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Sample records for microplus tick embryo

  1. Nomuraea rileyi as biological control agents of Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    PubMed

    Perinotto, W M S; Terra, A L M; Angelo, I C; Fernandes, É K K; Golo, P S; Camargo, M G; Bittencourt, V R E P

    2012-10-01

    Nomuraea rileyi, a fungus pathogenic to insects, has been widely used for biological control of agricultural pests in Brazil. This study investigates the effects of N. rileyi, isolates Nr 138, Nr 151, and Nr 177, to eggs, larvae, and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Specimens were immersed in 1 ml of conidial suspension for 3 min, whereas the control group was immersed in 0.01% Tween 80 water solution. The isolate Nr 138 controlled 67.37% of ticks when the highest conidial concentration was used, 10(8) conidia ml(-1). The isolate Nr 177 significantly reduced the percentage of hatch of larvae from eggs treated with 10(8) conidia ml(-1). Conversely, the isolate Nr 151 was not virulent to eggs, larvae, or adults. Variability in virulence was observed among the N. rileyi isolates investigated in the current study-Nr 138 was more virulent to engorged females, while Nr 177 was more virulent to unfed larvae. Although N. rileyi proved to be virulent to several stages of R. microplus, the results obtained in this study indicate that N. rileyi does not appear to be a remarkable biological control agent for R. microplus.

  2. Proteomic analysis of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.

    PubMed

    Tirloni, Lucas; Reck, José; Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, João Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E; Fox, Jay W; Yates, John R; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antônio F M; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship.

  3. Natural occurrence of lethal aspergillosis in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Miranda-Miranda, E; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Martínez-Ibañez, F; Casasanero-Orduña, R; Folch-Mallol, J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an unreported entomopathogenic fungus that naturally infects the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Engorged female ticks, showed symptoms of fungal infection after controlled tick infestation of cattle. Infected ticks developed a distinctive dark colour, a pale mould grew over the cuticle and the ticks eventually died covered with fungal conidiophores. The responsible fungus was isolated and cultured on mycological medium and submitted to microscopic morphology, biochemical phenotyping and 18S rRNA ribotyping analyses, which identified it as aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Spores from the cultured fungus were experimentally sprayed over healthy engorged female ticks, obtaining an 80% prevalence of experimental infection of healthy ticks and their egg masses, the larval progeny after incubation under laboratory conditions was also infected. These results demonstrate that A. flavus is the causative agent of the natural fungal disease of the cattle tick R. microplus described here.

  4. Identification and Structural-Functional Analysis of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases of the Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Helga; Romeiro, Nelilma C.; Braz, Gloria R. C.; de Oliveira, Eduardo Alves Gamosa; Rodrigues, Camilla; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Githaka, Naftaly; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; Moraes, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for cell cycle progression. Herein, we describe the participation of CDKs in the physiology of Rhipicephalus microplus, the southern cattle tick and an important disease vector. Firstly, amino acid sequences homologous with CDKs of other organisms were identified from a R. microplus transcriptome database in silico. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of CDK1 and CDK10 from R. microplus showed that both have caspase-3/7 cleavage motifs despite their differences in motif position and length of encoded proteins. CDK1 has two motifs (DKRGD and SAKDA) located opposite to the ATP binding site while CDK10 has only one motif (SLLDN) for caspase 3–7 near the ATP binding site. Roscovitine (Rosco), a purine derivative that inhibits CDK/cyclin complexes by binding to the catalytic domain of the CDK molecule at the ATP binding site, which prevents the transfer of ATP's γphosphoryl group to the substrate. To determine the effect of Rosco on tick CDKs, BME26 cells derived from R. microplus embryo cells were utilized in vitro inhibition assays. Cell viability decreased in the Rosco-treated groups after 24 hours of incubation in a concentration-dependent manner and this was observed up to 48 hours following incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of a cell cycle protein in arachnids, and the sensitivity of BME26 tick cell line to Rosco treatment suggests that CDKs are potential targets for novel drug design to control tick infestation. PMID:24146826

  5. Artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks with anti calreticulin serum do not influence tick and Babesia bigemina acquisition.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sandra; Merino, Octávio; Lérias, Joana; Domingues, Nuno; Mosqueda, Juan; de la Fuente, José; Domingos, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites considered the principal vectors of disease among animals. Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus ticks are the most important vectors for Babesia bigemina and B. bovis, two of the most important intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites species in cattle, responsible for babesiosis which together with anaplasmosis account for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Anti-tick vaccines are a proved alternative to traditional tick and tick borne diseases control methods but are still limited primarily due to the lack of effective antigens. Subsequently to the identification of antigens the validation is a laborious work often expensive. Tick artificial feeding, is a low cost alternative to test antigens allowing achieving critical data. Herein, R. microplus females were successfully artificially fed using capillary tubes. Calreticulin (CRT) protein, which in a previous study has been identified as being involved in B. bigemina infection in R. annulatus ticks, was expressed as recombinant protein (rCRT) in an E. coli expression system and antibodies raised against rCRT. Anti-rCRT serum was supplemented to a blood meal, offered to partially engorged R. microplus females and their effect in feeding process as well as infection by B. bigemina was analyzed. No significant reductions in tick and egg weight were observed when ticks fed with anti-rCRT serum. Furthermore, B. bigemina infection levels did not show a statistically significant decrease when ticks fed with anti-rCRT antibodies. Results suggest that CRT is not a suitable candidate for cattle vaccination trials.

  6. Immunological control of ticks through vaccination with Boophilus microplus gut antigens.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C

    2000-01-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks.

  7. Status of Nilgai antelope as a host of cattle fever tick (Boophilus microplus) and Babesiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 an outbreak of cattle fever ticks, Boophilus microplus, was discovered in Cameron County Texas. It was suspected that the ticks had spread from Mexico into Texas carried by Nilgai antelope, a bovid game animal that ranges freely, across the river between Mexico and the US. Between 9 October ...

  8. Targeted silencing of the aquaporin 2 gene of rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus reduces tick fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can affect human and animal health both directly by up taking blood and indirectly by transmitting pathogens. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of bovines and it is responsible for the t...

  9. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents (Babesia spp.), which results in cattle fever or red water fever. The southern cattle fever tick is a threat to the cattle industry in many locations throughout the world. ...

  10. Gene's Organ Transcriptome of the southern Cattle Fever Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock worldwide and ranks sixth among the most pesticide resistant arthropods globally. This one-host hard tick is a vector of the infectious agents causing bovine babesi...

  11. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) as a host for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ticante-Perez, V; Castro-Marín, J M; Tapia-Moo, C A; Vázquez-Gómez, G

    2013-08-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is the most economically important cattle tick in the Mexican tropics. Wild ungulate species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus), are gaining popularity in diversified livestock ranching operations in Mexico. However, there is no information available on the susceptibility of red deer to infestation with the cattle tick, R. microplus, under hot, subhumid tropical conditions in Mexico. Biological data on R. microplus as an ectoparasite of cattle and red deer in a farm in the Mexican tropics are presented here. Ticks collected from red deer were identified as R. microplus (97 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (3 %), and tick species infesting cattle included R. microplus (95 %) and A. cajennense (5 %). Standard counts of R. microplus engorged females on red deer were 11 times higher than on cattle (428 ± 43 vs. 40 ± 18; p < 0.001). The reproductive efficiency index and larval hatching of R. microplus collected from cattle and red deer were similar (p > 0.05). Hemolymph samples of R. microplus collected from cattle were positive for Babesia spp. (10 %, 2/50) and all the samples from ticks infesting red deer were negative. Seventeen and ten percent of the blood samples from cattle and red deer were positive for Anaplasma marginale, respectively. The role of red deer as a host of R. microplus in Yucatan, Mexico and the importance of this host-parasite relationship relative to the epidemiology of R. microplus-borne diseases are discussed.

  12. Minimum infection rate of Ehrlichia minasensis in Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma sculptum ticks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Izabelle T S; Melo, Andréia L T; Freitas, Leodil C; Verçoza, Rodolfo V; Alves, Alvair S; Costa, Jackeliny S; Chitarra, Cristiane S; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; Pacheco, Richard C; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2016-07-01

    A new genotype phylogenetically close to Ehrlichia canis named as Ehrlichia minasensis was identified infecting cattle and deer in Canada, as well as Rhipicephalus microplus ticks and cattle in Brazil. Although it was detected in R. microplus, little is known about the epidemiology of this ehrlichiosis, especially in other tick species. This study evaluated the minimum infection rate of E. minasensis in Amblyomma sculptum and R. microplus ticks from locations where naturally infected cattle were previously detected. Overall, 45 engorged R. microplus ticks after molting [43 pools of adults (13.4%), and 2 pools of nymphs (4%)], and 42 engorged females post-oviposition (30.6%) (p=0.008) were positive by PCR for Ehrlichia sp. using the dsb, 16S rRNA and TRP36 genes, making a total of 87 R. microplus samples positive for Ehrlichia spp. (17.1%, IC 95% 14.01-20.75%). The partial sequences generated in the present study were 99-100% similar to the dsb DNA sequence of E. minasensis genotypes UFMG-EV and UFMT-BV, respectively, 100% similar to the 16S rRNA sequence of the E. minasensis genotype BOV2010 from Canada, and 99% similar to the TRP36 sequence of the Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV. The results of this study confirm the occurrence of transstadial transmission of this agent in R. microplus ticks and highlight the importance of R. microplus in the epidemiology and transmission of ehrlichiosis in cattle. No A. sculptum ticks were positive by PCR for E. minasensis.

  13. New insights from molecular characterization of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; Blecha, Isabella Maiumi Zaidan; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus complex currently consists of five taxa, namely R. australis, R. annulatus, R. (B.) microplus clade A sensu, R. microplus clade B sensu, and R. (B.) microplus clade C sensu. Mitochondrial DNA-based methods help taxonomists when they are facing the morpho-taxonomic problem of distinguishing members of the R. (B.) microplus complex. The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of ticks in all five regions of Brazil and infer their phylogenetic relationships. Molecular analysis characterized 10 haplotypes of the COX-1 gene. Molecular network analysis revealed that haplotype H-2 was the most dispersed of the studied populations (n = 11). Haplotype H-3 (n = 2) had the greatest genetic differentiation when compared to other Brazilian populations. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the COX-1 gene obtained strong support. In addition, it was observed that the population of R. (B.) microplus haplotype H-3 exhibited diverging branches among the other Brazilian populations in the study. The study concludes that the different regions of Brazil have R. (B.) microplus tick populations with distinct haplotypes.

  14. Detection of genomic variability in different populations of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos, D T; Ferreira, C A; da Silva, S S; Richter, M F; Ozaki, L S

    1999-11-01

    DNA from seven isolates of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three different cDNA clones, named P-9, P-25 and CP-12, isolated from a B. microplus cDNA library, were used as DNA probes. DNA sequences of P-9 have high similarity to ribosomal genes, whereas P-25 does not show significant homology with known sequences within databases. CP-12 is a cDNA clone encoding a cysteine endopeptidase gene. A limited degree of polymorphism was detected with P-9 and P-25, while CP-12 showed a different pattern of bands for each tick isolate. These findings suggest the existence of a complex genotypic diversity of the tick B. microplus population in endemic regions.

  15. Partial characterization of an atypical family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Costa, Evenilton P; Campos, Eldo; de Andrade, Caroline P; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Saramago, Luiz; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Fernandez, Jorge H; Moraes, Jorge; Logullo, Carlos

    2012-03-23

    The present paper presents the partial characterization of a family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from the hard tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmPPase). The BmPPase gene was cloned from the tick embryo and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarity with other eukaryotic PPases, on the other hand, BmPPase presented some cysteine residues non-conserved in other groups. This pyrophosphatase is inhibited by Ca(2+), and the inhibition is antagonized by Mg(2+), suggesting that the balance between free Ca(2+) and free Mg(2+) in the eggs could be involved in BmPPase activity control. We observed that the BmPPase transcripts are present in the fat body, midgut and ovary of ticks, in two developmental stages (partially and fully engorged females). However, higher transcription amounts were found in ovary from fully engorged females. BmPPase activity was considerably abolished by the thiol reagent dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), suggesting that cysteine residues are exposed in its structure. Therefore, these cysteine residues play a critical role in the structural stability of BmPPase. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that BmPPase is the first Family I PPase that could promote disulfide bonds between cysteine residues 138-339 and 167-295. Finally, we believe that these cysteine residues exposed in the BmPPase structure can play an important controlling role regarding enzyme activity, which would be an interesting mechanism of redox control. The results presented here also indicate that this enzyme can be involved in embryogenesis of this arthropod, and may be useful as a target in the development of new tick control strategies.

  16. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Naranjo, Victoria; Mangold, Atilio J; Thompson, Carolina; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2009-01-01

    Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique) and America (Argentina) are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (for American and African strains) and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains), which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results. PMID:19243585

  17. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be pathogenic to its vertebrate hosts

  18. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin as an effective vaccine antigen to protect against cattle tick infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA encoding an aquaporin from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, was isolated from transcriptomic studies. Bioinformatic analysis indicates this aquaporin, designated RmAQP1, shows greatest amino acid similarity to the human aquaporin 7 family. Members of this family of water-conducting c...

  19. Inheritance of pyrethroid resistance and a sodium channel gene mutation in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) producing a substitution (Phe'Ile), within the S6 transmembrane segment at domain III within the sodium channel gene sequence, has been associated with pyrethroid resistance in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to analyze the...

  20. Assembled contigs of the synganglion transcriptome from an Australian population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources and University of Texas at El Paso researchers, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of the synganglion of the Texas strain (Deutsch) of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. This transcriptome contains 43, 468 sequences and wa...

  1. Assembled contigs of the synganglion transcriptome from a Texas population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources and University of Texas at El Paso researchers, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of the synganglion of the Texas strain (Deutsch) of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. This transcriptome contains 43, 468 sequences and wa...

  2. Reprolysin metalloproteases from Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Tirloni, Lucas; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Seixas, Adriana; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz Junior, Itabajara; Termignoni, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Metalloproteases (MPs) have been considered essential for blood feeding and other physiological functions in several hematophagous animals, including ticks. We report the characterization of MP sequences of three important ticks from Asia, Africa and America: Ixodes persulcatus (Ip-MPs), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Rs-MPs) and R. microplus (BrRm-MPs). Amino acid sequence identity between R. microplus and R. sanguineus MPs ranged from 76 to 100 %, and identities among I. persulcatus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis MP sequences ranged from 88 to 97 %. This high sequence identity and typical functional motifs show that all sequences are MPs. The presence of a zinc binding site, a Met-turn and cysteine rich domain at the C-terminal region indicates that these proteins belong to the reproplysin family of MPs. Differences in amino acid sequences of BrRm-MP1, BrRm-MP2, BrRm-MP4 and BrRm-MP5 (from Porto Alegre strain ticks) were 6, 2, 7 and 5 %, respectively, when compared with sequences deposited in GenBank for the same genes from other R. microplus isolates. Analyses of MPs predicted that they have various highly antigenic regions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of transcripts in salivary glands of partially and fully fed female ticks. None of these transcripts were observed in males (except BrRm-MP4) and eggs. These enzymes may be functional components required during tick feeding to manipulate host defenses and support tick hematophagy.

  3. Research and development of anti-tick vaccines for use in Texas and Puerto Rico Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year marks the first time anti-tick vaccination will be used in the United States and Puerto Rico to control, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus. The 110-year-old Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has eradicated the southern cattle fever tick from the majority of the Unite...

  4. Acetylcholinesterase 1 in populations of organophosphate-resistant North American strains of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle fever tick, is a global economic problem to the cattle industry due to direct infestation of cattle and pathogens transmitted during feeding. Cattle fever tick outbreaks continue to occur along the Mexico-U.S. border even though the tick has been eradicated from t...

  5. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner.

  6. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  7. Exploring the midgut proteome of partially fed female cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus).

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Zhu, Ying; Pearson, Roger; Gough, Joanne; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2010-02-01

    The continued development of effective anti-tick vaccines remains the most promising prospect for the control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. A vaccine based on midgut proteins could interfere with successful tick feeding and additionally interfere with midgut developmental stages of Babesia parasites, providing opportunities for the control of both the tick and the pathogens it transmits. Midgut proteins from partially fed adult female cattle ticks were analysed using a combination of 2-DE and gel-free LC-MS/MS. Analysis of the urea-soluble protein fraction resulted in the confident identification of 105 gut proteins, while the PBS-soluble fraction yielded an additional 37 R. microplus proteins. The results show an abundance of proteins involved in mitochondrial ATP synthesis, electron transport chain, protein synthesis, chaperone, antioxidant and protein folding and transport activities in midgut tissues of adult female ticks. Among the novel products identified were clathrin-adaptor protein, which is involved in the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles, and membrane-associated trafficking proteins such as syntaxin 6 and surfeit 4. The observations allow the formulation of hypotheses regarding midgut physiology and will serve as a basis for future vaccine development and tick-host interaction research.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads.

    PubMed

    McCooke, John K; Guerrero, Felix D; Barrero, Roberto A; Black, Michael; Hunter, Adam; Bell, Callum; Schilkey, Faye; Miller, Robert J; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2015-10-15

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. In our study, we assembled the complete R. microplus mitochondrial genome from Illumina and Pac Bio sequencing reads obtained from the ongoing R. microplus (Deutsch strain from Texas, USA) genome sequencing project. We compared the Deutsch strain mitogenome to the mitogenome from a Brazilian R. microplus and from an Australian cattle tick that has recently been taxonomically designated as Rhipicephalus australis after previously being considered R. microplus. The sequence divergence of the Texas and Australia ticks is much higher than the divergence between the Texas and Brazil ticks. This is consistent with the idea that the Australian ticks are distinct from the R. microplus of the Americas.

  9. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of α- and β- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum.

  10. Identification of intestinal bacterial flora in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks by conventional methods and PCR-DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing-Li; Cheng, Tian-Yin; Yang, Hu; Yan, Fen

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the intestinal microbial flora associated with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks using both culture-dependent and independent methods based on PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The R. microplus ticks were collected from cattle and goats in Jiangxi, Hunan and Guizhou Provinces of China. Three distinct strains of bacteria were isolated using culture-dependent methods: Staphylococcus simulans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus flexus strain. Nineteen distinct DGGE bands were found using PCR-DGGE analysis, and their search for identity shows that they belonged to Rickettsiaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Coxiella sp., Ehrlichia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ehrlichia sp., Orphnebius sp., Rickettsia peacockii, Bacillus flexus. Rickettsia peacockii and Coxiella genus were the dominant strain of the R. microplus ticks from cattle, Pseudomonas sp. and B. flexus strain were the most common species in all tick samples from goats. Ehrlichia canis were detected only in R. microplus ticks from Yongshun area in Hunan Province. The results indicate that the intestinal microbial diversity of R. microplus ticks was influenced by tick hosts and local differences in the sampling location and these two aspects may affect transmission of pathogen to humans and animals.

  11. An intensive search for promising fungal biological control agents of ticks, particularly Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele C; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Bahiense, Thiago C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Roberts, Donald W; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2011-12-15

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated worldwide as promising biological control agents of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The current study evaluates the virulence of several fungal isolates to R. microplus larva in the laboratory as part of an effort to identify isolates with promise for effective biocontrol of R. microplus in the field. Sixty fungal isolates, encompassing 5 Beauveria spp. and 1 Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba), were included in this study. In addition to bioassays, the isolates were characterized morphologically and investigated as to their potential for conidial mass production. These findings were correlated with previous reports on the same fungal isolates of their natural UV-B tolerance (Fernandes et al., 2007), thermotolerance and cold activity (Fernandes et al., 2008), and genotypes (Fernandes et al., 2009). R. microplus larvae obtained from artificially infested calves were less susceptible to Beauveria bassiana infection than ticks acquired from naturally infested cattle from a different location. Isolates CG 464, CG 500 and CG 206 were among the most virulent Beauveria isolates tested in this study. All fungal isolates presented morphological features consistent with their species descriptions. Of the 53 B. bassiana isolates, five (CG 481, CG 484, CG 206, CG 235 and CG 487) had characteristics that qualified them as promising candidates for biological control agents of R. microplus, viz., mean LC(50) between 10(7) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1); produced 5000 conidia or more on 60mm(2) surface area of PDAY medium; and, in comparison to untreated (control) conidia, had the best conidial tolerances to UV-B (7.04 kJ m(-2)) and heat (45°C, 2h) of 50% or higher, and conidial cold (5°C, 15d) activity (mycelial growth) higher than 60%. The current study of 60 Beauveria spp. isolates, therefore, singles out a few (five) with high potential for controlling ticks under field conditions.

  12. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations.

  13. Prediction of G protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the synganglion transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a pest which causes multiple health complications in cattle. The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family presents an interesting target for developing novel tick control methods. However, GPCRs share limited sequence similarity among or...

  14. Influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Pazinato, Rafael; Klauck, Vanderlei; Volpato, Andreia; Tonin, Alexandre A; Santos, Roberto C; de Souza, Márcia E; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Gomes, Patrícia; Felippi, Candice C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) tested in its pure and nanostructured (TTO nanoparticles) forms on the reproduction of female Rhipicephalus microplus. For our purpose, female ticks were collected from naturally infected animals and treated in vitro with TTO (1, 5, and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.075, 0.375, and 0.75 %). In order to validate the tests, they were performed in triplicate using positive (amitraz) and negative (untreated) controls. It was possible to observe that pure TTO (5 and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.375 and 0.75 %) showed 100 % reproductive inhibition on female ticks. Additionally, pure TTO (1 %) also showed an acaricide effect (70 %), similarly to the positive control (78.3 %). This is the first study demonstrating the activity of pure TTO and TTO nanoparticles on female ticks. Therefore, based on these results, we were able to show that both forms and all concentrations of M. alternifolia affected tick reproduction by inhibiting egg laying and hatching. We were also able to show that TTO nanoparticles potentiated the inhibitor effect of pure TTO on the reproduction of R. microplus.

  15. High resolution predictive mapping of Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus in south Texas after vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional anti-tick vaccines based on the tick gut antigen Bm86 exist commercially (TickGARD (TM) and Gavac (R)) and could serve as an alternative to the use of acaricides to eradicate ticks, but their level of efficacy against R. microplus is too low for eradication if used alone. Therefore, the...

  16. Detection of Babesia bigemina in cattle of different genetic groups and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M C S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Regitano, L C A; Alencar, M M; Néo, T A; Silva, A M; Oliveira, H N

    2008-08-17

    Babesia bigemina infections were investigated in four genetic groups of beef cattle and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus engorged female ticks. Blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 15 cows and 15 calves from each of the following genetic groups: Nelore, Angus x Nelore, Canchim x Nelore, and Simmental x Nelore. Microscopic examination of blood smears and tick hemolymph revealed that merozoites of B. bigemina (6/60) as well as kinetes of Babesia spp. (9/549) were only detected in samples (blood and ticks, respectively) originated from calves. PCR-based methods using primers for specific detection of B. bigemina revealed 100% infection in both calves and cows, regardless the genetic group. Tick infection was detected by nested-PCR amplifications showing that the frequency of B. bigemina was higher (P<0.01) in female ticks collected from calves (134/549) than in those collected from cows (52/553). The frequency of B. bigemina was similar in ticks collected from animals, either cows or calves, of the four genetic groups (P>0.05).

  17. Synergism of thymol, carvacrol and eugenol in larvae of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Araújo, L X; Novato, T P L; Zeringota, V; Maturano, R; Melo, D; DA Silva, B C; Daemon, E; DE Carvalho, M G; Monteiro, C M O

    2016-12-01

    The effects of combinations of the monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol and the phenylpropanoid eugenol in larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Acari: Ixodidae) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) were assessed by the larval packet test. The CompuSyn program was used to make qualitative assessments of the effects (synergistic, additive and antagonistic) of the associations. The effects of all combinations tested against R. microplus larvae were synergistic, with combination indices (CIs) <0.70. When tested against R. sanguineus, eight of the mixtures showed a synergistic effect (CI < 0.70); only the carvacrol + thymol mixture at LC50 presented a moderate synergistic effect, with CIs between 0.70-0.90. This study is the first to determine the effects of the interactions of these substances in the control of these two tick species. The combinations of carvacrol + thymol, carvacrol + eugenol and thymol + eugenol have synergistic effects in R. microplus and R. sanguineus s.l. larvae.

  18. Integrated control of Boophilus microplus ticks in Cuba based on vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac.

    PubMed

    Valle, Manuel Rodriguez; Mèndez, Luis; Valdez, Mario; Redondo, Miguel; Espinosa, Carlos Montero; Vargas, Milagro; Cruz, Ricardo Lleonart; Barrios, Humberto Perez; Seoane, Guillermo; Ramirez, Emerio Serrano; Boue, Oscar; Vigil, Jorge Lodos; Machado, Héctor; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto; Piñeiro, Marisdania Joglar

    2004-01-01

    Boophilus microplus has developed resistance against a range of chemical acaricides which has stimulated the development of alternative methods such as vaccination against ticks. In Cuba, the Bm86-based recombinant vaccine Gavac has been successfully used in a number of controlled laboratory and field trials in cattle against B. microplus. In this paper, we have evaluated Gavac in a large scale field trial wherein 588,573 dairy cattle were vaccinated with the aim to reduce the number of acaricidal treatments. It was found that the number of acaricidal treatments could be reduced by 87% over a period of 8 years (1995--2003). Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, 54 clinical cases of babesiosis and six fatal cases were reported per 1000 animals. Six years later, the incidence of babesiosis was reduced to 1.9 cases per 1000 cattle and mortality reduced to 0.18 per 1000. The national consumption of acaricides in Cuba could be reduced by 82% after the implementation of the integrated anti-B. microplus control program.

  19. Egg wax from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karine R; Macedo, Alexandre J; Nicastro, Gianlucca G; Baldini, Regina L; Termignoni, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is constantly challenged during its life cycle by microorganisms present in their hosts or in the environment. Tick eggs may be especially vulnerable to environmental conditions because they are exposed to a rich and diverse microflora in the soil. Despite being oviposited in such hostile sites, tick eggs remain viable, suggesting that the egg surface has defense mechanisms against opportunistic and/or pathogenic organisms. R. microplus engorged females deposit a superficial wax layer onto their eggs during oviposition. This egg wax is essential for preventing desiccation as well as acting as a barrier against attack by microorganisms. In this study, we report the detection of anti-biofilm activity of R. microplus egg wax against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Genes involved in the functions of production and maintenance of the biofilm extracellular matrix, pelA and cdrA, respectively, were markedly downregulated by a tick egg-wax extract. Moreover, this extract strongly inhibited fliC gene expression. Instead of a compact extracellular matrix, P. aeruginosa PA14 treated with egg-wax extract produces a fragile one. Also, the colony morphology of cells treated with egg-wax extract appears much paler and brownish, instead of the bright purple characteristic of normal colonies. Swarming motility was also inhibited by treatment with the egg-wax extract. The inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm does not seem to depend on inhibition of the quorum sensing system since mRNA levels of the 3 regulators of this system were not inhibited by egg-wax extract.

  20. Synergistic action of fatty acids, sulphides and stilbene against acaricide-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.

    PubMed

    Arceo-Medina, G N; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Borges-Argaez, R

    2016-09-15

    Six compounds in a methanolic extract of Petiveria alliacea stem (cis-stilbene; benzyl disulphide; benzyl trisulphide; and methyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, octadecadienoic acid and octadecenoic acid) are known to exercise acaricide activity against cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus larvae and adults. The synergistic effect of 57 combinations of these six compounds on acaricide activity against R. microplus was evaluated. Larvae immersion tests produced the lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of the population. Adult immersion tests produced rates (%) for mortality, oviposition inhibition and eclosion inhibition. Individually, none of the compounds (1% concentration) exhibited acaricide activity (mortality ≤2.3%). When combined, however, nine mixtures exhibited a synergistic increase in activity, with high mortality rates (≥92%) in larvae. Values for LC50 ranged from 0.07 to 0.51% and those for LC99 from 0.66 to 5.16%. Thirty six compound mixtures had no significant activity (mortality ≤30%) against larvae. Two mixtures exhibited synergism against adults, with high rates (≥92%) of oviposition inhibition. The mixtures based on the benzyl disulphide+benzyl trisulphide pairing produced a synergistic effect against acaricide-resistant R. microplus larva and adults, and are therefore the most promising combination for controlling this ubiquitous ectoparasite.

  1. Integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, in Puerto Rico using new and alternative products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is plagued by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (PR-DA), and the...

  2. Prediction of G protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the synganglion transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Felix D.; Kellogg, Anastasia; Ogrey, Alexandria N.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Barrero, Roberto; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Dowd, Scot E.; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a pest which causes multiple health complications in cattle. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family presents a candidate target for developing novel tick control methods. However, GPCRs share limited sequence similarity among orthologous family members, and there is no reference genome available for R. microplus. This limits the effectiveness of alignment-dependent methods such as BLAST and Pfam for identifying GPCRs from R. microplus. However, GPCRs share a common structure consisting of seven transmembrane helices. We present an analysis of the R. microplus synganglion transcriptome using a combination of structurally-based and alignment-free methods which supplement the identification of GPCRs by sequence similarity. TMHMM predicts the number of transmembrane helices in a protein sequence. GPCRpred is a support vector machine-based method developed to predict and classify GPCRs using the dipeptide composition of a query aminoacid sequence. These two bioinformatic tools were applied to our transcriptome assembly of the cattle tick synganglion. Together, BLAST and Pfam identified 85 unique contigs as encoding partial or full length candidate cattle tick GPCRs. Collectively, TMHMM and GPCRpred identified 27 additional GPCR candidates that BLAST and Pfam missed. This demonstrates that the addition of structurally-based and alignment-free bioinformatic approaches to transcriptome annotation and analysis produces a greater collection of prospective GPCRs than an analysis based solely upon methodologies dependent upon sequence alignment and similarity. PMID:26922323

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of the first tick CAP2b (periviscerokinin) receptor from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cDNA of the receptor for CAP2b/periviscerokinin (PVK) neuropeptides, designated Rhimi-CAP2b-R, was cloned from synganglia of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This receptor is the ortholog of the insect CAP2b/PVK receptor, as concluded from analyses of the predicted protein sequence, ph...

  4. Assembled contigs of the Haller's organ transcriptome from an Australian population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources and University of Texas at El Paso researchers, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of the Haller's organ of an Australian strain (NRFS) of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (recently reclassified as Rhipicephalus australis...

  5. Transcriptome database derived from the Texas Deutsch outbreak strain population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, vectors Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are the protozoans causing cattle fever, a disease that is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America, and Australia. We ini...

  6. Widespread Movement of Invasive Cattle Fever Ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Southern Texas Leads to Shared Local Infestations on Cattle and Deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rhipicephalus microplus is a highly-invasive tick that vectors cattle fever parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina). In North America, ticks and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) along the Rio Grande. Th...

  7. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2). Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks feeding on an uninfected calf

  8. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. We assembled the complete ...

  9. Acaricide resistance and strategies to mitigate economic impact of the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) on livestock production systems in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. SCFT populations resistant to acaricides complicate efforts to enhance the productivity of livestock. Here, acaricide resistance is summ...

  10. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction.

    PubMed

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-10-12

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick.

  11. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus.

  13. The ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. The most prevalent species is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The transmission of B. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the R. microplus ovarian proteome identified several R. microplus proteins that were differentially expressed in response to infection. Through various approaches, we studied the reaction of the R. microplus ovarian transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods A group of ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf while a second group fed on an uninfected splenectomized control calf. RNA was purified from dissected adult female ovaries of both infected and uninfected ticks and a subtracted B. bovis-infected cDNA library was synthesized, subtracting with the uninfected ovarian RNA. Four thousand ESTs were sequenced from the ovary subtracted library and annotated. Results The subtracted library dataset assembled into 727 unique contigs and 2,161 singletons for a total of 2,888 unigenes, Microarray experiments designed to detect B. bovis-induced gene expression changes indicated at least 15 transcripts were expressed at a higher level in ovaries from ticks feeding upon the B. bovis-infected calf as compared with ovaries from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. We did not detect any transcripts from these microarray experiments that were expressed at a lower level in the infected ovaries compared with the uninfected ovaries. Using the technique called serial analysis of gene expression, 41 ovarian transcripts from infected ticks were differentially expressed when compared with transcripts of controls. Conclusion Collectively, our experimental approaches provide

  14. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Cassia A.; Sasaki, Sergio D.; Tanaka, Aparecida S. . E-mail: Tanaka.bioq@epm.br

    2006-08-18

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and M{sub r} of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with K{sub i} value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis.

  15. Discovery, adaptation and transcriptional activity of two tick promoters: Construction of a dual luciferase reporter system for optimization of RNA interference in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual luciferase reporter systems are valuable tools for functional genomic studies, but have not previously been developed for use in tick cell culture. We evaluated expression of available luciferase constructs in tick cell cultures derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an important vec...

  16. Assessment of the repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil and major monoterpenes on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Lima, A da Silva; Carvalho, J F de; Peixoto, M G; Blank, A F; Borges, L M F; Costa Junior, L M

    2016-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is achieved using synthetic acaricides. However, resistant tick populations are widespread around the world. Plant essential oils can act as repellents, keeping ticks away from hosts and decreasing the selection pressure on synthetic acaricides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil on R. microplus larvae. Leaves from two L. alba genotypes maintained under the same agronomic and environmental conditions were collected. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major monoterpenes detected in the chemical analysis were commercially acquired and tested. For the repellency test, a glass rod was vertically fixed to measure active climbing of approximately 30 R. microplus larvae aged 14-21 days in response to essential oils and monoterpenes. Repellency was evaluated at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after treatment. Variation in repellent action was detected between the genotypes. The major monoterpenes identified in the essential oils (limonene and carvone) showed low repellent effects in comparison with intact essential oils. Thus, the present results showed that L. alba essential oil contains bioactive compounds with great repellent activity against ticks that varies according to the plant genotype.

  17. Reassociation kinetics-based approach for partial genome sequencing of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence fiscally and technically problematic. To selectively obtain gene-enriched regions of this tick's genome, Cot filtration was performed, and Cot-filtered DNA was sequenced via 454 FLX pyrosequencing. Results The sequenced Cot-filtered genomic DNA was assembled with an EST-based gene index of 14,586 unique entries where each EST served as a potential "seed" for scaffold formation. The new sequence assembly extended the lengths of 3,913 of the 14,586 gene index entries. Over half of the extensions corresponded to extensions of over 30 amino acids. To survey the repetitive elements in the tick genome, the complete sequences of five BAC clones were determined. Both Class I and II transposable elements were found. Comparison of the BAC and Cot filtration data indicates that Cot filtration was highly successful in filtering repetitive DNA out of the genomic DNA used in 454 sequencing. Conclusion Cot filtration is a very useful strategy to incorporate into genome sequencing projects on organisms with large genome sizes and which contain high percentages of repetitive, difficult to assemble, genomic DNA. Combining the Cot selection approach with 454 sequencing and assembly with a pre-existing EST database as seeds resulted in extensions of 27% of the members of the EST database. PMID:20540747

  18. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: Clotting time in tick-infested skin varies according to local inflammation and gene expression patterns in tick salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Wanessa Araújo; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Franzin, Alessandra Mara; Abatepaulo, Antônio Roberto Rodrigues; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Moré, Daniela Dantas; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Ticks deposit saliva at the site of their attachment to a host in order to inhibit haemostasis, inflammation and innate and adaptive immune responses. The anti-haemostatic properties of tick saliva have been described by many studies, but few show that tick infestations or its anti-haemostatic components exert systemic effects in vivo. In the present study, we extended these observations and show that, compared with normal skin, bovine hosts that are genetically susceptible to tick infestations present an increase in the clotting time of blood collected from the immediate vicinity of haemorrhagic feeding pools in skin infested with different developmental stages of Rhipicepahlus microplus; conversely, we determined that clotting time of tick-infested skin from genetically resistant bovines was shorter than that of normal skin. Coagulation and inflammation have many components in common and we determined that in resistant bovines, eosinophils and basophils, which are known to contain tissue factor, are recruited in greater numbers to the inflammatory site of tick bites than in susceptible hosts. Finally, we correlated the observed differences in clotting times with the expression profiles of transcripts for putative anti-haemostatic proteins in different developmental stages of R. microplus fed on genetically susceptible and resistant hosts: we determined that transcripts coding for proteins similar to these molecules are overrepresented in salivary glands from nymphs and males fed on susceptible bovines. Our data indicate that ticks are able to modulate their host’s local haemostatic reactions. In the resistant phenotype, larger amounts of inflammatory cells are recruited and expression of anti-coagulant molecules is decreased tick salivary glands, features that can hamper the tick’s blood meal. PMID:20045690

  19. Use of a mathematical model to study the control measures of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus population in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, F; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Sabatier, P

    1998-06-30

    Boophilus microplus is a common cattle tick of great economic importance in various tropical and subtropical countries like New Caledonia. The proposed model describes the population dynamics of female Boophilus microplus in the absence of resistant ticks. It is a system of six difference equations which can be mathematically analyzed. The analysis of the system shows the great importance of the eigenvalue denoted by lambda1. The population of ticks increases if lambda1 < 1 and decreases if lambda1 > 1. The lambda1 eigenvalue depends, in particular, on the parasitic surviving rate and encounter rate between the larvae and the cows. The treatments decrease the parasitic surviving rate as the agronomic measures decrease the encounter rate. This model permits to quantify the conditions of treatments (or of the efficacy of a vaccine) and of agronomic measures by which the populations are controlled. It shows that the different treatment rhythms and the presence or not of the wild or domestic refuges plays a major role on the dynamics of tick population.

  20. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Borges-Argaez, R; Garcia-Vazquez, Z; Mendez-Gonzalez, M

    2010-03-25

    The acaricidal activity of crude extracts and fractions from stems and leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) was carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using the larval immersion test (LIT) and adult immersion test (AIT), respectively. Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of P. alliacea showed 100% mortality on the LIT bioassay. On the other hand, methanolic extracts of leaves and stem on the AIT test showed 26% and 86% of mortality, respectively, egg laying inhibition of 40% and 91%, respectively and hatchability inhibition of 26% and 17%, respectively. Purification of the active stem methanolic extract showed that the activity was present in the n-hexane non-polar fraction. Bioassay-guided purification of the n-hexane fraction produced 10 semi-purified fractions; fraction B had the highest activity against tick larvae (100% mortality). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the chemical composition of the active fraction B samples were mainly composed of benzyltrisulfide (BTS) and benzyldisulfide (BDS). These metabolites might be responsible for the acaricidal activity of stem extract of P. alliacea. However, further experiments to evaluate the acaricidal activity of BTS and BDS on larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus are needed. Our results showed that P. alliacea is a promising biocontrol candidate as acaricide against R. (B.) microplus resistant strains.

  1. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  2. Acaricidal activity of Palicourea marcgravii, a species from the Amazon forest, on cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2011-06-30

    Leaves of Palicourea marcgravii were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol in order to evaluate their acaricidal activity on larvae and adult stages of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest bioactivity of the tested extracts, which contained 0.12% monofluoroacetic acid. On engorged female, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lethal concentration 50% - LC(50)=30.08 mg ml(-1), inhibitory concentration 50% - IC(50)=5.79 mg ml(-1) and lethal time 50% - LT(50)=4.72 days; 100% reproduction was controlled at concentrations of 50 mg ml(-1) and on larvae the ethyl acetate extract showed a LC(50)=2.46 mg ml(-1). No alkaloids were detected in any of the extracts. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of P. marcgravii extracts against R. microplus as well as the acaricidal properties of a plant species containing monofluoroacetic acid.

  3. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil.

  4. [Immunization with synthetic peptide anti-tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus SBm7462 via mucosal routes].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gabriel D; Peconick, Ana P; Medeiros, Carla L; Vargas-V, Marlene I; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    The mucosal immunization consists on antigen administration in these surfaces it is a not invasive method, inductor of local and systemic immune response. This work evaluated the immune response of the synthetic vaccine anti-tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus SBm7462®, via oral and nasal routes. Were used 60 BALB/c mice, divided in three groups of 20 animals each (I: oral immunization; II: nasal immunization; III: animals not immunized). Nine and 15 days after the first and the second immunization was collected, separately for each group, T cells from the immunized animals, cultivating them per 10 days. After the incubation, were determined the percentage of cellular viability and the specific nature of this T cells, which had held as memory T cell. The averages of T cell SBm7462-reagents had been submitted to the analysis of variance and comparison for Tukey test, 5% of probability. Group II presented higher cellular proliferation "in vitro". For ELISA test, were positive only two animals in group I and eight in group II. The oral and nasal routs alternatively viable for immunization with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®, however require greater number of doses to induce responses with high levels of immunoglobulins.

  5. Simulation of control strategies for the cattle tick Boophilus microplus employing vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    PubMed

    Labarta, V; Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M; Lleonart, R; Luaces, L L; de la Fuente, J

    1996-05-01

    Current strategies for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus include the use of chemicals as the principal control method. These methods, however, have met with partially successful results. The recent development of immunological methods for the control of the cattle tick has opened new possibilities for the design of control strategies. Employing the results obtained by us in experiments testing the effect of vaccination with the recombinant vaccine, Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.), on tick populations, we have developed a model to evaluate, through a computer program, the efficacy of the vaccine as a control method. The action of the vaccine on the control of tick populations was simulated and the specific serum antibody titers required to decrease the tick population in the field were calculated. The specific serum antibody titer required to decrease the tick population in the field after the first vaccination scheme was found to be > or = 57,200 and the antibody titer required to maintain this effect when the vaccine is already acting and after successive revaccinations was found to be > or = 27,500. Considerations about revaccination schemes and combination between vaccination and acaricide treatments as possible control strategies are discussed.

  6. Mutation in the RmβAOR gene is associated with amitraz resistance in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Sean W.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Piper, Emily K.; Cutullé, Christian; Stear, Michael J.; Seddon, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the evolution of resistance to amitraz in Rhipicephalus microplus in the field and to test the association between amitraz resistance and the frequency of a mutation in the β-adrenergic octopamine receptor gene (RmβAOR). We established six populations of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks in similar paddocks by the admixture of ticks from strains known to be susceptible and resistant to amitraz and synthetic pyrethroids. Each population was managed using one of three acaricide treatment regimes: always amitraz, always spinosad, or rotation between amitraz and spinosad. We used microsatellites to elucidate population structure over time, an SNP in the para-sodium channel gene previously demonstrated to confer resistance to synthetic pyrethroids to quantify changes in resistance to synthetic pyrethroids over time, and a nonsynonymous SNP in the RmβAOR, a gene that we proposed to confer resistance to amitraz, to determine whether selection with amitraz increased the frequency of this mutation. The study showed panmixia of the two strains and that selection of ticks with amitraz increased the frequency of the RmβAOR mutation while increasing the prevalence of amitraz-resistance. We conclude that polymorphisms in the RmβAOR gene are likely to confer resistance to amitraz. PMID:24082133

  7. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from five endemic conifers of New Caledonia on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hue, Thomas; Hnawia, Edouard; Lesaffre, Leïla; Menut, Chantal; Nour, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from endemic conifers of New Caledonia in the context of the development of natural alternatives. Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from resin and heartwood of five endemic conifers of New Caledonia (Araucaria columnaris, Agathis moorei, Agathis ovata, Callitris sulcata, and Neocallitropsis pancheri) was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using the Larval Packal Test bioassay. A first screening with 5% dilute solution was carried out and the oils with 100% of mortality at this rate were diluted until no activity was shown. The heartwood oils of the two Cupressaceae were the most active with LC50 value of 0.65% for C. sulcata and 0.55% for N. pancheri while resin oil of A. columnaris (LC50=1.62%) was the most active of the Araucariaceae family. Negative control (ethanol) was not toxic to the larvae. The chemical composition of essential oil from resin of A. columnaris was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil was characterized by high level of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes and was composed mainly of aromadendrene (23.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (16.0%). In order to compare different plant resources in a sustainable program of natural acaricide, an "essential oil efficiency EOE" can be measured as the ratio between the yield of extraction and LC50 value. This study shows that A. columnaris (EOE=2.36) and N. pancheri (EOE=3.51) could provide valuable and effective natural acaricides for control of the cattle tick R. microplus.

  8. Acaricidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae isolated from paddocks in the Mexican tropics against two populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, A; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Alonso-Morales, R A; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J C; Cervantes-Chávez, J A

    2017-03-01

    The acaricidal effects of 55 strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, 1883 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) isolated from paddocks of cattle farms were evaluated in two Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) populations, of which one was multi-resistant and one was susceptible to chemical acaricides. Percentage mortality and reproductive efficiency indices in R. microplus were evaluated by adult immersion tests at a dose of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL for each fungal strain. Some strains were selected to calculate lethal concentrations to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 99% (LC99 ) of engorged ticks. Strains MaV22, MaV26 and MaV55 induced 100% mortality in R. microplus on day 14. Strains MaV05, MaV09 and MaV22 caused mortality of >90% from day 12 onward in both tick populations. The most effective acaricidal fungal strain, MaV55, inhibited egg laying by 54.86 and 55.86% in acaricide-resistant and -susceptible R. microplus populations, respectively. None of the fungal strains had statistically significant effects on larval hatching. In conclusion, nine strains of M. anisopliae demonstrated high acaricidal effects against R. microplus and reduced its egg laying. No differences in acaricidal effects were observed between the two populations of ticks tested.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. In our study, we assembled...

  10. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first Chelicerata pyrokinin receptor from a worldwide tick vector of zoonotic pathogens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified the first pyrokinin receptor (Rhimi-PK-R) from the Chelicerata and analyzed structure-activity relationships of cognate ligand neuropeptides and their analogs. This receptor, which we cloned from larvae of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the ortholog of the inse...

  11. In vitro acaricidal effect of tannin-rich plants against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, A; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Acosta-Rodríguez, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I

    2011-01-10

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal effects of lyophilized extracts of four tannin rich plants (Acacia pennatula, Piscidia piscipula, Leucaena leucocephala and Lysiloma latisiliquum) against diverse stages of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and to asses whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to block tannins. Larval immersion (LIT) and adult immersion (AIT) tests were used to evaluate the acaricidal effect of each of the lyophilized extracts against larval and adult stages of R. microplus respectively. Larvae and adult ticks were exposed to increasing concentrations of each plant extract (0, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 and 19,200 μg ml(-1)) for 10 min. Larval mortality was recorded at 48 h post-incubation. Adult mortality was recorded daily over 14 days, at which point their reproductive efficiency was evaluated. PEG was added to the extracts to verify whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect. The effect on egg laying inhibition and larval mortality was analyzed using the GLM procedure in SAS. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the effect of PEG on LIT results. Calculation of the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) was performed using a probit analysis. All extracts reduced the viability of R. microplus larval stages (P<0.001), and viability was restored with the addition of PEG suggesting an important role of tannins in the acaricidal effect (P<0.001). The LC50 values of L. latisiliquum and P. piscipula plant extracts were 6.402 and 2.466 μg ml(-1). None of the tannin-rich plant extracts affected adult mortality (P>0.05). Lysiloma latisiliquum extract inhibited egg hatching of R. microplus (P<0.01). Tannin-rich plant extracts from A. pennatula, P. piscipula, L. leucocephala and L. latisiliquum showed potential acaricidal activity. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  12. Use of Ivermectin as Endoparasiticide in Tropical Cattle Herds Generates Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes and the Tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Alegría-López, M A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine simultaneously the status of resistance against ivermectin (IVM) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) ticks in 12 cattle farms where IVM was used for the control of GIN in the Mexican tropics. Six farms had frequent use of IVM (≥ 4 times per year) and six farms had low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year). The fecal egg count reduction test and the larval immersion test were used to determine the resistant status of GIN and R. microplus against IVM, respectively. The results indicated that 100% of the surveyed farms had IVM-resistant GIN (reduction % from 0 to 67%). The genera involved were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Although the IVM was never used for the control of ticks, 50% of the surveyed farms presented GIN and R. microplus simultaneously resistant to IVM. Furthermore, two R. microplus populations showed high resistance ratio (RR) to IVM (farm TAT: RR50% = 7 and RR99% = 40.1; and farm SLS: RR50% = 2.4; RR99% = 11.0). A high frequency of IVM use (≥ 4 times per year) seemed to promote IVM resistance amongst R. microplus ticks compared with the farms with low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year; 66.6 vs. 25.0%, respectively). However, the number of surveyed farms was insufficient to show clear statistical inferences (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 0.341-105.5). The use of IVM for the control of GIN promoted simultaneously the development of IVM resistance in the GIN and R. microplus populations of the cattle herds surveyed.

  13. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  14. Non-parasitic life cycle of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Panicum maximum pastures in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this work was to study the non-parasitic phase of the Rhipicephalus microplus life cycle in Panicum maximum grasses from northern Argentina, in order to provide ecological information for designing methods of tick control. Four localities were chosen as replicates. The biological parameters measured were proportion of females ovipositing, the pre-oviposition period, the proportion of egg clusters hatching, the incubation period of eggs, larval longevity, and the total non-parasitic period (time from the exposure of the female to the date of death of the last larva) (TNPP)). The following general trends were observed: I) a longer TNPP occurred when female ticks were exposed in mid- and late summer and early spring; II) the shortest TNPP occurred when female ticks were exposed from late winter to late spring; III) larvae that were active in early and mid-summer had the shortest longevity; IV) incubation periods of eggs, which originated from females exposed in late summer, early autumn and mid-spring, were longer than the incubation period of eggs produced by females exposed in late spring and early summer; V) eggs did not hatch when the engorged females were exposed in the pastures in mid- and late autumn and winter. The spelling period of the P. maximum grasses that is needed to ensure total control of R. microplus consists of 19-20weeks if the spelling starts in late spring and early summer, and 27-28weeks if the spelling begins in mid- and late summer or in autumn.

  15. Activation of several key components of the epidermal differentiation pathway in cattle following infestation with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Colgrave, Michelle L; Bagnall, Neil H; Gough, Joanne; Burns, Brian; Pearson, Roger

    2010-03-15

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and the diseases it transmits pose a persistent threat to tropical beef production. Genetic selection of host resistance has become the method of choice for non-chemical control of cattle tick. Previous studies have suggested that larval stages are most susceptible to host resistance mechanisms. To gain insights into the molecular basis of host resistance that occurs during R. microplus attachment, we assessed the abundance of proteins (by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and Western blot analyses) and mRNAs (by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)) in skin adjacent to tick bite sites from high tick-resistant (HR) and low tick-resistant (LR) Belmont Red cattle following challenge with cattle tick. We showed substantially higher expression of the basal epidermal keratins KRT5 and KRT14, the lipid processing protein, lipocalin 9 (LCN9), the epidermal barrier catalysing enzyme transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), and the transcriptional regulator B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) in HR skin. Our data reveals the essential role of the epidermal permeability barrier in conferring greater resistance of cattle to tick infestation, and suggest that the physical structure of the epidermal layers of the skin may represent the first line of defence against ectoparasite invasion.

  16. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  17. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  18. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  19. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  20. Inorganic Polyphosphates Regulate Hexokinase Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mitochondria of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Menezes, Jackson; da Silva Vaz Jr, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Campos, Eldo

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (poly P) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. microplus. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Both poly Ps inhibited hexokinase activity by up to 90% and, interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase activity was stimulated by the hexokinase reaction product, glucose-6-phosphate. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively. All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. microplus embryos. PMID:23983617

  1. Aquaporin 2 of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus as a potential target to control ticks and tick-borne parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaboration with Washington State University and ARS-Pullman, WA researchers, we identified and sequenced a 1,059 base pair Rhipicephalus microplus transcript that contained the coding region for a water channel protein, Aquaporin 2 (RmAQP2). The clone sequencing resulted in the production of...

  2. Reduced Efficacy of Commercial Acaricides Against Populations of Resistant Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus from Two Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Villar-Argaiz, David; Chaparro-Gutierrez, Jenny J; Miller, Robert J; Perez de Leon, Adalberto A

    2014-01-01

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 μg/kg). Injections were made at 3-month intervals on animals at each farm to evaluate the therapeutic and persistent efficacy of ivermectin against R. microplus. Body tick counts and reproductive parameters of semi- or fully engorged females (≥5 mm) were assessed at 10-day intervals, and since no negative control group could be included, values were compared against those for day 0. Although there was an overall reduction of 50%-75% in tick numbers that persisted for 30-40 days, it was not significantly different at one of the farms and not enough to afford protection from severe infestations. The engorgement weight and egg mass weight of ticks from treated animals were significantly lower throughout the 50-day posttreatment period. Egg hatch was not significantly reduced posttreatment and remained at levels of 80%-90%. A random selection of 9 out of 28 commercial formulations of ivermectin sold in Colombia were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All were within the expected labeled concentration (±15% deviation) of 1% and 3.15% ivermectin except for one. A popular unregistered injectable widely used in both farms and labeled as "natural pyrethrin", was found to contain 10.5% ivermectin. An adult immersion test was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of topical acaricides to recommended concentrations of five commercial products and/or their combinations. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index of each treated group to that of the control group. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) was completely ineffective at both farms. Amitraz (208 ppm) exhibited low and intermediate efficacies of 14% and 56%. The combination of amitraz (100 ppm) and

  3. Reduced Efficacy of Commercial Acaricides Against Populations of Resistant Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus from Two Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Villar-Argaiz, David; Chaparro-Gutierrez, Jenny J; Miller, Robert J; Perez de Leon, Adalberto A

    2014-01-01

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 μg/kg). Injections were made at 3-month intervals on animals at each farm to evaluate the therapeutic and persistent efficacy of ivermectin against R. microplus. Body tick counts and reproductive parameters of semi- or fully engorged females (≥5 mm) were assessed at 10-day intervals, and since no negative control group could be included, values were compared against those for day 0. Although there was an overall reduction of 50%–75% in tick numbers that persisted for 30–40 days, it was not significantly different at one of the farms and not enough to afford protection from severe infestations. The engorgement weight and egg mass weight of ticks from treated animals were significantly lower throughout the 50-day posttreatment period. Egg hatch was not significantly reduced posttreatment and remained at levels of 80%–90%. A random selection of 9 out of 28 commercial formulations of ivermectin sold in Colombia were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All were within the expected labeled concentration (±15% deviation) of 1% and 3.15% ivermectin except for one. A popular unregistered injectable widely used in both farms and labeled as “natural pyrethrin”, was found to contain 10.5% ivermectin. An adult immersion test was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of topical acaricides to recommended concentrations of five commercial products and/or their combinations. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index of each treated group to that of the control group. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) was completely ineffective at both farms. Amitraz (208 ppm) exhibited low and intermediate efficacies of 14% and 56%. The combination of amitraz (100

  4. Acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; de Lima, Edson Luiz; de Cosmo, Fábio Antunes; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of T. riparia essential oil (EO) against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). For this purpose, nine serial concentrations (12.50%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 1.80%, 0.90%, 0.45%, 0.22%, 0.11%, and 0.056% w/v) of T. riparia were used for the adult immersion test (AIT). For the larval packet test (LPT), we used 14 serial concentrations (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25%, 3.65%, 1.82%, 0.91%, 0.45%, 0.228%, 0.114%, 0.057%, 0.028%, and 0.014% w/v). The results for AIT showed 100.00% and 2.05% mortality, 19.00 and 90.20% for the total number of eggs, egg-laying inhibition of 0.00% and 90.20%, hatchability inhibition of 0.00% and 70.23%, and product effectiveness of 100.00% and 2.89%, respectively. The AIT indicated that the LC(50) and LC(99.9), calculated using the Probit test, were for mortality (%) 0.534g/mL (0.436-0.632) and 1.552g/mL (1.183-1.92); for total number of eggs were 0.449g/mL (0.339-0.558) and 1.76g/mL (1.27-2.248); and for hatchability inhibition were 0.114g/mL (0.0-0.31) and 2.462g/mL (1.501-3.422), respectively. Larvae between 14 and 21days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27°±1°C, RH⩾80%. Larval mortality was observed 24h after treatment and showed 10.60-100% mortality in the LPT bioassay. The LPT showed that the LC(50) and LC(99.9) were 1.222g/mL (0.655-1.788) and 11.382g/mL (7.84-14.91), respectively. A positive correlation between T. riparia EO concentration and tick control, was observed by the strong acaricidal effects against R. (B.) microplus, and the mortality rate of ticks was dose-dependent. Our results showed that T. riparia is a promising candidate as an acaricide against resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus.

  5. Effect of deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses as livestock forage on the population dynamics of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Mangold, Atilio J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of deforestation and the introduction of exotic grasses on the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northern Argentina was analysed. Biological parameters that were measured included proportion of females ovipositing, pre-oviposition period, incubation period of eggs, proportion of egg clusters hatching, larval longevity and total non-parasitic period. No significant differences were observed in proportion of females ovipositing and in pre-oviposition period between forested and grassland areas. Regarding the other parameters, in the majority of the temporal series there were no significant differences. In the cases where differences with statistical significance were detected, they were not unidirectional. The replacement of native forest by grasses can potentially increase tick abundance not by the modification of microclimatic conditions, but by increasing the tick-host encounter rate due to a higher cattle density. The hypothesis that deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses affects the non-parasitic phase of R. microplus in northern Argentina was not supported.

  6. CattleTickBase: An integrated Internet-based bioinformatics resource for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rhipicephalus microplus genome is large and complex in structure, making a genome sequence difficult to assemble and costly to resource the required bioinformatics. In light of this, a consortium of international collaborators was formed to pool resources to begin sequencing this genome. We have...

  7. Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina, with an analysis of tick distribution among cattle.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2015-03-15

    Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the

  8. Development of a Spatially Targeted Field Sampling Technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by Mapping Whitetailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Habitat in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela L.; Welch, John B.; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  9. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel autophagy-related genes belonging to the ATG8 family from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez Ortega, Abel; Rosario Cruz, Rodrigo; Padilla Camberos, Eduardo; Alvarez, Angel H; Martínez Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-12-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate haematophagous arthropod and the major problem for cattle industry due to economic losses it causes. The parasite shows a remarkable adaptability to changing environmental conditions as well as an exceptional ability to survive long-term starvation. This ability has been related to a process of intracellular protein degradation called autophagy. This process in ticks is still poorly understood and only few autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been characterized. The aim of the present study was to examine the ESTs database, BmiGI, of R. microplus searching for ATG homologues. We predicted five putative ATG genes, ATG3, ATG4, ATG6 and two ATG8s. Further characterization led to the identification of RmATG8a and RmATG8b, homologues of GABARAP and MAP1LC3, respectively, and both of them belonging to the ATG8 family. PCR analyses showed that the expression level of RmATG8a and RmATG8b was higher in egg and larval stages when compared to ovary and midgut from adult ticks. This up-regulation coincides with the period in which ticks are in a starvation state, suggesting that autophagy is active in R. microplus.

  11. Acaricidal activity of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its major constituents on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Costa, Livio Martins; Pinto, Jessika Andreza Oliveira; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; de Araujo, Sandra Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil obtained from different L. gracilis genotypes and their major components, carvacrol and thymol against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick) larvae and engorged females. The larval test was performed parallel to the adult immersion test for engorged females for four L. gracilis genotypes. Similar tests were further performed for their major compounds carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol (LC50 of 0.22 and 4.46 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively) was more efficient than thymol (LC50 of 3.86 and 5.50 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively). The lethal concentrations obtained for the isolated essential oil from genotypes LGRA-201 against larvae (1.31 mg/mL) and LGRA-106 against engorged females (4.66 mg/mL) confirmed the acaricidal activity of L. gracilis essential oil and its effectiveness in controlling the southern cattle tick.

  12. Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Ehrlichia isolated from the tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Zweygarth, Erich; Vancová, Marie; Broniszewska, Marzena; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-12

    Recently, we obtained a rickettsial isolate (Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV) from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus microplus engorged tick females. On the basis of maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and trp36 nucleotide sequences we showed that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV belongs to the α-Proteobacteria, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Ehrlichia. Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV is a sister taxa of E. canis with 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and trp36 nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.3%, 97.2%, 94.7%, 94.3% and 49.1%, respectively. Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV has been maintained in the laboratory by continuous passage in the IDE8 tick cell line where the ultrastructure was characterized using electron microscopy and it resembles that of E. canis, E. muris and E. chaffensis, but not E. ruminantium and E. ewingii. We propose the name Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov. for this bacterium to acknowledge the place from where it was isolate for first time, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The type strain of Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov. is strain Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV (= DSM 100393, = TCB-TBB-0018).

  13. The expression of genes coding for distinct types of glycine-rich proteins varies according to the biology of three metastriate ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma cajennense

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ticks secrete a cement cone composed of many salivary proteins, some of which are rich in the amino acid glycine in order to attach to their hosts' skin. Glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) are a large family of heterogeneous proteins that have different functions and features; noteworthy are their adhesive and tensile characteristics. These properties may be essential for successful attachment of the metastriate ticks to the host and the prolonged feeding necessary for engorgement. In this work, we analyzed Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) similar to GRPs from cDNA libraries constructed from salivary glands of adult female ticks representing three hard, metastriate species in order to verify if their expression correlated with biological differences such as the numbers of hosts ticks feed on during their parasitic life cycle, whether one (monoxenous parasite) or two or more (heteroxenous parasite), and the anatomy of their mouthparts, whether short (Brevirostrata) or long (Longirostrata). These ticks were the monoxenous Brevirostrata tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, a heteroxenous Brevirostrata tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and a heteroxenous Longirostrata tick, Amblyomma cajennense. To further investigate this relationship, we conducted phylogenetic analyses using sequences of GRPs from these ticks as well as from other species of Brevirostrata and Longirostrata ticks. Results cDNA libraries from salivary glands of the monoxenous tick, R. microplus, contained more contigs of glycine-rich proteins than the two representatives of heteroxenous ticks, R. sanguineus and A. cajennense (33 versus, respectively, 16 and 11). Transcripts of ESTs encoding GRPs were significantly more numerous in the salivary glands of the two Brevirostrata species when compared to the number of transcripts in the Longirostrata tick. The salivary gland libraries from Brevirostrata ticks contained numerous contigs significantly similar to silks of true spiders (17 and 8 in

  14. Cloning and expression of a protective antigen from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed Central

    Rand, K N; Moore, T; Sriskantha, A; Spring, K; Tellam, R; Willadsen, P; Cobon, G S

    1989-01-01

    Glycoproteins located on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of tick gut epithelial cells, when used to vaccinate cattle, are capable of stimulating an immune response that protects cattle against subsequent tick infestation. One such tick gut glycoprotein, designated Bm86, has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments generated by endoproteinase Lys-C digestion have been determined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that encodes Bm86. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contains a 1982-base-pair open reading frame and predicts that Bm86 contains 650 amino acids including a 19-amino acid signal sequence and a 23-amino acid hydrophobic region adjacent to the carboxyl terminus. The main feature of the deduced protein sequence is the repeated pattern of 6 cysteine residues, suggesting the presence of several epidermal growth factor-like domains. A fusion protein consisting of 599 amino acids of Bm86 and 651 amino acids of beta-galactosidase was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. Ticks engorging on cattle vaccinated with these inclusion bodies were significantly damaged as a result of the immune response against the cloned antigen. Images PMID:2690068

  15. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  16. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three novel autophagy-related genes from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores Fernández, José Miguel; Barragán Álvarez, Carla Patricia; Sánchez Hernández, Carla Vanessa; Padilla Camberos, Eduardo; González Castillo, Celia; Ortuño Sahagún, Daniel; Martínez Velázquez, Moisés

    2016-11-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of major importance for the livestock industry. It shows a remarkable ability to survive over long periods without feeding. However, the mechanisms used to endure long-term starvation are poorly understood. It is believed that autophagy, a process of intracellular protein degradation, may play a significant role to confront adverse environmental conditions. To advance our understanding of autophagy in R. microplus, in the present study we report the molecular characterization of three autophagy-related (ATG) genes, namely, RmATG3, RmATG4 and RmATG6, as well as their expression profiles in different developmental stages and organs of the parasite. The deduced amino acid sequences derived from the characterized gene sequences were subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis. The testing produced significant alignments with respective ATG proteins from Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes scapularis ticks. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that RmATG4 and RmATG6 transcripts were elevated in egg and ovary tissue, when compared with larva and midgut samples, while RmATG3 expression in midgut was 2-fold higher than in egg, larva and ovary samples.

  17. Efficiency of sulphur in garlic extract and non-sulphur homeopathy in the control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Furlong, J

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-sulphur-based homeopathic preparation and a sulphur-containing natural product derived from Allium sativum (Linnaeus) against infestation by the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). A total of 24 crossbred calves (7 : 8 Holstein : Zebu), aged 6-8 months and maintained in individual stables under tick-free conditions, were divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) received no treatment; Group 2 was treated with 0.01 g/day of the homeopathic preparation Fator C&MC(®), and Group 3 was treated with 20 g/day of Enxofre-Allium sativum(®). After adaptation to the diet for 1 month, each calf was subjected to artificial infestation with 8000 R. (B.) microplus larvae (aged 7-14 days) twice per week over a 5-month period. Numbers of engorged females were recorded every 14 days and samples of freely released engorged females were collected at 14-day intervals commencing 3 months after the start of the experiment. The engorged females were weighed, incubated for 15 days under biochemical oxygen demand conditions at 27 ± 1 °C and relative humidity >85%, and the weights of the egg masses produced were recorded. Other biological parameters, including reproduction estimate, reduction in oviposition and efficiency of treatment, were determined. A significant reduction in the number of engorged females was detected on animals treated with Enxofre-Allium sativum(®) (Group 3) in comparison with the other two groups. The overall efficiency of the treatment with the sulphur-containing product was 64%, whereas that of the homeopathic preparation was 26%. Under the experimental conditions established, Enxofre-Allium sativum(®) can reduce the intensity of the R. (B.) microplus infestation.

  18. Geostatistics and remote sensing using NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery as predictive tools in tick distribution and habitat suitability estimations for Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in South America. National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A

    1999-02-01

    Remote sensing based on NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration) satellite imagery was used, together with geostatistics (cokriging) to model the correlation between the temperature and vegetation variables and the distribution of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), in the Neotropical region. The results were used to map the B. microplus habitat suitability on a continental scale. A database of B. microplus capture localities was used, which was tabulated with the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images from the NOAA satellite series. They were obtained at 10 days intervals between 1983 and 1994, with an 8 km resolution. A cokriging system was generated to extrapolate the results. The data for habitat suitability obtained through two vegetation and four temperature variables were strongly correlated with the known distribution of B. microplus (sensitivity 0.91; specificity 0.88) and provide a good estimation of the tick habitat suitability. This model could be used as a guide to the correct interpretation of the distribution limits of B. microplus. It can be also used to prepare eradication campaigns or to make predictions about the effects of global change on the distribution of the parasite.

  19. Phenotype changes inherited by crossing pyrethroid susceptible and resistant genotypes from the cattle tick Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Tipacamú, G; Rosario-Cruz, R; Miller, Robert J; Guerrero, Felix D; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; García-Vázquez, Z

    2011-07-01

    Dialelic crosses and backcrosses of pyrethroid resistant (RR) and susceptible (SS) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick strains were carried out and the substitution (Phe-Ile) within the sodium channel gene was monitored in order to analyze the effects of the genotype on the pyrethroid resistance phenotype as measured by the larval packet test (LPT). Parental strains: susceptible (SS) and resistant (RR); dialelic crosses: RS (♂RR × ♀SS), and SR (♂SS × ♀RR); and backcrosses: RS × SS, RS × RR, SR × SS and SR × RR were infested on 280 kg calves. Resistance type (monogenic or polygenic) and effective dominance were determined based on the discriminant concentration (DC) for cipermethrine (0.5%), deltamethrine (0.09%) and flumethrine (0.01%). Allele specific PCR (AS-PCR) was used for genotyping, looking at a sodium channel mutation (Phe-Ile substitution). The mortality rates and allele frequency of susceptible and pyrethroid resistant reference strains were 0% mortality and 90% RR alleles for resistant strain, and 100% mortality and 0% RR alleles as measured by the larval packet test (LPT) and allele specific PCR (AS-PCR) respectively. Backcrossed strain SR × RR showed an effective dominance (D(ML)) of 0.605 for cypermethrin, 0.639 for deltamethrin and 0.498 for flumethrin, while survival of backcrosses RS × SS, RS × RR and SR × SS showed a significant tendency to recesivity. Backcrossed strain SR × RR (69.4%) also showed a higher RR genotype frequency with regards to RS × SS (25.5%), RS × RR (36.7%) and SR × SS (32.0%), however, susceptible allele was inherited in general as an incomplete dominant trait. Monogenic inheritance hypothesis was tested and the results showed monogenic inheritance for cypermethrin and flumethrin (P < 0.05) but not for deltamethrin (P > 0.05). However, significant correlation was found between RR genotype and the survival rate for all three pyrethroids used (P < 0.05), suggesting

  20. Peripheral cellular and humoral responses to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus in Santa Gertrudis cattle.

    PubMed

    Piper, E K; Jonsson, N N; Gondro, C; Vance, M E; Lew-Tabor, A; Jackson, L A

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to cattle tick infestation in single-host ticks is primarily manifested against the larval stage and results in the immature tick failing to attach successfully and obtain a meal. This study was conducted to identify immune responses that characterize the tick-resistant phenotype in cattle. Thirty-five tick-naïve Santa Gertrudis heifers were used in this study, thirty of which were artificially infested for thirteen weeks with tick larvae while five animals remained at a tick-free quarantine property to serve as a control group. Following thirteen weeks of tick infestation, the animals in this trial exhibited highly divergent tick-resistant phenotypes. Blood samples collected throughout the trial were used to measure peripheral immune parameters: haematology, the percentage of cellular subsets comprising the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population, tick-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody titres, IgG1 avidity for tick antigens and the ability of PBMC to recognize and proliferate in response to stimulation with tick antigens in vitro. The tick-susceptible cattle developed significantly higher tick-specific IgG1 antibody titres compared to the tick-resistant animals. These results suggest that the heightened antibody response either does not play a role in resistance or might contribute to increased susceptibility to infestation.

  1. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Daniela; Poppert, Sven; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Hogan, Benedikt; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Thiel, Claudia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions. From Madagascar, clinical cases were published but data based on molecular methods regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogen on the island are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. marginale in Malagasy zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks with a species-specific real-time PCR, (2) the genetic diversity of A. marginale based on tandem repeats and microsatellites of the msp1α gene, and (3) the phylogenetic relationship between A. marginale isolates from Madagascar and strains found worldwide. Two hundred fourteen blood samples and 1822 ticks from 214 zebu cattle were collected. Rhipicephalus (R) microplus (40.2%) and Amblyomma (A) variegatum (59.8%) were identified on the cattle. A. marginale DNA was found in 89.7% of the examined zebu cattle and in 62.3% of the examined ticks. The tandem repeat and microsatellite analyses of the mspa1 gene showed high genetic diversity among the isolates between and within the different regions and high infection potential. Eighteen of the 25 tandem repeats identified have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of A. marginale strains from Madagascar with South Africa, America and Israel. A common ancestor may originate from South Africa and may have evolved due to phylogeographic characteristics or by a history of cattle movement. Its high prevalence in cattle and ticks, together with a low number of clinical manifestations and a high genetic heterogeneity among the investigated strains, confirms endemic stability of A. marginale in cattle from Madagascar.

  2. Reduced efficacy of commercial acaricides against populations of resistant cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus from two municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...

  3. Acetylcholinesterase 1 in populations of organophosphate resistant North American strains of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaboration with Purdue University researchers, we sequenced a 143,606 base pair Rhipicephalus microplus BAC library clone that contained the coding region for acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1). Sequencing was by Sanger protocols and the final assembly resulted in 15 contigs of varying length, e...

  4. New in vitro tests to evaluate the resistance level of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, against acaricides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to compare two new in vitro tests designed to evaluate the resistance level of R. microplus with two tests currently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): one performed on larvae, the Larval Packet Test (LPT) and one ...

  5. Acaricide rotation strategy for managing resistance in the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae): laboratory experiment with a field strain from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Thullner, Friederike; Willadsen, Peter; Kemp, David

    2007-09-01

    During the past two decades, resistance to pyrethroids within the cattle tick genus Boophilus has caused tick control problems in various tropical countries, mainly in Latin America, southern Africa, Australia, and New Caledonia. A Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) strain from Costa Rica, exhibiting resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin but only a very low resistance to organophosphates (OP) was kept under selection pressure for 9 to 11 generations by using deltamethrin or coumaphos (OP), either exclusively or in rotation. The objective of this acaricide rotation was to examine the possibility of delaying or reducing the full emergence of pyrethroid resistance. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin at the LD50 concentration, resistance to deltamethrin was measured after five generations (resistance factor [RF] = 9.2) and very high resistance after 11 generations (RF = 756), compared with the starting field strain from Costa Rica. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin then coumaphos in rotation, resistance to deltamethrin was variable from one generation to the next (RF = 1-4.2), but no high, stable resistance developed. After 10 generations of rotation, the deltamethrin RF was 1.6. In the substrains selected continuously with coumaphos or coumaphos and deltamethrin in rotation, no consistent change in resistance to coumaphos was observed. Rotation of deltamethrin with coumaphos seems to delay the development of strong resistance to deltamethrin in a population that had initially a low level of deltamethrin resistance.

  6. Association of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with tick (Boophilus microplus) resistance in cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M L; Machado, M A; Nascimento, C S; Silva, M V G B; Teodoro, R L; Furlong, J; Prata, M C A; Campos, A L; Guimarães, M F M; Azevedo, A L S; Pires, M F A; Verneque, R S

    2006-08-31

    Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Besides reducing production, this parasite can cause death in the most susceptible animals. The use of commercial acaricides has been the major method of control, but their misuse has led to tick resistance to many chemicals. More recently, vaccines have been used in some countries without solving the problem completely. An alternative could be the development of resistant animals and the use of genetic markers and candidate genes that could help with the enormous task of selecting resistant animals. The bovine lymphocyte antigen genes (BoLA) have been shown to be associated with some parasitic infestations and disease incidence. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the association of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with tick resistance in cattle. The study was conducted on 231 F2 (Gyr x Holstein) animals that were artificially infested with 10,000 tick larvae. Log of tick count +1 was used as the dependent variable in a mixed animal model with allele substitution effects in addition to fixed effects of year and season at tick count, sex of calves, age of animal at tick count, hair type (short-straight, short-curl, long-straight, and long-curl), coat color (white, >75% white, 50- 75% white, and 25-50% white), and additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects as random. Females showed fewer ticks than males. Animals with short-straight hair were more resistant to tick infestation than animals with long-curl hair, and animals with whiter coat color also had fewer ticks. An association between BoLA alleles and lower tick number was found for alleles DRB3.2 *18, *20 and *27 at the 5% significance level. Also, one allele (DRB3.2*16) showed an association at the 10% level. Allele *27 was the most frequent in the population (30.7%), followed by alleles *16 (10.8%), *20 (8.7%) and *18 (2.4%). These results suggest that BoLA-DRB3

  7. Generation of Full-Length cDNAs for Eight Putative GPCnR from the Cattle Tick, R. microplus Using a Targeted Degenerate PCR and Sequencing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Sean W.; Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a rapid and efficient method for the targeted isolation of specific members of gene families without the need for cloning. Using this strategy we isolated full length cDNAs for eight putative G-protein coupled neurotransmitter receptors (GPCnR) from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Gene specific degenerate primers were designed using aligned amino acid sequences of similar receptor types from several insect and arachnid species. These primers were used to amplify and sequence a section of the target gene. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR was used to generate full length cDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis placed 7 of these sequences into Class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) (Rm_α2AOR, Rm_β2AOR, Rm_Dop1R, Rm_Dop2R, Rm_INDR, Rm_5-HT7R and Rm_mAchR), and one into Class C GPCR (Rm_GABABR). Of the 7 Class A sequences, only Rm_mAchR is not a member of the biogenic amine receptor family. The isolation of these putative receptor sequences provides an opportunity to gain an understanding of acaricide resistance mechanisms such as amitraz resistance and might suggest possibilities for the development of new acaricides. PMID:22403662

  8. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  9. Immunogenic potential of the recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus aquaporin protein against the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 in domestic dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaporins regulate water transport through the highly hydrophobic lipid bilayer of cell membranes. As ticks ingest large volumes of host blood in relation to their size, they are required to concentrate blood components and have efficient water transport mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the...

  10. Evolutionary conserved microRNAs are ubiquitously expressed compared to tick-specific miRNAs in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus...

  11. Virulence of Mexican isolates of entomopathogenic fungi upon Rhipicephalus-Boophilus microplus larvae and the efficacy of conidia formulations to reduce larval tick density under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first objective was laboratory evaluation of the virulence of 53 Mexican isolates of fungi against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Thirty three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnickoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 20 isolates of Isaria (Paec...

  12. Ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Faulde, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The most common vector-borne diseases in both Europe and North America are transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne bacterial zoonosis, is the most highly prevalent. Other important tick-borne diseases include TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Europe, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North America, and numerous less common tick-borne bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases on both continents. The major etiological agent of LB is Borrelia burgdorferi in North America, while in Europe several related species of Borrelia can also cause human illness. These Borrelia genospecies differ in clinical manifestations, ecology (for example, some have primarily avian and others primarily mammalian reservoirs), and transmission cycles, so the epizootiology of LB is more complex in Europe than in North America. Ticks dwell predominantly in woodlands and meadows, and in association with animal hosts, with only limited colonization of human dwellings by a few species. Therefore, suburbanization has contributed substantially to the increase in tick-borne disease transmission in North America by fostering increased exposure of humans to tick habitat. The current trend toward suburbanization in Europe could potentially result in similar increases in transmission of tick-borne diseases. Incidence of tick-borne diseases can be lowered by active public education campaigns, targeted at the times and places of greatest potential for encounter between humans and infected ticks. Similarly, vaccines (e.g., against TBE) are most effective when made available to people at greatest risk, and for high-prevalence diseases such as LB. Consultation with vector-borne disease experts during the planning stages of new human developments can minimize the potential for residents to encounter infected ticks (e.g., by appropriate dwelling and landscape design). Furthermore, research on tick vectors, pathogens, transmission ecology, and on

  13. Population dynamics of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a subtropical subhumid region of Argentina for use in the design of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Canevari, J T; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A; Nava, S

    2017-03-01

    The population dynamics of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in northwest Argentina was analysed to support the design of strategic methods for its control. Both parasitic and non-parasitic phases were studied. The seasonal activity of R. microplus in its parasitic phase was characterized by three peaks in abundance: the first in mid-late spring; the second in summer, and the third in autumn. The non-parasitic phase of R. microplus was characterized by a long total non-parasitic period observed after exposures of females from mid-summer to early autumn, a short total non-parasitic period observed after exposures of females from late winter to late spring, a short period of larval longevity in early and mid-summer, and no hatch of the eggs produced by females exposed in mid- and late autumn and winter. Treatments of cattle administered during the period from late winter to late spring will act on small cohorts of R. microplus, preventing the emergence of larger generations in summer and autumn. A 17-week spelling period starting in late spring and early summer will be necessary to achieve optimal control of R. microplus free-living larvae. If spelling begins in mid- or late summer or in autumn, the required period will be 26-27 weeks.

  14. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  15. Acaricidal activity of extracts from the leaves and aerial parts of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Dantas, A C S; Machado, D M R; Araujo, A C; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Ribeiro, L A A; Almeida, J R G S; Horta, M C

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Neoglaziovia variegata against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The mortality and fecundity of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the leaves and aerial parts of N. variegata were evaluated, using three treatments with concentrations of 5, 10 e 25 mg/ml; two controls (distilled water and distilled water with drops of cremophor); with three replicates. The hexane extract of the leaves demonstrated significant results, presenting 94.1% inhibition of oviposition; 0.33% the average percentage of eclosion of eggs; and 99.8% of effectiveness. These results indicate N. variegata, particularly the hexane extract of leaves, as potential alternative control agents of R. (B.) microplus. Pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism responsible for this effect.

  16. Simulated interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), climate variation and habitat heterogeneity on southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) eradication methods in South Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (odocoileus Virginiamis) is a host for cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp.), which are vectors of the pathogens causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. Thus the potential role of white-tailed deer in compromising tick eradication efforts focused on cattl...

  17. In vitro and in vivo acaricide action of juvenoid analogs produced from the chemical modification of Cymbopogon spp. and Corymbia citriodora essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Domingues, Luciana F; Fantatto, Rafaela R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Oliveira, Daniela H; Mano, Renata A; Jacob, Raquel G

    2014-09-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal action of the chemically modified essential oil of Cymbopogon spp. and Corymbia citriodora on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Citronellal was converted into N-butylcitronellylamine and in N-prop-2-inylcitronellylamine, analogs of juvenoids, by reductive amination using butylamine (N1 to N3) and propargylamine (N4 to N7). In vitro assays included the adult immersion, and larval packet tests. Engorged females were weighed in groups of 10 and tested in three replicates for six concentrations. They were immersed in the modified oils or control solution and incubated. In the larval packet test, the same substances and concentrations were evaluated in three replicates. In the in vivo test, six pastured heifers naturally infested with R. (B.) microplus were used per treatment: negative control, positive control (amitraz, Triatox(®)), original oil of C. citriodora at 1.5%, and modified oil containing 0.9% N-prop-2-inylcitronellylamine (N7). Ticks were counted in the right side of the body in 24 animals from day D-3 to D21. LC50 and LC90 were obtained by Probit analysis, while the in vivo results were log transformed and compared using the Tukey test. Among the nitrocellylamines tested in vitro, N6 was most effective on the engorged females (100% efficacy at 50mg/mL) and N7 on the larvae (100% efficacy at 6.25mg/mL). In the test with larvae, the original oil of C. citriodora was less effective than the counterpart modified oil (N7), proving that the chemical modification optimized its effect. In the in vivo test, no significant difference was observed between N7 and the negative control. The average numbers of ticks on the animals' right side were 32.8, 8.1, 37.9 and 35.4 for the negative control, positive control, original oil and N7, respectively. The chemical modification improved the efficacy in vitro, but it was not observed in vivo, perhaps due to the low stability of the amines under field conditions. The

  18. Efficacy of Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rahul; Ghosh, S; Mandal, D B; Azhahianambi, P; Singhal, P S; Pandey, N N; Swarup, D

    2008-12-01

    Extracts were prepared from leaf, bark, and seed of Azadirachta indica, leaf and seed of Prunus persica, bark of Mangifera indica, and leaf of Psidium guajava and were evaluated against Boophilus microplus. Of the eight extracts screened, the extracts prepared from the A. indica seed showed very high level of efficacy (80%) after 5 h of treatment. Besides the immediate effect on adult ticks, the egg-laying properties of the survived ticks was also assessed, and a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in the reproductive index of ticks fed on animals treated with A. indica seed extracts was noted in comparison to control. The efficacy of the neem seed extracts was compared with the commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, and comparable efficacy against B. microplus fed on animals treated with neem seed extracts and acaricide treated was noted. The possibility of using the extracts in IPM format for the management of ticks is discussed.

  19. A GPCR-focused investigation of the R. microplus transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus, also known as the southern cattle tick, has been found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world, including Mexico. It is a vector for parasites responsible for cattle diseases that can lead to decreased weight, anemia, loss of milk/meat production, and death. T...

  20. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  1. Knockdown of the rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of anaplasma marginale transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for Anaplasma transmission are infection of tick gut epithelial cells followed by infection of salivary ...

  2. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  3. Global change and integrated approach for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout the tropics and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing direct...

  4. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Rmi) a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crusta...

  5. Role of Rhipicephalus microplus cheliceral receptors in gustation and host differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle worldwide. It is known that zebuine breeds of cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than taurine breeds. Contact chemoreceptors in the cheliceral pit sensilla of ticks respond selectively to phagos...

  6. In Vitro Mode of Action and Anti-thrombotic Activity of Boophilin, a Multifunctional Kunitz Protease Inhibitor from the Midgut of a Tick Vector of Babesiosis, Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C.; Ma, Dongying; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hematophagous mosquitos and ticks avoid host hemostatic system through expression of enzyme inhibitors targeting proteolytic reactions of the coagulation and complement cascades. While most inhibitors characterized to date were found in the salivary glands, relatively few others have been identified in the midgut. Among those, Boophilin is a 2-Kunitz multifunctional inhibitor targeting thrombin, elastase, and kallikrein. However, the kinetics of Boophilin interaction with these enzymes, how it modulates platelet function, and whether it inhibits thrombosis in vivo have not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings Boophilin was expressed in HEK293 cells and purified to homogeneity. Using amidolytic assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we have demonstrated that Boophilin behaves as a classical, non-competitive inhibitor of thrombin with respect to small chromogenic substrates by a mechanism dependent on both exosite-1 and catalytic site. Inhibition is accompanied by blockade of platelet aggregation, fibrin formation, and clot-bound thrombin in vitro. Notably, we also identified Boophilin as a non-competitive inhibitor of FXIa, preventing FIX activation. In addition, Boophilin inhibits kallikrein activity and the reciprocal activation, indicating that it targets the contact pathway. Furthermore, Boophilin abrogates cathepsin G- and plasmin-induced platelet aggregation and partially affects elastase-mediated cleavage of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI). Finally, Boophilin inhibits carotid artery occlusion in vivo triggered by FeCl3, and promotes bleeding according to the mice tail transection method. Conclusion/Significance Through inhibition of several enzymes involved in proteolytic cascades and cell activation, Boophilin plays a major role in keeping the midgut microenvironment at low hemostatic and inflammatory tonus. This response allows ticks to successfully digest a blood meal which is critical for metabolism and egg

  7. Tick Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Contact About The Foundation Select Page Tick Paralysis Menu What is Tick Paralysis? Where is Tick ... Tick Paralysis Tick-borne Relapsing Fever Tularemia Tick Paralysis Tick species that cause Tick Paralysis: Deer tick, ...

  8. Ixodid ticks on domestic animals in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nithikathkul, C; Polseela, P; Changsap, B; Leemingsawat, S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of tick-harboring domestic animals, tick density, and the species of ticks were studied throughout the year 2000, in Muang Samut Prakan, Bang Phli and Phra Pradaeng districts of Samut Prakan Province. The animals examined were Canis lupus familiaris (450), Bos indicus (cross-bred) (189), Bos taurus (30), Bubalus bubalis (171) and Sus scrofa domestica (450). The total number of collected ticks was 1,491. The pigs did not harbor ticks. The stages of ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults. The prevalence rates of tick-harboring were 46% (Canis lupus familiaris), 42.86% (Bos indicus, cross-bred), 33.33% (Bos taurus) and 9.35% (Bubalus bubalis). The tick densities were 2.22 (Bos indicus, cross-bred), 2.16 (Canis lupus familiaris), 1.16 (Bos taurus) and 0.36 (Bubalus bubalis). Only 2 species of ixodid ticks, Boophilus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were found. R. sanguineus was the dominant species of tick. The percentage of R. sanguineus was 65.2% and B. microplus was 34.8%. In Muang district, R. sanguineus was the dominant species in C. lupus familiaris; in Bang Phli district, B. microplus was the dominant species in Bos indicus (cross-bred). The density of B. microplus was high in the summer season; the density of R. sanguineus was high in the winter season. The number of ticks depended on the geographic location, animal host and season.

  9. Immunoprotective potential of a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Guizzo, Melina Garcia; Tirloni, Lucas; Seixas, Adriana; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Termignoni, Carlos

    2015-01-15

    Ticks have serious impacts on animal and human health, causing significant economic losses in cattle breeding. Besides damage due to the hematophagous behavior, they transmit several pathogens. Low cost and environmental safety have made vaccines a promising alternative control method against tick infestation. Metalloproteases (MPs) have been shown to be essential for diverse biological functions in hematophagous organisms, inhibiting blood clotting, degrading extracellular matrix proteins, and inhibiting host tissue repair via anti-angiogenic activity. In this study, we analyzed the immunoprotective potential of a recombinant MP against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation. First, a cDNA encoding R. microplus amino acids sequence with highly conserved regions of the metzincin (reprolysin) group of MP was identified (BrRm-MP4). After expression and purification, recombinant BrRm-MP4 was used as a vaccinal antigen against R. microplus infestation in cattle (Bos taurus taurus). All vaccinated bovines developed immune response to the antigen, resulting in increased antibody level throughout the immunization protocol. Immunization with rBrRm-MP4 reduced tick feeding success, decreasing the number of engorged females and their reproduction potential, representing a 60% overall protection. These results show that rBrRm-MP4 provides protection against tick infestation, placing it is a potential candidate for an anti-tick vaccine.

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of Bm05br antigen from Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Alzugaray, María Fernanda; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Seixas, Adriana; Benavides, Uruguaysito; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2017-02-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is a cattle-specific tick, causing considerable losses in the livestock industry. The identification of molecules responsible for modulation of host defenses during different parasite stages can help in the development of alternative methods, such as vaccination, to control tick infestations. Hq05, a protein of unknown function identified in the tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, induced a significant protective immune response when used as a vaccine in sheep. In the present study, we investigated Bm05br, the Hq05 homologous gene from R. microplus. Besides H. qinghaiensis, Bm05br homologous found in other tick species such as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes scapularis were comparatively analyzed. Bm05br expression profile in different R. microplus tissues and life-stages was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Bm05br was detected in ovaries, salivary glands and the fat body of both partially and fully engorged females. The highest transcription levels were observed in partially engorged females fat body and salivary glands. Gene knockdown by RNAi reduced egg hatching rate and the weight of tick larvae obtained from treated group, when compared to controls. These results indicate that Bm05br may be involved in R. microplus reproduction. Together with its distribution and high sequence conservation across different tick species, our data suggest Bm05br as a potential antigen for development of a multispecies anti-tick vaccine.

  11. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  12. Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arthropods are a diverse group of organisms including Chelicerata (ticks, mites, spiders), Crustacea (crabs, shrimps), and Insecta (flies, mosquitoes, beetles, silkworm). The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an economically significant ectoparasite of cattle affecting cattle...

  13. Presumptive evidence for the role of the white-tailed deer in the epidemiology of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933 when the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide and “pasture vacation” failed to eradicate Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from parts of Florida, the two methods for tick eradication were used with success. ...

  14. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  15. Multiple mutations in the para-sodium channel gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus from the United States and Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an invasive tick vector that transmits the protozoan parasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, the causative agents of bovine babesiosis (cattle fever). Acaricide resistant R. microplus populations have become a major problem for many cattle producing areas of the world. Py...

  16. Distribution Patterns of Three Sodium Channel Mutations Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus Populations from North and South America, South Africa and Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread throughout its distribution area. Three single nucleotide substitutions identified in the Domains II and III of the sodium channel gene of R. (B.) microplus are known to be associated with t...

  17. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  18. Acetylcholinesterase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi: Gene identification, expression, and biochemical properties of recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm) ticks are vectors of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Tick resistance to organophosphate (OP) acaricide involves acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity to OP and metabolic detoxification. Sequencing and in vitro expression of Bm genes encoding AChE allo...

  19. Serial analysis of gene expression in Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus following organophoosphate treatment of larvae from organophosphate resistant and susceptible strains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organophosphate resistant and susceptible tick larvae from laboratory strains of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were exposed to low doses of the organophosphate (OP) acaricide, coumaphos. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to analyze differential gene e...

  20. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed.

  1. The US experience of eradicating and preventing re-infestation with cattle fever ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and the cattle tick, R. annulatus, are obligate ectoparasites and the vectors of pathogens causing bovine babesiosis, or “Cattle Fever”, and anaplasmosis in cattle. These cattle fever tick (CFT) species were declared eradicated from the U.S. in 1943...

  2. Tick salivary acetylcholinesterase: A probable immunomodulator of host-parasite interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting cattle in the world. Although eradicated from the United States, R. microplus and R. annulatus (Say) continue to threaten U.S. cattle producers despite maintenance of...

  3. Research update on the potential use of anti-tick vaccines to support the USDA Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA APHIS VS Cattle Fever Tick Eradication program (CFTEP) was established in 1906 to eliminate populations of the cattle fever ticks (CFT) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. microplus as a way to eradicate bovine babesiosis from the continental United States, which is a high-impact dis...

  4. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control.

  5. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistant to acaricides and ivermectin in cattle farms of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, Róger Iván; Pérez-Cogollo, Luis Carlos; Rosado-Aguilar, José Alberto; Ojeda-Chi, Melina Maribel; Trinidad-Martinez, Iris; Miller, Robert John; Li, Andrew Yongsheng; de León, Adalberto Pérez; Guerrero, Félix; Klafke, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle.

  6. Challenges with the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico: Then and now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are deadly cattle diseases caused by microorganisms transmitted by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock worldwide. Humans brought animals infested w...

  7. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Madder, Maxime; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990’s after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field samples of R

  8. Differential expression of genes in salivary glands of male Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in response to infection with Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the rickettsial tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is vectored by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A. marginale undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks which results in infection of salivary glands from where the pathogen is transmitted to cattle. In previous studies, we reported modification of gene expression in Dermacentor variabilis and cultured Ixodes scapularis tick cells in response to infection with A. marginale. In these studies, we extended these findings by use of a functional genomics approach to identify genes differentially expressed in R. microplus male salivary glands in response to A. marginale infection. Additionally, a R. microplus-derived cell line, BME26, was used for the first time to also study tick cell gene expression in response to A. marginale infection. Results Suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected ticks and used to identify genes differentially expressed in male R. microplus salivary glands infected with A. marginale. A total of 279 ESTs were identified as candidate differentially expressed genes. Of these, five genes encoding for putative histamine-binding protein (22Hbp), von Willebrand factor (94Will), flagelliform silk protein (100Silk), Kunitz-like protease inhibitor precursor (108Kunz) and proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 3 precursor (7BstNI3) were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR to be down-regulated in tick salivary glands infected with A. marginale. The impact of selected tick genes on A. marginale infections in tick salivary glands and BME26 cells was characterized by RNA interference. Silencing of the gene encoding for putative flagelliform silk protein (100Silk) resulted in reduced A. marginale infection in both tick salivary glands and cultured BME26 cells, while silencing of the gene encoding for subolesin (4D8

  9. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project first submission of genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence difficult. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used to reduce the repetitive fraction of the tick genome and enrich for the fraction of DNA with gene-containing regions. The Cot-selected ...

  10. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  11. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  12. Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains for biological control against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Li, Yufeng; Han, Xueqing; Ma, Chao; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the need to combat the spread of acaricide-resistant ticks, the development of long-term biological control has become a hot topic for tick control. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of three Beauveria bassiana isolates on the engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks using different conidial concentrations. The results showed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 was highly pathogenic against engorged R. (B.) microplus females, resulting in lethal time (LT50 and LT90) of 7.14 and 9.33 days at a concentration of 10(9)conidia/ml. R. (B.) microplus females treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 significantly reduced the amount of ovipositioning; and most ticks died before they could begin to oviposit. Proteases and chitinases were analyzed in order to establish a screening method for identification of high virulent strains. This study has confirmed the significant pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi against engorged R. (B.) microplus females in China, and further studies on the efficiency of the fungus against ticks in the field are required.

  13. Non-Invasive Delivery of dsRNA into De-Waxed Tick Eggs by Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Newton; de Abreu, Leonardo Araujo; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kim, Tae Kwon; Mulenga, Albert; Braz, Gloria Regina Cardoso; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing was shown to be an efficient tool for validation of targets that may become anti-tick vaccine components. Here, we demonstrate the application of this approach in the validation of components of molecular signaling cascades, such as the Protein Kinase B (AKT)/Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) axis during tick embryogenesis. It was shown that heptane and hypochlorite treatment of tick eggs can remove wax, affecting corium integrity and but not embryo development. Evidence of AKT and GSK dsRNA delivery into de-waxed eggs of via electroporation is provided. Primers designed to amplify part of the dsRNA delivered into the electroporated eggs dsRNA confirmed its entry in eggs. In addition, it was shown that electroporation is able to deliver the fluorescent stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). To confirm gene silencing, a second set of primers was designed outside the dsRNA sequence of target gene. In this assay, the suppression of AKT and GSK transcripts (approximately 50% reduction in both genes) was demonstrated in 7-day-old eggs. Interestingly, silencing of GSK in 7-day-old eggs caused 25% reduction in hatching. Additionally, the effect of silencing AKT and GSK on embryo energy metabolism was evaluated. As expected, knockdown of AKT, which down regulates GSK, the suppressor of glycogen synthesis, decreased glycogen content in electroporated eggs. These data demonstrate that electroporation of de-waxed R. microplus eggs could be used for gene silencing in tick embryos, and improve the knowledge about arthropod embryogenesis.

  14. Non-Invasive Delivery of dsRNA into De-Waxed Tick Eggs by Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Newton; de Abreu, Leonardo Araujo; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kim, Tae Kwon; Mulenga, Albert; Braz, Gloria Regina Cardoso; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing was shown to be an efficient tool for validation of targets that may become anti-tick vaccine components. Here, we demonstrate the application of this approach in the validation of components of molecular signaling cascades, such as the Protein Kinase B (AKT) / Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) axis during tick embryogenesis. It was shown that heptane and hypochlorite treatment of tick eggs can remove wax, affecting corium integrity and but not embryo development. Evidence of AKT and GSK dsRNA delivery into de-waxed eggs of via electroporation is provided. Primers designed to amplify part of the dsRNA delivered into the electroporated eggs dsRNA confirmed its entry in eggs. In addition, it was shown that electroporation is able to deliver the fluorescent stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). To confirm gene silencing, a second set of primers was designed outside the dsRNA sequence of target gene. In this assay, the suppression of AKT and GSK transcripts (approximately 50% reduction in both genes) was demonstrated in 7-day-old eggs. Interestingly, silencing of GSK in 7-day-old eggs caused 25% reduction in hatching. Additionally, the effect of silencing AKT and GSK on embryo energy metabolism was evaluated. As expected, knockdown of AKT, which down regulates GSK, the suppressor of glycogen synthesis, decreased glycogen content in electroporated eggs. These data demonstrate that electroporation of de-waxed R. microplus eggs could be used for gene silencing in tick embryos, and improve the knowledge about arthropod embryogenesis. PMID:26091260

  15. Exploring the use of anti-tick vaccine as tool for integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), wit...

  16. Bacteriological analysis of saliva from partially or fully engorged female adult Rhipicephalus microplus by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangliang; Poźniak, Błażej; Cheng, Tian-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera. Microbial diversity in saliva samples from partially engorged ticks was more complex than that of samples from fully engorged individuals. The comparison of saliva and whole-tick samples suggests that bacteria in saliva also colonize the tick's body. We believe that some bacterial genera, such as Dermacoccus, Achromia, SMB53, Sutterella, Providencia, Mycoplana, Oscillospira, and Agrobacterium, were found and reported in ticks for the first time. The Coxiella and Rickettsia detected in this study might be tick-borne pathogens, suggesting health risks associated with exposure to R. microplus in humans and animals. These findings may serve as the basis for developing strategies to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  17. Role of Rhipicephalus microplus cheliceral receptors in gustation and host differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Oliveira, Thaynara Tatielly; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle worldwide. It is known that zebuine breeds of cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than taurine breeds. Contact chemoreceptors in the cheliceral pit sensilla of ticks respond selectively to phagostimulant compounds, however their role in blood feeding relative to host susceptibility to infestation remains to be fully understood. We addressed this topic by conducting taste electrophysiology experiments with cheliceral pit sensilla preparations of R. microplus females. Solutions of five known ixodid tick phagostimulants were tested at different concentrations: sodium (NaCl), and potassium chloride (KCl) (10(-3)-10(-1)M); glucose (10(-4)-10(-1)M); adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (10(-6)-10(-2)M); and reduced l-glutathione (GSH) (10(-6)-10(-2)M). Serum samples from six susceptible animals of the Girolando breed (5/8 Bos indicus×3/8 B. taurus) and six resistant Nelore bovines (pure B. indicus) were also tested. A dose-dependent response of gustatory neurons associated with the chelicerae sensillum to NaCl, glucose, GSH, and ATP were observed. Responses by the cheliceral inner digit pit sensilla of R. microplus to KCl and glucose were also observed and they are reported here for the first time. In addition to an electrophysiological response to known phagostimulants, chemoreceptors in the chelicera of R. microplus responded differently to serum from cattle susceptible and resistant to infestation. The cheliceral pit neurons were more responsive to serum of R. microplus resistant bovines with a higher mean spike frequency (53.5±2spikess(-1)) than to serum samples from susceptible cattle (40.3±2spikess(-1)). The implications of chemosensation during tick blood feeding are discussed.

  18. Structural and biochemical characterization of a recombinant triosephosphate isomerase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Jorge; Arreola, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Nallely; Saramago, Luiz; Freitas, Daniela; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Marietta; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Logullo, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is an enzyme with a role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This enzyme has been used as a target in endoparasite drug development. In this work we cloned, expressed, purified and studied kinetic and structural characteristics of TIM from tick embryos, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmTIM). The Km and Vmax of the recombinant BmTIM with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrate, were 0.47 mM and 6031 μmol min⁻¹ mg protein⁻¹, respectively. The resolution of the diffracted crystal was estimated to be 2.4 Å and the overall data showed that BmTIM is similar to other reported dimeric TIMs. However, we found that, in comparison to other TIMs, BmTIM has the highest content of cysteine residues (nine cysteine residues per monomer). Only two cysteines could make disulfide bonds in monomers of BmTIM. Furthermore, BmTIM was highly sensitive to the action of the thiol reagents dithionitrobenzoic acid and methyl methane thiosulfonate, suggesting that there are five cysteines exposed in each dimer and that these residues could be employed in the development of species-specific inhibitors.

  19. Structural and biochemical characterization of a recombinant triosephosphate isomerase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Jorge; Arreola, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Nallely; Saramago, Luiz; Freitas, Daniela; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz Jr., Itabajara; Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Marietta; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Logullo, Carlos

    2012-02-06

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is an enzyme with a role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This enzyme has been used as a target in endoparasite drug development. In this work we cloned, expressed, purified and studied kinetic and structural characteristics of TIM from tick embryos, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmTIM). The Km and Vmax of the recombinant BmTIM with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrate, were 0.47 mM and 6031 {micro}mol min{sup -1} mg protein{sup -1}, respectively. The resolution of the diffracted crystal was estimated to be 2.4 {angstrom} and the overall data showed that BmTIM is similar to other reported dimeric TIMs. However, we found that, in comparison to other TIMs, BmTIM has the highest content of cysteine residues (nine cysteine residues per monomer). Only two cysteines could make disulfide bonds in monomers of BmTIM. Furthermore, BmTIM was highly sensitive to the action of the thiol reagents dithionitrobenzoic acid and methyl methane thiosulfonate, suggesting that there are five cysteines exposed in each dimer and that these residues could be employed in the development of species-specific inhibitors.

  20. Identification, characterization and use of two tick promoters for construction of a dual luciferase reporter vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual luciferase reporter systems are valuable tools for functional genomic studies, but have not previously been developed for use in tick cell culture. We evaluated expression of available luciferase constructs in tick cell cultures derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an important vec...

  1. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Rmi) a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs). Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) encoding gene sequence (rDNA), related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence differences were also

  2. Evidence for the role of white-tailed deer(Artiodactyla:Cervidae)in the epidemiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (Acari:Ixodidae)in reinfestations along the Texas/Mexico border in South Texas-A review and update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933 the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [SCT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini)], until failures began to oc...

  3. Adaptation of in vitro bioassays for the diagnosis of resistance to Fipronil and Ivermectin in R. (B.) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. microplus represents the most important pathological constraint to livestock production in Brazil and Uruguay. The infestation of cattle by ticks is controlled by chemical applications on a regular basis. Fipronil and ivermectin have been widely used in recent years to the benefit of cattle produ...

  4. Inhibitor Profile of bis(n)-tacrines and N-methylcarbamates on Acetylcholinesterase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm), and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are disease vectors to cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from Bm (BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAchE) compared to h...

  5. Acetylcholinesterases of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi: Gene identification, expression and biochemical properties of recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm) is a vector of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Tick resistance to organophosphate (OP) acaricide involves acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity to OP and metabolic detoxification. In vitro expression of Bm genes encoding AChE allowed biochemical chara...

  6. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  7. Integrated control of acaricide-resistant Boophilus microplus populations on grazing cattle in Mexico using vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-10-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides.

  8. Stop Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... and bringing ticks with them. Prevent Ticks on Animals Use tick control products to prevent family pets ... medications should be used regularly to protect your animals and your family from ticks. Consult your veterinarian ...

  9. Tick bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Lyme disease, erythema migrans Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Ticks Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick, deer - adult female Deer and dog ...

  10. Occurrence of Ticks in Cattle in the New Pastoral Farming Areas in Rufiji District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamiro, Kamilius A; Magwisha, Henry B; Rukambile, Elpidius J; Ruheta, Martin R; Kimboka, Expery J; Malulu, Deusdedit J; Malele, Imna I

    2016-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases plus trypanosomosis are a constraint to cattle rearing in Tanzania. Rufiji district was not known for important ticks infesting cattle because inhabitants were not engaged in keeping livestock. Not only has settlement of pastoralists and cattle in Rufiji increased the number of cattle but also cattle have been the source of bringing in and spreading of ticks. This study investigated tick species that have been introduced and managed to establish themselves in the new livestock farming areas in cattle in Rufiji. Tick distribution study was undertaken in three villages of Chumbi ward seasonally in 2009, 2011, and 2012. The identified ticks were Amblyomma variegatum (56.10%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (10.25%), R. microplus (27.40%), and R. appendiculatus (6.19%) out of 12940 ticks. Results indicate that ticks are present in the new livestock settlement areas. The occurrence of ticks is correlated with the recent settlement of cattle in the district.

  11. Molecular survey of hard ticks in endemic areas of tick-borne diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Jian-Bo; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Tian, Jun-Hua; Guo, Wen-Ping; Fan, Fei-Neng; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-06-01

    Over the past several years, there was a substantial increase in the number of cases of known and novel tick-borne infections in humans in China. To better understand the ticks associated with these infections, we collected hard ticks from animals or around livestock shelters in 29 localities in 5 provinces (Beijing, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, and Zhejiang) where cases of tick-borne illness were reported. We collected 2950 hard ticks representing 7 species of 4 genera (Dermacentor sinicus, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes granulatus, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). These ticks were identified to species using morphological characters initially. We then sequenced the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (12S rRNA) gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) gene of these ticks, and conducted phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses showed that the molecular and morphological data are consistent in the identification of the 7 tick species. Furthermore, all these 7 tick species from China were genetically closely related to the same species or related species found outside China. Rapid and accurate identification and long-term monitoring of these ticks will be of significance to the prevention and control of tick-borne diseases in China.

  12. In vivo efficacy of a biotherapic and eugenol formulation against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Moreira, Gustavo Henrique Ferreira Abreu; Serafini, Matheus Ferreira; Facury-Filho, Elias Jorge; Carvalho, Antônio Último; Faraco, André Augusto Gomes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2017-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus is essential to prevent cattle discomfort and economic losses. However, increased resistance and acaricides inefficiency lead producers to adopt strategies that could result in the accumulation of chemical residues in meat and milk with possibilities of poisoning in animals and people. This scenario demonstrates the necessity of research into the identification of novel, effective and environmentally safe therapeutic options for cattle tick control. The objectives of this study were to develop and assess the efficacy of R. microplus biotherapic and of 5% eugenol for the control of R. microplus in artificially infested calves. Eighteen male 6-month-old Holstein calves were divided into three groups of six animals. In Group 1, the animals did not receive medication (control group); in Group 2, the animals received 1 mL of R. microplus biotherapic at dilution 6CH (centesimal Hahnemannian), orally administered twice daily. And in Group 3, they received a single application of eugenol 5% in the pour-on formulation. The median efficacy for biotherapy and eugenol 5% was respectively 10.13 and 13.97%; however, upon analyzing reproductive efficiency, it is noteworthy that the biotherapic had 45.86% efficiency and was superior to the action of eugenol (12.03%) after 37 days of treatment. The ultrastructural study provided information about the effects of R. microplus biotherapic on the ovaries of engorged females and showed disorganization in the deposition of the oocyte exochorion. The results suggest hatchability inhibition of larvae, interference in R. microplus reproduction and future possibilities for eco-friendly control of R. microplus with biotherapic 6CH.

  13. Integration of ecologically-based approaches to re-eradicate cattle fever ticks from the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we summarize highlights of research conducted as part of a NIFA-AFRI funded grant. Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradic...

  14. The action of two ethyl carbamates on acetylcholinesterase and reproductive organs of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Prado-Ochoa, M G; Ramírez-Noguera, P; Díaz-Torres, R; Garrido-Fariña, G I; Vázquez-Valadez, V H; Velázquez-Sánchez, A M; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Angeles, E; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2014-01-31

    The effects produced by the new synthetic carbamates ethyl-(4-bromophenyl) carbamate and ethyl-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamate on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, egg structure and reproductive organs of two Rhipicephalus microplus strains were evaluated. Inhibition kinetic parameters showed that the studied carbamates are weak inhibitors and have a low affinity for R. microplus AChE. Histologically, in oocytes from carbamate-treated engorged female ticks, a loss of shape, cytoplasmic vacuoles, decreased chorion deposition, alterations in cytoplasmic granularity and irregular membranes were observed. In oocyte germinal vesicles, a loss of shape, nucleolar fragmentation and membrane alterations with degenerative signs were observed. The ovarian epithelium was vacuolated, flattened, eroded and contained pyknotic nuclei. These alterations were observed from the first day and persisted and increased in severity until day 7 post-treatment. The ovaries from carbamate-treated ticks had fewer stage IV-V oocytes and more stage I-II oocytes. Additionally, eggs produced by the treated ticks had a modified appearance, decreased size, a reduced superficial waxy layer and a loss of viability. The results of this study show that the effects of carbamates on R. microplus were independent of AChE inhibition and show that the morphological alterations in the reproductive organs were due to carbamate actions on the vitellogenesis and viability of the ovarian cells.

  15. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the number of ticks from the Group B compared to the Group A on day 4 PT. However, there was no significant difference in the number of ticks on cows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form.

  16. Tick Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  17. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of deltamethrin and amitraz mixtures for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari:Ixodidae) in New Caledonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deltamethrin and amitraz have been used to control R. microplus in New Caledonia for the past decade, and tick populations have developed resistance to both acaricides. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of deltamethrin and amitraz mixtures, through in vitro laboratory bioassays an...

  19. Microarray analysis of expressed genes from Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae, adult ovary, and adult female gut associated with Babesia bovis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized R. microplus microarrays, which contained over 13,...

  20. Acaricide and Ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican Tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebuine (Bos indicus) breeds of cattle and their crosses, and the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) are non-native species that were introduced to Mexico through the livestock trade. Red deer raised in the Neotropics can die from...

  1. Acaricide Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: Impact on Agro-Biosecurity and Cattle Trade between Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal health issues are important aspects of the bilateral partnership between Mexico and the United States of America (U.S.). Because the U.S. is free of the cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, and bovine babesiosis, the widespread distribution of cattle f...

  2. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  3. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Parikshit; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Sharma, Rajeev Kumar; Barkalita, Luit Moni; Sarma, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Bhaben Chandra; Borah, Pranjal; Stanley, Bobitha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%), T. orientalis (21.05%) and A. marginale (14.03%), respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B).microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M) was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  4. An update on distribution models for Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Eva M; Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Adehan, S; Madder, Maxime; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2013-11-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which reached the West African region approximately 8 years ago, has established viable populations in Côte d'Ivoire and Benin and spread rapidly from the assumed points of introduction. However, existing maps of its distribution range do not agree on the areas at risk, most probably due to suboptimal modelling approaches. Therefore, we undertook a re-investigation of the potential distribution range based on a high-quality dataset from West Africa that includes information on 104 farms located all over Benin. Focussing on climate suitability and applying advanced modelling, a subset of representative and uncorrelated climate variables was selected and fed into Maxent software to obtain an estimate of climate suitability for West Africa. The resulting map was validated using an independent dataset of 13 farms along the apparent distribution edge. The entire southern part of West Africa (covering southern Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana) features high climate suitability for R. microplus. All of Côte d'Ivoire is inside the distribution range of this tick and the southern rim of Burkina Faso is expected to be suitable for the establishment of R. microplus populations. The validation of the distribution, dated one year after the initial field visit, confirmed the predicted distribution range, although a small number of individuals of R. microplus were found north of the predicted limit. These low numbers might indicate that the climate is not suitable for the establishment of a viable tick population. An alternative explanation is the recent introduction by nomadic cattle herds passing through this location. In this region of the world, it is quite common for cattle owners to lead their livestock over distances of more than 500 km in search of food and water.

  5. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas.

  6. Identification of immunogenic proteins from ovarian tissue and recognized in larval extracts of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through an immunoproteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Rodríguez, Patricia Berenice; Rosario Cruz, Rodrigo; Domínguez García, Delia Inés; Hernández Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Lagunes Quintanilla, Rodolfo Esteban; Ortuño Sahagún, Daniel; González Castillo, Celia; Gutiérrez Ortega, Abel; Herrera Rodríguez, Sara Elisa; Vallejo Cardona, Adriana; Martínez Velázquez, Moisés

    2016-11-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites of cattle and act as vectors for disease-causing microorganisms. Conventional tick control is based on the use of chemical acaricides; however, their uncontrolled use has increased tSresistant tick populations, as well as food and environmental contamination. Alternative immunological tick control has shown to be partially effective. The only anti-tick vaccine commercially available at present in the world is based on intestinal Bm86 protein, and shows a variable effectiveness depending on tick strains or geographic isolates. Therefore, there is a need to characterize new antigens in order to improve immunological protection. The aim of this work was to identify immunogenic proteins from ovarian tissue extracts of R. microplus, after cattle immunization. Results showed that ovarian proteins complexed with the adjuvant Montanide ISA 50 V generated a strong humoral response on vaccinated cattle. IgG levels peaked at fourth post-immunization week and remained high until the end of the experiment. 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE-Western blot assays with sera from immunized cattle recognized several ovarian proteins. Reactive bands were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. They were identified as Vitellogenin, Vitellogenin-2 precursor and Yolk Cathepsin. Our findings along with bioinformatic analysis indicate that R. microplus has several Vitellogenin members, which are proteolytically processed to generate multiple polypeptide fragments. This apparent complexity of vitellogenic tick molecular targets gives the opportunity to explore their potential usefulness as vaccine candidates but, at the same time, imposes a challenge on the selection of the appropriate set of antigens.

  7. Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

  8. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in U.S.A. is required to mitigate the impact of global change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R.(B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly t...

  9. Acaricidal efficacies of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its phytochemicals against organophosphate-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Costa-Júnior, Livio M; Miller, Robert J; Alves, Péricles B; Blank, Arie F; Li, Andrew Y; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2016-09-15

    Plant-derived natural products can serve as an alternative to synthetic compounds for control of ticks of veterinary and medical importance. Lippia gracilis is an aromatic plant that produces essential oil with high content of carvacrol and thymol monoterpenes. These monoterpenes have high acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, there are no studies that show efficacy differences of essential oils between susceptible and organophosphate resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus. The aim of the present study was to compare acaricidal effects of essential oils extracted from two different genotypes of L. gracilis and the main monoterpenes on larvae of both susceptible and organophosphate resistant R. (B.) microplus larvae. The efficacy of the essential oil of two genotypes of L. gracilis (106 and 201) and their monoterpenes carvacrol and thymol was measured using the larval immersion test on coumaphos-resistant and susceptible strains of R. (B.) microplus. Lethal concentrations were calculated using GraphPad Prism 6.0. Chemical analysis was performed by GC-MS and FID. Thymol and carvacrol were observed to be major constituents in 106 and 201L. gracilis genotype essential oils, respectively. Essential oils of both genotypes were more effective against organophosphate-resistant tick strain than susceptible tick strain. Carvacrol was 3.2 times more toxic to organophosphate resistant strain than to susceptible strain. Thymol was equally toxic to resistant and susceptible tick strains. The significantly higher efficacy monoterpene carvacrol against resistant ticks may lead to development of new natural product acaricide formulations for use to control organophosphate resistant R. (B.) microplus populations.

  10. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition.

  11. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante

    2013-10-18

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation.

  12. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related.

  13. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  14. Acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Miller, R J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Pérez de León, A A

    2014-02-24

    In the Neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. In Mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in Rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in R. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. In this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in R. microplus collected from red deer in the Mexican tropics. Engorged R. microplus females were collected from a red deer farm in Yucatan, Mexico. The larval packet test was used to detect resistance to the organophosphates (OPs) chlorpyrifos and coumaphos, synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) cypermethrin and permethrin, and the phenylpyrazol, fipronil. Resistance to the formamidine amitraz (Am), and ivermectin was ascertained using the larval immersion test. Data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations and resistance ratios to kill 50% (RR50) and 99% (RR99) of the tick population under evaluation in relation to susceptible reference strains. Additionally, allele specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus. The R. microplus population from red deer in Yucatan showed very high resistance to the two SPs evaluated (RRs>72.2 for cypermethrin; RR for permethrin resistance was so high a dose-response curve was not possible). All individual larvae tested to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus were homozygous. The same tick population showed different levels of resistance to OPs (chlorpyrifos: RR50=1.55, RR99=0.63; coumaphos: RR50=6.8, RR99=5.9), fipronil (RR50=1.8, RR99=0.9), and amitraz (RR50=2.3, RR99=4.4). Resistance to ivermectin was regarded as moderate (RR50=7.1, RR99=5.0). This is the first report of R. microplus ticks collected from red

  15. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on immunized cattle that showed

  16. Transfected babesia bovis expressing a tick GST as a live vector vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan pro...

  17. Shift in rules of engagement for eradication of cattle fever ticks in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the exception of a systematic quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico, cattle fever ticks (CFT), i.e. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, were officially eradicated from the U.S. in 1943. Because of their roles as vectors of bovine babesiosis, the re-e...

  18. Cattle Fever Ticks in the U.S.: Back to 1906?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping cattle fever ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus, eradicated from the United States and thus keeping the national cattle herd free of bovine babesiosis is a current and critical agricultural biosecurity issue of national relevance. Also known as “Texas fever”, ...

  19. Research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...

  20. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Wellington, Kevin W; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Fouche, Gerda

    2017-01-30

    The goal of our research is to develop a lower cost eco-friendly tick control method because acaricides that are commonly used to control ticks are often toxic, harmful to the environment or too expensive for resource-limited farmers. Acetone and ethanol extracts were prepared and their acaricidal activities determined against the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing using the adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT). The acetone stem extract from Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) and the ethanol leaf and flower extract from Calpurnia aurea (Fabaceae) had potent activity like that of the commercial acaricide, chlorfenvinphos [corrected mortality (CM)=100.0%]. The ethanol extracts of the stem of C. quadrangularis (CM=98.9%) and that of the roots, leaves and fruit of Senna italica subsp arachoides (CM=96.7%) also had good acaricidal activity. There is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) microplus that can be used commercially to protect animals against tick infestation. Further studies to isolate the acaricidal active compounds and to determine the environmental fate, species toxicity and skin toxicity of these plants species are, however, required before they can be considered as a treatment against ticks.

  1. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    PubMed

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections.

  2. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite.

  3. Ixodicide activity of Eysenhardtia polystachya against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, L; Sumano, H; Rivero, F; Alcala-Canto, Y

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal effect of 2 compounds extracted from Eysenhardtia polystachya in vitro, namely coatlines and matlalines. Each extract was obtained by aqueous extraction in a nitrogen atmosphere. Engorged adult females of an amitraz-resistant strain of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were used to produce larvae and to carry out the adult immersion test (AIT), while larvae were assayed using the larval packet test (LPT). After exposure to coatlines or matlalines, the mortality of larvae and engorged females, as well as the reproductive parameters of adult ticks were assessed. Coatlines were not lethal against larvae and did not decrease reproductive parameters. Conversely, matlalines showed a 90 to 100% efficacy against adults and larvae at all concentrations tested and a reduction of 76.41 to 80.64% oviposition and a 48.02 to 54.86% reduction in egg hatchability. Therefore, the acaricidal activity of matlalines was more efficient. Further studies are required to elucidate both the mode of action of matlalines as well the structure-activity relationships responsible for the observed differential efficacy between these 2 related isoflavans against the cattle tick.

  4. Formula to evaluate efficacy of vaccines and systemic substances against three-host ticks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-05-01

    The control of ticks with vaccines is of global interest. Experimental vaccines incorporate new technologies as soon as they are available. Historically, the main vaccine studies have focused on the one-host cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, and efficacy evaluations have been standardised for this tick species. On the other hand, evaluations of vaccine candidates for three-host ticks are being done somewhat arbitrarily and thus comparisons within the current literature on the efficacy of vaccines, as well as other methods of control, are difficult. We herein provide a formula for the evaluation of efficacy of a vaccine designed against three-host ticks that incorporates the whole life cycle of the tick.

  5. Control of Boophilus microplus populations in grazing cattle vaccinated with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A

    1995-04-01

    Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals.

  6. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  7. Rationale for classical biological control of cattle fever ticks and proposed methods for field collection of natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control using specialist parasitoids, predators and/or nematodes from the native ranges of cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus could complement existing control strategies for this livestock pest in the transboundary region between Mexico and T...

  8. Collection of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences from Rhipicephalus ticks from various geographic locations around the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the origin of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, will be helpful to the effort to find biological control agents. Molecular phylogenetics can assist in this determination. Thus, we sequenced and assembled partial gene sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I coding r...

  9. In vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of Babesia bigemina sporokinetes in hemocytes of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Jania; Rangel, Charles P; McIntosh, Douglas; Silveira, Júlia A G; Cunha, Nathalie C; Ramos, Carlos A N; Fonseca, Adivaldo H

    2015-09-15

    Cultures of tick hemocytes represent alternative cell lines for the isolation and cultivation of a variety of hemoparasites. The present study reports the development and evaluation of methods for the in vitro culture and maintenance of sporokinetes of Babesia bigemina in association with hemocytes of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Hemolymph, from engorged females infected with B. bigemina sporokinetes, was incubated at 28 °C in L15 culture medium supplemented with 40% fetal bovine serum. Adherence of hemocytes to flask surfaces and the development of B. bigemina sporokinetes commenced on the first day of cultivation. The protozoa demonstrated clear motility and the capacity to adhere to hemocyte membranes for up to 25 days, at which time the hemocytes began to show signs of degeneration. Examination of Giemsa stained hemocyte cultures, revealed the presence of pyriformis forms, as well as mature and immature sporokinetes with dark red nuclei, centralized or near the apical extremities. Sporokinetes harvested from culture supernatants were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Inoculation of parasite-free hemocyte cultures with defrosted sporokinetes, demonstrated the viability and interaction of the protozoa with the hemocytes over 21 days. Cultured hemocytes of R. microplus hold potential for development as a tool in the study of host parasite interactions and as a substrate for the in vitro maintenance of B. bigemina sporokinetes.

  10. Commercial formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in a pen study.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana G; Marciano, Allan F; Sá, Fillipe A; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Quinelato, Simone; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Angelo, Isabele C; Prata, Márcia C A; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2014-09-15

    The present study evaluated, for the first time, the effect of the commercial formulation Metarril(®) SP Organic of Metarhizium anisopliae plus 10% mineral oil to control Rhipicephalus microplus in a pen study. Three groups were formed with six animals each: the first group was exposed to Metarril(®) plus 10% mineral oil and 1% Tween 80; the second group was exposed to sterile distilled water, mineral oil and Tween 80 (oil control group); and the third group received no treatment (control group). The fungal formulation contained 1 × 10(8)conidiaml(-1). Each animal was sprayed with 3L of formulation. Fallen ticks were counted daily and a sample of 20 engorged females per day was incubated for assessment of biological parameters. Throughout the study period, Metarril(®) oil-based formulation showed an efficacy ranging from 19.20% to 67.39% in comparison with the control group; and from 8.18% to 61.38% in comparison with the oil control group. The average efficacy of Metarril(®) oil-based formulation was 47.74% and 40.89% in comparison with control and oil control groups, respectively. Changes in the biological parameters of engorged R. microplus females were observed in the first three days after treatment, with a significant reduction in hatching percentage and egg production index. We concluded that Metarril(®) SP Organic plus 10% mineral oil was efficient against R. microplus in pen studies. However, further in vivo studies are required to increase the efficacy and to establish a protocol for the use of this product in the field against the cattle tick.

  11. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  12. Tick repellents and acaricides of botanical origin: a green roadmap to control tick-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Arthropods are dangerous vectors of agents of deadly diseases, which may hit as epidemics or pandemics in the increasing world population of humans and animals. Among them, ticks transmit more pathogen species than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide. Thus, the effective and eco-friendly control of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. A number of novel routes have been attempted to prevent and control tick-borne diseases, including the development of (i) vaccines against viruses vectored by ticks; (ii) pheromone-based control tools, with special reference to the "lure and kill" techniques; (iii) biological control programmes relying on ticks' natural enemies and pathogens; and (iv) the integrated pest management practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock. However, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remains the two most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Unfortunately, the first one is limited by the rapid development of resistance in ticks, as well as by serious environmental concerns. On the other hand, the exploitation of plants as sources of effective tick repellents is often promising. Here, we reviewed current knowledge concerning the effectiveness of plant extracts as acaricides or repellents against tick vectors of public health importance, with special reference to Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes persulcatus, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Eighty-three plant species from 35 botanical families were selected. The most frequent botanical families exploited as sources of acaricides and repellents against ticks were Asteraceae (15 % of the selected studies), Fabaceae (9 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Meliaceae (5 %), Solanaceae (6

  13. Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

    2013-05-31

    Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities.

  14. Isolation of protective antigens from the gut of Boophilus microplus using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R P; Opdebeeck, J P

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against midgut membrane (GM) antigens of Boophilus microplus. The isotypes of these mAb were established and their specificity characterized using double diffusion and Western blotting. GM antigens solubilized by Triton X-100 were precipitated by mAb QU13, and the precipitate was then injected into cattle to test for the presence of protective antigens. Vaccinated cattle challenged with 10-day-old larval ticks showed evidence of protection with a 62% reduction in eggs produced by ticks from vaccinated cattle compared to tick eggs from control cattle. In a second vaccine-challenge experiment, the dose of precipitate was increased and greater than 99% protection was provided to these vaccinated cattle following challenge (calculated from tick egg weights compared to the control group). The solubilized antigen(s) precipitated by QU13 were subjected to SDS-PAGE separation and the calculated sizes of these molecules were greater than 200,000, 80,000, 74,000, 62,000 57,000 and less than 30,000 MW. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1997395

  15. Interaction of plant essential oil terpenoids with the southern cattle tick tyramine receptor: A potential biopesticide target.

    PubMed

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2017-02-01

    An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening. Screening an in-house terpenoid library, at two screening concentrations (10 μM and 100 μM), has identified four terpenoids (piperonyl alcohol, 1,4-cineole, carvacrol and isoeugenol) that we believe are positive modulators of the southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor.

  16. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are several tick removal devices on the market, but a plain set of fine-tipped tweezers ... for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector- ...

  17. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in

  18. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N’Douba, Adèle; N’Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. PMID:26771308

  19. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  20. Effect of attractant sex pheromone on immature larval stages of ixodid tick species.

    PubMed

    Ranju, R S; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Leela, V; Basith, S Abdul

    2012-10-01

    Attractant sex pheromone (ASP) 2,6-dichloro phenol was used in the current study to evaluate the percentage attraction and the behavioural responses of the five ixodid tick species namely Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus microplus (Boophilus microplus), Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and Hyalomma marginatum using petridish bioassay. Two concentrations of 2,6-DCP (0.1 M and 0.05 M) was used for the larval stages of all five ixodid tick species of which 0.1 M concentration was found to have maximum attraction. Trials with 0.1 M ASP revealed highest per cent of attraction in R. sanguineus larvae (71 %) followed by H. bispinosa (55 %) and R. microplus (55 %). With 0.1 M ASP R. haemaphysaloides and H. marginatum showed least attraction (39 % each). However the per cent of attraction of R. haemaphysaloides was higher (46 %) with 0.05 M ASP. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference in per cent of attraction between the different tick larvae using 0.05 and 0.1 M ASP. The larvae also exhibited behavioural responses such as feeding, probing, resting and questing posture.

  1. A comparison of three different methodologies for evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus susceptibility to topical spray compounds.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rafael Rodrigues; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to compare three different methodologies (Adult Immersion Tests, field trials with naturally infected animals, and a Stall Test using artificially infested cattle) to evaluate the efficacy of two topical formulations that we administered as whole body sprays (15% Cypermethrin+30% Chlorpyriphos+15% Fenthion-Colosso(®) FC 30, Ouro Fino Agronegócios; and 60% Dichlorvos+20% Chlorpyriphos-Ectofós(®), Vallée Saúde Animal Ltd.), against a susceptible strain of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. To achieve this objective, two natural infestation trials were conducted, as well as two artificial infestation trials (Stall Tests) and two Adult Immersion Tests (AIT). The AIT results showed that both spray formulations achieved 100% efficacy against R. (B.) microplus fully engorged females. However, when observing results obtained by field trials (natural infestations) and Stall Tests, none of these topically applied compounds reached 100% efficacy or affected the reproductive capacity of the fully engorged female ticks. Additional studies must be conducted to compare these in vivo methodologies with different in vitro techniques, such as the Larval Packet Test. However, based on results obtained here, we can conclude that depending on the spray formulations used, the AIT can overestimate acaricidal efficacy and values of reproductive efficiency of such compounds against R (B.) microplus. Specifically, when dealing with spray formulations in the Stall Tests, the period of residual action can increase because these animals are sheltered from contact with environmental factors that might interfere with the efficacy of the products tested. It may be necessary to take in vivo trial results into consideration (such as field trials with naturally infested animals or Stall Tests) to standardize a specific in vitro assay, such as the Adult Immersion Test.

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Francisella bacteria in ticks collected from Artiodactyla in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-07-01

    A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand.

  3. Cattle tick vaccines: many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Miller, Robert J; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-05-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is arguably the world's most economically important external parasite of cattle. Sustainable cattle tick control strategies are required to maximise the productivity of cattle in both large production operations and small family farms. Commercially available synthetic acaricides are commonly used in control and eradication programs, but indiscriminate practices in their application have resulted in the rapid evolution of resistance among populations in tropical and subtropical regions where the invasive R. microplus thrives. The need for novel technologies that could be used alone or in combination with commercially available synthetic acaricides is driving a resurgence of cattle tick vaccine discovery research efforts by various groups globally. The aim is to deliver a next-generation vaccine that has an improved efficacy profile over the existing Bm86-based cattle tick vaccine product. We present a short review of these projects and offer our opinion on what constitutes a good target antigen and vaccine, and what might influence the market success of candidate vaccines. The previous experience with Bm86-based vaccines offers perspective on marketing and producer acceptance aspects that a next-generation cattle tick vaccine product must meet for successful commercialisation.

  4. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    PubMed

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %).

  5. Molecular survey and sequence analysis of Anaplasma spp. in cattle and ticks in a Malaysian farm.

    PubMed

    Tay, S T; Koh, F X; Kho, K L; Ong, B L

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in the blood samples of cattle, goats, deer and ticks in a Malaysian farm. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approach, Anaplasma spp. was detected from 81(84.4%) of 96 cattle blood samples. All blood samples from 23 goats and 22 deer tested were negative. Based on the analysis of the Anaplasma partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, four sequence types (genotypes 1 to 4) were identified in this study. Genotypes 1-3 showed high sequence similarity to those of Anaplasma platys/ Anaplasma phagocytophilum, whilst genotype 4 was identical to those of Anaplasma marginale/ Anaplasma centrale/ Anaplasma ovis. Anaplasma DNA was detected from six (5.5%) of 109 ticks which were identified as Rhipicephalus (formely known as Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from the cattle. This study reported for the first time the detection of four Anaplasma sequence types circulating in the cattle population in a farm in Malaysia. The detection of Anaplasma DNA in R. microplus ticks in this study provides evidence that the ticks are one of the potential vectors for transmission of anaplasmosis in the cattle.

  6. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.

  7. Assessment of different Lippia sidoides genotypes regarding their acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos; Penha, Tatiane Aranha; Araújo, Sandra Alves de; Cruz, Elizangela Mércia Oliveira; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Costa-Junior, Livio Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select different genotypes of Lippia sidoides with the highest activity against larvae and engorged females of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The germplasms studied were LSID006, LSID102, LSID103 and LSID104. The LSID104 genotype, that presented carvacrol as a major constituent, was the germplasm with the worst larvicide effect (LC50 2.99 mg/mL). The LSID006 genotype was the least effective against engorged females (LC50 12.46 mg/mL), and it was chemically similar to the LSID102 genotype, which presented the highest acaricide activity (LC50 2.81 mg/mL). We conclude that chemical similarity of the germplasms was not correlated with acaricide activity against R. (B.) microplus. The essential oil of L. sidoides is a potent natural agent. However, the findings of this work provide a better understanding for product development based on this natural product, which must consider synergic effects or the action of minor compounds.

  8. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... bite from a tick that carries the bacteria Borrelia hermsii. In the United States, these ticks are ... was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: borrelia hermsii, illness from ticks, recurring, TBRF, tick, tick ...

  9. First report of fipronil resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Almazán, Consuelo; Ortíz-Estrada, Martín; Davey, Ronald B; George, John E; De León, Adalberto Peréz

    2013-01-16

    Five strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Tamaulipas Mexico were tested for resistance against several classes of acaricides commonly used. All were resistant to fipronil. Four of five were co-resistant to permethrin and coumaphos in addition to being resistant to fipronil. One strain, El Zamora was found multi-resistant to permethrin, coumaphos, fipronil, and amitraz. Selection with fipronil for 3 generations produced a resistance ratio of 8.3 and 9.4 at the LC(50) and the LC(99) estimates, respectively. Permethrin resistance in El Zamora was possibly linked to elevated esterase (CZEST9) and could be a contributing factor of resistance to fipronil. The implications of resistance for the control of the southern cattle tick in the future are discussed.

  10. Tick Bites (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatment, some ticks (like the deer tick, wood tick, and others) can carry harmful germs and ... with at least 10% to 30% DEET for protection against bites and stings in kids older than ...

  11. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field.

  12. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-01-01

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95% CL) values of 0.46% (0.35-0.59%), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21% (4.45-6.09%) and V. negundo as 7.02% (4.58-10.74%). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C

  13. On the search for markers of tick resistance in bovines.

    PubMed

    Regitano, L C A; Ibelli, A M G; Gasparin, G; Miyata, M; Azevedo, A L S; Coutinho, L L; Teodoro, R L; Machado, M A; Silva, M V G B; Nakata, L C; Zaros, L G; Sonstegard, T S; Silva, A M; Alencar, M M; Oliveira, M C S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences in susceptibility to ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) are considerable in bovines. Here, mapping, association and gene expression approaches were employed to further advance our understanding of the molecular basis of tick resistance. A B. taurus x B. indicus F2 population was developed by Embrapa and 382 individuals were measured for parasitic load. Scanning of all chromosomes is in progress. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tick load were mapped to chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 23 out of the 20 chromosomes scanned and were dependent on the season in which the phenotype was scored. In the candidate gene approach, females from the genetic groups Nelore (NE--184), Canchim x Nelore (CN--153), Aberdeen Angus x Nelore (AN--123) and Simmental x Nelore (SN--120) were evaluated under natural infestation. Microsatellite markers close to the genes for interleukin 2 (IL2), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) were analysed. Tick counts were associated with the marker for interleukin 4 (P < 0.05) in three genetic groups. Differences in cytokine mRNA levels of naive versus infested Nelore calves as well as between resistant versus susceptible cows from NE, CN and AN genetic groups were also investigated. Comparison of cytokines from infested and naïve animals showed downregulation of IL2. When resistant cows were compared to susceptible animals, IL8 was downregulated. These results reinforce the multiloci nature of tick resistance and the need to consider QTL and environment interactions.

  14. Phylogeographic analysis reveals association of tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, MSP1a sequences with ecological traits affecting tick vector performance

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Naranjo, Victoria; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Mangold, Atilio J; Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José

    2009-01-01

    Background The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, which is endemic worldwide, is the type species of the genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important tick vector of A. marginale in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite extensive characterization of the genetic diversity in A. marginale geographic strains using major surface protein sequences, little is known about the biogeography and evolution of A. marginale and other Anaplasma species. For A. marginale, MSP1a was shown to be involved in vector-pathogen and host-pathogen interactions and to have evolved under positive selection pressure. The MSP1a of A. marginale strains differs in molecular weight because of a variable number of tandem 23-31 amino acid repeats and has proven to be a stable marker of strain identity. While phylogenetic studies of MSP1a repeat sequences have shown evidence of A. marginale-tick co-evolution, these studies have not provided phylogeographic information on a global scale because of the high level of MSP1a genetic diversity among geographic strains. Results In this study we showed that the phylogeography of A. marginale MSP1a sequences is associated with world ecological regions (ecoregions) resulting in different evolutionary pressures and thence MSP1a sequences. The results demonstrated that the MSP1a first (R1) and last (RL) repeats and microsatellite sequences were associated with world ecoregion clusters with specific and different environmental envelopes. The evolution of R1 repeat sequences was found to be under positive selection. It is hypothesized that the driving environmental factors regulating tick populations could act on the selection of different A. marginale MSP1a sequence lineages, associated to each ecoregion. Conclusion The results reported herein provided the first evidence that the evolution of A. marginale was linked to ecological traits affecting tick vector performance. These

  15. Low temperature affects cattle tick reproduction but does not lead to transovarial transmission of Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Esteves, E; Pohl, P C; Klafke, G M; Reck, J; Fogaça, A C; Martins, J R; Daffre, S

    2015-12-15

    Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intracellular pathogen that infects the erythrocytes of calves, causing bovine anaplasmosis. This rickettsia is biologically transmitted by several species of ticks. In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, Rhipicephalus microplus is the main vector. Due to their mobility and longevity, the adult males play an important role in the transmission of A. marginale to calves. Some studies have demonstrated that A. marginale can be intrastadially and interstadially transmitted in R. microplus, but the transovarial transmission has not been demonstrated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of low temperature on both the A. marginale migration from infected females to their offspring and reproductive parameters of the tick R. microplus. The larvae of R. microplus fed on a calf infected with the strain Jaboticabal of A. marginale. At the end of the parasitic phase, fully engorged females were incubated at either 18°C or 28°C for oviposition. Although A. marginale was detected in the salivary glands of the females, demonstrating that the ticks were successfully infected, the presence of rickettsia was not detected in the offspring. However, the preoviposition period of the non-infected females maintained at 18°C was longer than that of those maintained at 28°C. In addition, the average weight of the mass of eggs as well as the egg production efficiency (ratio of the egg mass weight to the female weight) of the females maintained at 18°C were significantly lower than those of the females incubated at 28°C. There was no larval hatching from the eggs maintained exclusively at 18°C, even at 65 days after female detachment. Hatching occurred only when the eggs maintained at 18°C were transferred to 28°C at 20 days after female detachment (18°C/28°C). We also verified a significantly higher larvae conversion efficiency (ratio of the larvae mass weight to the egg mass weight) in the group of females

  16. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed.

  17. Assessment of the acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool on larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringóta, Viviane; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Calmon, Fernanda; Maturano, Ralph; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool was studied on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. All the substances were tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μl/ml, with 10 repetitions per treatment. The modified larval packet technique was employed in the tests and the mortality was evaluated after 24 h. In the groups treated with carvacrol, the lowest concentration (2.5 μl/ml) was sufficient to cause 100% death of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae. The same concentration of (E)-cinnamaldehyde resulted in death of approximately 99% of the larvae of both tick species and reached 100% at the other concentrations. For trans-anethole, mortality rates above 90% of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae were only observed starting at the concentration of 15.0 μl/ml and reached 100% at the highest concentration (20.0 μl/ml). Finally, the mortality rates of the groups treated with linalool were low, only reaching 8.4 and 14.5% at the highest concentration (20.0 μl/ml) for larvae of D. nitens and R. microplus, respectively. These results show that carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and trans-anethole have acaricidal activity, particularly carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, both of which resulted in high mortality rates for the larvae of these two tick species even at the lowest concentration.

  18. Kinetics of energy source utilization in Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Campos, Eldo; Moraes, Jorge; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Moreira, Erica; Valle, Denise; Abreu, Leonardo; Manso, Pedro P A; Nascimento, Aline; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Lenzi, Henrique; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos

    2006-06-15

    The present work evaluates the kinetics of utilization of the main potential energy sources throughout the embryonic developmental stages of Boophilus microplus. The embryonic development of this arthropod is completed in 21 days. Cellularization of the blastoderm occurs on the 6th day and is rapidly followed by germ band extension and segmentation, whose first signs are visible on the 7th day. Cellularization is typically a maternal-driven process, carried out by molecular determinants deposited in the oocyte during oogenesis. On the other hand, segmentation is of zygotic nature, being the consequence of the synthesis of various components by the growing embryo. The enhancement in total B. microplus RNA was observed after cellularization, corroborating the replacement of maternal-driven processes by embryonic zygotic expression. An abrupt increase in oxygen consumption was observed from cellularization until the 8th day of development. The reduction in dry weight at the same period and the susceptibility of oxygen consumption to KCN suggest that the respiration process is activated during early embryonic development. A marked decrease in total lipid content occurred between the 5th and 7th days of development, suggesting this is the main energy source for cellularization. A major reduction in carbohydrate content occurred later, between the 7th and 9th days, and it could be assigned to the morphological segmentation of the embryo. Although the total amount of proteins remains unchanged from oviposition to hatching, a 15% reduction in vitellin (VT) content was observed before cellularization, up to the 4th day after egglaying. This observation was correlated to the synthesis of new proteins needed to support early embryo development. Additional 20% of VT was consumed thereafter, mainly at the end of embryogenesis, and in this case VT is probably used as energy source to the older embryo. Altogether, these data indicate different energy sources for maternal and

  19. Genetics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; Guerrero, Felix D; George, John E

    2008-05-01

    The Santa Luiza strain of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is resistant to both permethrin and amitraz. A study was conducted at the USDA Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory in Texas to investigate the genetic basis of permethrin resistance with cross-mating experiments, and to determine the mechanisms of permethrin resistance through synergist bioassays and biochemical analysis of esterase profiles. The Muñoz strain, an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, was used as the susceptible parent and the Santa Luiza strain, originating in Brazil, was used as the resistant parent. The Food and Agriculture Organization larval packet test was used to measure the levels of susceptibility of larvae of the parental strains, F1, backcross, F2, and F3 generations to permethrin. Results of reciprocal crossing experiments suggested that permethrin resistance was inherited as an incomplete recessive trait. There was no significant maternal effect on larval progeny's susceptibility to permethrin in the F1 and subsequent generations. The values of the degree of dominance were estimated at -0.700 and -0.522 for the F1 larvae with resistant and susceptible female parents, respectively. Results of bioassays on larval progeny of the F1 backcrossed with the resistant parent strain and of the F2 generations suggested that one major gene was responsible for permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain. Selection of F3 larvae with either permethrin or amitraz led to significantly increased resistance to both permethrin and amitraz, indicating a close linkage between genes responsible for permethrin and amitraz resistance. The possible involvement of metabolic enzymes in permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of B. microplus was dismissed by the lack of enhanced synergism by TPP or PBO, as observed in synergist bioassays, as well as by the lack of enhanced esterase activity in the Santa Luiza strain relative to the susceptible

  20. Species distribution modelling for Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Benin, West Africa: comparing datasets and modelling algorithms.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E M; Leta, S; Estrada-Peña, A; Madder, M; Adehan, S; Vanwambeke, S O

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most widely distributed and economically important ticks, transmitting Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale. It was recently introduced to West Africa on live animals originating from Brazil. Knowing the precise environmental suitability for the tick would allow veterinary health officials to draft vector control strategies for different regions of the country. To test the performance of modelling algorithms and different sets of environmental explanatory variables, species distribution models for this tick species in Benin were developed using generalized linear models, linear discriminant analysis and random forests. The training data for these models were a dataset containing reported absence or presence in 104 farms, randomly selected across Benin. These farms were sampled at the end of the rainy season, which corresponds with an annual peak in tick abundance. Two environmental datasets for the country of Benin were compared: one based on interpolated climate data (WorldClim) and one based on remotely sensed images (MODIS). The pixel size for both environmental datasets was 1 km. Highly suitable areas occurred mainly along the warmer and humid coast extending northwards to central Benin. The northern hot and drier areas were found to be unsuitable. The models developed and tested on data from the entire country were generally found to perform well, having an AUC value greater than 0.92. Although statistically significant, only small differences in accuracy measures were found between the modelling algorithms, or between the environmental datasets. The resulting risk maps differed nonetheless. Models based on interpolated climate suggested gradual variations in habitat suitability, while those based on remotely sensed data indicated a sharper contrast between suitable and unsuitable areas, and a patchy distribution of the suitable areas. Remotely sensed data yielded more spatial detail in the predictions. When

  1. Acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae) against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Dumka, V K; Sharma, S K

    2016-06-01

    Resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against synthetic pyrethroids was assessed by larval packet test which revealed level I and II resistance against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test was employed to study the acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo (sheesham) against these ticks. Mortality and fecundity of ticks exposed to sheesham leaf aqueous (SLA) and ethanolic (SLE) extracts were evaluated at concentrations of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% and controls (distilled water and 10% ethanol). Higher acaricidal activity was recorded in SLA with a lower LC50 (95% CL) value of 1.58% (0.92-2.71%) than SLE [5.25% (4.91-5.63%)]. A significant decrease in egg mass weight and reproductive index was recorded in treated ticks along with an increase in percent inhibition of oviposition. A complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with higher concentrations of SLA, whereas, SLE exhibited no effect on hatching percentage.

  2. Modeling the Impact of Climate and Landscape on the Efficacy of White Tailed Deer Vaccination for Cattle Tick Control in Northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    species), Dermacentor (1 species), Rhipicephalus (1 species), and Boophilus (1 species). Additional 5 tick species (3 Amblyomma species and 1 species from each of the genera Ixodes and Ornithodoros) were reported in the literature. The most common ticks on Carnivora hosts were Amblyomma ovale (found on 14 host species), Amblyomma cajennense (10 species), Amblyomma aureolatum (10 species), Amblyomma tigrinum (7 species), Amblyomma parvum (7 species), and Boophilus microplus (7 species).

  4. Invitro acaricidal activity of ethnoveterinary plants and green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Banumathi, Balan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-30

    The present study was designed to investigate the invitro acaricidal effects of seven ethnoveterinary plants, zinc acetate and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles against the Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The selected ethnoveterinary plants were extracted using ethanol and aqueous (water) solvents at 0.02mg/ml and 0.04mg/ml concentrations. Of these seven plants, Lobelia leschenaultiana showed the highest percentage of tick mortality. The ethanol extracts of L. leschenaultiana showed 93.33% mortality at 0.04mg/ml and its LC50 was 0.05mg/ml. However, zinc acetate exhibited 70% mortality at 0.04mg/ml (LC50: 0.0192mg/ml). Further, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticle using the leaf extracts of L. leschenaultiana and zinc acetate as the precursor material to control R. (B.) microplus. The structural characterization of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Ll-ZnO NPs) was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microsopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra showed the absorption band at 383nm. XRD analysis clearly showed the crystalline nature of Ll-ZnO NPs with various Bragg's reflection peaks at 100, 002, 101, 102, 110, 103, 200, 201 and 202 planes. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups of Ll-ZnO NPs with strong band at 3420.63 and 2922.48cm(-1). SEM and TEM analysis revealed that the Ll-ZnO NPs were spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging between 20 and 65nm. The mortality of R. (B.) microplus after treatment with Ll-ZnO NPs was 35, 57.5 and 82.5% at 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004mg/ml. On the otherhand, 100% mortality of R. (B.) microplus was observed at 0.008mg/ml (LC50: 0.0017mg/ml). The results indicated that the Ll-ZnO NPs have good acaricidal properties compared to L. leschenaultiana leaf extract and zinc acetate.

  5. The molecular and biological analysis of ixodid ticks histamine release factors.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Albert; Azad, Abdu F

    2005-01-01

    We previously described a Dermacentor varibialis (DV) cDNA that encodes a ubiquitously expressed and tick saliva-secreted functional histamine release factor (HRF) homolog. In this study gene specific primers based on DVHRF open reading frame nucleotide sequence were utilized to amplify three orthologs, from the wood tick, D. andersoni (DA), the black legged tick, the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (BM) and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (AA). At nucleotide level, sequence comparisons revealed 98 89 and 84% similarity to DVHRF for DAHRF, AAHRF and BMHRF, respectively, while predicted polypeptide comparisons revealed 98, 96 and 91% similarity for DAHRF, AAHRF and BMHRF respectively. Phylogenetically, the tick HRF clade, while distinct (100% bootstrap value), is closely related to other arthropods, but distantly related to vertebrate and protozoan clades. Consistent with sequence similarity analysis, a DVHRF-specific northern blotting probe hybridized a approximately 900 base pair (bp) mRNA band on all RNA blots. Likewise a mouse polyclonal antibody to E. coli-expressed recombinant (r) DVHRF, cross-reacted baculovirus-expressed non-fusion rAAHRF, rDAHRF, and rBMHRF. As revealed by northern blotting analysis of larvae and nymph RNA, DVHRF mRNA is expressed in both immature and mature ticks indicating that its transcription is not developmentally regulated. Unlike rHRF/TCTP proteins of other organisms, the calcium-binding function may not be conserved for tick HRF homologs as revealed by the 45CaCl2+ overlay assay. Apparent global expression of DVHRF and its orthologs make this protein family an ideal target antigen for development of novel tick control strategies targeting multiple tick species.

  6. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

    2013-10-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus.

  7. Are ticks venomous animals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many Ixodida genera can induce paralysis and other types of toxicoses. Tick saliva was previously proposed as a special kind of venom since tick venom is used for blood feeding that counteracts host defense mechanisms. As a result, the present study provides evidence to reconsider the venomous properties of tick saliva. Results Based on our extensive literature mining and in silico research, we demonstrate that ticks share several similarities with other venomous taxa. Many tick salivary protein families and their previously described functions are homologous to proteins found in scorpion, spider, snake, platypus and bee venoms. This infers that there is a structural and functional convergence between several molecular components in tick saliva and the venoms from other recognized venomous taxa. We also highlight the fact that the immune response against tick saliva and venoms (from recognized venomous taxa) are both dominated by an allergic immunity background. Furthermore, by comparing the major molecular components of human saliva, as an example of a non-venomous animal, with that of ticks we find evidence that ticks resemble more venomous than non-venomous animals. Finally, we introduce our considerations regarding the evolution of venoms in Arachnida. Conclusions Taking into account the composition of tick saliva, the venomous functions that ticks have while interacting with their hosts, and the distinguishable differences between human (non-venomous) and tick salivary

  8. Epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick-borne diseases in South Sudan: cross-sectional survey results.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, Fredrick M; Kapaga, Angolwisye M; Mbassa, Gabriel K; Mtui, Paul F; Wani, Rhombe J

    2012-09-03

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2010 in five states of South Sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. The purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in South Sudan and their uses in future control strategies. A total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. The indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies to Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesian bigemina. Sero-conversion risks for T. parva and T. mutans were 27.3% and 31.3% respectively, whilst the risk was 57.6% and 52.8% for A. marginale and B. bigemina, respectively. Major tick species identified include Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma variegatum, and Rhipicephalus evertsi. There was great variation (P ≤ 0.001) in the number of all these ticks, both between herds in a state and between calves in an individual herd. The low and intermediate sero-conversion risks observed in the study states suggest that immunisation against East Coast fever (ECF) is justified. Fortunately, three major genotypes that were identified by applying Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP) analysis on the p104 to the blood samples and T. parva Muguga, matched very well with T. parva Kiambu 5 and T. parva Muguga; therefore the Muguga cocktail can be used for the immunisation of cattle in South Sudan. However, prospective studies are required to develop optimal control measures for tick-borne diseases under different ecological and husbandry practices in South Sudan.

  9. Resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and evidence for the involvement of an oxidative detoxification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; George, John E

    2003-07-01

    The levels of resistance to two organophosphate acaricides, coumaphos and diazinon, in several Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were evaluated using the FAO larval packet test. Regression analysis of LC50 data revealed a significant cross-resistance pattern between those two acaricides. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance were investigated with synergist bioassays. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) reduced coumaphos toxicity in susceptible strains, but synergized coumaphos toxicity in resistant strains. There was a significant correlation between PBO synergism ratios and the coumaphos resistance ratios. The results suggest that an enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytP450)-mediated detoxification mechanism may exist in the resistant strains, in addition to the cytP450-mediated metabolic pathway that activates coumaphos. PBO failed to synergize diazinon toxicity in resistant strains, suggesting the cytP450 involved in detoxification were specific. Triphenylphosphate (TPP) synergized toxicity of both acaricides in both susceptible and resistant strains, and there was no correlation between TPP synergism ratios and the LC50 estimates for either acaricide. Esterases may not play a major role in resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in those strains. Bioassays with diethyl maleate (DEM) revealed a significant correlation between DEM synergism ratios and LC50 estimates for diazinon, suggesting a possible role for glutathione S-transferases in diazinon detoxification. Resistance to coumaphos in the Mexican strains of B. microplus was likely to be conferred by both a cytP450-mediated detoxification mechanism described here and the mechanism of insensitive acetylcholinesterases reported elsewhere. The results of this study also underscore the potential risk of coumaphos resistance in B. microplus from Mexico to the U.S. cattle fever tick eradication program.

  10. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora. PMID:20663211

  11. Acaricidal activity of thymol against larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) under semi-natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Zeringota, Viviane; Matos, Renata Silva; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Maturano, Ralph; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to investigate the activity of thymol on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae under semi-natural conditions. For this purpose, tests were conducted in pots with Brachiaria decumbens seedlings containing cattle tick larvae. Thymol, diluted in ethanol 50° GL, was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, along with the control group treated with the solvent alone. Each treatment was composed of five pots (1 pot = a repetition). The experiment was performed in three steps. On the first day, the larvae were applied at the base of the signalgrass. Twenty-four hours later, approximately 25 mL of the solution was applied with thymol on the top of the vegetation in each pot. The survival of the larvae was measured 24 h after application of the solutions. Each pot was analyzed individually, and the grass fillets contained larvae were cut with scissors, placed in Petri dishes, and taken to the laboratory to count the number of living larvae. At the highest concentrations (10, 15, and 20 mg /mL), the number of live larvae declined by more than 95 % in relation to the control group. The lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) and LC90 values were 3.45 and 9.25 mg/ml, respectively. The application of thymol in semi-natural conditions starting concentration of 10 mg/mL significantly reduced the number of living R. microplus larvae.

  12. Deer ticks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases are often carried by ticks, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, Lyme disease, and tularemia. Less common or less frequent diseases include typhus, Q-fever, relapsing fever, viral encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, ...

  13. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; Zappelini, Luciano O; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to select isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with pathogenic potential to control the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick. The effectiveness of thirty isolates was first tested at a concentration of 5 x 108 conidia.mL(-1). Of these, eight were evaluated (IBCB01, IBCB02, IBCB07, IBCB17, IBCB21, IBCB74, IBCB149, IBCB165) and showed an effectiveness between 90 and 99%; thirteen (IBCB03, IBCB14, IBCB16, IBCB24, IBCB95, IBCB97, IBCB102, IBCB141, IBCB146, IBCB147, IBCB150, IBCB154, IBCB157) between 80 and 89,5%; six (IBCB47, IBCB75, IBCB84, IBCB145, IBCB161, IBCB164) between 70 and 79%, and only two (IBCB13 and IBCB143) had lower pathogenicity (70% or below). In the second step of the study, the five more effective strains in the first phase of the experiment (IBCB01, IBCB07, IBCB21, IBCB66, IBCB165) were analyzed comparatively. Based on in vitro results, it can be concluded that IBCB66 and IBCB21 are the isolates with higher potential for field control of R. (B.) microplus. IBCB01, IBCB07, IBCB21, IBCB66 e IBCB165 isolates were submitted to a conidial production test using a rice-based substrate. The best mass production of the entomopathogenic fungus was obtained with the IBCB66 strain.

  14. Immune response in mice and cattle after immunization with a Boophilus microplus DNA vaccine containing bm86 gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina María; Orduz, Sergio; López, Elkin D; Guzmán, Fanny; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Armengol, Gemma

    2007-03-15

    Plasmid pBMC2 encoding antigen Bm86 from a Colombian strain of cattle tick Boophilus microplus, was used for DNA-mediated immunization of BALB/c mice, employing doses of 10 and 50microg, delivered by intradermic and intramuscular routes. Anti-Bm86 antibody levels were significantly higher compared to control mice treated with PBS. In the evaluation of immunoglobulin isotypes, significant levels of IgG2a and IgG2b were observed in mice immunized with 50microg of pBMC2. Measurement of interleukine (IL) levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12(p40)) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the sera of mice immunized with pBMC2 indicated high levels of IL-4 and IL-5, although there were also significant levels of IFN-gamma. Mice immunized with pBMC2 showed antigen-specific stimulation of splenocytes according to the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and IFN-gamma secretion. In all trials, mice injected intramuscularly with 50microg of pBMC2 presented the highest immune response. Moreover, cattle immunized with this DNA vaccine showed antibody production significantly different to the negative control. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential of DNA immunization with pBMC2 to induce humoral and cellular immune responses against B. microplus.

  15. First report of ivermectin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Prerna, Mranalini; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2015-11-30

    The larval immersion test (LIT) was used on the progenies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from four districts of the Punjab state, India to test the resistance to ivermectin. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larval ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of ivermectin were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50%(LC50), 95%(LC95), resistance ratios (RR50, RR95) and the resistance levels (RL). Values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) for LIT ranged from 0.900 to 0.978, and the RR50 and RR95 values against ivermectin ranged from 2.97 to 8.85 and 2.42 to 8.47, respectively, indicating resistance status in all field isolates. On the basis of RR values, three field isolates (BAT, GUR, HOS) showed level II, whereas PTK isolate showed presence of level I resistance status against ivermectin. This appears to be the first report of ivermectin resistance in R. (B.) microplus from Punjab, India.

  16. Molecular evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae from ticks and stray dogs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yongjin; Nakao, Ryo; Thu, May June; Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Kato, Satomi; Katakura, Ken; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-03-01

    Emerging tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are important foci for human and animal health worldwide. However, these diseases are sometimes over looked, especially in countries with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae in Bangladesh, which are important tick-borne pathogens for humans and animals worldwide. A total of 50 canine blood samples, 15 ticks collected from dogs, and 154 ticks collected from cattle were screened for the presence of SFG rickettsiae and Anaplasmataceae using molecular-based methods such as PCR and real-time PCR. The sequence analysis of the amplified products detected two different genotypes of SFG rickettsiae in ticks from cattle. The genotype detected in Rhipicephalus microplus was closely related to Rickettsia monacensis, while the genotype detected in Haemaphysalis bispinosa was closely related to Rickettsia sp. found in Korea and Japan. Anaplasma bovis was detected in canine blood and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and H. bispinosa). Unexpectedly, the partial genome sequence of Wolbachia sp., presumably associated with the nematode Dirofilaria immitis, was identified in canine blood. The present study provides the first molecular evidence of SFG rickettsiae and A. bovis in Bangladesh, indicating the possible emergence of previously unrecognized TBDs in this country.

  17. Inhibition of enzyme activity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus triosephosphate isomerase and BME26 cell growth by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saramago, Luiz; Franceschi, Mariana; Logullo, Carlos; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Farias, Sandra Estrazulas; Moraes, Jorge

    2012-10-12

    In the present work, we produced two monoclonal antibodies (BrBm37 and BrBm38) and tested their action against the triosephosphate isomerase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmTIM). These antibodies recognize epitopes on both the native and recombinant forms of the protein. rRmTIM inhibition  by BrBm37 was up to 85% whereas that of BrBrm38 was 98%, depending on the antibody-enzyme ratio. RmTIM activity was lower in ovarian, gut, and fat body tissue extracts treated with BrBm37 or BrBm38 mAbs. The proliferation of the embryonic tick cell line (BME26) was inhibited by BrBm37 and BrBm38 mAbs. In summary, the results reveal that it is possible to interfere with the RmTIM function using antibodies, even in intact cells.

  18. Inhibition of Enzyme Activity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Triosephosphate Isomerase and BME26 Cell Growth by Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Saramago, Luiz; Franceschi, Mariana; Logullo, Carlos; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Farias, Sandra Estrazulas; Moraes, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we produced two monoclonal antibodies (BrBm37 and BrBm38) and tested their action against the triosephosphate isomerase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmTIM). These antibodies recognize epitopes on both the native and recombinant forms of the protein. rRmTIM inhibition by BrBm37 was up to 85% whereas that of BrBrm38 was 98%, depending on the antibody-enzyme ratio. RmTIM activity was lower in ovarian, gut, and fat body tissue extracts treated with BrBm37 or BrBm38 mAbs. The proliferation of the embryonic tick cell line (BME26) was inhibited by BrBm37 and BrBm38 mAbs. In summary, the results reveal that it is possible to interfere with the RmTIM function using antibodies, even in intact cells. PMID:23202941

  19. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand.

  20. Vaccination against ticks (Boophilus spp.): the experience with the Bm86-based vaccine Gavac.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Montero, C; Redondo, M; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enríquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R

    1999-11-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant B. microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. Our vaccine formulation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) has been registered and is commercially available in Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Brazil and Mexico. In controlled pen trials, Gavac has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus and chemical-sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America and Iran. In controlled field trials in Cuba, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, Gavac has shown a 55-100% efficacy in the control of B. microplus infestations in grazing cattle 12-36 weeks after the first vaccination. Field trials under production conditions have been conducted in Cuba, Colombia, Brazil and Mexico in pure and cross-bred cattle herds. The application of Gavac has increased the time between acaricide treatments by an average of 32 /-21 days (P = 0.0005) resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. In Cuba, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in more than 260000 animals. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number of acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of 23.4 dollars animal(-1) year (-1). These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations.

  1. Biological control of ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  2. Surveillance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild birds and ticks in Tomsk city and its suburbs (Western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Mikryukova, Tamara P; Moskvitina, Nina S; Kononova, Yulia V; Korobitsyn, Igor G; Kartashov, Mikhail Y; Tyuten Kov, Oleg Y; Protopopova, Elena V; Romanenko, Vladimir N; Chausov, Evgeny V; Gashkov, Sergey I; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Moskvitin, Sergey S; Tupota, Natalya L; Sementsova, Alexandra O; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of wild birds in the transmission of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), we investigated randomly captured wild birds bearing ixodid ticks in a very highly endemic TBE region located in Tomsk city and its suburbs in the south of Western Siberia, Russia. The 779 wild birds representing 60 species were captured carrying a total of 841 ticks, Ixodes pavlovskyi Pom., 1946 (n=531), Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch., 1930 (n=244), and Ixodes plumbeus Leach. 1815 (n=66). The highest average number of ticks per bird in a particular species was found for the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, 1758) (5.60 ticks/bird) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis Linnaeus, 1758) (13.25 ticks/bird). Samples from wild birds and ticks collected in highly endemic periods from 2006 to 2011 were tested for the TBEV markers using monoclonal modified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RT-PCR. TBEV RNA and antigen were found in 9.7% and 22.8% samples collected from wild birds, respectively. TBEV markers were also detected in 14.1% I. persulcatus ticks, 5.2% I. pavlovskyi, and 4.2% I. plumbeus ticks collected from wild birds. Two TBEV strains were also isolated on PKE (pig kidney embryo) cells from fieldfare and Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849). Sequencing of 5'-NCR of TBEV revealed that all TBEV isolates belong to Far Eastern (dominate) and Siberian genotypes. Several phylogenetic subgroups included TBEV sequences novel for the Tomsk region. Our data suggest that wild birds are potential disseminators of TBEV, TBEV-infected ixodid ticks, and possibly other tick-borne infections.

  3. In vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of novel green silver nanoparticles against deltamethrin resistance Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Avinash, B; Venu, R; Alpha Raj, M; Srinivasa Rao, K; Srilatha, Ch; Prasad, T N V K V

    2017-04-15

    An investigation was undertaken to study, for the first time, in vitro acaricidal activity of green silver nanoparticles on deltamethrin resistance Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The compounds tested were neem coated silver nanoparticles (N-Ag NPs), deltamethrin neem coated silver nanoparticles (DN-Ag NPs), 2, 3 dehydrosalannol (2,3 DHS), 2, 3 DHS coated silver nanoparticles (2, 3-DHS-Ag NPs), Quercetin dihydrate (QDH) and QDH coated silver nanoparticles (QDH-Ag NPs). Also included in this study, for the purpose of comparison, were neem leaf extract (NLE), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and deltamethrin (D). Acaricidal activity on larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus was tested by larval packet test (LPT) and adult immersion test (AIT) respectively. In the LPT, 100% mortality was obtained at concentrations (ppm) of 360, 6000, 260, 200, 50, 300, 85, 600 and 200 for the compounds, D, NLE, Ag NO3, N-Ag NPs, DN-Ag NPs, 2, 3 DHS, 2, 3 DHS-Ag NPs, QDH, QDH-Ag NPs respectively. In AIT, the proportions of mortality and oviposition inhibition were proportionate but the reproductive index was inversely proportional to the concentration of the compounds used. The effect of DN-Ag NPs on mortality was the highest (93.33%) at 50ppm concentration. The mean reproductive index (0.01) and oviposition inhibition (99.16%) values were statistically significant when compared to control group. DN-Ag NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) lower LC50 (3.87ppm; 21.95ppm) and LC99 (53.05ppm; 90.06ppm) values against both the larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus. The oviposition inhibiting ability of various compounds was determined to assess the reproductive performance of adult female ticks. The DN-Ag NPs had potent oviposition inhibitory activity with significantly lower IC50 and IC99 values compared to the rest of the treatments at 0.034 and 51.07ppm respectively. These results showed that the DN-Ag NPs had significant acaricidal activity against R. (B.) microplus.

  4. Distribution of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Hard Ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) from Panamanian Urban and Rural Environments (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Sergio E; Castro, Angélica M; Trejos, Diomedes; García, Gleydis G; Gabster, Amanda; Miranda, Roberto J; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Paternina, Luis E

    2016-06-01

    Tick-borne rickettsiosis is an important emerging disease in Panama; to date, there have been 12 confirmed cases, including eight fatalities. To evaluate the distribution of rickettsiae in Panamanian ticks, we collected questing and on-host ticks in urban and rural towns in elevations varying between 0 and 2300 m. A total of 63 sites (13 urban and 50 rural towns) were used to develop models of spatial distributions. We found the following tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (present in 54 of 63 towns and cities), Amblyomma mixtum (45/63), Dermacentor nitens (40/63), A. ovale (37/63), Rhipicephalus microplus (33/63), A. oblongoguttatum (33/63), Ixodes affinis (3/63), and Ixodes boliviensis (2/63). Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. was present in urban and rural towns, and other species were present only in rural towns. DNA was extracted from 408 R. sanguineus s.l., 387 A. mixtum, 103 A. ovale, and 11 A. oblongoguttatum and later tested for rickettsiae genes using PCR. Rickettsia DNA was detected in ticks from 21 of 63 localities. Rickettsia rickettsii was detected in five A. mixtum (1.29%), and Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" was found in 138 A. mixtum (35%), 14 R. sanguineus (3.4%), and one A. ovale (0.9%). These results suggest that much of rural Panama is suitable for the expansion of tick populations and could favor the appearance of new tick-borne rickettsiosis outbreaks.

  5. Factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Coleman, P; Eisler, M; Fragoso-Sanchez, H; Garcia-Vazquez, Z; Guerrero, F D; Jonsson, N N; Langstaff, I G; Li, A Y; Machila, N; Miller, R J; Morton, J; Pruett, J H; Torr, S

    2004-10-28

    This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New Orleans, LA, USA, during August 10-14, 2003. Populations of southern cattle ticks, Boophilus microplus, from Mexico have developed resistance to many classes of acaricide including chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT), pyrethroids, organophosphates, and formamidines (amitraz). Target site mutations are the most common resistance mechanism observed, but there are examples of metabolic mechanisms. In many pyrethroid resistant strains, a single target site mutation on the Na(+) channel confers very high resistance (resistance ratios: >1000x) to both DDT and all pyrethroid acaricides. Acetylcholine esterase affinity for OPs is changed in resistant tick populations. A second mechanism of OP resistance is linked to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. A PCR-based assay to detect a specific sodium channel gene mutation that is associated with resistance to permethrin has been developed. This assay can be performed on individual ticks at any life stage with results available in a few hours. A number of Mexican strains of B. microplus with varying profiles of pesticide resistance have been genotyped using this test. Additionally, a specific metabolic esterase with permethrin-hydrolyzing activity, CzEst9, has been purified and its gene coding region cloned. This esterase has been associated with high resistance to permethrin in one Mexican tick population. Work is continuing to clone specific acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase genes that appear to be involved in resistance to organophosphates. Our ultimate goal is the design of a battery of DNA- or ELISA-based assays capable of rapidly genotyping individual ticks to

  6. Acetylcholinesterases of blood-feeding flies and ticks.

    PubMed

    Temeyer, Kevin B; Tuckow, Alexander P; Brake, Danett K; Li, Andrew Y; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2013-03-25

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the biochemical target of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides for invertebrates, vertebrate nerve agents, and AChE inhibitors used to reduce effects of Alzheimer's disease. Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used to control blood-feeding arthropods, including biting flies and ticks. However, resistance to OPs in pests affecting animal and human health has compromised control efficacy. OP resistance often results from mutations producing an OP-insensitive AChE. Our studies have demonstrated production of OP-insensitive AChEs in biting flies and ticks. Complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences encoding AChEs were obtained for the horn fly, stable fly, sand fly, and the southern cattle tick. The availability of cDNA sequences enables the identification of mutations, expression and characterization of recombinant proteins, gene silencing for functional studies, as well as in vitro screening of novel inhibitors. The southern cattle tick expresses at least three different genes encoding AChE in their synganglion, i.e. brain. Gene amplification for each of the three known cattle tick AChE genes and expression of multiple alleles for each gene may reduce fitness cost associated with OP-resistance. AChE hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, but may have additional roles in physiology and development. The three cattle tick AChEs possess significantly different biochemical properties, and are expressed in neural and non-neural tissues, which suggest separation of structure and function. The remarkable complexity of AChEs in ticks suggested by combining genomic data from Ixodes scapularis with our genetic and biochemical data from Rhipicephalus microplus is suggestive of previously unknown gene duplication and diversification. Comparative studies between invertebrate and vertebrate AChEs could enhance our understanding of structure-activity relationships. Research with ticks as a model system offers the opportunity to

  7. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P

    2010-02-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies.

  8. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    PubMed Central

    HOPE, M; JIANG, X; GOUGH, J; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; JONSSON, N; WILLADSEN, P

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5′-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5′-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  9. Rickettsia sp. strain colombianensi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae): a new proposed Rickettsia detected in Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) from iguanas and free-living larvae ticks from vegetation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jorge; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Mattar, Salim

    2012-07-01

    From January to December 2009, 55 Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) ticks removed from iguanas in the municipality of Monteria and 3,114 ticks [458 Amblyomma sp. larvae, 2,636 Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs] collected over vegetation in Los Cordobas were included in the study. The ticks were pooled into groups from which DNA was extracted. For initial screening of Rickettsia sp., each pool was analyzed by gltA real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive pools were further studied using gltA, ompA, and ompB conventional PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. Rickettsial DNA was found in 28 pools of ticks (16 A. dissimile pools and 12 free-living larvae pools) out of 113 (24.7%) using real-time PCR. The same 28 pools were also positive using conventional PCR assays aimed to amplify gltA, ompA, and ompB. For each gene analyzed, PCR products obtained from 4/28 pools (two pools of A. dissimile, one pool of Amblyomma sp. larvae and one pool of Rh. microplus larvae) were randomly chosen and sequenced twice. Nucleotide sequences generated were identical to each other for each of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB, and showed 99.4, 95.6, and 96.4% identity with those of Rickettsia tamurae. They were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers JF905456, JF905458, and JF905457, respectively. In conclusion, we present the first molecular evidence of a novel Rickettsia (Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi) infecting A. dissimile ticks collected from iguanas, and also Rh. microplus and unspeciated Amblyomma larvae from vegetation in Colombia.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide mixtures for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Li, A Y; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Miller, R J; Pérez de León, A A

    2013-10-18

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) mixtures, through in vitro laboratory bioassays and in vivo on-animal efficacy trials, for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics. Also, to examine mechanisms of resistance to cypermethrin in this tick population, the frequency of a mutated sodium channel gene (F1550I) was determined using a PCR assay. Results of laboratory bioassays using modified larval packet tests revealed that cypermethrin toxicity was synergized by PBO (from 46.6-57.0% to 83.7-85.0% larval mortality; P<0.05). The cypermethrin and amitraz mixture showed an additive effect (from 46.6-57.0% to 56.0-74.3% larval mortality). Strong synergism was observed with the mixture of cypermethrin+amitraz+PBO and this mixture was the most effective killing resistant tick larvae in vitro (96.7-100% of larval mortality). Tick larvae surviving exposure to cypermethrin or mixtures either with amitraz and PBO in vitro showed 2.9-49.6 higher probability to present the mutated allele than those killed by acaricide treatment (P<0.05). In the in vivo trial, the mixtures containing cypermethrin+PBO (80.6-97.3%), and cypermethrin+amitraz (87.0-89.7%) were more efficacious than cypermethrin alone (76.3-80.5%). The highest level of efficacy was obtained with the mixture of cypermethrin+amitraz+PBO, which yielded >95% control that persisted for 28 days post-treatment against R. microplus infesting cattle when tested under field conditions in the Mexican tropics. Although this mixture is a potentially useful tool to combat pyrethroid resistance, a product based on an acaricide mixture like the one tested in this study has to be used rationally.

  11. Immunogenic potential of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin 1 against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Évora, Patricia Martinez; Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Guerrero, Felix David; León, Adalberto Pérez de; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2017-02-16

    This study evaluated a recombinant aquaporin 1 protein of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmAQP1) as antigen in a vaccine against R. sanguineus. Five dogs were immunized with RmAQP1 (10 µg) + adjuvant (Montanide) (G1), and five were inoculated with adjuvant only (G2), three times. Twenty-one days after the last immunization, animals of both groups were challenged with R. sanguineus larvae, nymphs and adults, and their biotic potential was compared. Blood samples were collected before each immunization and every 28 days after the last immunization for 10 weeks. Serum antibody titers (IgG) were assessed by ELISA. We observed that: engorgement period of adult females from G1 was 12% shorter than G2; larvae from G1 had 8.7% longer engorgement period than G2 and weighed 7.2% less; nymphs from G1 had 4.5% shorter engorgement period than G2 and weighed 3.6% less; although the antibody titers increased following the second immunization, they rapidly decreased after the third immunization. Results indicated low immunoprotection of RmAQP1 against adult R. sanguineus ticks, and possible efficacy on larvae and nymphs fed on immunized dogs. Further studies should be performed for a full evaluation of the immunoprotection of RmAQP1 against R. sanguineus infestations in dogs.

  12. Transfected Babesia bovis Expressing a Tick GST as a Live Vector Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Oldiges, Daiane P.; Laughery, Jacob M.; Tagliari, Nelson Junior; Leite Filho, Ronaldo Viana; Davis, William C.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Termignoni, Carlos; Knowles, Donald P.; Suarez, Carlos E.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST). The B. bovis S74-T3B parasites were electroporated with a plasmid containing the bidirectional Ef-1α (elongation factor 1 alpha) promoter of B. bovis controlling expression of two independent genes, the selectable marker GFP-BSD (green fluorescent protein–blasticidin deaminase), and HlGST fused to the MSA-1 (merozoite surface antigen 1) signal peptide from B. bovis. Electroporation followed by blasticidin selection resulted in the emergence of a mixed B. bovis transfected line (termed HlGST) in in vitro cultures, containing parasites with distinct patterns of insertion of both exogenous genes, either in or outside the Ef-1α locus. A B. bovis clonal line termed HlGST-Cln expressing intracellular GFP and HlGST in the surface of merozoites was then derived from the mixed parasite line HlGST using a fluorescent activated cell sorter. Two independent calf immunization trials were performed via intravenous inoculation of the HlGST-Cln and a previously described control consisting of an irrelevant transfected clonal line of B. bovis designated GFP-Cln. The control GFP-Cln line contains a copy of the GFP-BSD gene inserted into the Ef-1α locus of B. bovis in an identical fashion as the HIGST-Cln parasites. All animals inoculated with the HlGST-Cln and GFP-Cln transfected parasites developed mild babesiosis. Tick egg fertility and fully engorged female tick weight was reduced significantly in R. microplus feeding on HlGST-Cln-immunized calves

  13. In Vitro Acaricidal Activity of Atropa belladonna and Its Components, Scopolamine and Atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Godara, R.; Katoch, M.; Yadav, Anish; Parveen, S.; Vij, Bhavna; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, G.; Singh, Nirbhay K.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna and its components scopolamine and atropine was assessed against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were used whereas scopolamine and atropine were each tested at 0.1%. In adult immersion test, the extract was lethal to ticks at 20% concentration. The LC50 and LC95 values were determined as 6.875% and 17.306%, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in egg mass production at 10% concentration. In larval packet test, the extract was lethal to larvae in the concentrations of 10% and 20% after 24 h, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1.321% and 4.935%, respectively. Scopolamine and atropine showed 93.3% and 60.0% mortality of adult ticks, respectively, but they caused complete (100%) blocking of hatching as well as 100% larval mortality. Scopolamine and atropine were observed to be more potent than the crude extract at an equivalent concentration in both the bioassays. PMID:25516877

  14. Detection of amitraz and malathion resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu region of India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Singh, N K

    2017-03-01

    Detection of resistance levels against amitraz and malathion in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from four districts of Jammu region (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drugs were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition) the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these four districts, resistance to amitraz was detected at level I in Udhampur (RF = 2.81), Jammu (RF = 2.53) and Samba isolates (RF = 2.24) whereas Rajouri isolate was found susceptible (RF = 1.0). Resistance to malathion was detected at level I in Udhampur (RF = 4.01) and Jammu isolates (RF = 1.76) whereas Rajouri (RF = 0.472) and Samba (RF = 0.199) isolates were found susceptible. The data generated on amitraz and malathion resistance status will help in formulating a tick control strategy in the region.

  15. Novel approaches for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We review recent progress for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus. Outbreak infestations in the U.S. have reached alarming levels, due to increased populations of deer and other ungulates serving as alternative hosts. GIS mapping of infestations and deer habitat aids...

  16. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae.

  17. Tick microbiome: the force within

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are obligate blood-feeders and serve as vectors of human and livestock pathogens worldwide. Defining the tick microbiome and deciphering the interactions between the tick and its symbiotic bacteria in the context of tick development and pathogen transmission, will likely reveal new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. Descriptive observations on the tick microbiome that began almost a century ago serve as forerunners to the gathering momentum to define the tick microbiome in greater detail. This review will focus on the current efforts to address the microbiomes of diverse ticks, and the evolving understanding of tick microbiomes. There is hope that these efforts will bring a holistic understanding of pathogen transmission by ticks. PMID:25936226

  18. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Teel, Pete D.; Auclair, Allan N.; Messenger, Matthew T.; Guerrero, Felix D.; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change. PMID:22712018

  19. Management of ticks and tick-borne diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Stafford, K.C.; Goodman, J.L.; Dennis, D.T.; Sonenshine, D .E.

    2005-01-01

    The mainstays of tick management and protection from tick-borne diseases have traditionally been personal precautions and the application of acaricides. These techniques maintain their value, and current innovations hold considerable promise for future improvement in effective targeting of materials for tick control. Furthermore, an explosion of research in the past few decades has resulted in the development and expansion of several novel and potentially valuable approaches to tick control, including vaccination against tick-borne pathogen transmission and against tick attachment, host management, use of natural enemies (especially entomopathogenic fungi), and pheromone-based techniques. The situations that require tick management are diverse, and occur under varied ecological conditions. Therefore, the likelihood of finding a single ?magic bullet? for tick management is low. In practical terms, the approach to tick management or to management of tick-borne disease must be tailored to the specific conditions at hand. One area that needs increased attention is the decision-making process in applying IPM to tick control. Further development of novel tick control measures, and increased efficiency in their integration and application to achieve desired goals, holds great promise for effective future management of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  20. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work.

  1. Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... known. STARI or Lyme? Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Distribution References General Tick Information Avoiding ticks Tick life ... by ticks STARI Home STARI or Lyme? Symptoms Distribution References File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  2. Beware of Ticks … & Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ticks known as Ixodes . Ticks in this group—deer ticks, western black-legged ticks, and black-legged ... is a key early-stage symptom. This circular red patch usually appears at the bite site 3 ...

  3. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos in populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from small farms of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M C; Lima, C K P; Nogueira, A H C; Yoshihara, E; Chiebao, D P; Gabriel, F H L; Ueno, T E H; Namindome, A; Klafke, G M

    2011-06-10

    A field survey of resistance was conducted based on the larval packet test technique with synthetic pyrethroids (cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and organophosphates (chlorpyriphos) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus field populations from six different regions of the State of São Paulo (Brazil). 82.6% of the populations showed resistance to cypermethrin, 86.36% to deltamethrin and 65.25% to chlorpyriphos, with 50% presenting resistance to both SP and OP acaricide. According to the questionnaires completed by the producers, OP+SP mixtures followed by SP-only formulations were the products most commonly used for controlling the cattle tick in the surveyed areas. The present study showed high occurrence of resistance to SP and OP in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and revealed the type of strategy adopted by small dairy farms in this state. This information is fundamental in order to establish the monitoring of resistance on each farm individually, contributing to the rational use of acaricides for the control of R. (B.) microplus.

  4. Tick Bites (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease . The deer tick is tiny, no larger than ... red rash, which looks like a bull's-eye (Lyme disease) red dots on the ankles and wrists (Rocky ...

  5. [Protection against tick bites].

    PubMed

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing.

  6. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.

  7. Hemalin, a thrombin inhibitor isolated from a midgut cDNA library from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Zhou, Jinlin; Gong, Haiyan; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Shirafuji, Rika; Battur, Banzragch; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2009-02-01

    A full-length sequence of a thrombin inhibitor (designated as hemalin) from the midgut of parthenogenetic Haemaphysalis longicornis has been identified. Sequence analysis shows that this gene belongs to the Kunitz-type family, containing two Kunitz domains with high homology to boophilin, the thrombin inhibitor from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The recombinant protein expressed in insect cells delayed bovine plasma clotting time and inhibited both thrombin-induced fibrinogen clotting and platelet aggregation. A 20-kDa protein was detected from the midgut lysate with antiserum against recombinant hemalin. The gene is expressed at all stages of the tick except for the egg stage, and hemalin mRNA mainly in the midgut of the female adult tick. Real-time PCR analysis shows that this gene has a distinctly high expression level in the rapid bloodsucking period of the larvae, nymphs, and adults. Disruption of the hemalin gene by RNA interference led to a 2-day extension of the tick blood feeding period, and 27.7% of the RNA-treated ticks did not successfully complete the blood feeding. These findings indicate that the newly identified thrombin inhibitor from the midgut of H. longicornis might play an important role in tick blood feeding.

  8. Analysis of stage specific protein expression during babesia bovis development within rhipicephalus microplus female ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropod borne pathogens have a complex life cycle that includes asexual reproduction of haploid stages in mammalian erythrocytes and development of diploid stages in the vector. Transition of Apicomplexan pathogens between the mammalian host and the arthropod vector is critical for ongoing transmi...

  9. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  10. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    PubMed

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Almeida, Igor C; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  11. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  12. Hey! A Tick Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this type of tick can carry is called Rocky Mountain spotted fever. What a Bite Looks and Feels Like A ... ticks carry diseases (such as Lyme disease or Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and can pass them to people. What You ...

  13. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the First Reported Presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the Tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J.; Graf, Paul C.F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

  14. Ticks and Tick-borne diseases in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zintl, Annetta; Moutailler, Sara; Stuart, Peter; Paredis, Linda; Dutraive, Justine; Gonzalez, Estelle; O'Connor, Jack; Devillers, Elodie; Good, Barbara; OMuireagain, Colm; De Waal, Theo; Morris, Fergal; Gray, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Throughout Europe interest in tick-borne agents is increasing, particularly with regard to those that can cause human disease. The reason for this is the apparent rise in the incidence of many tick-borne diseases (TBD's). While there has never been a national survey of ticks or TBD's in Ireland, the trend here appears to be the reverse with a decline in the incidence of some agents seemingly associated with decreasing tick numbers particularly on agricultural land. In the absence of robust baseline data, however, this development cannot be confirmed. This review collates the limited information available from several dated published records on tick species and a small number of studies focused on certain TBD's. Some pilot data on tick density and TBD agents collected in 2016 are also presented. The aim is to explore the particular situation in Ireland with regard to ticks and TBD's and to provide a reference for future workers in the field.

  15. Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-09-10

    We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively.

  16. Detection of bacteria related to Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in tick cell lines.

    PubMed

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Silaghi, Cornelia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Pfister, Kurt; Passos, Lygia M Friche

    2012-01-01

    Many ticks have been shown to be infected with intracellular bacteria. One of these bacteria is Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii which is the only characterized bacterium that has the ability to invade the mitochondria within ovarian cells and consume them without any effect on the female tick's reproduction. In the present study, eight cell lines derived from the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus were examined for the presence of the bacterium Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii. PCR assays for this bacterium were carried out using two sets of primers targeting the eubacterial 16SrRNA gene and a set of primers specific for the gyrB gene of Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii. With the 16S rRNA primers, DNA was amplified from two cell lines (R. (B.) decoloratus line BDE/CTVM14 and I. ricinus line IRE/CTVM19) on one out of three occasions each. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the two cell lines gave sequences with 100% similarity to Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii. However, all cell lines, including the two positive cell lines, were negative with the specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis shows that our sequences belong to the subclass α-proteobacteria. They were identical to the sequences amplified from the tick I. ricinus. The results suggest that two cell lines, IRE/CTVM19 and BDE/CTVM14, may contain bacteria closely related to Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii and identical with it in a 350-bp part of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of the presence of DNA similar to the DNA of Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii in tick cell lines.

  17. Molecular and structural characterization of novel cystatins from the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Carolina K; Parizi, Luís F; Sabadin, Gabriela A; Costa, Evenilton P; Romeiro, Nelilma C; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Githaka, Naftaly W; Seixas, Adriana; Logullo, Carlos; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2017-03-01

    Cystatins are cysteine peptidase inhibitors that in ticks mediate processes such as blood feeding and digestion. The ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus is endemic to the Eurasia, where it is the principal vector of Lyme borreliosis. To date, no I. persulcatus cystatin has been characterized. In the present work, we describe three novel cystatins from I. persulcatus, named JpIpcys2a, JpIpcys2b and JpIpcys2c. In addition, the potential of tick cystatins as cross-protective antigens was evaluated by vaccination of hamsters using BrBmcys2c, a cystatin from Rhipicephalus microplus, against I. persulcatus infestation. Sequence analysis showed that motifs that are characteristic of cystatins type 2 are fully conserved in JpIpcys2b, while mutations are present in both JpIpcys2a and JpIpcys2c. Protein-protein docking simulations further revealed that JpIpcys2a, JpIpcys2b and JpIpcys2c showed conserved binding sites to human cathepsins L, all of them covering the active site cleft. Cystatin transcripts were detected in different I. persulcatus tissues and instars, showing their ubiquitous expression during I. persulcatus development. Serological analysis showed that although hamsters immunized with BrBmcys2c developed a humoral immune response, this response was not adequate to protect against a heterologous challenge with I. persulcatus adult ticks. The lack of cross-protection provided by BrBmcys2c immunization is perhaps linked to the fact that cystatins cluster into multigene protein families that are expressed differentially and exhibit functional redundancy. How to target such small proteins that are secreted in low quantities remains a challenge in the development of suitable anti-tick vaccine antigens.

  18. Perceptions and attitudes among milk producers in Minas Gerais regarding cattle tick biology and control.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Maria Alice Zacarias; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Faccini, João Luiz; Furlong, John; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates milk producers' knowledge regarding cattle ticks and practices for controlling them. Ninety-three dairymen in Minas Gerais were interviewed. These producers had no information regarding acaricide efficiency tests. To analyze the information, open responses were categorized through "content analysis", and descriptive analysis consisting of extracting the profile highlighted by the highest frequencies. The association between schooling level and knowledge was tested by means of chi-square trend tests. It was observed that 92.3% had no knowledge of the nonparasitic period. For 96.4%, what determined the time to apply treatment was the degree of tick infestation; 93.3% used spray guns to apply the acaricide. In seeking to cross-correlate the biological and control variables with education, cooperative action, length of experience and herd size, it was found that there was a linear association between schooling level and implementation of acaricide solution preparation. The other factors didn't show any significant association. These data demonstrated the need to instruct the producers in relation to the biology and control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. It was concluded that the majority of milk producers were unaware of cattle tick biology and the factors that influence choosing an acaricide, which makes it difficult to implement strategic control.

  19. A theoretical analysis of codon adaptation index of the Boophilus microplus bm86 gene directed to the optimization of a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-04-21

    DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks.

  20. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas on the Pacific Coast. Transmits: Tularemia and Rocky Mountain spotted fever . Comments: The highest risk of being bitten occurs ... dog tick ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) Where found: Worldwide. Transmits: Rocky Mountain spotted fever (in the southwestern U.S. and along the U.S.- ...

  1. Tick imbedded in the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a close-up photograph of a tick embedded in the skin. Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others.

  2. Survey of acaricides resistance status of Rhipiciphalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from selected places of Bihar, an eastern state of India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Kumar, Rinesh; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Aman; Kumar, Suman; Ajith Kumar, K G; Saravanan, B C

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring acaricide resistance in field ticks and use of suitable managemental practices are essential for controlling tick populations infesting animals. In the present study, the acaricide resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes of five districts located in the eastern Indian state, Bihar were characterized using three data sets (AIT, Biochemical assays and gene sequences). Adult immersion test (AIT) was adopted using seven field isolates and their resistance factor (RF) was determined. Six isolates (DNP, MUZ, BEG, VSH, DRB and SUL) were found resistant to both deltamethrin and diazinon and except VSH all were resistant to cypermethrin. One isolate (PTN) was susceptible with a RF below 1.5. To understand the possible mode of resistance development, targeted enzymes and gene sequences of the para sodium channel and achetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2) were analyzed. The esterase, monooxygenase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity of reference susceptible IVRI-I line was determined as 2.47 ± 0.007 nmol/min/mg protein, 0.089 ± 0.0016 nmol/mg of protein and 0.0439 ± 0.0003 nmol/mg/min respectively, which increased significantly in the resistant field isolates. However, except esterases, the fold increase of monooxygenase (1.14-2.27 times) and GST (0.82-1.53 times) activities were not very high. A cytosine (C) to adenine (A) nucleotide substitution (CTC to ATC) at position 190 in domain II S4-5 linker region was detected only in one isolate (SUL) having RF of 34.9 and in the reference deltamethrin resistant line (IVRI-IV). However, the T2134A mutation was not detected in domain IIIS6 transmembrane segment of resistant isolates and also in reference IVRI-IV line despite of varying degree of resistance. The flumethrin specific G215T and the recently identified T170C mutations were also absent in domain II sequences under study. Four novel amino acid substitutions in AChE2 gene of field isolates and in

  3. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases.

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually. Related viruses within the same group, Louping ill virus (LIV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV), also cause human encephalitis but rarely on an epidemic scale. Three other viruses within the same group, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV), are closely related to the TBEV complex viruses and tend to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis. This review describes the clinical manifestations associated with TBEV infections, the main molecular-biological properties of these viruses, and the different factors that define the incidence and severity of disease. The role of ticks and their local hosts in the emergence of new virus variants with different pathogenic characteristics is also discussed. This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains.

  5. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  6. Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in Nigerian ticks.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Ndudim Isaac; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Galindo, Ruth C; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Inuwa, Hauwa Mairo; Agbede, Rowland I S; Torina, Alessandra; Alongi, Angelina; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-07-06

    A molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two Nigerian states (Plateau and Nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using PCR, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. A total of 218 tick samples, Amblyomma variegatum (N=153), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N=45), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (N=20) were sampled. Pathogens identified in ticks included piroplasmids (Babesia spp., Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens), Anaplasma marginale and Rickettsia africae. Piroplasmids were identified in A. variegatum, A. marginale was found in R. decoloratus, while R. africae was detected in all tick species examined. Ehrlichia spp. and Theileria spp. were not identified in any of the ticks examined. Of the 218 ticks examined, 33 (15.1%) contained pathogen DNA, with the presence of B. divergens and R. africae that are zoonotic pathogens of public health and veterinary importance. The variety of tick-borne pathogens identified in this study suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans, especially amongst the Fulani pastoralists in Plateau and Nassarawa states of Nigeria.

  7. Evaluation of stem aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis against Hippobosca maculata and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Marimuthu, Sampath; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai; Karthik, Loganathan; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara

    2012-10-01

    The present study was to determine the efficacies of anti-parasitic activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using stem aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis against the adult of hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and the larvae of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Contact toxicity method was followed to determine the potential of parasitic activity. Twelve milliliters of stem aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis was treated with 88 ml of 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution at room temperature for 30 min and the resulting solution was yellow-brown color indicating the formation extracellular synthesis of Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded by UV-visible spectrum at 420 nm and XRD patterns showed the nanoparticles crystalline in nature. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag((+)) ions to Ag NPs were due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. FESEM image of Ag NPs showed spherical and oval in shape. By using the Bragg's Law and Scherrer's constant, the average mean size of synthesized Ag NPs was 42.46 nm. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. The mortality obtained by the synthesized Ag NPs from the C. quadrangularis was more effective than the aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis and AgNO(3) solution (1 mM). The adulticidal activity was observed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the adult of H. maculata with LC(50) values of 37.08, 40.35 and 6.30 mg/L; LC(90) values of 175.46, 192.17 and 18.14 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.970, 0.992 and 0.969, respectively. The maximum efficacy showed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3

  8. Transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  9. Transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur. PMID:24058903

  10. Inhibitor profile of bis(n)-tacrines and N-methylcarbamates on acetylcholinesterase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Swale, Daniel R.; Tong, Fan; Temeyer, Kevin B.; Li, Andrew; Lam, Polo C-H.; Totrov, Maxim M.; Carlier, Paul R.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm), and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are disease vectors to cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from Bm (BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAChE) compared to human and bovine AChE, in order to identify divergent pharmacology that might lead to selective inhibitors. Results indicate that BmAChE has low sensitivity (IC50 = 200 μM) toward tacrine, a monovalent catalytic site inhibitor with sub micromolar blocking potency in all previous species tested. Similarly, a series of bis(n)-tacrine dimer series, bivalent inhibitors and peripheral site AChE inhibitors possess poor potency toward BmAChE. Molecular homology models suggest the rBmAChE enzyme possesses a W384F orthologous substitution near the catalytic site, where the larger tryptophan side chain obstructs the access of larger ligands to the active site, but functional analysis of this mutation suggests it only partially explains the low sensitivity to tacrine. In addition, BmAChE1 and PpAChE have low nanomolar sensitivity to some experimental carbamate anticholinesterases originally designed for control of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. One experimental compound, 2-((2-ethylbutyl)thio)phenyl methylcarbamate, possesses >300-fold selectivity for BmAChE1 and PpAChE over human AChE, and a mouse oral LD50 of >1500 mg/kg, thus providing an excellent new lead for vector control. PMID:24187393

  11. Ticks and tick-borne diseases: a One Health perspective.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Chomel, Bruno B; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are common occurrences in both the medical and veterinary clinical settings. In addition to the constraints related to their diagnosis and clinical management, the control and prevention of these diseases is often difficult, because it requires the disruption of a complex transmission chain, involving vertebrate hosts and ticks, which interact in a constantly changing environment. We provide a contemporary review of representative tick-borne diseases of humans and discuss aspects linked to their medical relevance worldwide. Finally, we emphasize the importance of a One Health approach to tick-borne diseases, calling physicians and veterinarians to unify their efforts in the management of these diseases, several of which are zoonoses.

  12. Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing.

    PubMed

    Stjernberg, Louise; Berglund, Johan

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that ticks are more visible and easier to detect on light clothing in comparison with dark clothing. We studied which of the clothing, light or dark, had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus, thus minimizing exposure and thereby in theory helping to prevent tick-borne diseases in humans. 10 participants, exposed by walking in tick endemic areas, wore alternately light and dark clothing before every new exposure. Nymphal and adult ticks on the clothing were collected and counted. In total, 886 nymphal ticks were collected. The overall mean in found ticks between both groups differed significantly, with 20.8 more ticks per person on light clothing. All participants had more ticks on light clothing in all periods of exposure. Dark clothing seems to attract fewer ticks.

  13. Hey! A Tick Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the arachnid family, which also includes mites, spiders, and scorpions . A tick attaches itself to the ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! Going ...

  14. It's Open Season on Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ticks (which can carry the organisms which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia). Many tickborne diseases, such as Lyme disease, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be treated effectively if caught early. Be ...

  15. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sick sheep (e.g., veterinarians, butchers). In the USA and Russia, another tick-borne flavivirus, Powassan virus, ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  16. Acaricidal activity of eugenol on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    de Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Maturano, Ralph; Daemon, Erik; Catunda-Junior, Francisco Eduardo Aragão; Calmon, Fernanda; Senra, Tatiane de Souza; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of eugenol, with different solubilizations and concentrations, on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae and to determine the lethal time. The study consisted of four experiments, and the mortality was assessed using the larval packet test with adaptations. The mortality observed in the first experiment was 100 % for all the groups treated with eugenol solubilized in different solvents. In the second, the hydroethanolic formulation of eugenol was used, and the mortality rates for R. microplus and D. nitens was 100 % starting from the concentration of 5.0 μl/ml. In the third experiment, the mortality was 100 % for larvae of both R. microplus and D. nitens after 1 h of contact. And in the fourth experiment, the mortality was above 90 % and statistically similar (p > 0.05) for the four methods the test evaluated.

  17. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil.

  18. [Elaboration and evaluation of a candidate to the DNA vaccine using synthetic genes derived from the peptídeo SBm7462 against the carrapato Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Carla L; Mendonça, Bianca G; Tavares, Larissa C; Girão, Flávia A; Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important arthropods in veterinary medicine due economic losses and health problems caused in cattle production. The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. A synthetic peptide, SBm 7462, derived from Bm86, has been shown great results in control of ticks. The construction and synthesis of one nucleotide sequence based on this peptide might be useful for design a DNA vaccine that has many advances than peptide vaccine. A gene, called seq1, was constructed with a three repetition of nucleotide sequence of SBm 7462. It was cloned into a pCIneo vector expression in mammals and injected in BALB/c mouse. When mice were inoculated with the expression cassette they did not response in ELISA. They elevated antibody titles only when vaccinated with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®. And, the best titles of immunoglobulins were seen when the SBm7462® was administered subcutaneously.

  19. A new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini.

    PubMed Central

    Telford, S. R.; Armstrong, P. M.; Katavolos, P.; Foppa, I.; Garcia, A. S.; Wilson, M. L.; Spielman, A.

    1997-01-01

    To determine if eastern North American Ixodes dammini, like related ticks in Eurasia, maintain tick-borne encephalitis group viruses, we analyzed ticks collected from sites where the agent of Lyme disease is zoonotic. Two viral isolates were obtained by inoculating mice with homogenates from tick salivary glands. The virus, which was described by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplification products, was similar to, but distinct from, Powassan virus and is provisionally named "deer tick virus." Enzootic tick-borne encephalitis group viruses accompany the agents of Lyme disease, babesiosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a Holarctic assemblage of emergent deer tick pathogens. PMID:9204297

  20. Looking in ticks for human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, O; Fenollar, F

    2014-12-01

    Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases and the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. A number of emerging tick-borne pathogens are already discovered; however, the proportion of undiagnosed infectious diseases, especially in tropical regions, may suggest that there are still more pathogens associated with ticks. Moreover, the identification of bacteria associated with ticks may provide new tool for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Described here molecular methods of screening of ticks, extensive use of modern culturomics approach, newly developed artificial media and different cell line cultures may significantly improve our knowledge about the ticks as the agents of human and animal pathology.

  1. Protect Yourself against Tick-Borne Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Commonly called a "deer tick," this tick can transmit Lyme disease and ... entering the human body, live and grow inside red blood cells. In the study of the elderly, ...

  2. Tick Infestation of Eyelid: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Aslıhan; Gök, Mustafa; İşcanlı, Murat Doğan

    2016-01-01

    Tick infestation of the eyelid is a rare but serious condition that can lead to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this report, we describe two cases who presented with tick infestation of the eyelid. Neither patient developed systemic disease or adverse sequelae after tick extraction. Complete mechanical removal of ticks located on the eyelid with blunt forceps is a safe and effective treatment method. PMID:28058170

  3. Vaccinomics, the new road to tick vaccines.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Merino, Octavio

    2013-12-05

    Ticks are a threat to human and animal health worldwide. Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, the most important vectors of diseases that affect cattle industry worldwide and important vectors of diseases affecting pets. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. These premises stress the need for developing improved tick vaccines in a more efficient way. In this context, development of improved vaccines for tick-borne diseases will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick–host–pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of new candidate vaccine antigens for the control of tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission requires the development of effective screening platforms and algorithms that allow the analysis and validation of data produced by systems biology approaches to tick research. Tick vaccines that affect both tick infestations and pathogen transmission could be used to vaccinate human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vectorial capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health worldwide.

  4. Immunogenic potential of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin 1 against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in domestic dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated a recombinant aquaporin 1 protein of Rhipicephalus microplus (RmAQP1) as antigen in a vaccine against R. sanguineus. Five dogs were vaccinated with RmAQP1 (10 µg) + adjuvant (Montanide) (G1), and five were inoculated with adjuvant only (G2), three times. Twenty-one days after th...

  5. Genetic Mutations Associated with Pesticide Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of gene mutation in various arthropods have been found to be associated with pesticide resistance. Some of these mutations have been found in the two cattle pests, Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans. Sodium channel gene mutations have been associated with pyrethroid resistance ...

  6. Microarray analysis of gene expression in acaricide-exposed Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide-inducible differential gene expression was studied in larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using a microarray-based approach. The acaricides used were: coumaphos, permethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz. The microarrays contained over 13,000 probes, having been derived from a previous...

  7. Tick species and tick-borne infections identified in population from a rural area of Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Francisco Jesús; Nebreda, Teresa; Serrano, Jose Luis; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Encinas, Antonio; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    To determine the tick species that bite humans in the province of Soria (Spain) and ascertain the tick-borne pathogens that threaten people's health in that province, 185 tick specimens were collected from 179 patients who sought medical advice at health-care centres. The ticks were identified, and their DNA examined by PCR for pathogens. Most ticks were collected in autumn and spring (59 and 57 respectively). Nine species of ticks were identified, the most frequent being Dermacentor marginatus (55.7%), Ixodes ricinus (12.4%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (11.9%). Ninety-seven females, 66 males, 21 nymphs and one larva were identified. Twenty-six ticks carried DNA from Rickettsia spp. (11 Rickettsia slovaca, 6 Rickettsia spp. RpA4/DnS14, 1 Rickettsia massiliae/Bar29, and 8 unidentified); two ticks carried DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and seven ticks harboured DNA from Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PMID:16181517

  8. Strategies for new and improved vaccines against ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, J; Kopáček, P; Lew-Tabor, A; Maritz-Olivier, C

    2016-12-01

    Ticks infest a variety of animal species and transmit pathogens causing disease in both humans and animals worldwide. Tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved through dynamic processes that accommodated the genetic traits of the hosts, pathogens transmitted and the vector tick species that mediate their development and survival. New approaches for tick control are dependent on defining molecular interactions between hosts, ticks and pathogens to allow for discovery of key molecules that could be tested in vaccines or new generation therapeutics for intervention of tick-pathogen cycles. Currently, tick vaccines constitute an effective and environmentally sound approach for the control of ticks and the transmission of the associated tick-borne diseases. New candidate protective antigens will most likely be identified by focusing on proteins with relevant biological function in the feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, subversion of host immunity of the tick vector and/or molecules vital for pathogen infection and transmission. This review addresses different approaches and strategies used for the discovery of protective antigens, including focusing on relevant tick biological functions and proteins, reverse genetics, vaccinomics and tick protein evolution and interactomics. New and improved tick vaccines will most likely contain multiple antigens to control tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission.

  9. Hard Tick Factors Implicated in Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang Ye; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are the most common arthropod vector, after mosquitoes, and are capable of transmitting the greatest variety of pathogens. For both humans and animals, the worldwide emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne disease is becoming increasingly problematic. Despite being such an important issue, our knowledge of pathogen transmission by ticks is incomplete. Several recent studies, reviewed here, have reported that the expression of some tick factors can be modulated in response to pathogen infection, and that some of these factors can impact on the pathogenic life cycle. Delineating the specific tick factors required for tick-borne pathogen transmission should lead to new strategies in the disruption of pathogen life cycles to combat emerging tick-borne disease. PMID:24498444

  10. Hypersensitivity to ticks and Lyme disease risk.

    PubMed

    Burke, Georgine; Wikel, Stephen K; Spielman, Andrew; Telford, Sam R; McKay, Kathleen; Krause, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Although residents of Lyme disease-endemic regions describe frequent exposure to ticks, Lyme disease develops in relatively few. To determine whether people who experience cutaneous hypersensitivity against tick bite have fewer episodes of Lyme disease than those who do not, we examined several factors that might restrict the incidence of Lyme disease among residents of Block Island, Rhode Island. Of 1,498 study participants, 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23%-31%) reported > or = 1 tick bites, and 17% (95% CI 13%-21%) reported itch associated with tick bite in the previous year. Borrelia burgdorferi infected 23% (95% CI 20%-26%) of 135 nymphal Ixodes scapularis (I. dammini) ticks. The likelihood of Lyme disease infection decreased with >3 reports of tick-associated itch (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.94-0.03, p = 0.01). Prior exposure to uninfected vector ticks protects residents of disease-endemic sites from Lyme disease.

  11. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (P<0.05), providing almost complete repellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae.

  12. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  13. Soft tick sampling and collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in nature, or known to be susceptible to infection. African swine fever (ASF) caused by ASFV is considered one of the most serious transboundary swine diseases because of its high lethality for pigs, ...

  14. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  15. Tick Bite by Nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are parasites that usually suck the blood of wild or domestic animals; rarely, they ingest human blood and spread various febrile infectious diseases along with skin problems. Out of 40 cases of tick bite reported in Korea, only 3 were caused by nymphal ticks, and tick bites by nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium have not been reported previously. Herein, we report a rare case of tick bite by nymphal A. testudinarium. A 57-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic solitary erythematous nodule on the left thigh that had been present for 6 days. The tick, which the patient removed from the lesion and brought to the hospital, was identified as a nymphal A. testudinarium. Doxycycline (200 mg) was used as treatment, and after seven days of use, the patient improved and no other lesions were detected. PMID:27904278

  16. Tick-borne Diseases in Animals and USDA Research on Tick Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne diseases represent a major threat to animal health in the United States. The cattle industry in the United States has benefited greatly from the continued USDA efforts through the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in preventing the re-introduction of cattle ticks and associated pathog...

  17. Tick Genome Assembled: New Opportunities for Research on Tick-Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, José; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Sattelle, David B.; Hill, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    As tick-borne diseases are on the rise, an international effort resulted in the sequence and assembly of the first genome of a tick vector. This result promotes research on comparative, functional and evolutionary genomics and the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions to improve human, animal and ecosystem health on a global scale. PMID:27695689

  18. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  19. Ixodid ticks parasitizing wild carnivores in Romania.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Sándor, Attila David; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In Romania, data regarding hard-tick diversity and tick-host associations in wild carnivores are scarce. We aimed to identify tick species in wild carnivores and to establish reliable data on tick-host associations. The study was conducted in various Romanian localities from all five ecoregions found in the country. Fourteen species of wild carnivores were examined. Immature and adult ticks were collected and identified using the morphological keys. The frequency and mean intensity of tick infestation, overall and differentiated by species, developmental stage and host were calculated. Of 202 wild carnivores, 68 were parasitized by seven tick species (predominantly Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus). The mean intensity of tick infestation was similar in males (6.97, BCa 95% CI 5.15-9.88) and females (5.76, BCa 95% CI 4.15-9.17). The highest prevalence of infested animals was recorded in the pannonian and steppic ecoregions, 66.7 and 52.7%, respectively. In the continental ecoregion the prevalence was 26.7%, whereas in the pontic ecoregion it was 28%. The lowest value, 16.7% was recorded in the alpine ecoregion. In total 430 ticks were collected, and 24.8% (n = 50) of the animals were infested with more than one tick species. Fourteen new tick-host associations were recorded. Our results suggest that anthropogenic changes of the environment lead to the diminishing of the boundaries, between wild and domestic animals, increasing the exposure for both animals and humans, to infective agents, including tick-borne pathogens.

  20. A tick from a prehistoric Arizona coprolite.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Keith L; Reinhardt, Karl J; Sianto, Luciana; Araújo, Adauto; Gardner, Scott L; Janovy, John

    2008-02-01

    Ticks have never been reported in archaeological analyses. Here, we present the discovery of a tick from a coprolite excavated from Antelope Cave in extreme northwest Arizona. Dietary analysis indicates that the coprolite has a human origin. This archaeological occupation is associated with the Ancestral Pueblo culture (Anasazi). This discovery supports previous hypotheses that ticks were a potential source of disease and that ectoparasites were eaten by ancient people.

  1. Ticks and Tickborne Diseases Affecting Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    by disease transmission. Various bacteria , rickettsiae , viruses, and protozoans are transmitted to people via tick bites (see Chapter 4). Relatively...Ticks may harbor and transmit to people various disease agents such as protozoa, viruses, bacteria , rickettsiae , and toxins. Several factors are...Natural history. The causative agent of RMSF, Rickettsia rickettsii , is transmitted to man by several species of ticks. In the U.S., 2 of the most

  2. TICK: Transparent Incremental Checkpointing at Kernel Level

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, Fabrizio; Gioiosa, Roberto

    2004-10-25

    TICK is a software package implemented in Linux 2.6 that allows the save and restore of user processes, without any change to the user code or binary. With TICK a process can be suspended by the Linux kernel upon receiving an interrupt and saved in a file. This file can be later thawed in another computer running Linux (potentially the same computer). TICK is implemented as a Linux kernel module, in the Linux version 2.6.5

  3. THE EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF COLORADO TICK FEVER.

    PubMed

    Florio, L; Stewart, M O; Mugrage, E R

    1944-09-01

    1. The symptoms, history of tick bite, characteristic fever curve, and white blood cell picture should enable the physician to make a diagnosis of Colorado tick fever in nearly every case. 2. The typical white blood cell picture is a depression of the total leucocytes with a shift to the left of the granulocytes. Basophilic cytoplasmic bodies appear occasionally in lymphocytes 3 to 4 days after clinical recovery. 3. The disease can be transmitted serially in human beings by parenteral injection of blood or serum. Such transfers have not resulted in decreased or increased virulence. 4. The naturally acquired and experimental cases of Colorado tick fever are identical in their manifestations. 5. An attack of Colorado tick fever confers a degree of definite immunity to the disease. 6. Colorado tick fever is not a mild form of Rocky Mountain spotted fever since individuals immunized with ground tick vaccine against Rocky Mountain spotted fever are still susceptible to Colorado tick fever. 7. Adult Dermacentor andersoni ticks allowed to feed on typical cases, then carried through to a new generation and fed on susceptible adults, failed to transmit the disease. 8. Colorado tick fever has been successfully transmitted to an experimental animal, the golden hamster.

  4. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens—methodological principles and caveats

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Gray, Jeremy S.; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S.; Nijhof, Ard M.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial capacity of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. This approach should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:23964348

  5. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  6. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens--methodological principles and caveats.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Nijhof, Ard M

    2013-01-01

    Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial capacity of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. This approach should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  7. A case of tick bite.

    PubMed

    Hara, S; Takei, Y; Shiga, N

    1982-01-01

    A 30-year-old women suffered from right superior eyelid infestation of Ixodes ovatus Neumann, which was mechanically removed with forceps after application of benzine. No mouth parts were retained in the eyelid. Removed mouth parts were examined by a scanning electron microscope. There were no complications except focal trichotylosis in the involved area. The mode of attachment of the tick to the host and the method of removal were discussed.

  8. [Construction of cDNA expression library of salivary gland from Boophilus microplus].

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Xie, Jun-Ren; Gong, Zhen-Li

    2008-10-30

    Total RNA were isolated from salivary gland dissected from partially engorged Boophilus microplus. The mRNA was purified. A library of oligo (dT)-primed cDNA with added directional EcoR I/Hind III linkers was constructed from the purified mRNA. The constructed cDNA was ligated to the EcoR I/Hind III arms of the lambda SCREEN vector. The recombinant phage DNA was packaged by phage-marker packaging extracts, resulting in a primary cDNA library with a size of 1.38x10(6) PFU. Data showed 100% of the library were recombinant and the titer of the amplified library was 2x10(9) PFU/ml. A partial cDNA encoding cytochrome oxidase C subunit II of B. microplus was screened from the expression library with rabbit serum against B. microplus salivary gland proteins. The results is suggested that the cDNA expression library has been constructed.

  9. Cloning and molecular characterization of tick kynurenine aminotransferase (HlKAT) from Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Battsetseg, Badgar; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Battur, Banzragch; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2009-09-01

    A complementary DNA coding a novel kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) molecule from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick embryo was cloned and characterized. The transcription of the HlKAT occurs at all stages during tick development as well as in the midgut, salivary glands, ovary, and synganglion of adult ticks, and protein expression levels increased during the blood-feeding course. The HlKAT gene without signal peptide was successfully expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in soluble form, which is capable of catalyzing the transamination of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine to kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid, respectively. The purified recombinant HlKAT showed dose-dependent inhibition effect on the growth of equine babesial parasite, Babesia caballi, in in vitro culture. All results suggested that a specific HlKAT is present in tick and HlKAT may play an important physiological role in H. longicornis. This is the first report of a member enzyme of tryptophan pathway in Chelicerata.

  10. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence.

  11. Urban Breeding Corvids as Disseminators of Ticks and Emerging Tick-Borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Attila D; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Matei, Ioana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Mărcuţan, Ioan-Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Crows (Corvidae) are common city dwellers worldwide and are increasingly important subjects of epidemiology studies. Although their importance as hosts and transmitters of a number of zoonotic parasites and pathogens is well known, there are no studies on their importance as tick hosts. After mosquitoes, ticks are the most important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, especially for those causing emerging zoonotic diseases. Pathogenic bacteria, especially Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma spp., vectored by ticks, are the cause for most vector-borne diseases in Europe. Here we report on ticks and tick-borne pathogens harbored by urban breeding crows. A total of 36 birds (33.33%, n = 108) hosted ticks, with 91 individual ticks belonging to 6 species (Haemaphysalis concinna, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes arboricola, and Ixodes ricinus). Rickettsia spp. DNA was found in 6.6% of ticks and 1.9% of bird tissues, whereas Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 5.9% of ticks and 0.9% of birds. Two rickettsial genospecies were located, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis. This is the first study to determine such a diverse tick spectrum feeding on urban corvids, while highlighting their importance as tick hosts and raising concerns about their potential risk to human health.

  12. Metabolomics of the tick-Borrelia interaction during the nymphal tick blood meal

    PubMed Central

    Hoxmeier, J. Charles; Fleshman, Amy C.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Dolan, Marc C.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profile among uninfected I. scapularis nymphal ticks, B. burgdorferi-infected nymphal ticks and B. mayonii-infected nymphal ticks by measuring metabolism every 24 hours over the course of their up to 96 hour blood meals. Specifically, differences in the abundance of purines, amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids during the blood meal among the three groups of nymphal ticks suggest that B. mayonii and B. burgdorferi may have different metabolic capabilities, especially during later stages of nymphal feeding. Understanding mechanisms underlying variable metabolic requirements of different Lyme disease spirochetes within tick vectors could potentially aid development of novel methods to control spirochete transmission. PMID:28287618

  13. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1,107 ticks were collected by tick dragging from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico. PMID:26726019

  14. Molecular investigation of tick-borne pathogens in ticks from grazing cattle in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Won; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Choe, Se Eun; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Yoo, Mi Sun; Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Kim, Young Ha; Kweon, Chang Hee; Jung, Suk Chan; Chang, Ki Yoon

    2013-06-01

    This study was carried out to identify the tick species that infest grazing cattle and to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens transmitted by these ticks in Korea. A total of 903 ticks (categorized into 566 tick pools) were collected from five provinces during 2010-2011. The most prevalent tick species was Haemaphysalis longicornis, followed by three Ixodes spp. ticks. The collected ticks were infected with both rickettsial and protozoan pathogens. In all, 469 (82.9%) tick pools tested positive for the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia 16S rRNA gene, whereas 67 (11.8%) were positive for the Babesia/Theileria 18S rRNA gene. Among the rickettsial pathogens, E. canis was detected with the highest rate (22.3%), followed by A. platys (20%), E. chaffeensis (19.4%), E. ewingii (19.3%), Rickettsia sp. (12.4%), A. phagocytophilum (5.5%) and E. muris (0.5%). Among the protozoan pathogens, T. equi was detected with the highest rate (7.2%), followed by T. sergenti/T. buffeli (3.7%) and B. caballi (0.35%). Simultaneous infections with up to seven pathogens were also identified. In particular, ticks infected with rickettsial pathogens were also infected with protozoan pathogens (22 samples). All five provinces investigated infected with tick-borne pathogens.

  15. Rickettsial and other tick-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Flicek, Barbara Fouts

    2007-03-01

    Tick bites are best prevented by people avoiding tick-infested areas. When this is not possible, tick bites may be prevented by the wearing of long trousers that are tucked into boots. The best method to avoid tick bites is twofold: application of a topical deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) repellent to exposed skin, and treatment of clothing with permethrin. This system is currently used by the US Army to protect soldiers. Ticks can crawl underneath clothing and bite untreated portions of the body; therefore, treating clothing is imperative. Permethrin is nontoxic to humans, and can be used in any age group. Permethrin is commercially available. Checking clothing regularly while in tick-infested areas is highly recommended to back up the few hours of protection provided by the insect repellents. It is also recommended that the entire body be carefully screened for ticks and other parasites by campers and hunters while they are staying in and after leaving infested areas. Any tick found should be removed immediately. Removing ticks may not be easy. It is best to use blunt, rounded forceps, and a magnifying glass to remove ticks, especially when immature ticks are found. The forceps are used to grasp the mouthparts of the tick as close as possible to the skin, and then the tick is pulled upward, perpendicular to the skin, with a continuous and steady action. Usually any mouth parts of the tick retained in the skin are eliminated uneventfully by the body. Other methods of removing ticks, such as using fingers, lighted cigarettes, petroleum jelly, or suntan oil, should be avoided. Killing the tick in situ may increase the risk of regurgitation by the tick and the transmission of infectious agents. Most stick bites are uncomplicated, and result only in benign cutaneous inflammatory reactions that may be pruritic for a few days. As a result of mouthparts being retained at the feeding site, a granuloma may rarely develop. There are no data to indicate that antimicrobial

  16. Expression of 6-Cys gene superfamily defines babesia bovis sexual stage development within rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Babesia bovis, an intra-erythrocytic tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, is one of the agents of bovine babesiosis. Its life cycle includes sexual reproduction within cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp. Six B. bovis 6-Cys gene superfamily members were previously identified (A, B, C, D, E, F) and t...

  17. Modern advances in sustainable tick control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are the vector of the many different organisms responsible for both animal and human diseases. Understanding the progress we have made and new directions in tick control is critical to the sustainability of human and animal health. The integration of vaccines, acaricides, and new acaricide ap...

  18. Chemical ecology of tick-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks impact the health of livestock and humans world-wide through their roles as pests and vectors of diseases such as heartwater, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease, erhlichiosis, tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic fever. Intrinsic to their capacity to serve ...

  19. Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus ticks, Mexicali, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Eremeeva, Marina E; Zambrano, Maria L; Anaya, Luis; Beati, Lorenza; Karpathy, Sandor E; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Salceda, Beatriz; MacBeth, Donald; Olguin, Hector; Dasch, Gregory A; Aranda, Celia Alpuche

    2011-03-01

    Circulation of a unique genetic type of Rickettsia rickettsii in ticks of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex was detected in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. The Mexican R. rickettsii differed from all isolates previously characterized from the endemic regions of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in northern, central, and southern Americas. Rhipicephalus ticks in Mexicali are genetically different from Rh. sanguineus found in the United States.

  20. [Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite].

    PubMed

    Patey, O

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks. The transmission depends on several factors, especially on the duration of the tick's presence in the host body (the nymph which is smaller than the adults and thus less visible, is in this case the most frequently involved) and on whether the tick is infected or not. The interpretation of results in the few available studies is made difficult by the lack of information obtained (due to difficulty to collect information and examination costs). The comparison is made even more difficult by the difference between Borrelia ticks species in various regions. Today, the best methods are preventive: protective clothing, tick repellents, checking and removal of ticks after a journey in an endemic zone, and in case of tick bite, regular examination of the bite site during the following weeks in order to initiate an early curative treatment if ECM is diagnosed. The currently available data seems to be insufficient to suggest systematic antimicrobial prophylaxis in case of tick bite.

  1. Borrelia Diversity and Co-infection with Other Tick Borne Pathogens in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Raileanu, Cristian; Moutailler, Sara; Pavel, Ionuţ; Porea, Daniela; Mihalca, Andrei D.; Savuta, Gheorghe; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe. The objective of our study was to identify the infection and co-infection rates of different Borrelia genospecies along with other tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three geographically distinct areas in eastern Romania. We collected 557 questing adult and nymph ticks of three different species (534 Ixodes ricinus, 19 Haemaphysalis punctata, and 4 Dermacentor reticulatus) from three areas in Romania. We analyzed ticks individually for the presence of eight different Borrelia genospecies with high-throughput real-time PCR. Ticks with Borrelia were then tested for possible co-infections with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Borrelia spp. was detected in I. ricinus ticks from all sampling areas, with global prevalence rates of 25.8%. All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen. Associations between different Borrelia genospecies were detected in 9.7% of ticks, and 6.9% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for co-infection of Borrelia spp. with other tick-borne pathogens. The

  2. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe

    2016-09-30

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico.

  3. The ecology of ticks and epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José

    2014-08-01

    A number of tick-borne diseases of humans have increased in incidence and geographic range over the past few decades, and there is concern that they will pose an even greater threat to public health in future. Although global warming is often cited as the underlying mechanism favoring the spread of tick-borne diseases, climate is just one of many factors that determine which tick species are found in a given geographic region, their population density, the likelihood that they will be infected with microbes pathogenic for humans and the frequency of tick-human contact. This article provides basic information needed for microbiologists to understand the many factors that affect the geographic range and population density of ticks and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks. It first briefly summarizes the life cycle and basic ecology of ticks and how ticks and vertebrate hosts interact, then reviews current understanding of the role of climate, sociodemographic factors, agricultural development and changes in human behavior that affect the incidence of tick-borne diseases. These concepts are then illustrated in specific discussions of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

  4. Tick-borne pathogens and the vector potential of ticks in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Tianhong; Sun, Wenying; Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingze

    2015-01-14

    Ticks, as obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, attack a broad range of vertebrates and transmit a great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. They are considered second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, and the most important vector of pathogens of domestic and wild animals. Of the 117 described species in the Chinese tick fauna, 60 are known to transmit one or more diseases: 36 species isolated within China and 24 species isolated outside China. Moreover, 38 of these species carry multiple pathogens, indicating the potentially vast role of these vectors in transmitting pathogens. Spotted fever is the most common tick-borne disease, and is carried by at least 27 tick species, with Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ranked as the second and third most widespread tick-borne diseases, carried by 13 and 10 species, respectively. Such knowledge provides us with clues for the identification of tick-associated pathogens and suggests ideas for the control of tick-borne diseases in China. However, the numbers of tick-associated pathogens and tick-borne diseases in China are probably underestimated because of the complex distribution and great diversity of tick species in this country.

  5. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in I. ricinus ticks collected from autumn migratory birds in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kazarina, Alisa; Japiņa, Kristīne; Keišs, Oskars; Salmane, Ineta; Bandere, Dace; Capligina, Valentina; Ranka, Renāte

    2015-03-01

    Birds have a potential of spreading ticks via bird migration routes. In this study, we screened 170 ticks removed during autumn 2010 from 55 birds belonging to 10 species for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In total, TBEV RNA was detected in 14% of I. ricinus tick samples obtained from different birds species. The results of this study indicate the possible role of migrating birds in the dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks along the southward migration route.

  6. Tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Alvaro; Olmeda, A Sonia; Escudero, Raquel; Jado, Isabel; Valcárcel, Félix; Casado-Nistal, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of tick-borne and related bacteria infecting adult ticks in central Spain was assessed by molecular methods. Six areas were sampled monthly during a 2-year longitudinal study. A total of 1,038 questing and 442 feeding ticks, belonging to eight different species, were tested. The most abundant species were Hyalomma lusitanicum (54% of captures), followed by Dermacentor marginatus (23%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (10%). Four human pathogens, including seven Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Francisella tularensis, were detected at percentages of 19.0, 2.2, 1.7, and 0.5, respectively, whereas Bartonella spp. was never detected. In terms of infection and tick abundance, H. lusitanicum seems to be the most significant tick species in the area, carrying three of the five agents tested, and the anthropophilic tick, D. marginatum, infected with Rickettsia spp. and F. tularensis, is the most relevant in terms of public health. The significance of these data is discussed.

  7. Molecular evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Jeong, Y E; Yun, S-M; Lee, I Y; Han, M G; Ju, Y R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate whether tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEVs) are present in South Korea, Korean ixodid ticks were tested for TBEV RNA. Ticks (n = 2460) were collected from wild and domestic animals or by flagging at forest and grassland in 12 regions of five provinces in 2005-06. Four species in two genera were identified, yielding 197 sample pools (1-20 ticks per pool); from these, 12 envelope protein gene fragments of TBEV were amplified by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Ten of the 2104 adult ticks (0.4%) and two of the 356 nymph ticks (0.2%) were positive for the envelope (E) gene of TBEV. Twelve TBEV RNA-positive samples were detected in Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E genes of the TBEV isolates were clustered with the Western European subtype (98% identity). This study suggests that TBEVs may exist in Korea.

  8. Survival dynamics of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Slovák, Mirko; Kazimírová, Mária; Siebenstichová, Marta; Ustaníková, Katarína; Klempa, Boris; Gritsun, Tamara; Gould, Ernest A; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2014-10-01

    Biotic factors contributing to the survival of tick-borne viruses in nature are poorly understood. Using tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and its principal European vector, Ixodes ricinus, we examined the relative roles of salivary gland infection, co-feeding transmission, and moulting in virus survival. Virus titres in the salivary glands increased after blood-feeding in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This was observed in ticks infected by inoculation but not in ticks infected by the natural route of co-feeding. Amplification of infection prevalence occurred via co-feeding. However, when larvae or nymphs subsequently moulted, the infection prevalence dramatically declined although this was not observed when ticks were infected by inoculation. Trans-stadial survival is a hitherto overlooked parameter that may contribute to the low incidence of TBEV infection in field-collected I. ricinus ticks.

  9. Ticks associated with wild mammals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Carr-Saunders, C; Matthews, B E; Preston, P M; Walker, A R

    2005-06-01

    The host ranges of a collection of 21 tick species found on wild mammals in the savanna, forests and coastal zone of Ghana suggested that most species were adapted to feeding mainly on host species within a single mammalian order, i.e. on artiodactyls (bovids/suids), carnivores, rodents or pholidotes (pangolins). Only a few species were dispersed evenly across a range of orders. Seven out of ten of the most common ticks on forest mammals were significantly associated with a particular host species or a group of closely related host species, which could be viewed as their major host or hosts, but they were also recorded much less frequently on a wide range of host species. Two other species were confined to their major hosts. Only one species appeared to be widely dispersed on forest mammals and to lack a particular major host. The majority of tick species therefore occurred on hosts with very distinctive biological, behavioural and ecological characteristics. The study provided no evidence to support the view that host specificity is an artefact of sampling. Finding that the tick species on Ghanaian wild mammals occurred on particular hosts, as well as in distinct habitats, indicated that tick-host associations are important for tick survival and confirmed the importance of climate and vegetation in tick distribution.

  10. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  11. A list of the 70 species of Australian ticks; diagnostic guides to and species accounts of Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick) and Rhipicephalus australis (Australian cattle tick); and consideration of the place of Australia in the evolution of ticks with comments on four controversial ideas.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen C; Walker, Alan R; Campelo, Dayana

    2014-10-15

    Seventy species of ticks are known from Australia: 14 soft ticks (family Argasidae) and 56 hard ticks (family Ixodidae). Sixteen of the 70 ticks in Australia may feed on humans and domestic animals (Barker and Walker 2014). The other 54 species of ticks in Australia feed only on wild mammals, reptiles and birds. At least 12 of the species of ticks in Australian also occur in Papua New Guinea. We use an image-matching system much like the image-matching systems of field guides to birds and flowers to identify Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick). Our species accounts have reviews of the literature on I. holocyclus (paralysis tick) from the first paper on the biology of an Australian tick by Bancroft (1884), on paralysis of dogs by I. holocyclus, to papers published recently, and of I. cornuatus (southern paralysis tick) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick). We comment on four controversial questions in the evolutionary biology of ticks: (i) were labyrinthodont amphibians in Australia in the Devonian the first hosts of soft, hard and nuttalliellid ticks?; (ii) are the nuttalliellid ticks the sister-group to the hard ticks or the soft ticks?; (iii) is Nuttalliella namaqua the missing link between the soft and hard ticks?; and (iv) the evidence for a lineage of large bodied parasitiform mites (ticks plus the holothyrid mites plus the opiliocarid mites).

  12. Different tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalences in unfed versus partially engorged ixodid ticks--evidence of virus replication and changes in tick behavior.

    PubMed

    Belova, Oxana A; Burenkova, Ludmila A; Karganova, Galina G

    2012-09-01

    There is some evidence that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence in ticks, removed from humans, is higher than that in field-collected ticks from the same area. There are two possible explanations: (i) Infected ticks are more active and aggressive and can be found on humans more often. (ii) Some questing ticks are infected with TBEV in a low, undetectable concentration; during tick feeding, virus replicates and reaches the titers that can be detected. The aim of our work was to evaluate both hypotheses. Using unfed adult Ixodes ricinus, we compared three methods of tick infection with TBEV: (i) injection of the virus under the tick's 4th coxa (percoxal method), (ii) injection through anus (rectal method), and (iii) immersion of ticks in virus-containing medium. The percoxal method showed the best results and was used in further experiments. We compared the dynamics of virus reproduction in ticks that remain unfed after inoculation and in partially engorged ticks fed on mice. When ticks fed for 15 h, the titer of the virus increased in 3 log(10)PFU/tick since inoculation, while in unfed ticks it did not change. We also studied the reaction on the repellent DEET of uninfected versus TBEV-infected Ixodes ricinus ticks of the physiological age levels III and IV. We investigated ticks movements upwards in the direction of the bait on the cotton tape, impregnated with an increasing concentration of DEET. Obtained data showed that infected ticks were more active and tolerant to DEET. About 70% of the non-infected ticks and only 13% of the infected ticks did not get over the lowest concentration of the repellent (0.1%). Only infected ticks (5.6%) got over 1% concentration of DEET. Ticks of the physiological age level IV from both infected and uninfected groups were the most active and tolerant to the repellent. Both above-mentioned hypotheses were approved and can be used to explain higher virus prevalences in partially engorged ticks than in field

  13. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans). Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals. PMID:21554736

  14. Host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Karen D; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.

  15. Host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Karen D.; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock. PMID:24109592

  16. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed.

  17. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from breeding and migratory birds in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lommano, Elena; Dvořák, Charles; Vallotton, Laurent; Jenni, Lukas; Gern, Lise

    2014-10-01

    From 2007 to 2010, 4558 migrating and breeding birds of 71 species were caught and examined for ticks in Switzerland. A total of 1205 specimens were collected; all were Ixodes ricinus ticks except one Ixodes frontalis female, which was found on a common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) for the first time in Switzerland. Each tick was analysed individually for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Altogether, 11.4% of birds (22 species) were infested by ticks and 39.8% of them (15 species) were carrying infected ticks. Bird species belonging to the genus Turdus were the most frequently infested with ticks and they were also carrying the most frequently infected ticks. Each tick-borne pathogen for which we tested was identified within the sample of bird-feeding ticks: Borrelia spp. (19.5%) and Rickettsia helvetica (10.5%) were predominantly detected whereas A. phagocytophilum (2%), Rickettsia monacensis (0.4%) and TBEV (0.2%) were only sporadically detected. Among Borrelia infections, B. garinii and B. valaisiana were largely predominant followed by B. afzelii, B. bavariensis, B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi ss. Interestingly, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was identified in a few ticks (3.3%), mainly from chaffinches. Our study emphasizes the role of birds in the natural cycle of tick-borne pathogens that are of human medical and veterinary relevance in Europe. According to infection detected in larvae feeding on birds we implicate the common blackbird (Turdus merula) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) as reservoir hosts for Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum.

  18. Species, developmental stage and infection with microbial pathogens of engorged ticks removed from dogs and questing ticks.

    PubMed

    Leschnik, M W; Khanakah, G; Duscher, G; Wille-Piazzai, W; Hörweg, C; Joachim, A; Stanek, G

    2012-12-01

    Research into tick-borne diseases implies vector sampling and the detection and identification of microbial pathogens. Ticks were collected simultaneously from dogs that had been exposed to tick bites and by flagging the ground in the area in which the dogs had been exposed. In total, 200 ticks were sampled, of which 104 came from dogs and 96 were collected by flagging. These ticks were subsequently examined for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp. and Babesia canis. A mixed sample of adult ticks and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Haemaphysalis concinna (Ixodida: Ixodidae) was obtained by flagging. Female I. ricinus and adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks dominated the engorged ticks removed from dogs. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 17.0% of the examined ticks, A. phagocytophilum in 3.5%, B. canis in 1.5%, and B. burgdorferi s.l. in 16.0%. Ticks with multiple infections were found only among the flagging sample. The ticks removed from the dogs included 22 infected ticks, whereas the flagging sample included 44 infected ticks. The results showed that the method for collecting ticks influences the species composition of the sample and enables the detection of a different pattern of pathogens. Sampling strategies should be taken into consideration when interpreting studies on tick-borne pathogens.

  19. Tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graščenkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author gives the history of the study of tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR, following it up with a description of the etiological and epidemiological aspects and of the pathology, symptomology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. He stresses that other ticks as well as the main vectors of the virus, Ixodes, transmit the disease, in particular Dermacentor and Haemaphysalis. A detailed account of tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR may be of value in the study of the rather similar forms of the disease now being encountered more and more frequently in countries of South-East Asia as well as of northern and eastern Europe. PMID:14153408

  20. Neem-tree (Azadirachta indica Juss.) extract as a feed additive against the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Provenza, F D; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Knoppel, E L; Peterson, C; Kababya, D; Needham, G R; Villalba, J J

    2009-11-12

    Acaricides can be conveyed to ticks via the blood of their hosts. As fruit and kernel extracts from the Meliaceae family, and, in particular the tetranortriterpenoid azadirachtin (AZA) inhibits tick egg production and embryogenesis in the Ixodidae ticks, we investigated the effects of Neem Azal, an extract containing 43% AZA, given as a feed additive to lambs artificially infested with engorging adult Dermacentor vairiabilis ticks. After tick attachment, the lambs were allotted to three dietary treatments: AZA0 (control, n=10), AZA0.3 (n=5), and AZA0.6 (n=5), with feed containing 0%, 0.3%, and 0.6% AZA on DM basis, respectively. In half of the AZA0 lambs, ticks were sprayed on day 4 after attachment with an ethanol:water:soap emulsion containing 0.6% AZA (AZA0S). In spite of its very pungent odor, the neem extract was well accepted by all but one lamb. No differences were found between treatment groups in liver enzymes in blood, and there was no indication of toxicity. The plasma AZA concentrations after 7 and 14 days of feeding AZA were (4.81 and 4.35 microg/mL) for the AZA0.6 and (3.32 and 1.88 microg/mL) for the AZA0.3 treatments, respectively (P<0.0001). Treatments were not lethal to ticks, but tick weights at detachment were 0.64, 0.56, 0.48, and 0.37 g for ticks from the AZA0, AZA0.3, AZA0S, and AZA0.6 treatments (P<0.04), respectively, suggesting that blood AZA impaired blood-feeding. The highest mortality rate after detachment was for AZA0.6 (P<0.09). As AZA affects embryo development and ticks at the molting stages, we expect that following treatments of hosts for longer periods, one-host ticks will be more affected than the three-host tick D. variabilis.

  1. Transmission of tick-borne pathogens between co-feeding ticks: Milan Labuda's enduring paradigm.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Sarah E

    2011-12-01

    During the 1990s, Milan Labuda's experimental results established a new paradigm for the study of tick-borne viruses that has since been strengthened by its demonstrated effectiveness in explaining the epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). This brief review summarizes the essential features of the transmission of tick-borne pathogens such as TBE virus. Leukocytes migrate between tick feeding sites, bearing infective virions and providing a transport route for the virus between co-feeding ticks independent of a systemic viraemia. Such tick-borne pathogens are thus transmitted from tick to tick via vertebrates; the ticks are the reservoirs as well as the vectors, while the vertebrate is the transient bridge. The aim is to bring the related but non-synonymous terms (co-feeding and non-systemic) to the attention of workers who use simple PCR screening to identify additional vertebrate reservoir hosts of vector-borne pathogens that are not in fact maintained in nature through systemic transmission.

  2. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from migratory birds in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Capligina, Valentina; Salmane, Ineta; Keišs, Oskars; Vilks, Karlis; Japina, Kristine; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2014-02-01

    Migratory birds act as hosts and long-distance vectors for several tick-borne infectious agents. Here, feeding Ixodes ticks were collected from migratory birds during the autumn migration period in Latvia and screened for the presence of epidemiologically important non-viral pathogens. A total of 93 DNA samples of ticks (37 larvae and 56 nymphs) removed from 41 birds (order Passeriformes, 9 species) was tested for Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected in 18% of the tick samples, and a majority of infected ticks were from thrush (Turdus spp.) birds. Among the infected ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 41% of cases, Borrelia garinii in 35%, and mixed Bo. valaisiana and Bo. garinii infection in 24%. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 2% of ticks, R. helvetica in 12%, and Babesia spp. pathogens in 4% of ticks. Among these samples, 3 Babesia species were identified: Ba. divergens, Ba. microti, and Ba. venatorum. Coinfection with different pathogens that included mixed infections with different Borrelia genospecies was found in 20% of nymphal and 3% of larval Ixodes ticks. These results suggest that migratory birds may support the circulation and spread of medically significant zoonoses in Europe.

  3. Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: a review.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Nagar, Gaurav

    2014-12-01

    Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.

  4. Potentiality and human embryos.

    PubMed

    Lizza, John P

    2007-09-01

    Consideration of the potentiality of human embryos to develop characteristics of personhood, such as intellect and will, has figured prominently in arguments against abortion and the use of human embryos for research. In particular, such consideration was the basis for the call of the US President's Council on Bioethics for a moratorium on stem cell research on human embryos. In this paper, I critique the concept of potentiality invoked by the Council and offer an alternative account. In contrast to the Council's view that an embryo's potentiality is determined by definition and is not affected by external conditions that may prevent certain possibilities from ever being realized, I propose an empirically grounded account of potentiality that involves an assessment of the physical and decisional conditions that may restrict an embryo's possibilities. In my view, some human embryos lack the potentiality to become a person that other human embryos have. Assuming for the sake of argument that the potential to become a person gives a being special moral status, it follows that some human embryos lack this status. This argument is then used to support Gene Outka's suggestion that it is morally permissible to experiment on 'spare' frozen embryos that are destined to be destroyed.

  5. [Behavioral therapy of ticks with negative reinforcement in children].

    PubMed

    Nabieva, T N; Mukhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two children suffering from motor and vocal ticks exhibited weakness and distonia of ticks-prone muscles were examined. Based on the results obtained earlier, a complex of physical exercises has been worked out and conducted for 20 days. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1st (n = 10) group did the exercises daily for training the ticks-prone muscles; the 2nd one (n = 10) exercised only after tick's appearance--negative reinforcement; 3rd group (n = 12) did exercises after tick's appearance as well but on irregular basis--probable negative reinforcement. In the 1st group, the exercising resulted in muscle strengthening and decrease of tick's number. The patients of the 2nd group got rid of ticks for 20 days. The probable tick's reinforcement in children of the 3rd group did not change pathological muscle activity. The central mechanisms of cortical plasticity in behavioral therapy of ticks are discussed.

  6. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, Alan. S.; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  7. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Ayllón, Nieves; Jalovecká, Marie; Perner, Jan; de la Fuente, José; Kopáček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes is likely mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia), rickettsiae (Anaplasma), and protozoans (Babesia). Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens. PMID:23875177

  8. Ticks and Tick Bites Presenting as “Funny Moles”: A Review of Different Presentations and a Focus on Tick-borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kallini, Joseph R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a man with an adherent tick mimicking a melanoma, summarize the salient features of this condition, and review other cases of ticks mistaken for dermatoses. Background: Ticks are obligatory ectoparasites. Disease-causing ticks belong to two families: Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks). Ticks thrive by consuming blood from animal hosts, and the transfer of infected blood from one host to the next is the method by which ticks spread disease. Materials and methods: The authors describe a man who presented to their dermatology clinic in New York with an unusual black pigmented lesion on the right zygomatic region of his face. He was worried about how rapidly the lesion had developed and the tingling of the skin surrounding it. Since the patient had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, he was concerned that the lesion was a melanoma. An excisional biopsy of the lesion revealed a non-Ixodes tick with a surrounding tick-bite reaction. Results: Ticks cause cutaneous manifestations through physical trauma and their salivary contents. A number of reports describe a similar phenomenon of a persistent tick being mistaken for a nodule or tumor. Management includes complete removal of a tick, either mechanically or surgically, along with the appropriate work-up for tick-borne diseases in the relevant geographic location. The decision to test for systemic disease depends on the clinical presentation of the patient and geographic location of the tick bite. Conclusion: A patient presented to the authors’ dermatology clinic with a pigmented lesion suspicious for a melanoma, but the lesion was actually an adherent non-Ixodes tick. This case illustrates the importance of keeping insects and arthropods in the differential diagnosis of a sudden- and recent-onset pigmented skin lesion. PMID:28360969

  9. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  10. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird–Tick Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the

  11. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  12. Measuring embryo metabolism to predict embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jeremy G; Brown, Hannah M; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the metabolism of early embryos has the potential to be used as a prospective marker for post-transfer development, either alone or in conjunction with other embryo quality assessment tools. This is necessary to maximise the opportunity of couples to have a healthy child from assisted reproduction technology (ART) and for livestock breeders to efficiently improve the genetics of their animals. Nevertheless, although many promising candidate substrates (e.g. glucose uptake) and methods (e.g. metabolomics using different spectroscopic techniques) have been promoted as viability markers, none has yet been widely used clinically or in livestock production. Herein we review the major techniques that have been reported; these are divided into indirect techniques, where measurements are made from the embryo's immediate microenvironment, or direct techniques that measure intracellular metabolic activity. Both have strengths and weaknesses, the latter ruling out some from contention for use in human ART, but not necessarily for use in livestock embryo assessment. We also introduce a new method, namely multi- (or hyper-) spectral analysis, which measures naturally occurring autofluorescence. Several metabolically important molecules have fluorescent properties, which we are pursuing in conjunction with improved image analysis as a viable embryo quality assessment methodology.

  13. Tick Bite Alopecia: A Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.

  14. Metarhizium anisopliae conidial responses to lipids from tick cuticle and tick mammalian host surface.

    PubMed

    Ment, Dana; Gindin, Galina; Soroker, Victoria; Glazer, Itamar; Rot, Asael; Samish, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Conidial germination and the formation of appressoria are important events in the interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts. In this study, we demonstrate the effects of lipids extracted from tick epicuticle and the surface of a mammalian host (calf) on conidial germination and the development of appressoria in two subspecies of Metarhizium anisopliae, M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (M.an.an.-7) and M. anisopliae var. acridum (M.an.ac.-5), which have different levels of virulence toward ticks. Pentane extracts of epicuticles of ticks susceptible and resistant to fungal infection always stimulated the germination of M.an.an.-7 conidia and the development of their appressoria; whereas the effects of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of tick epicuticle varied depending on the tick. The DCM extracts from most of the tick species and developmental stages stimulated conidial germination and/or the formation of appressoria in M.an.an.-7. However, a DCM extract of lipids from the most resistant tick, engorged Hyalomma excavatum female, inhibited the germination of M.an.an.-7 conidia. Conidia of the non-virulent M.an.ac.-5 did not germinate on agarose amended with any of the examined tick extracts. However, when the tick extracts were placed on bactoagar, conidial germination increased 7- to 8-fold. Extracts from the skin, hair and ear secretions of a calf stimulated conidial germination and the formation of appressoria in M.an.an.-7, but not M.an.ac.-5. This study demonstrates that lipids from tick epicuticles and mammalian skin selectively affect the germination of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi. The effects of these lipids may explain the variability in tick control these fungi provide for different hosts.

  15. Scouts, forests, and ticks: Impact of landscapes on human-tick contacts.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Somassè, Elysée; Kabamba, Benoît; Luyasu, Victor; Robert, Annie

    2015-07-01

    Just as with forest workers or people practicing outdoor recreational activities, scouts are at high risk for tick bites and tick-borne infections. The risk of a tick bite is shaped not only by environmental and climatic factors but also by land management. The aim of this study was to assess which environmental conditions favour scout-tick contacts, and thus to better understand how these factors and their interactions influence the two components of risk: hazard (related to vector and host ecology) and exposure of humans to disease vectors. A survey was conducted in the summer of 2009 on the incidence of tick bites in scout camps taking place in southern Belgium. Joint effects of landscape composition and configuration, weather, climate, forest and wildlife management were examined using a multiple gamma regression with a log link. The landscape was characterized by buffers of varying sizes around the camps using a detailed land use map, and accounting for climate and weather variables. Landscape composition and configuration had a significant influence on scout-tick contacts: the risk was high when the camp was surrounded by a low proportion of arable land and situated in a complex and fragmented landscape. The distance to the nearest forest patch, the composition of the forest ecotone as well as weather and climatic factors were all significantly associated with scout-tick contacts. Both hazard- and exposure-related variables significantly contributed to the frequency of scout-tick contact. Our results show that environmental conditions favour scout-tick contacts. For example, we emphasize the impact of accessibility of environments suitable for ticks on the risk of contact. We also highlight the significant effect of both hazard and exposure. Our results are consistent with current knowledge, but further investigations on the effect of forest management, e.g. through its impact on forest structure, on the tick-host-pathogen system, and on humans exposure, is

  16. Genetic factors potentially reducing fitness cost of organophosphate-insensitive acetylcholinesterase(s) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricidal activity of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate acaricides is believed to result from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Previous studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus demonstrated the presence of three presumptive AChE genes (BmAChEs). Biochemical characterization of re...

  17. Wild birds and urban ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Sarah A; Goldberg, Tony L; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Anderson, Tavis K; Loss, Scott R; Walker, Edward D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2012-10-01

    Bird-facilitated introduction of ticks and associated pathogens is postulated to promote invasion of tick-borne zoonotic diseases into urban areas. Results of a longitudinal study conducted in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA, during 2005-2010 show that 1.6% of 6,180 wild birds captured in mist nets harbored ticks. Tick species in order of abundance were Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, and I. scapularis, but 2 neotropical tick species of the genus Amblyomma were sampled during the spring migration. I. scapularis ticks were absent at the beginning of the study but constituted the majority of ticks by study end and were found predominantly on birds captured in areas designated as urban green spaces. Of 120 ticks, 5 were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, spanning 3 ribotypes, but none were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results allow inferences about propagule pressure for introduction of tick-borne diseases and emphasize the large sample sizes required to estimate this pressure.

  18. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  19. Ecology of tick vectors of American spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Burgdorfer, W

    1969-01-01

    The author reviews the natural history of the tick vectors of American spotted fever. The discussion concerns the ecology of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the lone-star tick, Amblyomma americanum, all of which are proven vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to man. Also included are the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris and Dermacentor parumapertus, which very rarely bite man but which are considered of importance in maintaining and distributing Rickettsia rickettsi, the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, in nature. Brief reference is also made to recently developed techniques for studying the ecology of tick vectors.

  20. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  1. Ticks as vectors: taxonomy, biology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are prominent parasites and competent vectors of pathogens that affect both humans and animals. This review outlines and illustrates the main features of the morphology of ticks of the families Ixodidae and Argasidae, and summarises the basic components of their life cycles. It focuses mainly on development processes and mortality among tick populations so as to provide an overview of how they are regulated in nature and how pathogens can be transmitted under such a framework. The effects of the weather on these life cycles are reviewed. The author also examines how landscape structure and biotic factors, such as the presence and abundance of hosts, may shape the density of tick populations. The uncertainty inherent in dealing with the transmission of pathogens by ticks is highlighted; this results from the sometimes complex relationships among the vectors, the climate and the presence and density of host populations. The need to obtain reliable field estimations of such relationships before drawing conclusions about the effects of the isolated components of the system is stressed. A section is devoted to addressing the expected (and not yet totally understood) effects of trends in climate on the spread of ticks, and how these can be analysed and tracked.

  2. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  3. THE ROLE OF SALIVA IN TICK FEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/tick_review/Sup-Table-1.xls.gz. PMID:19273185

  4. Tick control: thoughts on a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Peter

    2006-05-31

    Tick control is critical to the control of tick borne disease, while the direct impact of ticks on livestock productivity is also well known. For livestock, tick control today rests overwhelmingly on the twin approaches of genetics and chemical acaricides, although the disadvantages and limitations of both are recognized. The achievement of the full potential of vaccination, the application of biocontrol agents and the coordinated management of the existing technologies all pose challenging research problems. Progress in many areas has been steady over the last decade, while the acquisition of molecular information has now reached a revolutionary stage. This is likely to have immediate impact on the identification of potential antigens for improved vaccines and novel targets for acaricide action. In many circumstances, the rate limiting step in making scientific progress will remain unchanged, namely the resource constraint on evaluating these appropriately in large animals. For other approaches, such as the use of biocontrol agents, the limitation is likely to be less in the identification of suitable agents than in their delivery in an efficient and cost effective way. Our scientific understanding of the molecular basis for the tick vector-tick borne disease interaction is in its infancy but the area is both challenging and, in the long term, likely to be of great practical importance. What is arguably the most difficult problem of all remains: the translation of laboratory research into the extremely diverse parasite control requirements of farming systems in a way that is practically useful.

  5. Detection of rickettsiae in fleas and ticks from areas of Costa Rica with history of spotted fever group rickettsioses.

    PubMed

    Troyo, Adriana; Moreira-Soto, Rolando D; Calderon-Arguedas, Ólger; Mata-Somarribas, Carlos; Ortiz-Tello, Jusara; Barbieri, Amália R M; Avendaño, Adrián; Vargas-Castro, Luis E; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hun, Laya; Taylor, Lizeth

    2016-10-01

    Outbreaks of spotted fevers have been reported in Costa Rica since the 1950s, although vectors responsible for transmission to humans have not been directly identified. In this study, species of Rickettsia were detected in ectoparasites from Costa Rica, mostly from five study sites where cases of spotted fevers have been reported. Ticks and fleas were collected using drag cloths or directly from domestic and wild animals and pooled according to species, host, and location. Pools were analyzed initially by PCR to detect a fragment of Rickettsia spp. specific gltA gene, and those positive were confirmed by detection of htrA and/or ompA gene fragments. Partial sequences of the gltA gene were obtained, as well as at least one ompA and/or ompB partial sequence of each species. Rickettsia spp. were confirmed in 119 of 497 (23.9%) pools of ticks and fleas analyzed. Rickettsia rickettsii was identified in one nymph of Amblyomma mixtum and one nymph of Amblyomma varium. Other rickettsiae present were 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in A. mixtum, Amblyomma ovale, Dermacentor nitens, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l.; Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma sabanerae; Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis; and Rickettsia sp. similar to 'Candidatus R. asemboensis' in C. felis, Pulex simulans, A. ovale, and Rhipicephalus microplus. Results show the presence of rickettsiae in vectors that may be responsible for transmission to humans in Costa Rica, and evidence suggests exposure to rickettsial organisms in the human environment may be common. This is the first study to report R. rickettsii in A. varium and in A. mixtum in Costa Rica.

  6. Advancing integrated tick management to mitigate burden of tick-borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world’s population is at risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Annually, more than 1 billion people are infected and more than 1 million die from vector-borne diseases, including those caused by pathogens transmitted by ticks. The problem with tick borne diseases (TBD) is...

  7. Diagnosis of Queensland tick typhus and African tick bite fever by PCR of lesion swabs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin Mei; Hudson, Bernard J; Watts, Matthew R; Karagiannis, Tom; Fisher, Noel J; Anderson, Catherine; Roffey, Paul

    2009-06-01

    We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive.

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. S.; Dautel, H.; Estrada-Peña, A.; Kahl, O.; Lindgren, E.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios. PMID:19277106

  9. Failure of ticks to transmit Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Deuteromycota), a common filamentous fungal commensal of ticks.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Rellinger, Eric J; Telford, Sam R

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of ticks to transmit a fungus was examined by analyzing tick saliva, host tissue from feeding sites, and host blood for presence of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Sacc.) Bainier, an internal mycosymbiont of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), and lone star tick, Amnblyomma americanum (L.). Although >85% of ticks were infected with S. brevicaulis, conidia presence was low (0-5% of samples) in microscopic observations and mycological culturing of saliva expressed from larvae, nymphs, and adults. Additionally, the recovery of S. brevicaulis from blood and tissue feeding sites from a rabbit where S. brevicaulis-positive adult ticks had attached and fed was not increased compared with control tissue where no feeding occurred, indicating that transmission does not occur by the blood-feeding route. Tick mouthparts were found to contain S. brevicaulis in addition to Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling, but these agents were sparse in isolations from the feeding sites, which makes it unlikely that ticks act frequently as a mechanical fungal vector.

  10. Endogenous tick viruses and modulation of tick-borne pathogen growth

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2013-01-01

    Ticks transmit a wide range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens, many of which can establish persistent infections of lifelong duration in the vector tick and in some cases are transmitted transovarially to the next generation. In addition many ixodid and argasid tick cell lines and, by inference the parent ticks from which they were derived, harbor endogenous viruses (ETV) of which almost nothing is known. In general, low level persistent infections with viral pathogens (arboviruses) are not known to have a deleterious effect on tick survival and fitness, suggesting that they can strike a balance with the tick innate immune response. This tolerance of arbovirus infection may be modulated by the permanent presence of ETV in the host cell. In mosquito cells, temporary or permanent silencing of the genes of an endogenous virus by RNA interference can result in changes in replication rate of a co-infecting arbovirus. We propose that tick cell lines offer a useful model system for in vitro investigation of the modulatory effect of ETV on superinfecting pathogen survival and replication in ticks, using the molecular manipulation techniques applied to insect cells. PMID:23875176

  11. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus.

  12. Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses, ... tickborne diseases Anaplasmosis Babesiosis Ehrlichiosis Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Other tickborne diseases CDC Expert Commentary ...

  13. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs.

  14. Distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae.

  15. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  16. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

  17. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles from Manilkara zapota against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2012-08-01

    Traditional parasite control is primarily based on the use of chemical acaricides, which unfortunately have many negative side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Manilkara zapota to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 421 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of AgNPs. SEM supports the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. Acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of M. zapota and synthesized AgNPs were carried out against R. (B.) microplus and the results showed the LC(50) values of 16.72 and 3.44 mg/L; r(2)=0.856 and 0.783), respectively.

  18. Fibrinogen-related proteins in ixodid ticks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibrinogen-related proteins with lectin activity are believed to be part of the tick innate immune system. Several fibrinogen-related proteins have been described and characterised mainly on the basis of their cDNA sequences while direct biochemical evidence is missing. One of them, the haemolymph lectin Dorin M from the tick Ornithodoros moubata was isolated and characterised in more depth. Results Several fibrinogen-related proteins were detected in the haemolymph of ixodid ticks Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. pulchellus, and R. sanguineus. These proteins were recognised by sera directed against the tick lectin Dorin M and the haemagglutination activity of the ticks R. appendiculatus and D. marginatus. Cross-reactivity of the identified proteins with antibodies against the fibrinogen domain of the human ficolin was also shown. The carbohydrate-binding ability of tick haemolymph was confirmed by haemagglutination activity assays, and this activity was shown to be inhibited by neuraminic acid and sialylated glycoproteins as well as by N-acetylated hexosamines. The fibrinogen-related proteins were shown to be glycosylated and they were localised in salivary glands, midguts, and haemocytes of D. marginatus. Hemelipoglycoprotein was also recognised by sera directed against the fibrinogen-related proteins in all three Rhipicephalus species as well as in D. marginatus. However, this protein does not contain the fibrinogen domain and thus, the binding possibly results from the structure similarity between hemelipoglycoprotein and the fibrinogen domain. Conclusions The presence of fibrinogen-related proteins was shown in the haemolymph of four tick species in high abundance. Reactivity of antibodies directed against ficolin or fibrinogen-related proteins with proteins which do not contain the fibrinogen domain points out the importance of sequence analysis of the identified proteins in further studies. Previously observed expression of

  19. Avian Migrants Facilitate Invasions of Neotropical Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Auckland, Lisa D.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome. PMID:26431964

  20. Avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily B; Auckland, Lisa D; Marra, Peter P; Hamer, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome.

  1. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in livestock from nomadic herds in the Somali Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tomassone, Laura; Grego, E; Callà, G; Rodighiero, P; Pressi, G; Gebre, S; Zeleke, B; De Meneghi, D

    2012-04-01

    Between May 2006 and January 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from Filtu and Dollo Odo districts, Libaan zone, in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by ixodid ticks. Collected ticks (n = 1,036) were identified as Rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), R. pravus (25.8%), Amblyomma gemma (9.4%), Hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), H. truncatum (2.8%), H. impeltatum (1.2%) and H. dromedarii (0.5%); immature stages (6.1%) belonged to the genera Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma. Tick infestation burden was evaluated by the Tick Abundance Score method on 57 animals from Dollo Odo in August 2006, and it was significantly higher in cattle and camels than in small ruminants (p < 0.001). Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation was applied to detect Theileria, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. Five out of 50 blood samples from Filtu, four from cattle and, surprisingly, one from a camel, were positive for Theileria mutans and two from cattle for T. velifera. Adult ticks (n = 104) from both districts were tested and A. gemma from cattle were positive to T. velifera (1) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (5 samples). Positive E. ruminantium samples were also tested by PCR targeting pCS20 and 16S rRNA genes and submitted to DNA sequencing. The phylogenetic reconstruction of pCS20 fragment showed the presence of the Somali region sequences in the East-South African group. Our results are the first available on ticks and selected tick-borne diseases from the Somali region of Ethiopia and could be used as preliminary information for planning sustainable control strategies for tick and tick-borne pathogens in the study area and in neighbouring areas with similar socio-ecological features.

  2. Identification of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks collected in southeastern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Réka; Madai, Mónika; Vadkerti, Edit; Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Kiss, Gábor; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an arthropod-borne viral pathogen causing infections in Europe and is responsible for most arbovirus central nervous system infections in Hungary. Assessing the TBEV prevalence in ticks through detection of genomic RNA is a broadly accepted approach to estimate the transmission risk from a tick bite. For this purpose, 2731 ticks were collected from the neighboring area of the town of Dévaványa, located in southeastern Hungary, which is considered a low-risk-transmission area for TBEV. Altogether, 2300 ticks were collected from the vegetation, while 431 were collected from rodents. Samples were pooled and then screened for TBEV with a newly designed semi-nested RT-PCR (RT-snPCR) targeting the NS1 genomic region. PCR results were confirmed by direct sequencing of the second round amplicons. Among the 3 different collected tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor marginatus), I. ricinus was the only species that tested positive for TBEV. TBEV-positive ticks were collected from small mammals or from the vegetation. One nymphal pool and 4 larval pools tested positive for TBEV. The only positive nymphal pool was unfed and came from vegetation, while ticks of the 4 positive larval pools were collected from rodents. Minimal TBEV prevalence in ticks was 0.08% for unfed nymphs and 0.78% for feeding larvae. Our results indicate that further long-term investigations on the occurrence of TBEV are needed to better describe the geographic distribution and the prevalence of infected ticks in Hungary.

  3. Grooming in impala: role of oral grooming in removal of ticks and effects of ticks in increasing grooming rate.

    PubMed

    Mooring, M S; McKenzie, A A; Hart, B L

    1996-01-01

    In Experiment 1, five adult female impala were fitted with harnesses that restrained oral self-grooming of the anterior part of the body. At the same time, six cohoused female impala were fitted with control harnesses that allowed normal oral grooming. The impala were allowed to habituate to the harnesses for 10 days, and both groups were then exposed to larval ticks (Boophilus decoloratus) by herding them into a tick-seeding corral. During the third week following tick seeding, when female ticks were estimated to have developed into engorging adults, the impala were immobilized, tick numbers on the animals sampled by patch sampling, and the harnesses removed. Observations continued for 5 days following removal of the harnesses. Twenty-minute focal observations were conducted daily on each impala during the habituation, tick-seeded, and postharness phases. Restrained impala had a median of 20 times more adult female ticks (both engorged and unengorged) than control impala. Oral grooming, which had been suppressed in the restrained impala during habituation and tick-seeded phases, increased 10-fold once the harnesses were removed and occurred 2.5 times more frequently than in control impala during the postharness phase. In Experiment 2, 15 adult female impala were seeded with larval ticks as in Experiment 1; in week 3 after tick seeding all ticks were removed from animals by application of an acaricide. Grooming was recorded during 3 weeks of baseline observations prior to tick seeding, 3 weeks after tick seeding, and then for 3 weeks beginning 1 week after acaricide treatment. Oral grooming and scratch grooming significantly increased from baseline during tick seeding and significantly declined following removal of the ticks with acaracide. Taken together, the two experiments demonstrate that oral grooming is very effective and important in removing fitness-compromising ticks in free-ranging impala. Correspondingly, exposure to, and subsequent infestation by, ticks

  4. Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... do? First, don't panic. It's true that Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in ... United States, but your child's risk of developing Lyme disease after being bitten by a tick is very ...

  5. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission. PMID:21529391

  6. Experimental infection of Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Almeida, Aliny P; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-05-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission.

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an aspartic protease from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Sikalizyo Sikasunge, Chummy; Battsetseg, Badgar; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis cDNA encoding an aspartic protease (longepsin) was identified from a midgut cDNA library. The longepsin cDNA contains 1176bp that code for 392 amino acid residues with a predictable molecular weight of 39.3kDa. The cDNA has a signal peptide sequence associated with the N-terminal domains and domain structure analysis revealed that the deduced protein has two aspartic acid residues that are characteristic of a single active site for aspartic proteases. This novel longepsin cDNA exhibits 57% identity to the lysosomal aspartic protease of Aedes aegypti, 52% to Bombyx mori cathepsin D, 38% to Ancylostoma caninum, 44% to Schistosoma mansoni and 28% to Boophilus microplus aspartic proteases. The DNA fragment coding for longepsin was cloned into a pGEX-4T-3 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant longepsin, once activated was able to hydrolyze casein substrate as well as hemoglobin (Hb) under acidic conditions (pH 3.5). RT-PCR analysis showed that the longepsin mRNA transcripts were expressed in salivary glands and midgut and not in the ovary. Northern blot analysis revealed that longepsin (1.5kb) was expressed in unfed and partially fed ticks and expression levels increased during feeding. The finding that longepsin is expressed in the midgut and salivary glands, proteolytic activity occurs under acidic conditions and longepsin can be gene silenced of longepsin provides compelling support for the hypothesis that longepsin plays an integral role in the proteolysis of erythrocyte Hb obtained from a host blood meal.

  8. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment

    PubMed Central

    Wikel, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg), B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission? PMID:24312085

  9. Novel Rickettsia and emergent tick-borne pathogens: A molecular survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwamuye, Micky M; Kariuki, Edward; Omondi, David; Kabii, James; Odongo, David; Masiga, Daniel; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2017-02-01

    Ticks are important vectors of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses, the majority of which originate from wildlife. In recent times, this has become a global public health concern that necessitates surveillance of both known and unknown tick-borne pathogens likely to be future disease threats, as well as their tick vectors. We carried out a survey of the diversity of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Kenya's Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR), an area with intensified human-livestock-wildlife interactions, where we collected 4297 questing ticks (209 adult ticks, 586 nymphs and 3502 larvae). We identified four tick species of two genera (Amblyomma eburneum, Amblyomma tholloni, Rhipicephalus maculatus and a novel Rhipicephalus sp.) based on both morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genes. We pooled the ticks (3-8 adults, 8-15 nymphs or 30 larvae) depending on species and life-cycle stages, and screened for bacterial, arboviral and protozoal pathogens using PCR with high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing of unique melt profiles. We report the first molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a novel Rickettsia-like and Ehrlichia-like species, in Rh. maculatus ticks. We also detected Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Coxiella sp., Rickettsia africae and Theileria velifera in Am. eburneum ticks for the first time. Our findings demonstrate previously unidentified tick-pathogen relationships and a unique tick diversity in the SHNR that may contribute to livestock, and possibly human, morbidity in the region. This study highlights the importance of routine surveillance in similar areas to elucidate disease transmission dynamics, as a critical component to inform the development of better tick-borne disease diagnosis, prevention and control measures.

  10. Methods to Prevent Tick Bites and Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin; Schofield, Steven W

    2015-12-01

    Current approaches for prevention of tick bites, Lyme disease, and other tick-borne diseases are described. Particular attention is paid to 4 risk-reduction strategies: (i) avoiding risk areas; (ii) personal protective measures that reduce the risk of tick bites or transmission of the agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi; (iii) reducing the number of infected ticks in the environment; and (iv) use of prophylactic antibiotic treatments following a bite to prevent clinical Lyme disease.

  11. The bacterial microbiome of dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are of medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Al...

  12. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  13. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  14. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  15. Detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Areas in Switzerland Where Tick-Borne Fever Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive. PMID:9705425

  16. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks detached from humans and follow-up of serological and clinical response.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Pontus; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Fryland, Linda; Sjöwall, Johanna; Haglund, Mats; Matussek, Andreas; Ernerudh, Jan; Vene, Sirkka; Nyman, Dag; Andreassen, Ashild; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-02-01

    The risk of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection after a tick bite remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated the presence of TBEV in ticks detached from humans in an attempt to relate viral copy number, TBEV subtype, and tick feeding time with the serological and clinical response of the tick-bitten participants. Ticks, blood samples, and questionnaires were collected from tick-bitten humans at 34 primary health care centers in Sweden and in the Åland Islands (Finland). A total of 2167 ticks was received from 1886 persons in 2008-2009. Using a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR, 5 TBEV-infected ticks were found (overall prevalence 0.23%, copy range <4×10(2)-7.7×10(6)per tick). One unvaccinated person bitten by a tick containing 7.7×10(6) TBEV copies experienced symptoms. Another unvaccinated person bitten by a tick containing 1.8×10(3) TBEV copies developed neither symptoms nor TBEV antibodies. The remaining 3 persons were protected by vaccination. In contrast, despite lack of TBEV in the detached ticks, 2 persons developed antibodies against TBEV, one of whom reported symptoms. Overall, a low risk of TBEV infection was observed, and too few persons got bitten by TBEV-infected ticks to draw certain conclusions regarding the clinical outcome in relation to the duration of the blood meal and virus copy number. However, this study indicates that an antibody response may develop without clinical symptoms, that a bite by an infected tick not always leads to an antibody response or clinical symptoms, and a possible correlation between virus load and tick feeding time.

  17. Akt is an essential player in regulating cell/organ growth at the adult stage in the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Tanaka, Toru; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Ticks grow rapidly during blood feeding, and their body weight may ultimately increase 100-fold more than that before feeding. The molecular mechanisms controlling growth during blood feeding in ticks remain largely unknown. The conserved insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway regulates growth and metabolism in eukaryotes. Here, we show evidence for the involvement of Akt in growth during blood feeding in the parthenogenetic strain of the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. We identified a homolog of the Ser/Thr kinase Akt (HlAkt) from the EST database of the H. longicornis embryo. HlAkt cDNA had a 1,590 bp ORF that encodes 529 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 60 kDa. HlAkt possesses a PH domain, a Ser/Thr kinase domain, a hydrophobic motif, and dual phosphorylation residues (Thr 338 and Ser 503) that are essential for kinase activation. Knockdown of HlAkt by RNA interference caused inhibition of blood feeding in female ticks. Histological observation demonstrated that HlAkt knockdown led to the arrest of growth in internal organs. HlAkt knockdown also affected the expressions of blood meal-induced genes that are essential for blood digestion, development, and reproduction in the female tick. These results strongly indicate that HlAkt is essential to complete the blood feeding process accompanied by the growth of internal organs in adult ticks. This is the first report of identification and characterization of Akt in Chelicerata, including ticks.

  18. Ticks parasitizing reptiles in the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Knapp, C R

    2005-09-01

    Two species of reptile ticks, Amblyomma dissimile Koch and Amblyomma torrei Pérez Vigueras (Acari: Ixodidae), are reported from the Bahama Islands for the first time. The widespread neotropical (including the Caribbean and southern Florida) A. dissimile was recovered on Andros Island from three species of reptiles all for the first time: the Andros iguana Cyclura cychlura cychlura Cuvier, the Andros curly tail lizard Leiocephalus carinatus coryi Schmidt, and the Andros boa Epicrates striatus fowleri Sheplan and Schwartz. The iguana tick A. torrei, previously known only from Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands, was recovered in the Exuma Islands from the Exuma iguana Cyclura cychlura figginsi Barbour. Mean numbers of ticks per host were as high as 36.6 on Mangrove Cay, Andros Island, and 25.8 on Pasture Cay in the Exuma Islands.

  19. Virus investigation in ticks from migratory birds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Fabiola; Toma, Luciano; Ciervo, Alessandra; Di Luca, Marco; Faggioni, Giovanni; Lista, Forigio; Rezza, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    The role of migratory birds in circulation tick-borne viruses needs to be better defined. In order to assess the potential role of migratory birds in exotic virus spread, we conducted a study to identify ticks collected from migratory birds in the Central Region of Italy, and performed molecular investigation for Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), West Nile fever (WNFV) and Usutu (USUV) in the vectors. A total of 137 competent ticks were collected with predominance of Hyalomma species. Although, negative results were obtained for all viruses considered, the high proportion of Hyalomma ticks highlights the potential risk for the dissemination of tick-borne viruses through infested migratory birds.

  20. The tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fauna of Herald's Beacon Islet, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Mackenzie L; Mintram, Kate

    2017-01-01

    A rare opportunity to travel to Herald's Beacon Islet with permission from the Australian government to collect ticks allowed for a survey of the tick fauna of the island to be undertaken for the first time. The avian fauna of the island, which serve as hosts, was also recorded and includes one new species record for the island. The seabird soft tick Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and the seabird hard tick Amblyomma loculosum Neumann were found to be present on the island. Images of the ticks present on the island are presented along with morphological characters for their identification.

  1. Tick-borne encephalitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rostasy, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    This review is a summary of the most important clinical findings and implications of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in children. It is based on a Pubmed search with the terms "tick-borne encephalitis", "children", "infection", "meningitis", "meningoencephalitis", and "outcome". TBE in children shares several features with their adult counterpart but has overall a better prognosis. Nevertheless, TBE is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in a small group of children and seems to cause cognitive dysfunctions, which needs to be studied in further detail.

  2. Primary report on distribution of tick fauna in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, Sadegh; Nabian, Sedighe; Shayan, Parviz

    2007-09-01

    A tick survey was carried out in four different geographical areas of Iran, where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. About 1,500 sheep, 1,200 goats and 500 cattle of 12 herds in different provinces lying in the corresponding zones were inspected for tick infestation. The occurrence of ticks on cattle, sheep and goats were 62, 55 and 57%, respectively, with no differences between the zones. The mean number of ticks on each animal was low (10-20 ticks per animal). Ixodid ticks were found throughout the year, whereas the soft tick Ornithodoros sp., which occurred in mountainous area with a significant difference in abundance, showed a clear pattern of seasonality, being generally present from November to March. The largest numbers of adult ixodid ticks were generally present from April to August. Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor ticks occurred in the mountainous area, whereas Boophilus and Ixodes ticks were only present in the Caspian region. Hyalomma were very abundant in each zone but especially in the mountainous area, whereas Ixodes ticks were the minor genus.

  3. Conjunctival attachment of a tick: clinicopathologic report of a case.

    PubMed

    Willen, Christi; Mullen, Gary R; Yee, Jeff; Read, Russell W

    2011-03-01

    Attachment by ticks to ocular surfaces is uncommon, but has been reported. The objective of this article is to describe a case of conjunctival tick attachment and a method for removal by conjunctival excision. A 39-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a complaint of foreign-body sensation in his right eye. He was found to have a live tick embedded in his conjunctiva. The tick was removed en bloc with surrounding conjunctiva by an ophthalmologist. The arthropod was identified as the larval stage of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum). The patient did not experience any systemic illnesses or adverse sequelae. Attachment of ticks to the conjunctiva is unlikely to result in disease transmission when the larval stage is involved. However, removal by excision of a surrounding block of conjunctiva is recommended to ensure complete removal of all tick body parts.

  4. A Clinical Review of Tick-Borne Diseases in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Beebe, Alexandria; Chaudhury, Arun; Haselow, Dirk; Patil, Sowmya; Weinstein, Sue; Taffner, Richard; Patil, Naveen

    2016-05-01

    Tick-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted by ticks harboring wide variety of pathogens. Arkansas is reported as one of the states with a high incidence of tick-borne diseases. In Arkansas the four most frequently occurring tick-borne diseases are Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, also known as Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis), Ehrlichiosis, Tularemia and Anaplasmosis. Lyme disease, on the other hand, is not acquired in Arkansas and is only acquired by traveling to states where Lyme disease is endemic. The majority of tick-borne diseases are diagnosed based on a history of tick bite or exposure and the individual's clinical presentation. The recognition of specific symptoms requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term sequelae. Hence, knowledge of tick-borne diseases and preventive measures can help reduce the risks associated with the infection.

  5. Biochemical perspectives on paralysis and other forms of toxicoses caused by ticks.

    PubMed

    Mans, B J; Gothe, R; Neitz, A W H

    2004-01-01

    Tick toxicoses, of which paralysis is the most widespread and dominant form, are important elements of pathogenesis induced by ticks. Tick paralysis is the most widespread and dominant form of tick toxicoses. Non-paralytic forms of tick toxicoses do occur and evidence suggests that these forms of toxicoses are not evolutionary related. While functional significance has been suggested for tick toxins, the advantages for tick survival in general are not clear. This review considers the molecular nature of tick toxins, the possibility that tick toxins have originated more than once independently and whether these toxins could have unrecognized benign functions.

  6. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  7. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  8. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Egyed, László; Elő, Péter; Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Zoltán; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Sréter, Tamás

    2012-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.

  9. Ticks of Australia. The species that infest domestic animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen C; Walker, Alan R

    2014-06-18

    The book Australian Ticks by F.H.S. Roberts (1970) is a land-mark in Australian tick biology. But it is time for a new and improved book on the ticks of Australia. The present book has identification guides and accounts of the biology and diseases associated with the 16 species of ticks that may feed on domestic animals and humans in Australia. These comprise five argasid (soft) ticks: Argas persicus (poultry tick), Argas robertsi (Robert's bird tick), Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick), O. gurneyi (kangaroo soft tick), Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick); and 11 ixodid (hard) ticks, Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), Bothriocroton auruginans (wombat tick), B. hydrosauri (southern reptile tick), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), H. longicornis (bush tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick), I. hirsti (Hirst's marsupial tick), I. holocyclus (paralysis tick), I. tasmani (common marsupial tick), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick) and R. sanguineus (brown dog tick).  We use an image-matching system to identify ticks, much like the image-matching systems used in field-guides for birds and flowers. Ticks may be identified by drawings that emphasise unique matrices of uniformly defined morphological characters that, together, allow these 16 ticks to be identified by morphology unequivocally. The species accounts have seven sections: (i) General; (ii)  Differential diagnosis; (iii) Hosts; (iv) Life-cycle and seasonality; (v) Disease; (vi) Habitat and geographic distribution; (vii) Genes and genomes; and (viii) Other information. There are 71 figures and tables, including a glossary character matrices, drawings of life-cycles, drawings of genera, species, and colour photographs of tick biology.

  10. Changing geographic ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: drivers, mechanisms and consequences for pathogen diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Nick H.; Mechai, Samir; Margos, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The geographic ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogens are changing due to global and local environmental (including climatic) changes. In this review we explore current knowledge of the drivers for changes in the ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogen species and strains via effects on their basic reproduction number (R0), and the mechanisms of dispersal that allow ticks and tick-borne pathogens to invade suitable environments. Using the expanding geographic distribution of the vectors and agent of Lyme disease as an example we then investigate what could be expected of the diversity of tick-borne pathogens during the process of range expansion, and compare this with what is currently being observed. Lastly we explore how historic population and range expansions and contractions could be reflected in the phylogeography of ticks and tick-borne pathogens seen in recent years, and conclude that combined study of currently changing tick and tick-borne pathogen ranges and diversity, with phylogeographic analysis, may help us better predict future patterns of invasion and diversity. PMID:24010124

  11. Changing geographic ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: drivers, mechanisms and consequences for pathogen diversity.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Nick H; Mechai, Samir; Margos, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The geographic ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogens are changing due to global and local environmental (including climatic) changes. In this review we explore current knowledge of the drivers for changes in the ranges of ticks and tick-borne pathogen species and strains via effects on their basic reproduction number (R 0), and the mechanisms of dispersal that allow ticks and tick-borne pathogens to invade suitable environments. Using the expanding geographic distribution of the vectors and agent of Lyme disease as an example we then investigate what could be expected of the diversity of tick-borne pathogens during the process of range expansion, and compare this with what is currently being observed. Lastly we explore how historic population and range expansions and contractions could be reflected in the phylogeography of ticks and tick-borne pathogens seen in recent years, and conclude that combined study of currently changing tick and tick-borne pathogen ranges and diversity, with phylogeographic analysis, may help us better predict future patterns of invasion and diversity.

  12. Worldwide distribution and diversity of seabird ticks: implications for the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Muriel; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; McCoy, Karen D

    2011-05-01

    The ubiquity of ticks and their importance in the transmission of pathogens involved in human and livestock diseases are reflected by the growing number of studies focusing on tick ecology and the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. Likewise, the involvement of wild birds in dispersing pathogens and their role as reservoir hosts are now well established. However, studies on tick-bird systems have mainly focused on land birds, and the role of seabirds in the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens is rarely considered. Seabirds typically have large population sizes, wide geographic distributions, and high mobility, which make them significant potential players in the maintenance and dispersal of disease agents at large spatial scales. They are parasitized by at least 29 tick species found across all biogeographical regions of the world. We know that these seabird-tick systems can harbor a large diversity of pathogens, although detailed studies of this diversity remain scarce. In this article, we review current knowledge on the diversity and global distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with seabirds. We discuss the relationship between seabirds, ticks, and their pathogens and examine the interesting characteristics of these relationships from ecological and epidemiological points of view. We also highlight some future research directions required to better understand the evolution of these systems and to assess the potential role of seabirds in the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

  13. Tick-borne flavivirus infection in Ixodes scapularis larvae: development of a novel method for synchronous viral infection of ticks

    PubMed Central

    Mitzel, Dana N.; Wolfinbarger, James B.; Daniel Long, R.; Masnick, Max; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2007-01-01

    Following a bite from an infected tick, tick-borne flaviviruses cause encephalitis, meningitis and hemorrhagic fever in humans. Although these viruses spend most of their time in the tick, little is known regarding the virus-vector interactions. We developed a simple method for synchronously infecting Ixodes scapularis larvae with Langat virus (LGTV) by immersion in media containing the virus. This technique resulted in approximately 96% of ticks becoming infected. LGTV infection and replication were demonstrated by both viral antigen expression and the accumulation of viral RNA. Furthermore, ticks transmitted LGTV to 100% of the mice and maintained the virus through molting into the next life stage. This technique circumvents limitations present in the current methods by mimicking the natural route of infection and by using attenuated virus strains to infect ticks; thereby, making this technique a powerful tool to study both virus and tick determinants of replication, pathogenesis and transmission. PMID:17490700

  14. Tick-borne flavivirus infection in Ixodes scapularis larvae: development of a novel method for synchronous viral infection of ticks.

    PubMed

    Mitzel, Dana N; Wolfinbarger, James B; Long, R Daniel; Masnick, Max; Best, Sonja M; Bloom, Marshall E

    2007-09-01

    Following a bite from an infected tick, tick-borne flaviviruses cause encephalitis, meningitis and hemorrhagic fever in humans. Although these viruses spend most of their time in the tick, little is known regarding the virus-vector interactions. We developed a simple method for synchronously infecting Ixodes scapularis larvae with Langat virus (LGTV) by immersion in media containing the virus. This technique resulted in approximately 96% of ticks becoming infected. LGTV infection and replication were demonstrated by both viral antigen expression and the accumulation of viral RNA. Furthermore, ticks transmitted LGTV to 100% of the mice and maintained the virus through molting into the next life stage. This technique circumvents limitations present in the current methods by mimicking the natural route of infection and by using attenuated virus strains to infect ticks, thereby making this technique a powerful tool to study both virus and tick determinants of replication, pathogenesis and transmission.

  15. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests.

  16. Ticks threatening lineage of Anatolian wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) and determination of their tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Orkun, Ömer; Emir, Hasan; Karaer, Zafer

    2016-09-15

    We aimed to determine the ticks of the Anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the Anatolian wild sheep. Ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the Anatolian wild sheep breeding area. While PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in blood samples, CCHF virus was screened in the tick samples in addition to the above-mentioned pathogens. Theileria spp. was detected in blood samples of 45 wild sheep. A total of 3494 ticks were collected from 52 Anatolian wild sheep, 5 hares, 5 guinea fowls, 2 chickens, and 1 turkey whereas 98 ticks were collected from the ground. B. ovis and T. ovis were detected in tick pools (Rh. bursa and H. excavatum) that were collected from the wild sheep. The paralysis was diagnosed in both of the hind legs of the newborn lambs infested with a great number of ticks. We also report that the tick species (H. excavatum and Rh. bursa) are determined to cause tick paralysis and tick toxicosis, which are associated with mortality especially in lambs. T. ovis and B. ovis were detected and studied for the first time in Anatolian wild sheep and in their ticks. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that T. ovis and B. ovis isolates are genetically very close to the isolates that were previously obtained from the domestic small ruminants. We show that the Anatolian wild sheep can play the role of a reservoir for T. ovis. The presence of the CCHF virus has also been clearly shown and it has been observed that this virus, which is very pathogenic for humans, is anywise circulating in the region.

  17. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Methods Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Results Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Conclusions Based on molecular

  18. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistant to acaricides and ivermectin in cattle farms of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control, and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes o...

  19. The US Air Force Tick Identification Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-22

    Haemaphysal i s concinna - - - - - - - V STT l-e achir- - - - - - - spin gera - - - - - - - - KFD Hyal omma anatolicum - - - - - - - - CCHF asiaticum...STT minaiitumh - - - - - - - - CCHF Ixodes d-ammnini Y - - - - - - - AB holocyclus M - - - - V - - pacacifcus Y...American babesiosis, BF =boutonneuse fever, CTF = Colorado tick fever, 10 TU = tularemia, CCHF = Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, HE = human ehrlichio

  20. Novel rickettsia in ticks, Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Izzard, Leonard; Graves, Stephen; Cox, Erika; Fenwick, Stan; Unsworth, Nathan; Stenos, John

    2009-10-01

    A novel rickettsia was detected in Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from Tasmanian devils. A total of 55% were positive for the citrate synthase gene by quantitative PCR. According to current criteria for rickettsia speciation, this new rickettsia qualifies as Candidatus Rickettsia tasmanensis, named after the location of its detection.

  1. Ticks Take Cues from Mammalian Interferon.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Aravinda M

    2016-07-13

    Interferons are considered a first line of immune defense restricted to vertebrates. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Smith et al. (2016) demonstrate that mammalian interferon γ activates an antimicrobial response within ticks feeding on blood. The study suggests that arthropods have a parallel interferon-like defense system.

  2. Ethics for embryos

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C

    2007-01-01

    This paper responds to DW Brock's technically strong case for the use of human embryonic stem cells in medical research. His main issue in this context is the question of whether it is moral to destroy viable human embryos. He offers a number of reasons to support his view that it is moral to destroy them, but his use of conceptual arguments is not adequate to secure his position. The purpose and scope of this paper is wholly concerned with his arguments rather than with the conclusion that it is justifiable to destroy human embryos. The author proceeds through his variety of arguments and offers reasons for rejecting them. The author concludes that Brock has not shown that it is moral to destroy viable human embryos. PMID:17906062

  3. Coxiella Detection in Ticks from Wildlife and Livestock in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Chen, Fezshin; Phoon, Wai-Hong; Khor, Chee-Sieng; Pike, Brian L.; Chang, Li-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that ticks harbor Coxiella-like bacteria, which are potentially tick-specific endosymbionts. We recently described the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria and possibly Coxiella burnetii in ticks found from rural areas in Malaysia. In the present study, we collected ticks, including Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Dermacentor compactus, Dermacentor steini, and Amblyomma sp. from wildlife and domesticated goats from four different locations in Malaysia. Coxiella 16s rRNA genomic sequences were detected by PCR in 89% of ticks tested. Similarity analysis and phylogenetic analyses of the 16s rRNA and rpoB partial sequences were performed for 10 representative samples selected based on the tick species, sex, and location. The findings here suggested the presence of C. burnetii in two samples, each from D. steini and H. hystricis. The sequences of both samples clustered with published C. burnetii sequences. The remaining eight tick samples were shown to harbor 16s rRNA sequences of Coxiella-like bacteria, which clustered phylogenetically according to the respective tick host species. The findings presented here added to the growing evidence of the association between Coxiella-like bacteria and ticks across species and geographical boundaries. The importance of C. burnetii found in ticks in Malaysia warrants further investigation. PMID:27763821

  4. Thirty years of tick population genetics: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Araya-Anchetta, Ana; Busch, Joseph D; Scoles, Glen A; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Population genetic studies provide insights into the basic biology of arthropod disease vectors by estimating dispersal patterns and their potential to spread pathogens. In wingless vectors, such as ticks, gene flow will be defined in large part by the mobility of their hosts. However, tick behaviors and life cycle strategies can limit their dispersal even on highly mobile hosts and lead to an increase in genetic structure. In this review we synthesize the published literature from three decades of tick population genetic studies. Based on studies from 22 tick species (including representatives from Amblyomma, Bothriocroton, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus), observed levels of population genetic structure in ticks varied from no structure to very high levels. In about half of the species (including representatives from Amblyomma, Bothriocroton, Dermacentor, and Ornithodoros), tick genetic structure appeared to be determined primarily by the movement capacity of hosts, with low gene flow observed in ticks that use smaller bodied less mobile hosts and high gene flow in ticks using highly mobile hosts. In a number of other species (primarily from Ixodes, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus), behavioral limitations to gene flow appeared to result in greater genetic structure than expected based upon host movement capability alone. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of genetic markers and their applicability to ticks and suggest possible analyses when planning population genetic studies for ticks.

  5. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    PubMed Central

    Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer. PMID:20099011

  6. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-08-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer.

  7. Efficiency of flagging and dragging for tick collection.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    It is acknowledged that data from field studies on tick ecology might be biased by collection methods, but actually comparative studies are still limited. Herein we assessed whether the efficiency of flagging and dragging varies according to tick developmental stage, species, season and habitat. Ticks were collected in three sites bordered by an oak forest. The abundance of ticks collected by each collection method varied according to tick species, developmental stage, season, and habitat. Flagging was in general more efficient in collecting adult ticks, especially in spring and winter. Females were more frequently collected by flagging in the meadow and grassland habitats and males in the man-made trail. Flagging collected significantly more adults of Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Ixodes ricinus. Flagging was more efficient in collecting D. marginatus and I. ricinus in spring, and H. inermis and I. ricinus females in both spring and winter. In summer and autumn tick abundances were generally similar, with the exception of D. marginatus female in autumn. Flagging was more efficient in collecting D. marginatus adults in the meadow habitat and in the man-made trail, and I. ricinus adults in the meadow and grassland habitats. Dragging was more efficient in grassland for R. turanicus. Our results suggest that variations in terms of collection method performance are associated to factors linked to tick behaviour, habitat characteristics, and climate. Field studies employing these collection methods should take this into account to avoid misleading conclusions about tick population dynamics and tick-borne pathogen transmission risk.

  8. The role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ticks, as obligate hematophagous ectoparasites, impact greatly on animal and human health because they transmit various pathogens worldwide. Over the last decade, several cystatins from different hard and soft ticks were identified and biochemically analyzed for their role in the physiology and blood feeding lifestyle of ticks. All these cystatins are potent inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases, but not of legumain. Tick cystatins were either detected in the salivary glands and/or the midgut, key tick organs responsible for blood digestion and the expression of pharmacologically potent salivary proteins for blood feeding. For example, the transcription of two cystatins named HlSC-1 and Sialostatin L2 was highly upregulated in these tick tissues during feeding. Vaccinating hosts against Sialostatin L2 and Om-cystatin 2 as well as silencing of a cystatin gene from Amblyomma americanum significantly inhibited the feeding ability of ticks. Additionally, Om-cystatin 2 and Sialostatin L possessed strong host immunosuppressive properties by inhibiting dendritic cell maturation due to their interaction with cathepsin S. These two cystatins, together with Sialostatin L2 are the first tick cystatins with resolved three-dimensional structure. Sialostatin L, furthermore, showed preventive properties against autoimmune diseases. In the case of the cystatin Hlcyst-2, experimental evidence showed its role in tick innate immunity, since increased Hlcyst-2 transcript levels were detected in Babesia gibsoni-infected larval ticks and the protein inhibited Babesia growth. Other cystatins, such as Hlcyst-1 or Om-cystatin 2 are assumed to be involved in regulating blood digestion. Only for Bmcystatin was a role in tick embryogenesis suggested. Finally, all the biochemically analyzed tick cystatins are powerful protease inhibitors, and some may be novel antigens for developing anti-tick vaccines and drugs of medical importance due to their stringent target specificity

  9. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  10. Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163881.html Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo' Experiment used two types of gene-modified stem ... they've created a kind of artificial mouse embryo using stem cells, which can be coaxed to ...

  11. Presence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas suggests that ticks are carriers of Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Croxatto, Antony; Rieille, Nadia; Kernif, Tahar; Bitam, Idir; Aeby, Sébastien; Péter, Olivier; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-06-01

    The Chlamydiales order includes the Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Waddliaceae, Simkaniaceae, Criblamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Clavichlamydiaceae, and Piscichlamydiaceae families. Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within eukaryotic cells of different origins including humans, animals, and amoebae. Many of these bacteria are pathogens or emerging pathogens of both humans and animals, but their true diversity is largely underestimated, and their ecology remains to be investigated. Considering their potential threat on human health, it is important to expand our knowledge on the diversity of Chlamydiae, but also to define the host range colonized by these bacteria. Thus, using a new pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we analyzed the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas, which are important vectors of several viral and bacterial infectious diseases. To conduct this study, 1340 Ixodes ricinus ticks prepared in 192 pools were collected in Switzerland and 55 other ticks belonging to different tick species and 97 fleas belonging to different flea species were harvested in Algeria. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in the 192 pools was equal to 28.1% (54/192) which represents an estimated prevalence in the 1340 individual ticks of between 4.0% and 28.4%. The pan-Chlamydiales qPCR was positive for 45% (25/55) of tick samples collected in Algeria. The sequencing of the positive qPCR amplicons revealed a high diversity of Chlamydiales species. Most of them belonged to the Rhabdochlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae families. Thus, ticks may carry Chlamydiales and should thus be considered as possible vectors for Chlamydiales propagation to both humans and animals.

  12. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2015-12-01

    We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID) meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus) to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity), tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades) and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates). The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current) human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.

  13. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID) meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus) to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity), tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades) and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates). The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current) human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general. PMID:26835253

  14. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Tick-borne Pathogens in Dogs and Ticks from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents. PMID:23505591

  15. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Giannelli, Alessio; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-10-01

    The Rhipicephalus sanguineus group includes some of the most widespread dog ticks, whose identification currently represents a difficult task due to the morphological similarities of these ixodid species. Recently, following the morphological and molecular characterization of tick specimens collected from dogs in all continents, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus turanicus and three different operational taxonomic units (namely Rhipicephalus sp. I-III) have been identified. Therefore, a comprehensive molecular study has been herein carried out to detect selected canine vector-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys, Cercopithifilaria spp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis) in ticks belonging to the R. sanguineus group. A total of 204 tick specimens from dogs were examined and identified as R. sanguineus s.l. (n=81), R. turanicus (n=17), Rhipicephalus sp. I (n=66), Rhipicephalus sp. II (n=37), and Rhipicephalus sp. III (n=3). PCR assays were performed to detect mitochondrial and ribosomal target genes of Cercopithifilaria spp., A. platys, E. canis and H. canis. Out of 204 specimens examined, 2.5%, 7.4% and 21.6% scored positive to A. platys, H. canis and Cercopithifilaria spp., respectively. In addition, co-infections with two pathogens (i.e., Cercopithifilaria bainae and A. platys or H. canis) were detected in four tick specimens. This study suggests a relationship between ticks belonging to the R. sanguineus group and the geographical distribution of A. platys, H. canis and Cercopithifilaria spp. However, the role of each representative tick species within the R. sanguineus group in the transmission of these canine pathogens needs to be further investigated.

  16. Phylogeographic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from patients, rodents and ticks in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Fajs, Luka; Durmiši, Emina; Knap, Nataša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient.

  17. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil.

  18. Altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    The impact of climate change on vector-borne infectious diseases is currently controversial. In Europe the primary arthropod vectors of zoonotic diseases are ticks, which transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the agent of Lyme disease), tick-borne encephalitis virus and louping ill virus between humans, livestock and wildlife. Ixodes ricinus ticks and reported tick-borne disease cases are currently increasing in the UK. Theories for this include climate change and increasing host abundance. This study aimed to test how I. ricinus tick abundance might be influenced by climate change in Scotland by using altitudinal gradients as a proxy, while also taking into account the effects of hosts, vegetation and weather effects. It was predicted that tick abundance would be higher at lower altitudes (i.e. warmer climates) and increase with host abundance. Surveys were conducted on nine hills in Scotland, all of open moorland habitat. Tick abundance was positively associated with deer abundance, but even after taking this into account, there was a strong negative association of ticks with altitude. This was probably a real climate effect, with temperature (and humidity, i.e. saturation deficit) most likely playing an important role. It could be inferred that ticks may become more abundant at higher altitudes in response to climate warming. This has potential implications for pathogen prevalence such as louping ill virus if tick numbers increase at elevations where competent transmission hosts (red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus and mountain hares Lepus timidus) occur in higher numbers.

  19. Ixodid ticks of road-killed wildlife species in southern Italy: new tick-host associations and locality records.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Vincenzo; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify ticks collected from road-killed wildlife species retrieved in several localities of southern Italy and to assess the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. DNA in ticks. Collections were carried out from January 2000 to December 2009 on wild animals found dead within the territories of 11 municipalities from three regions (i.e., Apulia, Basilicata, and Calabria). In total, 189 carcasses of wild animals belonging to 10 species were checked for tick infestation, and 40 animals belonging to seven species were found parasitized. One hundred and twenty-five ixodid ticks (11 larvae, 14 nymphs, 77 males, and 23 females) were collected and identified as belonging to nine species, namely Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus turanicus. None of the 36 tick specimens tested by PCR was positive for tick-borne pathogens. The results add new information on the tick fauna associated with wild animals in Italy, reporting new tick-host associations. Further field studies are still needed to ascertain the suitability of certain wildlife species as hosts for some tick species, particularly for those implicated in the transmission of pathogens to domestic animals and humans. Finally, from a conservation perspective, it would be interesting to assess whether these wild animals (e.g., Lepus corsicanus) are exposed to tick-borne pathogens, investigating the possible implications for their health and behavior.

  20. Ticks as the main target of human tick-borne disease control: Russian practical experience and its lessons.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, I

    1999-06-01

    For several decades, the emphasis in human tick-borne disease control has been on the epidemiologically-based preventive (non-specific) approach where tick vectors were the main target of control impact. A long-term, large-scale campaign for controlling the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus, the main vector of tick-borne encephalitis, was carried out in Russia in the 1950s to 1970s. The practical experience accumulated during that campaign could be of great value for the current development of strategies of tick-borne disease control. A general scheme of human protection from tick-borne diseases is presented where the required investment into protection is proportional to the risk of human infection and particular strategies of control and protection are differentiated. The critical point in the preventive approach is the necessity of radical tick suppression in the areas with the highest risk of human infection that can be successfully achieved only through chemical treatment directed at the eradication of the entire tick population. The following aspects are considered: the tick population (or a group of populations) as a desirable target of any acaricidal impact (biological and geographic aspects, the fate of the population after treatment); the advantage of long-term planning for control campaigns; and the influence of acaricidal impact on foci of tick-borne diseases. The conception of losses of potential pesticidal impact efficacy provides much room for the improvement of conventional tick control strategies making them more efficient and safe to the environment. The current tendency to make humans the main target of control through vaccination and/or medical treatment (specific approach) does not fit the objectives of effective human protection from tick-borne diseases, especially because of a tick population's ability to carry and transmit more than one pathogen over the same area.

  1. Effects of deer density on tick infestation of rodents and the hazard of tick-borne encephalitis. I: empirical assessment.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, F; Bolzoni, L; Rosà, R; Carpi, G; Hauffe, H C; Valent, M; Tagliapietra, V; Kazimirova, M; Koci, J; Stanko, M; Lukan, M; Henttonen, H; Rizzoli, A

    2012-04-01

    Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to eastern and central Europe with broad temporal and spatial variation in infection risk. Although many studies have focused on understanding the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting exposure of humans to TBE, comparatively little research has been devoted to assessing the underlying ecological mechanisms of TBE occurrence in enzootic cycles, and therefore TBE hazard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the main ungulate tick hosts on the pattern of tick infestation in rodents and TBE occurrence in rodents and questing adult ticks. In this empirical study, we considered three areas where endemic human TBE occurs and three control sites having no reported human TBE cases. In these six sites located in Italy and Slovakia, we assessed deer density using the pellet group count-plot sampling technique, collected questing ticks, live-trapped rodents (primarily Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus) and counted ticks feeding on rodents. Both rodents and questing ticks were screened for TBE infection. TBE infection in ticks and rodents was positively associated with the number of co-feeding ticks on rodents and negatively correlated with deer density. We hypothesise that the negative relationship between deer density and TBE occurrence on a local scale (defined by the minimum overlapping area of host species) could be attributed to deer (incompetent hosts) diverting questing ticks from rodents (competent hosts), know as the 'dilution effect hypothesis'. We observed that, after an initial increase, the number of ticks feeding on rodents reached a peak for an intermediate value of estimated deer density and then decreased. Therefore, while at a regional scale, tick host availability has already been shown to be directly correlated with TBE distribution, our results suggest that the interactions between deer, rodents and ticks are much more complex on a local scale, supporting the possibility of a

  2. A quantitative synthesis of the role of birds in carrying ticks and tick-borne pathogens in North America.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Noden, Bruce H; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    Birds play a central role in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens. They expand tick populations and pathogens across vast distances and serve as reservoirs that maintain and amplify transmission locally. Research into the role of birds for supporting ticks and tick-borne pathogens has largely been descriptive and focused in small areas. To expand inference beyond these studies, we conducted a quantitative review at the scale of North America to identify avian life history correlates of tick infestation and pathogen prevalence, calculate species-level indices of importance for carrying ticks, and identify research gaps limiting understanding of tick-borne pathogen transmission. Across studies, 78 of 162 bird species harbored ticks, yielding an infestation prevalence of 1981 of 38,929 birds (5.1 %). Avian foraging and migratory strategies interacted to influence infestation. Ground-foraging species, especially non-migratory ground foragers, were disproportionately likely to have high prevalence and intensity of tick infestation. Studies largely focused on Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, and non-migratory ground foragers were especially likely to carry B. burgdorferi-infected ticks, a finding that highlights the potential importance of resident birds in local pathogen transmission. Based on infestation indices, all "super-carrier" bird species were passerines. Vast interior areas of North America, many bird and tick species, and most tick-borne pathogens, remain understudied, and research is needed to address these gaps. More studies are needed that quantify tick host preferences, host competence, and spatiotemporal variation in pathogen prevalence and vector and host abundance. This information is crucial for predicting pathogen transmission dynamics under future global change.

  3. The Virtual Embryo Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The v-Embryo™ is a far reaching new research program at the US EPA to develop a working computer model of a mammalian embryo that can be used to better understand the prenatal risks posed by environmental chemicals and to eventually predict a chemical’s potential developmental to...

  4. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction–positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study. PMID:21976578

  5. Infection prevalences of common tick-borne pathogens in adult lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Fritzen, Charissa M; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2011-10-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007-2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study.

  6. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management.

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda J; Burroughs, Mark; Changayil, Shankar S; Dasch, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Amblyomma americanum is an abundant tick in the southeastern, midwestern, and northeastern United States. It is a vector of multiple diseases, but limited genomic resources are available for it. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of a single female A. americanum collected in Georgia using the Illumina platform. The consensus sequence was 14,709 bp long, and the mean coverage across the assembly was >12,000×. All expected tick genomic features were present, including two "Tick-Box" motifs, and in the expected order for the Metastriata. Heteroplasmy rates were low compared to the most closely related tick for which data are available, Amblyomma cajennense. The phylogeny derived from the concatenated protein coding and rRNA genes from the 33 available tick mitochondrial genomes was consistent with those previously proposed for the Acari. This is the first complete mitochondrial sequence for A. americanum, which provides a useful reference for future studies of A. americanum population genetics and tick phylogeny.

  8. Methods for control of tick vectors of Lyme Borreliosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaenson, T.G.T.; Fish, D.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gray, J.S.; Mather, T.N.; Piesman, J.

    1991-01-01

    During the IVth International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis in Stockholm, 1990, a workshop on control of Lyme disease vectors briefly reviewed: basic ecological principles for tick control; biocontrol of ticks; chemical control, including the use of repellents and use of permethrin-treated rodent nest material; tick control by habitat modification; and reduction of tick host availability. It was concluded that, although much research work remains, Lyme borreliosis is to a large extent a preventable infection. Avoidance of heavily tick-infested areas, personal protection using proper clothing, and prompt removal of attached ticks remain the most effective protective measures. Many other prophylactic measures are available and could be efficiently integrated into schemes to reduce the abundance of vectors. However, since the ecology of the infection varies greatly between different localities it may be necessary to apply different combinations of control methods in different endemic regions.

  9. Establishing protocols for tick containment at Biosafety Level 4

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Tick borne diseases continue to emerge and have a great impact on public health and agriculture. In addition, many of the tick borne diseases agents, which are classified as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) viruses, have the potential to be used as biothreat agents. In spite of the known importance of these pathogens, there is an acute shortage of facilities and trained personnel to study the pathogenesis of tick-borne diseases and to assess vaccine as well as other therapeutic interventions against tick-borne diseases as they are transmitted in nature. We, at the Galveston National Laboratory, have developed facilities and protocols to safely work with BSL4 virus infected ticks. This capability adds tremendous value to the Nation's training and research endeavors. In this report we describe the procedures and protocols to establish tick work in a BSL4 laboratory. PMID:24838773

  10. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming. PMID:26894831

  11. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    PubMed

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Sa