Science.gov

Sample records for microquasar xte j1550-564

  1. Moving relativistic large-scale X-ray jets in the microquasar XTE J1550-564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, S.; Fender, R. P.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Tomsick, J. A.; Orosz, J. A.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Kaaret, P.

    2003-10-01

    We have discovered large-scale moving X-ray and radio jets from the microquasar XTE J1550-564. Using X-ray and radio observations performed between 2000 and 2002, we showed that plasma ejected from XTE J1550-564 has been able to travel at relativistic velocities during many years, with evidence for gradual deceleration. The broadband spectrum of the jets is consistent with synchrotron emission from high energy particles accelerated in shocks. Full details can be found in Corbel et al. [Science 298 (2002a) 196], Karret et al. [ApJ 582 (2003) 933] and Tomsick et al. [ApJ (2003) 945].

  2. Moving relativistic large-scale X-ray jets in the microquasar XTE J1550-564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, S.; Fender, R. P.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Tomsick, J. A.; Orosz, J. A.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Kaaret, P.

    We have discovered large-scale moving X-ray and radio jets from the microquasar XTE J1550-564. Using X-ray observations from the Chandra Observatory performed between June 2000 (see also Tomsick et al., these proceedings) and June 2002, we showed that ejected plasma from XTE J1550-564 has been able to travel at relativistic velocities during many years, with evidence for gradual deceleration. The broadband spectrum of the jets is consistent with synchrotron emission from high energy particles accelerated in shocks. Full details can be found in Corbel et al. 2002, Kaaret et al. 2002, Tomsick et al. 2002.

  3. Evolution of relativistic jets from XTE J1550-564 and the environment of microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang Nan; Hao, Jing Fang

    2008-10-01

    Two relativistic X-ray jets have been detected with the Chandra X-ray observatory in the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1550-564. We report a full analysis of the evolution of the two jets with a gamma-ray burst external shock model. A plausible scenario suggests a cavity outside the central source and the jets first travelled with constant velocity and then are slowed down by the interactions between the jets and the interstellar medium (ISM). The best fitted radius of the cavity is ~0.36 pc on the eastern side and ~0.46 pc on the western side, and the densities also show asymmetry, of ~0.015 cm-3 on the east to ~0.21 cm-3 on the west. Large scale low density region is also found in another microquasar system, H 1743-322. These results are consistent with previous suggestions that the environment of microquasars should be rather vacuous, compared to the normal Galactic environment. A generic scenario for microquasar jets is proposed, classifying the observed jets into three main categories, with different jet morphologies (and sizes) corresponding to different scales of vacuous environments surrounding them.

  4. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Homan, J.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the high-frequency timing properties of the April-May 2000 outburst of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar XTE J1550-564, measured with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, The rapid X-ray variability we measure is consistent with the source being in either the "very high" or "intermediate" canonical black hole state. A strong (5-8% RMS) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) is found between 249-278 Hz; this may represent the first recurrence of the same high-frequency QPO in subsequent outbursts of a transient black hole candidate. We also present possible evidence for a lower-frequency QPO at approximately 187 Hz, also reported previously and likely present simultaneously with the higher-frequency QPO. We discuss these findings within the context of the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564, and comment on implications for models of QPOs, accretion flows, and black hole spin.

  5. MODELING THE JET KINEMATICS OF THE BLACK HOLE MICROQUASAR XTE J1550-564: A CONSTRAINT ON SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2012-02-01

    Measurements of black hole spin made using the continuum-fitting method rely on the assumption that the inclination of the black hole's spin axis to our line of sight is the same as the orbital inclination angle i of the host binary system. The X-ray and radio jet data available for the microquasar XTE J1550-564 offer a rare opportunity to test this assumption. Following the work of others, we have modeled these data and thereby determined the inclination angle {theta} of the jet axis, which is presumed to be aligned with the black hole's spin axis. We find {theta} Almost-Equal-To 71 Degree-Sign and place an upper limit on the difference between the spin and orbital inclinations of |{theta} - i| < 12 Degree-Sign (90% confidence). Our measurement tests for misalignment along the line of sight while providing no constraint perpendicular to this plane. Our constraint on the misalignment angle supports the prediction that the spinning black hole in XTE J1550-564 has aligned itself with the orbital plane and provides support for the measurement of its spin via the continuum-fitting method. Our conclusions are based on a simple and reasonable model of a pair of symmetric jets propagating into a low-density cavity whose western wall is Almost-Equal-To 20% closer to XTE J1550-564 than its eastern wall.

  6. The Large-Scale, Decelerating X-ray Jets from the Microquasar Xte J1550-564: Evidence for External Shocks Caused by the Jet-Ism Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Lu, T.

    2005-06-01

    Large-scale, decelerating, relativistic X-ray jets from microquasar XTE J1550-564 has been recently discovered with Chandra by Corbel et al. (2002). We find that the dynamical evolution of the approaching jet at the late time is consistent with the well-known Sedov evolutionary phase R∝ t 2/5. A trans-relativistic external shock dynamic model by analogy with the evolution of gamma-ray burst remnants, is shown to be able to fit the proper-motion data of the approaching jet reasonably well. The inferred interstellar medium density around the source is well below the canonical value n ISM˜1 cm-3. The rapidly fading X-ray emission can be interpreted as synchrotron radiation from the non-thermal electrons in the adiabatically expanding ejecta. These electrons were accelerated by the reverse shock (moving back into the ejecta) which becomes important when the inertia of the swept external matter leads to an appreciable slowing down of the original ejecta.

  7. External Shock Model for the Large-Scale, Relativistic X-Ray Jets from the Microquasar XTE J1550-564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Lu, T.

    2003-07-01

    Large-scale, decelerating, relativistic X-ray jets due to material ejected from the black-hole candidate X-ray transient and microquasar XTE J1550-564 have been recently discovered with Chandra by Corbel and coworkers. We find that the dynamical evolution of the eastern jet at the late time is consistent with the well-known Sedov evolutionary phase. A transrelativistic external shock dynamic model by analogy with the evolution of gamma-ray burst remnants is shown to be able to fit the observation data reasonably well. The inferred interstellar medium density around the source is well below the canonical value nISM~1cm-3. We find that the emission from the continuously shocked interstellar medium (forward shock region) decays too slowly to be a viable mechanism for the eastern X-ray jet. However, the rapidly fading X-ray emission can be interpreted as synchrotron radiation from the nonthermal electrons in the adiabatically expanding ejecta. These electrons were accelerated by the reverse shock (moving back into the ejecta), which becomes important when the inertia of the swept external matter leads to an appreciable slowing down of the original ejecta. To ensure the dominance of the emission from the shocked ejecta over that from the forward shock region during the period of the observations, the magnetic field and electron energy fractions in the forward shock region must be far below equipartition. Future continuous, follow-up multiwavelength observations of new ejection events from microquasars up to the significant deceleration phase should provide more valuable insight into the nature of the interaction between the jets and external medium.

  8. A Possible Optical Counterpart to XTE J1550--564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Jerome; Bailyn, Charles; Jain, Raj

    1998-09-01

    We report YALO consortium observations using the Yale 1m telescope at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory and the ANDICAM CCD camera. We have identified a possible optical counterpart to the recent X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 (IAUC 7008) in V-band images obtained September 8.99 UT. The J2000 coordinates of the candidate are R.A. = 15h51m04s, Decl. = -56o28'37.5", with errors on each value of about +/- 3 arcseconds.

  9. Phase Lag and Coherence Function of X-Ray Emission from Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Wei; Zhang, Shuang Nan; Chen, Wan

    2000-01-01

    We report the results from measuring the phase lag and coherence function of X-ray emission from black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. These temporal X-ray properties have been recognized to be increasingly important in providing important diagnostics of the dynamics of accretion flows around black holes. For XTE J1550-564, we found significant hard lag-the X-ray variability in high-energy bands lags behind that in low-energy bands-associated both with broadband variability and quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) . However, the situation is more complicated for the QPO: while hard lag was measured for the first harmonic of the signal, the fundamental component showed significant soft lag. Such behavior is remarkably similar to what was observed of microquasar GRS 1915+105. The phase lag evolved during the initial rising phase of the 1998 outburst. The magnitude of both the soft and hard lags of the QPO increases with X-ray flux, while the Fourier spectrum of the broadband lag varies significantly in shape. The coherence function is relatively high and roughly constant at low frequencies and begins to drop almost right after the first harmonic of the QPO. It is near unity at the beginning and decreases rapidly during the rising phase. Also observed is that the more widely separated the two energy bands are, the less the coherence function between the two. It is interesting that the coherence function increases significantly at the frequencies of the QPO and its harmonics. We discuss the implications of the results on the models proposed for black hole candidates.

  10. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2001-06-01

    We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor by 11.5+/-0.9 and 8.8+/-0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to nonthermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.

  11. Observational Signatures of Black Holes: Spectral and Temporal Features of XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shrader, C. R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the converging inflow, or Bulk-Motion Comptonization model are discussed and some predictions are compared to X- and gamma-ray observations of the high-soft state of Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1550+564. The approx. 10(exp 2)-Hz QPO phenomenon tends to be detected in the high-state at times when the bolometric luminosity surges and the hard-powerlaw spectral component is dominant. Furthermore, the power in these features increases with energy. We offer interpretation of this phenomenon, as oscillations of the innermost part of the accretion disk, which in turn supplies the seed photons for the converging inflow where the hard power-law is formed through Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC). We further argue that the noted lack of coherence between intensity variations of the high-soft-state low and high energy bands is a natural consequence of our model, and that a natural explanation for the observed hard and soft lag phenomenon is offered. In addition, we address some criticisms of the BMC model supporting our claims with observational results.

  12. XTE J1550-564: INTEGRAL Observations of a Failed Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, S. J.; Shrader, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The well known black-hole X-ray binary transient XTE J1550-564 underwent an outburst during the spring of 2003 which was substantially underluminous in comparison to previous periods of peak activity in that source. In addition, our analysis shows that it apparently remained in the hard spectral state over the duration of that outburst. This is again in sharp contrast to major out-bursts of that source in 1998/1999 during which it exhibited an irregular light curve, multiple state changes and collimated outflows. This leads us to classify it as a failed outburst. We present the results of our study of the spring 2003 event including light curves based on observations from both INTEGRAL and RXTE. In addition, we studied the evolution of the high-energy 3-300 keV continuum spectrum using data obtained with three main instruments on INTEGRAL. These spectra are consistent with typical low-hard-state thermal Comptonization emission. We also consider the 2003 event in the context of a multi-source, multi-event period-peak luminosity diagram in which it is a clear outlyer. We then consider the possibility that the 2003 event was due to a discrete accretion event rather than a limit-cycle instability. In that context, apply model fitting to derive the timescale for viscous propagation in the disk, and infer some physical characteristics.

  13. Implication of the Observable Spectral Cutoff Energy Evolution in XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for production of the non-thermal emission in accreting black holes should be imprinted in the observational appearances of the power law tails in the X-ray spectra from these objects. Variety of spectral states observed from galactic black hole binaries by it Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) allow examination of the photon upscattering under different accretion regimes. We revisit of RXTE data collected from the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 during two periods of X-ray activity in 1998 and 2000 focusing on the behavior of the high energy cutoff of the power law part of the spectrum. For the 1998 outburst the Iran- sition from the low-hard state to the intermediate state was accompanied by a gradual decrease in the cutoff energy which then showed a sharp reversal to a clear increasing trend during the further evolution towards the very high and high-soft states. However, the 2000 outburst showed only the decreasing part of this pattern. Notably, the photon indexes corresponding to the cutoff increase for the 1998 event are much higher than the index values reached during the 2000 rise transition. We attribute this difference in the cutoff' energy behav- for to the different partial contributions of the thermal and non-thermal (bulk motion) Comptonization in photon upscattering. Namely, during the 1998 event the higher accretion rate presumably provided more cooling to the Comptonizing media and thus reducing the effectiveness of the thermal upscattering process. Under these conditions the bulk motion takes a leading role in boosting the input soft photons. Monte Carlo simulations of the The physical mechanisms responsible for production of the non-thermal emission in accreting black holes should be imprinted in the observational apperances of the power law tails in the X-ray spectra from these objects. Variety of spectral states observed from galactic black hole binaries by it Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) allow

  14. IMPLICATION OF THE OBSERVED SPECTRAL CUTOFF ENERGY EVOLUTION IN XTE J1550-564

    SciTech Connect

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai E-mail: lev.titarchuk@nrl.navy.mi

    2010-12-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for the production of non-thermal emission in accreting black holes (BHs) should be imprinted in the observational appearances of the power-law tails in the X-ray spectra from these objects. Phenomenology of different spectral states exhibited by galactic BH binaries allows us to establish the physics of the photon upscattering under different accretion regimes. We revisit the data collected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the BH X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 during two periods of X-ray activity in 1998 and 2000 focusing on the behavior of the high-energy cutoff of the power-law part of the spectrum. For the 1998 outburst, the transition from the low-hard state to the intermediate state was accompanied by a gradual decrease in the cutoff energy. This was followed by an extended minimum which then showed an abrupt reversal to a clear increasing trend as the source evolved to the very high and high-soft states. The 2000 outburst showed only the decreasing and extended minimum portions of this pattern. We attribute this difference in the cutoff energy behavior to the different partial contributions of the thermal and non-thermal (bulk motion) Comptonization. Namely, during the 1998 event the higher accretion rate presumably provided more cooling to the Comptonizing media and thus reducing the effectiveness of the thermal upscattering process. Under these conditions, the bulk motion takes a leading role in boosting the input soft photons. Recent Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk strongly support this scenario.

  15. X-Ray Timing and Spectral Observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550--564 During Outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-11

    Soft X-ray transients (SXTs), a sub-class of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), provide a unique opportunity to test General Relativity and to probe fundamental physics under conditions terrestrially unattainable. SXT outbursts are of great interest because they allow the study of LMXBs under a wide range of accretion rates. The majority of known SXTs contain black holes, therefore SXT outbursts are key to understanding accretion physics around black holes and in active galactic nuclei, which are thought to contain supermassive, M {approx} 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 10} M{circle_dot}, where M{circle_dot} is one solar mass, central compact objects. These compact objects are most likely black holes, which exhibit, on a much larger scale, accretion physics similar to that around black holes in SXTs. In this work, the timing and spectral properties of the SXT and microquasar XTE J1550-564 during outburst are studied. Observations made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) are emphasized. USA data show a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing USA flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the USA hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV). Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) were detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the USA hardness ratio with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram shows counterclockwise cyclical evolution and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  16. USA Observation of Spectral and Timing Evolution During the 2000 Outburst of XTE J1550--564

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-06

    We report on timing and spectral observations of the 2000 outburst of XTE J1550--564 made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). We observe a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the hardness ratio. Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPO) were detected by RXTE, during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV) with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram (HID) shows a cyclical movement in the counterclockwise direction and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a thin disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  17. Characterizing Intermittency of 4-Hz Quasi-periodic Oscillation in XTE J1550-564 Using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang

    2015-12-01

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550-564. By adaptively decomposing the ˜4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ˜4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  18. Near-infrared and optical observations of the failed outbursts of black hole binary XTE J1550-564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. A.; Chaty, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. A number of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) undergo "failed outbursts" in which, instead of evolving through the canonical states, they remain in a hard state throughout the outburst. While the sources of X-ray and radio emission in the hard state are relatively well understood, the origin of the near-infrared (NIR) and optical emission is more complex though it likely stems from an amalgam of different emission processes, occurring as it does, at the intersecting wavelengths of those processes. Aims: We aim to identify the NIR/optical emission region(s) during a number of failed outbursts of one such LMXB and black hole candidate, XTE J1550-564, in order to confirm or refute their classification as hard-state, failed outbursts. Methods: We present unique NIR/optical images and spectra, obtained with the ESO-New Technology Telescope, during the failed outbursts of 2001 and 2000. We compare the NIR/optical photometric, timing, and spectral properties with those expected for the different emission mechanisms in the various LMXB states. Results: The NIR/optical data are consistent with having come from reprocessing of X-rays in the accretion disk, with no evidence of direct thermal emission from the disk itself. However, the observed variability in high-cadence NIR light curves suggest that the radio jet extends and contributes to the NIR wavelengths. Conclusions: We find that these failed outbursts did not transition to an intermediate state but remained in a true, hard state where there was no sign of jet quenching or deviation from the observed hard state correlations. Based on observations made with the European Southern Observatory telescopes obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility.

  19. X-ray jet emission from the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 with CHANDRA in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, J. A.; Corbel, S.; Fender, R. P.; Miller, J. M.; Orosz, J. A.; Tzioumis, T.; Wijnands, R.; Kaaret, P.

    We have discovered an X-ray jet due to material ejected from the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 (see also the Corbel et al. contribution to these proceedings). We present results from three Chandra observations made between 2000 June and 2000 September. For these observations, a source is present that moves in an eastward direction away from the point source associated with the compact object. The separation between the new source and the compact object changes from 21''.3 in June to 23''.4 in September, implying a proper motion of 21.2 ± 7.2 mas day-1, a projected separation of 0.31-0.85 pc and a jet velocity >0.22c for a source distance range of d = 2.8-7.6 kpc. These observations represent the first time that an X-ray jet proper motion measurement has been obtained for any accretion powered Galactic or extra-galactic source. Along with a 1998 VLBI proper motion measurement, the Chandra proper motion indicates that the jet decelerated between 1998 and 2000. Although we cannot definitively determine the X-ray emission mechanism, a synchrotron origin is viable and may provide the simplest explanation for the observations.

  20. Cross-spectral modelling of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564: challenges to the propagating fluctuations paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisarda, S.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2017-08-01

    Timing properties of black hole X-ray binaries in outburst can be modelled with mass accretion rate fluctuations propagating towards the black hole. Such models predict time lags between energy bands due to propagation delays. First application of a propagating fluctuations model to black hole power spectra showed good agreement with the data. Indeed, hard lags observed from these systems appear to be in agreement with this generic prediction. Our propfluc code allows us to simultaneously predict power spectra, time lags and coherence of the variability as a function of energy. This was successfully applied to the Swift data on the black hole MAXI J1659-152, fitting jointly the power spectra in two energy bands and the cross-spectrum between these two bands. In this work, we attempt to model two high signal-to-noise Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the black hole XTE J1550-564. We find that neither observation can be adequately explained by the model even when considering, additionally to previous propfluc versions, different propagation speeds of the fluctuations. After extensive exploration of model extensions, we tentatively conclude that the quantitative and qualitative discrepancy between model predictions and data is generic to the propagating fluctuations paradigm. This result encourages further investigation of the fundamental hypotheses of the propagating fluctuations model. We discuss some of these hypotheses with an eye to future works.

  1. X-Ray Jet Emission from the Black Hole X-Ray Binary XTE J1550-564 with Chandra in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stéphane; Fender, Rob; Miller, Jon M.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Tzioumis, Tasso; Wijnands, Rudy; Kaaret, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We have discovered an X-ray jet due to material ejected from the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1550-564. The discovery was first reported in 2002 by Corbel and coworkers, and here we present an analysis of the three Chandra observations made between 2000 June and September. For these observations, a source is present that moves in an eastward direction away from the point source associated with the compact object. The separation between the new source and the compact object changes from 21.3" in June to 23.4" in September, implying a proper motion of 21.2+/-7.2 mas day-1, a projected separation of 0.31-0.85 pc, and an apparent jet velocity between 0.34+/-0.12 and 0.93+/-0.32 times the speed of light for a source distance range of d=2.8-7.6 kpc. These observations represent the first time that an X-ray jet proper-motion measurement has been obtained for any accretion-powered Galactic or extragalactic source. While this work deals with the jet to the east of the compact object, the western jet has also been detected in the X-ray and radio bands. The most likely scenario is that the eastern jet is the approaching jet and that the jet material was ejected from the black hole in 1998. Along with a 1998 VLBI proper-motion measurement, the Chandra proper motion indicates that the eastern jet decelerated between 1998 and 2000. There is evidence that the eastern jet is extended by +/-2"-3" in the direction of the proper motion. The upper limit on the source extension in the perpendicular direction is +/-1.5", which corresponds to a jet opening angle of less than 7.5d. The X-ray jet energy spectrum is well but not uniquely described by a power law with an energy index of α=-0.8+/-0.4 (Sν~να) and interstellar absorption. The eastern jet was also detected in the radio band during an observation made within 7.4 days of the June Chandra observation. The overall radio flux level is consistent with an extrapolation of the X-ray power law with α=-0.6. The 0.3-8 keV X-ray jet

  2. X-ray jets in microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, S.

    2003-03-01

    Large scale moving relativistic X-ray jets have been recently discovered around the microquasar XTE J1550--564 (Corbel et al. 2002, Sci., 298, 196). They have been observed over a timescale of at least four years. The broadband spectra of the jets are consistent with synchrotron emission from high energy (up to 10 TeV) particles accelerated in shocks, possibly during the interaction of the jets with the interstellar medium. XTE J1550-564 offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamical evolution of relativistic jets on time scales inaccessible for active galactic nuclei jets, with implications for our understanding of relativistic jets from Galactic x-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. New results from the continuing multiwavelength campaign, as well as a comparison with other jet producing system, will be shown during this presentation.

  3. Ejection of the Corona at State Transitions: a Common Behavior in Microquasars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, L.; Rodriguez, J.

    2009-05-01

    The onset of most microquasar outbursts is characterized by a state transition between a Low/Hard State (LHS) and a High/Soft State (HSS). Besides drastic spectral and timing changes, this transition often shows a discrete ejection event detectable in the radio range. However, the exact nature of the ejected material and the mechanisms that give birth to these phenomena are yet to be unraveled. Recent simultaneous radio and X-ray observations on several sources point to a coronal nature of the ejected material. In the cases of GRS 1915+105, XTE J1550-564, and the 2002 outburst of GX 339-4, the flux of the Compton component decreases sharply just before an ejection is detected in the radio range. Finally, in the case of H1743-322, drastic physical changes occurred in the corona just before the state transition, compatible with the disappearance of part of this medium. Thus, the behavior of at least 4 microquasars points in the direction of an ejection of the corona at the state transition, feature that is yet to be confirmed (or infirmed) in the case of other available sources.

  4. THE DISTANCE, INCLINATION, AND SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE MICROQUASAR H1743-322

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.

    2012-01-20

    During its 2003 outburst, the black hole X-ray transient H1743-322 produced two-sided radio and X-ray jets. Applying a simple and symmetric kinematic model to the trajectories of these jets, we determine the source distance, 8.5 {+-} 0.8 kpc, and the inclination angle of the jets, 75 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign . Using these values, we estimate the spin of the black hole by fitting its Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer spectra, obtained during the 2003 outburst, to a standard relativistic accretion-disk model. For its spin, we find a{sub *} = 0.2 {+-} 0.3 (68% limits), -0.3 < a{sub *} < 0.7 at 90% confidence. We strongly rule against an extreme value of spin: a{sub *} < 0.92 at 99.7% confidence. H1743-322 is the third known microquasar (after A0620-00 and XTE J1550-564) that displays large-scale ballistic jets and has a moderate value of spin. Our result, which depends on an empirical distribution of black hole masses, takes into account all known sources of measurement error.

  5. Relativistic Iron Emission and Disk Reflection in Galactic Microquasar XTE J1748-288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fox, D. W.; Matteo, T. DI; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2001-01-01

    We report evidence for an Fe K(alpha) fluorescence line feature and disk reflection in the very high, high-, and low-state X-ray spectra of the Galactic microquasar XTE J1748-288 during its 1998 June outburst. Spectral analyses are made on data gathered throughout the outburst by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. Gaussian line, relativistic disk emission line, and ionized disk reflection models are fitted to the data. In the very high state the line profile appears strongly redshifted, consistent with disk emission from the innermost stable orbits around a maximally rotating Kerr black hole. In the high state the line profile is less redshifted and increasingly prominent. The low-state line profile is very strong (approx. 0.5 keV equivalent width) and centered at 6.7 +/- 0.10 keV; disk line emission model fits indicate that the inner edge of the disk fluctuates between approx. 20Rg and approx. 100Rg in this state. The disk reflection fraction is traced through the outburst; reflection from an ionized disk is preferred in the very high and high states, and reflection from a relatively neutral disk is preferred in the low state. We discuss the implications of our findings for the binary system dynamics and accretion flow geometry in XTE J1748-288.

  6. Relativistic Iron Emission and Disk Reflection in Galactic Microquasar XTE J1748-288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fox, D. W.; DiMatteo, T.; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Pooley, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2001-01-01

    We report evidence for an Fe K-alpha fluorescence line feature and disk reflection in the very high, high-, and low-state X-ray spectra of the Galactic microquasar XTE J1748 - 288 during its 1998 June outburst. Spectral analyses are made on data gathered throughout the outburst by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. Gaussian line, relativistic disk emission line, and ionized disk reflection models are fitted to the data. In the very high state the line profile appears strongly redshifted, consistent with disk emission from the innermost stable orbits around a maximally rotating Kerr black hole. In the high state the line profile is less redshifted and increasingly prominent. The low-state line profile is very strong (approx. 0.5 keV equivalent width) and centered at 6.7 +/- 0.10 keV; disk line emission model fits indicate that the inner edge of the disk fluctuates between approx. 20R(sub g) and - approx. 100R(sub g) in this state. The disk reflection fraction is traced through the outburst; reflection from an ionized disk is preferred in the very high and high states, and reflection from a relatively neutral disk is preferred in the low state. We discuss the implications of our findings for the binary system dynamics and accretion flow geometry in XTE J1748 - 288.

  7. Relativistically Skewed Iron Emission and Disk Reflection in Galactic Microquasar XTE J1748-288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fox, D. W.; DiMatteo, T.; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2000-01-01

    We report evidence for an Fe K-alpha fluorescence line feature in the Very High, High, and Low state X-ray spectra of the galactic microquasar XTE JI748-288 during its June 1998 outburst. Spectral analyses were made on observations spread across the outburst, gathered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Gaussian line. disk emission line, relativistic disk emission line, and disk reflection models are fit to the data. In the Very High State, the line profile is strongly redshifted and consistent with emission from the innermost radius of a maximally rotating Kerr black hole, 1.235 R(sub g). The line profile is less redshifted in the High State, but increasingly prominent. In the Low State, the line profile is very strong and centered af approx. 6.7 keV; disk line emission models constrain the inner edge of the disk to fluctuate between approx.20 and approx.59 R(sub g). We trace the disk reflection fraction across the full outburst of this source, and find well-constrained fractions below those observed in AGN in the Very High and High States, but consistent with other galactic sources in the Low State. We discuss the possible implications for black hole X-ray binary system dynamics and accretion flow geometry.

  8. Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, I. Félix

    2007-01-01

    Microquasars are compact objects (stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars) in our Galaxy that mimic, on a smaller scale, many of the phenomena seen in quasars. Their discovery provided new insights into the physics of relativistic jets observed elsewhere in the universe, and the accretion jet coupling. Furthermore, microquasars are opening new horizons for the understanding of ultraluminous X-ray sources observed in external galaxies, gamma-ray bursts of long duration, and the origin of stellar black holes and neutron stars. Microquasars are one of the best laboratories to probe General Relativity in the limit of the strongest gravitational fields, and, as such, have become an area of topical interest for both high energy physics and astrophysics. To cite this article: I.F. Mirabel, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  9. A Resonantly Excited Disk-Oscillation Model of High-Frequency QPOs of Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shoji

    2012-12-01

    A possible model of twin high-frequency QPOs (HF QPOs) of microquasars is examined. The disk is assumed to have global magnetic fields and to be deformed with a two-armed pattern. In this deformed disk, a set of a two-armed (m = 2) vertical p-mode oscillation and an axisymmetric (m = 0) g-mode oscillation is considered. They resonantly interact through the disk deformation when their frequencies are the same. This resonant interaction amplifies the set of the above oscillations in the case where these two oscillations have wave energies of opposite signs. These oscillations are assumed to be excited most efficiently in the case where the radial group velocities of these two waves vanish at the same place. The above set of oscillations is not unique, depending on the node number n, of oscillations in the vertical direction. We consider that the basic two sets of oscillations correspond to the twin QPOs. The frequencies of these oscillations depend on the disk parameters, such as the strength of the magnetic fields. For observational mass ranges of GRS 1915+ 105, GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and HEAO H1743-322, the spins of these sources are estimated. High spins of these sources can be described if the disks have weak poloidal magnetic fields as well as toroidal magnetic fields of moderate strength. In this model the 3:2 frequency ratio of high-frequency QPOs is not related to their excitation, but occurs by chance.

  10. On the Origin of Radio Emission in the X-Ray States of XTE J1650-500 during the 2001-2002 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, S.; Fender, R. P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Tingay, S.

    2004-12-01

    We report on simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 during the course of its 2001-2002 outburst. The scheduling of the observations allowed us to sample the properties of XTE J1650-500 in different X-ray spectral states, namely, the hard state, the steep power-law state, and the thermal dominant state, according to the recent spectral classification of McClintock & Remillard. The hard state is consistent with a compact jet dominating the spectral energy distribution at radio frequencies; however, the current data suggest that its contribution as direct synchrotron emission at higher energies may not be significant. In that case, XTE J1650-500 may be dominated by Compton processes (either inverse Comptonization of thermal disk photons and/or synchrotron self-Compton radiation from the base of the compact jet) in the X-ray regime. We surprisingly detect a faint level of radio emission in the thermal dominant state that may be consistent with the emission of previously ejected material interacting with the interstellar medium, similar (but on a smaller angular scale) to what was observed in XTE J1550-564 by Corbel and coworkers. Based on the properties of radio emission in the steep power-law state of XTE J1650-500 and taking into account the behavior of other black hole candidates (namely, GX 339-4, XTE J1550-564, and XTE J1859+226) while in the intermediate and steep power-law states, we are able to present a general pattern of behavior for the origin of radio emission in these two states that could be important for understanding the accretion-ejection coupling very close to the black hole event horizon.

  11. The Large-Scale, Decelerating X-Ray Jets from the Microquasar XTE J1550—564: Evidence for External Shocks Caused by the Jet-Ism Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Lu, T.

    Large-scale, decelerating, relativistic X-ray jets from microquasar XTE J1550—564 has been recently discovered with Chandra by Corbel et al. (2002). We find that the dynamical evolution of the approaching jet at the late time is consistent with the well-known Sedov evolutionary phase R ∝ t2/5. A trans-relativistic external shock dynamic model by analogy with the evolution of gammaray burst remnants, is shown to be able to fit the proper-motion data of the approaching jet reasonably well. The inferred interstellar medium density around the source is well below the canonical value nISM ˜ 1 cm-3. The rapidly fading X-ray emission can be interpreted as synchrotron radiation from the non-thermal electrons in the adiabatically expanding ejecta. These electrons were accelerated by the reverse shock (moving back into the ejecta) which becomes important when the inertia of the swept external matter leads to an appreciable slowing down of the original ejecta.

  12. Low-mass X-ray Binaries with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Below are the publications which directly and indirectly evolved from this very successful program: 1) 'Search for millisecond periodicities in type I X-ray bursts of the Rapid Burster'; 2) 'High-Frequency QPOs in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564'; 3) 'Chandra and RXTE Spectroscopy of Galactic Microquasar XTE 51550-564 in Outburst'; 4) 'GX 339-4: back to life'; 5) 'Evidence for black hole spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton EPIC-PN and RXTE spectroscopy of the very high state'.

  13. Low-mass X-ray Binaries with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Below are the publications which directly and indirectly evolved from this very successful program: 1) 'Search for millisecond periodicities in type I X-ray bursts of the Rapid Burster'; 2) 'High-Frequency QPOs in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564'; 3) 'Chandra and RXTE Spectroscopy of Galactic Microquasar XTE 51550-564 in Outburst'; 4) 'GX 339-4: back to life'; 5) 'Evidence for black hole spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton EPIC-PN and RXTE spectroscopy of the very high state'.

  14. Studying microquasars with IXPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    While timing and spectroscopy of microquasars are well established techniques, X-ray polarimetry is lagging behind, despite its widely recognized importance in providing vital information on the phsyics and geometry of these sources, including strong gravity effects. Happily, this will change very soon thanks to the approval by NASA of IXPE (the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), the next mission inthe SMEX program, to be launched in 2020.In this contribution, the main scientific results expected by IXPE on microquasars will be discussed, with particular emphasys on the possibility to measure the black hole spin via energy-dependent polarization observations.

  15. XTE Science Briefing from KSCNF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), launched on Dec. 30, 1995, is a Satellite that observes the fast-moving, high-energy worlds of black holes, neutron stars, x-ray pulsars and bursts of X-rays that light up the sky and then disappear forever. This videotape presents a pre-launch science briefing to the press by a few of the scientist and managers associated with the XTE satellite. The moderator for the press briefing is Jim Sahli, from the Public Affairs Office at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). He introduces Alan Bunner, of the High Energy Astrophysics at NASA Headquarters; Fred Lamb, from the University of Illinois; Richard Mashotzky, X Ray Scientist at GSFC; Rick Rothschild, Principal Investigator from the University of California at San Diego; and Dale Schultz, the XTE project manager at GSFC. Dr. Bunner explains the electromagnetic spectrum, the placement of x-rays and the importance of the XTE observations to a better understanding of the Universe. Dr. Lamb, explains the difference between white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, and the type of observations that the XTE will give to a further understanding of these phenomena. Dr. Mashotzky expands the viewpoint to beyond the galaxy, and explains the interests of scientists who hope to use XTE to further study Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei. Dr. Rothschild reviews some of the features of XTE, using a diagram to show the features of interest, such as the X ray Telescopes, and the collecting Proportional Counter Array (PCA.) Mr. Schultz presents a videotape tour of the XTE, in which he shows the scientific instruments and the other features of the satellite. In this tour, the source of each of the instruments is noted. Questions from the members of the press are then fielded. Many of the questions are about the cost of the XTE and any problems that are anticipated in regards to the launch.

  16. Galactic microquasar transients with AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munar-Adrover, Pere; Piano, Giovanni; Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.

    2017-01-01

    The AGILE satellite has been proven to be an excellent tool to study transient gamma-ray sources since it entered in a spinning operational mode in 2009. Thanks to its scanning capabilities it observes the whole sky every few hours. Several new interesting systems were discovered, such as AGL J2241+4454 in 2010, probably associated to the mysterious black-hole high-mass X-ray binary MWC 656. With a state of the art PSF and sensitivity in the 100 MeV - 1 GeV energy range, AGILE studied this system in order to identify new periods of gamma-ray activity that could be associated to the binary, and found a total of 10 flares spanning from 2008 until 2013. AGILE studied also the Cygnus region, finding evidence of a new recent gamma-ray flare from the microquasar Cygnus X-3, with a flux of ˜ 2×10-8 ph cm-2 s, during a state transition phase in the bright high-soft X-ray state. Also Cygnus X-1 was detected in the past by AGILE, although both systems are very different and show different behaviour.

  17. Black hole binaries and microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2013-12-01

    This is a general review on the observations and physics of black hole X-ray binaries and microquasars, with the emphasize on recent developments in the high energy regime. The focus is put on understanding the accretion flows and measuring the parameters of black holes in them. It includes mainly two parts: i) Brief review of several recent review article on this subject; ii) Further development on several topics, including black hole spin measurements, hot accretion flows, corona formation, state transitions and thermal stability of standard think disk. This is thus not a regular bottom-up approach, which I feel not necessary at this stage. Major effort is made in making and incorporating from many sources useful plots and illustrations, in order to make this article more comprehensible to non-expert readers. In the end I attempt to make a unification scheme on the accretion-outflow (wind/jet) connections of all types of accreting BHs of all accretion rates and all BH mass scales, and finally provide a brief outlook.

  18. BLACK HOLE MASS AND SPIN FROM THE 2:3 TWIN-PEAK QPOs IN MICROQUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Soumen

    2010-01-10

    In the Galactic microquasars with double peak kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in X-ray fluxes, the ratio of the twin-peak frequencies is exactly, or almost exactly 2:3. This rather strongly supports the fact that they originate a few gravitational radii away from its center due to two modes of accretion disk oscillations. Numerical investigations suggest that post-shock matter, before they settle down in a subsonic branch, execute oscillations in the neighborhood region of 'shock transition'. This shock may excite QPO mechanism. The radial and vertical epicyclic modes of oscillating matter exactly match with these twin-peak QPOs. In fully general relativistic transonic flows, we investigate that shocks may form very close to the horizon around highly spinning Kerr black holes and appear as extremum in the inviscid flows. The extreme shock location provides upper limit of QPOs and hence fixes 'lower cutoff' of the spin. We conclude that the 2:3 ratio exactly occurs for spin parameters a >= 0.87 and almost exactly, for wide range of spin parameter, for example, XTE 1550-564, and GRO 1655-40 a>0.87, GRS 1915+105 a>0.83, XTE J1650-500 a>0.78, and H 1743-322 a>0.68. We also make an effort to measure unknown mass for XTE J1650-500(9.1 approx 14.1 M{sub sun}) and H 1743-322(6.6 approx 11.3 M{sub sun}).

  19. Black Hole Mass and Spin from the 2:3 Twin-peak QPOs in Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Soumen

    2010-01-01

    In the Galactic microquasars with double peak kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in X-ray fluxes, the ratio of the twin-peak frequencies is exactly, or almost exactly 2:3. This rather strongly supports the fact that they originate a few gravitational radii away from its center due to two modes of accretion disk oscillations. Numerical investigations suggest that post-shock matter, before they settle down in a subsonic branch, execute oscillations in the neighborhood region of "shock transition". This shock may excite QPO mechanism. The radial and vertical epicyclic modes of oscillating matter exactly match with these twin-peak QPOs. In fully general relativistic transonic flows, we investigate that shocks may form very close to the horizon around highly spinning Kerr black holes and appear as extremum in the inviscid flows. The extreme shock location provides upper limit of QPOs and hence fixes "lower cutoff" of the spin. We conclude that the 2:3 ratio exactly occurs for spin parameters a >= 0.87 and almost exactly, for wide range of spin parameter, for example, XTE 1550-564, and GRO 1655-40 a>0.87, GRS 1915+105 a>0.83, XTE J1650-500 a>0.78, and H 1743-322 a>0.68. We also make an effort to measure unknown mass for XTE J1650-500(9.1 ~ 14.1 M sun) and H 1743-322(6.6 ~ 11.3 M sun).

  20. Gamma-Ray Emission from Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman Bernado, M. M.

    2005-04-01

    Microquasars, X-ray binary systems that generate relativistic jets, were discovered in our Galaxy in the last decade of the XXth century. Their name indicates that they are manifestations of the same physics as quasars but on a completely different scale. Parallel to this discovery, the EGRET instrument on board of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected 271 point like gamma-ray sources 170 of which were not clearly identified with known objects. This marked the beginning of gamma-ray source population studies in the Galaxy. We present in this thesis models for gamma-ray production in microquasars with the aim to propose them as possible parent populations for different groups of EGRET unidentified sources. These models are developed for a variety of scenarios taking into account several possible combinations, i.e. black holes or neutron stars as the compact object, low mass or high mass stellar companions, as well as leptonic or hadronic gamma-ray production processes. We also show that the presented models for gamma-rays emitting microquasars can be used to explain observations from well known sources that are detected in energy ranges other than EGRET's. Finally, we include an alternative gamma-ray producing situation that does not involve microquasars but a specific unidentified EGRET source possibly linked to a magnetized accreting pulsar.

  1. "Microquasar" Discoveries Win Prize for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of "microquasars" within our own Milky Way Galaxy has won two astronomers a prize from the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. Felix Mirabel of the Center for Studies at Saclay, France, and Luis Rodriguez of the Institute of Astronomy at the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, were awarded the Bruno Rossi Prize at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario, today. The two researchers, who have collaborated for more than 15 years, used an orbiting X-Ray observatory and the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to discover the extremely energetic microquasars. Microquasars are thought to be binary-star systems with one of the stars either a superdense neutron star or a black hole. They emit X-rays and eject jets of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. Though the neutron stars or black holes in microquasars are only a few times the mass of the sun, the phenomena associated with them, such as the jets, are similar to those seen in active galaxies and quasars, believed to be powered by the gravitational energy of black holes with millions of times the mass of the sun. As such, the microquasars provide much closer "laboratories" for study of these phenomena, which remain poorly understood. The Rossi Prize is awarded for "a significant contribution to high energy astrophysics, with particular emphasis on recent work," according to the High Energy Astrophysics Division. Mirabel and Rodriguez began the research that led to the microquasar discoveries in 1990. Using the French-Russian SIGMA- GRANAT X-Ray satellite, they discovered a microquasar near the Milky Way's center in 1992. With the VLA, they found radio emission from this object. In 1992, using the same satellite, they discovered a similar object, called GRS 1915+105. In 1994, that object experienced an outburst that made it bright enough at radio wavelengths to observe with the VLA

  2. Prospects for Observations of Microquasars with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Richard; /SLAC

    2007-10-09

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a next generation high energy gamma-ray observatory due for launch in Fall 2007. The primary instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which will measure gamma-ray flux and spectra from 20 MeV to > 300 GeV and is a successor to the highly successful EGRET experiment on CGRO. The LAT will have better angular resolution, greater effective area, wider field of view and broader energy coverage than any previous experiment in this energy range. This poster will present performance estimates with particular emphasis on how these apply to studies of microquasars. The LAT's scanning mode will provide unprecedented uniformity of sky coverage and permit measurements of light curves for any source. We will show results from recent detailed simulations that illustrate the potential of the LAT to observe microquasar variability and spectra, including source sensitivity and ability to detect orbital modulation.

  3. Resolved, expanding jets in the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1908+094

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, A. P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Paragi, Z.; Spencer, R. E.; Yang, J.; Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Fender, R. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Maitra, D.; Migliari, S.; Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Soria, R.; Tudose, V.

    2017-07-01

    Black hole X-ray binaries undergo occasional outbursts caused by changing inner accretion flows. Here we report high angular resolution radio observations of the 2013 outburst of the black hole candidate X-ray binary system XTE J1908+094, using data from the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network. We show that following a hard-to-soft state transition, we detect moving jet knots that appear asymmetric in morphology and brightness, and expand to become laterally resolved as they move away from the core, along an axis aligned approximately -11° east of north. We initially see only the southern component, whose evolution gives rise to a 15-mJy radio flare and generates the observed radio polarization. This fades and becomes resolved out after 4 days, after which a second component appears to the north, moving in the opposite direction. From the timing of the appearance of the knots relative to the X-ray state transition, a 90° swing of the inferred magnetic field orientation, the asymmetric appearance of the knots, their complex and evolving morphology, and their low speeds, we interpret the knots as working surfaces where the jets impact the surrounding medium. This would imply a substantially denser environment surrounding XTE J1908+094 than has been inferred to exist around the microquasar sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40.

  4. An INTEGRAL Archival Search for Microquasar Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, L. M.; Larson, K. L.; Boone, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    We present the status of an ongoing effort to complete a systematic search of the INTEGRAL archive for possible microquasar candidates. Source screening follows the methodology of Motch et al. (1998), but employs current versions of the NRAO/VLA and X-ray catalogs for positional cross--correlation studies. Candidate source fluxes are evaluated with respect to the sensitivities of the the instruments on board the INTEGRAL satellite, and a preliminary analysis of ISGRI and JEM--X data for appropriate candidate sources is presented. This work was funded in part by The College of Wooster's NSF supported REU program (DMR-0243811).

  5. GLAST Status and Application to Microquasars

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Richard; /SLAC

    2006-11-15

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a next generation high energy gamma-ray observatory due for launch in Fall 2007. The primary instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which will measure gamma-ray flux and spectra from 20 MeV to > 300 GeV and is a successor to the highly successful EGRET experiment on CGRO. The LAT will have better angular resolution, greater effective area, wider field of view and broader energy coverage than any previous experiment in this energy range. An overview of the LAT instrument design and construction is presented which includes performance estimates with particular emphasis on how these apply to studies of microquasars. The nature and quality of the data that will be provided by the LAT is described with results from recent detailed simulations that illustrate the potential of the LAT to observe gamma ray variability and spectra.

  6. From Cradle To Grave: Chandra Discovers The History Of Black Hole X-Ray Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, astronomers have tracked the life cycle of X-ray jets from a black hole. A series of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed that as the jets evolved, they traveled at near light speed for several years before slowing down and fading. "Watching these jets slow down and disappear is like watching a time-lapse movie of the rise and fall of the Bronze Age," said Stephane Corbel of the University of Paris VII and the French Atomic Energy Commission in Saclay, lead author of a paper in the October 4th issue of the journal Science. "Since the jets came from a stellar black hole in our galaxy, we watched in a few years developments that would have taken thousands of years to occur around a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy." Astronomers have been using Chandra and radio telescopes to observe two opposing jets of high-energy particles emitted following an outburst, first detected in 1998 by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, from the double-star system XTE J1550-564. The X-ray jets, which require a continuous source of trillion-volt electrons to remain bright, were observed moving at about half the speed of light. Four years later, they are now more than three light years apart and slowing down. One of the jets has recently been observed to fade. XTE J1550-564 Time-Lapse Movie XTE J1550-564 Time-Lapse Movie "The ejection of jets from stellar and supermassive black holes is a common occurrence in the universe, so it is extremely important to understand the process," said John Tomsick of the University of California, San Diego, and author of an Astrophysical Journal paper scheduled for January 2003 publication describing the research. "For the first time, we have observed a jet from the initial explosion until it slowed and faded." The observations indicate that one jet, the eastern jet, is moving along a line tilted toward the Earth whereas the western jet is pointed away from the Earth. This alignment explains why the

  7. Chaotic and stochastic processes in the accretion flows of the black hole X-ray binaries revealed by recurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Grzedzielski, Mikolaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    variability in the microquasars GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624. Furthermore, we also find significant traces of nonlinear dynamics in three other sources: GX 339-4, XTE J1550-564 and GRO J1655-40, particularly in the disk-dominated soft state, as well as in the intermediate states at the rising and declining phase of the outburst. Only for the source XTE J1650-500 no observation with such variability pattern was found. This is possibly due to the global accretion rate in this source being too small for the limit-cycle instability to develop.

  8. Extreme particle acceleration in the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Piano, G; Sabatini, S; Striani, E; Evangelista, Y; Trois, A; Pooley, G; Trushkin, S; Nizhelskij, N A; McCollough, M; Koljonen, K I I; Pucella, G; Giuliani, A; Chen, A W; Costa, E; Vittorini, V; Trifoglio, M; Gianotti, F; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Cocco, V; Contessi, T; D'Ammando, F; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Mattaini, E; Marisaldi, M; Mastropietro, M; Mauri, A; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rossi, E; Rubini, A; Scalise, E; Soffitta, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Santolamazza, P; Antonelli, A; Salotti, L

    2009-12-03

    Super-massive black holes in active galaxies can accelerate particles to relativistic energies, producing jets with associated gamma-ray emission. Galactic 'microquasars', which are binary systems consisting of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole accreting gas from a companion star, also produce relativistic jets, generally together with radio flares. Apart from an isolated event detected in Cygnus X-1, there has hitherto been no systematic evidence for the acceleration of particles to gigaelectronvolt or higher energies in a microquasar, with the consequence that we are as yet unsure about the mechanism of jet energization. Here we report four gamma-ray flares with energies above 100 MeV from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 (an exceptional X-ray binary that sporadically produces radio jets). There is a clear pattern of temporal correlations between the gamma-ray flares and transitional spectral states of the radio-frequency and X-ray emission. Particle acceleration occurred a few days before radio-jet ejections for two of the four flares, meaning that the process of jet formation implies the production of very energetic particles. In Cygnus X-3, particle energies during the flares can be thousands of times higher than during quiescent states.

  9. New evidence for extreme particle acceleration in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Piano, G.; Sabatini, S.

    Microquasars are binary systems consisting of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole accreting gas from a companion star and producing relativistic jets. Here we report the AGILE detections of gamma -ray emission from the microquasars Cyg X-1 and Cyg-3 between 100 MeV and 3 GeV. A significant transient gamma-ray emission was detected on 2009, October 16, during a spectral ``hard state" of Cyg X-1. This shows that extreme particle acceleration can occasionally occur in microquasars also in the hard state, for which a spectral cutoff above 1 MeV is predicted by theoretical models. No persistent emission was found for Cyg X-1 integrating all our data accumulated in the period between 2007 July and 2009 October, during which the source was in the hard state, confirming the overall spectral cutoff above 1 MeV. Several flaring episodes were instead detected for Cyg X-3 following a repetitive pattern. The gamma -ray emission detected by AGILE always occured while the source was in the ``soft state", and always preceding a major radio flare. These gamma -ray intense flares thus turn out to occur during the preparation and energy charging before the plasmoid energization and ejection.

  10. Prospects for High Energy Detection of Microquasars with the AGILE and GLAST Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Santolamazza, Patrizia; Pittori, Carlotta; Verrecchia, Francesco

    2007-08-21

    We estimate the sensitivities of the AGILE and GLAST {gamma}-ray experiments taking into account two cases for the galactic {gamma}-ray diffuse background (at high galactic latitude and toward the galactic center). Then we use sensitivities to estimate microquasar observability with the two experiments, assuming the {gamma}-ray emission above 100 MeV of a recent microquasar model.

  11. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  12. Is XTE J1701-407 Extended?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David

    2007-09-01

    We recently observed the neutron star X-ray transient XTE J1701-407 with Chandra, using 1 ks of ACIS-S data for localization. However, the Chandra data do not show a point source. Instead the source appears extended over ~6 arcsec. We have investigated the data, consulting with experts both at MIT and SAO, and cannot ascribe the data to purely instrumental effects (aspect errors or pileup). The extended X-ray emission could come from an outflow or a dust scattering halo - both very interesting and rare phenomena. Jets allow detailed calorimetry of the outbursts, while scattering halos lead to geometric distances. We request a 5 ks ACIS-S subarray observation to definitively assess the morphology, trying to discriminate between these scenarios before the target fades into quiescence.

  13. Search for neutrino emission from microquasars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, S.

    2012-12-01

    Neutrino telescopes are nowadays exploring a new window of observation on the high energy universe and may shed light on the longstanding problem regarding the origin of cosmic rays. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is located underwater 40 km offshore from the Southern coast of France, on a plateau at 2475 m depth. Since 2007 it observes the high energy (>100 GeV) neutrino sky looking for cosmic neutrino sources. Among the candidate neutrino emitters are microquasars, i.e. galactic X-ray binaries exhibiting relativistic jets, which may accelerate hadrons thus producing neutrinos, under certain conditions. These sources are also variable in time and undergo X-ray or gamma ray outburst that can be related to the acceleration of relativistic particles witnessed by their radio emission. These events can provide a trigger to the neutrino search, with the advantage of drastically reducing the atmospheric neutrino background. A search for neutrino emission from microquasar during outbursts is presented based on the data collected by ANTARES between 2007 and 2010. Upper limits are shown and compared with the predictions.

  14. Extreme particle acceleration in the microquasar CygnusX-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Piano, G.; Sabatini, S.; Striani, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Trois, A.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; McCollough, M.; Koljonen, K. I. I.; Pucella, G.; Giuliani, A.; Chen, A. W.; Costa, E.; Vittorini, V.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cocco, V.; Contessi, T.; D'Ammando, F.; Del Monte, E.; de Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Ferrari, A.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Mattaini, E.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mauri, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rossi, E.; Rubini, A.; Scalise, E.; Soffitta, P.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Santolamazza, P.; Antonelli, A.; Salotti, L.

    2009-12-01

    Super-massive black holes in active galaxies can accelerate particles to relativistic energies, producing jets with associated γ-ray emission. Galactic ‘microquasars’, which are binary systems consisting of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole accreting gas from a companion star, also produce relativistic jets, generally together with radio flares. Apart from an isolated event detected in CygnusX-1, there has hitherto been no systematic evidence for the acceleration of particles to gigaelectronvolt or higher energies in a microquasar, with the consequence that we are as yet unsure about the mechanism of jet energization. Here we report four γ-ray flares with energies above 100MeV from the microquasar CygnusX-3 (an exceptional X-ray binary that sporadically produces radio jets). There is a clear pattern of temporal correlations between the γ-ray flares and transitional spectral states of the radio-frequency and X-ray emission. Particle acceleration occurred a few days before radio-jet ejections for two of the four flares, meaning that the process of jet formation implies the production of very energetic particles. In CygnusX-3, particle energies during the flares can be thousands of times higher than during quiescent states.

  15. Discovery of a high-energy gamma-ray-emitting persistent microquasar

    PubMed

    Paredes; Marti; Ribo; Massi

    2000-06-30

    Microquasars are stellar x-ray binaries that behave as a scaled-down version of extragalactic quasars. The star LS 5039 is a new microquasar system with apparent persistent ejection of relativistic plasma at a 3-kiloparsec distance from the sun. It may also be associated with a gamma-ray source discovered by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the COMPTON-Gamma Ray Observatory satellite. Before the discovery of LS 5039, merely a handful of microquasars had been identified in the Galaxy, and none of them was detected in high-energy gamma-rays.

  16. Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Thomas; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin G. H.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Rodriguez, Jerome; Strong, Andrew W.; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-03-01

    Microquasars are stellar-mass black holes accreting matter from a companion star and ejecting plasma jets at almost the speed of light. They are analogues of quasars that contain supermassive black holes of 106 to 1010 solar masses. Accretion in microquasars varies on much shorter timescales than in quasars and occasionally produces exceptionally bright X-ray flares. How the flares are produced is unclear, as is the mechanism for launching the relativistic jets and their composition. An emission line near 511 kiloelectronvolts has long been sought in the emission spectrum of microquasars as evidence for the expected electron-positron plasma. Transient high-energy spectral features have been reported in two objects, but their positron interpretation remains contentious. Here we report observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity. The emission spectrum around 511 kiloelectronvolts shows clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, which implies a high rate of positron production. This supports the earlier conjecture that microquasars may be the main sources of the electron-positron plasma responsible for the bright diffuse emission of annihilation γ-rays in the bulge region of our Galaxy. Additionally, microquasars could be the origin of the observed megaelectronvolt continuum excess in the inner Galaxy.

  17. Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Thomas; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin G H; Beloborodov, Andrei M; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Rodriguez, Jerome; Strong, Andrew W; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-03-17

    Microquasars are stellar-mass black holes accreting matter from a companion star and ejecting plasma jets at almost the speed of light. They are analogues of quasars that contain supermassive black holes of 10(6) to 10(10) solar masses. Accretion in microquasars varies on much shorter timescales than in quasars and occasionally produces exceptionally bright X-ray flares. How the flares are produced is unclear, as is the mechanism for launching the relativistic jets and their composition. An emission line near 511 kiloelectronvolts has long been sought in the emission spectrum of microquasars as evidence for the expected electron-positron plasma. Transient high-energy spectral features have been reported in two objects, but their positron interpretation remains contentious. Here we report observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity. The emission spectrum around 511 kiloelectronvolts shows clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, which implies a high rate of positron production. This supports the earlier conjecture that microquasars may be the main sources of the electron-positron plasma responsible for the bright diffuse emission of annihilation γ-rays in the bulge region of our Galaxy. Additionally, microquasars could be the origin of the observed megaelectronvolt continuum excess in the inner Galaxy.

  18. Veritas observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Federici, S.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A. E-mail: cui@purdue.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration) and; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; and others

    2013-12-20

    We report results from TeV gamma-ray observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3. The observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) over a time period from 2007 June 11 to 2011 November 28. VERITAS is most sensitive to gamma rays at energies between 85 GeV and 30 TeV. The effective exposure time amounts to a total of about 44 hr, with the observations covering six distinct radio/X-ray states of the object. No significant TeV gamma-ray emission was detected in any of the states, nor with all observations combined. The lack of a positive signal, especially in the states where GeV gamma rays were detected, places constraints on TeV gamma-ray production in Cygnus X-3. We discuss the implications of the results.

  19. The interaction of microquasar jets with the companion wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Sebastian; Yoon, Doosoo; Zdziarski, Andrzei

    2017-08-01

    The interaction of relativistic jets with their environment is one of the best ways to measure their properties. This was worked extremely well in the case of AGN, where studies of X-ray cavities have have opened entirely new ways to reliably measure jet powers for entire ensembles of AGN. In the case of microquasar jets interacting with the ISM, this method is hampered by the large angular scales and low surface brightness of the observable signatures, as well as the temporary nature of the obsrvabes. However, before the jet ever reaches the ISM, it must travel through the wind from the companion star. This interaction is fundamentally different from the way AGN jets interact with their surroundings. I will discuss analytic and numerical work that investigates the unique aspects of jet-wind interaction and show how it can provide a robust and powerful diagnostic tool, complementary to other methods of constraining jet physics.

  20. Delta XTE Lift and Mate at Complex 17A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents footage of the lift and mate of NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) to a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The video includes shots of the workcrews as well as wide angle views of the spacecraft in its launching position. The XTE was launched into a circular orbit with an altitude of 600 km and an inclination of 23 degrees on Dec. 30, 1995.

  1. Nine Years of Observations of Hard X-Rays from Relativistic Jet Objects with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The observed hard X-ray temporal and spectral characteristics will be displayed for over nine years of BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) data from the Compton Observatory. These observations were obtained using the Earth occultation technique, a technique that has become increasingly more sensitive and accurate as systematic effects are understood and corrected. The principal objects that are being presented in this study include: GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105, Cyg X-3, Cyg X-1, XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, XTE J1748-288, and V4641 Sgr. Light curves and spectral will be presented and discussed in terms of relativistic jet production in these systems.

  2. Delta XTE Spacecraft Arrives at CCAS Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the U.S Air Force Aircraft "Air Mobility Command" approaching, and landing at the Cape Canaveral Air Station Skid Strip (CCAS). The truck carrying the Delta XTE Spacecraft is also shown as it leaves the Air Mobility Command.

  3. The Lukewarm Absorber in the Microquasar Cir X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Galloway, D. K.; Brandt, W. N.

    2006-09-01

    Through many observations in the last decades the extreme and violent X-ray binary Cir X-1 has been classified as a microquasar, Z-source, X-ray burster, and accreting neutron star exhibiting ultrarelativistic jets. Since the launch of Chandra the source underwent a dramatic change from a high flux (1.5 Crab) source to a rather low persistent flux ( 30 mCrab) in the last year. Spectra from Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) taken during this transformation have revealed many details besides the large overall flux change ranging from blue-shifted absorption lines indicating high-velocity (< 2000 km/s) outflows during high flux, persistently bright lines emission throughout all phases to some form of warm absorption in the low flux phase. Newly released atomic data allows us to analyse specifically the Fe K line region with unprecedented detail for all flux phases observed so far. We also compare these new results with recently released findings of warm absorbers and outflow signatures observed in other microqasars such as GX 339+4, GRS J1655-40, and GRS1915+115.

  4. Relativistic Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei and Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Gustavo E.; Boettcher, M.; Markoff, S.; Tavecchio, F.

    2017-07-01

    Collimated outflows (jets) appear to be a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with the accretion of material onto a compact object. Despite this ubiquity, many fundamental physics aspects of jets are still poorly understood and constrained. These include the mechanism of launching and accelerating jets, the connection between these processes and the nature of the accretion flow, and the role of magnetic fields; the physics responsible for the collimation of jets over tens of thousands to even millions of gravitational radii of the central accreting object; the matter content of jets; the location of the region(s) accelerating particles to TeV (possibly even PeV and EeV) energies (as evidenced by γ-ray emission observed from many jet sources) and the physical processes responsible for this particle acceleration; the radiative processes giving rise to the observed multi-wavelength emission; and the topology of magnetic fields and their role in the jet collimation and particle acceleration processes. This chapter reviews the main knowns and unknowns in our current understanding of relativistic jets, in the context of the main model ingredients for Galactic and extragalactic jet sources. It discusses aspects specific to active Galactic nuclei (especially blazars) and microquasars, and then presents a comparative discussion of similarities and differences between them.

  5. Relativistic Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei and Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Gustavo E.; Boettcher, M.; Markoff, S.; Tavecchio, F.

    2017-01-01

    Collimated outflows (jets) appear to be a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with the accretion of material onto a compact object. Despite this ubiquity, many fundamental physics aspects of jets are still poorly understood and constrained. These include the mechanism of launching and accelerating jets, the connection between these processes and the nature of the accretion flow, and the role of magnetic fields; the physics responsible for the collimation of jets over tens of thousands to even millions of gravitational radii of the central accreting object; the matter content of jets; the location of the region(s) accelerating particles to TeV (possibly even PeV and EeV) energies (as evidenced by γ-ray emission observed from many jet sources) and the physical processes responsible for this particle acceleration; the radiative processes giving rise to the observed multi-wavelength emission; and the topology of magnetic fields and their role in the jet collimation and particle acceleration processes. This chapter reviews the main knowns and unknowns in our current understanding of relativistic jets, in the context of the main model ingredients for Galactic and extragalactic jet sources. It discusses aspects specific to active Galactic nuclei (especially blazars) and microquasars, and then presents a comparative discussion of similarities and differences between them.

  6. Jet Formation and Dynamics: Comparison of Quasars and Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundt, Wolfgang

    Quasars and Microquasars share the following properties: (i) They have similar, elongated morphologies - reminiscent of being driven by supersonic beams - consisting of cores, knots, and heads, with jet-opening angles <~ 10^-2, and no beam branching; (ii) core/lobe power ratios of 10^2 +/- 2; (iii) fluctuating, broad and hard core spectra; (iv) (occasional) sidedness; (v) (occasional) superluminal growth. In all cases, the central engine is thought to be a rotating magnet whose reconnecting magnetic fields generate the relativistic pair plasma - of typical Lorentz factor 10^3 +/- 2 - which rams the jet channels and blows the cocoons (subsonically) after having been stalled in a head. The supersonic jets form on passing a central deLaval nozzle, first proposed by Blandford and Rees in 1974, which forms naturally due to the huge density contrast of 10^-8.3T_4 with respect to the ambient medium (of temperature T, T_4:=T/10^4 K). Beam stability and narrowness are likewise guaranteed by the density contrast (of jet fluid and CSM). Observed are both the (thermal) radiation of the rammed channel-wall material, and the synchrotron radiation of the deflected beam particles.

  7. Variable very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar LS I +61 303.

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Asensio, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartelt, M; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Bavikadi, S R; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bisesi, E; Bock, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaría, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Goebel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Isar, P G; Jacon, P; Kalekin, O; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Laatiaoui, M; Laille, A; Lenisa, T; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Lucarelli, F; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mase, K; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Oña-Wilhelmi, E; Orduña, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pavel, N; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Poller, M; Pooley, G; Prandini, E; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Riegel, B; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Romero, G E; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, A; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2006-06-23

    Microquasars are binary star systems with relativistic radio-emitting jets. They are potential sources of cosmic rays and can be used to elucidate the physics of relativistic jets. We report the detection of variable gamma-ray emission above 100 gigaelectron volts from the microquasar LS I 61 + 303. Six orbital cycles were recorded. Several detections occur at a similar orbital phase, which suggests that the emission is periodic. The strongest gamma-ray emission is not observed when the two stars are closest to one another, implying a strong orbital modulation of the emission or absorption processes.

  8. Theoretical overview on high-energy emission in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, Valentí

    2007-06-01

    Microquasar (MQ) jets are sites of particle acceleration and synchrotron emission. Such synchrotron radiation has been detected coming from jet regions of different spatial scales, which for the instruments at work nowadays appear as compact radio cores, slightly resolvedradio jets, or (very) extended structures (e.g. Mirabel and Rodríguez, 1999; Fender, 2001; Corbel et al., 2002). Because of the presence of relativistic particles and dense photon, magnetic and matter fields, these outflows are also the best candidates to generate the very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays detected coming from two of these objects, LS 5039 and LS I +61 303 (Aharonian, 2005; Aharonian et al., 2006a; and Albert, 2006, respectively), and may be contributing significantly to the X-rays emitted from the MQ core (e.g. Markoff et al., 2001; Bosch-Ramon et al., 2005a). In addition, beside electromagnetic radiation, jets at different scales are producing some amount of leptonic and hadronic cosmic rays (CR), and evidences of neutrino production in these objects may be eventually found. In this work, we review on the different physical processes that may be at work in or related to MQ jets. The jet regions capable to produce significant amounts of emission at different wavelengths have been reduced to the jet base, the jet at scales of the order of the size of the system orbital semi-major axis, the jet middle scales (the resolved radio jets), and the jet termination point. The surroundings of the jet could be sites of multiwavelength emission as well, deserving also an insight. We focus on those scenarios, either hadronic or leptonic, in which it seems more plausible to generate both photons from radio to VHE and high-energy neutrinos. We briefly comment as well on the relevance of MQ as possible contributors to the galactic CR in the GeV-PeV range.

  9. Probing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the resonance models for high-frequency QPOs and comparison with the continuum-fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2012-09-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black hole predicted by General Relativity. However, in order to confirm the Kerr-nature of these objects, we need to probe the geometry of the space-time around them and check that observations are consistent with the predictions of the Kerr metric. That can be achieved, for instance, by studying the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the accretion disk. The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some stellar-mass black hole candidates might do the job. As the frequencies of these oscillations depend only very weakly on the observed X-ray flux, it is thought they are mainly determined by the metric of the space-time. In this paper, I consider the resonance models proposed by Abramowicz and Kluzniak and I extend previous results to the case of non-Kerr space-times. The emerging picture is more complicated than the one around a Kerr black hole and there is a larger number of possible combinations between different modes. I then compare the bounds inferred from the twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in three micro-quasars (GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and GRS 1915+105) with the measurements from the continuum-fitting method of the same objects. For Kerr black holes, the two approaches do not provide consistent results. In a non-Kerr geometry, this conflict may be solved if the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are produced by the resonance ν{sub θ}:ν{sub r} = 3:1, where ν{sub θ} and ν{sub r} are the two epicyclic frequencies. It is at least worth mentioning that the deformation from the Kerr solution required by observations would be consistent with the one suggested in another recent work discussing the possibility that steady jets are powered by the spin of these compact objects.

  10. XTE J1701-462 seen by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Produit, N.; Bazzano, A.; Schoenfelder, V.; Westergaard, N.-J.; McBreen, B.; Much, R.; Hermsen, W.; Molkov, S.

    2006-01-01

    The newly discovered X-ray transient XTE J1701-462 (ATEL #696, #700, #702, #703, #704, #706) was in the field of view of the INTEGRAL instruments during a routine Galactic Plane Scan on 2006 Jan. 21 at 03:45 UT, during one pointing of 1850 sec in JEM-X and three pointings in IBIS. It was detected by the JEM-X instrument with a flux of 58+-6 counts/s in 3-10 keV (about 0.9 Crab) and 2.8+-0.5 counts/s in 10-20 keV (about 0.13 Crab).

  11. Contribution due to clumpy winds to the non-thermal emission in microquasar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cita, V. M.; del Palacio, S.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Romero, G. E.; Khangulyan, D.

    2017-03-01

    Powerful jets in high-mass microquasars are likely to be crossed by dense inhomogeneities (clumps) from the stellar winds, which may lead to particle acceleration and thus nonthermal emission in X-rays and gamma-rays. We characterise a typical clump-jet interaction scenario and compute the contribution to the high-energy emission of these systems. We use hydrodynamical simulations of a single clump-jet interaction and we use this result to compute its non-thermal (synchrotron and inverse Compton) radiation. We present several radiative calculations for a number of clump states, as the clump is disrupted over time, letting different parameters vary (viewing angle, magnetic field). We obtain significant amounts of non-thermal radiation from jet-clump interactions in high-mass microquasars.

  12. Are 3C 120 and Other Active Galactic Nuclei Overweight Microquasars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2005-11-01

    The appearance of superluminal radio knots follows drops in the X-ray flux in the FR1 radio galaxy 3C 120 and possibly the FR2 source 3C 111. This corresponds in a very general way to the behavior of the X-ray binary GRS 1915 + 105, but the light curves of the microquasar are much richer in detail. Starting in 2003.7, the character of the radio and X-ray light curves of 3C 120 changed, perhaps signaling a new stage of activity. I discuss here what one might expect when a microquasar is scaled up to AGN dimensions, and compare this with what we see in 3C 120. There is a mismatch between expectations and observations.

  13. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celik, O.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  14. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celik, O.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  15. On the Content of Cold Electrons in Blazar and Microquasar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyakov, V. V.; Koryagin, S. A.

    2005-11-01

    We explore the possibility of determining the corpuscular composition of the plasma in the relativistic jets of blazars and microquasars from data on the polarization and intensity of their radio synchrotron emission. We have constructed a universal diagram that allows the relative content of nonrelativistic electrons to be established in specific objects using information about their frequency spectra and polarization at individual frequencies. As a result, we have found that the electron plasma component in the jets of the blazars 3C 279 and BL Lac is relativistic. In the jets of the microquasar GRS 1915+105, the cold plasma density may be comparable to or considerably higher than the relativistic particle density.

  16. Modulated high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chaty, S; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Corbet, R; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dubus, G; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Koerding, E; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marchand, L; Marelli, M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McColl, N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Migliari, S; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Ong, R A; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pooley, G; Porter, T A; Pottschmidt, K; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stevenson, M; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tomsick, J A; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Wilms, J; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-12-11

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  17. Enhanced Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3 Detected by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Tavani, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Vercellone, S.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Donnarumma, I.; Minervini, G.; Fioretti, V.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Striani, E.; Ursi, A.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma ray emission above 100 MeV from the microquasar Cygnus X-3. Integrating from 2017-03-15 UT 00:00:00 to 2017-03-16 UT 00:00:00, a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis finds a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (4.2 +/- 1.7) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a detection significance near 4 sigma.

  18. Dynamical and radiative simulations of γ-ray jets in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smponias, T.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-02-01

    The emission of γ-rays in jets emanating from the vicinity of collapsed stellar remnants, in binary systems known as microquasars, is investigated using a three-dimensional relativistic hydrocode (PLUTO), in combination with two in-house radiative transfer codes. Even though a great number of stellar systems may be addressed by such models, we restrict ourselves to the concrete example of the SS433 X-ray binary, the only microquasar with a definite hadronic content in its jets, as verified from spectral line observations. A variety of system configurations have been examined, by employing a hadron-based emission mechanism. The dependence of the γ-ray emissions on certain dynamical source properties, such as the hydrodynamic parameters of the mass-flow density, the gas-pressure and the temperature of the ejected matter, is simulated. Radiative properties, especially the assumed high-energy proton population inside the jet plasma, and its effect on the calculated emission, are also examined. Two sets of initial conditions of the chosen microquasar are employed, in order to cover different scenarios pertaining to the system under consideration.

  19. JET TRAILS AND MACH CONES: THE INTERACTION OF MICROQUASARS WITH THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, D.; Morsony, B.; Heinz, S.; Wiersema, K.; Fender, R. P.; Russell, D. M.; Sunyaev, R.

    2011-11-20

    A subset of microquasars exhibits high peculiar velocity with respect to the local standard of rest due to the kicks they receive when being born in supernovae. The interaction between the radio plasma released by microquasar jets from such high-velocity binaries with the interstellar medium must lead to the production of trails and bow shocks similar to what is observed in narrow-angle tailed radio galaxies and pulsar wind nebulae. We present a set of numerical simulations of this interaction that illuminate the long-term dynamical evolution and the observational properties of these microquasar bow-shock nebulae and trails. We find that this interaction always produces a structure that consists of a bow shock, a trailing neck, and an expanding bubble. Using our simulations to model emission, we predict that the shock surrounding the bubble and the neck should be visible in H{sub {alpha}} emission, the interior of the bubble should be visible in synchrotron radio emission, and only the bow shock is likely to be detectable in X-ray emission. We construct an analytic model for the evolution of the neck and bubble shape and compare this model with observations of the X-ray binary SAX J1712.6-3739.

  20. Accretion disk winds as the jet suppression mechanism in the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C

    2009-03-26

    Stellar-mass black holes with relativistic jets, also known as microquasars, mimic the behaviour of quasars and active galactic nuclei. Because timescales around stellar-mass black holes are orders of magnitude smaller than those around more distant supermassive black holes, microquasars are ideal nearby 'laboratories' for studying the evolution of accretion disks and jet formation in black-hole systems. Whereas studies of black holes have revealed a complex array of accretion activity, the mechanisms that trigger and suppress jet formation remain a mystery. Here we report the presence of a broad emission line in the faint, hard states and narrow absorption lines in the bright, soft states of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. ('Hard' and 'soft' denote the character of the emitted X-rays.) Because the hard states exhibit prominent radio jets, we argue that the broad emission line arises when the jet illuminates the inner accretion disk. The jet is weak or absent during the soft states, and we show that the absorption lines originate when the powerful radiation field around the black hole drives a hot wind off the accretion disk. Our analysis shows that this wind carries enough mass away from the disk to halt the flow of matter into the radio jet.

  1. Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

  2. Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

  3. Corrected Coordinates for the Possible OC to XTE J1550-56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Jerome; Bailyn, Charles; Jain, Raj

    1998-09-01

    There was a slight error in the coordinates of the possible optical counterpart to XTE J1550-56 we reported in our previous telegram. The correct J2000 coordinates are RA = 15:50:58.78, DEC = -56:28:35.0. The coordinates printed on the finding chart available at http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/orosz/xte.html has been corrected (the arrow points to the correct object in any case). We regret this error.

  4. The Design of an Intelligent FITS File Database for XTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) is a High Energy Astrophysics mission intended for launch in the second half of 1995. It carries two pointed instruments that together cover the range 2-250 keV at s time resolution and moderate spectral resolution, and one instrument that will monitor the X-ray sky continuously over the 2-10 keV range. XTE's on-board science data systems provide considerable processing power and unprecedented flexibility in telemetry data modes. Events are processed on-board in several simultaneous data modes, chosen from a large repertoire of modes. Consequently, keeping track of the collected data in the database and providing a mechanism to select data that satisfy selection criteria couched in physical terms is a challenging problem. The XTE Guest Observer Facility, in conformity with the practices at the Office of Guest Investigator Programs, will provide the data in FITS format. The design of these FITS files includes two new features that address the cataloging and data selection issues. First, a hierarchy of FITS tables will be used to navigate the database. A master index will allow software to browse through the catalog with the granularity of individual observations, and find references to instrument indices (one index per instrument or subsystem per observation), as well as, for instance, source information. An instrument index table will contain references to data files generated by data-system components for various time intervals during the observation. The emphasis for the data tables is on those containing raw data, but there will be additional ones holding, for instance, data products and calibration information. Thus, given access to the master index and a set of selection criteria, extractor software will be able to determine the location of the requested data. Second, a Data Description Language (DDL) has been developed to label each data item unambiguously and to facilitate data selection browsing. Through the use of tokens

  5. Discovery of a Transient Magnetar: XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Ransom, Scott; Roberts, Mallory; Kaspi, Victoria; Woods, Peter M.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Balman, Solen; Parke, William C.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new X-ray pulsar, XTE J1810-197, that was serendipitously discovered on 2003 July 15 by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) while observing the soft gamma repeater SGR 1806-20. The pulsar has a 5.54 s spin period, a soft X-ray spectrum (with a photon index of approx. = 4). and is detectable in earlier RXTE observations back to 2003 January but not before. These show that a transient outburst began between 2002 November 17 and 2003 January 23 and that the source's persistent X-ray flux has been declining since then. The pulsar exhibits a high spin-down rate P approx.= l0(exp -11) s/s with no evidence of Doppler shifts due to a binary companion. The rapid spin-down rate and slow spin period imply a supercritical characteristic magnetic field B approx. = 3 x l0(exp 14) G and a young age tau less than or = 7600 yr. Follow-up Chandra observations provided an accurate position of the source. Within its error radius, the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish Optical Telescope found a limiting magnitude R(sub c) = 21.5. All such properties are strikingly similar to those of anomalous X-ray pulsars ad soft gamma repeaters, providing strong evidence that the source is a new magnetar. However, archival ASCA and ROSAT observations found the source nearly 2 orders of magnitude fainter. This transient behavior and the observed long-term flux variability of the source in absence of an observed SGR-like burst activity make it the first confirmed transient magnetar and suggest that other neutron stars that share the properties of XTE 51810- 197 during its inactive phase may be unidentified transient magnetars awaiting detection via a similar activity. This implies a larger population of magnetars than previously surmised and a possible evolutionary connection between magnetars and other neutron star families. Subject headings: pulsars: general -pulsars: individual (XTE 51810- 197) - stars: magnetic fields -

  6. Looking for black-holes in X-ray binaries with XMM-Newton: XTE J1817-330 and XTE J1856+053

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Gloria; Greiner, Jochen; Primak, Natalia

    2008-10-08

    The X-ray binary XTE J1817-330 was discovered in outburst on 26 January 2006 with RXTE/ASM. One year later, another X-ray transient discovered in 1996, XTE J1856+053, was detected by RXTE during a new outburst on 28 February 2007. We triggered XMM-Newton target of opportunity observationson these two objects to constrain their parameters and search for a stellar black holes. We summarize the properties of these two X-ray transients and show that the soft X-ray spectra indicate indeed the presence of an accreting stellar black hole in each of the two systems.

  7. Multiwavelength observations of XTE J1859+226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, C. A.; Chaty, S.; Cui, W.; Casares, J. V.; Hynes, R. I.

    2000-03-01

    On March 2 06:00 UT the transient source XTE J1859+226 had faded considerably to R=18.0 in the optical (IAC) and to a flux of about 13 mCrab (RXTE ASM). However, it clearly remains active in the X-rays. From extrapolating the last spectrum obtained with HST on 2000, February 8th we predict the following approximate magnitude and colours: V~18.4, U-B=-0.5, B-V = V-R = R-I = +0.4. A final simultaneous HST/RXTE visit to this source (most likely a black hole) is scheduled for 2000, March 5th between 06:10 and 13:41 UT.

  8. AGILE Detection of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Verrecchia, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Minervini, G.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-08-01

    The AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with the microquasar Cygnus X-3. Integrating from 2016-08-28 UT 09:00:00 to 2016-08-30 UT 09:00:00 (MJD: 57628.375 - 57630.375), a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis detects a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (4.0 +/- 1.4) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a significance near 4 sigma.

  9. AGILE Detection of Enhanced Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Tavani, M.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Verrecchia, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Minervini, G.; Fioretti, V.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Ursi, A.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Paoletti, F.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma ray emission above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with the microquasar Cygnus X-3. Integrating from 2017-02-27 UT 03:00:00 to 2017-03-01 UT 03:00:00 (MJD 57811.125 - 57813.125), a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis detects a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (3 +/- 1) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a detection significance near 4 sigma.

  10. Rapid variability as a probe of warped space-time around accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    The geometry of the inner accretion flow of X-ray binaries is complex, with multiple regions contributing to the observed emission. Frequency-resolved spectroscopy is a powerful tool in breaking this spectral degeneracy. We have extracted the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic in GX339-4 and XTE J1550-564, and compare these to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (<0.1 s) variability. Our results support the picture where the QPO arises from vertical (Lense-Thirring) precession of an inhomogeneous hot flow, softer at larger radii closer to the truncated disc and harder in the innermost parts where the rapid variability is produced. This coupling between variability and spectra allows us to constrain the soft Comptonization component, breaking the degeneracy plaguing the time-averaged spectrum and revealing the geometry of the accretion flow close to the black hole.

  11. The 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation structure in GRS 1915+105 and cubic subharmonics in the context of relativistic discoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Rodríguez, M.; Solís-Sánchez, H.; López-Barquero, V.; Matamoros-Alvarado, B.; Venegas-Li, A.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a simple toy model to explain the 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) structure in GRS 1915+105 and, more generally, the 2:3 QPO structure in XTE J1550-564, GRO J1655-40 and H1743-322. The model exploits the onset of subharmonics in the context of discoseismology. We suggest that the observed frequencies may be the consequence of a resonance between a fundamental g mode and an unobservable p wave. The results include the prediction that, as better data become available, a QPO with a frequency of twice the higher twin frequency and a large quality factor will be observed in twin peak sources, as it might already have been observed in the especially active GRS 1915+105.

  12. A LIKELY MICRO-QUASAR IN THE SHADOW OF M82 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-jie; Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Jiren E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-1 is one of the most promising intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe based on its high X-ray luminosities (10{sup 40}–10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1}) and quasi-periodic oscillations, and is possibly associated with a radio flare source. In this work, applying the sub-pixel technique to the 120 ks Chandra observation (ID: 10543) of M82 X-1, we split M82 X-1 into two sources separated by 1.″1. The secondary source is not detected in other M82 observations. The radio flare source is not found to associate with M82 X-1, but is instead associated with the nearby transient source S1 with an outburst luminosity of ∼10{sup 39} erg s{sup −1}. With X-ray outburst and radio flare activities analogous to the recently discovered micro-quasar in M31, S1 is likely to be a micro-quasar hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1.

  13. Temporal Variability from the Two-Component Advective Flow Solution and Its Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Broja G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of the energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability timescales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high-inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006-07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase, the time lag increases with time. We find a systematic evolution of QPO frequency and hard lags in these outbursts. In XTE J1550-564, the lag changes from hard to soft (i.e., from a positive to a negative value) at a crossing frequency (ν c) of ˜3.4 Hz. We present possible mechanisms to explain the lag behavior of high and low-inclination sources within the framework of a single two-component advective flow model.

  14. BeppoSAX observations of XTE J1946+274

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, R.; Santangelo, A.; Doroshenko, V.; Piraino, S.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the BeppoSAX monitoring of a giant outburst of the transient X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 in 1998. The source was detected with a flux of 4 × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 (in 0.1-120 keV range). The broadband spectrum, typical for accreting pulsars, is well described by a cutoff power law with a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF) at 38 keV. This value is consistent with earlier reports based on the observations with Suzaku at factor of ten lower luminosity, which implies that the feature is formed close to the neutron star surface rather than in the accretion column. Pulsations with P 15.82 s were observed up to 70 keV. The pulse profile strongly depends on energy and is characterised by a "soft" and a "hard" peaks shifted by half period, which suggests a strong phase dependence of the spectrum, and that two components with roughly orthogonal beam patterns are responsible for the observed pulse shape. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the CRSF, despite its relatively high energy, is only detected in the spectrum of the soft peak of the pulse profile. Along with the absence of correlation of the line energy with luminosity, this could be explained in the framework of the recently proposed "reflection" model for CRSF formation. However more detailed modelling of both line and continuum formation are required to confirm this interpretation.

  15. Doppler Imaging of Black Hole SYSTEMS:XTE J1118+480.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callanan, Paul; Perres-Torres, Manuel; Garcia, Michael

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the black-hole candidate XTE J1118+480 obtained during its approach to quiescence. Doppler imaging of the intense Hα line shows persistent emission with an origin in the gas stream/hotspot. In addition the Doppler maps show enhanced emission in the +Vx -Vy quadrant clearing incompatible with a stream/hotspot origin. We favour a non-uniform disk intensity distribution due to tidal effects as the origin of this emission. We compare our map with that of XTE J1118+480 in outburst as well as with those of other transient systems in quiescence

  16. Gemini H-band spectroscopy of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, O.; Callanan, P.; Reynolds, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since its discovery in 1994 (Castro-Tirado 1994) GRS 1915+105 has become one of the most intensely studied of all the X-ray binaries in the Galaxy. This Galactic microquasar system is unique in that it has remained in outburst for the past 20 years: furthermore, initial measurements suggested a relatively high black hole mass of 14 ± 4 M_{⊙} (Greiner et al. 2001), outside the predicted mass range for such transients (Ozel et al. 2010). Here we present new Gemini H-band observations, and discuss the degree to which they can be used to refine the black hole mass in comparison to more recent estimates (Hurley et al 2013, Steeghs et al 2013). In addition, previous work found phase dependent emission of the CO bandheads in the K-band, and we present evidence of double peaked emission lines, indicative of ongoing mass transfer via the accretion disk.

  17. Accretion disc wind variability in the states of the microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Petschek, Andrew J.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-03-01

    Continuing our study of the role and evolution of accretion disc winds in the microquasar GRS 1915+105, we present high-resolution spectral variability analysis of the β and γ states with the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. By tracking changes in the absorption lines from the accretion disc wind, we find new evidence that radiation links the inner and outer accretion discs on a range of time-scales. As the central X-ray flux rises during the high-luminosity γ state, we observe the progressive overionization of the wind. In the β state, we argue that changes in the inner disc leading to the ejection of a transient 'baby jet' also quench the highly ionized wind from the outer disc. Our analysis reveals how the state, structure and X-ray luminosity of the inner accretion disc all conspire to drive the formation and variability of highly ionized accretion disc winds.

  18. VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS

  19. Origin of multi-band emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Jufu; Xu, Bing

    2014-06-20

    We study the origin of non-thermal emissions from the Galactic black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which is a confirmed high-mass microquasar. By analogy with the methods used in studies of active galactic nuclei, we propose a two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation model from the microquasar Cygnus X-1. In this model, the evolution equation for relativistic electrons in a conical jet are numerically solved by including escape, adiabatic, and various radiative losses. The radiative processes involved are synchrotron emission, its self-Compton scattering, and inverse Compton scatterings of an accretion disk and its surrounding stellar companion. This model also includes an electromagnetic cascade process of an anisotropic γ-γ interaction. We study the spectral properties of electron evolution and its emission spectral characteristic at different heights of the emission region located in the jet. We find that radio data from Cygnus X-1 are reproduced by the synchrotron emission, the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements by the synchrotron emission and Comptonization of photons of the stellar companion, and the TeV band emission fluxes by the Comptonization of the stellar photons. Our results show the following. (1) The radio emission region extends from the binary system scales to the termination of the jet. (2) The GeV band emissions should originate from the distance close to the binary system scales. (3) The TeV band emissions could be inside the binary system, and these emissions could be probed by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. (4) The MeV tail emissions, which produce a strongly linearly polarized signal, are emitted inside the binary system. The location of the emissions is very close to the inner region of the jet.

  20. Mid-Infrared and multi-wavelength monitoring of the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Yael; Chaty, Sylvain; Dhawan, Vivek; Diana, Hannikainen; Mirabel, Felix; Pooley, Guy; Ribo, Marc; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rupen, Michael

    2005-06-01

    We propose to continue mid-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 in the context of a campaign of multi-wavelength observations of the source. GRS 1915+105 is used as a laboratory to understand the accretion / ejection phenomena occurring in stellar-mass accreting black hole (microquasars) and by analogy in supermassive black holes (AGNs). A key question is the nature of the time-variable infrared emission in this system. Depending on the state of the source, we wish to know what is the contribution in the mid-infrared of the different possible emission mechanisms: the thermal emission from the K-M giant donor star, the synchrotron emission from the compact relativistic jets, X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disc and free-free emission from a possible disc-wind. The continuum in a wavelength range as large as possible and the possible emission lines observed thanks to the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) are important clues to achieve this study. These mid-infrared observations will be combined with observations with the RXTE and INTEGRAL satellites in the X-rays and gamma-rays, the ESO/NTT in near-infrared and the VLA/VLBA and Ryle Telescopes in radio. Thanks to these simultaneous multiwavelength observations we will identify the accretion state of the source and determine the contribution of each emission component of the system. As GRS 1915+105 had been rarely observed in the mid-infrared range in the past, the Spitzer Space Telescope brings the unique opportunity to do so, shedding light on the physical mechanisms occurring in this particular binary system and which could apply to the other black hole binaries.

  1. Enhanced high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 detected by Fermi/LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2017-02-01

    Following the recent decrease of the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 as seen by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (https://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/), the Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed significant gamma-ray emission originating from the microquasar.

  2. Mid-Infrared and multi-wavelength monitoring of the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Yael; Chaty, Sylvain; Diana, Hannikainen; Mirabel, Felix; Rodriguez, Jerome

    2004-09-01

    We propose mid-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 in the context of a multi-wavelength follow-up campaign of the source. GRS 1915+105 is used as a laboratory to understand the accretion / ejection phenomena occurring in stellar-mass accreting black hole (microquasars) and by analogy in supermassive black holes (AGNs). A key question is the nature of the time-variable infrared emission in this system. Depending on the state of the source, we wish to know what is the contribution in the mid-infrared of the different possible emission mechanisms: the thermal emission from the K-M giant donor star, the synchrotron emission from the compact relativistic jets, X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disc and free-free emission from a dense wind. A particular contribution of the Spitzer Telescope will be the observation of this dense wind in GRS 1915+105, which is very difficult to detect in X-ray spectra due to pile-up phenomena in X-ray detectors. The continuum in a wavelength range as large as possible and the possible emission lines observed thanks to the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) are important clues to achieve this study. These mid-infrared observations will be combined with observations with the RXTE and INTEGRAL satellites in the X-rays and gamma-rays, the ESO/NTT in near-infrared and the Ryle Telescope in radio. Thanks to these simultaneous multiwavelength observations we will identify the accretion state of the source and determine the contribution of each emission component of the system. As GRS 1915+105 had been rarely observed in the mid-infrared range in the past, the Spitzer Space Telescope will bring the unique opportunity to do so, shedding light on the physical mechanisms occurring in this particular binary system and which could apply to the other black hole binaries.

  3. The Variability and Spectrum of NGC 4051 from Deep, Simultaneous EUVE and XTE Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruscione, Antonella; Cagnoni, Ilaria; Papadakis, Iossif; McHardy, Ian

    1998-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of the data collected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 during 1996. NGC 4051 was observed twice in May 1996 and again in December 1996 for a total of more than 200 ksec. The observations were always simultaneous with hard X-ray observations conducted with the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). The EUVE light curves are extremely variable during each observation, with the maximum variability during May 1996 when we registered changes by a factor of 21 over 8 hours and more than a factor of 24 variations from peak to minimum. We detected signal in the EUVE spectrograph in the 75-100 Arange which is well fitted by absorbed power law models. We will illustrate the results of our spectral and detailed power spectrum analysis for the simultaneous EUVE and XTE spectra and light curves and discuss the consequences on possible emission mechanisms.

  4. The Variability and Spectrum of NGC 4051 from Deep, Simultaneous EUVE and XTE Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruscione, Antonella; Cagnoni, Ilaria; Papadakis, Iossif; McHardy, Ian

    1998-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of the data collected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 during 1996. NGC 4051 was observed twice in May 1996 and again in December 1996 for a total of more than 200 ksec. The observations were always simultaneous with hard X-ray observations conducted with the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). The EUVE light curves are extremely variable during each observation, with the maximum variability during May 1996 when we registered changes by a factor of 21 over 8 hours and more than a factor of 24 variations from peak to minimum. We detected signal in the EUVE spectrograph in the 75-100 Arange which is well fitted by absorbed power law models. We will illustrate the results of our spectral and detailed power spectrum analysis for the simultaneous EUVE and XTE spectra and light curves and discuss the consequences on possible emission mechanisms.

  5. Multiwavelength observations of XTE J1859+226 on 1999, November 6th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, C. A.; Chaty, S.; Norton, A. J.; Chen, W.; Hynes, R. I.

    1999-11-01

    Further simultaneous HST and RXTE observations (visit #3) of the new X-ray transient XTE J1859+226 are scheduled for November 6th 1999 19:37 - 22:22 UT. Coordinated multi-wavelength observations (simultaneous, near-simultaneous, and following the evolution over days/weeks) would be extremely helpful. If you can observe simultaneously with HST and/or RXTE, high time-resolution data (< 10 seconds) will be particularly useful.

  6. XTE J1752-223: Optical spectroscopy and infrared counterpart detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Jonker, P. G.; Thompson, I.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2009-10-01

    Prompted by the discovery of its bright optical counterpart and the announcement of increased X-ray activity (ATels #2258, #2259, #2261, #2265, #2263), we have acquired additional observations of XTE J1752-223 at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY: An optical spectrum covering 3330-9165 Angstrom was obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope starting on 2009 Oct 26 UT 23:52.

  7. XTE J1855-026 is a supergiant X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Casares, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Blay, P.; Israel, G. L.; Covino, S.

    2008-12-01

    The eclipsing X-ray pulsar XTE J1855-026 (Corbet & Mukai 2002, ApJ 577, 923) has been unambiguously identified by a recent Swift observation (Romano et al., ATel #1875) with the reddened early-type star proposed as candidate counterpart by Verrecchia et al. (ATel #102). High-quality spectra of the counterpart taken in August 2003 with the 4.2-m WHT (La Palma) show it to be a B0 Iaep luminous supergiant.

  8. Radio detection of XTE J1752-223 with the ATCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocksopp, Catherine; Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Tasso; Fender, Rob

    2009-11-01

    Following the detection of the new X-ray transient, XTE J1752-223, by RXTE and Swift (ATel. #2258; see also ATels. #2259, #2261, #2263, #2265, #2268, #2269), we have performed radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the new CABB back-end. Data were obtained at 5.5 GHz and 9 GHz on October 30 and November 1. We detect a radio source at a position consistent with the X-ray coordinates.

  9. Development of the solar array deployment and drive system for the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger; Ngo, Son

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) spacecraft is a NASA science low-earth orbit explorer-class satellite to be launched in 1995, and is an in-house Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project. It has two deployable aluminum honeycomb solar array wings with each wing being articulated by a single axis solar array drive assembly. This paper will address the design, the qualification testing, and the development problems as they surfaced of the Solar Array Deployment and Drive System.

  10. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER MICROQUASAR 1E 1740.7-2942

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2010-06-20

    We present two Suzaku observations of the Galactic center microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942 separated by approximately 700 days. The source was observed on both occasions after a transition to the spectrally hard state. Significant emission from 1E 1740.7-2942 is detected out to an energy of 300 keV, with no spectral break or turnover evident in the data. We tentatively measure a lower limit to the cutoff energy of {approx}380 keV. The spectra are found to be consistent with a Comptonized corona on both occasions, where the high energy emission is consistent with a hard power-law ({Gamma} {approx} 1.8) with a significant contribution from an accretion disk with a temperature of {approx}0.4 keV at soft X-ray energies. The measured value for the inner radius of the accretion disk is found to be inconsistent with the picture whereby the disk is truncated at large radii in the low-hard state and instead favors a radius close to the ISCO (R{sub in} {approx} 10 - 20 R{sub g}).

  11. High-mass microquasars and low-latitude gamma-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Romero, G. E.; Paredes, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Population studies of unidentified EGRET sources suggest that there exist at least three different populations of galactic gamma-ray sources. One of these populations is formed by young objects distributed along the galactic plane with a strong concentration toward the inner spiral arms of the Galaxy. Variability, spectral and correlation analysis indicate that this population is not homogeneous. In particular, there is a subgroup of sources that display clear variability in their gamma-ray fluxes on timescales from days to months. Following the proposal by Kaufman Bernadó et al. (2002), we suggest that this group of sources might be high-mass microquasars, i.e. accreting black holes or neutron stars with relativistic jets and early-type stellar companions. We present detailed inhomogeneous models for the gamma-ray emission of these systems that include both external and synchrotron self-Compton interactions. We have included effects of interactions between the jet and all external photon fields to which it is exposed: companion star, accretion disk, and hot corona. We make broadband calculations to predict the spectral energy distribution of the emission produced in the inner jet of these objects up to GeV energies. The results and predictions can be tested by present and future gamma-ray instruments like INTEGRAL, AGILE, and GLAST.

  12. MAGIC observations of the microquasar V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Griffiths, S.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.; MAGIC Collaboration; Loh, A.; Rodriguez, J.

    2017-10-01

    The microquasar V404 Cygni underwent a series of outbursts in 2015, June 15-31, during which its flux in hard X-rays (20-40 keV) reached about 40 times the Crab nebula flux. Because of the exceptional interest of the flaring activity from this source, observations at several wavelengths were conducted. The MAGIC telescopes, triggered by the INTEGRAL alerts, followed-up the flaring source for several nights during the period June 18-27, for more than 10 h. One hour of observation was simultaneously conducted on a giant 22 GHz radio flare and a hint of signal at GeV energies seen by Fermi-LAT. The MAGIC observations did not show significant emission in any of the analysed time intervals. The derived flux upper limit, in the energy range 200-1250 GeV, is 4.8 × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1. We estimate the gamma-ray opacity during the flaring period, which along with our non-detection points to an inefficient acceleration in the V404 Cyg jets if a very high energy emitter is located further than 1 × 1010 cm from the compact object.

  13. Variable-Frequency QPOs from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Taam, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) whose frequency varies continuously from 1-15 Hz, during spectrally hard dips when the source is in a flaring state. NN'e report here analyses of simultaneous energy spectra and power density spectra at 4 s intervals. The energy spectrum is well fit at each time step by an optically thick accretion disk plus power law model, while the power density spectrum consists of a varying red noise component plus the variable frequency QPO. The features of both spectra are strongly correlated with one another. The 1-15 Hz QPOs appear when the power law component becomes hard and intense, and themselves have an energy spectrum consistent with the power law component (with root mean square amplitudes as high as 10%). The frequency of the oscillations, however, is most strikingly correlated with the parameters of the thermal disk component. The tightest correlation is between QPO frequency and the disk X-ray flux. This fact indicates that the properties of the QPO are not determined by solely a disk or solely a corona.

  14. THE VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART OF THE MICROQUASAR GRS 1758–258

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.

    2014-12-10

    We present a new study of the microquasar system GRS 1758–258 in the near-infrared domain based on archival observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the NICMOS camera. In addition to confirming the near-infrared counterpart pointed out by Muñoz-Arjonilla et al., we show that this object displays significant photometric variability. From its average magnitudes, we also find that GRS 1758–258 fits well within the correlation between the optical/near-infrared and X-ray luminosity known to exist for low-mass, black-hole candidate X-ray binaries in a hard state. Moreover, the spectral energy distribution built using all radio, near-infrared, and X-ray data available closest in time to the NICMOS observations can be reasonably interpreted in terms of a self-absorbed radio jet and an irradiated accretion disk model around a stellar-mass black hole. All these facts match the expected behavior of a compact binary system and strengthen our confidence in the counterpart identification.

  15. Inflow and outflow from the accretion disc of the microquasar SS433: UKIRT spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez M., Sebastian; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2009-08-01

    A succession of near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopic observations, taken nightly throughout an entire cycle of SS433's orbit, reveal (i) the persistent signature of SS433's accretion disc, having a rotation speed of ~500kms-1, (ii) the presence of circumbinary disc recently discovered at optical wavelengths by Blundell, Bowler & Schmidtobreick (2008) and (iii) a much faster outflow than has previously been measured for the disc wind, with a terminal velocity of ~1500kms-1. The increased wind terminal velocity results in a mass-loss rate of ~10-4Msolaryr-1. These, together with the newly (upwardly) determined masses for the components of the SS433 system, result in an accurate diagnosis of the extent to which SS433 has super-Eddington flows. Our observations imply that the size of the companion star is comparable with the semiminor axis of the orbit which is given by , where e is the eccentricity. Our relatively spectral resolution at these near-IR wavelengths has enabled us to deconstruct the different components that comprise the Brackett-γ (Brγ) line in this binary system, and their physical origins. With this line being dominated throughout our series of observations by the disc wind, and the accretion disc itself being only a minority (~15 per cent) contribution, we caution against use of the unresolved Brγ line intensity as an `accretion signature' in X-ray binaries or microquasars in any quantitative way.

  16. Disk-Jet Connection in the Microquasar GRS 1915+105 and Infrared and Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, J. S.

    2001-02-01

    We present evidence of a direct accretion disk-jet connection in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 based on our analysis of RXTE/PCA data with a ``spike'' in X-ray light curves. We find that the radio emission increases as the hardness ratio increases during the low hard state. We suggest that the ``spike,'' which separates the dips with hard and soft spectra, marks the beginning of the burst phase when the luminosity of the soft X-rays (5-15 keV) increases by a large factor (~10). This produces a major ejection episode of the synchrotron-emitting plasma termed as ``baby jets,'' which are associated with infrared (IR) and radio flares of about half an hour period widely reported in the literature. Subsequent short but frequent soft dips produce overlapping faint flares which result in an enhanced level of quasi-steady emission. We discuss the differences between ``baby jets'' and relativistic radio jets and especially investigate their signatures in X-rays.

  17. X-Ray Bursts from the Transient Magnetar Candidate XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woods, Peter M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Ibrahim, Alaa; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Finger, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    We have discovered four X-ray bursts, recorded with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array between 2003 September and 2004 April, that we show to originate from the transient magnetar candidate XTE 51810-197. The burst morphologies consist of a short spike or multiple spikes lasting approx. 1 s each followed by extended tails of emission where the pulsed flux from XTE 51810-197 is significantly higher. The burst spikes are likely correlated with the pulse maxima, having a chance probability of a random phase distribution of 0.4%. The burst spectra are best fit to a blackbody with temperatures 4-8 keV, considerably harder than the persistent X-ray emission. During the X-ray tails following these bursts, the temperature rapidly cools as the flux declines, maintaining a constant emitting radius after the initial burst peak. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these bursts closely resemble the bursts seen from 1E 1048.1-5937 and a subset of the bursts detected from 1E 2259+586, thus establishing XTE J1810-197 as a magnetar candidate. The bursts detected from these three objects are sufficiently similar to one another, yet si,g&cantly differe2t from those seen from soft gamma repeaters, that they likely represent a new class of bursts from magnetar candidates exclusive (thus far) to the anomalous X-ray pulsar-like sources.

  18. Serendipitous Detections of XTE J1906+09 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Finger, Mark H.; Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2002-01-01

    The 89 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1906+09 was discovered during Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of SGR 1900+14 in 1996. Because of monitoring campaigns of SGR 1900+14, XTE J1906+09 was also monitored regularly in 1996 September, 1998 May-June, 1998 August-1999 July, and 2000 March-2001 January. A search for pulsations resulted in detections of only the two previously reported outbursts in 1996 September and 1998 August-September. Pulsed flux upper limits for the rest of the observations show that XTE J1906+09 is a transient X-ray pulsar and likely has a Be star companion. The RXTE all-sky monitor did not reveal XTE J1906+09. Pulse-timing analysis of the second outburst discovered a sinusoidal signature in the pulse frequencies that is likely produced by an orbital periastron passage. Fits to pulse phases using an orbital model and quadratic phase model have chi(exp 2) minima at orbital periods of 26-30 days for fixed mass functions of 5, 10, 15, and 20 solar masses. The pulse shape showed energy- and intensity-dependent variations. Pulse-phase spectroscopy quantified the energy-dependent variations. The phase-averaged spectrum used the pulse minimum spectrum as the background spectrum to eliminate effects from SGR 1900+14 and the Galactic ridge and was well fitted by an absorbed power law with a high-energy cutoff with column density N(sub H) = 6 +/- 1 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, a photon index of 1.01 +/- 0.08, cutoff energy E(sub cut) = 11 +/- 1 keV, and e-folding energy E(sub fold) = 19 +/- 4 keV. Estimated 2-10 keV peak fluxes, corrected for contributions from the Galactic ridge and SGR 1900+14, are 6 x l0(exp -12) and 1.1 x 10(exp -10) ergs/sq cm/s for the 1996 and 1998 outbursts, respectively. XTE J1906+09 may be part of an unusual class of Be/X-ray binaries that do not lie on the general spin period versus orbital period correlation with the majority of Be/X-ray binaries.

  19. EPISODIC TRANSIENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE MICROQUASAR CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Feroci, M.; Argan, A.; D'Ammando, F.; Costa, E.; De Paris, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A. W.

    2010-03-20

    Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) is the archetypal black hole binary system in our Galaxy. We report the main results of an extensive search for transient gamma-ray emission from Cygnus X-1 carried out in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV by the AGILE satellite, during the period 2007 July-2009 October. The total exposure time is about 300 days, during which the source was in the 'hard' X-ray spectral state. We divided the observing intervals in 2-4 week periods, and searched for transient and persistent emission. We report an episode of significant transient gamma-ray emission detected on 2009 October 16 in a position compatible with Cyg X-1 optical position. This episode, which occurred during a hard spectral state of Cyg X-1, shows that a 1-2 day time variable emission above 100 MeV can be produced during hard spectral states, having important theoretical implications for current Comptonization models for Cyg X-1 and other microquasars. Except for this one short timescale episode, no significant gamma-ray emission was detected by AGILE. By integrating all available data, we obtain a 2{sigma} upper limit for the total integrated flux of F {sub {gamma}}{sub ,U.L.} = 3 x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV. We then clearly establish the existence of a spectral cutoff in the energy range 1-100 MeV that applies to the typical hard state outside the flaring period and that confirms the historically known spectral cutoff above 1 MeV.

  20. Accretion-ejection morphology of the microquasar SS 433 resolved at sub-au scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravity Collaboration; Petrucci, P.-O.; Waisberg, I.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Dexter, J.; Dubus, G.; Perraut, K.; Kervella, P.; Abuter, R.; Amorim, A.; Anugu, N.; Berger, J. P.; Blind, N.; Bonnet, H.; Brandner, W.; Buron, A.; Choquet, É.; Clénet, Y.; de Wit, W.; Deen, C.; Eckart, A.; Eisenhauer, F.; Finger, G.; Garcia, P.; Garcia Lopez, R.; Gendron, E.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Gonte, F.; Haubois, X.; Haug, M.; Haussmann, F.; Henning, Th.; Hippler, S.; Horrobin, M.; Hubert, Z.; Jochum, L.; Jocou, L.; Kok, Y.; Kolb, J.; Kulas, M.; Lacour, S.; Lazareff, B.; Lèna, P.; Lippa, M.; Mérand, A.; Müller, E.; Ott, T.; Panduro, J.; Paumard, T.; Perrin, G.; Pfuhl, O.; Ramos, J.; Rau, C.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Scheithauer, S.; Schöller, M.; Straubmeier, C.; Sturm, E.; Vincent, F.; Wank, I.; Wieprecht, E.; Wiest, M.; Wiezorrek, E.; Wittkowski, M.; Woillez, J.; Yazici, S.; Zins, G.

    2017-06-01

    We present the first optical observation of the microquasar SS 433 at sub-milliarcsecond (mas) scale obtained with the GRAVITY instrument on the Very Large Telescope interferometer (VLTI). The 3.5-h exposure reveals a rich K-band spectrum dominated by hydrogen Brγand He I lines, as well as (red-shifted)emission lines coming from the jets. The K-band-continuum-emitting region is dominated by a marginally resolved point source (<1 mas) embedded inside a diffuse background accounting for 10% of the total flux. The jet line positions agree well with the ones expected from the jet kinematic model, an interpretation also supported by the consistent sign (i.e., negative/positive for the receding/approaching jet component) of the phase shifts observed in the lines. The significant visibility drop across the jet lines, together with the small and nearly identical phases for all baselines, point toward a jet that is offset by less than 0.5 mas from the continuum source and resolved in the direction of propagation, with a typical size of 2 mas. The jet position angle of 80° is consistent with the expected one at the observation date. Jet emission so close to the central binary system would suggest that line locking, if relevant to explain the amplitude and stability of the 0.26c jet velocity, operates on elements heavier than hydrogen. The Brγprofile is broad and double peaked. It is better resolved than the continuum and the change of the phase signal sign across the line on all baselines suggests an East-West-oriented geometry similar to the jet direction and supporting a (polar) disk wind origin. Based on observations made with VLTI/Gravity instrument.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of the microquasar GRS 1758-258: a possible intermediate mass system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Álvaro J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. GRS 1758-258 is one of two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center direction discovered almost a quarter of a century ago. The system remains poorly studied in the optical domain due to its counterpart being a very faint and absorbed target in a crowded region of the sky. Aims: Our aim is to investigate GRS 1758-258 in order to shed light on the nature of the stellar binary components. In particular, the main physical parameters of the donor star, such as the mass or the spectral type, are not yet well constrained. Methods: GRS 1758-258 has remained so far elusive to optical spectroscopy owing to its observational difficulties. Here, we use this traditional tool of stellar astronomy at low spectral resolution with a 10 m class telescope and a long slit spectrograph. Results: An improved spectrum is obtained as compared to previous work. The quality of the data does not allow the detection of emission or absorption features but, nevertheless, we manage to partially achieve our aims comparing the de-reddened continuum with the spectral energy distribution expected from an irradiated disc model and different donor star templates. Conclusions: We tentatively propose that GRS 1758-258 does not host a giant star companion. Instead, a main sequence star with mid-A spectral type appears to better agree with our data. The main impacts of this finding are the possibility that we are dealing with an intermediate mass system and, in this case, the prediction of an orbital period significantly shorter than previously proposed.

  2. Gamma rays from clumpy wind-jet interactions in high-mass microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cita, V. M.; del Palacio, S.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Romero, G. E.; Khangulyan, D.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The stellar winds of the massive stars in high-mass microquasars are thought to be inhomogeneous. The interaction of these inhomogeneities, or clumps, with the jets of these objects may be a major factor in gamma-ray production. Aims: Our goal is to characterize a typical scenario of clump-jet interaction, and calculate the contribution of these interactions to the gamma-ray emission from these systems. Methods: We use axisymmetric, relativistic hydrodynamical simulations to model the emitting flow in a typical clump-jet interaction. Using the simulation results we perform a numerical calculation of the high-energy emission from one of these interactions. The radiative calculations are performed for relativistic electrons locally accelerated at the jet shock, and the synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation spectra are computed for different stages of the shocked clump evolution. We also explore different parameter values, such as viewing angle and magnetic field strength. The results derived from one clump-jet interaction are generalized phenomenologically to multiple interactions under different wind models, estimating the clump-jet interaction rates, and the resulting luminosities in the GeV range. Results: If particles are efficiently accelerated in clump-jet interactions, the apparent gamma-ray luminosity through inverse Compton scattering with the stellar photons can be significant even for rather strong magnetic fields and thus efficient synchrotron cooling. Moreover, despite the standing nature or slow motion of the jet shocks for most of the interaction stage, Doppler boosting in the postshock flow is relevant even for mildly relativistic jets. Conclusions: For clump-to-average wind density contrasts greater than or equal to ten, clump-jet interactions could be bright enough to match the observed GeV luminosity in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 when a jet is present in these sources, with required non-thermal-to-total available power fractions greater than

  3. Discovery of photon index saturation in the black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nickolai; Seifina, Elena

    2010-03-01

    We present a study of the correlations between spectral, timing properties and mass accretion rate observed in X-rays from the eight Galactic Black Hole (BH) binaries during the transition between hard and soft states. We analyze all transition episodes from X-ray sources observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We show that broad-band energy spectra of Galactic sources during all these spectral states can be adequately presented by Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) model. We also present observable correlations between the index and the normalization of the disk ``seed'' component. The use of ``seed'' disk normalization, which is presumably proportional to mass accretion rate in the disk, is crucial to establish the index saturation effect during the transition to the soft state. We discovered the photon index saturation of the hard spectral components at values of 2.1-3. We present a physical model which explains the index-seed photon normalization correlations. We argue that the index saturation effect of the hard component (BMC1) is due to the soft photon Comptonization in the converging inflow close to BH. We apply our scaling technique to determine BH masses and distances for Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4, 4U 1543-47, XTE J1550-564, XTE J1650-500, H 1743-322 and XTE J1859-226. Good agreement of our results for sources with known values of BH masses and distance provides an independent verification for our scaling technique.

  4. Testing modified gravity and no-hair relations for the Kerr-Newman metric through quasiperiodic oscillations of galactic microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipole moments for stationary, asymptotically flat, spacetime solutions to higher-order curvature theories of gravity. The moments are defined using 3 +1 techniques involving timelike Killing vector constructions as in the classic papers by Geroch and Hansen. Using the fact that the Kerr-Newman metric is a vacuum solution to a particular class of f (R ) theories of gravity, we compute all its moments, and find that they admit recurrence relations similar to those for the Kerr solution in general relativity. It has been proposed previously that modeling the measured frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations from galactic microquasars enables experimental tests of the no-hair theorem. We explore the possibility that, even if the no-hair relation is found to break down in the context of general relativity, there may be an f (R ) counterpart that is preserved. We apply the results to the microquasars GRS 1915 +105 and GRO J1655-40 using the diskoseismology and kinematic resonance models, and constrain the spins and "charges" of their black holes.

  5. High energy gamma rays from nebulae associated with extragalactic microquasars and ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kobayashi, Shogo B.

    2017-04-01

    In the extragalactic sky, microquasars and ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are known as energetic compact objects locating at off-nucleus positions in galaxies. Some of these objects are associated with expanding bubbles with a velocity of 80-250 km s - 1. We investigate the shock acceleration of particles in those expanding nebulae. The nebulae having fast expansion velocity ≳ 120km s - 1 are able to accelerate cosmic rays up to ∼100 TeV. If 10% of the shock kinetic energy goes into particle acceleration, powerful nebulae such as the microquasar S26 in NGC 7793 would emit gamma rays up to several tens TeV with a photon index of ∼2. These nebulae will be good targets for future Cherenkov Telescope Array observations given its sensitivity and angular resolution. They would also contribute to ∼7% of the unresolved cosmic gamma-ray background radiation at ≥ 0.1 GeV. In contrast, particle acceleration in slowly expanding nebulae ≲ 120km s - 1 would be less efficient due to ion-neutral collisions and result in softer spectra at ≳ 10 GeV.

  6. A 300-parsec-long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793.

    PubMed

    Pakull, Manfred W; Soria, Roberto; Motch, Christian

    2010-07-08

    Black-hole accretion states near or above the Eddington luminosity (the point at which radiation force outwards overcomes gravity) are still poorly known because of the rarity of such sources. Ultraluminous X-ray sources are the most luminous class of black hole (L(X) approximately 10(40) erg s(-1)) located outside the nuclei of active galaxies. They are likely to be accreting at super-Eddington rates, if they are powered by black holes with masses less than 100 solar masses. They are often associated with shock-ionized nebulae, though with no evidence of collimated jets. Microquasars with steady jets are much less luminous. Here we report that the large nebula S26 (ref. 4) in the nearby galaxy NGC 7793 is powered by a black hole with a pair of collimated jets. It is similar to the famous Galactic source SS433 (ref. 5), but twice as large and a few times more powerful. We determine a mechanical power of around a few 10(40) erg s(-1). The jets therefore seem 10(4) times more energetic than the X-ray emission from the core. S26 has the structure of a Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII-type) active galaxy: X-ray and optical core, X-ray hot spots, radio lobes and an optical and X-ray cocoon. It is a microquasar where most of the jet power is dissipated in thermal particles in the lobes rather than relativistic electrons.

  7. Jet power and feedback from the newly-discovered radio/optical/X-ray microquasar S26 in NGC 7793

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Corbel, Stephane; Pakull, Manfred; Motch, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We have discovered an exceptional radio/optical/X-ray microquasar in the Sculptor galaxy NGC7793 (distance of 3.4 Mpc), with a large (300 x 150 pc) shock-ionized bubble, and X-ray hot spots where the collimated jet hits the interstellar medium. The radio nebula has an integrated flux of 1.2 mJy at 6 cm (more luminous than Cas A). The system resembles the famous Galactic microquasar SS433, but on an even grander scale. We propose deeper radio observations at higher spatial resolution with the ATCA: to identify the radio hot spots; to infer the jet power from the synchrotron luminosity of the hot spots; to determine the shape of the radio cocoon and compare it with the H-alpha, HeII 4686 and X-ray nebulae; to estimate the total (integrated) energy injected in the nebula by the jet/wind, and constrain its age; to search for the radio core. Our combined radio, X-ray and optical study of this source will help us model the radiative and mechanical power budget of accreting black holes, and their feedback onto the interstellar or intergalactic medium.

  8. Competing spin density wave, collinear, and helical magnetism in Fe1 +xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Bourges, P.; Ewings, R. A.; Cao, H.; Chi, S.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Green, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The Fe1 +xTe phase diagram consists of two distinct magnetic structures with collinear order present at low interstitial iron concentrations and a helical phase at large values of x with these phases separated by a Lifshitz point. We use unpolarized single-crystal diffraction to confirm the helical phase for large interstitial iron concentrations and polarized single-crystal diffraction to demonstrate the collinear order for the iron-deficient side of the Fe1 +xTe phase diagram. Polarized neutron inelastic scattering shows that the fluctuations associated with this collinear order are predominately transverse at low-energy transfers, consistent with a localized magnetic moment picture. We then apply neutron inelastic scattering and polarization analysis to investigate the dynamics and structure near the boundary between collinear and helical orders in the Fe1 +xTe phase diagram. We first show that the phase separating collinear and helical orders is characterized by a spin density wave with a single propagation wave vector of (˜0.45 , 0, 0.5). We do not observe harmonics or the presence of a charge density wave. The magnetic fluctuations associated with this wave vector are different from the collinear phase, being strongly longitudinal in nature and correlated anisotropically in the (H ,K ) plane. The excitations preserve the C4 symmetry of the lattice but display different widths in momentum along the two tetragonal directions at low-energy transfers. While the low-energy excitations and minimal magnetic phase diagram can be understood in terms of localized interactions, we suggest that the presence of the density wave phase implies the importance of electronic and orbital properties.

  9. System mass constraints for the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 using Bowen fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Steeghs, D.; Casares, J.; Charles, P. A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Hynes, R. I.; O'Brien, K.

    2017-04-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338 obtained during its 2003 outburst. The spectra are dominated by high-excitation emission lines of He II λ4686, Hβ, and the Bowen blend C III/N III 4630-50 Å. We exploit the proven Bowen fluorescence technique to establish a complete set of dynamical system parameter constraints using bootstrap Doppler tomography, a first for an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar binary. The reconstructed Doppler map of the N III λ4640 Bowen transition exhibits a statistically significant (>4σ) spot feature at the expected position of the companion star. If this feature is driven by irradiation of the surface of the Roche lobe filling companion, we derive a strict lower limit to the true radial velocity semi-amplitude K2. Combining our donor constraint with the well-constrained orbit of the neutron star leads to a determination of the binary mass ratio: q = 0.123^{+0.012}_{-0.010}. The component masses are not tightly constrained given our lack of knowledge of the binary inclination. We cannot rule out a canonical neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ (1.1 M⊙ < M1 < 3.1 M⊙; 95 per cent). The 68/95 per cent confidence limits of M2 are consistent with the companion being a significantly bloated, M-type main-sequence star. Our findings, combined with results from studies of the quiescent optical counterpart of XTE J1814-338, suggest the presence of a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar in XTE J1814-338 during an X-ray quiescent state. The companion mass is typical of the so-called redback pulsar binary systems (M2 ∼ 0.2 M⊙).

  10. The Fading of Transient Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    Three observations of the 5.54 s transient anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 obtained over 6 months with the Newton X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) mission are used to study its spectrum and pulsed light curve as the source fades from outburst. The decay is consistent with an exponential of time constant ~300 days but not a power law as predicted in some models of sudden deep crustal heating events. All spectra are well fitted by a blackbody plus a steep power law, a problematic model that is commonly fitted to anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). A two-temperature blackbody fit is also acceptable and better motivated physically in view of the faint optical/IR fluxes, the X-ray pulse shapes that weakly depend on energy in XTE J1810-197, and the inferred emitting areas that are less than or equal to the surface area of a neutron star. The fitted temperatures remained the same while the flux declined by 46%, which can be interpreted as a decrease in area of the emitting regions. The pulsar continues to spin down, albeit at a reduced rate of (5.1+/-1.6)×10-12 s s-1. The inferred characteristic age τc≡P/2P~17,000 yr, magnetic field strength Bs~1.7×1014 G, and outburst properties are consistent with both the outburst and quiescent X-ray luminosities being powered by magnetic field decay, i.e., XTE J1810-197 is a magnetar.

  11. Optical and near-IR observations of XTE J1859+226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, R. I.; Haswell, C. A.; Norton, A. J.; Chaty, S.; Rolfe, D. J.; Lott, D. A.; Solheim, J.-E.; Ostensen, R.; Garcia, R. A.; Fried, R.; O'Brien, K.; Horne, K.; Ioannou, Z.; Shafter, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Krisciunas, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Sano, Y.; Chen, W.; Shrader, C.; Livio, M.; Robinson, E. L.; Wagner, R. M.

    1999-10-01

    Following optical and near-infrared monitoring of XTE J1859+226 (IAUC #7279, #7284), HST/STIS observations were performed on Oct 18.10-18.38 spanning 112-1026nm. The UV spectrum shows broad (12000km/s FWZI) and deep Lyman alpha absorption, strong CIV 155nm emission (EW 1.1nm, 4000km/s FWZI) and weaker emission lines of CIII, NV, OIII, OIV, OV, SiIV and HeII. Sharp absorption lines of SiII, SiIII, MgII and other species also appear with possible interstellar origin.

  12. INTEGRAL observes A1744-361 (XTE J1748-361) in hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenev, S. A.; Goldoni, P.; Schoenfelder, V.; Roques, J.-P.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Courvoisier, T.; Winkler, C.

    2004-04-01

    The X-ray transient A1744-361 (XTE J1748-361) was detected with ISGRI/IBIS on April 7-8, 2004 during the INTEGRAL Galactic Center Deep Exposure observation. The average flux in the 17-45 keV band was equal to 19.8+/-1.6 mCrab (the S/N ratio was 13). The photon spectrum was extending to at least 100 keV. The source was seen neither in March during previous GCDE observations nor in the beginning of April during the Galactic Center Open Program observation (the 3-sigma upper limit was 1.5 mCrab).

  13. Multiple topological nontrivial phases in strained HgxCd1 -xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Tomáš; Achilles, Steven; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2017-07-01

    We investigate theoretically the electronic structure of tetragonally strained HgxCd1 -xTe . The topological phase diagram of the system was obtained by calculating both the topological invariants and the electronic structure of the (001) surface. We find strong topological-insulator and Weyl-semimetal phases that are caused by multiple inversions among the topmost valence bands. The topological character of the occupied bulk bands is fundamentally governed by the band inversion induced by spin-orbit coupling rather than by the s p band inversion, which is usually considered as origin of the topological nontriviality.

  14. ATCA detection of increased radio emission from XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocksopp, Catherine; Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Tasso; Fender, Rob; Coriat, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    Following the announcement that the new X-ray transient source, XTE J1752-223 (ATel. 2258), is making a transition from the hard to the intermediate state (ATel. 2387, 2391, 2396), we have observed the radio counterpart with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the new CABB back-end. The radio source has risen from the previous ~2 mJy plateau to 20 mJy at 1.2, 2.5, 5.5, 9, 17, 19 GHz on January 21.

  15. Black Hole Candidate XTE J1859+226 in the Low/Hard State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fox, D. W.; Pooley, D.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2000-07-01

    Recent flaring activity of this source in the optical (Casares et al. 2000, IAUC #7451) has motivated a public RXTE TOO observation on 8 July 2000. XTE J1859+226 is a known X-ray nova that reached 1.4 Crab in the RXTE/ASM in October 1999 (Smith 1999, ATEL #47). During that outburst the source exhibited 150 and 187 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (Cui et al. 2000, ApJ 535, L123) and radio emission (Pooley & Hjellming, IAUC #7278).

  16. Radio lobes and X-ray hotspots in the microquasar S26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Pakull, Manfred W.; Broderick, Jess W.; Corbel, Stephane; Motch, Christian

    2010-12-01

    We have studied the structure and energetics of the powerful microquasar/shock-ionized nebula S26 in NGC7793, with particular focus on its radio and X-ray properties. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have resolved for the first time the radio lobe structure and mapped the spectral index of the radio cocoon. The steep spectral index of the radio lobes is consistent with optically-thin synchrotron emission; outside the lobes, the spectral index is flatter, suggesting an additional contribution from free-free emission, and perhaps ongoing ejections near the core. The radio core is not detected, while the X-ray core has a 0.3-8 keV luminosity ~6 × 1036 erg s-1. The size of the radio cocoon matches that seen in the optical emission lines and diffuse soft X-ray emission. The total 5.5-GHz flux of cocoon and lobes is ~2.1 mJy, which at the assumed distance of 3.9 Mpc corresponds to about three times the luminosity of Cas A. The total 9.0-GHz flux is ~1.6 mJy. The X-ray hotspots (combined 0.3-8 keV luminosity ~2 × 1037 erg s-1) are located ~20 pc outwards of the radio hotspots (i.e. downstream along the jet direction), consistent with a different physical origin of X-ray and radio emission (thermal-plasma and synchrotron, respectively). The total particle energy in the bubble is ~1053 erg: from the observed radio flux, we estimate that only approximately a few times 1050 erg is stored in the relativistic electrons; the rest is stored in protons, nuclei and non-relativistic electrons. The X-ray-emitting component of the gas in the hotspots contains ~1051 erg, and ~1052 erg over the whole cocoon. We suggest that S26 provides a clue to understand how the ambient medium is heated by the mechanical power of a black hole near its Eddington accretion rate.

  17. Magnetoreflectivity of Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te epilayers and PbTe/Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Krenn, H.; Springholz, G.; Ueta, Y.; Bauer, G.; McCann, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy grown n-type Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te epilayers (x{le}0.034) and PbTe/Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te (x{le}0.039) multiple-quantum-well (MQW) samples were studied by magnetoreflectivity in the Faraday configuration (B{parallel}[111]) for magnetic fields up to 6T at 4.2 K. Since the IV-VI lead salt compounds are quite polar semiconductors, resonant electron-longitudinal-optic- (LO-) phonon coupling (Fr{umlt o}hlich coupling) modifies the cyclotron resonance (CR) energies in the Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te single epilayers for the three-dimensional (3D) case. Due to the many-valley band structure {ital two} different Fr{umlt o}hlich coupling constants are relevant. However, the CR energies of quasi-two-dimensional (2D) carriers in PbTe wells [n{sup 2D}=(1.5{minus}3){times}10{sup 11}cm{sup {minus}2}] of PbTe/Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te MQW samples do {ital not} exhibit a significant resonant electron-LO-phonon interaction. This observation is attributed to finite-electron concentration effects, in particular, to a partial filling of the lowest 2D Landau spin level. The static and dynamic screening of the polar interaction are considered as well, but are ruled out as an explanation for the absence of any remarkable polaron correction to the CR energies of electrons in the PbTe quantum wells for the range of carrier concentrations investigated. The magnetoreflectivity spectra of Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te single layers and PbTe/Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te quantum well samples are simulated numerically, using a model for the dielectric response of which also includes the electron-LO-phonon interaction. The transverse and longitudinal masses, and thus also the interband momentum matrix elements are determined for Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}Te as a function of the composition up to x{lt}0.034. It is found that the transverse mass {ital increases} with Eu content, whereas the longitudinal one nearly stays constant. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Ishida, Yukiaki; ...

    2016-12-05

    Here, the recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topologicalmore » Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.« less

  19. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Neupane, Madhab; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Song, You; Bu, Haijun; Wang, Guanghou; Li, Shisheng; Eda, Goki; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-12-01

    The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

  20. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  1. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  2. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2.

    PubMed

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Neupane, Madhab; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Song, You; Bu, Haijun; Wang, Guanghou; Li, Shisheng; Eda, Goki; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M Zahid

    2016-12-05

    The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

  3. Discovery of a Second Millesecond Accreting Pulsar: XTE J1751-305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.; Strohmayer, T. E.; intZand, J. J. M.; Marshall, F. E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery by the RXTE PCA of a second transient accreting millisecond pulsar, XTE J1751-305, during regular monitoring observations of the galactic bulge region. The pulsar has a spin frequency of 435 Hz, making it one of the fastest pulsars. The pulsations contain the signature of orbital Doppler modulation, which implies an orbital period of 42 minutes, the shortest orbital period of any known radio or X-ray millisecond pulsar. The mass function, f(sub x) = (1.278 +/- 0.003) x 10 (exp -6) solar mass, yields a minimum mass for the companion of between 0.013 and 0.0017 solar mass depending on the mass of the neutron star. No eclipses were detected. A previous X-ray outburst in June, 1998, was discovered in archival All-Sky Monitor data. Assuming mass transfer in this binary system is driven by gravitational radiation, we constrain the orbital inclination to be in the range 30 deg-85 deg and the companion mass to be 0.013-0.035 solar mass. The companion is most likely a heated helium dwarf. We also present results from the Chandra HRC-S observations which provide the best known position of XTE J1751-305.

  4. The Reawakening of the Sleeping X-ray Pulsar XTE J1946+274

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Sebastian; Mueller, Sebastian; Kuechnel, Matthias; Fuerst, Felix; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Sagredo, Macarena; Obst, Maria; Wilms, Joern; Caballero, Isabel; Potttschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a series of outbursts of the high mass X-ray binary XTE 11946+274 in 2010/2011 as observed with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Swift. We discuss possible mechanisms resulting in the extraordinary outburst behavior of this source. The X-ray spectra can be described by standard phenomenological models, enhanced by an absorption feature of unknown origin at about 10 keV and a narrow iron K alpha fluorescence line at 6.4keV, which are variable in flux and pulse phase. We find possible evidence for the presence of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature at about 25 keV at the 93% level. The presence of a strong cyclotron line at 35 keV seen in data from the source's 1998 outburst and confirmed by a reanalysis of these data can be excluded. This result indicates that the cyclotron line feature in XTE 11946+274 is variable between individual outbursts.

  5. MAXI observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahira, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Sakauchi, Yoko; Negoro, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, M.; Kawasaki, K.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Mihara, T.; Kohama, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sugizaki, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Saotome, T.; Kawai, N.; Morii, M.; Sugimori, K.; Yoshida, A.; Yamaoka, K.; Nakahira, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Kimura, M.; Negoro, H.; Nakajima, M.; Miyoshi, S.; Ozawa, H.; Ishiwata, R.; Ueda, Y.; Isobe, N.; Eguchi, S.; Hiroi, K.; Daikyuji, A.; Uzawa, A.; Matsumura, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    MAXI observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 The black hole X-ray nova XTE J1752-223 was discovered by RXTE on October 23, 2009. The GSC detector of MAXI All-sky X-ray Monitor on the International Space Station detected the source on October 23 at about 30 mCrab in the 1.5-20 keV band. Since then, GSC/MAXI mon-itored the source except for an invisible period due to the sun angle constraint from December 7 to 23. The light curve showed two plateaus at 140 mCrab from October 26 to November 25, and at 290 mCrab from December 5 to January 10, 2010. Then the spectrum drastically softened since January 19. The X-ray flux in the 1.5-4 keV band increased by a factor of more than two. Its spectrum turned out to be a shape with two components: a disk blackbody and a power law, suggesting the state transition from the low/hard to the high/soft state. In this paper, observational results by GSC and SSC of MAXI, and from the Suzaku ToO observation will be presented.

  6. Discovery of a Second Millisecond Accreting Pulsar: XTE J1751-305

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.; Strohmayer, T. E.; in 't Zand, J. J. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2002-08-01

    We report the discovery by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array of a second transient accreting millisecond pulsar, XTE J1751-305, during regular monitoring observations of the Galactic bulge region. The pulsar has a spin frequency of 435 Hz, making it one of the fastest pulsars. The pulsations contain the signature of orbital Doppler modulation, which implies an orbital period of 42 minutes, the shortest orbital period of any known radio or X-ray millisecond pulsar. The mass function, fX=(1.278+/-0.003)×10-6 Msolar, yields a minimum mass for the companion of between 0.013 and 0.017 Msolar, depending on the mass of the neutron star. No eclipses were detected. A previous X-ray outburst in 1998 June was discovered in archival All-Sky Monitor data. Assuming mass transfer in this binary system is driven by gravitational radiation, we constrain the orbital inclination to be in the range 30°-85° and the companion mass to be 0.013-0.035 Msolar. The companion is most likely a heated helium dwarf. We also present results from the Chandra High Resolution Camera-S observations, which provide the best-known position of XTE J1751-305.

  7. Infrared study of H 1743-322 in outburst: a radio-quiet and NIR-dim microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaty, S.; Muñoz Arjonilla, A. J.; Dubus, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Microquasars are accreting Galactic sources that are commonly observed to launch relativistic jets. One of the most important issues regarding these sources is the energy budget of ejections relative to the accretion of matter. Aims: The X-ray binary, black hole candidate, and microquasar H 1743-322 exhibited a series of X-ray outbursts between 2003 and 2008. We took optical and near-infrared (OIR) observations with the ESO/NTT telescope during three of these outbursts (2003, 2004, and 2008). The goals of these observations were to investigate the presence of a jet, and to disentangle the various contributions constituting the spectral energy distribution (SED): accretion, ejection, and stellar emission. Methods: Photometric and spectroscopic OIR observations allowed us to produce a high time-resolution lightcurve in Ks-band, to analyze emission lines present in the IR spectra, to construct a multiwavelength SED including radio, IR, and X-ray data, and to complete the OIR vs. X-ray correlation of black hole binaries with H 1743-322 data points. Results: We detect rapid flares of duration ~5 min in the high time-resolution IR lightcurve. We identify hydrogen and helium emission lines in the IR spectra, coming from the accretion disk. The IR SED exhibits the spectral index typically associated with the X-ray high, soft state in our observations taken during the 2003 and 2004 outbursts, while the index changes to one that is typical of the X-ray low, hard state during the 2008 outburst. During this last outburst, we detected a change of slope in the NIR spectrum between the J and Ks bands, where the JH part is characteristic of an optically thick disk emission, while the HKs part is typical of optically thin synchrotron emission. Furthermore, the comparison of our IR data with radio and X-ray data shows that H 1743-322 exhibits a faint jet both in radio and NIR domains. Finally, we suggest that the companion star is a late-type main sequence star located in

  8. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Peculiar Off/Soft State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wunands, R.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ferrando, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goldwurm, A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Pooley, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258. The source entered a peculiar "off/soft" state in 2001 late February in which the spectrum softened while the X-ray flux-and the inferred mass accretion rate-steadily decreased. We find no clear evidence for emission or absorption lines in the dispersed spectra, indicating that most of the observed soft flux is likely from an accretion disk and not from a cool plasma. The accretion disk strongly dominates the spectrum in this lower luminosity state and is only mildly recessed from the marginally stable orbit. These findings may be di8licult to explain in terms of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. We discuss these results within the context of ADAF models, simultaneous two-flow models, and observed correlations between hard X-ray flux and jet production.

  9. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Peculiar Off/Soft State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wunands, R.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ferrando, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goldwurm, A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Pooley, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258. The source entered a peculiar "off/soft" state in 2001 late February in which the spectrum softened while the X-ray flux-and the inferred mass accretion rate-steadily decreased. We find no clear evidence for emission or absorption lines in the dispersed spectra, indicating that most of the observed soft flux is likely from an accretion disk and not from a cool plasma. The accretion disk strongly dominates the spectrum in this lower luminosity state and is only mildly recessed from the marginally stable orbit. These findings may be di8licult to explain in terms of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. We discuss these results within the context of ADAF models, simultaneous two-flow models, and observed correlations between hard X-ray flux and jet production.

  10. Detection of a Relativistic Outflow from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Hard State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Mark; Miller, Jon; Cackett, Edward; King, Ashley

    2016-07-01

    Outflows in the form of collimated jets and wider angle winds are observed ubiquitously from accreting systems. Herein, we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the persistent Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 at a luminosity of ˜1% L_{Edd}. Spectral analysis reveals the presence of an absorption feature at an energy of ˜7.5 keV, consistent with the presence of a relativistic outflow (v ˜0.1c). Photo-ionization modeling with XSTAR finds this wind to be highly ionized consistent with absorption by Fe XXVI at a distance of ˜2700 R_g from the black hole. This is the highest velocity wind detected from a stellar mass black hole accretion flow to date, and represents the first detection of a photo-ionized outflow in the hard spectral state, demonstrating the persistent of the wind outflow mechanism down to luminosities of at least 1% L_{Edd}.

  11. The low or retrograde spin of the first extragalactic microquasar: implications for Blandford-Znajek powering of jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Fender, Rob P.

    2014-04-01

    Transitions to high mass accretion rates in black hole X-ray binaries are associated with the ejection of powerful, relativistically moving jets. The mechanism that powers such events is thought to be linked to tapping of the angular momentum (spin) of the black hole, the rate of accretion through the disc or some combination of the two. We can attempt to discriminate between these different possibilities by comparing proxies for jet power with spin estimates. Because of the small number of sources that reach Eddington mass accretion rates and have therefore been suggested to act as `standard candles', there has been much recent debate as to whether a significant correlation exists between jet power and black hole spin. We perform continuum fitting to the high-quality, disc-dominated XMM-Newton spectra of the extragalactic microquasar discovered in M31. Assuming prograde spin, we find that for sensible constraints the spin is always very low (a* ≤ 0.15 at 3σ). When combined with a proxy for jet power derived from the maximum 5 GHz radio luminosity during a bright flaring event, we find that the source sits well above the previously reported, rising correlation that would indicate that spin tapping is the dominant mechanism for powering the jets, i.e. it is too `radio loud' for such a low spin. The notable exceptions require the inclination to be improbably small or the jet to be very fast. We investigate whether this could be a byproduct of selecting prograde-only spin, finding that the data statistically favour a substantially retrograde spin for the same constraints (a* ≤-0.17 at 3σ). Although theoretically improbable, this remarkable finding could be confirmation that retrograde spin can power such jets via spin-tapping, as has been suggested for certain radio quasars. In either case this work demonstrates the value of studying local extragalactic microquasars as a means to better understand the physics of jet launching.

  12. The effects of the stellar wind and orbital motion on the jets of high-mass microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High-mass microquasar jets propagate under the effect of the wind from the companion star, and the orbital motion of the binary system. The stellar wind and the orbit may be dominant factors determining the jet properties beyond the binary scales. Aims: This is an analytical study, performed to characterise the effects of the stellar wind and the orbital motion on the jet properties. Methods: Accounting for the wind thrust transferred to the jet, we derive analytical estimates to characterise the jet evolution under the impact of the stellar wind. We include the Coriolis force effect, induced by orbital motion and enhanced by the wind's presence. Large-scale evolution of the jet is sketched, accounting for wind-to-jet thrust transfer, total energy conservation, and wind-jet flow mixing. Results: If the angle of the wind-induced jet bending is larger than its half-opening angle, the following is expected: (i) a strong recollimation shock; (ii) bending against orbital motion, caused by Coriolis forces and enhanced by the wind presence; and (iii) non-ballistic helical propagation further away. Even if disrupted, the jet can re-accelerate due to ambient pressure gradients, but wind entrainment can weaken this acceleration. On large scales, the opening angle of the helical structure is determined by the wind-jet thrust relation, and the wind-loaded jet flow can be rather slow. Conclusions: The impact of stellar winds on high-mass microquasar jets can yield non-ballistic helical jet trajectories, jet partial disruption and wind mixing, shocks, and possibly non-thermal emission. Among other observational diagnostics, such as radiation variability at any band, the radio morphology on milliarcsecond scales can be informative on the wind-jet interaction.

  13. Tuning the composition of ternary Bi2Se3xTe3(1-x) nanoplates and their Raman scattering investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Chen, Haiping; Yang, Chao; Gan, Wei; Muhammad, Zahir; Song, Li

    2016-07-01

    We present the composition engineering and Raman scattering study of Bi2Se3xTe3(1-x) nanoplates that were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method using different substrates, including fluorophlogopite mica, SiO2/Si. The characterizations revealed high crystallinity and layered-structure in the ternary Bi2Se3xTe3(1-x) products. Raman spectra of Bi2Se3xTe3(1-x) ranging from 80-200 cm-1 as a function of different Se-doping levels shows that intrinsic Raman peaks of Bi2Se3xTe3(1-x) nanoplates shift to higher frequency as the ratio of doped-Se increasing. The discontinuity of Raman peaks was found and discussed.

  14. The Role of Fast Magnetic Reconnection on the Radio and Gamma-ray Emission from the Nuclear Regions of Microquasars and Low Luminosity AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, L. H. S.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Singh, C. B.

    2015-04-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region of microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning 1010 orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing two different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, namely, fast reconnection driven by anomalous resistivity (AR) and by turbulence. We apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts—GRBs), and find that LLAGNs and microquasars do confirm the trend above. Furthermore, when driven by turbulence, not only their radio but also their gamma-ray emission can be due to magnetic power released by fast reconnection, which may accelerate particles to relativistic velocities in the core region of these sources. Thus the turbulent-driven fast reconnection model is able to reproduce verywell the observed emission. On the other hand, the emission from blazars and GRBs does not follow the same trend as that of the LLAGNs and microquasars, indicating that the radio and gamma-ray emission in these cases is produced beyond the core, along the jet, by another population of relativistic particles, as expected.

  15. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF MICROQUASARS AND LOW LUMINOSITY AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Kadowaki, L. H. S.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal; Singh, C. B. E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br

    2015-04-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region of microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning 10{sup 10} orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing two different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, namely, fast reconnection driven by anomalous resistivity (AR) and by turbulence. We apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts—GRBs), and find that LLAGNs and microquasars do confirm the trend above. Furthermore, when driven by turbulence, not only their radio but also their gamma-ray emission can be due to magnetic power released by fast reconnection, which may accelerate particles to relativistic velocities in the core region of these sources. Thus the turbulent-driven fast reconnection model is able to reproduce verywell the observed emission. On the other hand, the emission from blazars and GRBs does not follow the same trend as that of the LLAGNs and microquasars, indicating that the radio and gamma-ray emission in these cases is produced beyond the core, along the jet, by another population of relativistic particles, as expected.

  16. SUBARCSECOND LOCATION OF IGR J17480-2446 WITH ROSSI XTE

    SciTech Connect

    Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Ai, A.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Motta, S.; Floris, M.; Testa, V.; Menna, M. T.

    2012-07-20

    On 2010 October 13, the X-ray astronomical satellite Rossi XTE, during the observation of the newly discovered accretion powered X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, detected a lunar occultation of the source. From knowledge of the lunar topography and Earth, Moon, and spacecraft ephemerides at the epoch of the event, we determined the source position with an accuracy of 40 mas (1{sigma} c.l.), which is interesting, given the very poor imaging capabilities of RXTE ({approx}1 Degree-Sign ). For the first time, using a non-imaging X-ray observatory, the position of an X-ray source with a subarcsecond accuracy is derived, demonstrating the neat capabilities of a technique that can be fruitfully applied to current and future X-ray missions.

  17. A versatile 50 ft-lb-sec reaction wheel for TRMM and XTE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialke, Bill

    A 50 ft-lb-sec Reaction Wheel is being manufactured by ITHACO, Inc. for NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) missions, using the same mechanical assemblies as a similar Reaction Wheel developed by ITHACO for the Air Force's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) (P91-1) mission. The versatile design allows variation in motor torque and speed capability with no mechanical modifications. State of the art ball bearing technology is combined with flight proven materials and conventional fabrication techniques to produce a relaible and manufacturable wheel assembly. An ironless armature brushless DC motor is incorporated for high efficiency and minimum weight. Comprehensive tradeoff analyses from the Reaction Wheel development are discussed for each component, and performance characteristics are presented for design variations from a high torque Reaction Wheel used in a three axis stabilized spacecraft to a low torque Momentum Wheel used in a momentum biased attitude Control System.

  18. Quenching studies in bridgman-grown Cd xHg 1-xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capper, P.; Gosney, J. J. G.; Jones, C. L.; Quelch, M. J. T.

    1983-09-01

    Rapid quenching of crystals of Cd xHg 1- xTe (CMT) while growing at the slow rates of the Bridgman process reveals the solid/liquid interface at the point of quenching. The shape and extent of these interfaces, revealed by etching longitudinally-cut sections, have been related to the resulting radial composition variations as determined by infra-red transmission measurements. In the singly-quenched crystals features are seen at the interface which are believed to be diffusional boundary layers. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis have been used to determine the thickness of these layers. The evidence suggests that melt stirring reduces the thickness as expected for diffusional boundary layers.

  19. The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Solar Array Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward M.; Kichak, Robert; Niemeyer, Lee; Stegeman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The XTE was launched December 30, 1995. Shortly after launch, it become apparent that the solar array was not performing as expected. On leaving shadow, the array exhibited many discontinuous drops in current output. The size of each of these drops was consistent with the loss of a part of a sell. The current decreases could not be caused by the loss of an entire circuit. This meant that the array may have had numerous cracked solar cells that opened as array got warmer. Studies performed on the array's qualification panel suggest that the cell cracks may have been cased by extensive tap testing performed on the array and that these cracks were undetectable at room temperature using usual inspection method.

  20. Optical investigation of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Zn 1- xMn xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasson, P.; Van Huong, C. Nguyen; Benhida, A.; Lascaray, J. P.; Triboulet, R.

    1990-01-01

    Zn 1- xMn xTe alloys (0 <- x <- 0.72) have been investigated by photocurrent spectroscopy, electroreflectance in the electr olyte configuration and under vacuum by absorption and reflectivity measurements. Electroreflectance enables one to accurately determine the fundamental gap as a function of the alloy composition. We find E0( x) = (2.28 + 0.53 x) eV, a linear law which is in good agreement with previously published results. In the case of thermally treated samples with x ≈ 0.70 electroreflectance, photocurrent and absorption spectroscopy indicate that the fundamental transition may be totally different from what is expected depending on the part of the ingot from which the samples the originate ( E0 = 1.854 eV instead of 2.65 eV). It is assumed on the basis of complementary investigations that the complete band structure of the anomalous samples is shifted towards lower energy values.

  1. THE MASS OF THE BLACK HOLE IN XTE J1118+480

    SciTech Connect

    Khargharia, Juthika; Froning, Cynthia S.; Robinson, Edward L.; Gelino, Dawn M. E-mail: cynthia.froning@colorado.edu E-mail: dawn@ipac.caltech.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present contemporaneous, broadband, near-infrared spectroscopy (0.9-2.45 {mu}m) and H-band photometry of the black hole X-ray binary, XTE J1118+480. We determined the fractional dilution of the NIR ellipsoidal light curves of the donor star from other emission sources in the system by comparing the absorption features in the spectrum with field stars of known spectral type. We constrained the donor star spectral type to K7 V-M1 V and determined that the donor star contributed 54% {+-} 27% of the H-band flux at the epoch of our observations. This result underscores the conclusion that the donor star cannot be assumed to be the only NIR emission source in quiescent X-ray binaries. The H-band light curve shows a double-humped asymmetric modulation with extra flux at orbital phase 0.75. The light curve was fitted with a donor star model light curve, taking into account a constant second flux component based on the dilution analysis. We also fitted models that included emission from the donor star, a constant component from the accretion disk, and a phase-variable component from the bright spot where the mass accretion stream impacts the disk. These simple models with reasonable estimates for the component physical parameters can fully account for the observed light curve, including the extra emission at phase 0.75. From our fits, we constrained the binary inclination to 68 Degree-Sign {<=} i {<=} 79 Degree-Sign . This leads to a black hole mass of 6.9 M{sub Sun} {<=} M{sub BH} {<=} 8.2 M{sub Sun }. Long-term variations in the NIR light curve shape in XTE J1118+480 are similar to those seen in other X-ray binaries and demonstrate the presence of continued activity and variability in these systems even when in full quiescence.

  2. Ion-implantation-induced damage and resonant levels in Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te

    SciTech Connect

    Gresslehner, K.H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1980-09-01

    The dependence of the carrier concentration on the implantation dose and on the temperature was investigated in ion-implanted thin films of Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te (0< or =x<0.1). By assuming a twofold defect level in the conduction band we are able to fit the experimental results. With increasing tin content the energy of the defect level shifts towards the conduction-band edge. By extending the results to SnTe a general model for the understanding of the electrical properties of ion-implanted Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te (0< or =x< or =1) is suggested.

  3. Multifunctional Cu2-xTe Nanocubes Mediated Combination Therapy for Multi-Drug Resistant MDA MB 453

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulose, Aby Cheruvathoor; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Mohamed, M. Sheikh; Aburto, Rebeca Romero; Mitcham, Trevor; Bouchard, Richard R.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D. Sakthi

    2016-10-01

    Hypermethylated cancer populations are hard to treat due to their enhanced chemo-resistance, characterized by aberrant methylated DNA subunits. Herein, we report on invoking response from such a cancer lineage to chemotherapy utilizing multifunctional copper telluride (Cu2-XTe) nanocubes (NCs) as photothermal and photodynamic agents, leading to significant anticancer activity. The NCs additionally possessed photoacoustic and X-ray contrast imaging abilities that could serve in image-guided therapeutic studies.

  4. Disentangling the NIR/optical emission of the black hole XTE J1650-500 during outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. A.; Chaty, S.; Zurita Heras, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Context. While the sources of X-ray and radio emission in the different states of low-mass X-ray binaries are relatively well understood, the origin of the near-infrared (NIR) and optical emission is more often debated. It is likely that the NIR/optical flux originates from an amalgam of different emission regions, because it occurs at the intersecting wavelengths of multiple processes. Aims: We aim to identify the NIR/optical emission region(s) of one such low-mass X-ray binary and black hole candidate, XTE J1650-500, via photometric, timing, and spectral analyses. Methods: We present unique NIR/optical images and spectra, obtained with the ESO-New Technology Telescope, during the peak of the 2001 outburst of XTE J1650-500. Results: The data suggest that the NIR/optical flux is due to a combination of emission mechanisms including a significant contribution from X-ray reprocessing and, at early times in the hard state, a relativistic jet that is NIR/radio dim compared to similar sources. Conclusions: The jet of XTE J1650-500 is relatively weak compared to that of other black hole low-mass X-ray binaries, possibly because we observe as it is being "turned off" or quenched at the state transition. While there are several outliers to the radio-X-ray correlation of the hard state of low-mass X-ray binaries, XTE J1650-500 is the first example of an outlier to the NIR/optical-X-ray correlation. Based on observations made with the European Southern Observatory telescopes obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility.

  5. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray-radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, E. M.; Jonker, P. G.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Torres, M. A. P.; Homan, J.; Markoff, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kaaret, P.; Wijnands, R.; Gallo, E.; Özel, F.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Fender, R. P.

    2012-07-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752-223 is fainter than 24.4 mag in the i' band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-2010 outburst shows that the outburst amplitude is more than 8 mag in the i' band. Known X-ray properties of the source combined with the faintness of the quiescence optical counterpart and the large outburst optical amplitude point towards a short orbital-period system (Porb≲ 6.8 h) with an M type (or later) mass donor, at a distance of 3.5 ≲d≲ 8 kpc. Simultaneous X-ray and radio data were collected with Chandra and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), allowing constraints to be placed on the quiescent X-ray and radio flux of XTE J1752-223. Furthermore, using data covering the final stage of the outburst decay, we investigated the low-luminosity end of the X-ray-radio correlation for this source and compared it with other BHTs. We found that XTE J1752-223 adds to the number of outliers with respect to the 'standard' X-ray-radio luminosity relation. Furthermore, XTE J1752-223 is the second source, after the BHT H1743-322, that shows a transition from the region of the outliers towards the 'standard' correlation at low luminosity. Finally, we report on a faint, variable X-ray source we discovered with Chandra at an angular distance of ˜2.9 arcsec to XTE J1752-223 and at a position angle consistent with that of the radio jets previously observed from the BHT. We discuss the possibility that we detected X-ray emission associated with a jet from XTE J1752-223.

  6. Optical second-harmonic imaging of Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scheidt, T.; Rohwer, E.G.; Bergmann, H.M. von; Saucedo, E.; Dieguez, E.; Fornaro, L.; Stafast, H.

    2005-05-15

    We employ femtosecond laser pulses (80 fs, 1.59 eV, and 80 MHz) to study the optical second-harmonic (SH) response of Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te ternary alloys (x about 0.2) grown by the vertical Bridgman method. The alloy segregates into a Pb-rich and a Cd-rich phase, the latter dominating the SH response of the ternary alloy by at least two orders of magnitude. Several sample regions show a regular layer-by-layer accommodation of the Pb-rich and Cd-rich phases as seen by a periodic alternation of the alloy's SH response on a {approx}10-{mu}m length scale. Furthermore, we employ polarization-resolved SH imaging as well as SH imaging at different azimuthal angles to obtain spatially resolved mappings of the sample, which are sensitive to the composition as well as the growth orientation of the Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te material system. We observe an azimuthal phase shift of approximately 30 deg. between coherent macroscopic regions (several mm{sup 2}) in the Cd-rich phase of the ternary alloy. We interpret these regions as large area crystalline grains of (111) and (411) crystal orientations and approximately equal composition. Hence, SH imaging is shown to spatially resolve regions of different growth directions within the Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te sample.

  7. Discovery and X-ray Monitoring of a New Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Swank, J. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Krimm, H.

    2010-03-01

    On October 23, 2009 a new X-ray transient source XTE J1752-223 was discovered by RXTE during observations scanning the Galactic Bulge region. Source identification in the optical, infra-red, and radio immediately followed. The first pointed RXTE observation, three days after the discovery, revealed a very hard non-thermal energy spectrum and strong iron line emission. After the initial rise the source flux leveled off and showed very stable properties for more than a month of monitoring observations until the Sun was too close for RXTE to observe. We analyzed RXTE data collected during this monitoring campaign. The aperiodic fast variability properties are strongly reminiscent of the extreme hard states shown by the well known black hole binary Cygnus X-1, as well as several other black hole candidates. The overall similarity of the source properties to those of other Galactic black holes classify XTE J1752-223 as a new stellar black hole candidate. We compare spectral and variability properties of XTE J1752-223 to Cygnus X-1 and discuss possible implications for various mechanisms of non-thermal emission.

  8. X-ray spectroscopic and timing studies of galactic black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon Matthew

    In rare cases, optical observations of Galactic binary star systems which are bright in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum dynamically constrain the mass of one component to be well above theoretical limits for a neutron star. These systems—and systems with similar X-ray properties—are classified as black hole binaries. In this thesis, I report on observations of black hole binaries made with satellite observatories in the X-ray band. The region closest to the black hole is revealed in X-rays due to the viscous heating of matter that is accreted from the companion star. X-ray observations of these systems may therefore reveal General Relativistic effects. A fundamental and testable prediction of General Relativity is that matter may orbit more closely around black holes with significant angular momentum. I have investigated the possibility of black hole “spin” and the geometry of accretion flows in these systems using X-ray continuum spectroscopy, fast variability studies, and the shape of iron fluorescent emission lines in this band. I present evidence for black hole spin in XTE J1550-564, XTE J1650- 500, and XTE J1748-248. Spin is not required by high- resolution spectral analysis of the archetypical Galactic black hole—Cygnus X-1—but a thermal accretion disk plus hot corona geometry is confirmed. Studies of XTE J1118+480 and GRS 1758-258 at low X-ray luminosity reveal that models for radiatively-inefficient accretion do not satisfactorily describe the geometry in these systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)/

  9. Modification of band gap in surface layer in Cd 1-xZn xTe by YAG:Nd +3 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvid, Artur; Fedorenko, Leonid L.; Korbutjak, Dmytro V.; Kryluk, Sergiy G.; Yusupov, Mikola M.; Mychko, Aleksandr

    2007-02-01

    A mechanism of formation of graded band-gap based on Thermogradient Effect (TGE) is proposed in Cd 1-xZn xTe at irradiation by second harmonic of a Q-switched YAG:Nd laser. According to the effect, the interstitial atoms of Cd (Cd i) in Cd 1-xZn xTe move along the temperature gradient while the Cd vacancies (V Cd) and Zn atoms - in the opposite direction, into the bulk of the semiconductor where temperature is lower. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra studied at 5 K show that concentration of Zn atoms increases due to aggregation of VCd with Zn after laser irradiation. Formation of a graded band-gap in Cd 1-xZn xTe crystal at irradiation by second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser by is shown to be possible.

  10. On the Nature of XTE J0421+560/CI Cam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belloni, T.; vandenAncker, M.; Dieters, S.; Fender, R.; Fox, D. W.; Kommers, J. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; VanParadijs, J.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of RXTE, BATSE and optical/IR data of the 1998 outburst of the x-ray transient system XTE J0421+650. The x-ray outburst shows a very fast decay initial e-folding time approximately 0.5 days, slowing down to about 2.3 days). The X ray spectrum in the 2-25 keV band is thermal, softening considerably during decay. Intrinsic absorption is observed, also strongly variable. A strong iron line at around 6.7 keV is observed. No fast time variability is observed (<0.1 rms in the 1-4906 Hz band at peak). The analysis of optical/IR data suggest that the secondary is a b[e] star and place the system at a distance of about 2 kpc. At this distance the 2-25 keV luminosity is about 5 x 10(exp 37) erg/seconds. We compare the properties of this system with those of the Be/NS LMC transient A 0538-66 and suggest that CI cam is of a similar nature. The presence of strong radio emission during outburst indicates that the compact object could be a black hole.

  11. Highly efficient functional GexPb1-xTe based thermoelectric alloys.

    PubMed

    Gelbstein, Yaniv; Davidow, Joseph

    2014-10-07

    Methods for enhancement of the direct thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency, upon development of advanced thermoelectric materials, are constantly investigated mainly for efficient implementation of thermoelectric devices in automotive vehicles, for converting the waste heat generated in such engines into useful electrical power and thereby reduction of the fuel consumption and CO2 emission levels. It was recently shown that GeTe based compounds and specifically GeTe-PbTe rich alloys are efficient p-type thermoelectric compositions. In the current research, Bi2Te3 doping and PbTe alloying effects in GexPb1-xTe alloys, subjected to phase separation reactions, were investigated for identifying the phase separation potential for enhancement of the thermoelectric properties beyond a pure alloying effect. All of the investigated compositions exhibit maximal dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, values beyond 1, with the extraordinary value of 2.1 found for the 5% Bi2Te3 doped-Ge0.87Pb0.13Te composition, considered as among the highest ever reported.

  12. THE CROSS SPECTRAL TIME LAG EVOLUTION ALONG BRANCHES IN XTE J1701-462

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaosheng; Chen Li; Bu Qingcui; Wang Dehua; Qu Jinlu E-mail: chenli@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-04-20

    We investigate the cross spectrum of XTE J1701-462 in various types of neutron star low-mass X-ray binary subclasses during its 2006-2007 outburst. We analyze the relation between the time lags and temporal variabilities. We find that the hard time lags accompany horizontal branch oscillations (HBOs) and the soft time lags dominate the noise in the low frequency range 0.1-10 Hz on HB. In the Cyg-like phase, the time lags decrease on the middle normal branch (NB) from HB/NB vertex to NB/FB vertex, whereas the time lags are roughly invariant in the Sco-like source. We discuss the fact that the Compton upscattering by the corona introduces the soft lag in low-frequency noise. We suggest that the variation of the Comptonization component from the disk emission leads to the HBOs' time lag evolutions along the Z tracks. We also report the rms amplitude spectrum and phase lag spectrum for the normal branch oscillation (NBO). A {approx}160 Degree-Sign phase lag is found. We find that the rms amplitudes of both the Cyg-like and the Sco-like NBOs linearly increase with the photon energy in low energy bands, and drop in the highest energy band.

  13. Transient relativistic ejections and stationary core in XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Paragi, Z.; Corbel, S.; Gurvits, L. I.; Campbell, R. M.; Brocksopp, C.

    2011-11-01

    The Galactic X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 was shown to have properties of black hole binary candidates. As reported in our previous paper, we identified transient and decelerating ejecta in multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) and the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Here we present new EVN and VLBA data in which a new transient ejection event and later a stationary component are identified. The latter is interpreted as a reappearance of the radio core/compact jet during the transition from soft to hard X-ray state. This component appears to be highly variable in brightness although effects of tropospheric instabilities might play a role too. We also re-analyse the earlier VLBI data and find that the transient ejecta closer to the core position has significantly higher proper motion, further strengthening the case for strongly decelerating ejecta on the scale of several hundred milliarcsecond, never observed in X-ray binaries before. Although the distance of the source is not well constrained, it is clear that these ejectas are at least mildly relativistic at the early stages. Moreover, we show the large scale environment of the transient from the Westerbork synthesis array data recorded in parallel during the EVN run.

  14. NMR study of vacancy and structure-induced changes in Cu2-xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirusi, Ali A.; Page, Alexander; Uher, Ctirad; Ross, Joseph H.

    2017-07-01

    We report Cu and Te NMR measurements on Cu2-xTe with x between 0.13 and 0.22. Aided by powder x-ray analysis and computed NMR quadrupole shifts, a structure change near x=0.20 was found consistent with structures reported by Baranova, with best fits to the β-I structure for x=0.22 and β-III for smaller x. NMR T1 and Hall effect results demonstrate p-type electronic behavior with filling of simple hole pockets induced by increased numbers of vacancies for both phases. Furthermore the Cu and Te chemical shifts are large and negative, as observed in topologically inverted semiconductors, with a splitting into two distinct local environments for both Cu and Te sites in the x=0.22 structure. Cu T1 results show a rapid decrease of the energy barrier for initiation of Cu ion hopping to 0.12 eV for x=0.22, considerably smaller than observed at higher temperatures, indicating a tail of relatively mobile Cu ions which may be of significance for potential device applications.

  15. RXTE Spectral Study of the New X-ray Transient XTE J1859+226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, W. B.; Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.; Taam, R. E.

    1999-12-01

    The transient galactic black hole candidate XTE J1859+226 was discovered by the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) on 1999 October 9, within a day after its outburst began. Pointed observations with RXTE began on 1999 October 10.57, and continued at a rate of about twice per day. Preliminary results of fits to PCA and HEXTE spectra for October 9--14 show that a simple absorbed powerlaw is insufficient to model the data. The fit is greatly improved by using an absorbed cutoff powerlaw with reflection. The photon index rose from 1.8 on October 9 to 3.2 on October 14. The cutoff energy started near 100 keV, dropped to 50 keV, then rose to an undetectable level between October 12.86 and October 13.11, potentially indicating a state change. We will present spectral analysis of these and later data, along with comparison of the spectral and timing properties. This work was funded by NASA.

  16. RXTE Studies of the New X-ray Transient XTE J1859+226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, W. B.; Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.; Taam, R. E.

    The transient galactic black hole candidate XTE J1859+226 was discovered by the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) on 1999 October 9, within a day after its outburst began. Pointed observations with RXTE began on 1999 October 10.57. The source peaked at about 1.5 Crab 8 days after onset. Preliminary results of fits to PCA and HEXTE spectra for the early observations show that a simple absorbed powerlaw is insufficient to model the data. The fit is greatly improved by using an absorbed cutoff powerlaw with reflection. The photon index was 1.7 on October 9 and quickly rose, remained between 2.5--2.8 for a few weeks, then dropped to values between 2--2.5. A cutoff energy which was initially below 100 keV quickly rose to an undetectable level. Reflection was significant, but highly variable. The source showed strong temporal variability with a QPO varying from 0.5--4 Hz at some times, and very little temporal variability at others. We will present spectral and temporal analyses of the PCA and HEXTE data, focusing on their interpretation relative to possible state changes in the source.

  17. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MICROQUASARS CYGNUS X-1, CYGNUS X-3, GRS 1915+105, AND GX 339–4 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pooley, Guy G.

    2013-10-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ∼4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339–4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ∼5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (∼3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339–4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} and 1.6 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  18. Growth and characterization of CdTe, Mn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, K. Y.; Giles-Taylor, N. C.; Schetzina, J. F.; Bachmann, K. J.

    1986-05-01

    Structures and growth characteristics of crystals based on the Cd-Te lattice, which are potentially useful in infrared radiation detectors, are described. Single crystals of CdTe, Mn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) have been grown by the vertical Bridgman method and those of Zn(x)Cd(1-l)Te by zone leveling. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to determine the quality and uniformity of composition. From the probing of small areas, allowed by this PL characterization technique, the uniform incorporation of Mn, Zn, and Se into the CdTe lattice was determined.

  19. Growth and characterization of CdTe, Mn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, K.Y.; Giles-Taylor, N.C.; Schetzina, J.F.; Bachmann, K.J.

    1986-05-01

    Structures and growth characteristics of crystals based on the Cd-Te lattice, which are potentially useful in infrared radiation detectors, are described. Single crystals of CdTe, Mn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) have been grown by the vertical Bridgman method and those of Zn(x)Cd(1-l)Te by zone leveling. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to determine the quality and uniformity of composition. From the probing of small areas, allowed by this PL characterization technique, the uniform incorporation of Mn, Zn, and Se into the CdTe lattice was determined. 15 references.

  20. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. J.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Narayan, R.; Steeghs, D.; Remillard, R. A.; Dhawan, V.

    2014-11-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6{sub −1.6}{sup +2.0} kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4{sub −1.8}{sup +2.0} M {sub ☉}. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is –3.19 ± 0.03 mas yr{sup –1} and –6.24 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 ± 24 km s{sup –1} at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60° ± 5° and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ≳ 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  1. First Principles Calculations of Structural, Electronic, Thermodynamic and Thermal Properties of BaxSr1-xTe Ternary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, S.; Meradji, H.; Amara Korba, S.; Ghemid, S.; El Haj Hassan, F.

    2014-12-01

    The structural, electronic thermodynamic and thermal properties of BaxSr1-xTe ternary mixed crystals have been studied using the ab initio full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof-generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential. Moreover, the recently proposed modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential approximation, which successfully corrects the band-gap problem was also used for band structure calculations. The ground-state properties are determined for the cubic bulk materials BaTe, SrTe and their mixed crystals at various concentrations (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). The effect of composition on lattice constant, bulk modulus and band gap was analyzed. Deviation of the lattice constant from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence (LCD) were observed for the ternary BaxSr1-xTe alloys. The microscopic origins of the gap bowing were explained by using the approach of Zunger and co-workers. On the other hand, the thermodynamic stability of these alloys was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing, ΔHm as well as the phase diagram. It was shown that these alloys are stable at high temperature. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of BaxSr1-xTe alloys were investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered.

  2. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO's sixth science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadors, G. D.; Goetz, E.; Riles, K.; Creighton, T.; Robinet, F.

    2017-02-01

    Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) and x-ray transient XTE J1751-305 are low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) that may emit continuous gravitational waves detectable in the band of ground-based interferometric observatories. Neutron stars in LMXBs could reach a torque-balance steady-state equilibrium in which angular momentum addition from infalling matter from the binary companion is balanced by angular momentum loss, conceivably due to gravitational-wave emission. Torque balance predicts a scale for detectable gravitational-wave strain based on observed x-ray flux. This paper describes a search for Sco X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO science run 6 data using the TwoSpect algorithm, based on searching for orbital modulations in the frequency domain. While no detections are claimed, upper limits on continuous gravitational-wave emission from Sco X-1 are obtained, spanning gravitational-wave frequencies from 40 to 2040 Hz and projected semimajor axes from 0.90 to 1.98 light-seconds. These upper limits are injection validated, equal any previous set in initial LIGO data, and extend over a broader parameter range. At optimal strain sensitivity, achieved at 165 Hz, the 95% confidence level random-polarization upper limit on dimensionless strain h0 is approximately 1.8 ×10-24. The closest approach to the torque-balance limit, within a factor of 27, is also at 165 Hz. Upper limits are set in particular narrow frequency bands of interest for J1751-305. These are the first upper limits known to date on r -mode emission from this XTE source. The TwoSpect method will be used in upcoming searches of Advanced LIGO and Virgo data.

  3. Thermal analysis of specific heat measurements in glassy Se80-xTe20Sbx alloys in glass transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, S.; Mehta, N.; Sharma, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    In the present report, we have done specific heat measurements in glassy Se80-xTe20Sbx (0 ≤ x ≤ 15) alloys in glass transition region. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is used for this purpose. We have observed a tremendously huge increase in the specific heat (Cp) values at the glass transition temperature. The thermal analysis shows that the values of Cp below glass transition temperature and the difference of Cp values before and after glass transition (∆Cp) are highly composition-dependent.

  4. Revealing the inner accretion flow around black holes using rapid variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    The geometry of the inner accretion flow of X-ray binaries is complex, with multiple regions contributing to the observed emission. Frequency-resolved spectroscopy is a powerful tool in breaking this spectral degeneracy. We have extracted the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic in GX339-4 and XTE J1550-564. We compare these to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (< 0.1s) variability. Our results support the picture where the QPO arises from vertical (Lense-Thirring) precession of an inhomogeneous hot flow, so that it is softer at larger radii closer to the truncated disc, and harder in the innermost parts of the flow where the rapid variability is produced. This coupling between variability and spectra allows us to constrain the soft Comptonization component, breaking the degeneracy plaguing the time-averaged spectrum and revealing the geometry of the accretion flow close to the black hole. We further show how the upcoming launch of ASTRO-H will allow even more specific regions in the accretion flow to be probed.

  5. ON THE NATURE OF QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION PHASE LAGS IN BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov

    2012-06-20

    Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes (BHs). In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provide feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO waveform is presented by the product of a perturbation and time-delayed response factors, where the response is energy dependent. The essential property of this effect is its nonlinear and multiplicative nature. Our multiplicative reverberation model successfully describes the QPO components in energy-dependent power spectra as well as the appearance of the phase lags between signals in different energy bands. We apply our model to QPOs observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer in BH candidate XTE J1550-564. We briefly discuss the implications of the observed energy dependence of the QPO reverberation times and amplitudes on the nature of the power-law spectral component and its variability.

  6. DISCOVERY OF MILLIHERTZ X-RAY OSCILLATIONS IN A TRANSIENT ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IN M82

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Hua; Rao Fengyun; Kaaret, Philip

    2010-02-20

    We report on the discovery of X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at frequencies of 3-4 mHz from a transient ultraluminous X-ray source X42.3+59 in M82. The QPOs are strong and broad and appear with weak or absent red noise, and are detected only in Chandra observations when the source is brighter than 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. The QPO behavior is similar to the type A-I QPOs found in XTE J1550 - 564, which is a subclass of low-frequency QPOs with properties in between types A and B. Therefore, we identify the QPOs in X42.3+59 as of type A or B and rule out the possibility of type C. With this identification, the mass of the black hole in X42.3+59 can be inferred as in the range of 12,000-43,000 solar masses by scaling the QPO frequency to that of the type A/B QPOs in stellar mass black holes. Cool disk emission is detected in one Chandra observation, and the disk inner radius suggests a similar black hole mass range. Black holes of such a high mass are able to produce an energy output in a manner similar to X42.3+59 by accreting from the interstellar medium directly.

  7. An empirical method for improving the quality of RXTE PCA spectra

    SciTech Connect

    García, Javier A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Grinberg, Victoria E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: rr@space.mit.edu

    2014-10-10

    We fitted all of the several hundred RXTE PCA spectra of the Crab individually to a simple power-law model; the total number of counts in the composite spectrum is >10{sup 9}. We then used the spectrum of residuals to derive a calibration tool, called pcacorr, that we apply to large samples of spectra for GX 339-4, H1743-322, and XTE J1550-564. Application of the tool improved the quality of all the fits, and the improvement is dramatic for spectra with ≳ 10{sup 7} counts. The Crab residual spectrum is somewhat different for each of the five Proportional Counter Array (PCA) detectors, but it was relatively stable over the course of the mission. We recommend that pcacorr be routinely applied to spectra with ≳ 10{sup 6} counts and that one include a systematic error of 0.1%, rather than the 0.5-1% value that has customarily been used. We expect that application of the tool will result in an increase in sensitivity of the PCA to faint spectral features by up to an order of magnitude.

  8. On the Nature of QPO Phase Lags in Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes. In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provides a feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO waveform is presented by the product of a perturbation and a time delayed response factors, where the response is energy dependent. The essential property of this effect is its non-linear and multiplicative nature. Our multiplicative reverberation model successfully describes the QPO components in energy dependent power spectra as well as the appearance of the phase lags between signal in different energy bands. We apply our model to QPOs observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in BH candidate XTE J1550-564. We briefly discuss the implications of the observed energy dependence of the QPO reverberation times and amplitudes to the nature of the power law spectral component and its variability.

  9. High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, T. M.; Sanna, A.; Méndez, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of a large data base of X-ray observations of 22 galactic black hole transients with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer throughout its operative life for a total exposure time of ˜12 ms. We excluded persistent systems and the peculiar source GRS 1915+105, as well as the most recently discovered sources. The semi-automatic homogeneous analysis was aimed at the detection of high-frequency (100-1000 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO), of which several cases were previously reported in the literature. After taking into account the number of independent trials, we obtained 11 detections from two sources only: XTE J1550-564 and GRO J1655-40. For the former, the detected frequencies are clustered around 180 and 280 Hz, as previously found. For the latter, the previously reported dichotomy 300-450 Hz is found to be less sharp. We discuss our results in comparison with kHz QPO in neutron-star X-ray binaries and the prospects for future timing X-ray missions.

  10. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single-Event Effect (SEE) Performance on X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Solid-state Recorders (SSRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Gee, George; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    We present multi-year Single Event Upset (SEU) flight data on Solid State Recorder (SSR) memories for the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) NASA mission. Actual SEU rates are compared to the predicted rates based on ground test data and environment models.

  11. Influence of soft X-ray of a vacuum spark with laser initiation on the surface properties of solid solutions CdXHg1-XTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyin, O. B.; Bogdanov, G. S.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Gerasimov, I. A.; Melekhov, A. P.; Krapiva, P. S.; Novikov, I. K.; Ramakoti, R. S.; Sredin, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    At a certain form of broadband source soft X-ray spectrum is expected to achieve selective radiation exposure to one of the elements of a multi-component material CdXHg1-XTe. In this case we can talk about a change of the surface properties of the substance as a result of selective absorption of soft X-rays.

  12. Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots growth in a silicate glass matrix by the fusion method

    SciTech Connect

    Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Lima Fernandes, Guilherme de; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine; Baffa, Oswaldo; Gómez, Jorge Antônio

    2014-09-29

    In this study, we synthesized Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots (USQDs) in SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system using the fusion method. Growth of these Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs was confirmed by optical absorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The blueshift of absorption transition with increasing manganese concentration gives evidence of incorporation of manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) in CdTe USQDs. AFM, TEM, and MFM confirmed, respectively, the formation of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs with uniformly distributed size and magnetic phases. Furthermore, EPR spectra showed six lines associated to the S = 5/2 spin half-filled d-state, characteristic of Mn{sup 2+}, and confirmed that Mn{sup 2+} are located in the sites core and surface of the CdTe USQD. Therefore, synthesis of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs may allow the control of optical and magnetic properties.

  13. Long-Term Spectral and Timing Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1908+094

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woods, Peter M.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Ruppen, Michael; Swank, Jean H.; Markwardt, Craig B.; VanDerKlis, Michiel

    2004-01-01

    We present the long-term X-ray light curves and detailed spectral and timing analyses of XTE J1908+094 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations covering two outbursts in 2002 and early 2003. At the onset of the first outburst, the source was found in a spectrally low/hard state lasting for approx.40 days, followed by a 3 day long transition to the high/soft state. The source flux (in 2- 10 keV) reached approx.100 mcrab on 2002 April 6, then decayed rapidly. In power spectra, we detect strong band-limited noise and varying low- frequency quasi-periodic oscillations that evolved from approx.0.5 to approx.5 Hz during the initial low/hard state of the source. We find that the second outburst closely resembled the spectral evolution of the first. The X-ray transient s overall outburst characteristics led us to classify XTE J1908+094 as a black hole candidate. Here we also derive precise X-ray position of the source using Chandra observations that were performed during the decay phase of the first outburst and following the second outburst.

  14. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of the Transient X-ray Pulsar XTE J 18591+083

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; intZand, J. J. M.; Levine, A. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2008-01-01

    We present observations of the 9.8 s X-ray pulsar XTE J159+083 made with the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and the Wide Field Cameras (WFC) on board BeppoSAX. The ASM data cover a 12 year time interval and show that an extended outburst occurred between approximately MJD50, 250, and 50, 460 (1996 June 16 to 1997 January 12). The ASM data excluding this outburst interval suggest a possible 61 day modulation. Eighteen sets of PCA observations were obtained over an approx. one month interval in 1999. The flux variability measured with the PCA appears consistent with the possible period found with the ASM. The PCA measurements of the pulse period showed it to decrease non-monotonically and then to increase significantly. Doppler shifts due to orbital motion rather than accretion torques appear to be better able to explain the pulse period changes. Observations with the WFC during the extended outburst give an error box which is consistent with a previously determined PCA error box but is significantly smaller. The transient nature of XTE J1859+083 and the length of its pulse period are consistent with it being a Be/neutral star binary. The possible 61 day orbital period would be of the expected length for a Be star system with a 9.8 s pulse period.

  15. THE VARIABLE QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION OF THE TRANSIENT NEUTRON STAR XTE J1701-462

    SciTech Connect

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Degenaar, Nathalie; Cackett, Edward M.; Brown, Edward F.; Mendez, Mariano; Belloni, Tomaso M.

    2011-08-01

    We present the results of continued monitoring of the quiescent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and Swift. A new Chandra observation from 2010 October extends our tracking of the neutron star surface temperature from {approx_equal}800 days to {approx_equal}1160 days since the end of an exceptionally luminous 19 month outburst. This observation indicates that the neutron star crust may still be slowly cooling toward thermal equilibrium with the core; another observation further into quiescence is needed to verify this. The shape of the overall cooling curve is consistent with that of a broken power law, although an exponential decay to a constant level cannot be excluded with the present data. To investigate possible low-level activity, we conducted a monitoring campaign of XTE J1701-462 with Swift during 2010 April-October. Short-term flares-presumably arising from episodic low-level accretion-were observed up to a luminosity of {approx}1 x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, {approx}20 times higher than the normal quiescent level. We conclude that flares of this magnitude are not likely to have significantly affected the equilibrium temperature of the neutron star and are probably not able to have a measurable impact on the cooling curve. However, it is possible that brighter and longer periods of low-level activity have had an appreciable effect on the equilibrium temperature.

  16. Application of the Nonballistic Model to the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 and the Quasar NRAO 150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, T. Y.; Gong, B. P.

    2017-02-01

    Optical and radio observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 have exhibited a slightly curved motion of the jet components, which is associated with its radio light curve. In addition, observations of the quasar NRAO 150 have revealed a core-jet structure wobbling with a high angular speed. In this paper, the phenomena displayed in these two different sources are interpreted as the precession of a bent jet. In such a scenario, hot spots reproduced at different separations from the core precess on the same precession cone, in which different components correspond to different propagation times to the observer. By fitting the kinematics of the components of XTE J1752-223 and its light curve with a curved pattern of precession period 314 days, we find that the propagation time can make an earlier event appear later, and the jet axis can oscillate during its precession. Simulating the quasar NRAO 150 with the same scenario reveals that the knots at larger separation from the core precess at a slower speed than those closer in. A possible mechanism relating to the cooling time of a component is proposed. These three new results are of importance in understanding the physics underlying the curved jet as well as the activity of the central engine of different black hole systems.

  17. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in Mo(x)W(1-x)Te2.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, BaoKai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Neupane, Madhab; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Zahid Hasan, M

    2016-02-15

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in Mo(x)W(1-x)Te2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touching points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound Mo(x)W(1-x)Te2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.

  18. Inclination dependence of QPO phase lags in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Ingram, A.; Uttley, P.; Motta, S. E.; Belloni, T. M.; Gardenier, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies from ˜0.05to30 Hz are a common feature in the X-ray emission of accreting black hole binaries. As the QPOs originate from the innermost accretion flow, they provide the opportunity to probe the behaviour of matter in extreme gravity. In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of the inclination dependence of phase lags associated with both type-B and type-C QPOs in a sample of 15 Galactic black hole binaries. We find that the phase lag at the type-C QPO frequency strongly depends on inclination, both in evolution with the QPO frequency and sign. Although we find that the type-B QPO soft lags are associated with high-inclination sources, the source sample is too small to confirm that this as a significant inclination dependence. These results are consistent with a geometrical origin of type-C QPOs and a different origin for type-B and type-C QPOs. We discuss the possibility that the phase lags originate from a pivoting spectral power law during each QPO cycle, while the inclination dependence arises from differences in dominant relativistic effects. We also search for energy dependences in the type-C QPO frequency. We confirm this effect in the three known sources (GRS 1915+105, H1743-322 and XTE J1550-564) and newly detect it in XTE J1859+226. Lastly, our results indicate that the unknown inclination sources XTE J1859+226 and MAXI J1543-564 are most consistent with a high inclination.

  19. Black holes in GRBs, Binary X-ray sources and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Remo; Patricelli, Barbara; Grazia Bernardini, Maria; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; de Barros, Gustavo; Izzo, Luca

    Gamma Ray Bursts are possibly the most important tools to study the Physics of Black Holes (BHs), evidencing instantaneous BH formation occurring at the highest redshifts. Such pro-cesses of BH formation with distinctive processes of electron-positron pair creation by vacuum polarization are expected to be different from the ones observed in nearby binary X-ray sources (Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4, 4U 1543-47, XTE J1550-564, XTE J1650-500, H 1743-322 and XTE J1859-226). These last ones should in fact originate from precursors activity acting on much longer time scales, due to accretion mechanisms. We have studied high redshift GRB sources within the fireshell model to infer some of the properties of the BHs from which they originate. Here we present, as an example, the analysis of GRB 050904, characterized by a redshift z=6.3 and an isotropic energy release of Eiso = 1.04x1054 ergs, and of GRB090423, characterized by z = 8.1 and Eiso = 3.4x1053 ergs.We have searched for low redshift GRB sources having similar properties: same energetics, similar light curve structure, intense optical emission. The "twin sources" of these two bursts 0.937) and GRB090618 (z = 0.54) respectively. For both pairs of GRBs the numerical simulations that best repr positron plasma originating the GRB, as well as the same comoving spectral energy distribution. However, we h ncbm > .This could indicate that the two sources of each pair have a similar baryon ic progenitor, but occurred in d 109 sola rmasses. A viable approach based on the Dark Matter component versus the baryon ic component are being

  20. XTE J2123-058: A New Neutron Star X-Ray Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Halpern, Jules P.; Kemp, Jonathan; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-08-01

    We report on optical and RXTE observations of a new high-latitude bursting X-ray transient, XTE J2123-058. We identified the optical counterpart and discovered a 5.9573+/-0.0016 hr periodic optical modulation, which was subsequently shown to be the same as the spectroscopic orbital period. From the absence of orbital X-ray modulation and the presence of partial optical eclipses we conclude that the binary inclination is between 55° and 73°. From the optical magnitude in quiescence and from the X-ray flux of type I X-ray bursts, we estimate that the source distance is between 4.5 and 15 kpc, which implies that the source is unusually far from the Galactic plane, since b=-36.2d. Optical bursts with properties consistent with being reprocessed X-ray bursts occurred. We detected a pair of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at 847.1+/-5.5 Hz and 1102+/-13 Hz simultaneously. According to the beat-frequency model, this QPO separation implies a neutron star spin period of 3.92+/-0.22 ms. A change in the energy spectrum occurred during the decay of the outburst, which may have been due to the onset of the propeller mechanism. If so, then the neutron star magnetic field strength is between 2 and 8×108 G for an assumed distance of 10 kpc. However, the changes in the timing and spectral properties observed during the decay are typical of atoll sources, which may indicate that the changes are due solely to the dynamics of the accretion disk. As the phase-averaged V-band magnitude declined from 17.26 at the peak of the outburst to 19.24, and the X-ray flux decreased from 9.6×10-10 to 7.3×10-11 ergs cm-2 s-1, the peak-to-peak amplitude of the V-band modulation increased from 0.75 to 1.49 mag. This behavior can be explained if the size of the accretion disk decreases during the decay of the outburst.

  1. Evidence of a non-conservative mass transfer for XTE J0929-314

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Gambino, A. F.; Iaria, R.; Burderi, L.; Matranga, M.; Sanna, A.; Riggio, A.

    2017-07-01

    Context. In 1998 the first accreting millisecond pulsar, SAX J1808.4-3658, was discovered and to date 18 systems showing coherent, high frequency (>100 Hz) pulsations in low-mass X-ray binaries are known. Since their discovery, this class of sources has shown interesting and sometimes puzzling behaviours. In particular, apart from a few exceptions, they are all transient with very long X-ray quiescent periods implying a quite low averaged mass accretion rate onto the neutron star. Among these sources, XTE J0929-314 has been detected in outburst just once in about 15 years of continuous monitoring of the X-ray sky. Aims: We aim to demonstrate that a conservative mass transfer in this system will result in an X-ray luminosity that is higher than the observed, long-term averaged X-ray luminosity. Methods: Under the hypothesis of a conservative mass transfer driven by gravitational radiation, as expected for this system given the short orbital period of about 43.6 min and the low-mass of the companion implied by the mass function derived from timing techniques, we calculate the expected mass transfer rate in this system and predict the long-term averaged X-ray luminosity. This is compared with the averaged, over 15 years, X-ray flux observed from the system, and a lower limit of the distance to the source is inferred. Results: This distance is shown to be >7.4 kpc in the direction of the Galactic anticentre, implying a large height, >1.8 kpc, of the source with respect to the Galactic plane, placing the source in an empty region of the Galaxy. We suggest that the inferred value of the distance is unlikely. Conclusions: This problem can be solved if we hypothesize that the source is undergoing a non-conservative mass transfer, in which most of the mass transferred from the companion star is ejected from the system, probably because of the (rotating magnetic dipole) radiation pressure of the pulsar. If confirmed by future observations, this may be another piece of

  2. Three-Dimensional Numerical Hydrodynamical Simulation of Low/hard and High/soft States in Accretion Discs of Microquasars and Quasars on Base of Undefined Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, V. V.; Nazarenko, S. V.

    In this study, the models of slaved precession of accretion disc and donors radiation-driven wind were performed using three-dimensional numerical astrophysical methods by the example of microquasar Cyg X-1. As is shown, in the course of precession of the accretion disc blown by the donor's wind the states with high and low temperature (low and high mass accretion rate, respectively) start being generated in the centre of disc. Our computations of disc precession performed on base of undefined precession that means each point of rotation axis of accretion disc makes unclosed difficult curve instead of a circle as it is in case of definite precession. In this case, the transition between states of high and low temperature takes place irregularly and not depend on precession period. The duration of transition between these both states is less than intervals of states on several orders of magnitudes.

  3. Study of CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe Double Heterostructures and Their Application in High Efficiency Solar Cells and in Luminescence Refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinhao

    CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double heterostructures (DHs) have been grown on lattice matched InSb (001) substrates using Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The MgxCd1-xTe layers, which have a wider bandgap and type-I band edge alignment with CdTe, provide sufficient carrier confinement to CdTe, so that the optical properties of CdTe can be studied. The DH samples show very strong Photoluminescence (PL) intensity, long carrier lifetimes (up to 3.6 micros) and low effective interface recombination velocity at the CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe heterointerface ( 1 cm/s), indicating the high material quality. Indium has been attempted as an n-type dopant in CdTe and it is found that the carriers are 100% ionized in the doping range of 1x1016 cm-3 to 1x1018 cm-3. With decent doping levels, long minority carrier lifetime, and almost perfect surface passivation by the MgxCd 1-xTe layer, the CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe DHs are applied to high efficiency CdTe solar cells. Monocrystalline CdTe solar cells with efficiency of 17.0% and a record breaking open circuit voltage of 1.096 V have been demonstrated in our group. Mg0.13Cd0.87Te (1.7 eV), also with high material quality, has been proposed as a current matching cell to Si (1.1 eV) solar cells, which could potentially enable a tandem solar cell with high efficiency and thus lower the electricity cost. The properties of Mg0.13Cd 0.87Te/Mg0.5Cd0.5Te DHs and solar cells have been investigated. Carrier lifetime as long as 0.56 ?s is observed and a solar cell with 11.2% efficiency and open circuit voltage of 1.176 V is demonstrated. The CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe DHs could also be potentially applied to luminescence refrigeration, which could be used in vibration-free space applications. Both external luminescence quantum efficiency and excitation-dependent PL measurement show that the best quality samples are almost 100% dominated by radiative recombination, and calculation shows that the internal quantum efficiency can be as high as 99.7% at the optimal injection level (10 17 cm-3

  4. Thermal annealing impact on the properties of Cd xHg 1-xTe epitaxial layers with anodic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, E. K.; Eminov, Sh. O.; Radjabli, A. A.; Isamyilov, N. D.; Ibragimov, T. I.

    2007-05-01

    From the point of view of its fundamental properties, solid solution Hg 1-xCd xTe (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to l) (MCT) is one of very attractive materials of infrared optoelectronics and has received considerable attention over the past forty odd years. In the early 90s, bulk growth of MCT was phased out for the routine production of first generation photo-conductive devices. But it is hard process to growth MCT single crystals with homogeneous composition. This fact determined a vital importance change in the MCT technology during the last decade which first at all induced by the mostly replacement of bulk growth by epitaxial technologies (LPE, MBE, VPE etc.).

  5. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  6. High-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole X-Ray Transient XTE J1650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; VanDerKlis, Michiel; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high-frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE 51650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from approx. 110 to approx. 270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1 : 2 : 3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 solar mass. The spectral results by Miller et al., which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  7. X-ray diffuse scattering study of local distortions in Fe1+xTe induced by excess Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lee, C.-C.; Xu, Z. J.; Wen, J. S.; Gu, G.; Ku, W.; Tranquada, J. M.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    We report x-ray diffuse scattering studies of the iron chalcogenide Fe1+xTe as a function of doping and temperature for x=0.03, 0.08, and 0.12. In all cases, remarkably strong, characteristic diffuse scattering is observed. This scattering extends throughout the Brillouin zone and exhibits a nonmonotonic decay away from the fundamental Bragg peaks, with a peaklike structure at a reduced q≈(0.3,0,0.6). We interpret this scattering as Huang diffuse scattering resulting from distortions induced by the interaction between the excess Fe and the FeTe layers. The form of the scattering indicates that this interaction is strong and extends a number of unit cells away from the interstitial Fe site. Further, the diffuse scattering shows a sudden decrease on cooling through the structural and magnetic phase transition, reflecting the first-order change of the electronic structure of FeTe.

  8. The thermal diffusivity of Mn_xCd_1-xTe using the interferometric Mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Organiche, Edgar; Munoz-Aguirre, Narcizo; Morales-Toro, Juan Eduardo; Vazquez-Lopez, Carlos; Zelaya-Angel, Orlando; Lopez-Cruz, Elias

    2001-03-01

    Recently, N. Munoz-Aguirre et. al (N. Munoz-Aguirre, G. Gonzalez de la Cruz, Yu. G. Gurevich, G.N. Logvinov, and M.N. Kasyanchuk, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), vol. 220, p. 781 (2000))reported a theoretical treatment of the heat diffusion in two-layer structures for application to photoacoustic experiments. They showed that the influence of the interface thermal contact between the layers plays an important role on the effective thermal parameters. In this work, the theory has been extended to the case of the Mirage effect detected by means of a Michelson-Morley interferometer, and applied to the system air-Mn_xCd_1-xTe, with x in the range 0.05 - 0.60.

  9. THE FAST SPIRAL-IN OF THE COMPANION STAR TO THE BLACK HOLE XTE J1118+480

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Rebolo, Rafael; Casares, Jorge E-mail: rrl@iac.es

    2012-01-10

    We report the detection of an orbital period decay of P-dot =-1.83{+-}0.66 ms yr{sup -1} in the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118+480. This corresponds to a period change of -0.85 {+-} 0.30 {mu}s per orbital cycle, which is {approx}150 times larger than expected from the emission of gravitational waves. These observations cannot be reproduced by conventional models of magnetic braking even when including significant mass loss from the system. The spiral-in of the star is either driven by magnetic braking under extremely high magnetic fields in the secondary star or by a currently unknown process, which will have an impact on the evolution and lifetime of black hole X-ray binaries.

  10. CHARACTERIZING INTERMITTENCY OF 4-Hz QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION IN XTE J1550–564 USING HILBERT–HUANG TRANSFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2015-12-10

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550–564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550–564. By adaptively decomposing the ∼4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ∼4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense–Thirring precession model.

  11. XTE J1752-223 in outburst: a persistent radio jet, dramatic flaring, multiple ejections and linear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Tzioumis, A.; Broderick, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, J.; Fender, R. P.; Paragi, Z.

    2013-06-01

    The black hole candidate, XTE J1752-223, was discovered in 2009 October when it entered an outburst. We obtained radio data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array for the duration of the ˜9 month event. The light curves show that the radio emission from the compact jet persisted for the duration of an extended hard state and through the transition to the intermediate state. The flux then rose rapidly by a factor of 10 and the radio source entered a series of at least seven maxima, the first of which was likely to be emission associated with the compact jet. The subsequent six flares were accompanied by variable behaviour in terms of radio spectrum, degree of linear polarization, morphology and associated X-ray behaviour. They were, however, remarkably similar in terms of the estimated minimum power required to launch such an ejection event. We compare the timing of radio peaks with the location of the ejecta, imaged by contemporaneous Very Long Baseline Interferometry experiments. We then discuss the mechanism behind the events, in terms of whether discrete ejections are the most likely description of the behaviour. One ejection, at least, appears to be travelling with apparent superluminal motion. The range of properties, however, suggests that multiple mechanisms may be relevant and that at least some of the emission is coming from shocked interactions amongst the ejecta and between the ejecta and the interstellar medium. We also compare the radio flux density with the X-ray source during the hard state and conclude that XTE J1752-223 is a radio-weak/X-ray-bright outlier on the universal correlation for black hole transient sources.

  12. MAXI GSC Observations of a Spectral State Transition in the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahira, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Daikyuji, Arata; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Isobe, Naoki; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyoshi, Sho; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakajima, Motoki; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suzuki, Motoko; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Maxi Team

    2010-10-01

    We present the first results on the black-hole candidate XTE J1752-223 from the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) aboard the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station. Including the onset of an outburst reported by the Proportional Counter Array aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer on 2009 October 23, MAXI / GSC has been monitoring this source approximately 10 times per day with high sensitivity in the 2-20 keV band. XTE J1752-223 was initially in a low / hard state during the first 3 months. An anti-correlated behavior between the 2-4 keV and 4-20 keV bands was observed around 2010 January 20, indicating that the source exhibited a spectral transition to the high / soft state. A transient radio jet may have been ejected when the source was in the intermediate state where the spectrum was roughly explained by a power-law with a photon index of 2.5-3.0. The unusually long period in the initial low / hard state implies a slow variation in the mass-accretion rate, and a dramatic soft X-ray increase may be explained by a sudden appearance of the accretion disk component with a relatively low innermost temperature (0.4-0.7 keV). Such a low temperature might suggest that the maximum accretion rate was just above the critical gas-evaporation rate required for the state transition.

  13. MAXI/GSC detection of a weak X-ray outburst from RX J1709.5-2639 (XTE J1709-267)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoro, H.; Harita, S.; Morita, K.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Isobe, N.; Shimomukai, R.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Nakahira, S.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Yoneyama, T.; Nakajima, M.; Kawase, T.; Sakamaki, A.; Ueda, Y.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Oda, S.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Kawai, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Hanyu, C.; Hidaka, K.; Kawamuro, T.; Yamaoka, K.

    2017-08-01

    A gradual increase in X-ray intensity from the recurrent soft X-ray transient RX J1709.5-2639 (XTE J1709-267) triggered the MAXI Nova-Alert system at 09:30 on 2017 August 23. The alert system also triggered on the eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1710-281 (1RXS J171012.3-280754) at 04:26 on 2017 August 18. The angular distance of these two sources is 1.5 deg, which is comparable to the FWHM of the MAXI/GSC, so that we performed the image fitting analysis (Morii et al. 2016, PASJ, 68, S11) to confirm the position and obtain the fluxes from these sources.

  14. A study of the cross-correlation and time lag in black hole X-ray binary XTE J1859+226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Songpeng; Ding, Guoqiang; Li, Zhibing; Lei, Yajuan; Yuen, Rai; Qu, Jinlu

    2017-07-01

    With Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we systematically study the cross-correlation and time lag in all spectral states of black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) XTE J1859+226 in detail during its entire 1999-2000 outburst that lasted for 166 days. Anti-correlations and positive correlations and their respective soft and hard X-ray lags are only detected in the first 100 days of the outburst when the luminosity is high. This suggests that the cross-correlations may be related to high luminosity. Positive correlations are detected in every state of XTE J1859+226, viz., hard state, hard-intermediate state (HIMS), soft-intermediate state (SIMS) and soft state. However, anti-correlations are only detected in HIMS and SIMS, anti-correlated hard lags are only detected in SIMS, while anti-correlated soft lags are detected in both HIMS and SIMS. Moreover, the ratio of the observations with anti-correlated soft lags to hard lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is significantly different from that in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs). So far, anti-correlations are never detected in the soft state of BHXBs but detected in every branch or state of NS LMXBs. This may be due to the origin of soft seed photons in BHXBs is confined to the accretion disk and, for NS LMXBs, from both accretion disk and the surface of the NS. We notice that the timescale of anti-correlated time lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is similar with that of other BHXBs and NS LMXBs. We suggest that anti-correlated soft lag detected in BHXB may result from fluctuation in the accretion disk as well as NS LMXB.

  15. Effect of magnetic field on the donor impurity in CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te quantum well wire

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, P.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.; Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D.

    2016-05-23

    The donor impurity binding energy in CdTe / Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te QWW with square well confinement along x – direction and parabolic confinement along y – direction under the influence of externally applied magnetic field has been computed using variational principle in the effective mass approximation. The spin polaronic shift has also been computed. The results are presented and discussed.

  16. Charge Mediated Reversible Metal-Insulator Transition in Monolayer MoTe2 and WxMo1-xTe2 Alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenxi; Kc, Santosh; Nie, Yifan; Liang, Chaoping; Vandenberghe, William G; Longo, Roberto C; Zheng, Yongping; Kong, Fantai; Hong, Suklyun; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-08-23

    Metal-insulator transitions in low-dimensional materials under ambient conditions are rare and worth pursuing due to their intriguing physics and rich device applications. Monolayer MoTe2 and WTe2 are distinguished from other TMDs by the existence of an exceptional semimetallic distorted octahedral structure (T') with a quite small energy difference from the semiconducting H phase. In the process of transition metal alloying, an equal stability point of the H and the T' phase is observed in the formation energy diagram of monolayer WxMo1-xTe2. This thermodynamically driven phase transition enables a controlled synthesis of the desired phase (H or T') of monolayer WxMo1-xTe2 using a growth method such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Furthermore, charge mediation, as a more feasible method, is found to make the T' phase more stable than the H phase and induce a phase transition from the H phase (semiconducting) to the T' phase (semimetallic) in monolayer WxMo1-xTe2 alloy. This suggests that a dynamic metal-insulator phase transition can be induced, which can be exploited for rich phase transition applications in two-dimensional nanoelectronics.

  17. Photovoltaic performances of Cu2-xTe sensitizer based on undoped and indium(3+)-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes and assembled counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Srathongluan, Pornpimol; Kuhamaneechot, Rattanakorn; Sukthao, Prapatsawan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2016-02-01

    Novel binary Cu2-xTe nanoparticles based on undoped and indium-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique as a sensitizer for liquid-junction solar cells. A larger diameter of TiO2 promoted a narrower energy band gap after indium doping, attributing to yield a broader absorption range of nanoparticle sensitizer due to the increasing amount of Cu2-xTe NPs on TiO2 surface. The atomic percentages showed the stoichiometric formation of Cu2Te incorporated in a Cu2-xTe structure. The best photovoltaic performance with the lower SILAR cycle, i.e., n=13 was performed after indium doping in both of carbon and Cu2S CEs and revealed that the efficiency of 0.73% under the radiant 100mW/cm(2) (AM 1.5G). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the electrical properties via effect of material doping and counter electrodes with a lower charge-transfer resistance (Rct) and it was also found that the electron lifetime was improved after the sample doped with indium and assembled with carbon CE.

  18. VLBI OBSERVATION OF MICROQUASAR CYG X-3 DURING AN X-RAY STATE TRANSITION FROM SOFT TO HARD IN THE 2007 MAY-JUNE FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Soon-Wook; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Honma, Mareki; Sasao, Tetsuo E-mail: skim@kasi.re.kr

    2013-07-20

    We present a radio observation of microquasar Cyg X-3 during an X-ray state transition from ultrasoft to hard state in the 2007 May-June flare using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry at 22 GHz. During the transition, a short-lived mini-flare of {approx}< 3 hr was detected prior to the major flare. In such a transition, a jet ejection is believed to occur, but there have been no direct observations to support it. An analysis of Gaussian fits to the observed visibility amplitudes shows a time variation of the source axis, or a structural change, during the mini-flare. Our model fits, together with other multiwavelength observations in the radio, soft, and hard X-rays, and the shock-in-jet models for other flaring activities at GHz wavebands, suggest a high possibility of synchrotron flares during the mini-flare, indicative of a predominant contribution from jet activity. Therefore, the mini-flare with an associated structural change is indicative of a jet ejection event in the state transition from ultrasoft to hard state.

  19. An optical study of vacuum evaporated Se 85-xTe 15Bi x chalcogenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambika; Barman, P. B.

    2010-02-01

    Thin films of Se 85-xTe 15Bi x ( x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique, are deposited on glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique under vacuum. The analysis of transmission spectra, measured at normal incidence, in the spectral range 400-1500 nm helphelps us in the optical characterization of thin films under study. Well -known Swanepoel's method is employed to determine the refractive index ( n) and film thickness ( d). The increase in n with increasing Bi content over the entire spectral range is related to the increased polarizability of the larger Bi atom (atomic radius 1.46 Å) compared with the Se atom (atomic radius 1.16 Å). Dispersion energy ( E d), average energy gap ( E0) and static refractive index ( n0) isare calculated using Wemple-DiDomenico model (WDD). The value of absorption coefficient ( α) and hence extinction coefficient ( k) hashave been determined from transmission spectra. Optical band gap ( E g) is estimated using Tauc's extrapolation and is found to decrease from 1.46 to 1.24 eV with the Bi addition. This behavior of optical band gap is interpreted in terms of electronegativity difference of the atoms involved and cohesive energy of the system.

  20. Constraints on the Emission and Viewing Geometry of the Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temporal decay of the flux components of the transient anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1 810-197 following its 2002 outburst presents a unique opportunity to probe the emission geometry of a magnetar. Toward this goal, we model the magnitude of the pulsar's modulation in narrow spectral bands over time. Following previous work, we assume that the postoutburst flux is produced in two distinct thermal components arising from a hot spot and a warm concentric ring. We include general relativistic effects on the blackbody spectra due to gravitational redshift and light bending near the stellar surface, which strongly depend on radius. This affects the model fits for the temperature and size of the emission regions. For the hot spot, the observed temporal and energy-dependent pulse modulation is found to require an anisotropic, pencil-beamed radiation pattern. We are able to constrain an allowed range for the angles that the line of sight (psi) and the hot spot pole (xi) make with respect to the spin axis. Within errors, this is defined by the locus of points in the xi-psi plane that lie along the line [xi + beta(R)] [psi + [beta(R)] = const, where beta(R) is a function of the radius R of the star. For a canonical value of R = 12 km, the viewing parameters range from psi = xi = 37deg to (psi, xi) = (85deg, 15deg). We discuss our results in the context of magnetar emission models.

  1. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT XTE J1752-223 DURING ITS 2010 OUTBURST DECAY

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Y. Y.; Dincer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Guever, T.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-06-10

    Galactic black hole transients show many interesting phenomena during outburst decays. We present simultaneous X-ray (RXTE, Swift, and INTEGRAL), and optical/near-infrared (O/NIR) observations (SMARTS) of the X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 during its outburst decay in 2010. The multiwavelength observations over 150 days in 2010 cover the transition from soft to hard spectral state. We discuss the evolution of radio emission with respect to the O/NIR light curve which shows several flares. One of those flares is bright and long, starting about 60 days after the transition in X-ray timing properties. During this flare, the radio spectral index becomes harder. Other smaller flares occur along with the X-ray timing transition, and also right after the detection of the radio core. We discuss the significances of these flares. Furthermore, using the simultaneous broadband X-ray spectra including INTEGRAL, we find that a high energy cut-off with a folding energy near 250 keV is necessary around the time that the compact jet is forming. The broadband spectrum can be fitted equally well with a Comptonization model. In addition, using photoelectric absorption edges in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer X-ray spectra and the extinction of red clump giants in the direction of the source, we find a lower limit on the distance of >5 kpc.

  2. NuSTAR AND SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE XTE J1908+094 DURING ITS 2013 OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J.; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Kennea, Jamie; Miller, Jon M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Krimm, Hans A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Zhang, William W.; Stern, Daniel

    2015-09-20

    The black hole (BH) candidate XTE J1908+094 went into outburst for the first time since 2003 in 2013 October. We report on an observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and monitoring observations with Swift during the outburst. NuSTAR caught the source in the soft state: the spectra show a broad relativistic iron line, and the light curves reveal a ∼40 ks flare, with the count rate peaking about 40% above the non-flare level and with significant spectral variation. A model combining a multi-temperature thermal component, a power law, and a reflection component with an iron line provides a good description of the NuSTAR spectrum. Although relativistic broadening of the iron line is observed, it is not possible to constrain the BH spin with these data. The variability of the power-law component, which can also be modeled as a Comptonization component, is responsible for the flux and spectral change during the flare, suggesting that changes in the corona (or possibly continued jet activity) are the likely cause of the flare.

  3. Optical investigation of vacuum evaporated Se80-xTe20Sbx (x = 0, 6, 12) amorphous thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika; Singh, Hukum

    2017-09-01

    Amorphous thin films of Se80-xTe20Sbx (x = 0, 6, 12) chalcogenide glasses has been deposited onto pre-cleaned glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique under a vacuum of 10-5 Torr. The absorption and transmission spectra of these thin films have been recorded using UV spectrophotometer in the spectral range 400-2500 nm at room temperature. Swanepoel envelope method has been employed to obtain film thickness and optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant. The optical band gap of the samples has been calculated using Tauc relation. The study reveals that optical band gap decreases on increase in Sb content. This is due to decrease in average single bond energy calculated using chemical bond approach. The values of urbach energy has also been computed to support the above observation. Variation of refractive index has also been studies in terms of wavelength and energy using WDD model and values of single oscillator energy and dispersion energy has been obtained.

  4. Optical properties of Ge xSb 20- xTe 80 thin films and their changes by light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamukchieva, V.; Szekeres, A.

    2008-03-01

    The influence of light illumination on the optical constants of chalcogenide thin films with non-stoichiometric Ge xSb 20- xTe 80 ( x = 15, 17, 19) composition is studied by spectral ellipsometry in the visible range of light. The films were deposited onto glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation of parent glasses and were subjected to an 1-h illumination with a 500 W HBO mercury lamp. It has been established that illumination of the films leads to a decrease of the refractive index, n, in the whole spectral region studied and to an increase of the extinction coefficient, k, in the range of 600-800 nm. The optical bandgap energy Eg values are within 0.55-0.76 eV with a tendency to increase with increasing the Ge content. Illumination resulted in a sharp decrease of the Eg values indicating structural change in the films. Leaving the films at atmospheric conditions the optical parameters values change toward their initial values of unilluminated state.

  5. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Transient XTE J1752-223 during Its 2010 Outburst Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Y. Y.; Dinçer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Güver, T.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-06-01

    Galactic black hole transients show many interesting phenomena during outburst decays. We present simultaneous X-ray (RXTE, Swift, and INTEGRAL), and optical/near-infrared (O/NIR) observations (SMARTS) of the X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 during its outburst decay in 2010. The multiwavelength observations over 150 days in 2010 cover the transition from soft to hard spectral state. We discuss the evolution of radio emission with respect to the O/NIR light curve which shows several flares. One of those flares is bright and long, starting about 60 days after the transition in X-ray timing properties. During this flare, the radio spectral index becomes harder. Other smaller flares occur along with the X-ray timing transition, and also right after the detection of the radio core. We discuss the significances of these flares. Furthermore, using the simultaneous broadband X-ray spectra including INTEGRAL, we find that a high energy cut-off with a folding energy near 250 keV is necessary around the time that the compact jet is forming. The broadband spectrum can be fitted equally well with a Comptonization model. In addition, using photoelectric absorption edges in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer X-ray spectra and the extinction of red clump giants in the direction of the source, we find a lower limit on the distance of >5 kpc.

  6. A decelerating jet observed by the EVN and VLBA in the X-ray transient XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Paragi, Z.; Tzioumis, T.; Fender, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    The recently discovered Galactic X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 entered its first known outburst in 2010, emitting from the X-ray to the radio regimes. Its general X-ray properties were consistent with those of a black hole candidate in various spectral states, when ejection of jet components is expected. To verify this, we carried out very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. The measurements were carried out with the European VLBI Network (EVN) and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at four epochs in 2010 February. The images at the first three epochs show a moving jet component that is significantly decelerated by the last epoch, when a new jet component appears that is likely to be associated with the receding jet side. The overall picture is consistent with an initially mildly relativistic jet, interacting with the interstellar medium or with swept-up material along the jet. The brightening of the receding ejecta at the final epoch can be well explained by initial Doppler deboosting of the emission in the decelerating jet.

  7. Deposition and characterization of Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Te thin films grown by a novel cosublimation method

    SciTech Connect

    Kobyakov, Pavel S. Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S.; Moore, Andrew; Raguse, John M.

    2014-03-15

    Photovoltaic cells utilizing the CdS/CdTe structure have improved substantially in the past few years. Despite the recent advances, the efficiency of CdS/CdTe cells is still significantly below their Shockley–Queisser limit. CdTe based ternary alloy thin films, such as Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Te (CMT), could be used to improve efficiency of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cells. Higher band gap Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Te films can be the absorber in top cells of a tandem structure or an electron reflector layer in CdS/CdTe cells. A novel cosublimation method to deposit CMT thin films has been developed. This method can deposit CMT films of band gaps ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 eV. The cosublimation method is fast, repeatable, and scalable for large areas, making it suitable for implementing into large-scale manufacturing. Characterization of as-deposited CMT films, with x varying from 0 to 0.35, reveals a linear relationship between Mg content measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and the optical band gap. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD) measurements of Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Te films show a zinc-blende structure similar to CdTe. Furthermore, increasing Mg content decreases the lattice parameter and the grain size. GAXRD shows the films are under mild tension after deposition.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy characterization of the effects of etching Zn xCd 1- xTe surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Jayatirtha, H. N.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.

    1993-10-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for the first time to characterize the chemical composition of modified surfaces of Zn xCd 1- xTe single crystals. These surface treatments were selected for their relevance to device preparation procedures. The XPS peaks indicated an increase of the tellurium and a depletion of the cadmium concentrations upon etching in bromine methanol solution. AFM revealed the formation of pronounced Te inclusions. Higher x values correlated with a decrease in residual bromine left on the surface, while cut and polished samples had higher oxide concentrations and increased bromination of the surface than cleaved samples.

  9. Study of band inversion in the PbxSn1-xTe class of topological crystalline insulators using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, K. V.; Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Krbal, M.; Tominaga, J.; Uruga, T.

    2014-11-01

    PbxSn1-xTe and PbxSn1-xSe crystals belong to the class of topological crystalline insulators where topological protection is achieved due to crystal symmetry rather than time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we make use of selection rules in the x-ray absorption process to experimentally detect band inversion along the PbTe(Se)-SnTe(Se) tie-lines. The observed significant change in the ratio of intensities of L1 and L3 transitions along the tie-line demonstrates that x-ray absorption can be a useful tool to study band inversion in topological insulators.

  10. Study of band inversion in the PbxSn1-xTe class of topological crystalline insulators using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, K V; Kolobov, A V; Fons, P; Krbal, M; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T

    2014-11-26

    Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te and Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Se crystals belong to the class of topological crystalline insulators where topological protection is achieved due to crystal symmetry rather than time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we make use of selection rules in the x-ray absorption process to experimentally detect band inversion along the PbTe(Se)-SnTe(Se) tie-lines. The observed significant change in the ratio of intensities of L1 and L3 transitions along the tie-line demonstrates that x-ray absorption can be a useful tool to study band inversion in topological insulators.

  11. Tip-force induced surface deformation in the layered commensurate tellurides NbA xTe 2 (A = Si, Ge) during atomic force microscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengel, H.; Cantow, H.-J.; Magonov, S. N.; Monconduit, L.; Evain, M.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1994-12-01

    The Te-atom surfaces of commensurate layered tellurides NbA xTe 2 ( A = Si, x = {1}/{2}; A = Ge, x = {1}/{3}, {2}/{5}, {3}/{7}) were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at different applied forces. Although the bulk crystal structures show a negligible height corrugation in the surface Te-atom sheets, the AFM images exhibit dark linear patterns that become strongly pronounced at high applied forces (several hundreds nN). This feature comes about because the tip-sample force interactions induce a surface corrugation according to the local hardness variation of the surface.

  12. Analysis of variability in the burst oscillations of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Anna L.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2005-01-01

    The accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 exhibits oscillations at the known spin frequency during Type I X-ray bursts. The properties of the burst oscillations reflect the nature of the thermal asymmetry on the stellar surface. We present an analysis of the variability of the burst oscillations of this source, focusing on three characteristics: fractional amplitude, harmonic content and frequency. Fractional amplitude and harmonic content constrain the size, shape and position of the emitting region, whilst variations in frequency indicate motion of the emitting region on the neutron star surface. We examine both long-term variability over the course of the outburst, and short-term variability during the bursts. For most of the bursts, fractional amplitude is consistent with that of the accretion pulsations, implying a low degree of fuel spread. There is however a population of bursts whose fractional amplitudes are substantially lower, implying a higher degree of fuel spread, possibly forced by the explosive burning front of a precursor burst. For the first harmonic, substantial differences between the burst and accretion pulsations suggest that hotspot geometry is not the only mechanism giving rise to harmonic content in the latter. Fractional amplitude variability during the bursts is low; we can only rule out the hypothesis that the fractional amplitude remains constant at the l(sigma) level for bursts that do not exhibit photospheric radius expansion (PRE). There are no significant variations in frequency in any of the bursts except for the one burst that exhibits PRE. This burst exhibits a highly significant but small (= 0.1Hz) drop in frequency in the burst rise. The timescale of the frequency shift is slower than simple burning layer expansion models predict, suggesting that other mechanisms may be at work.

  13. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatuzz, E.; García, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-05-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Å broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Å) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N H = 1.38 ± 0.01 × 1021 cm-2 an ionization parameter of log ξ = -2.70 ± 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A_O= 0.689^{+0.015}_{-0.010}; and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse & Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A_O=0.952^{+0.020}_{-0.013}, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines—Kα, Kβ, and Kγ in O I and O II and Kα in O III, O VI, and O VII—the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n > 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  14. RAPID COOLING OF THE NEUTRON STAR IN THE QUIESCENT SUPER-EDDINGTON TRANSIENT XTE J1701-462

    SciTech Connect

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Degenaar, Nathalie; Mendez, Mariano; Cackett, Edward M.; Brown, Edward F.; Belloni, Tomaso M.

    2010-05-01

    We present Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and Swift observations made during the final three weeks of the 2006-2007 outburst of the super-Eddington neutron star (NS) transient XTE J1701-462, as well as Chandra and XMM-Newton observations covering the first {approx_equal}800 days of the subsequent quiescent phase. The source transitioned quickly from active accretion to quiescence, with the luminosity dropping by over 3 orders of magnitude in {approx_equal}13 days. The spectra obtained during quiescence exhibit both a thermal component, presumed to originate in emission from the NS surface, and a non-thermal component of uncertain origin, which has shown large and irregular variability. We interpret the observed decay of the inferred effective surface temperature of the NS in quiescence as the cooling of the NS crust after having been heated and brought out of thermal equilibrium with the core during the outburst. The interpretation of the data is complicated by an apparent temporary increase in temperature {approx_equal}220 days into quiescence, possibly due to an additional spurt of accretion. We derive an exponential decay timescale of {approx_equal}120{sup +30}{sub -20} days for the inferred temperature (excluding observations affected by the temporary increase). This short timescale indicates a highly conductive NS crust. Further observations are needed to confirm whether the crust is still slowly cooling or has already reached thermal equilibrium with the core at a surface temperature of {approx_equal}125 eV. The latter would imply a high equilibrium bolometric thermal luminosity of {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 33}ergs{sup -1} for an assumed distance of 8.8 kpc.

  15. An accurate position for the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223: re-interpretation of the VLBI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Ratti, E. M.; Torres, M. A. P.; Brocksopp, C.; Yang, J.; Morrell, N. I.

    2011-07-01

    Using high-precision astrometric optical observations from the Walter Baade Magellan Telescope in conjunction with high-resolution very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) radio imaging with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), we have located the core of the X-ray binary system XTE J1752-223. Compact radio emission from the core was detected following the state transition from the soft to the hard X-ray state. Its position to the south-east of all previously detected jet components mandated a re-analysis of the existing VLBI data. Our analysis suggests that the outburst comprised at least two ejection events prior to 2010 February 26. No radio-emitting components were detected to the south-east of the core at any epoch, suggesting that the receding jets were Doppler-deboosted below our sensitivity limit. From the ratio of the brightness of the detected components to the measured upper limits for the receding ejecta, we constrain the jet speed β > 0.66 and the inclination angle to the line of sight θ < 49°. Assuming that the initial ejection event occurred at the transition from the hard intermediate state to the soft intermediate state, an initial period of ballistic motion followed by a Sedov phase (i.e. self-similar adiabatic expansion) appears to fit the motion of the ejecta better than a uniform deceleration model. The accurate core location can provide a long time baseline for a future proper motion determination should the system show a second outburst, providing insights into the formation mechanism of the compact object.

  16. Composition dependent phase transition and its induced hysteretic effect in the thermal conductivity of WxMo1-xTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-Jun; Lv, Yang-Yang; Li, Lei; Li, Xiao; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Yan-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Hong; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-05-01

    Recently, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have shown promise in electronics and optoelectronics applications. Most of their properties are closely related to their abundant structural phases and phase transitions. For more practical applications in the future, it is necessary to tune the phase transitions in this material system. Here, we demonstrate the modulation of phase transitions in miscible WxMo1-xTe2 samples by appropriate alloying. The temperature dependent thermal conductivity along the c-axis, which strongly relates to the phase structures and the defect level, has been measured using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. In addition, a tunable hysteretic effect, induced by phase transitions, is observed in both thermal and electrical transport properties and confirmed by the consistent hysteresis in the Raman spectroscopic study. This hysteretic effect can be applied to realize phase-change storage devices. Furthermore, we provide a phase diagram to illustrate the composition dependent phase transition in WxMo1-xTe2. This work demonstrates an approach to modulate phase transition and thermal hysteresis in such a TMD material system by alloying engineering.

  17. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single Event Effect(SEE)Performance on Orbview-2 and Xray Timing Explorer(XTE)Solid State Recorders (SSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Ken A.; Gee, George; Safren, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Single Event Effect (SEE) in-flight data on Solid State Recorders (SSR) that have been collected over a long period of time for two NASA spacecraft: Orbview-2 and XTE. SEE flight data on solid-state memories give an opportunity to study the behavior in space of SEE sensitive commercial devices. The actual Single Event Upset (SEU) rates can be compared with the calculated rates based on environment models and ground test data. The SEE mitigation schemes can also be evaluated in actual implementation. A significant amount of data has already been published concerning observed SEE effects on memories in space. However, most of the data presented cover either a short period of time or a small number of devices. The data presented here has been collected on a large number of devices during several years. This allows statistically significant information about the effect of space weather fluctuations on SEU rates, and the effectiveness of SEE countermeasures used to be analyzed. Only Orbview-2 data is presented in this summary. XTE data will be included in the final paper.

  18. Erratum: "Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium, the Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330" (2013, Apj, 768, 60)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Witthoeft, Michael C.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, there are some minor inaccuracies in the absorption-line wavelengths listed in Table 4 as a result of a faulty reduction procedure of the Obs6615 spectrum. The shifts have been detected in a comparison with the wavelengths listed for this spectrum in the Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive (TGCat8). They are due to incorrect centroid positions of the zero-order image in both reductions as determined by the tgdetect utility which, when disentangled, yield the improved line positions of the amended Table 4 given below. It must also be pointed out that other quantitative findings of the original paper: 1. Table 5, p. 9: the column density (NH), ionization parameter, oxygen abundance of the warmabs model and the normalization and photon index of the power-law model; 2. Table 6, p. 9: the hydrogen column density of the warmabs fit; 3. Table 7, p. 9: the present oxygen equivalent widths of XTE J1817-330; and 4. Table 8, p. 10: the present oxygen column densities of XTE J1817-330 derived from both the curve of growth and warmabs model fit have been revised in the new light and are, within the estimated uncertainty ranges, in good accord with the new rendering.

  19. Black Hole Mass Determination In the X-Ray Binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of Spectral and Variability Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component gamma with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ?(sub L), and mass accretion rate, M, can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates.We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites.We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that gamma monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of gamma versus ?(sub L) also show saturation at gamma (is) approximately 3. Gamma -M and gamma -?(sub L) correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M(sub BH) (is) approximately 10 +/- 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i (is) approximately less than 70 deg.

  20. ESO 243-49 HLX-1: scaling of X-ray spectral properties and black hole mass determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of Swift/XRT observations (2008-2015) of a hyper-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We demonstrate a strong observational evidence that ESO 243-49 HLX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 3.0 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate black hole (BH) mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 to be MBH 7 × 104 M⊙ assuming the distance to ESO 243-49 of 95 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate we use the scaling method taking Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472, and an extragalactic BH source, M101 ULX-1 as reference sources. The Γ versus Ṁ correlation revealed in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 is similar to those in a number of Galactic and extragalactic BHs and it clearly shows the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈3. This is a robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are quite low, of order of 50-140 eV which are consistent with high BH mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1.

  1. Black hole mass determination in the X-ray binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of spectral and variability characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seifina, Elena; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it E-mail: nikolai.v.shaposhnikov@nasa.gov

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component Γ with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ν {sub L}, and mass accretion rate, M-dot , can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates. We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites. We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that Γ monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of Γ versus ν {sub L} also show saturation at Γ ∼ 3. Γ-- M-dot and Γ-ν {sub L} correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M {sub BH} ∼ 10 ± 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i ≲ 70°.

  2. Scaling of the photon index vs. mass accretion rate correlation and estimate of black hole mass in M101 ULX-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of Swift and Chandra observations of an ultraluminous X-ray source, ULX-1 in M101. We show strong observational evidence that M101 ULX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of M101 ULX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 2.8 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to evaluate black hole (BH) mass in M101 ULX-1 to be MBH ~ (3.2-4.3) × 104 M⊙, assuming the spread in distance to M101 (from 6.4 ± 0.5 Mpc to 7.4 ± 0.6 Mpc). For this BH mass estimate we apply the scaling method, using Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472 as reference sources. The Γ vs. Ṁ correlation revealed in M101 ULX-1 is similar to that in a number of Galactic BHs and clearly exhibits the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈ 2.8. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in M101 ULX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are low, on the order of 40-100 eV, which is consistent with high BH mass in M101 ULX-1. Thus, we suggest that the central object in M101 ULX-1 has intermediate BH mass on the order of 104 solar masses.

  3. Geometrical Effect of Supercritical Accretion Flows: Observational Implications of Galactic Black-Hole Candidates and Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watarai, Ken-Ya; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Rohta; Fukue, Jun

    2005-06-01

    We consider the dependence of the viewing angle in supercritical accretion flows and discuss the observational implications of galactic black-hole candidates and ultraluminous X-ray sources. Model spectra of supercritical accretion flows strongly depend on the inclination angle. For example, the maximum temperature of the supercritical disk (the accretion rate and the black-hole mass are dot{M} = 1000 LE/c2 and M = 10 Modot, respectively) is kTin ˜ 2.0 keV for a low-inclination angle, i lesssim 40°, while kTin ˜ 0.6 keV for a high-inclination angle, i gtrsim 60°. This spectral softening originates from self-occultation of the disk, i.e., the outer disk blocks emission from the disk inner region, even if we take into account the effect of general relativity (light bending, Doppler boosting). This is because, when the mass accretion rate exceeds the critical rate, then the shape of the disk is geometrically thick due to enhanced radiation pressure. We also find that the spectral properties of low-i and low accretion-rate disks are very similar to those of high-i and high accretion-rate disks. That is, if an object has a high i and a high accretion rate, such a system suffers from self-occultation and the spectrum will be extremely soft. Therefore, we cannot distinguish these disks by only the difference in their spectrum shapes. Conversely, if we use the self-occultation properties, we could constrain the inclination angle of the system. We suggest that some observed high-temperature ultraluminous X-ray sources have low-inclination angles, i.e., near face-on geometry, i lesssim 40°, and the Galactic black-hole candidate XTE J1550 - 564 possesses relatively high-inclination angles, i gtrsim 60°.

  4. Evolution of the complicated decaying branch of the very long outburst in XTE J1701-462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2015-05-01

    I analyze the evolution of the features which occurred on the timescale of weeks in the very long (∼600 d) X-ray outburst of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462. I used RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and Swift/BAT (15-50 keV) observations for a time-series analysis of the long-term variations. I utilized the means (usually one-day) of intensity I to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. I applied weighted wavelet Z-transform to investigate the cyclic modulation of I. Using the combined data from both satellites, I also calculated the hardness ratio HR = I(15-50 keV)/I(1.5-12 keV) and investigated its evolution throughout the outburst. Despite the largely different profiles of the light curves in the ASM and the BAT bands especially in the first fourth of the outburst, the profiles of the measures of their scatter (the σresASM and the σresBAT curves) display mutual similarities. Both the σresASM and σresBAT curves achieved their maxima in the primary peak of the light curve which was present only in the ASM band. The formation of the quasi-periodic variations occurred and their approximate cycle-length PC was decided already in the surrounding of this peak when the bolometric luminosity was close to or even exceeding the Eddington limit. The modulation with PC is present in some time segments only in the ASM band, while the intensity variations are always chaotic in the BAT band. Using the results of spectroscopy of Lin et al., I suggests that only multicolor disk, dominant in the ASM band, was involved in this cycle. The existence of this cycle did not depend on the exact type of the Z, so it was independent of the exact conditions in the inner disk region. The length of PC displayed a large and gradual increase from ∼ 16 to ∼ 26 days with the progress of the outburst. Using models of Foulkes et al., I interpret these variations as a superorbital cycle, caused by tilting and warping of the irradiated disk.

  5. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF OXYGEN K ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: THE CHANDRA GRATING SPECTRA OF XTE J1817-330

    SciTech Connect

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; Garcia, J.; Lohfink, A.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: alohfink@astro.umd.edu E-mail: michael.c.witthoeft@nasa.gov E-mail: palmeri@umons.ac.be

    2013-05-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N{sub H} = 1.38 {+-} 0.01 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}; an ionization parameter of log {xi} = -2.70 {+-} 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A{sub O}= 0.689{sup +0.015}{sub -0.010}; and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A{sub O}=0.952{sup +0.020}{sub -0.013}, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines-K{alpha}, K{beta}, and K{gamma} in O I and O II and K{alpha} in O III, O VI, and O VII-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n > 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  6. A late jet rebrightening revealed from multiwavelength monitoring of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. M.; Curran, P. A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Lewis, F.; Motta, S.; Stiele, H.; Belloni, T.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Jonker, P. G.; O'Brien, K.; Homan, J.; Casella, P.; Gandhi, P.; Soleri, P.; Markoff, S.; Maitra, D.; Gallo, E.; Cadolle Bel, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present optical monitoring of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 during its 2009-10 outburst and decay to quiescence. The optical light curve can be described by an exponential decay followed by a plateau, then a more rapid fade towards quiescence. The plateau appears to be due to an extra component of optical emission that brightens and then fades over ˜40 days. We show evidence for the origin of this optical 'flare' to be the synchrotron jet during the decaying hard state, and we identify and isolate both disc and jet components in the spectral energy distributions. The optical flare has the same morphology and amplitude as a contemporaneous X-ray rebrightening. This suggests a common origin, but no firm conclusions can be made favouring or disfavouring the jet producing the X-ray flare. The quiescent optical magnitudes are B≥ 20.6, V≥ 21.1, R≥ 19.5, i'≥ 19.2. From the optical outburst amplitude we estimate a likely orbital period of <22 h. We also present near-infrared (NIR) photometry and polarimetry and rare mid-IR imaging (8-12 ?m) when the source is nearing quiescence. The fading jet component, and possibly the companion star, may contribute to the NIR flux. We derive deep mid-IR flux upper limits and NIR linear polarization upper limits. With the inclusion of radio data, we measure an almost flat jet spectral index between radio and optical; Fν∝ν˜+0.05. The data favour the jet break to optically thin emission to reside in the IR, but may shift to frequencies as high as the optical or UV during the peak of the flare. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under ESO Programme ID 086.D-0610, the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and the Faulkes Telescopes at Haleakala, Maui, USA and Siding Spring, Australia.

  7. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium:. [The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Angstrom broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Angstroms) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the xstar code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 × 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); an ionization parameter of log xi = -2.70 +/- 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689 (+0.015/-0.010); and ionization fractions of O(sub I)/O = 0.911, O(sub II)/O = 0.077, and O(sub III)/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse & Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A(sub O) = 0.952(+0.020/-0.013), a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard.We identify several atomic absorption lines-K(alpha), K(beta), and K(gamma) in O(sub I) and O(sub II) and K(alpha) in O(sub III), O(sub VI), and O(sub VII)-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  8. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Menodza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra towards the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pileup effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain: a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 x 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); ionization parameter of log xi = .2.70 +/- 0.023; oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689(exp +0.015./-0.010); and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval (1998), a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. (2009) yields A(sub O) = 0.952(exp +0.020/-0.013, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines.K-alpha , K-beta, and K-gamma in O I and O II; and K-alpha in O III, O VI, and O VII--last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated to ISM cold absorption.

  9. Magnetic properties of the layered III-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarek, T. M.; Edwards, P. S.; Olejniczak, T. L.; Lampropoulos, C.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic properties of single crystalline Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te (x = 0.05) have been measured. GaTe and related layered III-VI semiconductors exhibit a rich collection of important properties for THz generation and detection. The magnetization versus field for an x = 0.05 sample deviates from the linear response seen previously in Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Se and Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}S and reaches a maximum of 0.68 emu/g at 2 K in 7 T. The magnetization of Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te saturates rapidly even at room temperature where the magnetization reaches 50% of saturation in a field of only 0.2 T. In 0.1 T at temperatures between 50 and 400 K, the magnetization drops to a roughly constant 0.22 emu/g. In 0 T, the magnetization drops to zero with no hysteresis present. The data is consistent with Van-Vleck paramagnetism combined with a pronounced crystalline anisotropy, which is similar to that observed for Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Se. Neither the broad thermal hysteresis observed from 100-300 K in In{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Se nor the spin-glass behavior observed around 10.9 K in Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}S are observed in Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te. Single crystal x-ray diffraction data yield a rhombohedral space group bearing hexagonal axes, namely R3c. The unit cell dimensions were a = 5.01 Å, b = 5.01 Å, and c = 17.02 Å, with α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 120° giving a unit cell volume of 369 Å{sup 3}.

  10. Cross-correlations between soft and hard light curves depending on luminosity in the transient neutron star XTE J1701-462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. N.; Lei, Y. J.; Ding, G. Q.; Qu, J. L.; Ge, M. Y.; Zhang, C. M.; Chen, L.; Ma, X.

    2014-06-01

    Using all the observations from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for the accreting neutron star XTE J1701-462, we carry out a systematic study of the cross-correlation function between its soft and hard light curves. Over the entire outburst, XTE J1701-462 evolves from super-Eddington luminosities to quiescence and shows both Z and atoll behaviours. Following previous work, we divide the outburst into five intervals: one Cyg-like interval, three Sco-like intervals and one atoll interval, according to their different behaviours in the corresponding colour-colour diagrams (CCDs). With cross-correlation analyses, anti-correlation, positive and ambiguous correlations are found in the different intervals in this source. Both anti-correlated soft and hard time lags are detected, where hard lags mean that the hard photons lag behind the soft ones and soft lags mean the reverse. In the Cyg-like interval, anti-correlations are presented in the hard vertex and upper normal branch (NB) and positive correlations dominate the horizontal branch (HB) and lower NB. In the first two Sco-like intervals, anti-correlations are detected first and most of them are found in the HB and/or upper NB, while positive correlations are mostly detected in the lower NB and flaring branch (FB). In the following interval, i.e. the third Sco-like interval, anti-correlations occur on the upper FB and positive correlations are mainly distributed in the lower FB. The different intervals correspond to various luminosities; therefore, the position of anti-correlations in the CCD might depend on the luminosity. It is noted that, in the Cyg-like interval, positive correlations dominate the HB, which is not consistent with the behaviour of the Cyg-like Z sources GX 5-1 and Cyg X-2, the HBs of which host ambiguous correlations and anti-correlations. Hence, for comparison with GX 5-1, we analyse the spectra of the HB and the hard vertex of the Cyg-like interval. The fitting results show that, in contrast to GX 5

  11. Phase separation and exchange biasing in the ferromagnetic IV-VI semiconductor Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, R. T.; Springholz, G.; Hassan, M.; Groiss, H.; Kirchschlager, R.; Stangl, J.; Hrauda, N.; Bauer, G.

    2010-07-12

    Ferromagnetic Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy with Mn content of x{sub Mn}approx =0.5 is shown to exhibit a strong tendency for phase separation. At higher growth temperatures apart from the cubic Ge{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Te, a hexagonal MnTe and a rhombohedral distorted Ge{sub 0.83}Mn{sub 0.17}Te phase is formed. This coexistence of antiferromagnetic MnTe and ferromagnetic Ge{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Te results in magnetic exchange-bias effects.

  12. Identification of the optical counterpart of 1RXS J190141.0+012618 and a search for the optical counterpart of XTE J1901+014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. R.; Norton, A. J.; Haswell, C. A.; Wolters, S. D.; Green, S. F.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Charles, P. A.; Worters, H.

    2002-05-01

    The RXTE error circle of X-ray transient XTE J1901+014, reported in IAUC #7880, includes the much smaller error circle of ROSAT source 1RXS J190141.0+012618, HRI position 19h01m40.1s, +1 26' 30" (J2000) uncertainty 10" (ATEL #89). We obtained Jacobus Kaptyn Telescope B, V, R, I images of the field on 2002 April 18 04:15 - 04:30, the same filters at the IAC80 Telescope (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife) on the same night 04:30 - 04:50, and R on the JKT on 2002 April 28 04:45.

  13. Optical properties of electron-beam deposited quaternary Se86-xTe10Sb4Bix (0 ≤ x ≤ 8) chalcogenide alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyakotyo, H.; Sathiaraj, T. S.; Muchuweni, E.

    2017-09-01

    Amorphous thin films of Se86-xTe10Sb4Bix (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8) were synthesized by electron-beam deposition of the premelt quenched bulk samples. Swanepoel's standard envelope method was used to determine optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-VIS-NIR spectral region. Tauc's extrapolation method and Wemple-Didomenico single oscillator model where used to determine the optical band gap energy (Egopt) in the region where the absorption coefficient α ≥ 104 cm-1. The values of Egopt decreased with increasing Bi additive. The complex dielectric constant (ε), Urbach energy (Eu), optical conductivity (σ), plasma frequency (ωP), single oscillator parameters (Eo and Ed) and lattice dielectric constant (εL) were determined. The changes noticed in optical parameters with Bi content were explained on the basis of chemical bond approach, increased defect states and increased density of localized states in the mobility gap.

  14. Influence of samarium on the thermoelectric figure of merit of Sm{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x}Te alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, F. F. Hasanov, H. A.

    2012-03-15

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical (conductivity {sigma}, the Hall coefficient R), thermoelectric (thermovoltage {alpha}), and thermal (thermal conductivity K{sub tot}) characteristics of Sm{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x}Te alloys (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08) are studied in the temperature range 100-500 K. Using the data for {sigma}, {alpha}, and K{sub tot}, the thermoelectric power {alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}, figure of merit Z, and efficiency {delta} are calculated. It is established that at room-temperature {alpha}{sup 2}{sigma} and Z peak at the hole concentration p Almost-Equal-To 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}.

  15. Abundancias químicas de la compañera visible del agujero negro binario V4641 Sgr (XTE J1819-254)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cúneo, V. A.; Jofré, E.; Pintado, O. I.; Gómez, M. N.

    2015-08-01

    In this work we expose an analysis of the chemical abundances of the optical companion of the confirmed black hole binary V4641 Sgr (XTE J1819-254) from GMOS spectra obtained with the Gemini North telescope. This analysis allowed to observe an enhancement of N, O, Mg and Si, attributed to the contamination of heavy elements generated during the supernova explosion that gave birth to the black hole. It was also observed that Cr and Fe were subabundant. The aim of this study is to test the formation scenario of a binary system containing a black hole as remnant of the supernova explosion of a massive star, and to provide information to better understand the final stages in the evolution of massive stars and black hole progenitors.

  16. Surface photovoltage investigations of Cd 1-xMn xTe for x = 0.01 and 0.10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuźmiński, S.; Szaynok, A. T.

    1988-07-01

    Surface photovoltage investigations of Cd 1- xMn xTe monocrystals for x = 0.01 and 0.10 were performed in the temperature range between 100 and 300 K with a modified Kelvin method at a pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The surfaces with orientation (110) were ground, polished with "Gamal", and rinsed in acetone and alcohol. Three types of effects were observed on the surface spectroscopy curves: A sharp increase in photovoltage, connected with the electron band-to-band transitions for a photon energy equal to the energy gap. Photovoltage quenching attributed to the existence of surface states with energy just above the edge of the valence band. Increase in photovoltage in the range between 0.9 and 1.0 eV resulting from electron transitions between the valence band and energy states connected with manganese ions.

  17. Spin-glass behavior and anomalous magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Te epilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jindong; Cheng, Xiaomin Tong, Fei; Miao, Xiangshui

    2014-07-28

    We report that the Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Te thin film exhibits spin-glass behavior when the Fe concentration increases to 0.08. A large bifurcation between the zero-field cooling and field cooling temperature-dependent magnetization was observed. The hysteresis loops after zero-field cooling and field cooling show an exchange bias effect. A time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization follows power-law decay, which confirms the existence of spin glass. The anomalous magnetotranport properties present a further evidence for spin-glass behavior and give a freezing temperature T{sub g} ∼ 5 K in the Ge{sub 0.92}Fe{sub 0.08}Te thin film.

  18. Enhanced thermoelectricity of three-dimensionally mesostructured BixSb2-xTe3 nanoassemblies: from micro-scaled open gaps to isolated sealed mesopores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Han; Lin, Ping-Yu; Chang, Hsiu-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2017-03-02

    We describe an innovative interfacial design concept and nanostructuring of novel BixSb2-xTe3 (BST) nanoassembled films comprising unique air-solid interfaces from micro-scaled open gaps to isolated sealed mesopores, and high-quality solid-solid ones including the coherent grain boundaries and specific twins, utilizing pulsed laser deposition (PLD), for potentially activating multiple thermoelectric enhancing mechanisms. The unusual mesopore embedded BST films exhibit the highest power factor of ∼33 μW cm(-1) K(-2), which is comparable to or higher than the previously reported values for BST, and the corresponding relatively low thermal diffusivity in contrast to that for dense pore-less BST films evidently reveals the crucial role of the three-dimensionally and densely arranged air-solid interfaces in significantly arising the phonon scattering.

  19. Constraints on braneworld gravity models from a kinematic limit on the age of the black hole XTE J1118+480.

    PubMed

    Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2007-05-04

    In braneworld gravity models with a finite anti-de Sitter space (AdS) curvature in the extra dimension, the AdS/conformal field theory correspondence leads to a prediction for the lifetime of astrophysical black holes that is significantly smaller than the Hubble time, for asymptotic curvatures that are consistent with current experiments. Using the recent measurements of the position, three-dimensional spatial velocity, and mass of the black hole XTE J1118+480, I calculate a lower limit on its kinematic age of > or =11 Myr (95% confidence). This translates into an upper limit for the asymptotic AdS curvature in the extra dimensions of <0.08 mm, which significantly improves the limit obtained by table top experiments of sub mm gravity.

  20. Mechanisms of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers in epitaxial Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te (x = 0.20-0.23) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ikusov, D. G.; Sizov, F. F.; Staryi, S. V. Teterkin, V. V.

    2007-02-15

    The experimental temperature dependences of the photosensitivity and the data on the lifetime of nonequilibrium charge carriers in epitaxial Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te layers with x = 0.20-0.23 were used to show that, in the region of intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity in n-type films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, CHCC Auger recombination is the prevailing recombination mechanism. At the same time, in p-type films grown by liquid-or vapor-phase epitaxy, it is observed that, in the region of extrinsic conductivity, CHLH Auger recombination competes with Shockley-Read recombination. The n-type films grown by molecular beam epitaxy contain a much lower concentration of recombination centers than the p-type films grown by liquid-or gasphase epitaxy.

  1. Optimal bandgap variants of Cd 1- xZn xTe for high-resolution X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. E.; Schlesinger, T. E.; James, R. B.

    1999-06-01

    We show that the trade-off between noise and charge generation statistics in Cd 1- xZn xTe leads to an optimal band gap of approximately 2.0 eV at room temperature. This implies a ZnTe fraction of approximately 0.7-0.8. We show that for X-rays and relatively low energy gamma-rays Cd 0.2Zn 0.8Te theoretically offers a significant potential improvement in energy resolution over Cd 0.9Zn 0.1Te even if compensation of shallow levels is less complete and carrier lifetimes are an order of magnitude lower for the higher x variant. We also show that these calculations are consistent with observed detector performance reported by many workers over a large period of time.

  2. Constraints on Braneworld Gravity Models from a Kinematic Limit on the Age of the Black Hole XTE J1118+480

    SciTech Connect

    Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2007-05-04

    In braneworld gravity models with a finite anti-de Sitter space (AdS) curvature in the extra dimension, the AdS/conformal field theory correspondence leads to a prediction for the lifetime of astrophysical black holes that is significantly smaller than the Hubble time, for asymptotic curvatures that are consistent with current experiments. Using the recent measurements of the position, three-dimensional spatial velocity, and mass of the black hole XTE J1118+480, I calculate a lower limit on its kinematic age of {>=}11 Myr (95% confidence). This translates into an upper limit for the asymptotic AdS curvature in the extra dimensions of <0.08 mm, which significantly improves the limit obtained by table top experiments of sub mm gravity.

  3. Discovery and Monitoring of a New Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 with RXTE: RMS Spectrum Evolution, BH Mass and the Source Distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhinikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/highsoft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hardto- soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source about 3.5 kiloparsec.

  4. THE TRANSIENT ACCRETING X-RAY PULSAR XTE J1946+274: STABILITY OF X-RAY PROPERTIES AT LOW FLUX AND UPDATED ORBITAL SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Caballero, Isabel; Jenke, Peter J.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fürst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Klochkov, Dmitry; Terada, Yukikatsu; and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 days orbit with 2–3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi–Dirac cut-off power-law model along with a narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ∼35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the subcritical (non-radiation dominated) state since its pulse profile is stable over all observed luminosities and the energy of the CRSF is approximately the same at the highest (∼5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}) and lowest (∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}) observed 3–60 keV luminosities.

  5. A SPECTRAL STUDY OF THE RAPID TRANSITIONS OF TYPE-B QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT XTE J1859+226

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram, K.; Choi, C. S.; Rao, A. R.

    2013-09-20

    The fast transitions of type-B and type-A quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are rarely found, and they are observed at the peak of the outburst in black hole transient (BHT) sources. The associated spectral variations during such events are crucial to understand the origin and location of such QPOs in the accretion disk. During the 1999 outburst of XTE J1859+226, on four occasions a rapid transition of type-B/A QPOs was noted. We performed broadband spectral analysis on these four observations to unveil the responsible spectral parameter causing the rapid transitions. After invoking simple spectral models, it was observed that disk parameters were consistently varying along with disk and power-law fluxes, and almost no change was noted in the power-law index parameter. Though using a complex physical model showed consistent results, the spectral parameter variations across the transitions were not significant. It was observed that the type-B QPO was always associated with an inner disk front which is closer to the BH. In one observation, a type-A QPO appeared as the source count rate suddenly dropped, and the power-law index as well as disk normalization parameter considerably changed during this transition. The spectral changes in this particular observation were similar to the changes observed in XTE J1817-330, indicating a common underlying mechanism. We have also examined a similar observation of BHT source GX 339-4, where a sudden transition of a type-A/B QPO was noted. Similar spectral study again revealed that the disk parameters were changing. We discuss the results in the framework of a truncated disk model and conclude that the movement of the coupled inner disk-corona region is responsible for such rapid transitions of type-B QPOs.

  6. DISCOVERY AND MONITORING OF A NEW BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE XTE J1752-223 WITH RXTE: RMS SPECTRUM EVOLUTION, BLACK HOLE MASS, AND THE SOURCE DISTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-11-10

    We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole (BH) candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on 2009 October 21 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/high-soft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass BH binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a blackbody spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (rms) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broadband variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition, and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hard-to-soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source of about 3.5 kpc.

  7. A Spectral Study of the Rapid Transitions of Type-B Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Black Hole Transient XTE J1859+226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, K.; Rao, A. R.; Choi, C. S.

    2013-09-01

    The fast transitions of type-B and type-A quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are rarely found, and they are observed at the peak of the outburst in black hole transient (BHT) sources. The associated spectral variations during such events are crucial to understand the origin and location of such QPOs in the accretion disk. During the 1999 outburst of XTE J1859+226, on four occasions a rapid transition of type-B/A QPOs was noted. We performed broadband spectral analysis on these four observations to unveil the responsible spectral parameter causing the rapid transitions. After invoking simple spectral models, it was observed that disk parameters were consistently varying along with disk and power-law fluxes, and almost no change was noted in the power-law index parameter. Though using a complex physical model showed consistent results, the spectral parameter variations across the transitions were not significant. It was observed that the type-B QPO was always associated with an inner disk front which is closer to the BH. In one observation, a type-A QPO appeared as the source count rate suddenly dropped, and the power-law index as well as disk normalization parameter considerably changed during this transition. The spectral changes in this particular observation were similar to the changes observed in XTE J1817-330, indicating a common underlying mechanism. We have also examined a similar observation of BHT source GX 339-4, where a sudden transition of a type-A/B QPO was noted. Similar spectral study again revealed that the disk parameters were changing. We discuss the results in the framework of a truncated disk model and conclude that the movement of the coupled inner disk-corona region is responsible for such rapid transitions of type-B QPOs.

  8. Invariance of multifractal spectrums of spatial forms on the surface of ZnxCd1-xTe - Si heterocompositions synthesized by electron beam epitaxy and hot wall epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, P. P.; Kryzhanivskyy, V. B.; Rashkovetskyi, L. V.; Rudnitskyi, V. A.; Morozov, A. V.; Lytvyn, P. M.

    2017-10-01

    Multifractal (MF) analysis is applied for the description of spatial nanoforms which form a relief on a surface of heterostructures of ZnxCd1-xTe solid solution - substrate Si (1 1 1) synthesized by the method of the electron beam with the evaporating anode. The input data for the MF analysis were the AFM (atomic force microscopy) images of the surface of layers. Comparison of parameters of MF spectrums for different geometries of the surface relief of the layers obtained at identical temperatures and approximately identical growth rates by the above mentioned method of growth and the method of hot wall epitaxy has been performed. It was shown that within the error limits, MF spectrums of spatial nanoforms for heterostructures ZnxCd1-xTe - Si remained very similar under identical conditions for synthesis of layers for compared techniques.

  9. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis.

  10. Chevrel-phase solid solution Mo 6Se 8- xTe x. Study of its superconducting, magnetic and NMR properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamard1a, C.; Auffret, V.; Peña, O.; Le Floch, M.; Nowak, B.; Wojakowski, A.

    2000-09-01

    The Chevrel-phase solid solution Mo 6Se 8-Mo 6Te 8 was studied by X-ray diffraction, AC and DC magnetic susceptibility and 77Se and 125Te NMR spectroscopy. From the smooth evolution of the lattice parameters and superconducting critical temperatures, a progressive substitution of selenium atoms by tellurium is shown, on the whole range of composition 0⩽ x⩽8, in the formulation Mo 6Se 8- xTe x: the unit-cell volume increases linearly because of the larger ionic size of tellurium, while Tc decreases rapidly (from 6.45 down to 0 K) because of the different formal oxidation states of the anions and a probable evolution of the Fermi level in the density of states. Results of magnetic susceptibility support this model and suggest the inhibition of the intrinsic metallic behavior with increasing x. The NMR spectra of the binaries Mo 6Se 8 and Mo 6Te 8 reveal two significant features, attributed to two different chalcogen positions in the R 3¯ symmetry. At low Se contents in Mo 6Se 8- xTe x ( x=7.5, 7 and 6), selenium first fills the two X(2) sites along the three-fold axis (2c positions), and then it becomes statistically distributed over the general 6f positions, leading to broad 77Se NMR lines. On the other hand, substitution of Te atoms in Mo 6Se 8 seems to occur in a random way, creating large perturbations on the 125Te NMR spectra, over the whole range of x. Theoretical analysis based on the presence of two anisotropic lines (of axial and non-axial symmetries, respectively) allowed us to estimate their anisotropy factors and to perfectly simulate the frequency response of both Mo 6Se 8 and Mo 6Te 8 binaries. Analysis of the Knight shift anisotropy leads us to conclude about the importance of the molybdenum z 2 molecular orbital contribution which controls the Mo-X dipolar interactions.

  11. A Spectral Study of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 in the High/Soft State with MAXI, Suzaku, and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahira, Satoshi; Koyama, Shu; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Makishima, Kazuo; Ebisawa, Ken; Kubota, Aya; Yamada, Shin'ya; Negoro, Hitoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Masashi; Kitayama, Hiroki; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Matsumura, Takanori; Morii, Mikio; Nakajima, Motoki; Serino, Motoko; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Kyohei; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Terada, Yukikatsu; Seta, Hiromi

    2012-02-01

    We report on an X-ray spectral analysis of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 in the 2009-2010 outburst, utilizing data obtained with the MAXI/Gas Slit Camera (GSC), the Swift/XRT, and Suzaku, which work complementarily. As already reported by Nakahira et al. (2010, PASJ, 62, L27), MAXI monitored the source continuously throughout the entire outburst for about eight months. All of the MAXI/GSC energy spectra in the high/soft state, lasting for 2 months, are well represented by a multi-color disk plus power-law model. The innermost disk temperature changed from ˜0.7 keV to ˜0.4 keV and the disk flux decreased by an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, the innermost radius is constant at ˜41 D3.5(cos i)-1/2km, where D3.5 is the source distance in units of 3.5 kpc and i the inclination. The multi-color disk parameters obtained with the MAXI/GSC are consistent with those with the Swift/XRT and Suzaku. The Suzaku data also suggest a possibility that the disk emission is slightly Comptonized, which could account for broad iron-K features reported previously. Assuming that the obtained innermost radius represents the innermost stable circular orbit for a non-rotating black hole, we estimate the mass of the black hole to be 5.51 ± 0.28 M⊙ D3.5(cos i)-1/2, where the correction for the stress-free inner boundary condition and color hardening factor of 1.7 are taken into account. If the inclination is less than 49°, as suggested from radio monitoring of transient jets, and the soft-to-hard transition in 2010 April occurred at 1%-4% of Eddignton luminosity, the fitting of the Suzaku spectra with a relativistic accretion-disk model derives constraints on the mass and the distance to be 3.1-55M⊙ and 2.3-22 kpc, respectively. This confirms that the compact object in XTE J1752-223 is a black hole.

  12. ON THE NATURE OF THE FIRST TRANSIENT Z SOURCE XTE J1701-462: ITS ACCRETION DISK STRUCTURE, NEUTRON STAR MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH, AND HARD TAIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, G. Q.; Wang, N.; Yan, S. P.; Zhang, S. N.; Qu, J. L. E-mail: dinggq@gmail.com

    2011-08-15

    Using data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, we investigate the spectral evolution along a 'Z' track and a '{nu}' track on the hardness-intensity diagrams of the first transient Z source XTE J1701-462. The spectral analyses suggest that the inner disk radius depends on the mass accretion rate, in agreement with the model prediction, R{sub in}{proportional_to}M-dot{sup 2/7}{sub disk}, for a radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disk interacting with the magnetosphere of a neutron star (NS). The changes in the disk mass accretion rate M-dot{sub disk} are responsible for the evolution of the 'Z' or '{nu}' track. Radiation pressure thickens the disk considerably and also produces significant outflows. The NS surface magnetic field strength, derived from the interaction between the magnetosphere and the radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disk, is {approx}(1-3) x 10{sup 9} G, which is possibly between normal atoll and Z sources. A significant hard tail is detected in the horizontal branches and we discuss several possible origins of the hard tail.

  13. Energy states in the surface layer of Cd 1-xMn xTe monocrystals for x = 0.22, 0.30 and 0.40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaynok, A. T.

    1989-04-01

    Investigations of the spectral dependence of the surface photovoltage of Cd 1- xMn xTe monocrystals for x = 0.22, 0.30 and 0.40 were carried out in the temperature range between 80 and 300 K with a modified Kelvin method at an ambient atmosphere pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The surfaces with (110) orientation were ground, polished with "Gamal" powder, and rinsed in acetone and alcohol. Four types of effects on the surface spectroscopy curves have been observed. A sharp increase in photovoltage, connected with electron band-to-band transitions for a photon energy equal to the energy gap. Photovoltage quenching attributed to the existence of surface states with energy just above the edge of the valence band. An increase in photovoltage in the range between 1.0 and 1.3 eV resulting from electron transitions between the valence band and energy states connected with manganese ions. An inversion effect, occurring at rather lower temperature which can be joined with electron transitions from the acceptor levels to the conduction band.

  14. Evidence of Spin and Energy Extraction in a Galactic Black Hole Candidate: The XMM-NEWTON/EPIC SPECTRUM of XTE 11650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Wunands, R.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ehle, M.; Freyberg, M. J.; VanDerKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its fall of 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the very high state. We h d a broad, skewed Fe Kar emission line that suggests the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole and that indicates a steep disk emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG -6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG -6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly maximal angular momentum or from material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of l0(exp 6) in black hole mass. We discuss these results in terms of the accretion flow geometry in stellar-mass black holes and the variety of enigmatic phenomena often observed in the very high state.

  15. Evidence of Spin and Energy Extraction in a Galactic Black Hole Candidate: The XMM-NEWTON/EPIC SPECTRUM of XTE 11650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Wunands, R.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ehle, M.; Freyberg, M. J.; VanDerKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its fall of 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the very high state. We h d a broad, skewed Fe Kar emission line that suggests the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole and that indicates a steep disk emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG -6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG -6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly maximal angular momentum or from material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of l0(exp 6) in black hole mass. We discuss these results in terms of the accretion flow geometry in stellar-mass black holes and the variety of enigmatic phenomena often observed in the very high state.

  16. Identification of IGR J01217-7257 with the transient SMC pulsar XTE J0119-731 (SXP 2.16) using XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Haberl, F.; Maggi, P.

    2017-09-01

    The transient IGR J01217-7257 in the Small Magellanic Cloud was found to be in a new outburst during INTEGRAL observations. We triggered an XMM-Newton target of opportunity observation near outburst maximum, which lead to the discovery of X-ray pulsations with a period of 2.165 s. This period is very similar to that detected from XTE J0119-731, suggesting that both sources are identical. The pulse profile obtained from the EPIC-pn instrument is complex and highly energy dependent. Pulse-phase spectroscopy reveals variations in the spectral slope correlated with the changes in flux during the pulse, with the harder X-ray spectrum at pulse maximum and softer during minimum. Analysis of XMM-Newton reflection grating spectra reveals the presence of emission lines that suggest the presence of ionized material around the neutron star. By monitoring the system during its outburst with Swift/XRT we detected a possible transition from the accretor to the propeller stage.

  17. Hg 1- xCd xTe (0 ≦ x ≦ 1): a correlation between stoichiometry, surface preparation and electroreflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasson, Philippe; Van Huong, Chau Nguyen

    1990-11-01

    Mercury cadmium telluride (HCT) alloys are studied in the whole composition range by electrochemistry and electroreflectance (ER). For Hg 1- xCd xTe with 0 ≦ x ≦ 0.5 and x = 1, fairly well-defined ER structures are easily obtained using a simple pro The alloy surface is mechanically polished (0.5 μm), chemically etched in 1% bromine in methanol solution and then prepared electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry. On the other hand, ER measurements for x = 0.7 are possible only if the HCT sample is, in addition, treated specifically by means of a large amplitude AC perturbation (1 V rms, 15 Hz) for 1 to 5 min while the mean current is kept approximately zero. The electrochemical processes involved in the alloy surface preparation are analyzed in terms of a decomposition which leads to soluble species. In the whole composition range, ER spectra can be fairly well interpreted using classical methods. Energy values obtained, in particular for the E1 band-band transition, correspond exactly to what is expected on the basis of the composition of the bulk material. Therefore, electrochemistry and electroreflectance appear to be complementary techniques for the preparation and characterization of HCT alloy surfaces.

  18. Role of intervalley scattering in the radiative recombination in Pb{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 {<=} x {<=} 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkeev, D. A. Zasavitskiy, I. I.

    2013-06-15

    Measurements of the photoluminescence from epitaxial layers of Pb{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.32 are carried out. It is found that the luminescence intensity decreases with increasing Eu content and, already for x as low as about 0.1, drops by more than one order of magnitude. No luminescence is observed for 0.2 < x {<=} 0.32. This behavior is explained by the fact that, for x Almost-Equal-To 0.1, the absolute minimum in the conduction band changes from the L to X point, which results in the scattering of nonequilibrium electrons to the X valley and, thus, causes a decrease in the quantum efficiency of the emission. According to published data, for x > 0.85, optical transitions also take place with the participation of the X valley; in this case, the emission is governed by the formation of magnetic polarons. The temperature dependences of the band gap are determined for 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.11. These dependences have a wide linear region characterized by a positive dE{sub g}/dT coefficient, which decreases with the Eu content to become negative in pure EuTe.

  19. Relativistic Astrophysics in Black Hole and Low-Mass Neutron Star Binaries LTSA98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Wei

    2000-01-01

    My group, in close collaboration with Dr. Zhang's group at University of Alabama-Huntsville, have been systematically analyzing and re-analyzing a substantial amount of archival data from previous and ongoing X-ray missions, in order to study possible relativistic effects around stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. Our effort has been focused primarily on the data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We carefully studied interesting quasi-periodic X-ray variability in newly discovered black hole candidates (XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1550-564), which, as we had proposed earlier, could be caused by general relativistic process (e.g., frame dragging) around the central black hole. We also discovered an intriguing temporal correlation between X-ray photons at different energies that is associated with the quasi-periodic signals of interest. The results provided new insights into the physical origin of the phenomena. Furthermore, we studied the spectral lines of black hole candidates which provide another avenue for studying general relativistic processes around black holes. The lines-may originate in the relativistic jets (which could be powered by the spin of the black hole) or in the disk around the black hole, as in the cases of 4U 1630-47 and GX 339-4 (two well-known black hole candidates), and may thus be distorted or shifted due to relativistic effects. Of course, neutron star systems were not forgotten either. After examining the properties of newly discovered fast quasi-periodic variability (at kiloHertz) associated with such systems, we proposed a relativistic model to explain the origin of the signals. We have also started to use new great observatories in orbit (such as Chandra and XMM-Newton) to observe the sources that are of interest to us. Finally, interesting results were also been obtained from our collaborations with other groups who are interested in some of the same objects. Such collaborative efforts have greatly enhanced the project and will

  20. Modeling of electron energy spectra and mobilities in semi-metallic Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Melezhik, E. O. Gumenjuk-Sichevska, J. V.; Sizov, F. F.

    2015-11-21

    Electron mobility, energy spectra, and intrinsic carrier concentrations in the n-type Hg{sub 0.32}Cd{sub 0.68}Te/Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te/Hg{sub 0.32}Cd{sub 0.68}Te quantum well (QW) in semi-metallic state are numerically modeled. Energy spectra and wave functions were calculated in the framework of the 8-band k-p Hamiltonian. In our model, electron scattering on longitudinal optical phonons, charged impurities, and holes has been taken into account, and the mobility has been calculated by an iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. Our results show that the increase of the electron concentration in the well enhances the screening of the 2D electron gas, decreases the hole concentration, and can ultimately lead to a high electron mobility at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The increase of the electron concentration in the QW could be achieved in situ by delta-doping of barriers or by applying the top-gate potential. Our modeling has shown that for low molar composition x the concentration of holes in the well is high in a wide range of electron concentrations; in this case, the purity of samples does not significantly influence the electron mobility. These results are important in the context of establishing optimal parameters for the fabrication of high-mobility Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te quantum wells able to operate at liquid nitrogen temperature and thus suitable for applications in terahertz detectors.

  1. Relativistic Disk Reflection in the Neutron Star X-Ray BinaryXTE J1709-267 with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlam, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Bostrom, A. C.

    2017-04-01

    We perform the first reflection study of the soft X-ray transient and Type 1 burst source XTE J1709-267 using NuSTAR observations during its 2016 June outburst. There was an increase in flux near the end of the observations, which corresponds to an increase from ∼0.04 L Edd to ∼0.06 L Edd assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc. We have separately examined spectra from the low- and high-flux intervals, which are soft and show evidence of a broad Fe K line. Fits to these intervals with relativistic disk reflection models have revealed an inner-disk radius of {13.8}-1.8+3.0 {R}g (where {R}g={GM}/{c}2) for the low-flux spectrum and {23.4}-5.4+15.6 {R}g for the high-flux spectrum at the 90% confidence level. The disk is likely truncated by a boundary layer surrounding the neutron star (NS) or the magnetosphere. Based on the measured luminosity and the accretion efficiency for a disk around an NS, we estimate that the theoretically expected size for the boundary layer would be ∼ 0.9{--}1.1 {R}g from the NS’s surface, which can be increased by spin or viscosity effects. Another plausible scenario is that the disk could be truncated by the magnetosphere. We place a conservative upper limit on the strength of the magnetic field at the poles (assuming {a}* =0 and {M}{NS}=1.4{M}ȯ ) of B≤slant 0.75-3.70× {10}9 G, though X-ray pulsations have not been detected from this source.

  2. XTE J1701-462 AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF SUBCLASSES IN LOW-MAGNETIC-FIELD NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano; Lin Dacheng; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso M.

    2010-08-10

    We report on an analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) XTE J1701-462, obtained during its 2006-2007 outburst. The X-ray properties of the source changed between those of various types of NS-LMXB subclasses. At high luminosities, the source switched between two types of Z source behavior and at low luminosities we observed a transition from Z source to atoll source behavior. These transitions between subclasses primarily manifest themselves as changes in the shapes of the tracks in X-ray color-color (CD) and hardness-intensity diagrams (HID), but they are accompanied by changes in the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, broadband variability, burst behavior, and/or X-ray spectra. We find that for most of the outburst the low-energy X-ray flux is a good parameter to track the gradual evolution of the tracks in CD and HID, allowing us to resolve the evolution of the source in greater detail than before and relate the observed properties to other NS-LMXBs. We further find that during the transition from Z to atoll, characteristic behavior known as the atoll upper banana can equivalently be described as the final stage of a weakening Z source flaring branch, thereby blurring the line between the two subclasses. Our findings strongly suggest that the wide variety in behavior observed in NS-LXMBs with different luminosities can be linked through changes in a single variable parameter, namely the mass accretion rate, without the need for additional differences in the neutron star parameters or viewing angle. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the spectral changes observed in NS-LMXBs and suggest that, contrary to what is often assumed, the position along the color-color tracks of Z sources is not determined by the instantaneous mass accretion rate.

  3. Influence of crystalline quality on the thermal, optical and structural properties of Cd 1- xZn xTe for low zinc concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, M. E.; Gutiérrez, A.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Vázquez, C.; Giraldo, J.

    2001-11-01

    The configurational crystalline order, closely related to the crystalline quality (CQ) of Cd 1- xZn xTe single crystal as a function of x for low values of x ( x<0.08), is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The inverse FWHM of peaks present in diffractograms (XRD-FWHM -1), as well as the FWHM of PL- peaks (PL-FWHM -1), are related to the CQ of the material. Larger values of XRD-FWHM -1 and PL-FWHM -1 mean better CQ of the growth. According to the experimental data, for a composition range of 0< x<0.08, both XRD-FWHM -1 and PL-FWHM -1 show two relative maximum values: one band of maximum values close to x=0.04 and another one around x=0.06. These maximum values could be associated with slight deviations from a random distribution of Zn atoms in the lattice, which indicate a better-localized configurational crystalline order and give rise to local distributions of CdTe and CdZnTe into the lattice. Lower deviations can be associated with random localization of Zn in the tetrahedral base cells, and hence a more distributed effect of the stronger bond of Zn with Te. A computer simulation of the growth was obtained to study the Zn distribution into the lattice. The standard deviations from the expected random behavior in a 40×40×40 lattice of sites in a zinc-blende structure is taken as an order parameter of the growth, and according to this computer simulation we can reproduce the maximum of crystalline quality.

  4. Spin-polarized structural, electronic and magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors Cd 1- xMn xTe in zinc blende phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, U. P.; Sharma, Sonu; Devi, Nisha; Bisht, P. S.; Rajaram, P.

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Cd 1- xMn xTe (for x=0.75 and 1.0) in the zinc blende (B3) phase by employing the ab-initio method. Calculations were performed by using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW+lo) method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, spin-polarized band structures, and total and local densities of states. We estimated the spin-exchange splitting energies Δx( d) and Δx( pd) produced by the Mn3 d states, and we found that the effective potential for the minority spin is more attractive than that of the majority spin. We determine the s-d exchange constant N0α (conduction band) and p-d exchange constant N0β (valence band) and these somewhat agree with a typical magneto-optical experiment. The value of calculated magnetic moment per Mn impurity atom is found to be 4.08 μ B for Cd 0.25Mn 0.75Te and 4.09 μ B for Cd 0.0Mn 1.0Te. Moreover, we found that p-d hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5.0 μ B and produces small local magnetic moments on the nonmagnetic Cd and Te sites.

  5. The Rapid X-Ray Variability of V4641 Sagittarii (SAX J1819.3-2525 = XTE J1819-254).

    PubMed

    Wijnands; van Der Klis M

    2000-01-10

    We report on the rapid X-ray variability of the variable star and X-ray transient V4641 Sagittarii (SAX J1819.3-2525 = XTE J1819-254) as observed on 1999 September 15 by the proportional counter array (PCA) on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. During the first approximately 900 s of the first PCA observation, V4641 Sgr showed very strong X-ray fluctuations by a factor of 4 on timescales of seconds to about 500 on timescales of minutes. The spectrum of the source during this flaring episode became harder when the count rate decreased. After this flaring episode, V4641 Sgr entered a quiescent state in which it remained for the rest of this and subsequent PCA observations. The X-ray spectrum was considerably softer in this quiescent state than during the flaring episode. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity (during both the flaring episode and the quiescent state) and the rapid X-ray variability do not strongly constrain the nature of the compact object (neutron star or black hole) in the system, although a black hole seems to be more likely. The very short duration of the bright X-ray phase of V4641 Sgr and its likely close proximity suggest that many similar objects could be present in our Galaxy, most of which are not noticed when they are in outburst because of the short duration of these outbursts. A considerable number of the black holes present in our Galaxy might be contained in systems similar to V4641 Sgr.

  6. Lattice dynamical investigations for Raman and infrared frequencies of Te doped Bi1-xTa1-xTe2xO4; 0

    PubMed

    Garg, Shaveen; Sinha, M M; Gupta, H C

    2014-09-15

    We have applied short range force constant model and used normal coordinate analysis based on G-F matrix method in investigating for Raman and infrared modes in Te doped Bi1-xTa1-xTe2xO4; 0xTe2xO4 (0

  7. Light Curves and Radio Structure of the 1999 September Transient Event in V4641 Sagittarii (=XTE J1819-254=SAX J1819.3-2525)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, R. M.; Rupen, M. P.; Hunstead, R. W.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Smith, D. A.; Sault, R. J.; Fender, R. P.; Spencer, R. E.; de la Force, C. J.; Richards, A. M. S.; Garrington, S. T.; Trushkin, S. A.; Ghigo, F. D.; Waltman, E. B.; McCollough, M.

    2000-12-01

    We report on radio observations of the 1999 September event of the X-ray transient V4641 Sgr (=XTE J1819-254=SAX J1819.3-2525). This event was extremely rapid in its rise and decay across radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths; the X-rays rose to 12 crab within 8 hr and faded to below 0.1 crab in less than 2 hr. Radio observations were made with seven telescopes during the first day following the onset of the strong X-ray event, revealing a strong radio source that was detected for 3 further weeks by the more sensitive telescopes. The radio source was resolved even in the first Very Large Array (VLA) images (September 16.027 UT), being ~0.25" long with an axis ratio of at least 10:1. The total flux density decayed by a factor of ~4 over the first day, and by September 17.94 UT the radio emission was confined to a slowly decaying, marginally resolved remnant located at one side of the early elongated emission. The H I absorption spectrum gives a minimum kinematic distance of about 400 pc; various other arguments suggest that the true distance is not much greater than this. The inferred proper motions for the early extended emission (0.4"-1.1" day-1) correspond to v/c~1.0-3.2 (d/0.5 kpc), and this together with the radio morphology argues that this is a relativistic jet source like GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40. The proper motion of the late-time remnant is at least 100 times smaller. One simple interpretation posits the ejection of a single short-lived jet segment, followed by a more slowly decaying, optically thin jet segment ejection. These two components can explain both the multifrequency radio light curves and the radio images. The most likely parameters for the fast-jet system with net-averaged proper motion of ~0.4" day-1, assuming d=0.5 kpc, are v~0.85c and i~63deg, where i is the inclination to the line of sight. The corresponding apparent velocities are 1.4c and 0.6c for the approaching and receding jets, making V4641 Sgr the closest superluminal jet source

  8. A DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE HEAT RELEASE IN THE OUTER CRUST OF THE TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR XTE J1709-267

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-04-20

    The heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars provides a powerful probe of the structure and composition of their crust. Observations of superbursts and cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars require more heat release than is accounted for in current models. Obtaining firm constraints on the depth and magnitude of this extra heat is challenging and therefore its origin remains uncertain. We report on Swift and XMM-Newton observations of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1709-267, which were made in 2012 September-October when it transitioned to quiescence after a {approx_equal}10 week long accretion outburst. The source is detected with XMM-Newton at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of L{sub X} {approx_equal} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34}(D/8.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray spectrum consists of a thermal component that fits to a neutron star atmosphere model and a non-thermal emission tail, each of which contribute {approx_equal}50% to the total flux. The neutron star temperature decreases from {approx_equal}158 to {approx_equal}152 eV during the {approx_equal}8 hr long observation. This can be interpreted as cooling of a crustal layer located at a column density of y {approx_equal} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} g cm{sup -2} ({approx_equal}50 m inside the neutron star), which is just below the ignition depth of superbursts. The required heat generation in the layers on top would be {approx_equal}0.06-0.13 MeV per accreted nucleon. The magnitude and depth rule out electron captures and nuclear fusion reactions as the heat source, but it may be accounted for by chemical separation of light and heavy nuclei. Low-level accretion offers an alternative explanation for the observed variability.

  9. Phase Diagram of HgTe -ZnTe Pseudobinary and Density, Heat Capacity, and Enthalphy of Mixing of Hg(sub 1-x)Zn(sub x)Te Pseudobinary Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Mazuruk, K.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the solidus temperatures of the Hg(sub 1-x) Zn(sub x)Te pseudobinary phase diagram for several compositions in the low x region were measured by differential thermal analysis and the HgTe-ZnTe pseudobinary phase diagram was constructed. The densities of two HgZnTe melts, x = 0.10 and 0.16, were determined by an in situ pycnometric technique in a transparent furnace over, respectively, 110 and 50 C ranges of temperature. The thermodynamic properties of the melts, such as the heat capacity and enthalpy of mixing, were calculated for temperatures between the liquidus and 1500 C by assuming an associated solution model for the liquid phase.

  10. Imaging Dirac-Mass Disorder from Magnetic Dopant-Atoms in the Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3 - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    We present Part II of the spectroscopic imaging - scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM) study of ferromagnetic Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3 single crystals measured at 4.5 K. As Part II we show how both spectroscopic analysis in real and momentum space demonstrate the coincident Dirac mass gap identified. Distribution of gap width, gap center, and gap anisotropy will be discussed. The anticipated relationship Δ (r) ~ n (r) is confirmed throughout, and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV .nm2. These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal-symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.

  11. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT 4U 1630-47 DURING 2 YEARS OF X-RAY ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea; Kaaret, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The black hole candidate (BHC) X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 continuously produced strong X-ray emission for more than 2 years during its 2002-2004 outburst, which is one of the brightest and longest outbursts ever seen from this source. We use more than 300 observations made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to study the source throughout the outburst, along with hard X-ray images from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which are critical for interpreting the RXTE data in this crowded field. The source exhibits extreme behaviors, which can be interpreted as an indication that the system luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. For 15 observations, fitting the spectral continuum with a disk-blackbody plus power-law model results in measured inner disk temperatures between 2.7 and 3.8 keV, and such temperatures are only rivaled by the brightest BHC systems, such as GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564. If the high temperatures are caused by the dominance of electron scattering opacity in the inner regions of the accretion disk, it is theoretically required that the source luminosity be considerably higher than 20% of the Eddington limit. We detect a variety of high-amplitude variability, including hard 10-100 s flares, which peak at levels as much as 2-3 times higher than nonflare levels. The X-ray properties in 2002-2004 are significantly different from those seen during the 1998 outburst, which is the only outburst with detected radio jet emission. Our results support the "jet line" concept recently advanced by Fender and coworkers. Our study allows for a test of the quantitative McClintock & Remillard spectral state definitions, and we find that these definitions alone do not provide a complete description of the outburst. Finally, for several of the observations, the high-energy emission is dominated by the nearby sources IGR J16320-4751 and IGR J16358-4726, and we provide information on when these sources were bright and on the

  12. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  13. FP-LAPW methodology based theoretical investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties of MgxPb1-xS, MgxPb1-xSe and MgxPb1-xTe ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyaya, Surya; Bhattacharjee, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of MgxPb1-xS, MgxPb1-xSe and MgxPb1-xTe alloys for 0≤ x≤1 in their rock-salt (B1) crystallographic phase have been calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method under the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Using the Wu-Cohen generalized-gradient approximation (WC-GGA) induced exchange-correlation potential scheme, the ground state structural parameters such as equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives are calculated and deviations of the lattice constants from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence have been observed for the alloys. Electronic band structures and density of states have been calculated using Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnsoexit3b2tex.batn (TB-mBJ) parameterization scheme to study the electronic properties of the binary compounds and their ternary alloys. Using the approach of Zunger and co-workers, the microscopic origins of band gap bowing have been discussed in term of volume deformation, charge exchange and structural relaxation. Optical properties of the binary compounds and their ternary alloys have been calculated in terms of their respective dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity and optical conductivity. Few calculated results are compared with available experimental and other theoretical data.

  14. A Propeller-effect Interpretation of MAXI/GSC Light Curves of 4U 1608-52 and Aql X-1 and Application to XTE J1701-462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Nakahira, S.; Negoro, H.; Ueda, Y.; Yamaoka, K.

    2013-08-01

    We present the luminosity dwell-time distributions during the hard states of two low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star (NS), 4U 1608-52 and Aql X-1, observed with MAXI/GSC. The luminosity distributions show a steep cutoff on the low-luminosity side at ~1.0 × 1036 erg s-1 in both sources. The cutoff implies a rapid luminosity decrease in their outburst decay phases and this decrease can be interpreted as being due to the propeller effect. We estimate the surface magnetic field of 4U 1608-52 to be (0.5-1.6) × 108 G and Aql X-1 to be (0.6-1.9) × 108 G from the cutoff luminosity and apply the same propeller mechanism to the similar rapid luminosity decrease observed in the transient Z source, XTE J1701-462, with RXTE/ASM. Assuming that the spin period of the NS is on the order of milliseconds, the observed cutoff luminosity implies a surface magnetic field on the order of 109 G.

  15. On the AC-conductivity mechanism in nano-crystalline Se79-xTe15In6Pbx (x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjali; Patial, Balbir Singh; Bhardwaj, Suresh; Awasthi, A. M.; Thakur, Nagesh

    2017-10-01

    In-depth analysis of complex AC-conductivity for nano-crystalline Se79-xTe15In6Pbx (x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 at wt%) alloys is made in the temperature range 308-423 K and over the frequency range 10-1-107 Hz, to understand the conduction mechanism. The investigated nano-crystalline alloys were prepared by melt-quench technique. Sharp structural peaks in X-ray diffraction pattern indicate the nano-crystalline nature, which is also confirmed by FESEM. The AC conductivity shows universal characteristics and at higher frequency a transition from dc to dispersive behavior occurs. Moreover, it is confirmed that ac conductivity (σac) obeys the Jonscher power law as ωs (s< 1). The obtained results are analyzed in the light of various theoretical models. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model associated with non-intimate valence alternation pairs (NVAP's) is found most appropriate to describe the conduction mechanisms in these alloys. In addition, the CBH model description reveals that the bipolaron (single polaron) transport dominates at lower (higher) temperature. The density of localized states has also been deduced.

  16. A PROPELLER-EFFECT INTERPRETATION OF MAXI/GSC LIGHT CURVES OF 4U 1608-52 AND Aql X-1 AND APPLICATION TO XTE J1701-462

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Nakahira, S.; Negoro, H.; Ueda, Y.; Yamaoka, K.

    2013-08-20

    We present the luminosity dwell-time distributions during the hard states of two low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star (NS), 4U 1608-52 and Aql X-1, observed with MAXI/GSC. The luminosity distributions show a steep cutoff on the low-luminosity side at {approx}1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} in both sources. The cutoff implies a rapid luminosity decrease in their outburst decay phases and this decrease can be interpreted as being due to the propeller effect. We estimate the surface magnetic field of 4U 1608-52 to be (0.5-1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} G and Aql X-1 to be (0.6-1.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} G from the cutoff luminosity and apply the same propeller mechanism to the similar rapid luminosity decrease observed in the transient Z source, XTE J1701-462, with RXTE/ASM. Assuming that the spin period of the NS is on the order of milliseconds, the observed cutoff luminosity implies a surface magnetic field on the order of 10{sup 9} G.

  17. Transport, magnetic, internal friction, and Young's modulus in the Y-doped manganites La 0.9-xY xTe 0.1MnO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G. H.; Sun, Y. P.; Zhu, X. B.; Song, W. H.

    2006-05-01

    The resistivity, magnetization, internal friction, and Young's modulus for the polycrystalline samples La 0.9-xY xTe 0.1MnO 3 ( x=0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) have been investigated. All samples have rhombohedral crystallographic structure with the space group R 3¯ C. The Curie temperature TC of the studied samples decreases with increasing Y-doping level. For the samples with x=0,0.05 and 0.10, the temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ( T) exhibits two metal-insulator transitions (MIT) at Tp1 (which is close to its Curie temperature TC) and Tp2 (which is below Tp1). When the doping level to 0.15, these two MIT temperatures are suppressed and an upturn at low temperatures below T* is observed from the ρ( T) curve. A change of Young's modulus E is observed in the vicinity of TC accompanied by a broad peak of the internal friction Q-1 for all studied samples. The values of the relative Young's modulus Δ E increase with increasing Y-doping level at the low temperatures. These results are discussed in terms of the local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion by the substitution of smaller Y 3+ ions for larger La 3+ ions and the increased bending of the Mn-O-Mn bond with decreasing the average ionic radius of the A-site element < r A> and the tolerance factor t, resulting in the narrowing of the bandwidth, the decrease of the mobility of eg electrons and the weakening of double-exchange (DE) interaction.

  18. Substrate dependent electronic structure variations of van der Waals heterostructures of MoSe2 or MoSe2(1-x)Te2x grown by van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy Diaz, Horacio; Ma, Yujing; Kolekar, Sadhu; Avila, José; Chen, Chaoyu; Asensio, Maria C.; Batzill, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Substrate induced variation of the electronic structure of MoSe2 monolayers is studied. MoSe2 is directly grown by van der Waals epitaxy on MoS2 and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In this article, we give a review of growth of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) by van der Waals epitaxy and discuss previously found evidence for the modifications of the electronic structure of TMDCs by van der Waals substrates. Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy we determine the dispersion of the valence band and the band gap, respectively. For MoSe2 on graphite the valence band resembles that expected for free standing single layer MoSe2, however, the substrate induces a narrowing of the overall band gap. For MoSe2 on MoS2 evidence for hybridization of the valence band maximum between the monolayer and the substrate are presented. Such hybridization, results in an alignment of the valence band maximum (VBM) of MoSe2 with the binding energy of the VBM of the MoS2-substrate at the Γ-point. Furthermore, the VBM at the Γ-point is very close in energy to that of the VBM at the K-point. The effective electron mass around the Γ-point is also much decreased for MoSe2 on MoS2- compared to HOPG-substrates or free standing MoSe2 monolayers. This indicates that in TMDC heterostructures interlayer interactions significantly modify the electronic structure and the resulting properties are in between those of free-standing monolayer and bulk materials. In an attempt to control the electronic states incorporation of Te by formation of MoSe2(1-x)Te2x has been investigated. While shifts in the core level position are observed, the VBM states are found to be very similar to those of pure MoSe2.

  19. The Microquasar Cyg X-1: A Short Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, M. A.; Wilms, J.; Hanke, M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Markoff, S.

    2011-01-01

    We review the spectral properties of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-I. Specifically, we discuss two recent sets of multi-satellite observations. One comprises a 0.5-500 keY spectrum, obtained with eve!)' flying X-ray satellite at that time, that is among the hardest Cyg X-I spectra observed to date. The second set is comprised of 0.5-40 keV Chandra-HETG plus RXTE-PCA spectra from a radio-quiet, spectrally soft state. We first discuss the "messy astrophysics" often neglected in the study of Cyg X-I, i.e., ionized absorption from the wind of the secondary and the foreground dust scattering halo. We then discuss components common to both state extremes: a low temperature accretion disk, and a relativistically broadened Fe line and reflection. Hard state spectral models indicate that the disk inner edge does not extend beyond > or approx.= 40 GM/sq c , and may even approach as close as approx. = 6GM/sq c. The soft state exhibits a much more prominent disk component; however, its very low normalization plausibly indicates a spinning black hole in the Cyg X-I system. Key words. accretion, accretion disks - black hole physics - X-rays:binaries

  20. Structure change via partial Se/Te substitution: crystal structure and physical properties of the telluride Ba(2)Cu(4-x)Te(5) in contrast to the selenide-telluride Ba(2)Cu(4-x)Se(y)Te(5-y).

    PubMed

    Mayasree, Oottil; Cui, Yanjie; Assoud, Abdeljalil; Kleinke, Holger

    2010-07-19

    The chalcogenides Ba(2)Cu(4-x)Se(y)Te(5-y) were synthesized from the elements in stoichiometric ratios at 700 degrees C, followed by annealing at 600 degrees C. The ternary telluride Ba(2)Cu(4-x)Te(5) crystallizes in a new structure type, space group C2/c, with lattice dimensions of a = 9.4428(6) A, b = 9.3289(6) A, c = 13.3028(8) A, beta = 101.635(1) degrees , V = 1147.8(1) A(3), for x = 0.75(1) (Z = 4). The corresponding selenide-telluride adopts another new, but strongly related, structure type, space group P4(1)2(1)2, with a = 6.5418(3) A, c = 25.782(2) A, V = 1103.3(1) A(3), for Ba(2)Cu(3.26(2))Se(0.729(8))Te(4.271) (Z = 4). Between 0.13 and 1.0 Te per formula unit can be replaced with Se, while the Cu content appears to vary only within 0.67

  1. Black Hole X Ray Nova Outburst with XTE and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Haswell, Carole

    1998-01-01

    We obtained multiwavelength coverage of the soft X-ray transient. GRO J1655-40 during its 1996 outburst, using HST (Hubble Space Telescope), RXTE (Rossi X Ray Timing Explorer), CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory), and ground-based facilities. This outburst was qualitatively different from other SXT (Soft X Ray Telescope) outbursts and from previous outbursts of this source. The onset of hard X-ray activity occurred very slowly, over several months, and was delayed relative to the soft X-ray rise. During this period, the optical fluxes declined steadily. This apparent anticorrelation is not consistent with with the standard disk instability model of SXT outbursts, nor is it expected if the optical output is dominated by reprocessed X-rays, as in persistent low-mass X-ray binaries. Based on the strength of the 2175-A interstellar absorption feature, we constrain the reddening to be E(B - V) = 1.2 plus or minus 0.1, a result which is consistent with the known properties of the source and with the strength of other interstellar absorption lines. After this dereddening we find that the spectra are dominated by a component peaking in the optical, with the expected v (sup l/3) disk spectrum seen only in the ultraviolet. Bowen fluorescence lines of NIII and OIII are also seen, as well as possible P Cyg profiles in the ultraviolet resonance lines. These features suggest an accretion-disk wind. The X-ray spectra broadly resemble the high/soft state commonly seen in black hole candidates, but evolve through two substates.

  2. XTE Proposal #20102--"SS 433's High Energy Spectrum"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Kawai, N.; Kotani, T.; Oka, T.; Wagner, R. M.; Hjellming, R.; Rupen, M.; Brinkmann, W.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the jet-producing compact binary system SS 433 with RXTE during three multiwavelength campaigns, the first in conjunction with ASCA observations, the second simultaneous with a VLA-VLBA-MERLIN campaign, and the third associated with a Nobeyama millimeter-band campaign. All these campaigns included optical observations. Occurring at different jet precession and binary phases, the observations also monitored the system during a radio flare. The data provide SS 433's X-ray spectrum over more than an energy decade, and track the spectral variations as the X-ray source was partially eclipsed. The continuum can be modeled as a power law with an exponential cutoff, which can be detected to approximately 50 keV. Strong line emission is evident in the 5-10 keV range which can be modeled as a broad line whose energy is precession independent and a narrow line whose energy does vary with jet precession phase; this line model is clearly an over simplification since the PCA does not have sufficient energy resolution to detect the lines ASCA observed. The eclipses are deeper at high energy and at jet precession phases when the jets are more inclined towards and away from us. A large radio flare occurred between two sets of X-ray monitoring observations; an X-ray observation at the peak of the flare found a softer spectrum with a flux approximately 1/3 that of the quiescent level.

  3. JTDE I XTE34 Materials Research and Development Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    excess of the design level. In Figure 11 the microstructure of the single-crystal MAR - M247 blades is shown in the area adjacent to the fracture face...from the tip shroud rupture failure. The metallographic structures shown in these photos is indicative of acceptably processed MAR - M247 mate- rial. As...treatments, they would be expected in MAR - M247 material which is limited by incipient melting to solution treatments of approximately 2250F. This

  4. Recent Results of VLBA Imaging of X-Ray Binaries: the Newest and Oldest Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, A. J.; Dhawan, V.; Rupen, M. P.

    2005-12-01

    X-ray binaries are stellar systems in which X-ray emission results from accretion from a normal star onto a compact object, i.e., a neutron star or black hole. Radio emission is associated both with X-ray outbursts, and with more stable conditions when the X-rays are dominated by a persistent hard power-law component. The VLBA has played a crucial role in studying these systems, by allowing detailed AU-scale imaging. This has allowed direct measurements of morphologies, orientations, expansion speeds, and scattering sizes, as well as detailed astrometric and proper motion studies. We review results from our group in this area, namely observations of H1743-322 and SS433.

  5. Fermi-LAT Observation of Increased Gamma-ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Dubus, Guillaume; Corbet, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 has drastically dropped since 2016 Jan 11 (MJD 57398, as observed by Swift/BAT http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/, Krimm et al. 2013, ApJS 209, 14) indicating a possible transition to the soft state.

  6. Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Matthew J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Markoff, Sera; Fender, Rob; Henze, Martin; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Scaife, Anna M M; Roberts, Timothy P; Walton, Dominic; Carpenter, John; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Bower, Geoffrey C; Gurwell, Mark; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Haberl, Frank; Harris, Jonathan; Daniel, Michael; Miah, Junayd; Done, Chris; Morgan, John S; Dickinson, Hugh; Charles, Phil; Burwitz, Vadim; Della Valle, Massimo; Freyberg, Michael; Greiner, Jochen; Hernanz, Margarita; Hartmann, Dieter H; Hatzidimitriou, Despina; Riffeser, Arno; Sala, Gloria; Seitz, Stella; Reig, Pablo; Rau, Arne; Orio, Marina; Titterington, David; Grainge, Keith

    2013-01-10

    A subset of ultraluminous X-ray sources (those with luminosities of less than 10(40) erg s(-1); ref. 1) are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto black holes with masses of ∼5-20M cicled dot, probably by means of an accretion disk. The X-ray and radio emission are coupled in such Galactic sources; the radio emission originates in a relativistic jet thought to be launched from the innermost regions near the black hole, with the most powerful emission occurring when the rate of infalling matter approaches a theoretical maximum (the Eddington limit). Only four such maximal sources are known in the Milky Way, and the absorption of soft X-rays in the interstellar medium hinders the determination of the causal sequence of events that leads to the ejection of the jet. Here we report radio and X-ray observations of a bright new X-ray source in the nearby galaxy M 31, whose peak luminosity exceeded 10(39) erg s(-1). The radio luminosity is extremely high and shows variability on a timescale of tens of minutes, arguing that the source is highly compact and powered by accretion close to the Eddington limit onto a black hole of stellar mass. Continued radio and X-ray monitoring of such sources should reveal the causal relationship between the accretion flow and the powerful jet emission.

  7. THE NOT-SO-MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE MICROQUASAR GRS1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Steeghs, D.; Parsons, S. G.; McClintock, J. E.; Reid, M. J.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2013-05-10

    We present a new dynamical study of the black hole X-ray transient GRS1915+105 making use of near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. We detect a large number of donor star absorption features across a wide range of wavelengths spanning the H and K bands. Our 24 epochs covering a baseline of over 1 yr permit us to determine a new binary ephemeris including a refined orbital period of P = 33.85 {+-} 0.16 days. The donor star radial velocity curves deliver a significantly improved determination of the donor semi-amplitude which is both accurate (K{sub 2} = 126 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}) and robust against choice of donor star template and spectral features used. We furthermore constrain the donor star's rotational broadening to vsin i = 21 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1}, delivering a binary mass ratio of q = 0.042 {+-} 0.024. If we combine these new constraints with distance and inclination estimates derived from modeling the radio emission, a black hole mass of M{sub BH} = 10.1 {+-} 0.6 M{sub Sun} is inferred, paired with an evolved mass donor of M{sub 2} = 0.47 {+-} 0.27 M{sub Sun }. Our analysis suggests a more typical black hole mass for GRS1915+105 rather than the unusually high values derived in the pioneering dynamical study by Greiner et al. Our data demonstrate that high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of obscured accreting binaries can deliver dynamical mass determinations with a precision on par with optical studies.

  8. The Not-so-massive Black Hole in the Microquasar GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeghs, D.; McClintock, J. E.; Parsons, S. G.; Reid, M. J.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    We present a new dynamical study of the black hole X-ray transient GRS1915+105 making use of near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. We detect a large number of donor star absorption features across a wide range of wavelengths spanning the H and K bands. Our 24 epochs covering a baseline of over 1 yr permit us to determine a new binary ephemeris including a refined orbital period of P = 33.85 ± 0.16 days. The donor star radial velocity curves deliver a significantly improved determination of the donor semi-amplitude which is both accurate (K 2 = 126 ± 1 km s-1) and robust against choice of donor star template and spectral features used. We furthermore constrain the donor star's rotational broadening to vsin i = 21 ± 4 km s-1, delivering a binary mass ratio of q = 0.042 ± 0.024. If we combine these new constraints with distance and inclination estimates derived from modeling the radio emission, a black hole mass of M BH = 10.1 ± 0.6 M ⊙ is inferred, paired with an evolved mass donor of M 2 = 0.47 ± 0.27 M ⊙. Our analysis suggests a more typical black hole mass for GRS1915+105 rather than the unusually high values derived in the pioneering dynamical study by Greiner et al. Our data demonstrate that high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of obscured accreting binaries can deliver dynamical mass determinations with a precision on par with optical studies.

  9. Enhanced gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 detected by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-04-01

    Integrating from 2016-04-16 00:00 UT to 2016-04-19 00:00 UT, the AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with Cygnus X-3 at Galactic coordinates (l, b) = (79.4, 0.2) +/- 0.6 (stat.) +/- 0.1 (syst.) deg, with flux F( > 100 MeV) = (2.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s, as determined by a multi-source likelihood analysis.

  10. Chandra Discovers the X-ray Signature of a Powerful Wind from a Galactic Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected, for the first time in X rays, a stellar fingerprint known as a P Cygni profile--the distinctive spectral signature of a powerful wind produced by an object in space. The discovery reveals a 4.5-million-mile-per-hour wind coming from a highly compact pair of stars in our galaxy, report researchers from Penn State and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in a paper they will present on 8 November 2000 during a meeting of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu, Hawaii. The paper also has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "To our knowledge, these are the first P Cygni profiles reported in X rays," say researchers Niel Brandt, assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, and Norbert S. Schulz, research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The team made the discovery during their first observation of a binary-star system with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which was launched into space in July 1999. The system, known as Circinus X-1, is located about 20,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Circinus near the Southern Cross. It contains a super-dense neutron star in orbit around a normal fusion-burning star like our Sun. Although Circinus X-1 was discovered in 1971, many properties of this system remain mysterious because Circinus X-1 lies in the galactic plane where obscuring dust and gas have blocked its effective study in many wavelengths. The P Cygni spectral profile, previously detected primarily at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths but never before in X rays, is the textbook tool astronomers rely on for probing stellar winds. The profile looks like the outline of a roller coaster, with one really big hill and valley in the middle, on a data plot with velocity on one axis and the flow rate of photons per second on the other. It is named after the famous star P Cygni, in which such profiles have been observed for over one hundred years. "When you see a P Cygni profile, you immediately know the object you are observing is producing a powerful outflow," Brandt says. Chandra is the first X-ray observatory capable of capturing data of sufficiently high resolution to reveal an X-ray P Cygni profile. Brandt and Schulz say their discovery occurred because they were able to use Chandra continuously for one-third of a day to observe Circinus X-1, plus its signal in X rays is generally very bright, partly because it is relatively nearby in our own Galaxy. P Cygni lines at ultraviolet or optical wavelengths had not been previously seen from Circinus X-1 because a large amount of dust in the galactic plane lies between Earth and this system and this dust is an efficient absorber of ultraviolet and optical light. However, the energetic X rays created by Circinus X-1 could easily penetrate through the obscuring dust and gas--similar to the way medical X-rays on Earth can penetrate through people's bodies. "We were hoping to detect some kind of X-ray line emission from the accreting neutron star in Circinus X-1, but it caught us totally by surprise to observe a complex emission structure like a P Cygni profile in high-energy X rays." schulz says. "This detection clearly marks a new area in X-ray astrophysics, where we will be able to study dynamical structures in the universe like we currently do at ultraviolet or optical wavelengths." Brandt and Schulz used two of Chandra's instruments, known together as the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), to detect the X rays and produce a high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Circinus X-1. This spectrum is analogous to the rainbow we can see at optical wavelengths. "Chandra's X-ray spectrum is 50 times more detailed than previous X-ray observatories could obtain," Schulz says. First, the super-fine transmission gratings acted like a prism to separate the X-rays into discrete energy bands. Then, the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) was used as a camera to record the X-ray spectral data, which computers processed and plotted onto a graph, revealing the P Cygni signature. Specific elements, such as silicon or iron, emit specific X-ray wavelengths, revealing their presence in the emitting material to astronomers. Before the observation with Chandra, astronomers knew the force of gravity in an X-ray binary system strips material off the surface of the normal star and then pulls this material toward the surface of the super-dense neutron star, forming a relatively flat spiraling cloud of gas called an accretion disk. The detailed Chandra data revealed, in addition, that the radiation and rotational forces in the Circinus X-1 disk are blasting some of the inward-spiraling gas back out into space in a powerful wind, which creates the P Cygni lines in the object's spectrum. P Cygni profiles carry much diagnostic information that is hard to obtain in other ways--such as how fast the wind is moving, how much material it contains, how dense it is, and its chemical composition. "The wind coming out of Circinus X-1 is composed of gas that contains highly ionized atoms of silicon, neon, iron, magnesium, and sulfur, and its peak observed velocity is about 4.5 million miles per hour--so fast it would cross the entire radius of the Earth in about three seconds," Brandt reports. The astronomers used Doppler techniques that detect positive velocities from material moving away from Earth, with signals shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, and negative velocities from material that is coming toward Earth, with signals shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum. "We learned these two stars clearly interact dramatically with each other while this wind is blowing outward at high velocity, which appears to be causing certain properties of the wind to change over time," Schulz says. The researchers produced a time-lapse movie of one of their spectra, which is available on the World Wide Web, along with other information about the discovery, at http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/niel/cirx1/cirx1.html. A binary-star system 20,000 light years from Earth in the constellation of Circinus. Animation showing the strong variability over time of one of the P Cygni spectral lines seen by Chandra from Circinus X-1 (Click Image to View Animation) Credit: Niel Brandt and Norbert Schulz (Note: This animation is the same as the one referred to in the above paragraph) Atoms irradiated with energetic X-rays can emit as well as absorb them at specific wavelengths. Whether astronomers observe emission or absorption depends on the state and environment of the irradiated atoms, so these processes carry vital information about the emitting and absorbing material. Regarding the time-lapse movie, Schulz commented "You can see this profile flipping up and down between a strong emission line on the red side and a strong absorption line on the blue side. We don't yet fully understand what this means, but it does indicate the dynamic nature of this system. We see indications that sometimes either the emitting or the absorbing region gets obscured by matter so thick that not even X rays can penetrate it." The researchers say one reason their discovery that Circinus X-1 has a high-velocity wind is important is that this small two-star system now has striking similarities with a type of luminous active galaxy known as a broad-absorption-line quasar. Broad-absorption-line quasars are galaxies containing a violent centers powered by supermassive black holes. "This type of galaxy has an accretion disk circling its black hole plus very powerful winds created when radiation pushes material off of the disk and out into space," Brandt says. "The disk winds from broad-absorption-line quasars create P Cygni lines in the spectra of these objects. Circinus X-1, with the newly detected X-ray P Cygni profiles, appears in many ways to be a microscopic version of a broad-absorption-line quasar." "Although a typical AGN has a roughly ten-million-solar-mass black hole at its center while the Circinus X-1 system has a neutron star only slightly more massive than our Sun, both systems must obey the same laws of physics," Brandt says. "Gas is gas and gravity is gravity and that's all there is to it--you put gas and gravity together and they make a disk and often, apparently, a disk-generated wind." The researchers hope X-ray P Cygni profiles will be found to be a fairly common property of X-ray binaries containing neutron stars and black holes. "If we can find X-ray P Cygni profiles in more systems, we can learn a great deal about the geometry and the dynamics of the winds these systems emit," Schulz says. "Due to the penetrating nature of X rays, X-ray P Cygni lines have the significant advantage that they can be used to probe winds even from systems that are heavily obscured by dust along the line of sight." The High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer was built by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Bruno Rossi Professor Claude Canizares as Principal Investigator. The ACIS X-ray camera was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The observation of Circinus X-1 was part of the first round of Chandra's guest observer program. The guest observer program is a competitive one open to the World science community. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program. TRW Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Massachusetts. Circinus X-1 Handout Constellation Circinus To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov This research was supported by the Chandra X-ray Center, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. This is a joint press release from Penn State and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Digital images and movies are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/niel/cirx1/cirx1.html Science Contacts: Niel Brandt: 814-865-3509 Norbert S. Schulz: 617-258-5767 Barbara K. Kennedy (PIO at Penn State): 814-863-4682 Deborah Halber (PIO at MIT): 617-253-2700 or 617-258-9276

  11. Black Hole X-Ray Nova Outburst with XTE and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Haswell, Carole

    1999-01-01

    We obtained multiwavelength coverage of the soft X-ray transient GRO J1655-40 during its 1996 outburst, using HST, RXTE, CGRO, and ground-based facilities. This outburst was qualitatively different from other SXT outbursts and from previous outbursts of this source. The onset of hard X-ray activity occurred very slowly, over several months, and was delayed relative to the soft X-ray rise. During this period, the optical fluxes declined steadily. This apparent anticorrelation is not consistent with with the standard disk instability model of SXT outbursts, nor is it expected if the optical output is dominated by reprocessed X-rays, as in persistent low-mass X-ray binaries. .

  12. The Bhc Soft X-Ray Transient XTE J1908+094 Returning to Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Peter

    2002-09-01

    With the Chandra satellite we can study the spectra of SXTs as they fade into quiescence. This has never been done for a BHC SXT! According to evolutionary and SXT outburst theories there may exist a whole class of persistent but faint accreting BHCs at low Mdot; their accretion disk is cold and hence not prone to the SXT outburst mechanism. Up to now there is very few information on spectral states for BHCs for ~2 orders of magnitude in flux (~10^-7-10^-5 Edd.; there is spectral information of BHCs in quiescence at ~10^-8 of Edd.). Gallo et al. 2003 have demonstrated the existence of a universal coupling between observed X-ray and radio flux from hard state BHCs, of the form L_radio~L_X^0.7, over three orders of magnitude. We propose to extend this relation down to ~5x10^-7 Edd. assuming d=10 kpc. This would demonstrate that jet production is the standard behavior and it is only in the limited range in Mdot in which a standard thin disc is formed that a jet is not produced.

  13. Vertical Bridgman growth of Cd 1-x Zn xTe for room temperature radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kelly A.; Ciampi, Guido; Skrip, Christie E.; Lynn, K. G.

    2007-09-01

    Low pressure Electro-Dynamic Gradient freeze (EDG) method has been used to grow compensated, high resistivity Cd(1-x)ZnxTe for x and gamma ray detectors. All growths contained excess Tellurium which is added to the growth. Ampoule design and setup to limit vapor transport was determined to be important. Ingots grown in a Pyrolitic Coated Graphite crucible are shown to provide a good response to ionizing radiation at room temperature and can be used multiple times. The highest doping levels of Aluminum are shown to improve mobility lifetime products for electrons and average 8.7x10 -4 cm2/V at 0.5 μsecond shaping fitting the Hecht relation.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of n-type polycrystalline BixSb2-xTe3 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J.; Gerovac, N.; Caillat, T.

    2002-01-01

    (BixSbl-x)2Te3(.5 = x = .7) polycrystalline samples were synthesized using a combination of melting and powder metallurgy techniques. The samples were hot pressed in graphite dies and cut perpendicular and parallel to the pressing direction. Samples were examined by microprobe analysis to determine their atomic composition. The thermoelectric properties were measured at room temperature in both directions. These properties include Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and Hall effect. The thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, was calculated fiom these properties.

  15. NMR in Chevrel-phase solid solution Mo 6Se 8- xTe x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamard, C.; Le Floch, M.; Peña, O.; Wojakowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Mo 6Se 8-Mo 6Te 8 solid solution was studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and 77Se and 125Te NMR. Dynamic studies show that substitution occurs differently when Se replaces Te in Mo 6Te 8 than when Te replaces Se in Mo 6Se 8. Selenium first fills the high-symmetry sites and then it becomes statistically distributed on the 6f positions of the R3¯ symmetry. In the second case, Te occupies randomly the 8 X sites of the Mo 6X 8 structure, creating large perturbations of the 125Te NMR spectra over the whole range of x.

  16. Modeling and experimental results of CdxZn1-xTe detector response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Michael; Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Hillman, Damian; Hillman, Damon; Burger, Arnold; James, Ralph B.

    2000-11-01

    We have developed a model of the statistical variations in the electrical charge transport in CdxZn1-xTe(CZT) detectors. The model includes a simulation of the charge carrier generation for each photon interaction, using a calculated absorption coefficient of the photoelectric absorption. Next, we simulate the induced signal as carriers drift towards the collecting electrode under trapping conditions with negligible detrapping. Finally, a pulse height histogram is composed simulating the spectral response of the detector and incorporating the electronic noise component. A comparison between experimental and calculated CZT spectra was performed. These results and the potential for using the model in detector design will be discussed and presented.

  17. Comparing the ρ and χ class spectra of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 observed with BeppoSAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Massaro, E.; Massa, F.; D'Aì, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. BeppoSAX observed GRS 1915+105 during two variability classes at the same 2-10 keV flux level. The ρ class is characterized by quasi-periodic flares recurring on a time-scale of 1 to 2 min, namely heartbeat, while the χ class is characterized by no strong temporal variability. Aims: The aim of this work is to coherently analyze the source spectrum in these two classes and to gain insight into the source conditions that inset the heartbeats. Methods: A single χ spectrum was accumulated, while ρ data were split in runs where five phase-resolved spectra were selected. In addition to the multicolor disc black body, the fitting model includes a hybrid Comptonization plus a Compton reflection component. Results: Our results show that the emission in the ρ class is dominated by the multi-temperature disk, while in the χ class the Comptonised component is dominant. The disk temperature varies between a maximum of 1.95 ± 0.11 keV reached at the peak and a minimum of 0.95 keV in the χ class. In both classes we detect a significant contribution from a non-thermal electron population to the total Comptonized emission. A broadened iron emission line is detected in the χ spectrum. We interpret the line shape as being due to reflection from an accretion disk extremely close to the black-hole ( gravitational radii), with an equivalent width of 200 ± 20 eV. Concomitantly, upper limits of 150 eV can be derived from the ρ spectra. Conclusions: In the framework of coupled disc-corona models, these results point out that the source emission is strongly affected by the fractions of accretion energy distributed between the disk, the corona, and possibly the wind, with no indication on the conditions that inset the heartbeats.

  18. A SEYFERT-2-LIKE SPECTRUM IN THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY MICROQUASAR V4641 SGR

    SciTech Connect

    Morningstar, Warren R.; Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Maitra, Dipankar E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu

    2014-05-10

    We present an analysis of three archival Chandra observations of the black hole V4641 Sgr, performed during a decline into quiescence. The last two observations in the sequence can be modeled with a simple power law. The first spectrum, however, is remarkably similar to spectra observed in Seyfert-2 active galactic nuclei, which arise through a combination of obscuration and reflection from distant material. This spectrum of V4641 Sgr can be fit extremely well with a model including partial-covering absorption and distant reflection. This model recovers a Γ ≅ 2.0 power-law incident spectrum, typical of black holes at low Eddington fractions. The implied geometry is plausible in a high-mass X-ray binary like V4641 Sgr, and may be as compelling as explanations invoking Doppler-split line pairs in a jet, and/or unusual Comptonization. We discuss potential implications and means of testing these models.

  19. Hg 1-x Cd xTe mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) grown on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Shubhrangshu; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Velicu, Silviu; Zhao, Jun

    2007-09-01

    Photodetectors with high bandwidth and internal gain are required to detect highly attenuated optical signals for defense application and long distance communication. IR avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are best suited for this purpose due to their internal gain-bandwidth characteristics coupled with long range data transmission capability. For the past two decades, HgCdTe has been the most successful material for infrared photodetector applications. Recent advances in epitaxial growth techniques made possible the growth of advanced HgCdTe APD structures, but to the best of our knowledge all are grown on expensive substrates (e.g. CdZnTe, CdTe). We report for the first time HgCdTe-based MWIR (4.5 μm) p-i-n APD grown on Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The devices were fabricated by 365nm UV photolithography and wet-etching technique. The diode had a junction area of 300μm diameter. The R 0A of the diode was 3 x 10 6 Ω-cm2 at 77K. Multiplication gains of 800 were measured at a reverse bias of 10 V in the linear operation regime. The gain increased exponentially as the reverse bias was increased, indicating that only one carrier is responsible for the impact ionization. Temperature dependence of the multiplication gain and of the breakdown voltage further confirms that avalanche multiplication dominates high reverse bias I-V characteristics.

  20. Improvement in crystalline quality of Cd 1- xZn xTe( x=4%) crystals grown in graphite crucible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Narula, R. C.; Bagai, R. K.; Kumar, Vikram

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we report improvement in the crystalline quality of CdZnTe (Zn=4%) crystals, with respect to etch pit density and full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curve, grown in graphite crucible as compared to crystals grown in carbon-coated quartz ampoule. Uniform dislocation density distribution of the order of 2-3×10 4 cm -2 with no cellular structure and improvement in FWHM value (18-30 arcsec) with reduced splitting of peaks in X-ray rocking curves have been observed in the complete cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) wafers (30 mm×50 mm). We have used a larger X-ray beam (10 mm×1 mm) to study the crystalline quality of the complete CZT ingot. The effect of variation of beam size on X-ray rocking curve and its FWHM value indicates that the use of large beam size gives the true assessment of the spatial crystalline perfection of the grown CZT crystals. Although improvement in terms of crystalline perfection has been achieved in CZT material, the fall in optical transmission in the longer wave length spectral region and measured electrical properties in the annealed CZT samples point towards the incorporation of impurities in CZT during growth from the graphite crucible. Our results clearly indicate that overall improvement in the quality of CZT crystal is achievable with the use of ultra-high-purity graphite as the crucible.

  1. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; ...

    2016-02-15

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal’s boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1₋xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touchingmore » points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Lastly,our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1₋xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.« less

  2. Optical studies of the X-ray transient XTE J2123-058 - II. Phase-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, R. I.; Charles, P. A.; Haswell, C. A.; Casares, J.; Zurita, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.

    2001-06-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the soft X-ray transient XTEJ2123-058 in outburst. A useful spectral coverage of 3700-6700Å was achieved spanning two orbits of the binary, with single-epoch coverage extending to ~9000Å. The optical spectrum approximates a steep blue power law, consistent with emission on the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of a hot blackbody spectrum. The strongest spectral lines are Heii 4686Å and Ciii/Niii 4640Å (Bowen blend) in emission. Their relative strengths suggest that XTEJ2123-058 was formed in the Galactic plane, not in the halo. Other weak emission lines of Heii and Civ are present, and Balmer lines show a complex structure, blended with Heii. Heii 4686-Å profiles show a complex multiple S-wave structure, with the strongest component appearing at low velocities in the lower-left quadrant of a Doppler tomogram. Hα shows transient absorption between phases 0.35 and 0.55. Both of these effects appear to be analogous to similar behaviour in SW Sex type cataclysmic variables. We therefore consider whether the spectral line behaviour of XTEJ2123-058 can be explained by the same models invoked for those systems.

  3. XTE Observations of the Intraday Variable BL LAC S5 0716+714 in a coordinated Multiwavelength Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, D. M.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    S5 0716+714 was observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) between 6 and 22 April 1996 as part of a multifrequency monitoring campaign for this source observed to show extreme intra-day variability (IDV) at a number of frequencies. There were 24 distinct epochs of observation ('views') with the RXTE Proportional Counter Array (PCA), each lasting on average 3-4 ks. There were a number of technical problems with the data. During view 10 no Proportional Counter Unit (PCU) was on. A gain change (from gain epoch 2 to gain epoch 3) took place during view 11, on 15 April 1996. No data were received for view 18. Views 10, 11 and 18 have been omitted from our analysis. There were two distinct pointings of the telescope in views 4 and 17 (all the other observations have only one pointing), and in many of the pointings the data are broken by periods where the high voltage was turned off during South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) passages and Earth occultations. Originally no filter file was available for views 21 and 22, and for the second pointing of view 17, because housekeeping data were missing, but these data were supplied when the observations were reprocessed in early 1998. For most of the remaining observations only three PCUs were on; the exceptions are views 23, 24 (four PCUs) and 17, 19, 20, 21 and 22 (five PCUs). All working PCUs have been analyzed. The third part of the first pointing of view 17 was found to be very short and is discarded from our analysis. The second part of observation 2 is pointed far off-axis and is discarded.

  4. Deep electronic levels in high-pressure Bridgman Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Szeles, C.; Shan, Y.Y.; Lynn, K.G.; Eissler, E.E.

    1995-12-01

    The behavior of deep electronic levels was studied as a function of Zn concentration in CdZnTe crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman technique using thermoelectric effect spectroscopy. A significant increase of the thermal ionization energies of hole traps was observed with the increasing Zn content of the ternary compound. The effect explains the stronger hole trapping and the resulting much shorter hole lifetime usually observed in CdZnTe as compared to CdTe. The behavior also suggests increased carrier recombination and explains the strong deterioration of electron collection in detectors fabricated from CdZnTe of high Zn concentration.

  5. The broad-band radio spectrum of LS I +61°303 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, L.; Fuhrmann, L.; Massi, M.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Our aim is to explore the broad-band radio continuum spectrum of LS I +61°303 during its outbursts by employing the available set of secondary focus receivers of the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. Methods: The clear periodicity of the system LS I +61°303 allowed observations to be scheduled covering the large radio outburst in March-April 2012. We observed LS I +61°303 on 14 consecutive days at 2.6, 4.85, 8.35, 10.45, 14.3, 23, and 32 GHz with a cadence of about 12 h followed by two additional observations several days later. Based on these observations we obtained a total of 24 quasi-simultaneous broad-band radio spectra. Results: During onset, the main flare shows an almost flat broad-band spectrum, most prominently seen on March 27, 2012, where - for the first time - a flat spectrum (α = 0.00 ± 0.07, S ∝ να) is observed up to 32 GHz (9 mm wavelength). The flare decay phase shows superimposed "sub-flares" with the spectral index oscillating between -0.4 and -0.1 in a quasi-regular fashion. Finally, the spectral index steepens during the decay phase, showing optically thin emission with values α ~ -0.5 to -0.7. Conclusions: The radio characteristics of LS I +61°303 compare well with those of the microquasars XTE J1752-223 and Cygnus X-3. In these systems the flaring phase is actually also composed of a sequence of outbursts with clearly different spectral characteristics: a first outburst with a flat/inverted spectrum followed by a bursting phase of optically thin emission.

  6. Ancient Black Hole Speeds Through Sun's Galactic Neighborhood, Devouring Companion Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found an ancient black hole speeding through the Sun's Galactic neighborhood, devouring a small companion star as the pair travels in an eccentric orbit looping to the outer reaches of our Milky Way Galaxy. The scientists believe the black hole is the remnant of a massive star that lived out its brief life billions of years ago and later was gravitationally kicked from its home star cluster to wander the Galaxy with its companion. "This discovery is the first step toward filling in a missing chapter in the history of our Galaxy," said Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission. "We believe that hundreds of thousands of very massive stars formed early in the history of our Galaxy, but this is the first black hole remnant of one of those huge primeval stars that we've found." "This also is the first time that a black hole's motion through space has been measured," Mirabel added. A black hole is a dense concentration of mass with a gravitational pull so strong that not even light can escape it. The research is reported in the Sept. 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. XTE J1118+480 The object is called XTE J1118+480 and was discovered by the Rossi X-Ray satellite on March 29, 2000. Later observations with optical and radio telescopes showed that it is about 6,000 light-years from Earth and that it is a "microquasar" in which material sucked by the black hole from its companion star forms a hot, spinning disk that spits out "jets" of subatomic particles that emit radio waves. Most of the stars in our Milky Way Galaxy are within a thin disk, called the plane of the Galaxy. However, there also are globular clusters, each containing hundreds of thousands of the oldest stars in the Galaxy which orbit the Galaxy's center in paths that take them far from the Galaxy's plane. XTE J

  7. Neutron Scattering Investigation of Phonon Scattering Rates in Ag1-xSb1+xTe2+x (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L; Budai, John D; Delaire, Olivier A; Ehlers, Georg; Hong, Tao; Karapetrova, Evguenia A.; Ma, Jie; May, Andrew F; McGuire, Michael A; Specht, Eliot D

    2014-01-01

    The phonon dispersions and scattering rates of the thermoelectric material AgSbTe$_{2}$ were measured as a function of temperature with inelastic neutron scattering. The results show that phonon scattering rates are large and weakly dependent on temperature. The lattice thermal conductivity was calculated from the measured phonon lifetimes and group velocities, providing good agreement with bulk transport measurements. The measured phonon scattering rates and their temperature dependence are compared with models of phonon scattering by anharmonicity and point defect. We find that these processes cannot account for the large total phonon scattering rates observed, and their lack of temperature dependence. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements on single crystals revealed an extensive nanostructure from cation ordering, which is likely responsible for the strong phonon scattering.

  8. Theoretical investigation of optical properties and band gap engineering for Zn1-x TM xTe (TM = Fe, Co) alloys by modified Becke-Johnson potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Q.; Yaseen, M.; Hassan, M.; Ramay, Shahid M.; Mahmood, Asif

    2017-08-01

    Not Available Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University (for Shahid M Ramay) (Grant No. RG 1435-004), the University of the Punjab, Lahore for financial support through Faculty Research Grant Program (for M Hassan), and the HEC Pakistan (Grant No. 21-261/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2014) (for M Yaseen).

  9. Studies of boron implantation through photochemically deposited SiO/sub 2/ films on Hg/sub 1-x/Cd/sub x/Te. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Knudsen, J.F.; Downing, R.G.

    1987-05-22

    Variable-temperature Hall and resistivity measurements were used to monitor the changes in carrier behavior in p-type Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te when boron ions are implanted through photochemically deposited SiO/sub 2/. The formation of an n-type layer is demonstrated. Quantitative and nondestructive determination of the absolute /sup 10/B concentration and distribution were obtained by the novel method of neutron-depth profiling. As expected, the boron distributions in the SiO/sub 2/ films and Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te are strongly dependent upon the ion implant energy. However, negligible changes in the boron depth profiles were found after 200 C anneals. The present results are briefly related to the performance behavior of mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) sensors produced via generic ion-implantation procedures.

  10. Electrical properties of Pb{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te single crystals with an excess of tellurium

    SciTech Connect

    Bagieva, G. Z. Abdinova, G. D.; Mustafayev, N. B.; Abdinov, D. Sh.

    2013-03-15

    The effect of excess Te atoms (as high as 0.5 at %) and thermal treatment at 473 K for 120 h on the electrical conductivity {sigma}, the thermopower coefficient {alpha}, and the Hall coefficient R of Pb{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Te single crystals in the temperature range {approx}77-300 K is investigated. It is shown that excess atoms of tellurium predominantly act as acceptor impurity centers at low concentrations in unannealed samples and form antisite defects at relatively high concentrations (0.05 at % or higher) being located mainly in vacancies of the lead sublattice, and decrease the hole concentration. As a result of annealing, certain lattice defects (for example, deformational) are healed, and the accommodation process for Te atoms at lead-sublattice vacancies is intensified. These processes substantially affect the values of the electrical parameters, their temperature dependences, as well as the sign of the thermopower and Hall coefficients of the samples.

  11. Band gap energy determination by photoacoustic absorption and optical analysis of Cd 1-xZn xTe for low zinc concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prías-Barragán, J. J.; Tirado-Mejía, L.; Ariza-Calderón, H.; Baños, L.; Perez-Bueno, J. J.; Rodríguez, M. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the optical properties of CdZnTe single crystal for low Zn concentrations at room temperature using photoacoustic spectroscopy and photoreflectance (PR) measurements. The photoreflectance measurements were carried out in order to determine the Eg value at room temperature of the CdTe sample to validate the criterion for the photoacoustic absorption measurements. The closed photoacoustic cell configuration (CPC) was used for the absorption measurements and, we use the knee method in the spectra for the energy band gap determination of CdZnTe as a function of the Zn concentration. The samples under study are commercial samples grown by the Bridgmann technique. X-ray diffraction was carried out in order to determine the Zn concentration of the samples and the FWHM of the diffraction peaks. The correlation between FWHM of the diffractograms and the photoacoustic absorption slopes shows that the absorption slopes could be associated with the crystalline quality of samples.

  12. Effects of excess tellurium and growth parameters on the band gap defect levels in CdxZn1-xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundararajan, Raji; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2012-10-01

    This research summarizes an effective way to understand compensation for use of CdZnTe as ambient temperature radiation detector. The indium doped CdZnTe passivates certain detrimental intrinsic defects and defect complexes in the band gap. This was achieved by using a combination of excess tellurium in the starting material (0% to 7.5% by weight) and the process variables during growth, including the imposed temperature gradient, growth rate, and cool-down process. These studies have shown that a combination of slight excess tellurium as well as the cool-down scheme could control certain intrinsic defect levels and defect level complexes in the band gap of CdZnTe by causing favorable carrier compensation. At a macroscopic level, these manipulations help to minimize thermal instabilities during growth and determine the final grain structure, integrity, and yield of the ingot. Also, these manipulations help to control the formation of certain intrinsic defect levels and defect level complexes in the band gap, which have a direct bearing on the ability of the CdZnTe crystals to function as room temperature radiation detectors. The band-gap defects in CdZnTe were studied using the thermally stimulated current (TSC) technique. The thermal ionization energy and capture cross-section for 8 prominent defect levels (current peaks in the TSC spectrum) were calculated using the variable heating rate method. These fitted values were compared to transition energy levels of possible defects in the band gap of CdTe and purity data of CdZnTe samples used in this study. The theoretical values of the transition energy levels of defects in the band gap of CdTe were determined by the first principle band gap structure studies as well as our earlier studies on defects and defect levels in the band gap of CdTe. We have tentatively associated some prominent current peaks to certain defect levels and defect level complexes in Cd1-xZnxTe. The improvement in the detector properties was correlated to the reduction of a proposed deep level defect complex (TeCd + VCd) (thermal ionization energy >0.8 eV and capture cross-section of 10-13 to 10-14 cm2), and the reduction of the ionized species corresponding to an acceptor defect level (thermal ionization energy ˜0.2[03] eV), associated with dislocations/dislocation complexes with Te clusters. The best crystals tested had an average μτe (electrons) of 1.8 × 10-3 cm2/V, a peak-to-valley ratio of 2.0 for the 122 keV x-ray peak using a Co-57 source and bulk resistivity the order of 3 × 1010 Ω cm. The best radiation detector crystals corresponded to those grown with an excess tellurium of 0.5% (by weight in the starting CdZnTe charge) grown at a rate of 0.5 to 0.86 mm/h with an imposed temperature gradient of > 50 °C/in. There was a high yield without any post-processing of the ingots.

  13. Formation of ohmic contacts to low-resistivity Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te alloys for photovolatic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parfenyuk, O. A. Ilashchuk, M. I.; Ulyanitsky, K. S.

    2008-11-15

    Electrical properties of the Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x} Te alloys of various composition (0.1 {<=} x {<=} 0.3) are studied. It is established that at x = 0.1, a low-resistivity p-type material with parameters close to undoped CdTe is formed. A feature of the Cd{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1} Te crystals is that, during deposition of Cu on their surface from a saturated CuSO{sub 4} solution, ohmic contact is formed, the characteristics of which do not worsen in a wide temperature range (80-300 K). The study of characteristics with and without illumination of the Cu/p-Cd{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Te/n-Cd{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Te/In structures have shown that they are promising as photoconverters of solar radiation.

  14. The H(sub infinity) optimal controller design and reduction for the inertial hold mode of the attitude control system of the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Zhong Ling; Zhou, Gui AN

    1994-01-01

    The Inertial Hold Mode (IHM) is one mode of the attitude control system of the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft that is disturbed by both parametric uncertainties and external torque disturbance. The IHM model is modified into a typical H-infinity mixed-sensitivity problem through choosing suitable weighting functions W(sub 1)(s) and W(sub 3)(s). The controller is designed by the H-infinity optimization technique with the transformation of shifting the imaginary axis. It can stabilize the plant with uncertainties from the natural frequencies of the flexible body. The gain margin and phase margin of the system are 24.03 db and 55.04 deg, respectively. The step response attenuates to zero within 150 seconds. These show that the controller satisfies the specified requirements. Since the order of the controller appears high, it is reduced to fourth order one. The results show that the stability and the performance of the system with the reduced controller are retained perfectly.

  15. Two XTE A01 Projects: A Multifrequency Study of Circinus X-1 and a Search for Microsecond Variability From Bright Galactic X-Ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, Garrett

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes the research of a single common portion of the above-named two projects, conducted by G. Jernigan, i.e., the theory for a new method, a variation of a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, for determining the fastest variability present in an X-ray source. The current phase involves testing the newly developed code on real example sources (CYG X1). Unfortunately, there are no calibration sources for testing the code, which therefore required the development of an X-ray source simulation code. The goal is to evaluate the sensitivity of the code for the detection of a range of different types of variability (bursts, pulsations, etc.).

  16. High hydrostatic pressure effects on the exciton spin states in CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoi, H.; Kakudate, Y.; Schmiedel, T.; Tozer, S.; Jones, E.D.; Takeyama, S.; Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G.; Kossut, J.

    1996-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) was measured in a CdTe/Cd{sub 0.76}Mn{sub 0. 24}Te single quantum well structure under hydrostatic pressure up to 2.68 GPa and magnetic fields up to 30 T at 4.2 K. Pressure coefficients of exciton energies were found to be well width dependent. Magneto-PL experiments revealed negative pressure dependence of N{sub 0}({alpha}-{beta}) in barriers and saturation of T{sub 0} by the pressure.

  17. Theoretical Study of Role of Sb in Se_0.85-xTe_0.15Sbx Chalcogenide Glass in Influencing Glass Transition Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharjan, N. B.; Paudyal, D. D.; Jeong, J.; Scheicher, R. H.; Das, T. P.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of Sb impurity on glass transition temperature (Tg) has recently been studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry(N. B. Maharjan et al., Phy. Stat. Sol. (a) 178, 663 (2000)). The results indicate that Tg initially increases with Sb concentration (x), reaching a maximum at 0.04, subsequently decreasing till x=0.06 and then becoming constant. Qualitative explanation of this behavior for Tg has been suggested^1 using earlier ideas in the literature regarding the role of Sb in the interaction between chains in the Se_1-xTex system and bond energy strength considerations involving Se-Se and Sb-Se bonds. These ideas are being tested quantitatively using Hartree-Fock Cluster procedures, previously utilized by our group for study(H. S. Cho et al., (to be published); H. S. Cho et al., Hyperfine Interactions 96, 213 (1995)) of nuclear quadrupole interactions including that of ^125Te in Selenium and Tellurium(P. Boolchand et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1292 (1973)).

  18. Electrical and optical properties of Hg/sub 1-x/Cd/sub x/Te doped layers grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarusi, Gabby

    1987-05-01

    Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) layers were doped during growth. The growth method was horizontal sliding in semiclosed hydrogen atmosphere. The dopants were copper for p-type layers and gallium for n-type layers.The Two Carrier Model was employed to analyse the results. By this analysis, hole concentration and mobility and electron concentration and mobility were obtained. The transmission infrared spectrum of these layers was examined in the range of 2 to 25 microns. It was demonstrated that the control of the type and carrier concentration can be achieved by doping during growth. Possible application of this work is the ability of production of p-n heterojunctions during growth. The effect of shift in lambdaco to short wavelengths by Burstein Shift can be used as intrinsic infra-red windows. The strong dependence of reflection on wavelengths and carrier concentration demonstrated in this work, can be used in development of infrared waveguides.

  19. Reproducing the Correlations of Type C Low-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillation Parameters in XTE J1550–564 with a Spiral Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varniere, Peggy; Vincent, Frederic H.

    2017-01-01

    While it has been observed that the parameters intrinsic to the type C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations are related in a nonlinear manner among themselves, there has been, up to now, no model to explain or reproduce how the frequency, the FWHM, and the rms amplitude of the type C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations behave with respect to one another. Here we are using a simple toy model representing the emission from a standard disk and a spiral such as that caused by the accretion–ejection instability to reproduce the overall observed behavior and shed some light on its origin. This allows us to prove the ability of such a spiral structure to be at the origin of flux modulation over more than an order of magnitude in frequency.

  20. Magnetic jets from accretion disks : field structure and X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memola, Elisabetta

    2002-06-01

    . We also calculate the X-ray emission in the energy range 0.2--10.1,keV from a microquasar relativistic jet close to its source of 5 solar masses. In order to do it, we apply the jet flow parameters (densities, velocities, temperatures of each volume element along the collimating jet) derived in the literature from the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations. We obtain theoretical thermal X-ray spectra of the innermost jet as composition of the spectral contributions of the single volume elements along the jet. Since relativistic effects as Doppler shift and Doppler boosting due to the motion of jets toward us might be important, we investigate how the spectra are affected by them considering different inclinations of the line of sight to the jet axis. Emission lines of highly ionized iron are clearly visible in our spectra, probably also observed in the Galactic microquasars GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1748-288. The Doppler shift of the emission lines is always evident. Due to the chosen geometry of the magnetohydrodynamic jet, the inner X-ray emitting part is not yet collimated. Ergo, depending on the viewing angle, the Doppler boosting does not play a major role in the total spectra. This is the first time that X-ray spectra have been calculated from the numerical solution of a magnetohydrodynamic jet. Astrophysikalische Jets sind stark kollimierte Materieströmungen hoher Geschwindigkeit. Sie stehen im Zusammenhang mit einer Fülle verschiedener astrophysikalischer Objekte wie jungen Sternen, stellaren schwarzen Löchern ('Mikro-Quasare'), Galaxien mit aktivem Kern (AGN) und wahrscheinlich auch mit dem beobachteten intensiven Aufblitzen von Gamma-Strahlung (Gamma Ray Bursts). Insbesondere hat sich gezeigt, dass die Jets der Mikro-Quasare wahrscheinlich als kleinskalige Version der Jets der AGN anzusehen sind. Neben den Beobachtungen haben vor allem auch theoretische Überlegungen gezeigt, dass Magnetfelder bei der Jetentstehung, -beschleunigung und -kollimation eine

  1. Superfast Cosmic Jet "Hits the Wall"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A superfast jet of subatomic particles presumably powered by the gravitational energy of a black hole has collided with nearby material, been slowed dramatically and released much of its energy in the collision, radio astronomers report. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to observe the jet's motion. This is the first time such a collision has been seen within our own Milky Way Galaxy, and the collision may shed new light on the physics of cosmic jets. Robert Hjellming, Michael Rupen and Frank Ghigo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); Amy Mioduszewski of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe; Don Smith of MIT's Space Research Lab; Alan Harmon of Marshall Space Flight Center, and Elizabeth Waltman of the Naval Research Laboratory reported their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX. The cosmic jet comes from an object called XTE J1748-288, at least 30,000 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius, near the center of the Milky Way. XTE J1748-288, discovered on June 4, 1998, by Don Smith, using the RXTE satellite, is a "black hole candidate," probably consisting of a black hole drawing material from a companion star and accelerating jets of material outward in the process. A series of VLA images showed a "blob" of material in the jet moving at an apparent speed at least 50 percent greater than that of light. This is only the third such "superluminal" jet seen in our own Galaxy. The apparent faster-than-light motion is an illusion created by geometric effects when jets move at nearly the speed of light and are aligned so that their motion is somewhat toward Earth. The two other Milky Way objects whose jets show such rapid motion are dubbed "microquasars," because their behavior mimics that of quasars -- much larger objects seen at the cores of very distant galaxies. A series of VLA images showed material ejected as a jet from the core of XTE J1748

  2. Probing the Structure and Morphology of X-ray and Gamma-ray Binaries Using a Multi-Wavelength, Multi-MIssion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Joel Barry

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on High-Mass X-ray Binaries and their gamma-ray precursors, consisting of a compact object and an optical companion. Matter lost from the companion is accreted by the compact object where the gravitational potential energy is converted into X-ray radiation. The predominant high-energy emissions in gamma-ray binaries are in the MeV to TeV bandpasses. These are attributed to relativistic jets in microquasars or shocks from winds of the donor star and pulsar powered by rapid rotation of the neutron star.I use multi-wavelength observations with RXTE, MAXI, Swift, Suzaku, Fermi and ATCA to provide detailed temporal and spectral information on several X-ray binaries and one gamma-ray binary, 1FGL J1018.6-5856.My survey of the eclipsing HMXBs IGR J16393-4643, IGR J16418-4532, IGR J16479-4514, IGR J18027-2016 and XTE J1855-026 demonstrates that the physical parameters of both stellar components can be constrained. In IGR J16393-4643, spectral types of B0 V or B0-5 III are found to be consistent with the eclipse duration and Roche-lobe size, but the previously proposed spectral types in IGR J16418- 4532 and IGR J16479-4514 were not. Also found to be consistent with the eclipse half-angle and Roche-lobe size were the mass donor spectral types of IGR J18027-2016 and XTE J1855-026.4U 1210-64 was postulated to be an HMXB powered by the Be mechanism. Long-term observations show distinct high and low states and a 6.7101±0.0005 day modulation. A sharp dip interpreted to be an eclipse is found in the folded light curves. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with the previously proposed spectral type B5 V, pointing to possible spectral types of B0 V or B0-5 III.The gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856, discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, consists of an O6 V((f)) star and a suspected rapidly spinning pulsar. I exploit the 6.5 yr gamma-ray data to search for long-term changes in the properties of the 16.531±0.006 day orbital modulation. The best

  3. Target of Opportunity Positioning of Transient X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2003-01-01

    Our program successfully localized three newly-identified transient X-ray pulsars. XTE J1858+034 is a 221 s pulsar (Takeshima et al. 1998, IAUC 6826), XTE J1946+274 is a 15.8 s pulsar (Takeshima and Chakrabarty 1998, IAUC 7016), and XTE J0111.2-7317 is a 31 s pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (Chakrabarty et al. 1998, IAUC 7048). This last pulsar was a particularly interesting source, and our XTE observations enabled prompt follow-up observations with the ASCA mission (Yokogawa et al. 2000, ApJ. 539, 191).

  4. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Liu, Tiansheng; Valla, Tonica; Tranquada, John M.; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C. Séamus

    2015-01-01

    To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a “Dirac-mass gap” in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship Δ(r)∝n(r) is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron–dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm2. These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential. PMID:25605947

  5. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; ...

    2015-01-20

    To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a “Dirac-mass gap” in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in themore » ferromagnetic TI Cr₀.₀₈(Bi₀.₁Sb₀.₉)₁.₉₂Te₃. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship Δ(r)∝n(r) is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron–dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm². In addition, these observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.« less

  6. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon J L; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A; Liu, Tiansheng; Valla, Tonica; Tranquada, John M; Gu, Genda; Davis, J C Séamus

    2015-02-03

    To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a "Dirac-mass gap" in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship [Formula: see text] is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm(2). These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.

  7. ASCA Observations of the Dwarf Novae SS Cyg and VW Hyi And Observations of the Precessing Disk Cataclysmic Variable TV Col

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, E.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The observations for both SS Cyg and VW Hyi were to be scheduled as Targets of Opportunity jointly with other satellites. The VW Hyi observation was obtained jointly with EUVE during a superoutburst. The XTE data were initially processed, revealing no detection. However, the XTE team improved the instrumental background model and distributed it in July 1998. A further improvement was made in August 1999. The improved models allow a better background subtraction, thereby detecting previously un-detected sources.

  8. AN APPARENTLY EXTENDED INFRARED COUNTERPART TO 1E 1740.7-2942

    SciTech Connect

    MartI, J.; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.; Munoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Sanchez-Ayaso, E.; Garcia-Hernandez, M. T.

    2010-10-01

    We present the results of a revised search for the near-infrared counterpart to the microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942, which has eluded identification despite the many years elapsed since its discovery. By taking into account new astrometric information, we have been successful to identify a single near-infrared source, with apparent non-stellar morphology, whose position agrees well with that of the microquasar X-ray and radio-emitting core at the subarcsecond level. The possible implications of this finding with respect to the nature of 1E 1740.7-2942 are discussed.

  9. Roughness and microhardness of composites after different bleaching techniques.

    PubMed

    Leal, Andreia; Paula, Anabela; Ramalho, Amílcar; Esteves, Miguel; Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-12-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the roughness and microhardness of SonicFill™ (Kerr), and compare it with Filtek™ Supreme XTE (3M ESPE) after 2 bleaching regimens. Sixty cylindrical specimens (10 × 2 mm) of each of the 2 composites were prepared and divided into 6 groups (n = 20): groups 1, 2: no treatment; groups 3, 4: 10% carbamide peroxide (CP); and groups 5, 6: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) plus LED. After treatments, specimens were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5 °C/55 °C, dwell time 30 minutes). A mechanical roughness tester was employed to measure the surface roughness parameters and the Vickers test to measure microhardness. One-way ANOVA, Tukey and Bonferroni methods with a significance level of 5% were used for the statistical analysis. For SonicFill™, there was no statistically significant difference in microhardness between the control group (no. 1) and the bleached groups (nos. 3, 5), but there was difference between CP and HP treatments; for Filtek™ Supreme XTE, there was no significant difference in microhardness among all groups. There was no significant difference in average roughness (Ra) and the root mean square of the roughness (Rq) among all groups. The mean roughness depth (Rz) parameter showed no statistically significant differences among all groups for SonicFill™, but in Filtek™ Supreme XTE, there was a significant increase between control and bleaching treatments; roughness skewness (Rsk) showed no statistically significant differences among all groups for SonicFill™ and Filtek™ Supreme XTE, except for nos. 2 and 4, where the Rsk increased with CP. The microhardness of Filtek™ Supreme XTE is less affected by bleaching than that of SonicFill™. Both bleaching treatments affect Rz in Filtek™ Supreme XTE in contrast to SonicFill™, but only the CP treatment affects the Rsk of Filtek™ Supreme XTE, with no significant effect of SonicFill™.

  10. OOD/OOP experience in the Science Operations Center part of the ground system for X ray Timing Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Abdur Rahim

    1994-01-01

    The Science Operations Center (SOC) for the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) mission is an important component of the XTE ground system. Its mandate includes: (1) command and telemetry for the three XTE instruments, using CCSDS standards; (2) monitoring of the real-time science operations, reconfiguration of the experiment and the instruments, and real-time commanding to address the targets of opportunity (TOO) and alternate observations; and (3) analysis, processing, and archival of the XTE telemetry, and the timely delivery of the data products to the principal investigator (PI) teams and the guest observers (GO). The SOC has two major components: the science operations facility (SOF) that addresses the first two objectives stated above and the guest observer facility (GOF) that addresses the third. The SOF has subscribed to the object oriented design and implementation; while the GOF uses the traditional approach in order to take advantage of the existing software developed in support of previous missions. This paper details the SOF development using the object oriented design (OOD), and its implementation using the object oriented programming (OOP) in C++ under Unix environment on client-server architecture using Sun workstations. It also illustrates how the object oriented (OO) and the traditional approaches coexist in SOF and GOF, the lessons learned, and how the OOD facilitated the distributed software development collaboratively by four different teams. Details are presented for the SOF system, its major subsystems, its interfaces with the rest of the XTE ground data system, and its design and implementation approaches.

  11. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2010-01-01

    Galaxie cannibale; Archéologie cosmique; Trumpler 14; Etoile vampire; Trou noir errant; Micro-quasar gamma; Métaux intergalactiques; V838 Mon; Supernova particulière; Titan; Mars; Vie martienne; Variations des étoiles semblables au Soleil; GJ758B

  13. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  14. Particle Acceleration in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

  15. No Radio Flaring Detected from Cygnus X-3 at 3 GHz by Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. K. G.; Bower, G. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the announcement of a 98 GHz flare from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 (ATel #3130), we observed it with the Allen Telescope Array (Welch et al., 2009 Proc. IEEE 97 1438 for 2.5 hours beginning at 2011 January 28.848 UT (MJD 55589.848), about 4.0 hours after the 98 GHz observations concluded.

  16. Application of star identification using pattern matching to space ground systems at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D.; Shoup, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the application of pattern recognition techniques for star identification based on those proposed by Van Bezooijen to space ground systems for near-real-time attitude determination. A prototype was developed using these algorithms, which was used to assess the suitability of these techniques for support of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) missions. Experience with the prototype was used to refine specifications for the operational system. Different geometry tests appropriate to the mission requirements of XTE, SWAS, and SOHO were adopted. The applications of these techniques to upcoming mission support of XTE, SWAS, and SOHO are discussed.

  17. Design, development and testing of the x-ray timing explorer High Gain Antenna System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecha, Javier; Woods, Claudia; Phan, Minh

    1995-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS), consisting of two High Gain Antenna Deployment Systems (HGADS) and two Antenna Pointing Systems (APS), is used to position two High Gain Antennas (HGA) on the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). A similar APS will be used on the upcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Both XTE and TRMM are NASA in-house satellites. The salient features of the system include the two-axis gimbal and control electronics of the APS and the spring deployment and latch/release mechanisms of the HGADS. This paper describes some of the challenges faced in the design and testing of this system and their resolutions.

  18. Observations of some X-ray transients with RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Emelyanov, Artem N.; Trudolyubov, Sergey P.; Titarchuk, Lev G.; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.

    2000-04-01

    We present results of observations of several X-ray transients with RXTE in 1996-1998, namely, GRS 1739-278, XTE J1748-288, GS 1354-64. 2S1803-245 and XTE J0421+560 (CI Cam). We studied light curves and spectra of their outbursts and compared them with observations of other X-ray transients. We discuss fits of high state spectra with BMC model, and similarities and differences between black holes and neutron stars in their low state. Special attention is paid to CI Cam as possible legate for new class of X-ray transients. .

  19. Observations of some x-ray transients with RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, K.; Priedhorsky, W.

    1999-11-01

    We present results of observations of several X-ray transients with RXTE in 1996-1998, namely, GRS 1739-278, XTE J1748-288, GS 1354-64, 2S1803-245 and XTE J0421+560 (CI Cam). We studied light curves and spectra of their outbursts and compared them with observations of other X-ray transients. We discuss fits of high state spectra with BMC model, and similarities and differences between black holes and neutron stars in their low state. Special attention is paid to CI Cam as possible legate for new class of X-ray transients.

  20. Zone leveling and solution growth of complex compound semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    A research program on complex semiconducting compounds and alloys was completed that addressed the growth of single crystals of CdSe(y)Te(1-y), Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, Mn(x)Cd(1-x)Te, InP(y)As(1-y) and CuInSe2 and the measurement of fundamental physico-chemical properties characterizing the above materials. The purpose of this ground based research program was to lay the foundations for further research concerning the growth of complex ternary compound semiconductors in a microgravity environment.

  1. KSC-95PC-1195

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-08-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -- At Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, payload processing technicians begin prelaunch checkout work of NASA’s X-Ray Timing Explorer XTE as it rests on a payload support structure after its arrival from the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. The spacecraft is scheduled to lift off from Launch Complex 17 at the Cape on a Delta II rocket on Aug. 31, 1995. After launch, the XTE will gather data on X-ray sources in our galaxy and the universe. Photo Credit: NASA

  2. OBSERVATIONS OF SOME X-RAY TRANSIENTS WITH RXTE

    SciTech Connect

    K. BOROZDIN; W. PRIEDHORSKY; ET AL

    1999-11-01

    We present results of observations of several X-ray transients with RXTE in 1996-1998, namely, GRS 1739-278, XTE J1748-288, GS 1354-64, 2S1803-245 and XTE J0421+560 (CI Cam). We studied light curves and spectra of their outbursts and compared them with observations of other X-ray transients. We discuss fits of high state spectra with BMC model, and similarities and differences between black holes and neutron stars in their low state. Special attention is paid to CI Cam as possible legate for new class of X-ray transients.

  3. Evaluating Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Track Error Distributions for Use in Probabilistic Forecasts of Wind Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    office) VAB Vehicle Assembly Building WCB Western Caribbean WS Weather Squadron WPFP Wind speed Probability Forecast Product XTE Cross-Track Error...sensitive to hazardous weather associated with TCs is the space shuttle, which requires a rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building ( VAB ) from the

  4. A study of Hg1-xCdxTe surfaces processed using inductively coupled plasma with CH4/H2/N2/Ar mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenhong; Ye, Zhenhua; Hu, Xiaoning; Ding, Ruijun; He, Li

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogen-based dry plasmas, generated in inductively coupled plasma reactors have been demonstrated to be very effective in fabricating high fill-factor mesa of Hg1-xCd xTe multi-layer hetero-structure material for infrared focal plane array applications. To obtain reasonable dry etching process for Hg 1-xCd xTe, it is essential to investigate the physical, chemical, and electrical characteristics of the surface. This paper explores the effect of varying the plasma process parameters on the surface of Hg 1-xCd xTe. The surface chemical analysis was carried out using spot X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and p-to-n type conversion depth was assessed by a reliable current-voltage test of a designed structure basing on material-chip technology concept and a convenient technology of cross-section surface potential imaging (SPM). At last, Hg 1-xCd xTe etched surfaces with roughness low and mechanical or electrical damage free were achieved.

  5. MODELING THE HARD STATES OF THREE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Yuan Feng; Chaty, Sylvain

    2010-07-10

    Simultaneous multiwavelength observations were recently performed for three black hole candidates-SWIFT J1753.5-0127, GRO J1655-40, and XTE J1720-318. In this paper, we test the accretion-jet model originally proposed for XTE J1118+480 by investigating the hard state of these three sources using this model. The accretion flow in the model is composed of an inner hot accretion flow and an outer truncated thin disk. We find that the model satisfactorily explains the spectrum ranging from radio to X-rays, with the radio and X-ray spectra dominated by the synchrotron and thermal Comptonization emissions in the jet and the hot accretion flow, respectively, with the infrared and optical being the sum of the emissions from the jet, hot accretion flow, and the truncated thin disk. Similar to the case of XTE J1118+480, the model can also explain, although only qualitatively in some cases, the observed timing features including quasi-periodic oscillation, and positive and negative time lags between the optical and X-ray emissions detected in SWIFT J1753.5-0127. The origin of the ejection events detected in XTE J1720-318 is also briefly discussed.

  6. High efficiency cadmium and zinc telluride-based thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Summers, C.J.; Erbil, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-10-01

    Polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te and Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te films with a band gap of 1.7 eV were successfully grown on glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), respectively. Polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te films grown by MBE resulted in uniform composition and sharp interfaces. However, polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te films grown by MOCVD showed nonuniform compositions and evidence of manganese accumulation at the Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te/CdS interface. We found that manganese interdiffuses and replaces cadmium in the CdS film. By improving the CdTe/CdS interface and, thus, reducing the collection function effects, the efficiency of the MOCVD CdTe cell can be improved to about 13.5%. MBE-grown CdTe cells also produced 8%--9% efficiencies. The standard CdTe process was not optimum for ternary films and resulted in a decrease in the band gap. Recent results indicate that CdCl{sub 2} + ZnCl{sub 2} chemical treatment may prevent the band-gap reduction, and that chromate etch (rather than bromine etch) may provide the solution to contact resistance in the ternary cells.

  7. The optical counterparts of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars during quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avanzo, P.; Campana, S.; Casares, J.; Covino, S.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Eight accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) are known to date. Although these systems are well studied at high energies, very little information is available for their optical/NIR counterparts. Up to now, only two of them, SAX J1808.4-3658 and IGR J00291+5934, have a secure multi-band detection of their optical counterparts in quiescence. Aims: All these systems are transient low-mass X-ray binaries. Optical and NIR observations carried out during quiescence give a unique opportunity to constrain the nature of the donor star and to investigate the origin of the observed quiescent luminosity at long wavelengths. In addition, optical observations can be fundamental as they ultimately allow us to estimate the compact object mass through mass function measurements. Methods: Using data obtained with the ESO-Very Large Telescope, we performed a deep optical and NIR photometric study of the fields of XTE J1814-338 and of the ultracompact systems XTE J0929-314 and XTE J1807-294 during quiescence in order to look for the presence of a variable counterpart. If suitable candidates were found, we also carried out optical spectroscopy. Results: We present here the first multi-band (VR) detection of the optical counterpart of XTE J1814-338 in quiescence together with its optical spectrum. The optical light curve shows variability in both bands consistent with a sinusoidal modulation at the known 4.3 h orbital period and presents a puzzling decrease of the V-band flux around superior conjunction that may be interpreted as a partial eclipse. The marginal detection of the very faint counterpart of XTE J0929-314 and deep upper limits for the optical/NIR counterpart of XTE J1807-294 are also reported. We also briefly discuss the results reported in the literature for the optical/NIR counterpart of XTE J1751-305. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with AMXPs being systems containing an old, weakly magnetized neutron star, reactivated as a millisecond radio pulsar

  8. Multi-wavelength Observations of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlotta, Angelo; VERITAS

    2011-09-01

    Cygnus X-3 is a X-ray binary system containing a stellar-mass black hole and a Wolf-Rayet companion star with prominent jets, placing it in the sub-category of microquasars. Due to their similarities with AGN and GRBs, they are thought to be possible gamma-ray emitters, as the recent Fermi LAT detection has proven. We have carried out VERITAS observations on this source to find a link between the hard X-ray, GeV gamma-ray and TeV gamma-ray emissions. These observations have been triggered on the recent AGILE and Swift ATels, respectively ATel #3386 and ATel #3439. This result aims to shed light on the mechanisms of particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission in microquasars within the high-energy multi-wavelength context.

  9. Estimating the contribution of Galactic sources to the diffuse neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Paul, Thomas C.; da Silva, Luiz H. M.; Vlcek, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent IceCube observations we reexamine the idea that microquasars are high energy neutrino emitters. By stretching to the maximum the parameters of the Fermi engine we show that the nearby high-mass x-ray binary LS 5039 could accelerate protons up to above about 20 PeV. These highly relativistic protons could subsequently interact with the plasma producing neutrinos up to the maximum observed energies. After that we adopt the spatial density distribution of high-mass x-ray binaries obtained from the deep INTEGRAL Galactic plane survey, and we assume LS 5039 typifies the microquasar population to demonstrate that these powerful compact sources could provide a dominant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux recently observed by IceCube.

  10. COMPTEL observations of a source in the direction of the galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, A. W.; Collmar, W.; Bennett, K.; Bloemen, H.; Diehl, R.; Hermsen, W.; Iyudin, A.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H.; Ryan, J.; Schönfelder, V.

    2001-10-01

    During the CGRO mission, the Galactic center region was well exposed by COMPTEL. There is evidence for a distinct excess near the Galactic center direction in the COMPTEL energy range 1-30 MeV. The analysis for point sources is however complicated by the intense emission from the Galactic ridge. We use data from the full mission to investigate this source, present a multiwavelength spectrum and discuss various possible counterparts, including the microquasar source 1E1740.7-2942. .

  11. Artificial γ-ray imaging of a galactic, relativistic astrophysical jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smponias, T.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2013-02-01

    The jet in a microquasar stellar system is simulated with a relativistic hydrocode (PLUTO) and then it is imaged, in the γ-rays wave band, with a line-of-sight method, including both emission and self-absorption. A synthetic image is produced which allows to better estimate the system's physical properties. The calculation procedure in our method has been simplified by exploiting the ability to de-couple the hydrodynamical from the radiative quantities in the computations.

  12. A method to detect positron anisotropies with Pamela data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, B.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Giaccari, U.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Pizzolotto, C.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2014-11-01

    The PAMELA experiment is collecting data since 2006; its results indicate the presence of a large flux of positron with respect to electrons in the CR spectrum above 10 GeV. This excess might also be originated in objects such as pulsars and microquasars or through dark matter annihilation. Here the electrons and positrons events collected by PAMELA have been analized searching for anisotropies. The analysis is performed at different angular scales and results will be presented at the conference.

  13. FERMI-LAT Observations of Galatic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Observatory observations of Galactic Transients. LAT all-sky monitoring is producing spectacular results for the GeV transient sky: (1) New blazars and unidentified transients (2) Probing the jet of the Cygnus X-3 microquasar (3) Discovery of gamma rays from V407 Cygni nova (4) Fast high-energy gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

  14. Search of the Galactic sources of the cosmic ray triplet with energies above 1020 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatyk, R.; Zhdanov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Among the registered extremely high energy cosmic rays (EHECR, E > 1020 eV) there is a triplet of events in a circle with radius of 40 in the Galactic center region. With the use of the backtracking method for the calculation of EHECR trajectories in the Galactic magnetic it is shown that potential sources of galactic triplet can be microquasars SS433, GRS1915+105, magnetar SGR1900+14 and globular star cluster NGC6760.

  15. X-ray Dips Followed by Superluminal Ejections as Evidence for An Accretion Disc Feeding the Jet in A Radio Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair, M.

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets and other high-energy phenomena in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the "microquasar" binary systems located in our Galaxy. However, until now there has been insufficient multifrequency monitoring to establish a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet in an AGE. This contrasts with the case of microquasars, in which superluminal features appear and propagate down the radio jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray flux. Such an X-ray dip is most likely caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disc, part of which falls past the event horizon and the remainder of which is injected into the jet. This infusion of energy generates a disturbance that propagates down the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. Here we report the results of three years of intensive monitoring of the X-ray and radio emission of the Seyfert-like radio galaxy 3C 120. As in the case of microquasars, dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. Comparison of the characteristic length and time scales allows us to infer that the rotational states of the black holes in these two objects are different.

  16. Observational evidence for the accretion-disk origin for a radio jet in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Gómez, José-Luis; Aller, Margo F; Teräsranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L; Stirling, Alastair M

    2002-06-06

    Accretion of gas onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets of material ejected from active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the 'microquasars' located in our Galaxy. In microquasars, superluminal radio-emitting features appear and propagate along the jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray fluxes. This establishes a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet: the X-ray dip is probably caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disk as it falls past the event horizon, while the remainder of the disk section is ejected into the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. No such connection has hitherto been established for AGN, because of insufficient multi-frequency data. Here we report the results of three years of monitoring the X-ray and radio emission of the galaxy 3C120. As has been observed for microquasars, we find that dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. The mean time between X-ray dips appears to scale roughly with the mass of the black hole, although there are at present only a few data points.

  17. X-ray Dips Followed by Superluminal Ejections as Evidence for An Accretion Disc Feeding the Jet in A Radio Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair, M.

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets and other high-energy phenomena in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the "microquasar" binary systems located in our Galaxy. However, until now there has been insufficient multifrequency monitoring to establish a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet in an AGE. This contrasts with the case of microquasars, in which superluminal features appear and propagate down the radio jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray flux. Such an X-ray dip is most likely caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disc, part of which falls past the event horizon and the remainder of which is injected into the jet. This infusion of energy generates a disturbance that propagates down the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. Here we report the results of three years of intensive monitoring of the X-ray and radio emission of the Seyfert-like radio galaxy 3C 120. As in the case of microquasars, dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. Comparison of the characteristic length and time scales allows us to infer that the rotational states of the black holes in these two objects are different.

  18. The role of magnetic reconnection on jet/accretion disk systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Piovezan, P. P.; Kadowaki, L. H. S.

    2010-07-01

    Context. It was proposed earlier that the relativistic ejections observed in microquasars could be produced by violent magnetic reconnection episodes at the inner disk coronal region (de Gouveia Dal Pino & Lazarian 2005). Aims: Here we revisit this model, which employs a standard accretion disk description and fast magnetic reconnection theory, and discuss the role of magnetic reconnection and associated heating and particle acceleration in different jet/disk accretion systems, namely young stellar objects (YSOs), microquasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Methods: In microquasars and AGNs, violent reconnection episodes between the magnetic field lines of the inner disk region and those that are anchored in the black hole are able to heat the coronal/disk gas and accelerate the plasma to relativistic velocities through a diffusive first-order Fermi-like process within the reconnection site that will produce intermittent relativistic ejections or plasmons. Results: The resulting power-law electron distribution is compatible with the synchrotron radio spectrum observed during the outbursts of these sources. A diagram of the magnetic energy rate released by violent reconnection as a function of the black hole (BH) mass spanning 109 orders of magnitude shows that the magnetic reconnection power is more than sufficient to explain the observed radio luminosities of the outbursts from microquasars to low luminous AGNs. In addition, the magnetic reconnection events cause the heating of the coronal gas, which can be conducted back to the disk to enhance its thermal soft X-ray emission as observed during outbursts in microquasars. The decay of the hard X-ray emission right after a radio flare could also be explained in this model due to the escape of relativistic electrons with the evolving jet outburst. In the case of YSOs a similar magnetic configuration can be reached that could possibly produce observed X-ray flares in some sources and provide the heating at the

  19. Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

  20. Rheological characterization of O/W emulsions incorporated with neutral and charged polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Filho, Ricardo Padilha; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

    2013-03-01

    The effects of polysaccharides, including xyloglucan from Hymenaea courbaril (XG), galactomannans from Schizolobium parahybae (GMSP) and Mimosa scabrella (GMMS), xanthan gum (XT), sodium hyaluronate (HNa) and Fucogel(®) (FG), on the rheological behavior of cosmetic emulsions were evaluated. These incorporations gave rise to six emulsified systems, denoted XGE, GMSPE, GMMSE, XTE, HNaE and FGE, respectively. The emulsion consistency was found to follow the trend GMSPE>XGE>HNaE>FGE>XTE>GMMSE. In general, the addition of polysaccharides increased the viscoelastic properties of the emulsions and decreased the creep compliance. The neutral polysaccharides (GMSPE, GMMSE) led to better stability of the emulsions after storing for 20 days relative to charged polymers. It was found that polysaccharides XG, GMSP and GMMS, which come from the seeds of native Brazilian plant species, might be used to modify the flow properties and stabilities of oil-water emulsions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystal distortion in Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te/PbTe//KCl (001) ferromagnetic semiconductor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, W. Łusakowski, A.; Domagała, J. Z.; Minikayev, R.; Taliashvili, B.; Łusakowska, E.; Pieniążek, A.; Szczerbakow, A.; Story, T.

    2015-09-21

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) study of magnetic anisotropy is presented for thin layers of IV-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te with x = 0.14 grown by molecular beam epitaxy on KCl (001) substrate with a thin PbTe buffer. Analysis of the angular dependence of the FMR resonant field reveals that an easy magnetization axis is located near to the normal to the layer plane and is controlled by two crystal distortions present in these rhombohedral Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te layers: the ferroelectric distortion with the relative shift of cation and anion sub-lattices along the [111] crystal direction and the biaxial in-plane, compressive strain due to thermal mismatch.

  2. Temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity of new quaternary Se-Te-Bi-Pb chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the temperature and frequency dependence of ac conductivity of new quaternary Se84-xTe15Bi1.0Pbx chalcogenide glasses. The Se84-xTe15Bi1.0Pbx (x = 2, 6) glassy alloys are prepared by using melt quenching technique. The temperature and frequency dependent behavior of ac conductivity σac(ω) has been carried out in the frequency range 42 Hz to 5 MHz and in the temperature range of 298-323 K below glass transition temperature. The behavior of ac conductivity is described in terms of the power law ωs. The obtained temperature dependence behavior of ac conductivity and frequency component (s) are explained by means of correlated barrier hopping model recommended by Elliot.

  3. Effect of the microstructure on the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline lanthanum chalcogenides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, A.; Wood, C.; Vandersande, J.; Zoltan, A.; Parker, J.; Danielson, L.; Alexander, M.; Whittenberger, D.

    1987-01-01

    Small amounts of second phase materials can have important effects on the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline gamma-La(3-x)X4 (X-S, Te; X in the range of 0 to 1/3). Microscopic examination by SEM of hot pressed La(3-x)Te4 samples has revealed from 1-5 vol. pct of La2O2Te, an amount which is not detected by X-ray powder diffraction measurements. This amount of La2O2Te resulting from oxygen contamination can reduce the concentration of electrons by as much as 10 to 75 percent below the electron concentration calculated for single phase La(3-x)Te4 in the composition range of greatest interest. Small amounts of second phase materials can also lower the lattice thermal conductivity by scattering low frequency phonons. These results indicate that microstructural effects should be considered when electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline materials are analyzed.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy. Final report, 1 Oct 87-30 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, J.D.

    1992-03-17

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to image and modify the surfaces of III-V, II-VI and group IV semiconductors. A tip-simulator based on a photocode was developed. The simulator allows the development of ultra-sensitive electronics for controlling STM tip movement. Various forms of 'nano-machining,' including chiselling, sanding, and sweeping of atoms on a surface, were developed. An STM design was modified to allow bending of long thin samples of Si(100) in UHV to permit the study of surface strain. A variety of studies were conducted on Au (in air) CdTe (in air), Hg(sub 1-x)Mn(sub x)Te (under glycerin), and Hg(sub 1-x)Cd(sub x)Te (in air and under glycerin).

  5. Magnetoimpedance and magnetocapacitance of anion-substituted manganese chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplesnin, S. S.; Romanova, O. B.; Korolev, V. V.; Sitnikov, M. N.; Yanushkevich, K. I.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetoresistive effect in MnSe1-XTeX manganese chalcogenides with a substitute concentration of X = 0.1 is studied by impedance spectroscopy. The magnetoimpedance above the Neel temperature is found. The obtained experimental data are explained in the framework of the model of existence of magnetic nanoareas of two types. Two activation energies in the low- and high-frequency regions are determined from the frequency and temperature dependences of the permittivity described in the Debye model. The extrema found in the temperature dependence of the pyroelectric current are consistent with the maxima in the temperature dependence of magnetization. Temperature dependence of the carrier relaxation time is established. The magnetocapacitance of the MnSe1-XTeX solid solutions is found. The change in the carrier type above the Neel temperature and the temperature of the transition to the magnetically ordered state in the MnTe nanoarea is established.

  6. Coordinated Millisecond X-RAY+OPTICAL too for Black Hole Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruit, Hendrik

    This is a target of opportunity proposal for simultaneous X-ray +optical observations of new soft X-ray transients or new outbursts from known transient sources. Strong X-ray/optical correlations at 0.03--5 s time scales were observed in XTE J1118+480. These turn out to be difficult to fit into a disk reprocessing model. Cyclo-synchrotron emission in the inner accretion regions and/or an outflow may be involved. The high quality of the data obtained on XTE J1118, combined with the puzzling properties of the correlation suggest that observations of this kind provide unique new diagnostics of the accretion proicess in black hole transients. This is a resubmission of a cycle 8 TOO.

  7. Coordinated Millisecond X-RAY+OPTICAL too for Black Hole Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruit, Hendrik

    This is a target of opportunity proposal for simultaneous X-ray +optical observations of new soft X-ray transients. Strong X- ray/optical correlations at 0.03--5 s time scales were observed in XTE J1118+480. These turn out to be difficult to fit into a disk reprocessing model. Cyclo-synchrotron emission in the inner accretion regions and/or an outflow may be involved. The high quality of the data obtained on XTE J1118, combined with the puzzling properties of the correlation suggest that observations of this kind provide unique new diagnostics of the accretion proicess in black hole transients. This is a resubmission of a cycle 7 TOO (not triggered).

  8. Distribution of the surface potential of epitaxial HgCdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, V. A. Grigoryev, D. V.; Bezrodnyy, D. A.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-09-08

    We studied the distribution of surface potential of the Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The studies showed that the variation of the spatial distribution of surface potential in the region of the V-defect can be related to the variation of the material composition of epitaxial film. The V-defect is characterized by increased of Hg content with respect to the composition of the solid solution of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te epitaxial film. In this paper, it was demonstrated that the unformed V-defects can be observed together with the macroscopic V-defects on the epitaxial film surface. These unformed V-defects can allow the creation of a complex surface potential distribution profile due to the redistribution of the solid solution composition.

  9. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  10. Segregation during directional melting and its implications on seeded crystal growth: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourret, E. D.; Favier, J. J.; Witt, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    Directional melting of binary systems, as encountered during seeding in melt growth, is analyzed for concurrent compositional changes at the crystal-melt interface. It is shown that steady state conditions cannot normally be reached during seeding and that the growth interface temperature at the initial stages of seeded growth is a function of backmelt conditions. The theoretical treatment is numerically applied to Hg1-xCdXTe and Ga-doped Ge.

  11. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-06-01

    Loi tchèque sur la pollution lumineuse; XTE J0929-314; Futurs amas de galaxies; Palomar 5; La météo des naines brunes; Trous noirs et galaxies elliptiques; Europe; 2MASS; Mars; Io; Matière sombre; Un objet très froid; Les oscillations stellaires; Un système lanétaire en formation; Binaire serrée; Satellites de Jupiter; Mars sous la loupe; Le Hubble nouveau

  13. Effects of Ge replacement in GeTe by Ag or Sb on the Seebeck coefficient and carrier concentration modified by local electron imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E. M.; Howard, A.; Straszheim, W. E.

    2015-03-01

    XRD, SEM, EDS, 125Te NMR, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of AgxGe50-xTe50 and SbxGe50-xTe50 alloys have been studied. Replacement of Ge in GeTe by Sb significantly increases the Seebeck coefficient, while replacement by Ag decreases it. These effects can be attributed to a change in carrier concentration observed via 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements and NMR signal position, which mostly depends on the Knight shift. Variation in carrier concentration in AgxGe50-xTe50 and SbxGe50-xTe50 can be attributed to different electron configurations of valence electrons of Ag (4d105s1) and Sb (5s25p3) compared to that of Ge (4s24p2) resulting in local electron imbalances and changing the concentration of charge carrier (holes) generated by Ge vacancies. In contrast, our 125Te NMR and Seebeck coefficient data for Ag2Sb2Ge46Te50 are similar to those observed for GeTe. This shows that effects from Ag and Sb compensate each other and indicates the existence of [Ag +Sb] pairs. The effects of Ge replacement in GeTe by Ag, Sb, or [Ag +Sb] on rhombohedral lattice distortion also have been analyzed. Interplay between the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity in these alloys results in variation of power factor; the value of 45 mW/cm K2, the highest among known tellurides, was found for Sb2Ge48Te50.

  14. Distribution of zinc, resistivity, and photosensitivity in a Vertical Bridgman grown Cd1-xZnxTe ingot.

    SciTech Connect

    Babentsov,V.; Franc, J.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; James, R.B.

    2008-05-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of distribution of zinc, resistivity, and photosensitivity in a Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te ingot grown by the Vertical Bridgman method. We used several complementary methods, viz., glow discharge mass spectroscopy, photoluminescence-, resistivity-, and photosensitivity-mapping, along with photo-induced current transient spectroscopy to characterize the material. We identified electronic levels in the band-gap responsible for compensation, recombination, and photosensitivity.

  15. Multifunctional Cu2−xTe Nanocubes Mediated Combination Therapy for Multi-Drug Resistant MDA MB 453

    PubMed Central

    Poulose, Aby Cheruvathoor; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Mohamed, M. Sheikh; Aburto, Rebeca Romero; Mitcham, Trevor; Bouchard, Richard R.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D. Sakthi

    2016-01-01

    Hypermethylated cancer populations are hard to treat due to their enhanced chemo-resistance, characterized by aberrant methylated DNA subunits. Herein, we report on invoking response from such a cancer lineage to chemotherapy utilizing multifunctional copper telluride (Cu2−XTe) nanocubes (NCs) as photothermal and photodynamic agents, leading to significant anticancer activity. The NCs additionally possessed photoacoustic and X-ray contrast imaging abilities that could serve in image-guided therapeutic studies. PMID:27775048

  16. Transient pulsed radio emission from a magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo, Fernando; Ransom, Scott M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Reynolds, John; Helfand, David J.; Zimmerman, Neil; Sarkissian, John

    2006-08-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating neutron stars with very bright and highly variable X-ray emission that are believed to be powered by ultra-strong magnetic fields of >1014 G, according to the `magnetar' model. The radio pulsations that have been observed from more than 1,700 neutron stars with weaker magnetic fields have never been detected from any of the dozen known magnetars. The X-ray pulsar XTE J1810 - 197 was revealed (in 2003) as the first AXP with transient emission when its luminosity increased 100-fold from the quiescent level; a coincident radio source of unknown origin was detected one year later. Here we show that XTE J1810 - 197 emits bright, narrow, highly linearly polarized radio pulses, observed at every rotation, thereby establishing that magnetars can be radio pulsars. There is no evidence of radio emission before the 2003 X-ray outburst (unlike ordinary pulsars, which emit radio pulses all the time), and the flux varies from day to day. The flux at all radio frequencies is approximately equal-and at >20GHz XTE J1810 - 197 is currently the brightest neutron star known. These observations link magnetars to ordinary radio pulsars, rule out alternative accretion models for AXPs, and provide a new window into the coronae of magnetars.

  17. Weak antilocalization effect of topological crystalline insulator Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te nanowires with tunable composition and distinct {100} facets.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Muhammad; Wang, Qisheng; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; Wang, Fengmei; Mirza, Misbah; He, Jun

    2015-04-08

    Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te is a unique topological crystalline insulator (TCI) that undergoes a topological phase transition from topological trivial insulator to TCI with the change of Sn content and temperature. Meanwhile, the surface states properties of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te are strongly dependent on crystallographic plane orientation. In this work, we first reported controllable synthesis of rectangular prismatic Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te nanowires by vapor deposition method. Rectangular prismatic Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te nanowires exhibits distinct {100} surfaces. Furthermore, The Sn composition of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te nanowires can be continuously controlled from 0 to 1. Low temperature magnetotransport shows that PbTe nanowire exhibits weak localization (WL) effect, whereas Pb0.5Sn0.5Te and Pb0.2Sn0.8Te nanowires display pronounced weak antilocalization (WAL) effect. This transition is explained by the topological phase transform of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te from trivial to nontrivial insulator with Sn content (x) exceeding 0.38. Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te nanowires synthesized in this work lay a foundation for probing spin-correlated electron transport and show great potentials for future applications of tunable spintronic devices.

  18. Preparation and physical properties of MgxFeTe with tetragonal phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. H.; Chuang, M. C.; Syu, K. J.; Chen, S. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Unlike Fe1.01Se, which has a superconducting Tc near 8 K, Fe1+xTe shows no superconductivity though it forms the same tetragonal structure with 0.06 < x <0.17. The excess Fe (2) in Fe1+xTe not only stabilizes the PbO-type crystal structure with space group P4/nmm but also is strongly magnetic as an electron donor. According to the spin fluctuation driven scenario of superconductivity the results indicate that FeTe with doping is a likely higher-temperature superconductor. In order to reduce the magnetic strength and keep the same tetragonal structure in Fe1+xTe, in this work, we have prepared single phase samples MgxFeTe with x around 0.1. Magnetic and electrical properties, the magnesium positions in the crystal structure as well as the possibility of high-Tc superconductivity in the MgxFeTe system investigated will be discussed. Supported by the National Science Council of Republic of China under Contract Number NSC-102-2112-M-194-005-MY3.

  19. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Trajanovska, Sofie; Donald, John A

    2011-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by NO synthase (NOS) of which there are three isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS, nos1), inducible NOS (iNOS, nos2), and endothelial NOS (eNOS, nos3). This study utilised the genome of Xenopus tropicalis to sequence a nos3 cDNA and determine if eNOS protein is expressed in blood vessels. A nos3 cDNA was sequenced that encoded a 1177 amino acid protein called XteNOS, which showed closest sequence identity to mammalian eNOS protein. The X. tropicalis nos3 gene and eNOS protein were determined to be an orthologue of mammalian nos3 and eNOS using gene synteny and phylogenetic analyses, respectively. In X. tropicalis, nos3 mRNA expression was highest in lung and skeletal muscle and lower in the liver, gut, kidney, heart and brain. Western analysis of kidney protein using an affinity-purified anti-XteNOS produced a single band at 140kDa. Immunohistochemistry showed XteNOS immunoreactivity in the proximal tubule of the kidney and endocardium of the heart, but not in the endothelium of blood vessels. Thus, X. tropicalis has a nos3 gene that appears not to be expressed in the vascular endothelium.

  20. Revealing Surface States in In-Doped SnTe Nanoplates with Low Bulk Mobility.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Xie, Yujun; Cha, Judy J

    2015-06-10

    Indium (In) doping in topological crystalline insulator SnTe induces superconductivity, making In-doped SnTe a candidate for a topological superconductor. SnTe nanostructures offer well-defined nanoscale morphology and high surface-to-volume ratios to enhance surface effects. Here, we study In-doped SnTe nanoplates, In(x)Sn(1-x)Te, with x ranging from 0 to 0.1 and show they superconduct. More importantly, we show that In doping reduces the bulk mobility of In(x)Sn(1-x)Te such that the surface states are revealed in magnetotransport despite the high bulk carrier density. This is manifested by two-dimensional linear magnetoresistance in high magnetic fields, which is independent of temperature up to 10 K. Aging experiments show that the linear magnetoresistance is sensitive to ambient conditions, further confirming its surface origin. We also show that the weak antilocalization observed in In(x)Sn(1-x)Te nanoplates is a bulk effect. Thus, we show that nanostructures and reducing the bulk mobility are effective strategies to reveal the surface states and test for topological superconductors.

  1. Transient pulsed radio emission from a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Fernando; Ransom, Scott M; Halpern, Jules P; Reynolds, John; Helfand, David J; Zimmerman, Neil; Sarkissian, John

    2006-08-24

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating neutron stars with very bright and highly variable X-ray emission that are believed to be powered by ultra-strong magnetic fields of >10(14) G, according to the 'magnetar' model. The radio pulsations that have been observed from more than 1,700 neutron stars with weaker magnetic fields have never been detected from any of the dozen known magnetars. The X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 was revealed (in 2003) as the first AXP with transient emission when its luminosity increased 100-fold from the quiescent level; a coincident radio source of unknown origin was detected one year later. Here we show that XTE J1810-197 emits bright, narrow, highly linearly polarized radio pulses, observed at every rotation, thereby establishing that magnetars can be radio pulsars. There is no evidence of radio emission before the 2003 X-ray outburst (unlike ordinary pulsars, which emit radio pulses all the time), and the flux varies from day to day. The flux at all radio frequencies is approximately equal--and at >20 GHz XTE J1810-197 is currently the brightest neutron star known. These observations link magnetars to ordinary radio pulsars, rule out alternative accretion models for AXPs, and provide a new window into the coronae of magnetars.

  2. Probing the Masses and Radii of Donor Stars in Eclipsing X-Ray Binaries with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2015-08-01

    Physical parameters of both the mass donor and compact object can be constrained in X-ray binaries with well-defined eclipses, as our survey of wind-fed supergiant X-ray binaries IGR J16393-4643, IGR J16418-4532, IGR J16479-4514, IGR J18027-2016, and XTE J1855-026 reveals. Using the orbital period and Kepler’s third law, we express the eclipse half-angle in terms of radius, inclination angle, and the sum of the masses. Pulse-timing and radial velocity curves can give masses of both the donor and compact object as in the case of the “double-lined” binaries IGR J18027-2016 and XTE J1855-026. The eclipse half angles are {15}-2+3, {31.7}-0.8+0.7, 32 ± 2,34 ± 2, and 33.6+/- 0.7 degrees for IGR J16393-4643, IGR J16418-4532, IGR J16479-4514, IGR J18027-2016, and XTE 1855-026, respectively. In wind-fed systems, the primary not exceeding the Roche-lobe size provides an upper limit on system parameters. In IGR J16393-4643, spectral types of B0 V or B0-5 III are found to be consistent with the eclipse duration and Roche-lobe, but the previously proposed donor stars in IGR J16418-4532 and IGR J16479-4514 were found to be inconsistent with the Roche-lobe size. Stars with spectral types O7.5 I and earlier are possible. For IGR J18027-2016, the mass and radius of the donor star lie between 18.6-19.4 {M}⊙ and 17.4-19.5 {R}⊙ . We constrain the neutron star mass between 1.37 and 1.43 {M}⊙ .We find the mass and radius of the donor star in XTE J1855-026 to lie between 19.6-20.2 {M}⊙ and 21.5-23.0 {R}⊙ . The neutron star mass was constrained to 1.77-1.82 {M}⊙ . Eclipse profiles are asymmetric in IGR J18027-2016 and XTE J1855-026, which we attribute to accretion wakes.

  3. Search for gamma-ray emission from four accreting millisecond pulsars with Fermi/LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang

    2013-06-01

    We report our search for γ-ray emission in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV from four accreting millisecond pulsars (AMPs), SAX J1808.4–3658, IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1814–338, and XTE J0929–314. The data are from four-year observations carried out by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The AMPs were not detected, and the γ-ray luminosity upper limits we obtain are 5.1 × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} for SAX J1808.4–3658, 2.1 × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} for IGR J00291+5934, 1.2 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} for XTE J1814–338, and 2.2 × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} for XTE J0929–314. We compare our results with γ-ray irradiation luminosities required for producing optical modulations seen from the companions in the AMPs, which has been suggested by Takata et al., and our upper limits have excluded γ-ray emission as the heating source in these systems except XTE J0929–314, the upper limit of which is not deep enough. Our results also do not support the model proposed by Takata et al. that relatively strong γ-ray emission could arise from the outer gap of a high-mass neutron star controlled by the photon-photon pair creation for the AMPs. Two AMPs, SAX J1808.4–3658 and IGR J00291+5934, have measurements of their spin-down rates, and we derive the upper limits of their γ-ray conversion efficiencies, which are 57% and 3%, respectively. We discuss the implications to the AMP systems by comparing the efficiency upper limit values with that of 20 γ-ray millisecond pulsars (MSP) detected by Fermi and the newly discovered transitional MSP binary J1023+0038.

  4. Magnetic reconnection process in accretion disk systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piovezan, P.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.

    2009-08-01

    At the present study, we investigate the role of magnetic reconnection in three different astrophysical systems, namely young stellar objects (YSO's), microquasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGN's). In the case of microquasars and AGN's, violent reconnection episodes between the magnetic field lines of the inner disk region (which are established by a turbulent dynamo) and those anchored into the black hole are able to heat the coronal/disk gas and accelerate particles to relativistic velocities through a diffusive first-order Fermi-like process within the reconnection site that will produce relativistic blobs. The heating of the coronal/disk gas is able to produce a steep X-ray spectrum with a luminosity that is consistent with the observations and we argue that it is being produced mainly at the foot of the reconnection zone, while the Fermi-like acceleration process within the reconnection site results a power-law electron distribution with N(E) ∝ E-α, with α=5/2, and a corresponding synchrotron radio power-law spectrum with a spectral index that is compatible with that observed during the radio flares in microquasars (Sν ∝ ν-0.75). The scaling laws that we derive for AGN's indicate that the same mechanism may be occurring there. Finally, in the case of the YSO's, a similar magnetic configuration can be reached. The amount of magnetic energy that can be extracted from the inner disk region can heat the coronal gas to temperatures of the order of 10^8 K and could explain the observed X-ray flaring emission.

  5. The Jet and Arc Molecular Clouds toward Westerlund 2, RCW 49, and HESS J1023-575 12CO and 13CO (J = 2-1 and J = 1-0) observations with NANTEN2 and Mopra Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Fukuda, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Sano, H.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Moribe, N.; Mizuno, A.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Dame, T. M.; Yonekura, Y.; Aharonian, F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Rowell, G. P.; Matsumoto, R.; Asahina, Y.; Fukui, Y.

    2014-02-01

    We have made new CO observations of two molecular clouds, which we call "jet" and "arc" clouds, toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 and the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1023-575. The jet cloud shows a linear structure from the position of Westerlund 2 on the east. In addition, we have found a new counter jet cloud on the west. The arc cloud shows a crescent shape in the west of HESS J1023-575. A sign of star formation is found at the edge of the jet cloud and gives a constraint on the age of the jet cloud to be ~Myr. An analysis with the multi CO transitions gives temperature as high as 20 K in a few places of the jet cloud, suggesting that some additional heating may be operating locally. The new TeV γ-ray images by H.E.S.S. correspond to the jet and arc clouds spatially better than the giant molecular clouds associated with Westerlund 2. We suggest that the jet and arc clouds are not physically linked with Westerlund 2 but are located at a greater distance around 7.5 kpc. A microquasar with long-term activity may be able to offer a possible engine to form the jet and arc clouds and to produce the TeV γ-rays, although none of the known microquasars have a Myr age or steady TeV γ-rays. Alternatively, an anisotropic supernova explosion which occurred ~Myr ago may be able to form the jet and arc clouds, whereas the TeV γ-ray emission requires a microquasar formed after the explosion.

  6. The jet and arc molecular clouds toward Westerlund 2, RCW 49, and HESS J1023–575; {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (J = 2-1 and J = 1-0) observations with NANTEN2 and Mopra telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Fukuda, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Sano, H.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Moribe, N.; Mizuno, A.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Dame, T. M.; Yonekura, Y.; Aharonian, F.; De Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Rowell, G. P. E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; and others

    2014-02-01

    We have made new CO observations of two molecular clouds, which we call 'jet' and 'arc' clouds, toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 and the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1023–575. The jet cloud shows a linear structure from the position of Westerlund 2 on the east. In addition, we have found a new counter jet cloud on the west. The arc cloud shows a crescent shape in the west of HESS J1023–575. A sign of star formation is found at the edge of the jet cloud and gives a constraint on the age of the jet cloud to be ∼Myr. An analysis with the multi CO transitions gives temperature as high as 20 K in a few places of the jet cloud, suggesting that some additional heating may be operating locally. The new TeV γ-ray images by H.E.S.S. correspond to the jet and arc clouds spatially better than the giant molecular clouds associated with Westerlund 2. We suggest that the jet and arc clouds are not physically linked with Westerlund 2 but are located at a greater distance around 7.5 kpc. A microquasar with long-term activity may be able to offer a possible engine to form the jet and arc clouds and to produce the TeV γ-rays, although none of the known microquasars have a Myr age or steady TeV γ-rays. Alternatively, an anisotropic supernova explosion which occurred ∼Myr ago may be able to form the jet and arc clouds, whereas the TeV γ-ray emission requires a microquasar formed after the explosion.

  7. The non-linear dependence of flux on black hole mass and accretion rate in core-dominated jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2003-08-01

    We derive the non-linear relation between the core flux Fν of accretion-powered jets at a given frequency and the mass M of the central compact object. For scale-invariant jet models, the mathematical structure of the equations describing the synchrotron emission from jets enables us to cancel out the model-dependent complications of jet dynamics, retaining only a simple, model-independent algebraic relation between Fν and M. This approach allows us to derive the Fν-M relation for any accretion disc scenario that provides a set of input boundary conditions for the magnetic field and the relativistic particle pressure in the jet, such as standard and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) disc solutions. Surprisingly, the mass dependence of Fν is very similar in different accretion scenarios. For typical flat-spectrum core-dominated radio jets and standard accretion scenarios, we find Fν~M17/12. The 7-9 orders of magnitude difference in black hole mass between microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets imply that AGN jets must be about 3-4 orders of magnitude more radio-loud than microquasars, i.e. the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity is much smaller in microquasars than in AGN jets. Because of the generality of these results, measurements of this Fν-M dependence are a powerful probe of jet and accretion physics. We show how our analysis can be extended to derive a similar scaling relation between the accretion rate and Fν for different accretion disc models. For radiatively inefficient accretion modes, we find that the flat-spectrum emission follows .

  8. The Ballerina Experiment on the Rømer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Soren

    The Rømer mission has recently been approved as the next mission within the Danish Small Satellite Program. The scientific payload will consist of two separate experiments, the MONS and the Ballerina payloads. The primary objective of Ballerina is to provide accurate, real-time positions relayed to ground for ~ 70 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year, and to study the temporal and spectral evolution of the early GRB X-ray afterglow. As an additional goal, Ballerina will detect and study bright X-ray transients, in particular X-ray novae and micro-quasar systems. R{\\o}mer is currently scheduled for launch in late 2003.

  9. Optical and X-Ray Afterglows in the Cannonball Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rújula, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Cannonball Model is based on the hypothesis that GRBs and their afterglows are made in supernova explosions by relativistic ejecta similar to the ones observed in quasars and microquasars. Its predictions are simple, and analytical in fair approximations. The model describes well the properties of the γ-rays of GRBs. It gives a very simple and extremely successful description of the optical and X-ray afterglows of all GRBs of known redshift. The only problem the model has, so far, is that it is contrary to staunch orthodox beliefs.

  10. Science of Compact X- and Gamma-ray Sources: MAXI and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave

    2008-01-01

    MAXI and GLAST will be surveying the sky simultaneously. Compact objects that may show variability will be excellent targets for coordinated multiwavelength studies. Gamma-ray bursts (and afterglows), pulsars, high-mass X-ray binaries, microquasars, and active galactic nuclei are all objects whose X- and gamma-ray relationship can be explored by such observations. Of particular interest will be variable unidentified gamma-ray sources, whose contemporaneous observations by MAXI may prove decisive in identifying the source of the high-energy emission.

  11. Fermi-LAT Observations of Galactic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observations of Galactic transients by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. The LAT is producing spectacular results for the GeV transient sky, some of which are shown and reviewed. Some of the results in the GeV range that are discussed in this presentation are: (1) New blazars and unidentified transients (2) the jet of the Cygnus X-3 microquasar (3) gamma rays from V407 Cygni nova (4) Fast high-energy gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula

  12. Compton scattering of blackbody photons by relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Pjanka, Patryk

    2013-12-01

    We present simple and accurate analytical formulas for the rates of Compton scattering by relativistic electrons integrated over the energy distribution of blackbody seed photons. Both anisotropic scattering, in which blackbody photons arriving from one direction are scattered by an anisotropic electron distribution into another direction, and scattering of isotropic seed photons are considered. Compton scattering by relativistic electrons off blackbody photons from either stars or cosmic microwave background takes place, in particular, in microquasars, colliding-wind binaries, supernova remnants, interstellar medium and the vicinity of the Sun.

  13. Broad band energy spectrum and a low frequency QPO from H1743-322 in the hard state revealed by INTEGRAL and Swift observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Hannikainen, D.; Pottschmidt, K.; Kuulkers, E.; Corbel, S.; Coriat, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Russell, D. M.; Wilms, J.

    2011-04-01

    Following the report of renewed activity of the microquasar H1743-322 (aka IGR J17464-3213, ATels #3263, #3267) we have triggered a Swift ToO. The observation was performed on April 10, 2011 between 7.9h UT and 16.12h UT, therefore in quasi-simultaneity with the INTEGRAL bulge monitoring program (April 10, 2011 18.0h UT to 21.7h UT). The Swift/XRT was operated in Window Timing mode.

    Contrary to the previous INTEGRAL observations (e.g.

  14. INDUCED MAXIMUM MAGNETIC FIELD IN COSMIC OUTFLOW SYSTEM BY A RELATIVISTIC CURRENT FILAMENTATION INSTABILITY: EXACT ANALYTICAL MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H.; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2015-03-10

    We present an analytical study of current filamentation instability (CFI) in a fully relativistic cold plasma system, including arbitrary currents. For our purposes, we employ the cold fluid equations, together with Maxwell's equations as well as the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, to obtain an exact solution of the instability growth rate. A simple relation is found for the maximum growth rate of the CFI (for any arbitrary current system), which remarkably is used to calculate the large magnitude of an induced magnetic field in astrophysical environments such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, supernova remnants (SNRs), and stellar winds. We find that the magnetic field is amplified in the SNR up to the level required to justify the recent discovery of the year-scale variability in the X-ray emission of SNRs. Also, the maximum magnetic field of two and three orders higher (or two orders lower) than that of the SNR has been derived for microquasars and AGNs (or stellar winds), respectively. Moreover, making use of the exact analytical solution of the CFI, it is shown that the maximum magnetic field up to around 10{sup 8} G can be detected from a classical cold counterstreaming system after a saturation time.

  15. Cruise Science with the Compact X-ray Spectrometer (D-CIXS) of SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, O.; Muhli, P.; Huovelin, J.; Hakala, P.; Hannikainen, D. C.; Grande, M.; Kellett, B.

    2000-10-01

    The primary objective of the SMART-1 (ESA) mission is to test solar electric propulsion and to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months. The science payload includes e.g. the Demonstration of a Compact Imaging X-ray Spectrometer D-CIXS (pronounced Dee-Kicks!). Its main goal is to observe fluorescence X-rays with high spectral and spatial resolution from the Moon's surface. During the escape phase leaving Earth (15 - 17 months), D-CIXS can observe X-ray sources. Solar flares will also be monitored with the X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM). We present a potential cruise science program for selected X-ray binaries and microquasars. The long journey to the Moon provides us with an unique opportunity to study long-term variability of XRBs on a regular basis using X-ray spectroscopy. The accumulated data can be used to probe the geometry and physical properties of accretion disks of about a dozen persistently bright XRBs, and, in particular, to search for and verify the presence and stability of superorbital periods (tilted and warped disks). Further, we present simulations with D-CIXS on the long time scale behaviour of the disk-corona structure in a selected microquasar. This work is supported by the Finnish Technology Development Agency TEKES, Academy of Finland and PPARC of UK.

  16. A positron annihilation radiation telescope using Laue diffraction in a crystal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smither, R. K.; von Ballmoos, P.

    1993-03-01

    We present a new type of gamma-ray telescope featuring a Laue diffraction lens, a detector module with a 3-by-3 germanium array, and a balloon gondola stabilized to 5 arc sec pointing accuracy. The instrument's lens is designed to collect 511 keV photons on its 150 sq cm effective area and focus them onto a small detector having only (approx) 14 cu cm of equivalent volume for background noise. As a result, this telescope overcomes the mass-sensitivity impasse of present detectors in which the collection areas are identical to the detection area. The sensitivity of our instrument is anticipated to be 3 (times) 10-5 ph cm-2 S-1 at 511 keV with an angular resolution of 15 arc sec and an energy resolution of 2 keV. These features will allow the resolve of a possible energetically narrow 511 keV positron annihilation line both energy-wise and spatially within a Galactic Center 'microquasar' as 1El740.7-2942 or GRS1758-258. In addition to the galactic 'microquasars', other prime objectives include Cyg X-1, X-ray binaries, pulsars, and AGNS.

  17. INTEGRAL/XMM views on the MeV source GRO J1411-64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Reimer, Olaf; Barcons, Xavier; Corral, Amalia; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Qu, Jin; Collmar, Werner; Schönfelder, Volker; Butt, Yousaf

    2007-06-01

    The COMPTEL unidentified source GRO J 1411-64 was observed by INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton in 2005. The Circinus Galaxy is the only source detected within the 4σ location error of GRO J1411-64, but in here excluded as the possible counterpart. At soft X-rays, 22 reliable and statistically significant sources (likelihood >10) were extracted and analyzed from XMM-Newton data. Only one of these sources, XMMU J141255.6-635932, is spectrally compatible with GRO J1411-64 although the fact the soft X-ray observations do not cover the full extent of the COMPTEL source position uncertainty make an association hard to quantify and thus risky. At the best location of the source, detections at hard X-rays show only upper limits, which, together with MeV results obtained by COMPTEL suggest the existence of a peak in power output located somewhere between 300 700 keV for the so-called low state. Such a spectrum resembles those in blazars or microquasars, and might suggest at work by the models accordingly. However, an analysis using a microquasar model consisting on a magnetized conical jet filled with relativistic electrons, shows that it is hard to comply with all observational constrains. This fact and the non-detection at hard X-rays introduce an a-posteriori question mark upon the physical reality of this source, what is discussed here.

  18. X-ray, Optical and Radio Observations of the Extragalactic Superbubble N7793-S26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas; Schlegel, E. M.; Filipovic, M. D.; Crawford, E.; Payne, J.; Grimes, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray, optical and radio) spatial and spectral analysis of the extragalactic superbubble N7793-S26. Prior observations and analysis of this source had revealed extended emission spanning nearly 400 parsecs at all three wavelength domains: the extended morphology of this object suggests a superbubble classification, prompting the argument that N7793-S26 is actually a microquasar. We investigate the microquasar interpretation of this source based on analysis of its spatial and spectral properties and compare N7793-S26 to another known extragalactic superbubble located in the Local Group Galaxy IC 10. We investigate the scenario that the soft X-ray sources seen at the northern and southern edges of N7793-S26 are actually supernova remnants and that the central hard X-ray source is an X-ray binary serendipitously located to give the appearance of a central engine with two jets. This scenario will be presented and discussed.

  19. Hard X-ray component in the Sco X-1 spectrum: Synchrotron emission from a nono-quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R. K.

    Sco X-1 is a low mass X-ray binary system and is the very first X-ray source to be discovered in 1962. From the recent observation of a resolved radio jet the souce has been included in the list of galactic microquasars. The observed spectral data in the 2-20 keV energy band fits a Free-free emission from a hot plasma. Above 20 keV, a hard tail has been reported on occasions. During our continuuing balloon borne X-ray survey in the 20-200 keV region using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment, Sco X-1 was observed on two different occasions. Eventhough the total X-ray luminosity of the source different, the spectral nature of the source did not show any variation. The presence of hard X-ray flux is unmistakable. We present the spectra data in the hard X-ray band and discuss the results in terms of geometrical characteristics of the X-ray source and the observed temporal variations. It is proposed that while a core activity is similar to the micro-quasars, the absence of abrupt changes similar to GRS 1915+105, in the CGRO and RXTE data suggest a with much reduced magnitude.

  20. DETECTION OF PERSISTENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SS433/W50

    SciTech Connect

    Bordas, P.; Yang, R.; Kafexhiu, E.; Aharonian, F. E-mail: ryang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2015-07-01

    The microquasar SS433 features the most energetic jets known in our Galaxy. A large fraction of the jet kinetic power is delivered to the surrounding W50 nebula at the jet termination shock, from which high-energy emission and cosmic-ray production have been anticipated. Here, we report on the detection of a persistent gamma-ray signal obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope from an unidentified source that we tentatively associate, given its 99.9% confidence level position accuracy and the lack of any other high-energy emitter counterpart in the studied region, with SS433. The obtained spectral energy distribution displays a distinct maximum at ∼250 MeV and only extends up to ∼800 MeV. We discuss the possibility that the observed gamma-ray emission is produced through proton–proton collisions at the SS433/W50 interaction regions. If the same mechanism is operating in other baryon-loaded microquasar jets, their collective contribution could represent a significant fraction of the total galactic cosmic-ray flux at GeV energies.

  1. What if a black hole devours too much?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. While the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars have led to a well-established phenomenology. Relativistic jets are not expected from sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows. Here we report optical spectra of an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source (ULS) in the nearby galaxy M81 (M81 ULS-1) showing blueshifted broad Hα emission lines, characteristic of baryonic jets with relativistic speeds. The time variable jets have projected velocities ~17 per cent of the speed of light, and seem similar to those in the prototype microquasar SS 433. Such relativistic jets are not expected to be launched from white dwarfs, but an origin from a black hole or neutron star in M81 ULS-1 is hard to reconcile with its constant soft X-rays. The completely unexpected presence of relativistic jets in a ULS challenges the canonical theories for jet formation, but can be explained by a long speculated super-critically accreting black hole with optically thick outflows.

  2. MAGIC CONSTRAINTS ON {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM CYGNUS X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: tysaito@mpp.mpg.d

    2010-09-20

    Cygnus X-3 is a microquasar consisting of an accreting compact object orbiting around a Wolf-Rayet star. It has been detected at radio frequencies and up to high-energy {gamma} rays (above 100 MeV). However, many models also predict a very high energy (VHE) emission (above hundreds of GeV) when the source displays relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. Therefore, detecting such emission would improve the understanding of the jet physics. The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC observed Cygnus X-3 for about 70 hr between 2006 March and 2009 August in different X-ray/radio spectral states and also during a period of enhanced {gamma}-ray emission. MAGIC found no evidence for a VHE signal from the direction of the microquasar. An upper limit to the integral flux for energies higher than 250 GeV has been set to 2.2 x 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (95% confidence level). This is the best limit so far to the VHE emission from this source. The non-detection of a VHE signal during the period of activity in the high-energy band sheds light on the location of the possible VHE radiation favoring the emission from the innermost region of the jets, where absorption is significant. The current and future generations of Cherenkov telescopes may detect a signal under precise spectral conditions.

  3. Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2015-12-01

    The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. Although the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars (compact binary stars) have led to a well established phenomenology. Relativistic jets are not expected to be produced by sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows. Here we report the optical spectra of an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source (ULS) in the nearby galaxy M81 (M81 ULS-1; refs 9, 10). Unexpectedly, the spectra show blueshifted, broad Hα emission lines, characteristic of baryonic jets with relativistic speeds. These time-variable emission lines have projected velocities of about 17 per cent of the speed of light, and seem to be similar to those from the prototype microquasar SS 433 (refs 11, 12). Such relativistic jets are not expected to be launched from white dwarfs, and an origin from a black hole or a neutron star is hard to reconcile with the persistence of M81 ULS-1’s soft X-rays. Thus the unexpected presence of relativistic jets in a ULS challenges canonical theories of jet formation, but might be explained by a long-speculated, supercritically accreting black hole with optically thick outflows.

  4. Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2015-12-03

    The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. Although the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars (compact binary stars) have led to a well established phenomenology. Relativistic jets are not expected to be produced by sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows. Here we report the optical spectra of an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source (ULS) in the nearby galaxy M81 (M81 ULS-1; refs 9, 10). Unexpectedly, the spectra show blueshifted, broad Hα emission lines, characteristic of baryonic jets with relativistic speeds. These time-variable emission lines have projected velocities of about 17 per cent of the speed of light, and seem to be similar to those from the prototype microquasar SS 433 (refs 11, 12). Such relativistic jets are not expected to be launched from white dwarfs, and an origin from a black hole or a neutron star is hard to reconcile with the persistence of M81 ULS-1's soft X-rays. Thus the unexpected presence of relativistic jets in a ULS challenges canonical theories of jet formation, but might be explained by a long-speculated, supercritically accreting black hole with optically thick outflows.

  5. Heartbeat Oscillation detected in IGR J17091-3624

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Mark; Miller, Jon; King, Askley

    2016-04-01

    We report on the results of ongoing monitoring observation of the Galactic micro-quasar IGR J17091-3624 with Swift/XRT in windowed timing mode. In an ~860s observation on 2016-04-13T13:05:46 UT (obsid: 00031921133), clear oscillations are detected consistent with the re-emergence of the so-called heartbeat oscillation (ATel #3230, #3418) in the accretion flow of this micro-quasar with a frequency of approximately 0.027 Hz. The source spectrum is well characterized by model consisting of the emission from an accretion disk and a hot optically thin Comptonizing corona, e.g., kT_disk ~ 0.9 keV, kT0_corona ~ 0.6 keV, tau_corona ~ 0.6, kT_e == 100 keV (chi^2/dof = 496/462), with a flux of f_x ~ 1.4e-09 erg/s/cm^2 corresponding to a luminosity of ~ 1e37 (d/8kpc)^2 erg/s in the 0.3-10.0 keV band.

  6. Electronic structure of ruthenium-doped iron chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, M. J.; Samsel-Czekała, M.; Ciechan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The structural and electronic properties of hypothetical RuxFe1-xSe and RuxFe1-xTe systems have been investigated from first principles within the density functional theory (DFT). Reasonable values of lattice parameters and chalcogen atomic positions in the tetragonal unit cell of iron chalcogenides have been obtained with the use of norm-conserving pseudopotentials. The well known discrepancies between experimental data and DFT-calculated results for structural parameters of iron chalcogenides are related to the semicore atomic states which were frozen in the used here approach. Such an approach yields valid results of the electronic structures of the investigated compounds. The Ru-based chalcogenides exhibit the same topology of the Fermi surface (FS) as that of FeSe, differing only in subtle FS nesting features. Our calculations predict that the ground states of RuSe and RuTe are nonmagnetic, whereas those of the solid solutions RuxFe1-xSe and RuxFe1-xTe become the single- and double-stripe antiferromagnetic, respectively. However, the calculated stabilization energy values are comparable for each system. The phase transitions between these magnetic arrangements may be induced by slight changes of the chalcogen atom positions and the lattice parameters a in the unit cell of iron selenides and tellurides. Since the superconductivity in iron chalcogenides is believed to be mediated by the spin fluctuations in single-stripe magnetic phase, the RuxFe1-xSe and RuxFe1-xTe systems are good candidates for new superconducting iron-based materials.

  7. Influence of copper to indium atomic ratio on the properties of Cu-In-Te based thin-film solar cells prepared by low-temperature co-evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Mise, Takahiro; Nakada, Tokio

    2012-09-15

    The influence of copper to indium atomic ratio (Cu/In) on the properties of Cu-In-Te based thin films and solar cells was investigated. The films (Cu/In = 0.38-1.17) were grown on both bare and Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrates at 250 Degree-Sign C by single-step co-evaporation using a molecular beam epitaxy system. Highly (112)-oriented CuInTe{sub 2} films were obtained at Cu/In ratios of 0.84-0.99. However, stoichiometric and Cu-rich films showed a poor film structure with high surface roughness. The films consist of polyhedron-shaped grains, which are related to the coexistence of a Cu{sub 2-x}Te phase, and significant evidence for the coexistence of the Cu{sub 2-x}Te phase in the stoichiometric and Cu-rich films is presented. KCN treatment was performed for the films in order to remove the Cu{sub 2-x}Te phase. The stoichiometric CuInTe{sub 2} thin films exhibited a high mobility above 50 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature after the KCN treatment. A preliminary solar cell fabricated using a 1.4-{mu}m-thick Cu-poor CuInTe{sub 2} thin film (Cu/In = 0.84, E{sub g} = 0.988 eV) yielded a total-area efficiency of 2.10%. The photovoltaic performance of the cell was improved after long-term ambient aging in dark conditions.

  8. Filler Content, Surface Microhardness, and Rheological Properties of Various Flowable Resin Composites.

    PubMed

    Jager, S; Balthazard, R; Dahoun, A; Mortier, E

    The objectives of this study were to determine the filler content, the surface microhardness (at baseline and after immersion in water for 2 years), and the rheological properties of various flowable resin composites. Three flowable resin composites (Grandioso Heavy Flow [GHF], Grandio Flow [GRF], Filtek Supreme XTE Flow [XTE]), one pit and fissure sealant resin composite (ClinPro [CLI]), and three experimental flowable resin composites with the same matrix and a variable filler content (EXPA, EXPB, EXPC) were tested. The filler content was determined by calcination. The Vickers surface microhardness was determined after polymerization and then after immersion in distilled water at 37°C for 7, 60, 180, 360, and 720 days. The rheological measurements were performed using a dynamic shear rheometer. The determined filler contents differed from the manufacturers' data for all the materials. The materials with the highest filler content presented the highest microhardness, but filler content did not appear to be the only influencing parameter. With respect to the values recorded after photopolymerization, the values were maintained or increased after 720 days compared with the initial microhardness values, except for GHF. For the values measured after immersion for 7 days, an increase in microhardness was observed for all the materials over time. All the materials were non-Newtonian, with shear-thinning behavior. At all the shear speeds, GRF presented a lower viscosity to GHF and XTE. GRF presented a low viscosity before photopolymerization, associated with high filler content, thereby providing a good compromise between spreadability and mechanical properties after photopolymerization.

  9. EVIDENCE OF LIGHT-BENDING EFFECTS AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR SPECTRAL STATE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Fabian, A. C.; Walton, D. J.; Steiner, J. F.; Cackett, E.

    2013-01-20

    It has long been speculated that the nature of the hard X-ray corona may be an important second driver of black hole state transitions, in addition to the mass accretion rate through the disk. However, a clear physical picture of coronal changes has not yet emerged. We present results from a systematic analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the stellar-mass black hole binary XTE J1650-500. All spectra with significant hard X-ray detections were fit using a self-consistent, relativistically blurred disk reflection model suited to high ionization regimes. Importantly, we find evidence that both the spectral and timing properties of black hole states may be partially driven by the height of the X-ray corona above the disk, and related changes in how gravitational light bending affects the corona-disk interaction. Specifically, the evolution of the power-law, thermal disk, and relativistically convolved reflection components in our spectral analysis indicates that: (1) the disk inner radius remains constant at r {sub in} =1.65 {+-} 0.08 GM/c {sup 2} (consistent with values found for the ISCO of XTE J1650-500 in other works) throughout the transition from the brighter phases of the low-hard state to the intermediate states (both the hard-intermediate and soft-intermediate), through to the soft state and back; (2) the ratio between the observed reflected X-ray flux and power-law continuum (the 'reflection fraction', R) increases sharply at the transition between the hard-intermediate and soft-intermediate states ('ballistic' jets are sometimes launched at this transition); (3) both the frequency and coherence of the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in XTE J1650-500 increase with R. We discuss our results in terms of black hole states and the nature of black hole accretion flows across the mass scale.

  10. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-08-10

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses.

  11. High Energy Astrophysics Research and Programmatic Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  12. Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.; Reuben, Jasper D.

    2015-06-24

    The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.

  13. ’MODESRCH’, An Improved Computer Program for Obtaining ELF/VLF/LF Mode Constants in an Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    0 RHO = O*C i TA-LT=iu.0 RAt T 3. Gt"AX = 50 SEP = 091 TVSt-=-1 .0 LUB=-Io0 C NUFLAG = 0 COEFi’U(1L .) b1 C UL FPU ( 21 *5UF C OEf! U ( 3 te= 4E F)’PNU...Lt20 Ili ITI TLE(K)=I BCD ( K) 11. READ 904vJITtENS(1),ENS(1) 904t FC2RMAT IF7,295XtE9.2tEIO.2) IF (H7 .LT, 0.0) GO TO 15 HTS(J) =E 1T ANC, HTS(J

  14. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride and Related II-VI Compounds Held in San Diego, California on October 3, 4, 5, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    University of Illinois L.R. Ram-Mohan and H. Xte, Worcester Polytechnic Institute STIMULATED EMISSION AT 2.8-um FROM Hg-BASED QUANTUM - WELL STRUCTURES GROWN BY...as a function of annealing temperature, the composition of individual atomic planes across each HgCdTe/CdTe interface of a multi- quantum well stack...furnace. Figure 1 shows a chemical lattice image of a quantum well interface, while figure 2 shows the composition profile of the same interface

  15. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) contract team during the six months during the reporting period (10/95 - 3/96) and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science, Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  16. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on degradation of CdTe/CdMgTeheterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wasik, D.; Baj, M.; Siwiec-Matuszyk, J.; Gronkowski, J.; Jasinski, J.; Karczewski, G.

    2001-04-18

    We have shown that external hydrostatic pressure leads to the creation of structural defects, mainly in the vicinity of the II-VI/GaAs interface in the CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te heterostructures grown by the molecular beam epitaxy method on GaAs substrates. These defects propagating across the epilayer cause permanent damage to the samples from the point of view of their electrical properties. In contrast, photoluminescence spectra are only weakly influenced by pressure. Our results shed light on the degradation process observed even without pressure in II-VI-based heterostructures.

  17. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; hide

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  18. High Energy Astrophysics Research and Programmatic Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  19. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton Singh, Ksh; Pradhan, Narendra; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-08-01

    A new exact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropic massive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two compact stars, namely, XTE J1739-289 (strange star 1.51M_{⊙}, 10.9 km) and PSR J1614-2230 (neutron star 1.97M_{⊙}, 14 km). The solution also satisfies all energy conditions with the compactness parameter lying within the Buchdahl limit.

  20. Effect of Humidity on the Interaction of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP) Vapor with SiO2 and Al2O3 Surfaces, Studied Using Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    prism faces. Spectrawere recordedusingaFourier transform infrared ( FTIR ) spectrometer with a “narrow-band” HgxCd1-xTe (MCT-A) detec- tor. No polarizer...was used, and the intrinsic polarization of the beam produced by an FTIR spectrometer is typically fairly weak.56 Usually 2000 scans were averaged at...scattering.49 2.3. Sample Preparation and Characterization. Follow- ing previous3-5 work, the a-SiO2/Si samples were grown using ultraviolet/ ozone (UV/O3

  1. New class of topological superconductors protected by magnetic group symmetries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chen; Gilbert, Matthew J; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2014-03-14

    We study a new type of three-dimensional topological superconductor that exhibits Majorana zero modes (MZM) protected by a magnetic group symmetry, a combined antiunitary symmetry composed of a mirror reflection and time reversal. This new symmetry enhances the noninteracting topological classification of a superconducting vortex from Z2 to Z, indicating that multiple MZMs can coexist at the end of one magnetic vortex of unit flux. Especially, we show that a vortex binding two MZMs can be realized on the (001) surface of a topological crystalline insulator SnTe with proximity induced BCS Cooper pairing, or in bulk superconductor InxSn1-xTe.

  2. Upper limit on the radio emission from the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1833-0832

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Esposito, P.; Israel, G. L.; Rea, N.; Sarkissian, J.; Tiengo, A.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Gotz, D.; Stella, L.; Mereghetti, S.

    2010-03-01

    The soft gamma-ray repeater J1833-0832 has been discovered on 2010 March 19 thanks to the detection of a short burst by Swift (GCN #10526). Prompted by the detection of a radio outburst following the X-ray transient activity of two other magnetars, the anomalous X-ray pulsars XTE J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0-5408 (Camilo et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 892; 2007, ApJ, 666, L93), we observed the source with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope.

  3. Raman, infrared, photoluminescence and theoretical studies of the II-VI-VI ternary CdSeTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Becla, P.; Kim, L. S.; Perkowitz, S.; Feng, Y. P.; Poon, H. C.; Williams, K. P.; Pitt, G. D.

    1994-04-01

    We have examined Bridgman-grown zincblende CdSe xTe 1- x ( x < 0.36) by Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared reflectivity, photoluminescence and theoretical analysis. The Raman data showed evidence of surface structural improvement by long-term room temperature annealing. The combined Raman and infrared data confirmed the interpretation that a third infrared mode besides the CdTe- and CdSe-like transverse optical phonon modes, arose from non-random atomic clustering. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra were obtained and compared with pseudopotential calculations.

  4. Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-12-01

    We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mox W1 -xTe2 for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo0.66 W0.34 Te2 . In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.

  5. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  6. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed-by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, visiting the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA); X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE); X-ray Spectrometer (XRS); Astro-E; High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  7. Analytical Electron Diffraction from Iii-V and II-Vi Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellward, Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a number of new TEM-based techniques for the measurement of composition in ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. New methods of polarity determination in binary and ternary compounds are also presented. The theory of high energy electron diffraction is outlined, with particular emphasis on zone axis diffraction from well-defined strings. An account of TEM microstructural studies of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te and CdTe epitaxial layers, which provided the impetus for developing the diffraction-based analytical techniques, is given. The wide range of TEM-based compositional determination techniques is described. The use of HOLZ deficiency lines to infer composition from a lattice parameter measurement is evaluated. In the case of Cd_{ rm x}Hg_{rm 1-x}Te, it is found to be inferior to other techniques developed. Studies of dynamical aspects of HOLZ diffraction can yield information about the dispersion surface from which a measure of composition may be obtained. This technique is evaluated for Al_{rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x} As, in which it is found to be of some use, and for Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te, in which the large Debye-Waller factor associated with mercury in discovered to render the method of little value. A number of critical voltages may be measured in medium voltage TEMs. The (111) zone axis critical voltage of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te is found to vary significantly with x and forms the basis of an accurate technique for composition measurement in that ternary compound. Other critical voltage phenomena are investigated. In Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As and other light ternaries, a non-systematic critical voltage is found to vary with x, providing a good indicator of composition. Critical voltage measurements may be made by conventional CBED or by various other techniques, which may also simultaneously yield information on the spatial variation of composition. The

  8. Coordinated Millisecond RXTE+OPTICAL Observations of Persistent LMXB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruit, Hendrik

    We propose to search for correlated X-ray/optical emission from black hole candidates and neutron star accreters. The unexpectedly fast and complex correlations between visible light and X-rays seen in our previous observations of XTE J1118+480 indicate that the visible light may be be an important source of information on the nature of the accretion flow in the inner regions of the accretion flow, and its relation with outfl;ows. Targets to be observed are the persistent black hole candidates GX 339-4 and Cyg X-1, and the neutron star accreters Cyg X-2 and the jet-source Cir X-1.

  9. Outburst of the X-ray transient in NGC 6440 and identification of the optical and quiescent X-ray counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Zand, Jean; Pooley, Dave; Lewin, Walter; van Kerkwijk, Marten; Verbunt, Frank

    2001-08-01

    We have obtained observations with ESO NTT SUSI2 in B and R and with Chandra ACIS-S of the transient in NGC6440, which is in outburst again since before 2001 Aug 14, as discovered with RXTE ASM (http://xte.mit.edu/asmlc/ASM.html). The Chandra position of the transient coincides with the brightest source (of some 20 detected sources) in our 2000 July 4 Chandra observation, obtained when the transient was not active, and with the optical variable V2 which was active during 1998 August outburst of the transient.

  10. Ab-initio study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CdTe doped transition metal Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouni, A.; Bentata, Samir; Benstaali, W.; Abbar, B.

    2014-07-01

    The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal Co doped CdTe. We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results show a Half-Metallic Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors (HM-DMS) character with an important magnetic moment. The results obtained, make the CoxCd1-xTe a potential promising candidate for application in spintronics.

  11. The organization of the MCT workshop: An innovative approach to universities, industry, and government working together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, William E.

    1998-06-01

    This workshop was organized in the early 1980s to produce HgxCd1-xTe (MCT) mid- and long- wave infrared night vision technology. A key was an organizational plan that would combine industry, university, and government work to optimize return on the overall investment. (A majority of the work was sponsored by the U.S. Government.) To put this in perspective, three models will be presented, going from basic work to manufacturing a product. These are the series, parallel, and hybrid models. The workshop fits the parallel model best and can be thought of as a pioneering attempt in implementing such a model.

  12. X-ray Astronomy at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, P

    2005-04-06

    The USA (Unconventional Stellar Aspect) experiment was launched in February of 1999 and operated for approximately 18 months. Group K at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) participated in this experiment along with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The author discusses the USA experiment and the data accumulated, along with some of the results obtained from the observations of such objects as the extragalactic BL Lac object 1ES1959+65, the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) XTE J1118+480, and the eccentric X-ray binary system Circinus X-1.

  13. Integration of Externally Carried Weapon Systems with Military Helicopters (L’Integration des Systemes d’Armes Transportes en Charge Externe sur les Helicopteres Militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    structurales. Le rapport traite 6galement de questions op ~ rationnelles et de certains probl~mes spicifiques. Le teXte eat compiti par trois annexes: - Annexe I...origines modestes pendant la deuxiinme guerre mondiale o6 it~ a k6e deploye principalement conime plateforme d’observation et v~hicule de recherche et de...appropries de Ia communaute de I’OTAN. Des efforts considirables ont iti faits lors des recherches dc donneies pour assurer l’exhaustivit. Alors it eat

  14. Structural and optical properties of In doped Se-Te phase-change thin films: A material for optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, H. P.; Shukla, Nitesh; Kumar, Vipin; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Se75-xTe25Inx (x = 0, 3, 6, & 9) bulk glasses were obtained by melt quench technique. Thin films of thickness 400 nm were prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a base pressure of 10-6 Torr onto well cleaned glass substrate. a-Se75-xTe25Inx thin films were annealed at different temperatures for 2 h. As prepared and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction results show that the as-prepared films are of amorphous nature while it shows some poly-crystalline structure in amorphous phases after annealing. The optical absorption spectra of these films were measured in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm in order to derive the extinction and absorption coefficient of these films. It was found that the mechanism of optical absorption follows the rule of allowed non-direct transition. The optical band gap of as prepared and annealed films as a function of photon energy has been studied. The optical band gap is found to decrease with increase in annealing temperature in the present glassy system. It happens due to crystallization of amorphous films. The decrease in optical band gap due to annealing is an interesting behavior for a material to be used in optical storage. The optical band gap has been observed to decrease with the increase of In content in Se-Te glassy system.

  15. Studying Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: Revealing the Optical Counterpart in 1747-214 and Measuring the Masses of the Black Holes in 1859+226 and 1009-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Tomsick, John A.

    2003-02-01

    Low mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) contain compact, black hole (BH) or neutron star (NS) primaries, and cool, low-mass secondary stars. A limited number of BHs and NSs have accurate mass measurements. It is important to determine the primary mass of the LMXBs to better understand how BH masses influence their outburst behavior, and to better constrain the NS equations of state. To determine the mass of the primary object we need to measure the orbital inclination, i. We propose to determine i for two BH LMXBs, XTE J1859+226 and GRS 1009-45 (=N Vel 93) through modeling of their ellipsoidal variations. Because most LMXBs are not eclipsing, modeling their light curves is currently the only feasible method for determining the inclination. We will model the light curves with WD98. We also propose to identify the optical counterpart to the NS system EXO 1747-214, in order to begin the process of measuring the NS mass. We have successfully used NOAO facilities and this modeling technique to find accurate BH masses in four LMXBs. In order to expand the sample of known BH and NS systems, we request seven nights on the KPNO and CTIO 4m to obtain optical and infrared data on XTE J1859+226, GRS 1009-45, and EXO 1747-214.

  16. Interaction of pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation with the (001) surface of ZnCdTe crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Majchrzak, T; Rozniakowski, K; Wojtatowicz, T W

    1999-10-31

    An investigation was made of the interaction of pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation with mixed Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te (x=0.47) crystals. These crystals were grown by the directional solidification method. Various physical phenomena occurring during the interaction of the laser radiation with the crystal surface were observed. Melted regions (craters) appeared as a result of the interaction. Surface microtopography and microsegregation of the elements were investigated with a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray microanalyser. The experimentally determined crater diameters were less than 1 mm, whereas our calculation (based on the one-photon absorption model) predicted the maximum temperature in the irradiated zone to be less than the melting point of Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te. The two-photon absorption must therefore be taken into account. There were no changes in the chemical composition in the irradiated zone. Soliton-like waves originated on the melted and solidified surface of a crater. A ring-like distribution of granules was attributed to the diffraction in the optical system. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Dynamic thermo-mechanical properties of various flowable resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Balthazard, Rémy; Vincent, Marin; Dahoun, Abdessellam; Mortier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background This study compared the storage modulus (E’), the loss modulus (E’’) and the loss tangent (tan δ) of various flowable resin composites. Material and Methods Grandio Flow (GRF), GrandioSo Heavy Flow (GHF), Filtek Supreme XTE (XTE) and Filtek Bulk Fill (BUL) flowable resins and Clinpro Sealant (CLI) ultra-flowable pit and fissure sealant resin were used. 25 samples were tested using a dynamical mechanical thermal analysis system in bending mode. Measurements were taken within a temperature range of 10 to 55°C. The results were statistically analyzed using mixed-effect and repeated-measure analysis of variance followed by paired multiple comparisons. Results For all the materials, the E’ values decrease with temperature, whereas the tan δ values increase. Irrespective of the temperature, GHF and GRF present E’ and E’’ values significantly higher than all the other materials and CLI presents values significantly lower than all the other materials. Observation of the values for all the materials reveals a linear progression of the tan δ values with temperature. Conclusions A variation in temperature within a physiological range generates modifications in mechanical properties without damaging the material, however. Filler content in volume terms appears to be the crucial parameter in the mechanical behavior of tested materials. Key words:Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, elastic modulus, filler content, flowable resin composites, loss modulus, loss tangent. PMID:27957266

  18. On the Detectability of CO Molecules in the Interstellar Medium via X-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachimi, Katerine; Gatuzz, Efrain; Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the detectability of CO molecules in the Galactic interstellar medium using high-resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We analysed 10 bright low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study the CO contribution in their line of sights. A total of 25 observations were fitted with the ISMabs X-ray absorption model which includes photoabsorption cross-sections for Oi, Oii, Oiii and CO. We performed a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation analysis of the goodness of fit in order to estimate the significance of the CO detection. We determine that the statistical analysis prevents a significant detection of CO molecular X-ray absorption features, except for the lines of sight towards XTE J1718-330 and 4U 1636-53. In the case of XTE J1817-330, this is the first report of the presence of CO along its line of sight. Our results reinforce the conclusion that molecules have a minor contribution to the absorption features in the O K-edge spectral region. We estimate a CO column density lower limit to perform a significant detection with XMM-Newton of N(CO) greater than 6 x 10(exp 16) per sq cm for typical exposure times.

  19. Hot White Dwarf Donors in Ultracompact X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2002-09-01

    The discovery of two accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in binaries with ~43 minute orbital periods allows for a new probe of the donor's structure. For XTE J1751-305, only a hot white dwarf (WD) can fill the Roche lobe. A cold He WD is a possible solution for XTE J0929-314, although I will show that evolutionary arguments make a hot WD more likely. In addition to being larger than the T=0 models, these finite entropy, low-mass (Mc<0.03 Msolar) WDs have a minimum mass for a fixed core temperature. If they remain hot as they lose mass and expand, they can ``evaporate'' to leave an isolated millisecond radio pulsar. They also adiabatically expand upon mass loss at a rate faster than the growth of the Roche radius if the angular momentum deposited in the disk is not returned to the donor. If the timescale of the resulting runaway mass transfer is shorter than the viscous timescale in the outer disk, then the mass transfer instability of Ruderman & Shaham for He WDs would be realized. However, my estimates of these timescales still make the instability unlikely for adiabatic responses. I close by noting the possible impact of finite temperature WDs on our understanding of AM CVn binaries.

  20. Orbital period decay of compact black hole X-ray binaries: the influence of circumbinary disks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Cong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Context. Recently, compact black hole X-ray binaries XTE J 1118+480 and A0620-00 have been reported to be experiencing a fast orbital period decay, which is two orders of magnitude higher than expected with gravitational wave radiation. Magnetic braking of an Ap/Bp star has been suggested to account for the period change when the surface magnetic field of the companion star Bs ≳ 104 G. However, our calculation indicates that anomalous magnetic braking cannot significantly contribute to the large orbital period decay rates observed in these two sources even if Bs ≳ 104 G. Aims: Observations have provided evidence that circumbinary disks around two compact black hole X-ray binaries may exist. Our analysis shows that, for some reasonable parameters, tidal torque between the circumbinary disk and the binary can efficiently extract the orbital angular momentum from the binary, and result in a large orbital period change rate. Methods: Based on the circumbinary disk model, we simulate the evolution of XTE J 1118+480 via a stellar evolution code. Results: Our computations are approximatively in agreement with the observed data (the masses of two components, donor star radius, orbital period, and orbital period derivative). Conclusions: The mass transfer rate and circumbinary disk mass are obviously far greater than the inferred values from observations. Therefore, it seems that the circumbinary disk is unlikely to be the main cause of the rapid orbital decay observed in some compact black hole X-ray binaries.

  1. Structural and optoelectronic properties of Mg substituted ZTe (Z=Zn, Cd and Hg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imad; Subhan, Fazle; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ali, Zahid

    2015-08-01

    Wide band gap semiconductor alloys, MgxZ1-xTe (Z=Zn, Cd and Hg), are investigated over a full range of Mg compositions (0≤x≤1) using density functional theory (DFT). The variation in the lattice constant of MgxZ1-xTe is linear with the composition x, and all these alloys obey Vegrd's law. The CdTe (6.50 Å) and MgTe (6.44 Å) are lattice matched compounds, therefore the lattice constant of MgCdTe decreases slightly with the concentration x, whereas the lattice constant also decreases for MgHgTe but increases for MgZnTe. It is due to the fact that Mg has larger size than Zn and smaller size than Cd and Hg. The band gap of these compounds are calculated using the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential as LDA and GGA are not effective in producing the experimental band gap of a strongly correlated electron system. The calculated band gaps of these compounds cover the range 0-3.5 eV and are consistent with the experimental band gaps. The band gaps exhibit nonlinear behavior or bowing effect with the change in concentration. The frequency dependent optical properties like dielectric functions, and indices of refraction of these ternary systems are also calculated and discussed.

  2. New data of radio emission from three AXPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplykh, Daria

    2011-07-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are a group of 9 X-ray sources showing periodical pulsation at periods in the 2-12 s range. The main problem is the source of energy, because their X-ray luminosities much higher than can be provided by the rotational kinetic-energy losses. Many attempts have been made to detect radio emission. The first detection of periodical pulsations from the AXP 1E 2259+586 have been made at the frequency 111 MHz by Malofeev (Malofeev et al., 2001, 2005). The second transient AXP XTE J1810-197 and the third AXP candidate 1E1547.0-5408 (Camilo et al., 2006, 2007) have been detected in the large frequency band 0.69-42 GHz. In this report we present new data for three AXPs 1E 2259+586, 4U 0142+61 and XTE J1810-197 at low frequencies. The observations were carried out on two sensitive transit radio telescopes in the range 42-112 MHz. The flux densities and mean pulse profiles, the estimation of the distances and integrated radio luminosities are presented. We used new digital receivers to obtain pulse profiles and dynamic spectra. Comparison with X-ray data shows large differences in the mean pulse widths and luminosities.

  3. Surface-barrier structures on single crystals of CdMgMnTe quaternary solid solutions: Creation and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rud', V. Yu.; Rud', Yu. V.; Terukov, E. I.

    2011-04-15

    Planar melt crystallization is used to grow single crystals of Cd-Mg-Mn-Te quaternary alloys along the pseudobinary sections Cd{sub 0.75-x}Mg{sub x}Mn{sub 0.25}Te, Cd{sub 0.75-x}Mg{sub 0.25}Mn{sub x}Te, and Cd{sub 1-2x}Mg{sub x}Mn{sub x}Te. The first photosensitive structures, i.e., In/CdMgMnTe Schottky barriers, are fabricated within each indicated single-crystal section. The spectral dependences of the relative quantum efficiency of photoconversion are measured, and the broadband photosensitivity of the new structures is detected. Based on the spectral dependences of the photosensitivity, the nature of the meson transitions is discussed and the corresponding band gaps are determined. The applicability of grown single crystals of CdMgMnTe quaternary alloys to broadband photoconverters of optical radiations is ascertained.

  4. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  5. Electrophysical properties of solid solutions of silver in PbTe

    SciTech Connect

    Sharov, M. K.

    2012-05-15

    The thermopower coefficient {alpha}{sub 0} and the electrical conductivity {sigma} of Pb{sub 1-x}Ag{sub x}Te solid solutions, where x = (0-0.007), are measured at T = 300 K. The hole concentration p is calculated. All samples are of the p type. With increasing silver content, {alpha}{sub 0} decreases, while p and {sigma} increase. For undoped crystals, {alpha}{sub 0} = 251.0 {mu}V/K, p = 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, and {sigma} = 165 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. At the silver-solubility limit for x = 0.007, {alpha}{sub 0} = 193.8 {mu}V/K, p = 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, and {sigma} = 216 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. The hole concentration in all samples is much lower than the concentration of introduced silver atoms. The hole gas in Pb{sub 1-x}Ag{sub x}Te solid solutions is weakly degenerate in the entire silver-concentration range.

  6. On the detectability of CO molecules in the interstellar medium via X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, Katerine; Gatuzz, Efraín; García, Javier A.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the detectability of CO molecules in the Galactic interstellar medium using high-resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We analysed 10 bright low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study the CO contribution in their line of sights. A total of 25 observations were fitted with the ISMabs X-ray absorption model which includes photoabsorption cross-sections for O I, O II, O III and CO. We performed a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation analysis of the goodness of fit in order to estimate the significance of the CO detection. We determine that the statistical analysis prevents a significant detection of CO molecular X-ray absorption features, except for the lines of sight towards XTE J1718-330 and 4U 1636-53. In the case of XTE J1817-330, this is the first report of the presence of CO along its line of sight. Our results reinforce the conclusion that molecules have a minor contribution to the absorption features in the O K-edge spectral region. We estimate a CO column density lower limit to perform a significant detection with XMM-Newton of N(CO) > 6 × 1016 cm-2 for typical exposure times.

  7. Anomalous Hall effect sensors based on magnetic element doped topological insulator thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Ikenna; Jiles, David

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is recently discovered in magnetic element doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption highly efficient spintronics and electronics. This discovery broaden the family of Hall effect (HE) sensors. In this work, both HE and AHE sensor based on Mn and Cr doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will be systematically studied. The influence of Mn concentration on sensitivity of MnxBi2-xTe3 HE sensors will be discussed. The Hall sensitivity increase 8 times caused by quantum AHE will be reported. AHE senor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will also be studied and compared with Mn doped Bi2Te3 AHE sensor. The influence of thickness on sensitivity of CrxBi2-xTe3 AHE sensors will be discussed. Ultrahigh Hall sensitivity is obtained in Cr doped Bi2Te3. The largest Hall sensitivity can reach 2620 Ω/T in sensor which is almost twice higher than that of the normal semiconductor HE sensor. Our work indicates that magnetic element doped topological insulator with AHE are good candidates for ultra-sensitive Hall effect sensors.

  8. Low Frequency Radio Transients in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, S. D.; Bartleson, A. L.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Kassim, N. E.

    2001-12-01

    We report the detection of a new radio transient source, GCRT J1746-2757, located only 1.1 degrees north of the Galactic center. Consistent with other radio transients toward the Galactic center, this source brightened and faded on a time scale of a few months. No X-ray counterpart was detected, but upper limits suggest that GCRT J1746-2757 may have been a "fast" transient, with a time scale of days. We also report new 0.33 GHz measurements of the radio counterpart to the X-ray transient source, XTE J1748-288, previously detected and monitored at higher radio frequencies. We show that the spectrum of XTE J1748-288 steepened considerably during a period of a few months after its peak. We also discuss the need for a more efficient means of finding additional radio transients. This research is supported by funding from the Jeffress Memorial Trust, Research Corporation, and the Sweet Briar College Faculty Grants program. Basic research in radio astronomy at NRL is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-06-01

    We present shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well, but increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in microquasars; and strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The periodicity of jets and shock oscillation are similar. Our simulation shows that the jets for higher viscosity parameter are evidently stronger and faster than that for lower viscosity.

  10. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  11. Spectrum and timing phenomena in IGR J17091-3624 2011 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Qu, J. L.; Gao, H. Q.; Zhou, J. N.

    2013-02-01

    X-ray source IGR J17091-3624 was discovered by INTEGRAL observatory on 2003 April (Kuulkers 2003). A outburst was detected with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in late January 2011 (Krimm 2011). IGR J17091-3624 has a similar timing phenomena to microquasar GRS 1915+105(Belloni 2000; Altamirano 2011). We have analyzed the evolution of temporal and spectral characteristic of IGR J17091-3624 during the 2011 outburst. We find that (1) all the QPOs can be divided into two types, QPO-AB and QPO-C, (2) a small outburst tracks clockwise in the HID, (3) the relationship between hardness and disk color temperature forms a V-shape. Those results will give a strong constraint on the disk radiative process.

  12. A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (active galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  13. INTERPRETATION OF THE 115 DAY PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE X-RAY FLUX OF NGC 5408 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D. L.; Charles, P. A.; Holley-Bockelmann, K.

    2010-12-20

    We comment on the recent observation of a 115 day modulation in the X-ray flux of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, and in particular, the interpretation of this modulation as the orbital period. We suggest that this modulation may instead be due to a precessing jet, and is thus superorbital in nature. Comparing the properties of this ULX with those of the prototypical micro-quasar SS 433, we argue that NGC 5408 X-1 is very similar to SS 433: a hyper-accreting stellar-mass black hole in a shorter-period binary. If the analogy holds, the 115 day modulation is best explained by the still poorly understood physics of inner-disk/jet precession and a longer observing baseline would be able to reveal an intrinsic phase jitter that is associated with such a precession.

  14. ULXs, Microblazars, and the Unidentified EGERT Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, Y M; Romero, G E; Torres, D F

    2003-05-01

    We suggest that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and some of the variable low latitude EGRET gamma-ray sources may be two different manifestations of the same underlying phenomena: high-mass microquasars with relativistic jets forming a small angle with the line of sight (i.e. microblazars). Microblazars with jets formed by relatively cool plasma (Lorentz factors for the leptons up to a few hundreds) naturally lead to ULXs. If the jet contains very energetic particles (high-energy cutoff above Lorentz factors of several thousands) the result is a relatively strong gamma-ray source. As pointed out by Kaufman Bernads, Romero & Mirabel (2002), a gamma-ray microblazar will always have an X-ray counterpart (although it might be relatively weak), whereas X-ray microblazars might have no gamma-ray counterparts.

  15. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  16. HESS-II reconstruction strategy and performance in the low-energy (20-150 GeV) domain

    SciTech Connect

    Becherini, Y.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Punch, M.; Bernloehr, K.; Ehlert, S.; Masbou, J.; Moulin, E.

    2008-12-24

    In mid-2009 a notable upgrade of the H.E.S.S. telescope system will take place: a new telescope with a 600 m{sup 2} mirror area and very-high-resolution camera (0.07 deg.) will be positioned at the centre of the present configuration, with the aim of lowering the threshold and enhance its sensitivity in the 100 GeV to several TeV energy range. HESS-II will permit the investigation of the lower energy {gamma}-ray spectra in various cosmic accelerators, giving information on the origin of the {gamma}-rays observed, and will detect AGNs with a redshift greater than 0.2 (being less affected by absorption by Extragalactic Background Light--EBL--in this energy range) and will search for new classes of very high energy {gamma}-ray emitters (pulsars, microquasars, GRB, and dark matter candidates)

  17. A universal scaling for the energetics of relativistic jets from black hole systems.

    PubMed

    Nemmen, R S; Georganopoulos, M; Guiriec, S; Meyer, E T; Gehrels, N; Sambruna, R M

    2012-12-14

    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets, which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies [active galactic nuclei (AGN)]. How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGN is still unknown. Here, we show that jets produced by AGN and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGN and GRBs lying at the low- and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  18. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beilicke, M.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Israel, M. H.; Lee, K.; Krawczynski, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10-80 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  19. a Unified Model of High-Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rújula, A.

    I outline a unified model of high-energy astrophysics, in which the gamma background radiation, cluster "cooling flows", gamma-ray bursts, X-ray flashes and cosmic-ray electrons and nuclei of all energies — share a common origin. The mechanism underlying these phenomena is the emission of relativistic "cannonballs" by ordinary supernovae, analogous to the observed ejection of plasmoids by quasars and microquasars. I concentrate on Cosmic Rays: the longest-lasting conundrum in astrophysics. The distribution of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy, their total "luminosity", the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the knee(s) and ankle(s), and the alleged variations of composition with energy are all explained in terms of simple and "standard" physics. The model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the "cannon" that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic episodes of accretion onto a compact object.

  20. The X-ray spectral and timing properties of a major radio flare episode in Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, Karri I. I.; Hannikainen, Diana C.; McCollough, Michael L.; Pooley, Guy G.; Trushkin, Sergei A.; Droulans, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The microquasar Cygnus X-3 is known for massive outbursts that emit radiation from radio to γ-rays associated with jet ejection events. Using Principal Component Analysis to probe fast (~1 min) X-ray spectral evolution followed by subsequent spectral fits to the time-averaged spectra (~3 ks), we find that the overall X-ray variability during major outbursts can be attributed to two components. The spectral evolution of these components are best fitted with hybrid Comptonization and thermal bremsstrahlung components. Most of the X-ray variability is attributed to the hybrid Comptonization component. However, the spectral evolution of the thermal component is linked to a change in the X-ray spectral state. Phase-folding the fit results shows that the thermal component is restricted to two orbital phase regions opposite to each other, possibly indicating a flattened stellar wind from the Wolf-Rayet companion.

  1. Winds of Change: The Physics of Accretion, Ejection, and X-ray Variability in GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    In the last twenty years, even as multiwavelength observations of black hole X-ray binaries have led to major advances, the microquasar GRS 1915+105 has continually challenged our understanding of the physics of accretion and ejection. With its relativistic jets, ionized winds, and myriad states of rapid, extreme variability, this remarkable black hole has been alternately seen as the black sheep of X-ray binaries and a Rosetta stone for black hole astrophysics. In this talk, I will present our efforts to use a decade of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of GRS 1915+105 to shed light on the processes that regulate its erratic behavior. I will highlight in particular the role of accretion disk winds on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Drawing on recent results, I will discuss the broader implications of these massive winds for the physics of inflows and outflows around black holes.

  2. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beilicke, M.; Baring, M. G.; Barthelmy, S.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Haba, Y.; Israel, M. H.; Kunieda, H.; Lee, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Okajima, T.; Schnittman, J.; Tamura, K.; Tueller, J.; Krawczynski, H.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10 - 80 keY X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  3. Exploring the extreme gamma-ray sky with HESS

    SciTech Connect

    Sol, Helene

    2006-11-03

    The international HESS experiment. High Energy Stereoscopic System, fully operational since January 2004, is opening a new era for extreme gamma-ray astronomy. Located in Namibia, it is now the most sensitive detector for cosmic sources of very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, in the tera-electron-volt (TeV) range. In July 2005, it had already more than double the number of sources detected at such energies, with the discovery of several active galactic nuclei (AGN), supernova remnants and plerions, a binary pulsar system, a microquasar candidate, and a sample of yet unidentified sources. HESS has also provide for the first time gamma-ray images of extended sources with the first astrophysical jet resolved in gamma-rays, and the first mapping of a shell supernova remnant, which proves the efficiency of in situ acceleration of particles up to 100 TeV and beyond.

  4. How to Determine The Precession of the Inner Accretion Disk in Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D F; Romero, G E; Barcons, X; Lu, Y

    2005-01-05

    We show that changes in the orientation of the inner accretion disk of Cygnus X-1 affect the shape of the broad Fe K{alpha} emission line emitted from this object, in such a way that eV-level spectral resolution observations (such as those that will be carried out by the ASTRO-E2 satellite) can be used to analyze the dynamics of the disk. We here present a new diagnosis tool, supported by numerical simulations, by which short observations of Cygnus X-1, separated in time, can determine whether its accretion disk actually processes, and if so, determine its period and precession angle. Knowing the precession parameters of Cygnus X-1 would result in a clarification of the origin of such precession, distinguishing between tidal and spin-spin coupling. This approach could also be used for similar studies in other microquasar systems.

  5. The role of Magnetic Reconnection in Compact Sources and Jet Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandra Bahadur; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Kadowaki, Luis H. S.

    Almost a decade ago de Gouveia Dal Pino and Lazarian (2005) proposed a model for producing jet plasmons and particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection events in the surrounds of accretion disks around black holes with magnetospheres. Although this model predicts that the amount of magnetic power released by reconnection is more than sufficient to explain observed flares from black hole mass sources in different scales (from microquasars to low luminous active galactic nuclei; see de Gouveia Dal Pino et al. 2010), it still requires refinement and numerical testing. In this work, we take into account relativistic effects by introducing a Pseudo Newtonian approach to the model and also present the results of 2D MHD numerical simulations under this approach.

  6. Jet-Environment Interactions as Diagnostics of Jet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the interaction of jets with their environments. Jets can transport a sizable fraction of accretion energy away from black holes and neutron stars. Because they are collimated, they can travel to distances far beyond the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole. Yet, their interaction with the interstellar and intergalactic medium must eventually halt their advance and dissipate the energy they carry. The termination of the jet, and the inflation of large scale cavities of relativistic plasma offers one of the most powerful ways to constrain the physics of jets. In this chapter, we will review the inflation of radio lobes, the propagation of hot spots, the creation of shells and cavities, and the bending of jet by proper motion through their environment, both in the context of AGN jets and microquasars.

  7. XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL spectroscopy of GRO J1655-40 during its 2005 outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Trigo, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Parmar, A. N.; Miller, J.; Caballero-Garcia, M. D.

    2007-08-21

    We report on two XMM-Newton and simultaneous INTEGRAL observations of the microquasar GRO J1655-40 during its 2005 outburst. The source was in its high-soft state during both observations. There is evidence for the presence of both a relativistically broadened Fe line providing strong support for the existence of a spinning black hole, and a highly photo-ionized absorber. The photo-ionized absorber is responsible for strong K absorption lines of Fe XXV and Fe XXVI in the EPIC pn spectra. The parameters of the highly-ionized absorber were different during the two observations. A less ionized absorber is present in the second observation, where the 0.5-200 keV luminosity of GRO J1655-40 decreased by around a half.

  8. Modelling a Simultaneous Radio/X-Ray Flare from Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Konstantinos; Markoff, Sera; Wilsm, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Maitra, Dipankar; Pottschmidt, Katja; Pooley, Guy G.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Rotschild, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    The long-term monitoring campaign of Cyg X-1 has provided the detection of the first simultaneous radio/X-ray flare seen from that source. We investigate the physical characteristics of the event in terms of emission from a homogeneous, expanding blob of pair-plasma, superimposed on a baseline flux in both bands. We find that while the radio flare can be reconstructed under various configurations of a cooling blob, continuous (re)acceleration of particles inside the jet is necessary to sustain X-ray emission at the levels implied by the data, for the observed duration. We present major results of the modelling and discuss implications for the role of microquasar jets.

  9. Giant Radio Flare of Cygnus X-3 in September 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkin, S. A.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Zhekanis, G. V.

    2017-06-01

    In the long-term multi-frequency monitoring program of the microquasars with RATAN-600 we discovered the giant flare from X-ray binary Cyg X-3 on 13 September 2016. It happened after 2000 days of the 'quiescent state' of the source passed after the former giant flare (˜18 Jy) in March 2011. We have found that during this quiet period the hard X-ray flux (Swift/BAT, 15-50 keV) and radio flux (RATAN-600, 11 GHz) have been strongly anti-correlated. Both radio flares occurred after transitions of the microquasar to a 'hypersoft' X-ray state that occurred in February 2011 and in the end of August 2016. The giant flare was predicted by us in the first ATel (Trushkin et al. (2016)). Indeed after dramatic decrease of the hard X-ray Swift 15-50 keV flux and RATAN 4- 11 GHz fluxes (a 'quenched state') a small flare (0.7 Jy at 4-11 GHz) developed on MJD 57632 and then on MJD 57644.5 almost simultaneously with X-rays radio flux rose from 0.01 to 15 Jy at 4.6 GHz during few days. The rise of the flaring flux is well fitted by a exponential law that could be a initial phase of the relativistic electrons generation by internal shock waves in the jets. Initially spectra were optically thick at frequencies lower 2 GHz and optically thin at frequencies higher 8 GHz with typical spectral index about -0.5. After maximum of the flare radio fluxes at all frequencies faded out with exponential law.

  10. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations towards the unidentified MeV source GRO J1411-64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. F.; Zhang, S.; Reimer, O.; Barcons, X.; Corral, A.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes, J. M.; Romero, G. E.; Qu, J.-L.; Collmar, W.; Schönfelder, V.; Butt, Y.

    2006-10-01

    Aims.We investigate the nature of the COMPTEL unidentified source GRO J1411-64. Methods: The source was observed by INTEGRAL. Its central part was also observed by XMM-Newton. Results: The data analysis shows no hint for new detections at hard X-rays. The upper limits in flux herein presented constrain the energy spectrum of whatever was producing GRO J1411-64, imposing, in the framework of earlier COMPTEL observations, the existence of a peak in power output located somewhere between 300-700 keV for the so-called low state. The Circinus Galaxy is the only source detected within the 4σ location error of GRO J1411-64, but can be safely excluded as the possible counterpart: the extrapolation of the energy spectrum is well below the one for GRO J1411-64 at MeV energies. 22 reliable and statistically significant sources (likelihood > 10) were extracted and analyzed from XMM-Newton data. Only one of these sources, XMMU J141255.6-635932, is spectrally compatible with GRO J1411-64 although the fact the soft X-ray observations do not cover the full extent of the COMPTEL source position uncertainty make an association hard to quantify and thus risky. Conclusions: The unique peak of the power output at high energies (hard X-rays and gamma-rays) resembles that found in the SED seen in blazars or microquasars, and might suggest that a similar scenario is at work. However, an analysis using a microquasar model consisting on a magnetized conical jet filled with relativistic electrons which radiate through synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering with star, disk, corona and synchrotron photons shows that it is hard to comply with all observational constrains. This fact and the non-detection at hard X-rays introduce an a-posteriori question mark upon the physical reality of this source, which is discussed in some detail.

  11. A Search for Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1 with the Magic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2011-07-01

    The acceleration of particles up to GeV or higher energies in microquasars has been the subject of considerable theoretical and observational efforts in the past few years. Sco X-1 is a microquasar from which evidence of highly energetic particles in the jet has been found when it is in the so-called Horizontal Branch (HB), a state when the radio and hard X-ray fluxes are higher and a powerful relativistic jet is present. Here we present the first very high energy gamma-ray observations of Sco X-1, obtained with the MAGIC telescopes. An analysis of the whole data set does not yield a significant signal, with 95% CL flux upper limits above 300 GeV at the level of 2.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Simultaneous RXTE observations were conducted to provide the X-ray state of the source. A selection of the gamma-ray data obtained during the HB based on the X-ray colors did not yield a signal either, with an upper limit of 3.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. These upper limits place a constraint on the maximum TeV luminosity to non-thermal X-ray luminosity of L VHE/L ntX <~ 0.02 that can be related to a maximum TeV luminosity to jet power ratio of L VHE/L j <~ 10-3. Our upper limits indicate that the underlying high-energy emission physics in Sco X-1 must be inherently different from that of the hitherto detected gamma-ray binaries.

  12. An unusually massive stellar black hole in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Greiner, J; Cuby, J G; McCaughrean, M J

    2001-11-29

    The X-ray source known as GRS1915+105 belongs to a group dubbed 'microquasars'. These objects are binary systems which sporadically eject matter at speeds that appear superluminal, as is the case for some quasars. GRS1915+105 is also one of only two known binary sources thought to contain a maximally spinning black hole. Determining the basic parameters of GRS195+105, such as the masses of the components, will help us to understand jet formation in this system, as well as providing links to other objects which exhibit jets. Using X-ray data, indirect methods have previously been used to infer a variety of masses for the accreting compact object in the range 10-30 solar masses (M middle dot in circle). Here we report a direct measurement of the orbital period and mass function of GRS1915+105, which allow us to deduce a mass of 14 +/- 4 M middle dot in circle for the black hole. Black holes with masses >5-7 M middle dot in circle challenge the conventional picture of black-hole formation in binary systems. Based on the mass estimate, we interpret the distinct X-ray variability of GRS1915+105 as arising from instabilities in an accretion disk that is dominated by radiation pressure, and radiating near the Eddington limit (the point where radiation pressure supports matter against gravity). Also, the mass estimate constrains most models which relate observable X-ray properties to the spin of black holes in microquasars.

  13. Great enhancements in the thermoelectric power factor of BiSbTe nanostructured films with well-ordered interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiu-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Yung-Kang

    2013-07-01

    An innovative concept of twin-enhanced thermoelectricity was proposed to fundamentally resolve the high electrical resistance while not degrading the phonon scattering of the thermoelectric nanoassemblies. Under this frame, a variety of highly oriented and twinned bismuth antimony telluride (BixSb2-xTe3) nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by a large-area pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique on insulated silicon substrates at various deposition temperatures. The significant presence of the nonbasal- and basal-plane twins across the hexagonal BiSbTe nanocrystals, which were experimentally and systematically observed for the first time, evidently contributes to the unusually high electrical conductivity of ~2700 S cm-1 and the power factor of ~25 μW cm-1 K-2 as well as the relatively low thermal conductivity of ~1.1 W m-1 K-1 found in these nanostructured films.An innovative concept of twin-enhanced thermoelectricity was proposed to fundamentally resolve the high electrical resistance while not degrading the phonon scattering of the thermoelectric nanoassemblies. Under this frame, a variety of highly oriented and twinned bismuth antimony telluride (BixSb2-xTe3) nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by a large-area pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique on insulated silicon substrates at various deposition temperatures. The significant presence of the nonbasal- and basal-plane twins across the hexagonal BiSbTe nanocrystals, which were experimentally and systematically observed for the first time, evidently contributes to the unusually high electrical conductivity of ~2700 S cm-1 and the power factor of ~25 μW cm-1 K-2 as well as the relatively low thermal conductivity of ~1.1 W m-1 K-1 found in these nanostructured films. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Morphologies, XRD patterns, SEM compositions and room-temperature thermoelectric properties of the series of (015) oriented Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 nanocolumns (Fig. S1-S3), (00l) oriented

  14. Thermodynamics of oxygen in dilute liquid silver-tellurium alloys.

    PubMed

    Nyk, Justyna; Onderka, Bogusław

    The activity coefficient of oxygen [Formula: see text] in liquid Ag and binary Ag-Te dilute alloys were determined between 1,285 and 1,485 K by coulometric titration using the electrochemical cell (Ir, [O] in liquid metal or alloy | yttria stabilized zirconia | air, Pt). The experimental and evaluation procedures described in the literature were adopted. The oxygen activity coefficient was determined in pure liquid silver to be [Formula: see text]. Next, the oxygen activity coefficient in dilute Ag-(Te)-O alloys for variable XTe content (from 0.01 to 0.06) was measured. From the obtained results, Wagner's interaction parameter [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature was derived in the form [Formula: see text]. The electrochemical coulometric titration method seems to be very useful to study the thermodynamics of oxygen interaction in liquid silver and its alloys.

  15. Monitoring MRK 509: the Origin of the Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen

    Ginga and ASCA observations of Mrk 509 show evidence for a strong Compton refl tion component and a strong, broad iron K(alpha) line which may originate in a elativistic disk. However, there is no direct evidence to physically link thes two components. We will combine 10 ksec coordinated XTE and ASCA observations order to obtain sufficient bandwidth and signal to simultaneously constrain th continuum, iron line and reflection components. We request 16 such observatio to determine if the components vary together and to estimate the lag in order constrain the geometry. Its high flux, strong reflection component and strong ut moderate time scale variability make Mrk 509 the ideal target for this key st. Simultaneous IUE observations will allow the determination of the X-ray/UV

  16. Large external ΔT and cooling power densities in thin-film Bi2Te3-superlattice thermoelectric cooling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulman, G. E.; Siivola, E.; Shen, B.; Venkatasubramanian, R.

    2006-09-01

    Experimental I-V-Tc-ΔT data of thin-film superlattice thermoelectric modules is used to determine the internal ΔT, cross-plane Seebeck coefficient, effective thermal interface resistance, device ZT, and Qmax. We demonstrate 55K of external cooling at 300K (Tc_min=244.8K), with an estimated heat pumping capacity of 128W /cm2. The average ZT300 for the best superlattice devices is 0.75, compared to 0.66 for a bulk BixSb2-xTe3/Bi2SexTe3-x device. Our model indicates a significantly higher internal ΔT occurs across the active thermoelectric element, which was verified using buried thermocouples.

  17. Lower limit on the heat capacity of the neutron star core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Andrew; Brown, Edward F.; Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Page, Dany; Reddy, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    We show that observations of the core temperature of transiently accreting neutron stars combined with observations of an accretion outburst give a lower limit to the neutron star core heat capacity. For the neutron stars in the low mass x-ray binaries KS 1731-260, MXB 1659-29, and XTE J1701-462, we show that the lower limit is a factor of a few below the core heat capacity expected if neutrons and protons in the core are paired, so that electrons provide the dominant contribution to the heat capacity. This limit rules out a core dominated by a quark color-flavor-locked phase, which would have a much lower heat capacity. Future observations of or limits on cooling during quiescence will further constrain the core heat capacity.

  18. Hyperfine characterization of Bi 1.9Te 0.1SrNb 1.9Hf 0.1O 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R. E.; López-García, A.; Martínez, J. A.; Castro, A.; Paschoal, A. R.; Silva, E. N.; Ayala, A. P.; Guedes, I.

    2006-07-01

    The Aurivillius type oxide Bi 1.9Te 0.1SrNb 1.9Hf 0.1O 9 has been studied by Perturbed Angular Correlations spectroscopy using 181Ta probes. The spin precession curves were measured from room temperature up to 873 K. Two sites are occupied by probes and the temperature dependence of both indicates a continuous phase transition at about 625 K. One site is ordered while the other is disordered. This situation is analyzed in terms of simple models already applied to perovskites. The transition temperature of the solid solution Bi 2- xTe xSrNb 2- xHf xO 9 (with 0≤x≤0.5) shows a strong dependence on composition.

  19. New Layered Structures of Cuprous Chalcogenides as Thin Film Solar Cell Materials: Cu2Te and Cu2Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    The stable crystal structures of two cuprous chalcogenides of Cu2X (X=Te or Se) are predicted using an adaptive genetic algorithm in combination with first-principles density functional theory calculations. Both systems are found to prefer a unique and previously unrecognized layered structure, with the total energies much lower than all structures proposed in the literature so far. The newly discovered structures are further shown to be dynamically and mechanically stable, and possess electronic properties consistent with existing experimental observations. In particular, their layered nature is expected to prevail over other structural forms at the interfaces of thin-film solar cells, and knowledge about the precise atomic structures of the interfaces is a prerequisite for achieving long-term stability and high efficiency of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.

  20. New layered structures of cuprous chalcogenides as thin film solar cell materials: Cu2Te and Cu2Se.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-10-18

    The stable crystal structures of two cuprous chalcogenides of Cu2X (X=Te or Se) are predicted using an adaptive genetic algorithm in combination with first-principles density functional theory calculations. Both systems are found to prefer a unique and previously unrecognized layered structure, with the total energies much lower than all structures proposed in the literature so far. The newly discovered structures are further shown to be dynamically and mechanically stable, and possess electronic properties consistent with existing experimental observations. In particular, their layered nature is expected to prevail over other structural forms at the interfaces of thin-film solar cells, and knowledge about the precise atomic structures of the interfaces is a prerequisite for achieving long-term stability and high efficiency of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.