light, and so forth). Although the principle is simple, technological barriers have prevented wider use of holographic microscopy. Laser sources and CCD cameras with the appropriate properties have only very recently become affordable. In addition, holographic microscopy leads to large data sets that are

  3. Variation in the toxicity of arsenic compounds to microorganisms and the suppression of the inhibitory effects by phosphate.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, E W

    1972-01-01

    The toxicity of potassium arsenate, as measured by retardation or inhibition of growth on solid nutrient media, showed wide variation among different fungi but was consistently reduced by the addition of large amounts of potassium phosphate, with both arsenic-sensitive and arsenic-tolerant fungi. Poria monticola was completely inhibited by 0.0025 M arsenate but was progressively less inhibited as the phosphate content of the medium increased and grew slowly at 0.04 M arsenate when 0.16 M KH(2)PO(4) was added. Cladosporium herbarum showed 36% reduction in growth at 0.08 M arsenate in a low-phosphate medium, but when 0.01 M KH(2)PO(4) was added, arsenate concentrations up to 0.64 M (at which the medium contains 4.8% As) caused no reduction in growth rate. Addition of phosphate also reduced the toxicity of potassium arsenite but not that of dimethyl sodium arsonate (sodium cacodylate). The counteracting effect of phosphate on arsenate toxicity was found to occur with every one of a wide variety of microorganisms tested. The author interprets the results as supporting the thesis that the fungitoxicity of arsenate is due to its competitive interference with phosphorus in oxidative phosphorylation and not to a reaction with the -SH groups of essential proteins. The latter mechanism is, however, probably operative with dimethyl sodium arsonate. The practical implications of the counter-inhibition phenomenon in laboratory investigations and standard tests of arsenical fungicides, in biochemical research, and in the commercial use of arsenical biocides are set out.

  4. Plasma and salivary amoxicillin concentrations and effect against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Baglie, S; Del Ruenis, A P Bortolo; Motta, R H Lopes; Baglie, R C Catelli; Franco, G C Nobre; Franco, L M; Rosalen, P L; Silva, P; Groppo, F C

    2007-10-01

    Plasma and salivary amoxicillin (AMO) concentrations were quantified following a single oral dose (875 mg) of two formulations of AMO (Amoxicillin-EMS Sigma Pharma and Amoxil BD 875 mg). In addition, the effect of amoxicillin against oral microorganisms was accessed. The open, randomized, two-period crossover study was carried out in 20 volunteers. Saliva and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration, and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC, respectively. Streptococci counts, anaerobe counts and total microorganism counts were obtained. No differences were observed between formulations (p > 0.05) in the plasma and salivary AMO concentrations and the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max), AUC(0-8), and AUC(0-infinity)) also showed no statistically significant differences between formulations (p > 0.05). Microorganism counts for the two formulations at all sampling times did not differ (p > 0.05) but all microorganism counts at 60 min post-dose showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). Amoxicillin was effective in reducing oral microorganism levels up to 12 h post-dose.

  5. Response of microorganisms to a simulated Martian environment.

    PubMed

    Hawrylewicz, E J; Hagen, C A; Ehrlich, R

    1965-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether terrestrial microorganisms can survive in a simulated Martian environment. The ultimate objective is to establish whether earth organisms can contaminate Mars. In addition, any demonstration of survival and growth in a simulated Martian environment will provide information relating to the biology of Mars. In the experimental design, exhaustive consideration was given to the duplication of the known and the theoretical environmental parameters of Mars. These included composition of the soil and the atmosphere, barometric pressure, moisture content, solar radiation, and diurnal temperature extremes. Based upon these considerations, a simulated Martian summer environment was defined and used in the experiments. One group of microorganisms was selected from culture collections on the basis of their known characteristics. The other group was made of microorganisms isolated from soils. The soil samples were obtained from the Antarctic, from New Mexico, and California deserts, and from the Colorado tundra. The studies showed that a number of microorganisms can survive the simulated Martian environment. However, no substantial growth under such conditions could be demonstrated. The ability of microorganisms to form spores as a mechanism for survival will be discussed. Also, experiments utilizing augmented environments to establish minimum environmental conditions which will permit growth will be described.

  6. [Effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Xie, Ming; Peng, De-Liang

    2013-09-01

    The worldwide cultivation of transgenic crops not only provides tremendous economic benefits, but also induces the concern about the potential risks of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem in which microorganisms are involved. The potential effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms include the direct effects of the transgenic proteins on non-target soil microorganisms, and the indirect effects of the unintentional changes in the chemical compositions of root exudates induced by the introduction of the exogenous transgenic proteins. Most of the studies on transgenic crops suggested that transgenic crops could affect the quantity and structure of soil microbial populations. However, the perceivable effects on the soil microorganisms are inconsistent, with some in significant and others in non-significant, or some with persistent and others with non-persistent. This paper summarized the effects of different transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, and discussed the factors affecting the assessment reliability, including the species of transgenic crops and the experimental technologies and principles. Some issues needed to be paid special attention to in the future studies were put forward.

  7. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  8. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, José A.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments. PMID:26901207

  9. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-18

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Extremophile Microorganisms with Significance to Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bej, Asim K.

    2003-01-01

    It is now well recognized that microorganisms thrive in extreme ecological conditions such as geothermal vents, polar region, acid and alkaline lakes, and the cold pressurized depth of the ocean floor of this planet. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic adaptations to extreme environments by these extremophile microorganisms have generated immense interest amongst astrobiologists who increasingly believe in the existence of extraterrestrial life. The evidence collected by NASA's space probe Galileo suggested the presence of liquid water and volcanic activity on Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. Volcanic activity provides some of the heat necessary to keep the water on Europa from freezing that could provide important dissolved chemicals needed by living organisms. The possibility of the existence of hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters on Mars, and a layer of liquid water under the ice on Europa provide sufficient 'raison d'etre' to study microorganisms in similar extreme environments on Earth, which could provide us with a model that would help establish the existence of extraterrestrial life on other planetary bodies. The objectives of the summer research project were as follows: (1) application of molecular approaches to help establish new species of extremophile microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline alkaline lake; and (2) identification of a major cold-shock gene (cspA) homolog from a psychrotolerant microorganism, PmagG1.

  11. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes. To identify and list microorganisms on the Inventory, both...

  12. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes. To identify and list microorganisms on the Inventory, both...

  13. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes. To identify and list microorganisms on the Inventory, both...

  14. 40 CFR 725.12 - Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of microorganisms for... MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and Applicability § 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes. To identify and list microorganisms on the Inventory, both...

  15. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation of... conditions. A complete record of such micro-organisms shall be kept currently correct and a list submitted...

  16. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation of... conditions. A complete record of such micro-organisms shall be kept currently correct and a list submitted...

  17. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation of... conditions. A complete record of such micro-organisms shall be kept currently correct and a list submitted...

  18. Area. Topical Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdson, Orville; And Others

    This area package emphasizes three facets: (1) the concept of area as a covering; (2) the square unit; and (3) formula development. There are two enrichment activities included. The first requires the aid of a programmable calculator or computer. (Author/MK)

  19. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  20. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  1. The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Koren, Omry; Reshef, Leah; Efrony, Rotem; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2007-05-01

    Coral microbiology is an emerging field, driven largely by a desire to understand, and ultimately prevent, the worldwide destruction of coral reefs. The mucus layer, skeleton and tissues of healthy corals all contain large populations of eukaryotic algae, bacteria and archaea. These microorganisms confer benefits to their host by various mechanisms, including photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, the provision of nutrients and infection prevention. Conversely, in conditions of environmental stress, certain microorganisms cause coral bleaching and other diseases. Recent research indicates that corals can develop resistance to specific pathogens and adapt to higher environmental temperatures. To explain these findings the coral probiotic hypothesis proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.

  2. Multispecies Swarms of Social Microorganisms as Moving Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Finkelshtein, Alin; Ariel, Gil; Ingham, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms use collective migration to cross barriers and reach new habitats, and the ability to form motile swarms offers a competitive advantage. Traditionally, dispersal by microbial swarm propagation has been studied in monoculture. Microorganisms can facilitate other species' dispersal by forming multispecies swarms, with mutual benefits. One party (the transporter) moves a sessile partner (the cargo). This results in asymmetric associations ranging from temporary marriages of convenience to long-term fellow travellers. In the context of the 'microbial market', the parties offer very different services in exchange. We discuss bacteria transporting bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms moving bacteria, and bacteria facilitating the spread of eukaryotes - and ask what the benefits are, the methods of study, and the consequences of multispecies, swarming logistics networks.

  3. Limitations to growth of microorganisms on Uranus, Neptune, and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Halvorson, H. O.; Lewis, J.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reappraisal of the probabilistic policy toward planetary contamination by terrestrial microorganisms carried aboard space probes is suggested on the grounds that assignment of numerical probabilities to qualitatively unknown phenomena, as expressed in Phillips's (1974) formulation of the probability of contamination, is inappropriate. As an alternative, it is proposed that fundamental knowledge of the interacting nature of life on earth, interrelations between terrestrial organisms, and continuing effects of these organisms on earth's atmosphere and surface should guide the formulation of a sounder scientific quarantine policy. Simple conservative atmospheric models most favorable for life on Uranus and Neptune are examined. It is concluded that terrestrial microorganisms will not grow on either planet due to limitations of liquid water, atmospheric convection to lethal depths, the absence of energy sources and nutrients, the presence of ammonia and hydrogen, insufficient concentrations of biologically necessary ions, and the lack of a surface. The likelihood of terrestrial microorganism growth on Titan is found to be vanishingly small.

  4. Fluorescent antibody detection of microorganisms in terrestrial environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The fluorescent antibody technique and its use in direct microscopic examination of the soil is discussed. Feasibility analyses were made to determine if the method could be used to simultaneously observe and recognize microorganisms in the soil. Some data indicate this may be possible. Data are also given on two related problems involving the interaction of soil microorganisms with plant roots to form symbiotic structures. One was concerned with the developmental ecology and biology of the root nodule of alder and the second was concerned with the ectotrophic mycorrhizal structure on forest trees, especially pines. In both, the fluorescent antibody detection of the microbial symbiont both as a free living form in soil, and as a root inhabiting form in the higher plant was emphasized. A third aspect of the research involved the detection of autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in soil.

  5. Plant development in the absence of epiphytic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.; Grotha, R.

    2002-05-01

    Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) are common residents of the roots, stems and leaves of higher plants. In order to explore the dependency of plant development on the presence of epiphytic microorganisms, the achenes (seeds) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were sterilized and germinated under aseptic conditions. The sterility of the seedlings was determined with the agar impression method. In seedlings from non-sterile seeds (control) that were likewise raised in a germ-free environment, all plant organs investigated (stem, cotyledons and primary leaves) were contaminated with bacteria. Hypocotyl elongation was not affected by epiphytic microorganisms. However, the growth rates of the cotyledons and primary leaves were higher in sterile seedlings compared with the control. The implications of this differential inhibition of organ development by epiphytic bacteria that are transmitted via the outer surface of the seed coat are discussed. We conclude that epiphytes in the above-ground phytosphere are not necessary for the development of the sunflower seedling.

  6. Modelling of microorganisms capture on magnetic carrier particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotariu, O.; Strachan, N. J. C.; Bădescu, V.

    2002-11-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a technique used in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms from food and environmental samples. Current IMS methods are insensitive due to the small sample sizes analysed. A stochastic model is described which estimates the time of collision between a small number of pathogenic microorganisms and superparamagnetic carrier microparticles within an aqueous suspension. The IMS system parameters which are varied in the model include: the diameter of the carrier particles, their volume concentration in suspension, the fraction of magnetic phase within the composite material of the particles and the magnetic field intensity and gradient. The data obtained will be used to help design magnetic separation systems to capture pathogenic microorganisms from large volume samples (approx. 250 ml).

  7. Workshop on Spaceflight Alterations in Host-Microorganism Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2010-01-01

    On June 11, 2009, a workshop that included internal and external experts was convened to determine the risk of changes in microorganisms that could alter host-microorganism interactions during a mission. The evidence is based in part on multiple flight experiments which indicate altered virulence in Salmonella typhimurium when cultured in flight. The workshop participants were tasked to determine if adequate information was available to initiate changes in NASA's current approach to infectious disease risk assessment and medical operations. The consensus of the participants is that the current evidence was not adequate to provide direction for operational changes; however, the evidence is compelling and clearly indicates that changes to microorganisms were occurring during spaceflight and further research is required.

  8. Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Toledo, Bruna Costa; Santos, Camila Teles; Pereira Costa, Anna Carolina Borges; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Kaminagakura, Estela; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.

  9. [Microorganisms surviving in drinking water systems and related problems].

    PubMed

    Aulicino, F A; Pastoni, F

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water in distribution systems may show abnormal values of some parameters, such as turbidity, and may support particular phenomena, such as bacterial regrowth or presence of Viable Not Culturable (VNC) bacteria. Turbidity can provide shelter for opportunistic microorganisms and pathogens. The Milwaukee outbreak (400,000 people) is one example of waterborne disease caused by the presence of pathogens (Cryptosporidium) in drinking water characterized by high and intermittent levels of turbidity. Bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems may cause high increments of microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and pathogens. Microorganisms isolated from biofilm including Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Legionella may have a significant health hazard especially in hospital areas. The presence of VNC bacteria in drinking water may represent a problem for their discussed role in infectious diseases, but also for the possibility of a considerable underestimation of true microbial concentrations in drinking waters. To study this kind of problems is necessary to apply suitable methods for drinking water analyses.

  10. Symbiotic microorganisms: untapped resources for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Angela E

    2007-08-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms offer one route to meet the anticipated heightened demand for novel insect pest management strategies created by growing human populations and global climate change. Two approaches have particular potential: the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests, and manipulation of microorganisms with major impacts on insect traits contributing to their pest status (e.g. capacity to vector diseases, natural enemy resistance). Specific research priorities addressed in this article include identification of molecular targets against which highly specific antagonists can be designed or discovered, and management strategies to manipulate the incidence and properties of facultative microorganisms that influence insect pest traits. Collaboration with practitioners in pest management will ensure that the research agenda is married to agricultural and public health needs.

  11. Heavy metals and adsorbents effects on activated sludge microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ong, S A; Lim, P E; Seng, C E

    2004-01-01

    The sorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from synthetic solution by powdered activated carbon (PAC), biomass, rice husk (RH) and activated rice husk (ARH) were investigate under batch conditions. After activated by concentrated nitric acid for 15 hours at 60-65 degrees C, the adsorption capacity for RH was increased. The adsorbents arranged in the increasing order of adsorption capacities to the Langmuir Q degree parameter were biomass > PAC > ARH > RH. The addition of adsorbents in base mix solution had increased the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) activated sludge microorganisms with and without the presence of metals. The increased of SOUR were due to the ability of PAC and RH in reducing the inhibitory effect of metals on microorganisms and provide a reaction site between activated sludge microorganisms and substrates.

  12. Potential role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Anna D

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a skin condition of abnormal inflammation and vascular dysfunction. The active contribution of a microbial agent in the development or progression of rosacea continues to be debated. Research supports the presence of commensal Demodex folliculorum mites at increased density in the skin and associates Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut with rosacea. Fewer studies implicate Staphylococcus epidermidis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and the Demodex-associated bacteria Bacillus oleronius. No research, however, provides a mechanism by which colonization by a microorganism translates to manifestation of the condition. Prevailing and emerging principles in the biology of the microbiome and the pathophysiology of rosacea may help to reconcile these lingering questions. Here the microorganisms implicated in rosacea are reviewed and the reaction of the microbiome to inflammation and to changes in microenvironments and macroenvironments are discussed to explain potential roles for microorganisms in rosacea pathophysiology.

  13. A new ultrasound based method for rapid microorganism detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; Segura, Luis Elvira; Sánchez, Carlos José Sierra; López, Pablo Resa

    2012-05-01

    A new method for rapid detection of catalase positive microorganisms by using an ultrasonic measuring method is proposed in this work. The developed technique is based on the detection of oxygen bubbles produced by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide induced by the enzyme catalase which is present in many microorganisms. The bubbles are trapped in a media based on agar gel which was especially developed for microbiological evaluation. It is found that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 c.f.u./ml can be detected by using this method. The results obtained show up that the proposed method is competitive with other modern commercial methods like luminescence by ATP system. The method can also be used for characterization of enzyme activity.

  14. Systems biology for understanding and engineering of heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Park, Beom Gi; Kim, Minsuk; Kim, Joonwon; Yoo, Heewang; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms continue to draw interest as they can accumulate a large amount of lipids which is a promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and oleochemicals. Nutrient limitation, especially nitrogen limitation, is known to effectively trigger the lipid production in these microorganisms. For the aim of developing improved strains, the mechanisms behind the lipid production have been studied for a long time. Nowadays, system-level understanding of their metabolism and associated metabolic switches is attainable with modern systems biology tools. This work reviews the systems biology studies, based on (i) top-down, large-scale 'omics' tools, and (ii) bottom-up, mathematical modeling methods, on the heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms with an emphasis on further application to metabolic engineering.

  15. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  16. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  17. Using DNA-Stable Isotope Probing to Identify MTBE- and TBA-Degrading Microorganisms in Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Key, Katherine C.; Sublette, Kerry L.; Duncan, Kathleen; Mackay, Douglas M.; Scow, Kate M.; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Although the anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been documented in the laboratory and the field, knowledge of the microorganisms and mechanisms involved is still lacking. In this study, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify microorganisms involved in anaerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in a sulfate-reducing MTBE and TBA plume. Microorganisms were collected in the field using Bio-Sep® beads amended with 13C5-MTBE, 13C1-MTBE (only methoxy carbon labeled), or13C4-TBA. 13C-DNA and 12C-DNA extracted from the Bio-Sep beads were cloned and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to identify the indigenous microorganisms involved in degrading the methoxy group of MTBE and the tert-butyl group of MTBE and TBA. Results indicated that microorganisms were actively degrading 13C-labeled MTBE and TBA in situ and the 13C was incorporated into their DNA. Several sequences related to known MTBE- and TBA-degraders in the Burkholderiales and the Sphingomonadales orders were detected in all three13C clone libraries and were likely to be primary degraders at the site. Sequences related to sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducers, such as Geobacter and Geothrix, were only detected in the clone libraries where MTBE and TBA were fully labeled with 13C, suggesting that they were involved in processing carbon from the tert-butyl group. Sequences similar to the Pseudomonas genus predominated in the clone library where only the methoxy carbon of MTBE was labeled with 13C. It is likely that members of this genus were secondary degraders cross-feeding on 13C-labeled metabolites such as acetate. PMID:25525320

  18. Microorganisms From a Depth of 1350 m in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. R.; Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Douglas, S.; Popa, R.

    2001-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program recovered cores of igneous rock from the surface to a depth of 3109 m near Hilo, Hawaii. After examining most lithologic units from this site with a petrographic microscope, we concentrated on a single unit of hyaloclastite at 1335 to 1415 m below sea level. For this study we used deep ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence imaging, ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy, scanning environmental electron microscopy, DNA-staining, electron microprobe chemical analysis, and microscopic petrographic observation. Each technique revealed a signature consistent with biological activity associated with alteration of glass to clay. Vesicles were surrounded by dark zones of alteration from which smooth, rounded channels extended into the glass similar to those attributed to microorganisms in deep sea basalt glass. Enrichments of phosphorus and carbon were associated with these same regions of the basalt. The rims of vesicles produced laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectra that indicate the presence of amino acids and nucleic acids. These same rims were examined with an environmental electron microscope and were found to contain microorganisms. This result was confirmed with DNA staining of vesicle rims. These results taken together confirm the presence of microorganisms at the boundary between primary volcanic glass and secondary clays. This boundary is the site of chemical transformations that can provide metabolic energy for microorganisms. The glass can also be a source of nutrients such as phosphorus, however, at this time the physiology of the microorganisms is not known. Although we examined only one lithologic unit in detail, petrographic examination of other samples suggests that microorganisms are, or were, present in over 700 m of the hole.

  19. Biological warfare: Microorganisms as drivers of host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Poulin, Robert; Thomas, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    Understanding parasite strategies for evasion, manipulation or exploitation of hosts is crucial for many fields, from ecology to medical sciences. Generally, research has focused on either the host response to parasitic infection, or the parasite virulence mechanisms. More recently, integrated studies of host-parasite interactions have allowed significant advances in theoretical and applied biology. However, these studies still provide a simplistic view of these as mere two-player interactions. Host and parasite are associated with a myriad of microorganisms that could benefit from the improved fitness of their partner. Illustrations of such complex multi-player interactions have emerged recently from studies performed in various taxa. In this conceptual article, we propose how these associated microorganisms may participate in the phenotypic alterations induced by parasites and hence in host-parasite interactions, from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Host- and parasite-associated microorganisms may participate in the host-parasite interaction by interacting directly or indirectly with the other partner. As a result, parasites may develop (i) the disruptive strategy in which the parasite alters the host microbiota to its advantage, and (ii) the biological weapon strategy where the parasite-associated microorganism contributes to or modulates the parasite's virulence. Some phenotypic alterations induced by parasite may also arise from conflicts of interests between the host or parasite and its associated microorganism. For each situation, we review the literature and propose new directions for future research. Specifically, investigating the role of host- and parasite-associated microorganisms in host-parasite interactions at the individual, local and regional level will lead to a holistic understanding of how the co-evolution of the different partners influences how the other ones respond, both ecologically and evolutionary. The conceptual framework we

  20. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  1. Healthcare Associated Infections in a Resource Limited Setting

    PubMed Central

    Doradla, Saikumar; Belgode, Harish Narasimha; Kumar, Harichandra; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health Care associated Infections (HAI) are the most common complications affecting the hospitalized patients. HAI are more common in developing and under developed countries. However, there are no systematic surveillance programs in these countries. Aim To find out the burden, predisposing factors and multidrug resistant organisms causing HAI in a resource limited setting. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was done at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER). Patients aged 13 years or more with stay of more than 48 hours in a 16 bedded Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) between November 2011 and April 2013 were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed up till discharge or death for the development of HAI. Device associated HAI like Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), Catheter Related-Blood Stream Infection (CR-BSI) and Catheter Associated-Urinary Tract Infections (CA-UTI) were studied. Standard laboratory methods were used for identification of microorganisms causing HAI and to test their antibiotic sensitivity. Results A total of 346 patients were included in the study with median age of 38 years. Common indications for admission to Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) were poisoning (31.5%); neurological illness (23.4%) like Guillian-Barre syndrome, tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis; respiratory illness (14.5%) like pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and tropical infections (7.2%) like malaria, scrub typhus, leptospirosis. Fifty percent (174/346) patients developed one or more HAI with VAP being the most common. The rates of HAI per 1000 device days for VAP, CR-BSI, CA-UTI were 72.56, 3.98 and 12.4, respectively. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common organism associated with HAI. Multidrug resistance was seen in 74% of the isolates. Conclusion The burden of HAI, especially with MDR organisms, in resource constrained setting like ours is alarming. There

  2. Microbial biosensors: engineered microorganisms as the sensing machinery.

    PubMed

    Park, Miso; Tsai, Shen-Long; Chen, Wilfred

    2013-05-06

    Whole-cell biosensors are a good alternative to enzyme-based biosensors since they offer the benefits of low cost and improved stability. In recent years, live cells have been employed as biosensors for a wide range of targets. In this review, we will focus on the use of microorganisms that are genetically modified with the desirable outputs in order to improve the biosensor performance. Different methodologies based on genetic/protein engineering and synthetic biology to construct microorganisms with the required signal outputs, sensitivity, and selectivity will be discussed.

  3. Trapping of Swimming Microorganisms at Lower Surfaces by Increasing Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M.

    2014-11-01

    Models suggest that mechanical interactions alone can trap swimming microorganisms at surfaces. Testing them requires a method for varying the mechanical interactions. We tuned contact forces between Paramecia and surfaces in situ by varying their buoyancy with nonuniform magnetic fields. Remarkably, increasing their buoyancy can lead to ˜100 % trapping at lower surfaces. A model of Paramecia in surface contact passively responding to external torques quantitatively accounts for the data implying that interactions with a planar surface do not engage their mechanosensing network and illuminating how their trapping differs from other smaller microorganisms.

  4. Microbial Biosensors: Engineered Microorganisms as the Sensing Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miso; Tsai, Shen-Long; Chen, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    Whole-cell biosensors are a good alternative to enzyme-based biosensors since they offer the benefits of low cost and improved stability. In recent years, live cells have been employed as biosensors for a wide range of targets. In this review, we will focus on the use of microorganisms that are genetically modified with the desirable outputs in order to improve the biosensor performance. Different methodologies based on genetic/protein engineering and synthetic biology to construct microorganisms with the required signal outputs, sensitivity, and selectivity will be discussed. PMID:23648649

  5. Gut Microorganisms Found Necessary for Successful Cancer Therapy | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Humans play host to trillions of microorganisms that help our bodies perform basic functions, like digestion, growth, and fighting disease. In fact, bacterial cells outnumber the human cells in our bodies by 10 to 1.1 The tens of trillions of microorganisms thriving in our intestines are known as gut microbiota, and those that are not harmful to us are referred to as commensal microbiota. In a recent paper in Science, NCI scientists described their discovery that, in mice, the presence of commensal microbiota is needed for successful response to cancer therapy.

  6. [Epidemiology of the infection by resistant Gram-positive microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Cercenado, E

    2016-09-01

    Resistance among Gram-positive microorganisms to classical and new antimicrobials is a therapeutic threat. In Spain, methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (25-30%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (50-60%) seems to have stabilized in the last decade. Among enterococci, vancomycin resistance is less than 5%. Both linezolid and daptomycin, in general, show good activity against these microorganisms. However, the resistance rates of Staphylococcus epidermidis to linezolid (20.9%), and of Enterococcus faecium to daptomycin (10.5%) in isolates from intensive care units are a worrying.

  7. Biosynthesis of anti-HCV compounds using thermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Cintia W; De Benedetti, Eliana C; Sambeth, Jorge E; Lozano, Mario E; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the application of thermophilic microorganisms for obtaining 6-halogenated purine nucleosides. Biosynthesis of 6-chloropurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 6-chloropurine riboside was achieved by Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT 43 with a conversion of 90% and 68%, respectively. Furthermore, the selected microorganism was satisfactorily stabilized by immobilization in an agarose matrix. This biocatalyst can be reused at least 70 times without significant loss of activity, obtaining 379mg/L of 6-chloropurine-2'-deoxyriboside. The obtained compounds can be used as antiviral agents.

  8. Identifying microorganisms responsible for ecologically significant biogeochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Eugene L

    2005-05-01

    Throughout evolutionary time, and each day in every habitat throughout the globe, microorganisms have been responsible for maintaining the biosphere. Despite the crucial part that they play in the cycling of nutrients in habitats such as soils, sediments and waters, only rarely have the microorganisms actually responsible for key processes been identified. Obstacles that have traditionally impeded fundamental microbial ecology inquiries are now yielding to technical advancements that have important parallels in medical microbiology. The pace of new discoveries that document ecological processes and their causative agents will no doubt accelerate in the near future, and might assist in ecosystem management.

  9. Trapping of swimming microorganisms at lower surfaces by increasing buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M

    2014-11-21

    Models suggest that mechanical interactions alone can trap swimming microorganisms at surfaces. Testing them requires a method for varying the mechanical interactions. We tuned contact forces between Paramecia and surfaces in situ by varying their buoyancy with nonuniform magnetic fields. Remarkably, increasing their buoyancy can lead to ∼100% trapping at lower surfaces. A model of Paramecia in surface contact passively responding to external torques quantitatively accounts for the data implying that interactions with a planar surface do not engage their mechanosensing network and illuminating how their trapping differs from other smaller microorganisms.

  10. Multifunctional hybrid porous filters with hierarchical structures for simultaneous removal of indoor VOCs, dusts and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Low, Ze-Xian; Feng, Shasha; Zhong, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yong; Yao, Zhong

    2017-02-23

    Air purification often requires multiple layers of filters with different functions to remove various air pollutants, which lead to high pressure drop, high air flow path and frequent filter replacement. In this work, a novel multifunctional Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter with a depth-type hierarchical structure for simultaneous removal of fine particles, microorganisms and VOCs was designed and fabricated. The novel hybrid air filter showed leading air purification performances to date, achieving 82.24% degradation of formaldehyde at room temperature, 99.99% formaldehyde degradation at 55 °C and complete retention of indoor airborne microorganisms. The complete particle retention rate (100% retention) based on the most penetrating particle size (MPPS, aerodynamic diameter ≦300 nm) of Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 was achieved at an only 35.60% pressure drop compared with the pristine Al2O3 filter, leading to the highest quality factor (Qf) ever reported. Furthermore, the Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter showed excellent water repellency (water contact angle of 139.6 ± 2.9°), prolonging the service life of the filters and improving the air purification efficiency. The novel Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter exhibits remarkable air purification performance in both laboratory synthetic conditions as well as in the "real world" and shows great promise as an effective single replacement for multiple layers of air purifying filters.

  11. Biosynthetic origin of natural products isolated from marine microorganism-invertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Simmons, T Luke; Coates, R Cameron; Clark, Benjamin R; Engene, Niclas; Gonzalez, David; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, William H

    2008-03-25

    In all probability, natural selection began as ancient marine microorganisms were required to compete for limited resources. These pressures resulted in the evolution of diverse genetically encoded small molecules with a variety of ecological and metabolic roles. Remarkably, many of these same biologically active molecules have potential utility in modern medicine and biomedical research. The most promising of these natural products often derive from organisms richly populated by associated microorganisms (e.g., marine sponges and ascidians), and often there is great uncertainty about which organism in these assemblages is making these intriguing metabolites. To use the molecular machinery responsible for the biosynthesis of potential drug-lead natural products, new tools must be applied to delineate their genetic and enzymatic origins. The aim of this perspective is to highlight both traditional and emerging techniques for the localization of metabolic pathways within complex marine environments. Examples are given from the literature as well as recent proof-of-concept experiments from the authors' laboratories.

  12. Impact-induced impoverishment and transformation of a sandstone habitat for lithophytic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    Sandstones are a common habitat for lithophytic microorganisms, including cryptoendoliths. We describe laboratory experiments on the colonization of impact metamorphosed sandstones from the Haughton impact structure, Canadian High Arctic. Colonization experiments with the coccoid cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. and the motile gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, show that, in contrast to initially low porosity crystalline target rocks, which can become more porous as a result of impact bulking, by closing pore spaces the sedimentary cryptoendolithic habitat can be impoverished by impact. However, the heterogeneous distribution of collapsed pores, melt phases, and subsequent recrystallization, results in heterogeneous colonization patterns. Cavities and vesicles formed during melting can yield new habitats for both cryptoendoliths and chasmoendoliths, manifested in the natural cryptoendolithic colonization of shocked sandstones. By contrast, post-impact thermal annealing and recrystallization of impact melt phases destroys the cavities and vesicles. In extreme cases, complete recrystallization of the rock fabric makes the material suitable only for epilithic, and potentially hypolithic, colonists. These experiments further our understanding of the influence of the target lithology on the effects of asteroid and comet impacts on habitats for lithophytic microorganisms.

  13. Probiotic Microorganisms Inhibit Epithelial Cell Internalization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tina I.; Tam, Christina C.; Stanker, Larry H.; Cheng, Luisa W.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are some of the most poisonous natural toxins known to man and are threats to public health and safety. Previous work from our laboratory showed that both BoNT serotype A complex and holotoxin can bind and transit through the intestinal epithelia to disseminate in the blood. The timing of BoNT/A toxin internalization was shown to be comparable in both the Caco-2 in vitro cell culture and in the oral mouse intoxication models. Probiotic microorganisms have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects in not only maintaining the normal gut mucosa but also protection from allergens, pathogens, and toxins. In this study, we evaluate whether probiotic microorganisms will block BoNT/A uptake in the in vitro cell culture system using Caco-2 cells. Several probiotics tested (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG, and Lactobacillus reuteri) blocked BoNT/A uptake in a dose-dependent manner whereas a non-probiotic strain of Escherichia coli did not. We also showed that inhibition of BoNT/A uptake was not due to the degradation of BoNT/A nor by sequestration of toxin via binding to probiotics. These results show for the first time that probiotic treatment can inhibit BoNT/A binding and internalization in vitro and may lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:27999281

  14. Science and the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s newest Mars rover is, the Mars Science Laboratory or Curiosity. It is ready to roam the Red Planet with the biggest and most advanced set of science instruments ever! Follow the curious ro...

  15. Higher-Order Thinking in the Unit Operations Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald L.; Ely, James F.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Olds, Barbara M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the unit operations laboratory provides an ideal setting to help chemical engineering students become better engineering practitioners. Describes a summer program at the Colorado School of Mines that incorporates experience into a unit operations laboratory. (DDR)

  16. Accreditation of clinical laboratories in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maramba, T P

    2002-01-01

    In order to assure the reliability of the results of laboratory services, clinical laboratories are regulated in the Philippines. This started with the passage of the Clinical Laboratory Law in 1965, which required the Licensing of clinical laboratories by the Bureau of Research and Laboratories, Department of Health (BRL, DOH) before they can operate. Standards were set for the various types of laboratory services. In 1988, the minimum standards of laboratory services were formulated for three categories, ie, primary, secondary and tertiary categories. Subsequently, to permit clinical laboratories to offer 'special service', accreditation of clinical laboratories was instituted. In 1968, the Philippine Society of Pathologists (PSP) decided to accredit clinical laboratories for Residency Training Program in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology. The following year after the passage of the Medical Technology Law, the BRL, DOH began accrediting clinical laboratories that trained Medical Technology Interns. A few years later, the BRL, DOH started to accredit clinical laboratories who did Water Analysis. In 1989, after realizing the serious implications of HIV Testing, the DOH mandated the BRL, DOH to set standards for clinical laboratories performing HIV testing. In 1997, upon request of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), the PSP formulated and submitted standards for the accreditation of clinical laboratories, both hospital and free-standing, for reimbursement of fees for laboratory services rendered to patients enrolled in the PhilHealth social insurance program. In 2000, the Philippine Council for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (PCAHO) approved the Standards for the accreditation of Hospitals for the provision of quality medical services. Included were the standards for the Department of Pathology.

  17. Recent development of two chitinase inhibitors, Argifin and Argadin, produced by soil microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Tomoyasu; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, occurs in fungi, some algae and many invertebrates, including insects. Thus, chitin synthesis and degradation could represent specific targets for fungicides and insecticides. Chitinases hydrolyze chitin into oligomers of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine at key points in the life cycles of organisms, consequently, chitinase inhibitors have become subject of increasing interest. This review covers the development of two chitinase inhibitors of natural origin, Argifin and Argadin, isolated from the cultured broth of microorganisms in our laboratory. In particular, the practical total synthesis of these natural products, the synthesis of lead compounds via computer-aided rational molecular design, and discovery methods that generate only highly-active compounds using a kinetic target(chitinase)-guided synthesis approach (termed in situ click chemistry) are described. PMID:20154467

  18. Peroxides and the survivability of microorganisms on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility that any terrestrial microorganisms brought to Mars might survive the unhospitable environment of that planet, with special attention given to the effects of highly oxidizing material that is now known to cover the Martian surface. Data obtained by the gas exchange experiment on Viking indicate that, if all of the released oxygen is assumed to come from H2O2, the concentrations of H2O2 on Mars range from 25 to 250 ppm. Laboratory data indicate that certain soil bacteria are able to survive and grow to stationary phase at H2O2 concentrations as high as 30,000, indicating that, if there is H2O2 at the level of 250 ppm or even an order of magnitude greater on the Martian surface, this fact alone would not make the surface of Mars self-sterilizing.

  19. Integrated sorting, concentration and real time PCR based detection system for sensitive detection of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Monalisha; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Himanshu; Kant, Rishi; Gupta, Ankur; Pandey, Shashank Shekhar; Mandal, Swarnasri; Ramanathan, Gurunath; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    The extremely low limit of detection (LOD) posed by global food and water safety standards necessitates the need to perform a rapid process of integrated detection with high specificity, sensitivity and repeatability. The work reported in this article shows a microchip platform which carries out an ensemble of protocols which are otherwise carried in a molecular biology laboratory to achieve the global safety standards. The various steps in the microchip include pre-concentration of specific microorganisms from samples and a highly specific real time molecular identification utilizing a q-PCR process. The microchip process utilizes a high sensitivity antibody based recognition and an electric field mediated capture enabling an overall low LOD. The whole process of counting, sorting and molecular identification is performed in less than 4 hours for highly dilute samples. PMID:24253282

  20. Culturing and Using Protozoans in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Provides instructions for teachers and students to culture protozoans for use in science laboratories. Sections include setting up a culture area, basic culture media, amoeba culture technique, powdered milk-wheat-rice medium, alfalfa medium, and uses of the protozoa in the laboratory. (PR)