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Sample records for microscopic optical model

  1. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-07-10

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  2. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-04-06

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes rou tinely used in the synchrotron community.

  3. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes.

    PubMed

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2011-07-10

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  4. Neutron scattering analysis with microscopic optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1991-09-03

    A review of microscopic optical model potentials used in the analysis of neutron scattering and analyzing power data below 100 MeV (5 {le}E{sub n}{le}100 MeV) is presented. The quality of the fits to the data over a wide massd ({sup 6}Li-{sup 239}Pu) and energy range is discussed. It is shown that reasonably good agreement with the data is obtained with only three parameters, {lambda}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub W}, and {lambda}{sub SO}, which show a smooth mass and energy dependence. These parameters are normalizing constants to the real (V), and imaginary (W) central potentials and the real spin-orbit (V{sub SO}) potential. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  5. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  6. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  7. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  8. Increasing student understanding of microscope optics by building and testing the limits of simple, hand-made model microscopes.

    PubMed

    Drace, Kevin; Couch, Brett; Keeling, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to effectively use a microscope to observe microorganisms is a crucial skill required for many disciplines within biology, especially general microbiology and cell biology. A basic understanding of the optical properties of light microscopes is required for students to use microscopes effectively, but this subject can also be a challenge to make personally interesting to students. To explore basic optical principles of magnification and resolving power in a more engaging and hands-on fashion, students constructed handmade lenses and microscopes based on Antony van Leeuwenhoek's design using simple materials-paper, staples, glass, and adhesive putty. Students determined the power of their lenses using a green laser pointer to magnify a copper grid of known size, which also allowed students to examine variables affecting the power and resolution of a lens such as diameter, working distance, and wavelength of light. To assess the effectiveness of the laboratory's learning objectives, four sections of a general microbiology course were given a brief pre-activity assessment quiz to determine their background knowledge on the subject. One week after the laboratory activity, students were given the same quiz (unannounced) under similar conditions. Students showed significant gains in their understanding of microscope optics.

  9. Microscopic optical model potentials for p-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Hemalatha, M.; Gambhir, Y. K.; Kailas, S.; Haider, W.

    2007-03-15

    A comparative study of the microscopic optical potentials viz., semimicroscopic with extended Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux interaction and microscopic Brueckner theory using Hamada-Johnston as well as Urbana V14 soft-core internucleon interactions, has been carried out. These microscopic optical potentials are compared with that of Dirac phenomenology (DP) for the polarized proton-{sup 40}Ca elastic scattering at 35 MeV and 200 MeV. These potentials have different shapes for 200 MeV below 4 fm. In particular, for the real part of the central potential, only the Dirac phenomenology and the microscopic optical potential calculated with the Hamada-Johnston interaction exhibit the well known wine-bottle-bottom shape. It is found that the calculated observables (cross section, analyzing power and spin rotation function) using these potentials having different shapes, compare well with the experiment.

  10. Enabling scanning electron microscope contour-based optical proximity correction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbuch, François; Jantzen, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the metrology tool used to accurately characterize very fine structures on wafers, usually by extracting one critical dimension (CD) per SEM image. This approach for optical proximity correction (OPC) modeling requires many measurements resulting in a lengthy cycle time for data collection, review, and cleaning, and faces reliability issues when dealing with critical two-dimensional (2-D) structures. An alternative to CD-based metrology is to use SEM image contours for OPC modeling. To calibrate OPC models with contours, reliable contours matched to traditional CD-SEM measurements are required along with a method to choose structure and site selections (number, type, and image space coverage) specific to a contour-based OPC model calibration. The potential of SEM contour model-based calibration is illustrated by comparing two contour-based models to reference models, one empirical model and a second rigorous simulation-based model. The contour-based models are as good as or better than a CD-based model with a significant advantage in the prediction of complex 2-D configurations with a reduced metrology work load.

  11. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  12. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  13. Microscopic optical model calculations of 4He, 12C-nucleus absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, R. R.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of absorption cross sections using a microscopic first-order optical potential for heavy-ion scattering are compared with experiments. In-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections were used to calculate the two-body scattering amplitude. A medium-modified first-order optical potential was obtained for heavy-ion scattering using the in-medium two-body scattering amplitude. A partial wave expansion of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in momentum space was used to calculate the absorption cross sections for various systems. The results are presented for the absorption cross sections for 4He-nucleus and 12C-nucleus scattering systems and are compared with the experimental values in the energy range 18-83A MeV. The use of the in-medium NN cross sections is found to result in significant reduction of the free space absorption cross sections in agreement with experiment.

  14. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity

  15. Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

    2009-11-01

    As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

  16. Microscopic Modeling of Intersubband Optical Processes in Type II Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Linear Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.

  17. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    PubMed Central

    Sumetsky, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schrödinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices. PMID:26689546

  18. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Moller, P.

    1995-07-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended- Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near {sup 272}110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near {sup 290}110 beyond our present horizon.

  19. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  20. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  1. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  2. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  3. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  4. Miniature electron microscope beam column optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Jody Stuart

    This investigation is in the area of electrostatic lens design with the overarching goal of contributing to the creation of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope (SEM) for use in mineralogical analysis or detection of signs of life on the surface of Mars. Such an instrument could also have application in the exploration of Earth's moon, planetary moons, asteroids, or comets. Other embodiments could include tabletop or field portable SEMs for use on Earth. The scope of this research is in the design of a beam column that attains focusing, demagnification, and aberration control within the smallest achievable package. The goals of planetary exploration and of spaceflight in general impose severe constraints on the instrument's mass and electrical power consumption, while favoring a robust design of small size and high rigidity that is also simple to align. To meet these requirements a design using electrostatic lenses was favored because of the lower power requirement and mass of electrostatic versus magnetic lenses, their relatively simple construction, as well as inherently easier shielding from extraneous fields. In modeling the lens field, a hybrid of a Boundary Element Method (BEM) and a Fourier series solution was employed, whereby an initial solution from the BEM is used to derive the bounding potential of a cylindrical subdomain for the subsequent Fourier series solution. The approach is applicable to many problems in physics and combines the inherent precision of this series solution with the flexibility of BEM to describe practical, non-idealized electrode shapes. The resulting lens field in the Fourier series subdomain is of higher precision, thereby allowing smaller errors in subsequent calculations of electron ray paths. The effects of aberrations are thus easier to observe in tracing non-paraxial rays. A significant speed increase in tracing rays is also observed. The modeling technique has been validated by reproducing example ray-traces through

  5. Computer-controlled optical scanning tile microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Shumyatsky, P; Zeng, F; Zevallos, M; Alfano, R R

    2006-02-20

    A new type of computer-controlled optical scanning, high-magnification imaging system with a large field of view is described that overcomes the commonly believed incompatibility of achieving both high magnification and a large field of view. The new system incorporates galvanometer scanners, a CCD camera, and a high-brightness LED source for the fast acquisition of a large number of a high-resolution segmented tile images with a magnification of 800x for each tile. The captured segmented tile images are combined to create an effective enlarged view of a target totaling 1.6 mm x 1.2 mm in area. The speed and sensitivity of the system make it suitable for high-resolution imaging and monitoring of a small segmented area of 320 microm x 240 microm with 4 microm resolution. Each tile segment of the target can be zoomed up without loss of the high resolution. This new microscope imaging system gives both high magnification and a large field of view. This microscope can be utilized in medicine, biology, semiconductor inspection, device analysis, and quality control. PMID:16523776

  6. Functional optical imaging at the microscopic level

    PubMed Central

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y.; Hightower, Ciel Makena; Sapuppo, Francesca; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Functional microscopic imaging of in vivo tissues aims at characterizing parameters at the level of the unitary cellular components under normal conditions, in the presence of blood flow, to understand and monitor phenomena that lead to maintaining homeostatic balance. Of principal interest are the setting of shear stress on the endothelium; formation of the plasma layer, where the balance between nitric oxide production and scavenging is established; and formation of the oxygen gradients that determine the distribution of oxygen from blood into the tissue. Optical techniques that enable the analysis of functional microvascular processes are the measurement of blood vessel dimensions by image shearing, the photometric analysis of the extent of the plasma layer, the dual-slit methodology for measuring blood flow velocity, and the direct measurement of oxygen concentration in blood and tissue. Each of these technologies includes the development of paired, related mathematical approaches that enable characterizing the transport properties of the blood tissue system. While the technology has been successful in analyzing the living tissue in experimental conditions, deployment to clinical settings remains an elusive goal, due to the difficulty of obtaining optical access to the depth of the tissue. PMID:20210428

  7. Light sheet adaptive optics microscope for 3D live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgenot, C.; Taylor, J. M.; Saunter, C. D.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) into the imaging arm of a selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM). SPIM has recently emerged as an important tool for life science research due to its ability to deliver high-speed, optically sectioned, time-lapse microscope images from deep within in vivo selected samples. SPIM provides a very interesting system for the incorporation of AO as the illumination and imaging paths are decoupled and AO may be useful in both paths. In this paper, we will report the use of AO applied to the imaging path of a SPIM, demonstrating significant improvement in image quality of a live GFP-labeled transgenic zebrafish embryo heart using a modal, wavefront sensorless approach and a heart synchronization method. These experimental results are linked to a computational model showing that significant aberrations are produced by the tube holding the sample in addition to the aberration from the biological sample itself.

  8. Teaching Optics to Biology Students Through Constructing a Light Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    The microscope is familiar to many disciplines, including physics, materials science, chemistry, and the life sciences. It demonstrates fundamental aspects of ray and wave optics, making it an ideal system to help educate students in the basic concepts of optics and in measurement principles and techniques. We present an experimental system developed to teach students the basics of ray and wave optics. The students design, build, and test a light microscope made from optics components. We describe the equipment and the basic measurements that students can perform to develop experimental techniques to understand optics principles. Students measure the magnification and test the resolution of the microscope. The system is open and versatile to allow advanced projects such as epi-fluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence, and optical trapping. We have used this equipment in an optics course, an advanced laboratory course, and graduate-level training modules.

  9. Design of an acousto-optic goniometric specimens mount. Report No. 2 on modeling of acoustic microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.E.; Rice, D.L.; Schwartz, M.

    1985-05-01

    The proposed project is to design, build, and test an acousto-optic goniometric specimen mount. It will be used in a related experiment, evaluating reflection of sound from the surfaces of various specimens. The desired specimen mount is one which will utilize as much of the existing testing apparatus as possible. The mount must provide a means of scanning the sound beam with a laser.

  10. Surface reconstruction from microscopic images in optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Estellers, Virginia; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Gabrani, Maria

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a method to reconstruct 3D surfaces of silicon wafers from 2D images of printed circuits taken with a scanning electron microscope. Our reconstruction method combines the physical model of the optical acquisition system with prior knowledge about the shapes of the patterns in the circuit; the result is a shape-from-shading technique with a shape prior. The reconstruction of the surface is formulated as an optimization problem with an objective functional that combines a data-fidelity term on the microscopic image with two prior terms on the surface. The data term models the acquisition system through the irradiance equation characteristic of the microscope; the first prior is a smoothness penalty on the reconstructed surface, and the second prior constrains the shape of the surface to agree with the expected shape of the pattern in the circuit. In order to account for the variability of the manufacturing process, this second prior includes a deformation field that allows a nonlinear elastic deformation between the expected pattern and the reconstructed surface. As a result, the minimization problem has two unknowns, and the reconstruction method provides two outputs: 1) a reconstructed surface and 2) a deformation field. The reconstructed surface is derived from the shading observed in the image and the prior knowledge about the pattern in the circuit, while the deformation field produces a mapping between the expected shape and the reconstructed surface that provides a measure of deviation between the circuit design models and the real manufacturing process.

  11. Wave-Based Inversion & Imaging for the Optical Quadrature Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    2005-10-27

    The Center for Subsurface Sensing & Imaging System's (CenSSIS) Optical Quadrature Microscope (OQM) is a narrow band visible light microscope capable of measuring both amplitude and phase of a scattered field. We develop a diffraction tomography, that is, wave-based, scattered field inversion and imaging algorithm, for reconstructing the refractive index of the scattering object.

  12. X-ray-optical analytical microscope with two Kumakhov lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, G. I.; Kondratenko, R. I.; Odinov, B. V.; Pukhov, A. V.

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of research microscope equipped with a 3D sample stage and two x-ray micro analyzers fitted with Kumakhov polycapillary optics, an x-ray optical scanning microscope (ROCAM) has been developed. The instrument is designed for investigation ofheterogeneous objects in optic and x-ray spectra of photon radiation. Examples of ROCAM application for forensic studies and in mineralogy are shown. The instrument can be used in medicine and biology, metal studies, nuclear power, ecology, micro electronics, in customs, for investigation of pieces of art and so on.

  13. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging.

  14. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro­tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30–100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. PMID:25717185

  15. Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Welp, Ulrich; Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  16. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  17. HOMER: the Holographic Optical Microscope for Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luviano, Anali

    Holography was invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor and has undergone major advancements since the 2000s leading to the development of commercial digital holographic microscopes (DHM). This noninvasive form of microscopy produces a three-dimensional (3-D) digital model of a sample without altering or destroying the sample, thus allowing the same sample to be studied multiple times. HOMER-the Holographic Optical Microscope for Education and Research-produces a 3-D image from a two-dimensional (2-D) interference pattern captured by a camera that is then put through reconstruction software. This 2-D pattern is created when a reference wave interacts with the sample to produce a secondary wave that interferes with the unaltered part of the reference wave. I constructed HOMER to be an efficient, portable in-line DHM using inexpensive material and free reconstruction software. HOMER uses three different-colored LEDs as light sources. I am testing the performance of HOMER with the goal of producing tri-color images of samples. I'm using small basic biological samples to test the effectiveness of HOMER and plan to transition to complex cellular and biological specimens as I pursue my interest in biophysics. Norwich University.

  18. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOEpatents

    Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  19. Microscopic optical potentials for He4 scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egashira, Kei; Minomo, Kosho; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2014-06-01

    We present a reliable double-folding (DF) model for He4-nucleus scattering, using the Melbourne g-matrix nucleon-nucleon interaction that explains nucleon-nucleus scattering with no adjustable parameter. In the DF model, only the target density is taken as the local density in the Melbourne g matrix. For He4 elastic scattering from Ni58 and Pb208 targets in a wide range of incident energies from 20 to 200 MeV/nucleon, the DF model with the target-density approximation (TDA) yields much better agreement with the experimental data than the usual DF model with the frozen-density approximation in which the sum of projectile and target densities is taken as the local density. We also discuss the relation between the DF model with the TDA and the conventional folding model in which the nucleon-nucleus potential is folded with the He4 density.

  20. Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.

  1. Low-price optical microscope for school science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshimiya, Tsutomu; Kumagai, Masaaki

    2007-06-01

    In schools, scientific education with an optical microscope is popularly used. However, scanning apparatus for the microscope is very expensive such that the price is several times higher than the microscope itself. In order to activate children's interest in science, a low-price scanning and imaging function unit compatible to conventional optical microscopes used in schools was designed and manufactured using a personal computer (PC) used in all elementally and middle school education. The designing of imaging apparatus includes two choices: (i) using imaging device (reflection-type), or (ii) using photo-sensor and scanning device (transmission-type). In this paper, the latter method is adopted, considering the educational effect using "Lambert-Beer's law". This apparatus measures optical transmittance of modulated visible light with a photo-detector, and uses audio-input unit of PC as an A/D converter. Scanning unit with a pair of pulse motor drives was also used. Control software was built on Knoppix (an operating system based on freeware Linux), however it is very easy to rewrite to Windows application. By these reasons, this apparatus is low-price (less than microscope price) so that it is one of the best candidates for science education application in schools. As a biological specimen, a wing of spider wasp (Pompilidae) was used. Measured region was 10mm×10mm and the resolution was 100×100 pixels. The photograph of original specimen and the obtained image were shown in Figures (a) and (b), respectively. The obtained image showed a well-resolved detailed structure of the wing. Scanning was done by an external scanning apparatus. However, feeding of scanning pulses through printer port to stepping motor will be available based on the same method.

  2. Three-dimensional optical computed-tomography microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamgoulov, Ravil; Lane, Pierre; MacAulay, Calum

    2005-03-01

    We present our recent results on the development of three-dimensional (3-D) optical computed- tomography microscope. The instrument is a novel imaging device for the 3-D visualization and quantitative analysis of absorption-stained biological samples. The first instrument developed by our group at the BC Cancer Research Centre used a digital micromirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator to control the angles of illumination. This new embodiment employs an optical scanner instead of the DMD. The optical scanner is placed in the illumination path of the microscope system, conjugate to the field plane. The optical system includes also two high numerical aperture objective lenses, a sample stage, a light source, and a CCD camera. Projections are acquired by illuminating a specimen at a number of selected angles within the numerical aperture of the objective (0 < φ < 135°). A new reconstruction algorithm that employs both transform-based and iterative methods is developed to address the limited-angle reconstruction problem. A transform-based reconstruction is used as an initial starting point for the following iterative reconstruction. A feedback correction of the reconstructed image is made on each iteration step. The algorithm enables to incorporate previously known information about the object into the reconstruction process, and improves the reconstruction accuracy. Microscopic 3-D volume reconstructions of quantitatively absorption-stained cells have been generated. The system enables one to look at multiple optical levels of a specimen, and at more natural tissue architecture, including intact cells. Axial and lateral resolutions were measured to be better than 6 microns.

  3. Design of Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrecongost, Dustin

    The primary objective of this work is to construct a fully functional scattering type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope (s-SNOM), and to understand the working mechanisms behind it. An s-SNOM is an instrument made up of two separate instruments working in unison. One instrument is a scanning optical microscope focusing light onto a raster scanning sample surface combined with an interferometer set up. The second instrument is an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in noncontact mode. The AFM uses a small probe that interacts with the raster scanning sample surface to map out the topography of the of the sample surface. An s-SNOM uses both of these instruments simultaneously by focusing the light of the optical microscope onto the probe of the AFM. This probe acts as a nano-antenna and confines the light allowing for light-matter interaction to be inferred far below the resolution of the diffraction limit of light. This specific s-SNOM system is unique to others by having a controllable environment. It is high vacuum compatible and variable temperature. In addition, it is efficient at collecting scattered light due to the focusing objective being a partial elliptical mirror which collects 360° of light around the major axis. This s-SNOM system will be used for direct imaging of surface plasmons. Intended works are inducing surface plasmons on InSe thin films, and seeing the enhancement effect of introducing Au nano-rods. Also dielectric properties of materials will be interpreted such as the metal to insulator phase transition of NbO2.

  4. All-optical optoacoustic microscope based on wideband pulse interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wissmeyer, Georg; Soliman, Dominik; Shnaiderman, Rami; Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-05-01

    Optical and optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy have been recently joined in hybrid implementations that resolve extended tissue contrast compared to each modality alone. Nevertheless, the application of the hybrid technique is limited by the requirement to combine an optical objective with ultrasound detection collecting signal from the same micro-volume. We present an all-optical optoacoustic microscope based on a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-FBG) with coherence-restored pulsed interferometry (CRPI) used as the interrogation method. The sensor offers an ultra-small footprint and achieved higher sensitivity over piezoelectric transducers of similar size. We characterize the spectral bandwidth of the ultrasound detector and interrogate the imaging performance on phantoms and tissues. We show the first optoacoustic images of biological specimen recorded with π-FBG sensors. We discuss the potential uses of π-FBG sensors based on CRPI. PMID:27128047

  5. Quantitative optical microscopy: measurement of cellular biophysical features with a standard optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kevin G; Baker-Groberg, Sandra M; McCarty, Owen J T

    2014-01-01

    We describe the use of a standard optical microscope to perform quantitative measurements of mass, volume, and density on cellular specimens through a combination of bright field and differential interference contrast imagery. Two primary approaches are presented: noninterferometric quantitative phase microscopy (NIQPM), to perform measurements of total cell mass and subcellular density distribution, and Hilbert transform differential interference contrast microscopy (HTDIC) to determine volume. NIQPM is based on a simplified model of wave propagation, termed the paraxial approximation, with three underlying assumptions: low numerical aperture (NA) illumination, weak scattering, and weak absorption of light by the specimen. Fortunately, unstained cellular specimens satisfy these assumptions and low NA illumination is easily achieved on commercial microscopes. HTDIC is used to obtain volumetric information from through-focus DIC imagery under high NA illumination conditions. High NA illumination enables enhanced sectioning of the specimen along the optical axis. Hilbert transform processing on the DIC image stacks greatly enhances edge detection algorithms for localization of the specimen borders in three dimensions by separating the gray values of the specimen intensity from those of the background. The primary advantages of NIQPM and HTDIC lay in their technological accessibility using "off-the-shelf" microscopes. There are two basic limitations of these methods: slow z-stack acquisition time on commercial scopes currently abrogates the investigation of phenomena faster than 1 frame/minute, and secondly, diffraction effects restrict the utility of NIQPM and HTDIC to objects from 0.2 up to 10 (NIQPM) and 20 (HTDIC) μm in diameter, respectively. Hence, the specimen and its associated time dynamics of interest must meet certain size and temporal constraints to enable the use of these methods. Excitingly, most fixed cellular specimens are readily investigated with

  6. Microscopic modeling of nitride intersubband absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Ines; Allerman, A. A.; Wierer, J. J.; Moseley, M.; Skogen, E. J.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Vawter, G. A.

    III-nitride intersubband structures have recently attracted much interest because of their potential for a wide variety of applications ranging from electro-optical modulators to terahertz quantum cascade lasers. To overcome present simulation limitations we have developed a microscopic absorbance simulator for nitride intersubband devices. Our simulator calculates the band structure of nitride intersubband systems using a fully coupled 8x8 k.p Hamiltonian and determines the material response of a single period in a density-matrix-formalism by solving the Heisenberg equation including many-body and dephasing contributions. After calculating the polarization due to intersubband transitions in a single period, the resulting absorbance of a superlattice structure including radiative coupling between the different periods is determined using a non-local Green's-function formalism. As a result our simulator allows us to predict intersubband absorbance of superlattice structures with microscopically determined lineshapes and linewidths accounting for both many-body and correlation contributions. This work is funded by Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin.

  7. Optical-disk-based imaging system to be used as an optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Awazu, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    An optical disk surface is scanned spirally by laser light, as in the case of digital versatile discs, and a reflectance image is formed by rearranging the scanned intensity results. A prototype system is developed for imaging with a rotary encoder equipped to precisely control the disk rotation angle. We measured Escherichia coli dispersed on an optical disk sample surface and successfully obtained an image that is identical to that obtained using an optical microscope. The system is advantageous as an optical sensor for detecting sub-micrometer- to micrometer-order substances on a large-area surface.

  8. Defects evaluation system for spherical optical surfaces based on microscopic scattering dark-field imaging method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Yongying; Li, Chen; Wu, Fan; Chai, Huiting; Yan, Kai; Zhou, Lin; Li, Yang; Liu, Dong; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2016-08-10

    In the field of automatic optical inspection, it is imperative to measure the defects on spherical optical surfaces. So a novel spherical surface defect evaluation system is established in this paper to evaluate defects on optical spheres. In order to ensure the microscopic scattering dark-field imaging of optical spheres with different surface shape and radius of curvature, illumination with variable aperture angle is employed. In addition, the scanning path of subapertures along the parallels and meridians is planned to detect the large optical spheres. Since analysis shows that the spherical defect information could be lost in the optical imaging, the three-dimensional correction based on a pin-hole model is proposed to recover the actual spherical defects from the captured two-dimensional images. Given the difficulty of subaperture stitching and defect feature extraction in three-dimensional (3D) space after the correction, the 3D subapertures are transformed into a plane to be spliced through geometric projection. Then, methods of the surface integral and calibration are applied to quantitatively evaluate the spherical defects. Furthermore, the 3D panorama of defect distribution on the spherical optical components can be displayed through the inverse projective reconstruction. Finally, the evaluation results are compared with the OLYMPUS microscope, testifying to the micrometer resolution, and the detection error is less than 5%. PMID:27534456

  9. Microscopic models for bridging electrostatics and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Mascheretti, P.

    2007-03-01

    A teaching sequence based on the use of microscopic models to link electrostatic phenomena with direct currents is presented. The sequence, devised for high school students, was designed after initial work carried out with student teachers attending a school of specialization for teaching physics at high school, at the University of Pavia. The results obtained with them are briefly presented, because they directed our steps for the development of the teaching sequence. For both the design of the experiments and their interpretation, we drew inspiration from the original works of Alessandro Volta; in addition, a structural model based on the particular role of electrons as elementary charges both in electrostatic phenomena and in currents was proposed. The teaching sequence starts from experiments on charging objects by rubbing and by induction, and engages students in constructing microscopic models to interpret their observations. By using these models and by closely examining the ideas of tension and capacitance, the students acknowledge that a charging (or discharging) process is due to the motion of electrons that, albeit for short time intervals, represent a current. Finally, they are made to see that the same happens in transients of direct current circuits.

  10. Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

    DOEpatents

    Milas, Mirko; Zhu, Yimei; Rameau, Jonathan David

    2012-03-27

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  11. Performance evaluation of a sensorless adaptive optics multiphoton microscope.

    PubMed

    Skorsetz, Martin; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    A wavefront sensorless adaptive optics technique was combined with a custom-made multiphoton microscope to correct for specimen-induced aberrations. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) modulator was used to systematically generate Zernike modes during image recording. The performance of the instrument was evaluated in samples providing different nonlinear signals and the benefit of correcting higher order aberrations was always noticeable (in both contrast and resolution). The optimum aberration pattern was stable in time for the samples here involved. For a particular depth location within the sample, the wavefront to be precompensated was independent on the size of the imaged area (up to ∼ 360 × 360 μm(2)). The mode combination optimizing the recorded image depended on the Zernike correction control sequence; however, the final images hardly differed. At deeper locations, a noticeable dominance of spherical aberration was found. The influence of other aberration terms was also compared to the effect of the spherical aberration.

  12. Microscopic optical potential for exotic isotopes from chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. W.; Kaiser, N.; Miller, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the isospin-asymmetry dependence of microscopic optical model potentials from realistic chiral two- and three-body interactions over a range of resolution scales Λ ≃400 -500 MeV. We show that at moderate projectile energies, E =110 -200 MeV, the real isovector part of the optical potential changes sign, a phenomenon referred to as isospin inversion. We also extract the strength and energy dependence of the imaginary isovector optical potential and find no evidence for an analogous phenomenon over the range of energies, E ≤200 MeV, considered in the present work. Finally, we compute for the first time the leading (quadratic) corrections to the Lane parametrization for the isospin-asymmetry dependence of the optical potential and observe an enhanced importance at low scattering energies.

  13. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of <100 nm. In order to demonstrate the spatiotemporal magnetic imaging capability of this microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz. PMID:25725848

  14. Progress toward optical biopsy: bringing the microscope to the patient.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard C; Kemp, Samuel V; Shah, Pallav L; Elson, Daniel; Darzi, Ara; Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Mulgrew, Stephen; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    The investigation of many lung diseases currently requires bronchoscopic or surgical histopathological tissue biopsy. This creates risks for patients and entails processing costs and delays in diagnosis. However, several mainly probe-based biophotonic techniques that can image solitary lesions and diffuse lung diseases are fuelling a paradigm shift toward real-time in vivo diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses near-infrared light in a process analogous to ultrasonography to image the mucosal and submucosal tissue boundaries of the bronchial tree. With 15-μm resolution, early work suggests it can differentiate between neoplasia, carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, and metaplasia based around epithelial thickness and breaches in the basement membrane. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has superior resolution but less penetration than OCT and employs blue argon laser light to fluoresce the endogenous elastin of (1) the acinar scaffold of the peripheral lung and (2) the basement membrane lying under bronchial mucosa. Initial studies suggest that the regular fibre arrangement of the basement membrane is altered in the presence of overlying malignant epithelium. pCLE produces detailed representations of the alveolar septal walls, microvessels, and some inflammatory cells. A third device, the endocytoscope, is a contact microscope requiring contrast agent to provide subcellular resolution of bronchial mucosa. Further development of these "optical biopsy" techniques and evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the acquired images are needed before they can be considered effective methods for eliminating the need for, and thus risks of, pinch biopsy to enable real-time diagnosis to streamline management.

  15. Inspection strategy for LIGA microstructures using a programmable optical microscope.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurfess, Thomas R; Aigeldinger, Georg; Ceremuga, Joseph T.

    2004-07-01

    The LIGA process has the ability to fabricate very precise, high aspect ratio mesoscale structures with microscale features [l]. The process consists of multiple steps before a final part is produced. Materials native to the LIGA process include metals and photoresists. These structures are routinely measured for quality control and process improvement. However, metrology of LIGA structures is challenging because of their high aspect ratio and edge topography. For the scale of LIGA structures, a programmable optical microscope is well suited for lateral (XU) critical dimension measurements. Using grayscale gradient image processing with sub-pixel interpolation, edges are detected and measurements are performed. As with any measurement, understanding measurement uncertainty is necessary so that appropriate conclusions are drawn from the data. Therefore, the abilities of the inspection tool and the obstacles presented by the structures under inspection should be well understood so that precision may be quantified. This report presents an inspection method for LIGA microstructures including a comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty for each inspection scenario.

  16. Performance evaluation of a sensorless adaptive optics multiphoton microscope.

    PubMed

    Skorsetz, Martin; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    A wavefront sensorless adaptive optics technique was combined with a custom-made multiphoton microscope to correct for specimen-induced aberrations. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) modulator was used to systematically generate Zernike modes during image recording. The performance of the instrument was evaluated in samples providing different nonlinear signals and the benefit of correcting higher order aberrations was always noticeable (in both contrast and resolution). The optimum aberration pattern was stable in time for the samples here involved. For a particular depth location within the sample, the wavefront to be precompensated was independent on the size of the imaged area (up to ∼ 360 × 360 μm(2)). The mode combination optimizing the recorded image depended on the Zernike correction control sequence; however, the final images hardly differed. At deeper locations, a noticeable dominance of spherical aberration was found. The influence of other aberration terms was also compared to the effect of the spherical aberration. PMID:26469361

  17. Single 3D cell segmentation from optical CT microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiting; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2014-03-01

    The automated segmentation of the nucleus and cytoplasm regions in 3D optical CT microscope images has been achieved with two methods, a global threshold gradient based approach and a graph-cut approach. For the first method, the first two peaks of a gradient figure of merit curve are selected as the thresholds for cytoplasm and nucleus segmentation. The second method applies a graph-cut segmentation twice: the first identifies the nucleus region and the second identifies the cytoplasm region. Image segmentation of single cells is important for automated disease diagnostic systems. The segmentation methods were evaluated with 200 3D images consisting of 40 samples of 5 different cell types. The cell types consisted of columnar, macrophage, metaplastic and squamous human cells and cultured A549 cancer cells. The segmented cells were compared with both 2D and 3D reference images and the quality of segmentation was determined by the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). In general, the graph-cut method had a superior performance to the gradient-based method. The graph-cut method achieved an average DSC of 86% and 72% for nucleus and cytoplasm segmentations respectively for the 2D reference images and 83% and 75% for the 3D reference images. The gradient method achieved an average DSC of 72% and 51% for nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation for the 2D reference images and 71% and 51% for the 3D reference images. The DSC of cytoplasm segmentation was significantly lower than for the nucleus since the cytoplasm was not differentiated as well by image intensity from the background.

  18. Quantitative assessment of canalicular bile formation in isolated hepatocyte couplets using microscopic optical planimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, A; Ng, O C; Strazzabosco, M; Boyer, J L

    1989-01-01

    Isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC) are primary units of bile secretion that accumulate fluid in an enclosed canalicular space with time in culture. We have quantitated the rate of canalicular secretion in IRHC cultured for 4-8 h by measuring the change in canalicular space volume by video-microscopic optical planimetry using high resolution Nomarski optics. Electron microscopic morphometric studies revealed significant increases in canalicular membrane area after 4-6 h in culture. Canalicular secretion in basal L-15 medium (3.8 +/- 1.3 fl/min) increased significantly with the choleretic bile salts (10 microM), taurocholate, and ursodeoxycholate (14 +/- 7 fl/min each). Secretion rates after exposure to bile acids correlated directly with the canalicular surface area before stimulation. In contrast, expansion times after stimulation varied inversely with initial canalicular volumes. Ursodeoxycholic acid failed to produce a hypercholeresis at 10-, 100-, or 200-microM concentrations compared with taurocholate, either in normal or taurine-depleted IRHC. The present findings establish that rates of canalicular bile secretion can be quantitated in IRHC by serial optical planimetry, both in the basal state and after stimulation with bile acids. Furthermore, ursodeoxycholate does not acutely induce hypercholeresis at the canalicular level in this model. Rather, both taurocholic and ursodeoxycholic acids induced secretion in proportion to the surface area of the canalicular membrane. The IRHC are a useful model to identify canalicular choleretics and for studies of canalicular bile formation. Images PMID:2913052

  19. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  20. Hyperspectral unmixing using macroscopic and microscopic mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Ryan; Gader, Paul; Wilson, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic mixture models and algorithms for hyperspectral unmixing are presented. Unmixing algorithms are derived from an objective function. The objective function incorporates the linear mixture model for macroscopic unmixing and a nonlinear mixture model for microscopic unmixing. The nonlinear mixture model is derived from a bidirectional reflectance distribution function for microscopic mixtures. The algorithm is designed to unmix hyperspectral images composed of macroscopic or microscopic mixtures. The mixture types and abundances at each pixel can be estimated directly from the data without prior knowledge of mixture types. Endmembers can also be estimated. Results are presented using synthetic data sets of macroscopic and microscopic mixtures and using well-known, well-characterized laboratory data sets. The unmixing accuracy of this new physics-based algorithm is compared to linear methods and to results published for other nonlinear models. The proposed method achieves the best unmixing accuracy.

  1. Examples of electrostatic electron optics: the Farrand and Elektros microscopes and electron mirrors.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, P W

    2012-08-01

    The role of Gertrude Rempfer in the design of the Farrand and Elektros microscopes is evoked. The study of electron mirror optics, aberration correction using mirrors and the development of microscopes employing electron mirrors are recapitulated, accompanied by a full bibliography, of earlier publications in particular.

  2. Interferometric and optical tests of water window imaging x ray microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Interferometric tests of Schwarzchild X-ray Microscope are performed to evaluate the optical properties and alignment of the components. Photographic measurements of the spatial resolution, focal properties, and vignetting characteristics of the prototype Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope are made and analyzed.

  3. In vivo imaging of the Drosophila Melanogaster heart using a novel optical coherence tomography microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izatt, Susan D.; Choma, Michael A.; Israel, Steven; Wessells, Robert J.; Bodmer, Rolf; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    Real time in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster heart using a newly designed OCT microscope allows accurate assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. D. melanogaster has been used extensively in genetic research for over a century, but in vivo evaluation of the heart has been limited by available imaging technology. The ability to assess phenotypic changes with micrometer-scale resolution noninvasively in genetic models such as D. melanogaster is needed in the advancing fields of developmental biology and genetics. We have developed a dedicated small animal OCT imaging system incorporating a state-of-the-art, real time OCT scanner integrated into a standard stereo zoom microscope which allows for simultaneous OCT and video imaging. System capabilities include A-scan, B-scan, and M-scan imaging as well as automated 3D volumetric acquisition and visualization. Transverse and sagittal B-mode scans of the four chambered D. melanogaster heart have been obtained with the OCT microscope and are consistent with detailed anatomical studies from the literature. Further analysis by M-mode scanning is currently under way to assess cardiac function as a function of age and sex by determination of shortening fraction and ejection fraction. These studies create control cardiac data on the wild type D. melanogaster, allowing subsequent evaluation of phenotypic cardiac changes in this model after regulated genetic mutation.

  4. Optimization of microscopic and macroscopic second order optical nonlinearities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear optical materials (NLO) can be used to extend the useful frequency range of lasers. Frequency generation is important for laser-based remote sensing and optical data storage. Another NLO effect, the electro-optic effect, can be used to modulate the amplitude, phase, or polarization state of an optical beam. Applications of this effect in telecommunications and in integrated optics include the impression of information on an optical carrier signal or routing of optical signals between fiber optic channels. In order to utilize these effects most effectively, it is necessary to synthesize materials which respond to applied fields very efficiently. In this talk, it will be shown how the development of a fundamental understanding of the science of nonlinear optics can lead to a rational approach to organic molecules and materials with optimized properties. In some cases, figures of merit for newly developed materials are more than an order of magnitude higher than those of currently employed materials. Some of these materials are being examined for phased-array radar and other electro-optic switching applications.

  5. Advantages and disadvantages in using oil immersed microscope objectives for optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malureanu, Radu; Ferrari, Enrico; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2004-10-01

    Since the first demonstrations of optical trapping, both theoretical and experimental parts of this technique evolved. With all this, the main problem when trapping in the Mie regime is due to the limited numerical aperture a microscope objective has. In literature one finds characterizations of "classical" microscope lens or, at most, water immersed ones. In this paper we are analysing the forces generated in an optical tweezers setup using oil immersed microscope objective and having as entrapped particles water-immersed silica beads. Using such a set-up, we can take advantage of the numerical aperture an oil-immersed objective can reach. This numerical aperture can have a value as high as 1.4. From Roosen's 1 and Ashkin's 2 formulas, we calculated the forces involved in our experiment. We observed that the entrapping range on the optical path axis is larger and asymmetric. This generates the possibility to build optical catapult and optical tweezers in the same time, changing only the distance from the sample to the entrapment point. One of the disadvantages of optical trapping in these conditions is that the focus point and the entrapment one can be different. This fact generates the need of using a second microscope for inspecting the entrapped particle so the optical setup is more complicated. To our belief, this set-up for optical tweezers can have big advantages in the field of optical trapping mainly due to the not so strict trapping spatial conditions.

  6. Optical microscope combined with the nanopipette-based quartz tuning fork-atomic force microscope for nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sangmin; Stambaugh, Corey; Kwon, Soyoung; Lee, Kunyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Kim, Qwhan; Jhe, Wonho

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrated the optical microscope (OM) combined with nanopipette-based quartz tuning fork - atomic force microscope (QTF-AFM) for nanolithography. The nanoparticle (Au, 5 nm), nanowire, PDMS solutions are ejected onto the substrate through the nano/microaperture of the pulled pipette, and the nano/microscale objects were in-situ formed on the surface with the proposed patterning system, while the position is defined by monitoring the phenomena on the substrate with a home-made OM. After forming of capillary condensation between apex of the pipette tip and the surface, the electric field is applied to extract out the inside liquid to the substrate and the nano/microscale objects are fabricated. The nanoscale patterning size can be controlled by the aperture diameters of the pulled pipette.

  7. A Microscopic Optical Potential Approach to {sup 6,8}He+p Elastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Massen, S. E.

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic approach to calculate the optical potential (OP) with the real part obtained by a folding procedure and with the imaginary part inherent in the high-energy approximation (HEA) is applied to study the {sup 6,8}He+p elastic scattering data at energies of tens of MeV/N. The OP's and the cross sections are calculated using different models for the neutron and proton densities of {sup 6,8}He. The role of the spin-orbit (SO) potential and effects of the energy and density dependence of the effective NN forces are studied. Comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data on the elastic scattering differential cross sections at beam energies <100 MeV/N is performed and conclusions on the role of the aforesaid effects are made. It is shown that the present approach, which uses only parameters that renormalize the depths of the OP, can be applied along with other methods like that from the microscopic g-matrix description of the complex proton optical potential.

  8. Quantitative readout of optically encoded gold nanorods using an ordinary dark-field microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercatelli, Raffaella; Ratto, Fulvio; Centi, Sonia; Soria, Silvia; Romano, Giovanni; Matteini, Paolo; Quercioli, Franco; Pini, Roberto; Fusi, Franco

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we report on a new use for dark-field microscopy in order to retrieve two-dimensional maps of optical parameters of a thin sample such as a cryptograph, a histological section, or a cell monolayer. In particular, we discuss the construction of quantitative charts of light absorbance and scattering coefficients of a polyvinyl alcohol film that was embedded with gold nanorods and then etched using a focused mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Individual pulses from this laser excite plasmonic oscillations of the gold nanorods, thus triggering plastic deformations of the particles and their environment, which are confined within a few hundred nm of the light focus. In turn, these deformations modify the light absorbance and scattering landscape, which can be measured with optical resolution in a dark-field microscope equipped with an objective of tuneable numerical aperture. This technique may prove to be valuable for various applications, such as the fast readout of optically encoded data or to model functional interactions between light and biological tissue at the level of cellular organelles, including the photothermolysis of cancer.In this paper we report on a new use for dark-field microscopy in order to retrieve two-dimensional maps of optical parameters of a thin sample such as a cryptograph, a histological section, or a cell monolayer. In particular, we discuss the construction of quantitative charts of light absorbance and scattering coefficients of a polyvinyl alcohol film that was embedded with gold nanorods and then etched using a focused mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Individual pulses from this laser excite plasmonic oscillations of the gold nanorods, thus triggering plastic deformations of the particles and their environment, which are confined within a few hundred nm of the light focus. In turn, these deformations modify the light absorbance and scattering landscape, which can be measured with optical resolution in a dark

  9. A sample holder with integrated laser optics for an ELMITEC photoemission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gierster, L.; Pape, L.; Ünal, A. A.; Kronast, F.

    2015-02-15

    We present a new sample holder compatible with ELMITEC Photoemission Electron Microscopes (PEEMs) containing an optical lens and a mirror. With the integrated optical elements, a laser beam is focused from the back side of the sample at normal incidence, yielding a minimum spot size of about 1 μm. This opens up new possibilities for local laser excitations in PEEM experiments such as imaging all-optical magnetization switching at a small length scale.

  10. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. PMID:25523395

  11. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A

    2014-12-19

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies.

  12. A microscopic steam engine implemented in an optical tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of improved steam engines at the end of the 18th century marked the start of the industrial revolution and the birth of classical thermodynamics. Currently, there is great interest in miniaturizing heat engines, but so far traditional heat engines operating with the expansion and compression of gas have not reached length scales shorter than one millimeter. Here, a micrometer-sized piston steam engine is implemented in an optical tweezer. The piston is a single colloidal microparticle that is driven by explosive vapourization of the surrounding liquid (cavitation bubbles) and by optical forces at a rate between a few tens of Hertz and one kilo-Hertz. The operation of the engine allows to exert impulsive forces with optical tweezers and induce streaming in the liquid, similar to the effect of transducers when driven at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies.

  13. Imaging the evanescent intensity gradients of an optical waveguide using a tapping-mode near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi W.; Tsai, Din Ping; Jackson, Howard E.

    1999-11-01

    Imaging the local evanescent intensity gradients by using a tapping-mode near-field scanning optical microscope is developed. Two different optical structures, one a well- characterized BK-7 glass prism in the total internal reflection configuration, and the other a side-polished optical fiber waveguide with a step index of refraction, were studied. Results show distinct imaging contrast of the intensity gradients, the reveal the variations of the local index of refraction of waveguide. This is a novel near-field optical method, and can be used in the imaging of local index of refraction of a variety of optical waveguide structures.

  14. Imaging local index variations in an optical waveguide using a tapping-mode near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Din Ping; Yang, Chi Wen; Lo, Shu-Zee; Jackson, Howard E.

    1999-08-01

    Imaging local index variations by using a form of modulated near-field scanning optical microscopy is suggested. To test these ideas, we have probed two different optical structures, one a well-characterized BK-7 glass prism in the total internal reflection configuration, and the other a side-polished optical fiber waveguide with a step index of refraction of 4.5×10-3. Using a recently developed tapping-mode tuning-fork near-field scanning optical microscope, we have obtained images showing distinct local index variations. This method may have applicability to the characterization of a wide variety of optical waveguide structures.

  15. Detection of microscopic defects in optical fiber coatings using angle-resolved skew rays.

    PubMed

    Chen, George Y; Monro, Tanya M; Lancaster, David G

    2016-09-01

    Microscopic defects in optical fiber coatings can be an impending catastrophe for high-power fiber laser and telecommunications systems and are difficult to detect with conventional methods. We demonstrate a highly sensitive interrogation technique that can readily identify faults such as microscopic nicks, scrapes, low-quality recoatings, and internal defects in fibers and their coatings, based on skew ray excitation and angle-resolved analysis.

  16. Detection of microscopic defects in optical fiber coatings using angle-resolved skew rays.

    PubMed

    Chen, George Y; Monro, Tanya M; Lancaster, David G

    2016-09-01

    Microscopic defects in optical fiber coatings can be an impending catastrophe for high-power fiber laser and telecommunications systems and are difficult to detect with conventional methods. We demonstrate a highly sensitive interrogation technique that can readily identify faults such as microscopic nicks, scrapes, low-quality recoatings, and internal defects in fibers and their coatings, based on skew ray excitation and angle-resolved analysis. PMID:27607966

  17. Comprehensive study of unexpected microscope condensers formed in sample arrangements commonly used in optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Desai, Darshan B; Aldawsari, Mabkhoot Mudith S; Alharbi, Bandar Mohammed H; Sen, Sanchari; Grave de Peralta, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We show that various setups for optical microscopy which are commonly used in biomedical laboratories behave like efficient microscope condensers that are responsible for observed subwavelength resolution. We present a series of experiments and simulations that reveal how inclined illumination from such unexpected condensers occurs when the sample is perpendicularly illuminated by a microscope's built-in white-light source. In addition, we demonstrate an inexpensive add-on optical module that serves as an efficient and lightweight microscope condenser. Using such add-on optical module in combination with a low-numerical-aperture objective lens and Fourier plane imaging microscopy technique, we demonstrate detection of photonic crystals with a period nearly eight times smaller than the Rayleigh resolution limit. PMID:26368905

  18. Imaging of quantum Hall edge states under quasiresonant excitation by a near-field scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Shibata, Y.; Mamyoda, S.; Ootuka, Y.; Nomura, S.; Kashiwaya, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Akazaki, T.; Tamura, H.

    2013-12-04

    A high resolution mapping of quantum Hall edge states has been performed by locally creating electrons with small excess energies with a near-field scanning optical microscope in a dilution refrigerator. We have observed fine structures parallel to the edge in photovoltage signals, which appear only at low temperature. The observed fine structures near sample edges have been seen to shift inward with increase in magnetic field in accordance with Chklovskii Shklovskii, and Glazman model.

  19. Nanostructured diffractive optical devices for soft X-ray microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, D.; Peuker, M.; Schneider, G.

    2001-07-01

    The new transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) installed at the BESSY II electron storage ring uses an off-axis transmission zone plate (OTZ) as diffractive and focusing element of the condenser-monochromator setup. A high resolution micro-zone plate (MZP) forms a magnified image on a CCD-detector. Both, the OTZ with an active area of up to 24 mm2 and the MZP with zone widths as small as 25 nm are generated by a process including electron beam lithography (EBL), dry etching and subsequent electroplating of nickel on top of silicon membrane substrates with about 100- 150 nm thickness. The combination of a larger zone width and the usage of nickel zone structures allows to increase the diffraction efficiency of the condenser element at least by a factor of 3 compared to the earlier used KZP7 condenser zone plate in the TXM at BESSY I. Groove diffraction efficiencies of 21.6% and 14.7% were measured for MZP objectives with 40 and 25 nm outermost zone width, respectively.

  20. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2015-04-21

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  1. Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles

    DOEpatents

    Buican, Tudor N.; Upham, Bryan D.

    1992-01-01

    A particle control chamber enables experiments to be carried out on biological cells and the like using a laser system to trap and manipulate the particles. A manipulation chamber provides a plurality of inlet and outlet ports for the particles and for fluids used to control or to contact the particles. A central manipulation area is optically accessible by the laser and includes first enlarged volumes for containing a selected number of particles for experimentation. A number of first enlarged volumes are connected by flow channels through second enlarged volumes. The second enlarged volumes act as bubble valves for controlling the interconnections between the first enlarged volumes. Electrode surfaces may be applied above the first enlarged volumes to enable experimentation using the application of electric fields within the first enlarged volumes. A variety of chemical and environmental conditions may be established within individual first enlarged volumes to enable experimental conditions for small scale cellular interactions.

  2. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  3. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  4. Optical scatter imaging: a microscopic modality for the rapid morphological assay of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustany, Nada N.

    2007-02-01

    Tumors derived from epithelial cells comprise the majority of human tumors and their growth results from the accumulation of multiple mutations affecting cellular processes critical for tissue homeostasis, including cell proliferation and cell death. To understand these processes and address the complexity of cancer cell function, multiple cellular responses to different experimental conditions and specific genetic mutations must be analyzed. Fundamental to this endeavor is the development of rapid cellular assays in genetically defined cells, and in particular, the development of optical imaging methods that allow dynamic observation and real-time monitoring of cellular processes. In this context, we are developing an optical scatter imaging technology that is intended to bridge the gap between light and electron microscopy by rapidly providing morphometric information about the relative size and shape of non-spherical organelles, with sub-wavelength resolution. Our goal is to complement current microscopy techniques used to study cells in-vitro, especially in long-term time-lapse studies of living cells, where exogenous labels can be toxic, and electron microscopy will destroy the sample. The optical measurements are based on Fourier spatial filtering in a standard microscope, and could ultimately be incorporated into existing high-throughput diagnostic platforms for cancer cell research and histopathology of neoplastic tissue arrays. Using an engineered epithelial cell model of tumor formation, we are currently studying how organelle structure and function are altered by defined genetic mutations affecting the propensity for cell death and oncogenic potential, and by environmental conditions promoting tumor growth. This talk will describe our optical scatter imaging technology and present results from our studies on apoptosis, and the function of BCL-2 family proteins.

  5. Microscopic to Macroscopic Dynamical Models of Sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis Salas, Citlali; Woolley, Thomas; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin; Maini, Philip; Social; Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group (Senrg) Collaboration

    To help them survive, social animals, such as humans, need to share knowledge and responsibilities with other members of the species. The larger their social network, the bigger the pool of knowledge available to them. Since time is a limited resource, a way of optimising its use is meeting amongst individuals whilst fulfilling other necessities. In this sense it is useful to know how many, and how often, early humans could meet during a given period of time whilst performing other necessary tasks, such as food gathering. Using a simplified model of these dynamics, which comprehend encounter and memory, we aim at producing a lower-bound to the number of meetings hunter-gatherers could have during a year. We compare the stochastic agent-based model to its mean-field approximation and explore some of the features necessary for the difference between low population dynamics and its continuum limit. We observe an emergent property that could have an inference in the layered structure seen in each person's social organisation. This could give some insight into hunter-gatherer's lives and the development of the social layered structure we have today. With support from the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT), the Public Education Secretariat (SEP), and the Mexican National Autonomous University's Foundation (Fundacion UNAM).

  6. Development of a super-resolution optical microscope for directional dark matter search experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Consiglio, L.; D`Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Furuya, S.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Machii, S.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Sirignano, C.; Tawara, Y.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a perfect choice for a detector for directional DM search because of its high density and excellent position accuracy. The minimal detectable track length of a recoil nucleus in emulsion is required to be at least 100 nm, making the resolution of conventional optical microscopes insufficient to resolve them. Here we report about the R&D on a super-resolution optical microscope to be used in future directional DM search experiments with nuclear emulsion as a detector media. The microscope will be fully automatic, will use novel image acquisition and analysis techniques, will achieve the spatial resolution of the order of few tens of nm and will be capable of reconstructing recoil tracks with the length of at least 100 nm with high angular resolution.

  7. Development of hard X-ray dark-field microscope using full-field optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Hidekazu; Azuma, Hiroaki; Shimomura, Sho; Tsuji, Takuya; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    We develop a dark-field X-ray microscope using full-field optics based on a synchrotron beamline. Our setup consists of a condenser system and a microscope objective with an angular acceptance larger than that of the condenser. The condenser system is moved downstream from its regular position such that the focus of the condenser is behind the objective. The dark-field microscope optics are configured by excluding the converging beam from the condenser at the focal point. The image properties of the system are evaluated by observing and calculating a Siemens star test chart with 10 keV X-rays. Our setup allows easy switching to bright-field imaging.

  8. Cancer systems biology and modeling: microscopic scale and multiscale approaches.

    PubMed

    Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Hosseini Ashtiani, Saman; Najafi, Ali; Bozorgmehr, Joseph H; Wang, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Cancer has become known as a complex and systematic disease on macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic scales. Systems biology employs state-of-the-art computational theories and high-throughput experimental data to model and simulate complex biological procedures such as cancer, which involves genetic and epigenetic, in addition to intracellular and extracellular complex interaction networks. In this paper, different systems biology modeling techniques such as systems of differential equations, stochastic methods, Boolean networks, Petri nets, cellular automata methods and agent-based systems are concisely discussed. We have compared the mentioned formalisms and tried to address the span of applicability they can bear on emerging cancer modeling and simulation approaches. Different scales of cancer modeling, namely, microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales are explained followed by an illustration of angiogenesis in microscopic scale of the cancer modeling. Then, the modeling of cancer cell proliferation and survival are examined on a microscopic scale and the modeling of multiscale tumor growth is explained along with its advantages.

  9. High-resolution microscope for tip-enhanced optical processes in ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidtner, Jens; Pettinger, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    An optical microscope based on tip-enhanced optical processes that can be used for studies on adsorbates as well as thin layers and nanostructures is presented. The microscope provides chemical and topographic informations with a resolution of a few nanometers and can be employed in ultrahigh vacuum as well as gas phase. The construction involves a number of improvements compared to conventional instruments. The central idea is to mount, within an UHV system, an optical platform with all necessary optical elements to a rigid frame that also carries the scanning tunneling microscope unit and to integrate a high numerical aperture parabolic mirror between the scanning probe microscope head and the sample. The parabolic mirror serves to focus the incident light and to collect a large fraction of the scattered light. The first experimental results of Raman measurements on silicon samples as well as brilliant cresyl blue layers on single crystalline gold and platinum surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum are presented. For dye adsorbates a Raman enhancement of ˜106 and a net signal gain of up to 4000 was observed. The focus diameter (˜λ/2) was measured by Raman imaging the focal region on a Si surface. The requirements of the parabolic mirror in terms of alignment accuracy were experimentally determined as well.

  10. Calculations of {sup 8}He+p elastic cross sections using a microscopic optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Massen, S. E.

    2009-08-15

    An approach to calculate microscopic optical potential with the real part obtained by a folding procedure and with the imaginary part inherent in the high-energy approximation is applied to study the {sup 8}He+p elastic-scattering data at energies of tens of MeV/nucleon. The neutron and proton density distributions obtained in different models for {sup 8}He are used in the calculations of the differential cross sections. The role of the spin-orbit potential is studied. Comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data on the elastic-scattering differential cross sections at beam energies of 15.7, 26.25, 32, 66, and 73 MeV/nucleon is performed. The problem of the ambiguities of the depths of each component of the optical potential is considered by means of the imposed physical criterion related to the known behavior of the volume integrals as functions of the incident energy. It is shown also that the role of the surface absorption is rather important, in particular for the lowest incident energies (e.g., 15.7 and 26.25 MeV/nucleon)

  11. The construction and characterization of optical traps for manipulating microscopic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Tiffany; Behringer, Ernest

    2011-04-01

    Optical traps use tightly focused laser light to manipulate microscopic particles and have applications in nanofabrication, characterizing DNA, and in vitro fertilization [1]. We will describe the design, construction, and characterization of an optical trap that is capable of trapping and imaging 3 μm polystyrene spheres using a 12 mW HeNe laser. The design was based on previous work [2,3] describing how to build affordable optical traps. We will discuss trapping forces and their calibration. [4pt] [1] D.G. Grier, "A Revolution in Optical Manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003). [0pt] [2] S.P. Smith et al., "Inexpensive optical tweezers for undergraduate laboratories," Am. J. Phys. 67 (1), 26-35 (1999).[0pt] [3] J. Bechhoefer et al., "Faster, cheaper, safer optical tweezers for the undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 70 (4), 393-400 (2001).

  12. A method to determine the number of nanoparticles in a cluster using conventional optical microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyeonggon; Attota, Ravikiran Tondare, Vipin; Vladár, András E.; Kavuri, Premsagar

    2015-09-07

    We present a method that uses conventional optical microscopes to determine the number of nanoparticles in a cluster, which is typically not possible using traditional image-based optical methods due to the diffraction limit. The method, called through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM), uses a series of optical images taken at varying focus levels to achieve this. The optical images cannot directly resolve the individual nanoparticles, but contain information related to the number of particles. The TSOM method makes use of this information to determine the number of nanoparticles in a cluster. Initial good agreement between the simulations and the measurements is also presented. The TSOM method can be applied to fluorescent and non-fluorescent as well as metallic and non-metallic nano-scale materials, including soft materials, making it attractive for tag-less, high-speed, optical analysis of nanoparticles down to 45 nm diameter.

  13. Detection of Luminescent Nanodiamonds Using a Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope with an Aperture Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shershulin, V. A.; Samoylenko, S. R.; Shenderova, O. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy (SNOM) with an aperture probe has been used to map the luminescence of isolated submicron diamond crystallites. 532-nm laser light was used to excite luminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The sizes of the analyzed diamond crystallites were determined with an atomic-force microscope. The optical resolution for the lateral dimensions of the luminescing diamond crystallites was doubled on going from confocal luminescence microscopy to scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy with a 290-nm probe aperture diameter.

  14. The design of a novel tip enhanced near-field scanning probe microscope for ultra-high resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Derek Brant

    Traditional light microscopy suffers from the diffraction limit, which limits the spatial resolution to lambda/2. The current trend in optical microscopy is the development of techniques to bypass the diffraction limit. Resolutions below 40 nm will make it possible to probe biological systems by imaging the interactions between single molecules and cell membranes. These resolutions will allow for the development of improved drug delivery mechanisms by increasing our understanding of how chemical communication within a cell occurs. The materials sciences would also benefit from these high resolutions. Nanomaterials can be analyzed with Raman spectroscopy for molecular and atomic bond information, or with fluorescence response to determine bulk optical properties with tens of nanometer resolution. Near-field optical microscopy is one of the current techniques, which allows for imaging at resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. Using a combination of a shear force microscope (SFM) and an inverted optical microscope, spectroscopic resolutions below 20 nm have been demonstrated. One technique, in particular, has been named tip enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM). The key to this technique is the use of solid metal probes, which are illuminated in the far field by the excitation wavelength of interest. These probes are custom-designed using finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling techniques, then fabricated with the use of a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The measure of the quality of probe design is based directly on the field enhancement obtainable. The greater the field enhancement of the probe, the more the ratio of near-field to far-field background contribution will increase. The elimination of the far-field signal by a decrease of illumination power will provide the best signal-to-noise ratio in the near-field images. Furthermore, a design that facilitates the delocalization of the near-field imaging from the far-field will be beneficial

  15. A microscopic model of interface related to the Burgers equation

    SciTech Connect

    De Masi, A.; Ferrari, P.A.; Vares, M.E. )

    1989-05-01

    A microscopic model for a solid-on-solid type of interface under the influence of an external field is introduced. It is proven that in equilibrium the macroscopic profile satisfies a partial differential equation which is (up to a transformation) the stationary Burgers equation. The study is based on the structure of the invariant measures for a related asymmetric simple exclusion process.

  16. A microscopic model for chemically-powered Janus motors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Very small synthetic motors that make use of chemical reactions to propel themselves in solution hold promise for new applications in the development of new materials, science and medicine. The prospect of such potential applications, along with the fact that systems with many motors or active elements display interesting cooperative phenomena of fundamental interest, has made the study of synthetic motors an active research area. Janus motors, comprising catalytic and noncatalytic hemispheres, figure prominently in experimental and theoretical studies of these systems. While continuum models of Janus motor systems are often used to describe motor dynamics, microscopic models that are able to account for intermolecular interactions, many-body concentration gradients, fluid flows and thermal fluctuations provide a way to explore the dynamical behavior of these complex out-of-equilibrium systems that does not rely on approximations that are often made in continuum theories. The analysis of microscopic models from first principles provides a foundation from which the range of validity and limitations of approximate theories of the dynamics may be assessed. In this paper, a microscopic model for the diffusiophoretic propulsion of Janus motors, where motor interactions with the environment occur only through hard collisions, is constructed, analyzed and compared to theoretical predictions. Microscopic simulations of both single-motor and many-motor systems are carried out to illustrate the results. PMID:27241052

  17. David Maurice's contributions to optical ophthalmic instrumentation: roots of the scanning slit clinical confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Masters, Barry R

    2004-03-01

    This paper explores the seminal contributions of David Maurice to the field of ophthalmic instrumentation. His development of the specular microscope, the scanning slit optical confocal microscope, and the corneal microfluorometer resulted in advances in our understanding of corneal morphology, physiology, and pathology. The development of the scanning slit, clinical confocal microscope is not a new paradigm or a paradigm shift, but a continuous series of interlinked technical advances from the early work of Vogt to Thaer's development of a clinical confocal microscope. For each instrument both the connection to the prior work of others and the unique advances are discussed and contrasted. This paper develops the connections and parallel developments in the instrument developments of Goldmann, Maurice, Svishchev, Baer, Koester, Masters, and Thaer. The evidence in support of the thesis consists of published papers, patents, personal communication, and study of Goldmann's book collection in Bern. A second theme is that knowledge of physics is a prerequisite for optical instrument development in ophthalmology. David Maurice had a university degree in physics and Hans Goldmann learned physics from his books. The contributions of David Maurice to optical instrumentation follow the major contributions of Goldmann and facilitated and stimulated other scientists who acknowledged their important intellectual debt to David Maurice.

  18. Low Temperature Apertureless Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope for Optical Spectroscopy of Single Ge/Si Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Henry; Patil, N. G.; Levy, Jeremy

    2001-03-01

    A low-temperature apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope has been designed and constructed for the purpose of investigating the optical properties of individual Ge/Si quantum dots. The microscope fits in the 37 mm bore of a Helium vapor magneto-optic cryostat, allowing operations down to liquid helium temperatures in magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla. An in situ microscope objective focuses light onto the sample, which is scanned in the three spatial directions using a compact modular stage. An AFM/STM tip resides on the top; feedback is achieved using a quartz tuning fork oscillator. Both tip and objective are attached to inertial sliding motors that can move in fine (10 nm) steps to achieve touchdown and focus. A femtosecond optical parametric oscillator is used to excite carriers in the quantum dots both resonantly and non-resonantly; scattered luminescence from the AFM/STM tip is collected and analyzed spectrally using a 1/2 meter imaging spectrometer and a LN_2-cooled InGaAs array. We gratefully acknowledge NSF (DMR-9701725, IMR-9802784) and DARPA (DAAD-16-99-C1036) for financial support of this work.

  19. Wolter X-Ray Microscope Computed Tomography Ray-Trace Model with Preliminary Simulation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J A

    2006-02-27

    It is proposed to build a Wolter X-ray Microscope Computed Tomography System in order to characterize objects to sub-micrometer resolution. Wolter Optics Systems use hyperbolic, elliptical, and/or parabolic mirrors to reflect x-rays in order to focus or magnify an image. Wolter Optics have been used as telescopes and as microscopes. As microscopes they have been used for a number of purposes such as measuring emission x-rays and x-ray fluoresce of thin biological samples. Standard Computed Tomography (CT) Systems use 2D radiographic images, from a series of rotational angles, acquired by passing x-rays through an object to reconstruct a 3D image of the object. The x-ray paths in a Wolter X-ray Microscope will be considerably different than those of a standard CT system. There is little information about the 2D radiographic images that can be expected from such a system. There are questions about the quality, resolution and focusing range of an image created with such a system. It is not known whether characterization information can be obtained from these images and whether these 2D images can be reconstructed to 3D images of the object. A code has been developed to model the 2D radiographic image created by an object in a Wolter X-ray Microscope. This code simply follows the x-ray through the object and optics. There is no modeling at this point of other effects, such as scattering, reflection losses etc. Any object, of appropriate size, can be used in the model code. A series of simulations using a number of different objects was run to study the effects of the optics. The next step will be to use this model to reconstruct an object from the simulated data. Funding for the project ended before this goal could be accomplished. The following documentation includes: (1) background information on current X-ray imaging systems, (2) background on Wolter Optics, (3) description of the Wolter System being used, (4) purpose, limitations and development of the modeling

  20. A plastic scintillator film for an electron beam-excitation assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Wataru; Fukuta, Masahiro; Masuda, Yuriko; Nawa, Yasunori; Ono, Atsushi; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    A plastic scintillator film for use in an electron beam excitation-assisted (EXA) optical microscope is characterized. The thin film scatters an incident electron beam weakly and generates high intensity nanoscale luminescence excited by the beam spot. For high spatial resolution and signal to noise, an EXA microscope requires a thin high-efficiency scintillator film. Homogeneous plastic scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 60 to 2800 nm were fabricated on silicon nitride via spin coating. The emission intensity was examined as a function of film thickness and the accelerating voltage of the incident electron beam. The emission wavelength can be tuned by changing scintillator materials in the film matrix. To demonstrate a plastic scintillator film performance with an EXA microscope, time-lapse images of yeast cells were acquired.

  1. Tracking sub-micron fluorescent particles in three dimensions with a microscope objective under non-design optical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, R.; Sun, Y. F.; Peng, X. F.; Yang, X. Y.

    2006-06-01

    A microscope objective designed for air medium has been used under non-design optical conditions to focus an exciting laser beam on sub-micron fluorescent particles with the emitted fluorescence received through a glass layer with a mismatched refractive index. The diffraction pattern with several clear interference fringes generated from the fluorescence emitted from a fluorescent particle changed with the particle's position along the optical axis. A scalar diffraction model developed by Gibson and Lanni (1991 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8 1601-13) was used to predict the diffraction patterns for various aberration conditions and to analyse the effects of the coherence properties of the fluorescence on the details of the diffraction pattern. The particle position along the optical axis, i.e. its defocus distance, could be determined based on the characteristic sizes of the particle's diffraction pattern to track the particle in three dimensions.

  2. LISA Optics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The LISA experiment has six telescopes, in three spacecraft, in orbit about the sun. There is a continuous laser link between all of the spacecraft. Because of the large, 5 million kilometer distances, between the spacecraft and the need to perform picometer level interferometry and the fact that the optical system is dynamic precludes the use of standard optical codes in the design and analysis of this optical system. A detailed description of the approach used to model all of the optics, in the spacecraft in orbit, is presented and the ability of this model to analyze requirements is discussed. A dynamic computer simulation will be shown to illustrate the laser link and the effects of this dynamic environment on the interferometry.

  3. Electron microscopic demonstration of Romhányi's aldehyde-bisulphite-toluidine blue (ABT)-topo-optical staining reaction.

    PubMed

    Sótonyi, Peter; Tátrai, Enikö

    2009-01-01

    Romhányi's aldehyde-bisulphite-toluidine blue (ABT) topo-optical reaction was checked electron microscopically. The reaction product was found localized on the sarcolemma membrane and intercalated disc. The findings suggest that the topo-optical ABT-reaction is suitable for molecular analysis. In addition to confirming the electron microscopic suitability of the ABT-reaction it has also offered ultrastructural evidence for the reliability of the topo-optical method.

  4. Programmable Colored Illumination Microscopy (PCIM): A practical and flexible optical staining approach for microscopic contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Programmable colored illumination microscopy (PCIM) has been proposed as a flexible optical staining technique for microscopic contrast enhancement. In this method, we replace the condenser diaphragm of a conventional microscope with a programmable thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). By displaying different patterns on the LCD, numerous established imaging modalities can be realized, such as bright field, dark field, phase contrast, oblique illumination, and Rheinberg illuminations, which conventionally rely on intricate alterations in the respective microscope setups. Furthermore, the ease of modulating both the color and the intensity distribution at the aperture of the condenser opens the possibility to combine multiple microscopic techniques, or even realize completely new methods for optical color contrast staining, such as iridescent dark-field and iridescent phase-contrast imaging. The versatility and effectiveness of PCIM is demonstrated by imaging of several transparent colorless specimens, such as unstained lung cancer cells, diatom, textile fibers, and a cryosection of mouse kidney. Finally, the potentialities of PCIM for RGB-splitting imaging with stained samples are also explored by imaging stained red blood cells and a histological section.

  5. Optical analysis of a compound quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Burcher, E. E.; Huck, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-microscope concept, consisting of facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as a magnifier, was introduced and analyzed. The performance achievable with this concept was primarily limited by a trade-off between resolution and object field; this approach leads to a limiting resolution of 20 microns when used with the Viking lander camera (which has an angular resolution of 0.04 deg). An optical system is analyzed which includes a field lens between camera and auxiliary lens to overcome this limitation. It is found that this system, referred to as a compound quasi-microscope, can provide improved resolution (to about 2 microns ) and a larger object field. However, this improvement is at the expense of increased complexity, special camera design requirements, and tighter tolerances on the distances between optical components.

  6. Construction of a high resolution microscope with conventional and holographic optical trapping capabilities.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Jacqualine; Hong, Weili; Mershon, Leslie; Vershinin, Michael

    2013-04-22

    High resolution microscope systems with optical traps allow for precise manipulation of various refractive objects, such as dielectric beads (1) or cellular organelles (2,3), as well as for high spatial and temporal resolution readout of their position relative to the center of the trap. The system described herein has one such "traditional" trap operating at 980 nm. It additionally provides a second optical trapping system that uses a commercially available holographic package to simultaneously create and manipulate complex trapping patterns in the field of view of the microscope (4,5) at a wavelength of 1,064 nm. The combination of the two systems allows for the manipulation of multiple refractive objects at the same time while simultaneously conducting high speed and high resolution measurements of motion and force production at nanometer and piconewton scale.

  7. Defect tracking for nanoimprint lithography using optical surface scanner and scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaoning; Kurataka, Nobuo; Tran, Hieu; Gauzner, Gene

    2016-09-01

    Fast optical surface scanners are used in combination with high-resolution scanning electron microscopes to facilitate the identification and tracking of nanoimprint defects. We have confirmed that hard particles cause permanent template damages during imprint, resulting in repeating imprint defects. Since contaminants encountered during imprint are dominated by hard metal oxide particles capable of causing such damage, stringent pre-imprint substrate screening is a critical requirement in a manufacturing environment.

  8. On the optical stability of high-resolution transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Barthel, J; Thust, A

    2013-11-01

    In the recent two decades the technique of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experienced an unprecedented progress through the introduction of hardware aberration correctors and by the improvement of the achievable resolution to the sub-Ångström level. The important aspect that aberration correction at a given resolution requires also a well defined amount of optical stability has received little attention so far. Therefore we investigate the qualification of a variety of high-resolution electron microscopes to maintain an aberration corrected optical state in terms of an optical lifetime. We develop a comprehensive statistical framework for the estimation of the optical lifetime and find remarkably low values between tens of seconds and a couple of minutes. Probability curves are introduced, which inform the operator about the chance to work still in the fully aberration corrected state.

  9. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-15

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  10. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  11. Microscopically constrained mean-field models from chiral nuclear thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrapaj, Ermal; Roggero, Alessandro; Holt, Jeremy W.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the use of mean-field models to approximate microscopic nuclear equations of state derived from chiral effective field theory across the densities and temperatures relevant for simulating astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron star mergers. We consider both relativistic mean-field theory with scalar and vector meson exchange as well as energy density functionals based on Skyrme phenomenology and compare to thermodynamic equations of state derived from chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in many-body perturbation theory. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are used to determine the density regimes in which perturbation theory with chiral nuclear forces is valid. Within the theoretical uncertainties associated with the many-body methods, we find that select mean-field models describe well microscopic nuclear thermodynamics. As an additional consistency requirement, we study as well the single-particle properties of nucleons in a hot/dense environment, which affect e.g., charged-current weak reactions in neutron-rich matter. The identified mean-field models can be used across a larger range of densities and temperatures in astrophysical simulations than more computationally expensive microscopic models.

  12. Comparison of global phenomenological and microscopic optical potentials for nuclear data predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, C. ); Shen, Q.; Zhuo, Y. )

    1991-10-01

    In this paper the chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) values, which represent the degree of agreement between the calculated total, nonelastic, and differential elastic cross sections and their experimental values, are calculated for seven kinds of optical potentials: the phenomenological optimal optical potential (OOP) for a specific element, the global phenomenological optical potentials given by Becchetti and Greenlees (BGP) and by Varner et al. (CH86) for a large number of target nuclei, and the microscopic optical potentials based on conventional Skyrme force (SII and SIII), generalized Skyrme force (GS2), and modified Skyrme force (SKa). Fourteen natural elements (each containing one to four isotopes) are calculated with 12 to 20 neutron incident energies, which are in the 0.1- to 24-MeV energy region for each element. The calculated average total chi-square values are {bar {chi}}{sub OOP}{sup 2} - 0.309, {bar {chi}}{sub BGP}{sup 2} = 0.807, {bar {chi}}{sub CH86}{sup 2} = 0.684, {bar {chi}}{sub GS2}{sup 2} = 0.600, {bar {chi}}{sub SKa}{sup 2} = 0.646, {bar {chi}}{sub SII}{sup 2} = 2.587, and {bar {chi}}{sub SIII}{sup 2} = 1.368. The conclusion is that the microscopic optical potential based on generalized and modified Skyrme force (GS2 and SKa), which has an analytical formalism without any free parameters, is useful in nuclear data calculation and evaluation.

  13. Image Tracking of Multiple C. Elegans Worms Using Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Linda; Potsaid, Benjamin; Wen, John T.

    2010-03-01

    Long-term imaging of living biological specimens is important to infer behaviorial trends and correlate neural structure with behavior. Such study is plagued by the field of view limitation in standard optical microscopes, as the motile specimen would frequently move out of view. A novel microscope, called the adaptive scanning optical microscope (ASOM), has recently been proposed to address this limitation. Through high speed post-objective scanning with a steering mirror, and compensation for optical aberrations with a MEMS deformable mirror, simultaneous imaging and tracking of multiple Caenorhabditis elegans worms has been demonstrated. This article presents the image processing algorithm for tracking multiple worms. Since the steering mirror has to move based on the predicted worm motion, image processing and stable steering mirror motion need to be executed at higher than the composite mosaic video frame rate (in contrast to existing works on image-based worm tracking, which are predominantly based on post-processing). Particular care is placed on disambiguating the worms when they overlap, collide, or entangle, where the worm tracking algorithm may fail. Results from both real time and simulated tracking are presented.

  14. Classification and unification of the microscopic deterministic traffic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We identify a universal mathematical structure in microscopic deterministic traffic models (with identical drivers), and thus we show that all such existing models in the literature, including both the two-phase and three-phase models, can be understood as special cases of a master model by expansion around a set of well-defined ground states. This allows any two traffic models to be properly compared and identified. The three-phase models are characterized by the vanishing of leading orders of expansion within a certain density range, and as an example the popular intelligent driver model is shown to be equivalent to a generalized optimal velocity (OV) model. We also explore the diverse solutions of the generalized OV model that can be important both for understanding human driving behaviors and algorithms for autonomous driverless vehicles.

  15. Fission barriers in a macroscopic-microscopic model

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, A.; Pomorski, K.; Bartel, J.

    2007-02-15

    In the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic model, this study investigates fission barriers in the region of actinide nuclei. A very effective four-dimensional shape parametrization for fissioning nuclei is proposed. Taking, in particular, the left-right mass asymmetric and nonaxial shapes into account is demonstrated to have a substantial effect on fission barrier heights. The influence of proton versus neutron deformation differences on the potential energy landscape of fissioning nuclei is also discussed.

  16. Microscopic Uni-axial Bohr-Mottelson Rotational Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gulshani, P.

    2010-08-04

    A microscopic version of the phenomenological Bohr-Mottelson unified adiabatic rotational model is derived using only space-fixed particle coordinates, and without imposing any constraints on the particle coordinates or the intrinsic wavefunction. It is shown that this can done only for rigid flow. A collective-rotation velocity field is defined and is used to show that, although their Hamiltonians are closely related, the flows in a multi-fermion and single-particle system are inherently different.

  17. Multifocal fluorescence microscope for fast optical recordings of neuronal action potentials.

    PubMed

    Shtrahman, Matthew; Aharoni, Daniel B; Hardy, Nicholas F; Buonomano, Dean V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Otis, Thomas S

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, optical sensors for tracking neural activity have been developed and offer great utility. However, developing microscopy techniques that have several kHz bandwidth necessary to reliably capture optically reported action potentials (APs) at multiple locations in parallel remains a significant challenge. To our knowledge, we describe a novel microscope optimized to measure spatially distributed optical signals with submillisecond and near diffraction-limit resolution. Our design uses a spatial light modulator to generate patterned illumination to simultaneously excite multiple user-defined targets. A galvanometer driven mirror in the emission path streaks the fluorescence emanating from each excitation point during the camera exposure, using unused camera pixels to capture time varying fluorescence at rates that are ∼1000 times faster than the camera's native frame rate. We demonstrate that this approach is capable of recording Ca(2+) transients resulting from APs in neurons labeled with the Ca(2+) sensor Oregon Green Bapta-1 (OGB-1), and can localize the timing of these events with millisecond resolution. Furthermore, optically reported APs can be detected with the voltage sensitive dye DiO-DPA in multiple locations within a neuron with a signal/noise ratio up to ∼40, resolving delays in arrival time along dendrites. Thus, the microscope provides a powerful tool for photometric measurements of dynamics requiring submillisecond sampling at multiple locations.

  18. Multifocal fluorescence microscope for fast optical recordings of neuronal action potentials.

    PubMed

    Shtrahman, Matthew; Aharoni, Daniel B; Hardy, Nicholas F; Buonomano, Dean V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Otis, Thomas S

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, optical sensors for tracking neural activity have been developed and offer great utility. However, developing microscopy techniques that have several kHz bandwidth necessary to reliably capture optically reported action potentials (APs) at multiple locations in parallel remains a significant challenge. To our knowledge, we describe a novel microscope optimized to measure spatially distributed optical signals with submillisecond and near diffraction-limit resolution. Our design uses a spatial light modulator to generate patterned illumination to simultaneously excite multiple user-defined targets. A galvanometer driven mirror in the emission path streaks the fluorescence emanating from each excitation point during the camera exposure, using unused camera pixels to capture time varying fluorescence at rates that are ∼1000 times faster than the camera's native frame rate. We demonstrate that this approach is capable of recording Ca(2+) transients resulting from APs in neurons labeled with the Ca(2+) sensor Oregon Green Bapta-1 (OGB-1), and can localize the timing of these events with millisecond resolution. Furthermore, optically reported APs can be detected with the voltage sensitive dye DiO-DPA in multiple locations within a neuron with a signal/noise ratio up to ∼40, resolving delays in arrival time along dendrites. Thus, the microscope provides a powerful tool for photometric measurements of dynamics requiring submillisecond sampling at multiple locations. PMID:25650920

  19. Optical microscope and tapered fiber coupling apparatus for a dilution refrigerator.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A J R; Popowich, G G; Hauer, B D; Kim, P H; Fredrick, A; Rojas, X; Doolin, P; Davis, J P

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for tapered fiber measurements of optomechanical resonators inside a dilution refrigerator, which is compatible with both on- and off-chip devices. Our apparatus features full three-dimensional control of the taper-resonator coupling conditions enabling critical coupling, with an overall fiber transmission efficiency of up to 70%. Notably, our design incorporates an optical microscope system consisting of a coherent bundle of 37,000 optical fibers for real-time imaging of the experiment at a resolution of ∼1 μm. We present cryogenic optical and optomechanical measurements of resonators coupled to tapered fibers at temperatures as low as 9 mK. PMID:25638072

  20. Thermal lens microscope sensitivity enhancement using a passive Fabry–Perot-type optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, H.; Cedeño, E.; Grima, P.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.; Delgado, O.

    2016-05-01

    We developed a thermal lens microscope equipped with a passive optical cavity, which provides an optical feedback for the multiple pass of the probe laser beam to enhance sensitivity. Considering the maximum absorption peak for Fe(II) at 532 nm wavelength, we have achieved a 6.6-fold decrease in the limit of detection (LOD) to a level of 0.077 μg · l‑1 without a cavity. The possibilities to use thermal lens detection combined with an optical resonator was proposed and a drastic thermal lens signal enhancement was achieved using very low excitation power. The corresponding LOD for Fe(II) was further decreased to the level of 0.006 μg · l‑1 which represents an 85-fold decrease of the LOD value. This setup is a promising device, which can be applied as a sensitive tool for detecting chemical traces in small volumes of solutions.

  1. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV.

  2. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV. PMID:22559541

  3. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD. Data to be displayed are geometrically transformed before written into a memory cell to cancel optical artifacts coming from the diamond-like shaped structure of the micromirror array. The 24-bit color depth of the display is fully exploited to increase the frame rate by a factor of 24, which makes the technique practicable for real samples. Our commercial DMD-based LED-illumination is cost effective and can be easily coupled as an add-on module for already existing inverted microscopes. The reflection and transmission information provided by our dual microscope complement each other and can be useful for imaging non-uniform samples and to prevent self-shadowing effects.

  4. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  5. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  6. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery. PMID:26160346

  7. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of putrefaction fluid deposits (PFD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Georges, P; Bouchet, F; Huynh-Charlier, I; Carlier, R; Mazel, V; Richardin, P; Brun, L; Blondiaux, J; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the potential interest in physical and forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of residues of putrefaction fluid, a calcified deposit frequently found associated with bone rests. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archeological material (Monterenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan necropolis from the north of Italy dated between the fifth and third century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skull and grave of French King Louis the XI and Charlotte of Savoy dated from 1483 A.D.). All samples were studied by direct optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Many cytological, histological, and elemental analysis were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains and, in some cases, the cause of death.

  8. Scanning magneto-optical Kerr microscope with auto-balanced detection scheme.

    PubMed

    Halahovets, Y; Siffalovic, P; Jergel, M; Senderak, R; Majkova, E; Luby, S; Kostic, I; Szymanski, B; Stobiecki, F

    2011-08-01

    We have developed a scanning magneto-optical Kerr microscope dedicated to localization and measurement of the in-plane magnetization of ultra-thin layered magnetic nanostructures with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. The novel light detection scheme is based on a differential photodetector with automatic common mode noise rejection system with a high noise suppression up to 50 dB. The sensitivity of the developed detection scheme was tested by measurement of a single Co layer and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) multilayer stack. The spatial resolution of the Kerr microscope was demonstrated by mapping an isolated 5×5 μm spin-valve pillar. PMID:21895250

  9. Real-time restoration of white-light confocal microscope optical sections

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Iyengar, S. Sitharama; Beuerman, Roger W.; Reynaud, Juan; Wolenski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Confocal microscopes (CM) are routinely used for building 3-D images of microscopic structures. Nonideal imaging conditions in a white-light CM introduce additive noise and blur. The optical section images need to be restored prior to quantitative analysis. We present an adaptive noise filtering technique using Karhunen–Loéve expansion (KLE) by the method of snapshots and a ringing metric to quantify the ringing artifacts introduced in the images restored at various iterations of iterative Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm. The KLE provides a set of basis functions that comprise the optimal linear basis for an ensemble of empirical observations. We show that most of the noise in the scene can be removed by reconstructing the images using the KLE basis vector with the largest eigenvalue. The prefiltering scheme presented is faster and does not require prior knowledge about image noise. Optical sections processed using the KLE prefilter can be restored using a simple inverse restoration algorithm; thus, the methodology is suitable for real-time image restoration applications. The KLE image prefilter outperforms the temporal-average prefilter in restoring CM optical sections. The ringing metric developed uses simple binary morphological operations to quantify the ringing artifacts and confirms with the visual observation of ringing artifacts in the restored images. PMID:20186290

  10. A new technique to measure the thickness of micromachined structures using an optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, F.; Dennis, J. O.; Khir, M. H. Md.; Hamid, N. H.; Yar, A.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a quick and straightforward method to measure the thickness of the micro structures using optical microscope. In optical microscopy, for depth of focus (DOF) method there are two surfaces required, one as a reference. In case of live dies specially in CMOS MEMS the thickness of silicon attached to the CMOS thin layers can't be find accurately because of unavailability of reference surface. The main focus of this paper is the measurement of thickness of silicon attached to the CMOS thin layers as well as CMOS layers itself specially in the broken form. Normally thickness is the vertical displacement of the structures but when these structures are broken it very hard to clamp the microstructures in horizontal position that is why a special sample holder is prepared and reported and sample holding technique to hold the samples in the horizontal position is introduced. Leica DM 12000 optical microscope is used to measure and mark the thickness of CMOS layers and silicon attached to these layers.

  11. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near {lambda}. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  12. Microscopic theory of the optical properties of colloidal graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozfidan, Isil; Korkusinski, Marek; Güçlü, A. Devrim; McGuire, John A.; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2014-02-01

    We present a microscopic theory of electronic and optical properties of colloidal graphene quantum dots (CGQDs). The single-particle properties are described in the tight-binding model based on the pz carbon orbitals. Electron-electron screened Coulomb direct, exchange, and scattering matrix elements are calculated using Slater pz orbitals. The many-body ground state and excited states are constructed as a linear combination of a finite number of excitations from the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state (GS) by exact diagonalization techniques. HF ground states corresponding to semiconductor, Mott-insulator, and spin-polarized phases are obtained as a function of the strength of the screened interaction versus the tunneling matrix element. In the semiconducting phase of a triangular CGQD, the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band are found to be degenerate due to rotational symmetry. The singlet and triplet exciton spectra from the HF GS are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The low-energy exciton spectrum is predicted to consist of two bright-singlet exciton states corresponding to two circular polarizations of light and a lower-energy band of two dark singlets and 12 dark triplets. The robustness of the bright degenerate singlet pair against correlations in the many-body state is demonstrated as well as the breaking of the degeneracy by the lowering of symmetry of the CGQD. The band-gap renormalization, electron-hole attraction, fine structure, oscillator strength, and polarization of the exciton are analyzed as a function of the size, shape, screening, and symmetry of the CGQD. The theoretical results are compared with experimental absorption spectra.

  13. Electron microscopic and optical studies of prism faces of synthetic quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzek, B. C.; Vagh, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    Application of electron and optical microscopic techniques to the study of growth spirals on quartz crystal faces is described. Attention is centered on the centers of the spirals and on screw ledges; overhanging kinks are revealed on one side of the spiral centers. The possibility that these special features may have developed after growth of the crystals went to completion is explored. The conjecture is raised that such structures might result from adsorption of growth-inhibiting impurities at the center of the growth spiral on the quartz habit faces.

  14. Binary pseudorandom test standard to determine the modulation transfer function of optical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Ian; Anderson, Erik H.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Babin, Sergey; Cabrini, Stefano; Calafiore, Guiseppe; Chan, Elaine R.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Peroz, Christophe; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports on the development of a binary pseudo-random test sample optimized to calibrate the MTF of optical microscopes. The sample consists of a number of 1-D and 2-D patterns, with different minimum sizes of spatial artifacts from 300 nm to 2 microns. We describe the mathematical background, fabrication process, data acquisition and analysis procedure to return spatial frequency based instrument calibration. We show that the developed samples satisfy the characteristics of a test standard: functionality, ease of specification and fabrication, reproducibility, and low sensitivity to manufacturing error.

  15. Quasi-microscope concept for planetary missions. [optically augmented lander camera for high resolution microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Wall, S. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Giat, O.

    1977-01-01

    Viking lander cameras have returned stereo and multispectral views of the Martian surface with a resolution that approaches 2 mm/lp in the near field. A two-orders-of-magnitude increase in resolution could be obtained for collected surface samples by augmenting these cameras with auxiliary optics that would neither impose special camera design requirements nor limit the cameras field of view of the terrain. Quasi-microscope images would provide valuable data on the physical and chemical characteristics of planetary regoliths.

  16. A Microscopic Quantal Model for Nuclear Collective Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gulshani, P.

    2007-10-26

    A microscopic, quantal model to describe nuclear collective rotation in two dimensions is derived from the many-nucleon Schrodinger equation. The Schrodinger equation is transformed to a body-fixed frame to decompose the Hamiltonian into a sum of intrinsic and rotational components plus a Coriolis-centrifugal coupling term. This Hamiltonian (H) is expressed in terms of space-fixed-frame particle coordinates and momenta by using commutator of H with a rotation angle. A unified-rotational-model type wavefunction is used to obtain an intrinsic Schrodinger equation in terms of angular momentum quantum number and two-body operators. A Hartree-Fock mean-field representation of this equation is then obtained and, by means of a unitary transformation, is reduced to a form resembling that of the conventional semi-classical cranking model when exchange terms and intrinsic spurious collective excitation are ignored.

  17. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Jagota, Anand

    2003-12-01

    We discuss a microscopic model for the study of multi-lane highway traffic flow dynamics. Each car experiences a force resulting from a combination of the desire of the driver to attain a certain velocity, aerodynamic drag, and change of the force due to car-car interactions. The model also includes multi-lane simulation capability and the ability to add and remove obstructions. We implement the model via a Java applet, which is used to simulate traffic jam formation, the effect of bottlenecks on traffic flow, and the existence of light, medium, and heavy traffic flow. The simulations also provide insight into how the properties of individual cars result in macroscopic behavior. Because the investigation of emergent characteristics is so common in physics, the study of traffic in this manner sheds new light on how the micro-to-macro transition works in general.

  18. Temporal analysis of optical beams in biased photorefractive materials in the context of solitonic solutions: microscopic and macroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichtowski, Marek; Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The validity of the commonly used time-dependent wave equation describing the propagation of screening one-dimensional solitons in photorefractive materials is discussed. Concentrating attention on temporal development of the space-charge field, we show that the widely used standard solution follows from a phenomenological description, which is consistent with the band transport model equations only in specific cases. The exact analytical solution for the localized optical beam is derived within the microscopic model under a low contrast approximation. The numerical modeling of photorefractive response to an arbitrary contrast is performed and compared with standard solutions. The range of applicability of the macroscopic approach for three basic classes of photorefractive crystals is discussed.

  19. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity.

    PubMed

    Frost, William N; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J

    2007-05-15

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations.

  20. A Microscopic Multiphase Diffusion Model of Viable Epidermis Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Johannes M.; Kasting, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-μm layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯epi, and partition coefficient, K¯epi/w, for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes—water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone—covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes. PMID:23708370

  1. A microscopic multiphase diffusion model of viable epidermis permeability.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Johannes M; Kasting, Gerald B

    2013-05-21

    A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-μm layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯(epi), and partition coefficient, K¯(epi/w), for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes-water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone-covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes.

  2. Smart microscope: an adaptive optics learning system for aberration correction in multiphoton confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Albert, O; Sherman, L; Mourou, G; Norris, T B; Vdovin, G

    2000-01-01

    Off-axis aberrations in a beam-scanning multiphoton confocal microscope are corrected with a deformable mirror. The optimal mirror shape for each pixel is determined by a genetic learning algorithm, in which the second-harmonic or two-photon fluorescence signal from a reference sample is maximized. The speed of the convergence is improved by use of a Zernike polynomial basis for the deformable mirror shape. This adaptive optical correction scheme is implemented in an all-reflective system by use of extremely short (10-fs) optical pulses, and it is shown that the scanning area of an f:1 off-axis parabola can be increased by nine times with this technique. PMID:18059779

  3. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  4. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  5. Characterisation of optically driven microstructures for manipulating single DNA molecules under a fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Terao, Kyohei; Masuda, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryo; Gel, Murat; Oana, Hidehiro; Washizu, Masao; Suzuki, Takaaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Shimokawa, Fusao; Oohira, Fumikazu

    2016-06-01

    Optical tweezers are powerful tools for manipulating single DNA molecules using fluorescence microscopy, particularly in nanotechnology-based DNA analysis. We previously proposed a manipulation technique using microstructures driven by optical tweezers that allows the handling of single giant DNA molecules of millimetre length that cannot be manipulated by conventional techniques. To further develop this technique, the authors characterised the microstructures quantitatively from the view point of fabrication and efficiency of DNA manipulation under a fluorescence microscope. The success rate and precision of the fabrications were evaluated. The results indicate that the microstructures are obtained in an aqueous solution with a precision ∼50 nm at concentrations in the order of 10(6) particles/ml. The visibility of these microstructures under a fluorescence microscope was also characterised, along with the elucidation of the fabrication parameters needed to fine tune visibility. Manipulating yeast chromosomal DNA molecules with the microstructures illustrated the relationship between the efficiency of manipulation and the geometrical shape of the microstructure. This report provides the guidelines for designing microstructures used in single DNA molecule analysis based on on-site DNA manipulation, and is expected to broaden the applications of this technique in the future.

  6. Three-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray microtomography with scanning-imaging X-ray microscope optics.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomographic micro-imaging system has been developed. The optical system is based on a scanning-imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) optics, which is a hybrid system consisting of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. In the SIXM system, each 1D dataset of a two-dimensional (2D) image is recorded independently. An object is illuminated with a line-focused beam. Positional information of the region illuminated by the line-focused beam is recorded with the 1D imaging microscope optics as line-profile data. By scanning the object with the line focus, 2D image data are obtained. In the same manner as for a scanning microscope optics with a multi-pixel detector, imaging modes such as phase contrast and absorption contrast can be arbitrarily configured after the image data acquisition. By combining a tomographic scan method and the SIXM system, quantitative 3D imaging is performed. Results of a feasibility study of the SIXM for 3D imaging are shown.

  7. Microscopic vision modeling method by direct mapping analysis for micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Zhao, Zhizhong; Wang, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel and high-precision microscopic vision modeling method, which can be used for 3D data reconstruction in micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope. This method consists of four parts: image distortion correction, disparity distortion correction, initial vision model and residual compensation model. First, the method of image distortion correction is proposed. Image data required by image distortion correction comes from stereo images of calibration sample. The geometric features of image distortions can be predicted though the shape deformation of lines constructed by grid points in stereo images. Linear and polynomial fitting methods are applied to correct image distortions. Second, shape deformation features of disparity distribution are discussed. The method of disparity distortion correction is proposed. Polynomial fitting method is applied to correct disparity distortion. Third, a microscopic vision model is derived, which consists of two models, i.e., initial vision model and residual compensation model. We derive initial vision model by the analysis of direct mapping relationship between object and image points. Residual compensation model is derived based on the residual analysis of initial vision model. The results show that with maximum reconstruction distance of 4.1mm in X direction, 2.9mm in Y direction and 2.25mm in Z direction, our model achieves a precision of 0.01mm in X and Y directions and 0.015mm in Z direction. Comparison of our model with traditional pinhole camera model shows that two kinds of models have a similar reconstruction precision of X coordinates. However, traditional pinhole camera model has a lower precision of Y and Z coordinates than our model. The method proposed in this paper is very helpful for the micro-gripping system based on SLM microscopic vision.

  8. Microscopic vision modeling method by direct mapping analysis for micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Zhao, Zhizhong; Wang, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel and high-precision microscopic vision modeling method, which can be used for 3D data reconstruction in micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope. This method consists of four parts: image distortion correction, disparity distortion correction, initial vision model and residual compensation model. First, the method of image distortion correction is proposed. Image data required by image distortion correction comes from stereo images of calibration sample. The geometric features of image distortions can be predicted though the shape deformation of lines constructed by grid points in stereo images. Linear and polynomial fitting methods are applied to correct image distortions. Second, shape deformation features of disparity distribution are discussed. The method of disparity distortion correction is proposed. Polynomial fitting method is applied to correct disparity distortion. Third, a microscopic vision model is derived, which consists of two models, i.e., initial vision model and residual compensation model. We derive initial vision model by the analysis of direct mapping relationship between object and image points. Residual compensation model is derived based on the residual analysis of initial vision model. The results show that with maximum reconstruction distance of 4.1mm in X direction, 2.9mm in Y direction and 2.25mm in Z direction, our model achieves a precision of 0.01mm in X and Y directions and 0.015mm in Z direction. Comparison of our model with traditional pinhole camera model shows that two kinds of models have a similar reconstruction precision of X coordinates. However, traditional pinhole camera model has a lower precision of Y and Z coordinates than our model. The method proposed in this paper is very helpful for the micro-gripping system based on SLM microscopic vision. PMID:26924646

  9. Novel failure analysis techniques using photon probing with a scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Rife, J.L.; Barton, D.L.; Henderson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Three new failure analysis techniques for integrated circuits (ICs) have been developed using localized photon probing with a scanning optical microscope (SOM). The first two are light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) imaging techniques that (1) localize open-circuited and damaged junctions and (2) image transistor logic states. The third technique uses the SOM to control logic states optically from the IC backside. LIVA images are produced by monitoring the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as a laser beam is scanned over the IC. High selectivity for localizing defects has been demonstrated using the LIVA approach. Logic state mapping results, similar to previous work using biased optical beam induced current (OBIC) and laser probing approaches have also been produced using LIVA. Application of the two LIVA based techniques to backside failure analysis has been demonstrated using an infrared laser source. Optical logic state control is based upon earlier work examining transistor response to photon injection. The physics of each method and their applications for failure analysis are described.

  10. Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-05-14

    Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven 'quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers.

  11. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    DOEpatents

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  12. Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E.; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V.; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven `quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers.

  13. Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Keller, Ole

    1995-07-01

    An external reflection scanning near-field optical microscope with shear force regulation of the tip-surface distance is described. Near-field optical and shear force topographical images are compared for various samples. It is shown that the most important correlative relationships between these images can be deduced from symmetry considerations. The possibility of extracting additional information from the optical images is demonstrated on images of human blood cells.

  14. Microscopic Modelling Circadian and Bursty Pattern of Human Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, Byungnam

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies for a wide range of human activities such as email communication, Web browsing, and library visiting, have revealed the bursty nature of human activities. The distribution of inter-event times (IETs) between two consecutive human activities exhibits a heavy-tailed decay behavior and the oscillating pattern with a one-day period, reflective of the circadian pattern of human life. Even though a priority-based queueing model was successful as a basic model for understanding the heavy-tailed behavior, it ignored important ingredients, such as the diversity of individual activities and the circadian pattern of human life. Here, we collect a large scale of dataset which contains individuals’ time stamps when articles are posted on blog posts, and based on which we construct a theoretical model which can take into account of both ignored ingredients. Once we identify active and inactive time intervals of individuals and remove the inactive time interval, thereby constructing an ad hoc continuous time domain. Therein, the priority-based queueing model is applied by adjusting the arrival and the execution rates of tasks by comparing them with the activity data of individuals. Then, the obtained results are transferred back to the real-time domain, which produces the oscillating and heavy-tailed IET distribution. This microscopic model enables us to develop theoretical understanding towards more empirical results. PMID:23505479

  15. Delays, inaccuracies and anticipation in microscopic traffic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiber, Martin; Kesting, Arne; Helbing, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    We generalize a wide class of time-continuous microscopic traffic models to include essential aspects of driver behaviour not captured by these models. Specifically, we consider (i) finite reaction times, (ii) estimation errors, (iii) looking several vehicles ahead (spatial anticipation), and (iv) temporal anticipation. The estimation errors are modelled as stochastic Wiener processes and lead to time-correlated fluctuations of the acceleration. We show that the destabilizing effects of reaction times and estimation errors can essentially be compensated for by spatial and temporal anticipation, that is, the combination of stabilizing and destabilizing effects results in the same qualitative macroscopic dynamics as that of the, respectively, underlying simple car-following model. In many cases, this justifies the use of simplified, physics-oriented models with a few parameters only. Although the qualitative dynamics is unchanged, multi-anticipation increase both spatial and temporal scales of stop-and-go waves and other complex patterns of congested traffic in agreement with real traffic data. Remarkably, the anticipation allows accident-free smooth driving in complex traffic situations even if reaction times exceed typical time headways.

  16. Geometric model from microscopic theory for nuclear absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, Sarah; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    1993-01-01

    A parameter-free geometric model for nuclear absorption is derived herein from microscopic theory. The expression for the absorption cross section in the eikonal approximation, taken in integral form, is separated into a geometric contribution that is described by an energy-dependent effective radius and two surface terms that cancel in an asymptotic series expansion. For collisions of light nuclei, an expression for the effective radius is derived from harmonic oscillator nuclear density functions. A direct extension to heavy nuclei with Woods-Saxon densities is made by identifying the equivalent half-density radius for the harmonic oscillator functions. Coulomb corrections are incorporated, and a simplified geometric form of the Bradt-Peters type is obtained. Results spanning the energy range from 1 MeV/nucleon to 1 GeV/nucleon are presented. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained.

  17. Sedimentological Investigations of the Martian Surface using the Mars 2001 Robotic Arm Camera and MECA Optical Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Smith, P. H.; Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The first microscopic sedimentological studies of the Martian surface will commence with the landing of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) December 3, 1999. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) has a resolution of 25 um/p which will permit detailed micromorphological analysis of surface and subsurface materials. The Robotic Ann will be able to dig up to 50 cm below the surface. The walls of the trench will also be inspected by RAC to look for evidence of stratigraphic and / or sedimentological relationships. The 2001 Mars Lander will build upon and expand the sedimentological research begun by the RAC on MPL. This will be accomplished by: (1) Macroscopic (dm to cm): Descent Imager, Pancam, RAC; (2) Microscopic (mm to um RAC, MECA Optical Microscope (Figure 2), AFM This paper will focus on investigations that can be conducted by the RAC and MECA Optical Microscope.

  18. The development of retina and the optic tectum of petromyzon marinus, L. A light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, E; Anadón, R

    1987-01-01

    Morphological evolution of the retina and optic tectum along the stage of ammocoete, transformation and young adult of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) was studied using light microscopic techniques and quantitative morphometry. A retinal differentiated zone surrounding the optic nerve head with a kind of differentiated photoreceptors is present through all the stages studied until stage VI of transformation and its extension is almost unchanged since 60 mm. larve. From this length larval retina grows by extension of the lateral undifferentiated retina, that in large larvae subdivides in a lateral germinal zone and an intermediate differentiating zone more thickened were ganglion cells and the optic fibre layer differentiate early. In the largest larvae outer and inner neuroblastic layers were also recognized in these intermediate zone except in the most lateral retina. Mitotic activity was observed both in germinal and intermediate differentiating zones near the optic ventricle. The germinal zone disappears after the formation of an irideal retina in transforming stages and, with the exception of the photoreceptor layer, retinal layers were differentiated since stage III along the neural retina. The photoreceptor layer develops in the early stage VI along the retina. Adult pattern of retinal pigmentation is found in these stage. A periventricular and a lateral region were recognizable in the optic tectum of the larval period. Tectum of large larvae shows an outline of laminar organization. In the stage III of transformation the tectal lamination is the same of the young adults: the periventricular cell layer is subdivided by fibre bands and in the lateral region a stratum cellulare centralis and a stratum cellulare et fibrosum externum were distinguishable. A comparison between retinal and tectal growths was made. Most retinal and tectal growth and differentiation occurs before adult photoreceptors develop.

  19. Microscopic transport model animation visualisation on KML base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, I.; Savrasovs, M.

    2012-10-01

    By reading classical literature devoted to the simulation theory it could be found that one of the greatest possibilities of simulation is the ability to present processes inside the system by animation. This gives to the simulation model additional value during presentation of simulation results for the public and authorities who are not familiar enough with simulation. That is why most of universal and specialised simulation tools have the ability to construct 2D and 3D representation of the model. Usually the development of such representation could take much time and there must be put a lot forces into creating an adequate 3D representation of the model. For long years such well-known microscopic traffic flow simulation software tools as VISSIM, AIMSUN and PARAMICS have had a possibility to produce 2D and 3D animation. But creation of realistic 3D model of the place where traffic flows are simulated, even in these professional software tools it is a hard and time consuming action. The goal of this paper is to describe the concepts of use the existing on-line geographical information systems for visualisation of animation produced by simulation software. For demonstration purposes the following technologies and tools have been used: PTV VISION VISSIM, KML and Google Earth.

  20. Macrophage with gold nanorod visualized by optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Rena; Ogasawara, Koetsu; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in inflammation and they are frequently observed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. In the present study, macrophages phagocytosing gold nanorod (AuNR) were observed by optical-resolution (OR) and acoustic-resolution (AR) photoacoustic microscope (PAM). The OR-PAM consisted of diode laser optically focused to 60 micron and planar ultrasonic transducer with the central frequency of 8 MHz placed under the object. AR-PAM consisted of concave ultrasonic transducer with the central frequency of 20 MHz and optical fiber through the center hole of the transducer for laser irradiation. First, PA signal from gold, silver and copper wire were measured in order to determine the best metal substrate for enhancing PA contrast. Gold generated largest PA signal. AuNR with the resonance wavelength of 1064 nm was co-cultured with the macrophages for phagocytosis. PA signal was successfully detected from macrophages with AuNR by both OR-PAM and AR-PAM. PA imaging of the macrophages with AuNR indicates inflammation in the vulnerable plaque and AR-PAM method would be applicable for clinical settings.

  1. A magneto-optical scheme of a proton microscope based on the U-70 synchrotron radiograph complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, A. V.; Fedotov, Yu. S.

    2016-07-01

    A magneto-optical scheme of a proton microscope based on an active U-70 accelerator radiography complex is presented. The microscope is created in the magnetic structure of the radiography complex only by changing strengths of quadrupole lenses without changing their position. The achieved magnification ratio of the image of the studied object is no smaller than 10 at E = 60 GeV. This is sufficient for a spatial resolution of images of 10-20 μm.

  2. Collective Diffusion Model for Ion Conduction through Microscopic Channels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingting; Zhu, Fangqiang

    2013-01-01

    Ion conduction through microscopic channels is of central importance in both biology and nanotechnology. To better understand the current-voltage (I-V) dependence of ion channels, here we describe and prove a collective diffusion model that quantitatively relates the spontaneous ion permeation at equilibrium to the stationary ionic fluxes driven by small voltages. The model makes it possible to determine the channel conductance in the linear I-V range from equilibrium simulations without the application of a voltage. To validate the theory, we perform molecular-dynamics simulations on two channels—a conical-shaped nanopore and the transmembrane pore of an α-hemolysin—under both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The simulations reveal substantial couplings between the motions of cations and anions, which are effectively captured by the collective coordinate in the model. Although the two channels exhibit very different linear ranges in the I-V curves, in both cases the channel conductance at small voltages is in reasonable agreement with the prediction from the equilibrium simulation. The simulations also suggest that channel charges, rather than geometric asymmetry, play a more prominent role in current rectification. PMID:23442858

  3. Imaging microscopic structures in pathological retinas using a flood-illumination adaptive optics retinal camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Clément; Nakashima, Kiyoko; Lamory, Barbara; Pâques, Michel; Levecq, Xavier; Château, Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    This research is aimed at characterizing in vivo differences between healthy and pathological retinal tissues at the microscopic scale using a compact adaptive optics (AO) retinal camera. Tests were performed in 120 healthy eyes and 180 eyes suffering from 19 different pathological conditions, including age-related maculopathy (ARM), glaucoma and rare diseases such as inherited retinal dystrophies. Each patient was first examined using SD-OCT and infrared SLO. Retinal areas of 4°x4° were imaged using an AO flood-illumination retinal camera based on a large-stroke deformable mirror. Contrast was finally enhanced by registering and averaging rough images using classical algorithms. Cellular-resolution images could be obtained in most cases. In ARM, AO images revealed granular contents in drusen, which were invisible in SLO or OCT images, and allowed the observation of the cone mosaic between drusen. In glaucoma cases, visual field was correlated to changes in cone visibility. In inherited retinal dystrophies, AO helped to evaluate cone loss across the retina. Other microstructures, slightly larger in size than cones, were also visible in several retinas. AO provided potentially useful diagnostic and prognostic information in various diseases. In addition to cones, other microscopic structures revealed by AO images may also be of interest in monitoring retinal diseases.

  4. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger

    2015-06-22

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  5. Toolkit for the Automated Characterization of Optical Trapping Forces on Microscopic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Joseph; Hoeprich, David; Resnick, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Optical traps have been in use in microbiological studies for the past 40 years to obtain noninvasive control of microscopic particles. However, the magnitude of the applied forces is often unknown. Therefore, we have developed an automated data acquisition and processing system which characterizes trap properties for known particle geometries. Extensive experiments and measurements utilizing well-characterized objects were performed and compared to literature to confirm the system's performance. This system will enable the future analysis of a trapped primary cilium, a slender rod-shaped organelle with aspect ratio L/R >30, where `L' is the cilium length and `R' the cilium diameter. The trapping of cilia is of primary importance, as it will lead to the precise measurements of mechanical properties of the organelle and its significance to the epithelial cell. Support from the National Institutes of Health, 1R15DK092716 is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger

    2015-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  8. Advantages of microscope-integrated intraoperative online optical coherence tomography: usage in Boston keratoprosthesis type I surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebelmann, Sebastian; Steven, Philipp; Hos, Deniz; Hüttmann, Gereon; Lankenau, Eva; Bachmann, Björn; Cursiefen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) type I is a technique to treat patients with corneal diseases that are not amenable to conventional keratoplasty. Correct assembly and central implantation of the prosthesis are crucial for postoperative visual recovery. This study investigates the potential benefit of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to monitor KPro surgery. Retrospective case series are presented for two patients who underwent Boston KPro type I implantation. The surgery in both patients was monitored intraoperatively using a commercially available intraoperative OCT (iOCT) device mounted on a surgical microscope. Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT was able to evaluate the correct assembly and implantation of the KPro. All parts of the prosthesis were visible, and interfaces between the corneal graft and titanium backplate or anterior optics were clearly depictable. Moreover, iOCT visualized a gap between the backplate and graft in one case, and in the other case, a gap between the anterior optic and graft. Neither gap was visible with a conventional surgical microscope. The gap between the anterior optic and the graft could easily be corrected. Microscope-integrated iOCT delivers enhanced information, adding to the normal surgical microscope view during KPro surgery. Correct assembly can be controlled as well as the correct placement of the Boston KPro into the anterior chamber.

  9. Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-05-14

    Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven 'quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers. PMID:25971512

  10. Microscopic model for the formation of nanodomains in relaxor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués, Manuel I.; Aragó, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    A microscopic relaxor model is presented and its properties are studied by means of numerical simulations. No “a priori” random interactions or random fields are considered. The sole interaction of mobile charges with the dipoles of a highly polarizable medium is responsible for the appearance of typical relaxor properties such as a smeared transition, a glassy ground state with no macroscopic polarization, an external field frequency-dependent dielectric constant, and a field-induced ferroelectric behavior. The model shows no statistical difference between the relaxor and the ferroelectric formation of polar nanoregions at high temperature. However, for the relaxor, there is a temperature (which we associate with the Burns temperature) below which some dipoles, neighbors to the charges, get frozen with a net square polarization different from zero. These dipoles are the precursors of stable boundaries from which ferroelectric clusters grow when approaching the glassy phase. These frozen dipoles are responsible for the frequency dispersion of the dielectric constant and for the smearing of the transition.

  11. Microscopic models for the study of taxpayer audit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    A microscopic dynamic model is here constructed and analyzed, describing the evolution of the income distribution in the presence of taxation and redistribution in a society in which also tax evasion and auditing processes occur. The focus is on effects of enforcement regimes, characterized by different choices of the audited taxpayer fraction and of the penalties imposed to noncompliant individuals. A complex systems perspective is adopted: society is considered as a system composed by a large number of heterogeneous individuals. These are divided into income classes and may as well have different tax evasion behaviors. The variation in time of the number of individuals in each class is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations of the kinetic discretized Boltzmann type involving transition probabilities. A priori, one could think that audits and fines should have a positive effect on the reduction of economic inequality and correspondingly of the Gini index G. According to our model, however, such effect is rather small. In contrast, the effect on the increase of the tax revenue may be significant.

  12. Validation of a fiber-based confocal microscope for interventional image-guided procedures: correlation with multispectral optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzka, Daniel; Quijano, Jade; Xie, Jianwu; Krueger, Sascha; Weiss, Steffen; Abrat, Benjamin; Osdoit, Anne; Cavé, Charlotte; Burnett, Christopher; Danthi, S. Narasimhan; Li, King

    2006-03-01

    The concept of the biopsy is ubiquitous in current medical diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. The standard biopsy consists of removing a sample of tissue for evaluation and diagnosis, primarily to ascertain the presence of cancer cells by (histo)pathological analyses. However, the advent of new optical imaging modalities and targeted or "smart" agents, that have affinity for a select target, suggests the possibility of performing in vivo tissue characterization without the need for sample removal or the wait for histopathologic processing. Here we present work testing and validating a fiber-based confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging system intended for combination with a larger scale imaging modality (i.e. MRI or CT) to be used in image-guided in vivo tissue characterization. Fiber-based confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging experiments were performed (Cellvizio, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) in vivo in two mouse models including: 1) EGFP-expressing mouse melanoma model and 2) M21 mouse melanoma model. Both models are known to express integrin α νβ 3, a cell-surface receptor protein. We also performed an experiment in ex vivo chicken muscle tissue labelled with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin targeted compound. In the mouse models, contrast agents that targeted the integrin were injected and the contrast agent localization in tumor was verified by a whole-body multispectral imager. The fiber-based tool was sensitive enough to detect and image the tissue of interest in all different experiments, and was found appropriate for use in interventional catheter-based procedures.

  13. Bright-field Nanoscopy: Visualizing Nano-structures with Localized Optical Contrast Using a Conventional Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Suran, Swathi; Bharadwaj, Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-01-01

    Most methods for optical visualization beyond the diffraction limit rely on fluorescence emission by molecular tags. Here, we report a method for visualization of nanostructures down to a few nanometers using a conventional bright-field microscope without requiring additional molecular tags such as fluorophores. The technique, Bright-field Nanoscopy, is based on the strong thickness dependent color of ultra-thin germanium on an optically thick gold film. We demonstrate the visualization of grain boundaries in chemical vapour deposited single layer graphene and the detection of single 40 nm Ag nanoparticles. We estimate a size detection limit of about 2 nm using this technique. In addition to visualizing nano-structures, this technique can be used to probe fluid phenomena at the nanoscale, such as transport through 2D membranes. We estimated the water transport rate through a 1 nm thick polymer film using this technique, as an illustration. Further, the technique can also be extended to study the transport of specific ions in the solution. It is anticipated that this technique will find use in applications ranging from single-nanoparticles resolved sensing to studying nanoscale fluid-solid interface phenomena. PMID:27112966

  14. Bright-field Nanoscopy: Visualizing Nano-structures with Localized Optical Contrast Using a Conventional Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suran, Swathi; Bharadwaj, Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-04-01

    Most methods for optical visualization beyond the diffraction limit rely on fluorescence emission by molecular tags. Here, we report a method for visualization of nanostructures down to a few nanometers using a conventional bright-field microscope without requiring additional molecular tags such as fluorophores. The technique, Bright-field Nanoscopy, is based on the strong thickness dependent color of ultra-thin germanium on an optically thick gold film. We demonstrate the visualization of grain boundaries in chemical vapour deposited single layer graphene and the detection of single 40 nm Ag nanoparticles. We estimate a size detection limit of about 2 nm using this technique. In addition to visualizing nano-structures, this technique can be used to probe fluid phenomena at the nanoscale, such as transport through 2D membranes. We estimated the water transport rate through a 1 nm thick polymer film using this technique, as an illustration. Further, the technique can also be extended to study the transport of specific ions in the solution. It is anticipated that this technique will find use in applications ranging from single-nanoparticles resolved sensing to studying nanoscale fluid-solid interface phenomena.

  15. Effect of condensed water on scanning near-field optical microscope measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douas, M.; Serena, P. A.; Marqués, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    The relevance of the scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM), for near-field characterization, is often shaded by the appearance of artifacts, especially when geometrical characterization is intended. Artifacts are related to many features such as the feedback system or the scanning mode. For non-vacuum environmental conditions, artifact sources may be related to tip geometry and the pollutants attached, either on the tip or on the studied surfaces, altering the optical image. As an environmental element, water vapor could be treated as a source for artifacts, but could also be used as a tool for chemical characterization of hydrophilic patches. Spontaneous meniscus formation between hydrophilic surfaces, such as the tip and the sample, may guide light from the tip to the sample, enhancing the transmitted signal. This study focuses on the effects that water condensation at the nanoscale has on the signals achieved by SNOM, combining two computational methods (Monte Carlo and finite difference time domain) in order to deal with light propagation through heterogeneous media and water condensation.

  16. Generation 3 programmable array microscope (PAM) for high speed large format optical sectioning in fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Cook, Nathan P.; Kramer, Stephan; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the current version of the optical sectioning programmable array microscope (PAM) implemented with a single digital micro-mirror device (DMD) spatial light modulator utilized as a mask in both the fluorescence excitation and emission paths. The PAM incorporates structured illumination and structured detection operating in synchrony. A sequence of binary patterns of excitation light in high definition format (1920×1080 elements) is projected into the focal plane of the microscope at the 18 kHz binary frame rate of the Texas Instruments 1080p DMD. The resulting fluorescent emission is captured as two distinct signals: conjugate (c, ca. "on-focus") consisting of light impinging on and deviated from the "on" elements of the DMD, and the non-conjugate (nc, ca. "out-of-focus") light falling on and deviated from the "off" elements. The two distinct, deflected beams are optically filtered and detected either by two individual cameras or captured as adjacent images on a single camera after traversing an image combiner. The sectioned image is gained from a subtraction of the nc image from the c image, weighted in accordance with the pattern(s) used for illumination and detection and the relative exposure times of the cameras. The widefield image is given by the sum of the c and nc images. This procedure allows a high duty cycle (typically 25-50%) of on-elements in the excitation patterns and thus functions with low light intensities, preventing saturation and minimizing photobleaching of sensitive fluorophores. The corresponding acquisition speed is also very high, limited only by the bandwidth of the camera(s) (100 fps full frame with the sCMOS camera in current use) and the optical power of the light source (lasers, large area LEDs). In contrast to the static patterns typical of SIM systems, the programmable array allows optimization of the patterns (duty cycle, feature size and distribution), thus enabling a wide range of applications, ranging from patterned

  17. Resolving three-dimensional shape of sub-50 nm wide lines with nanometer-scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Dixson, Ronald G.

    2014-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations of nanometer-scale objects can be resolved and measured with sub-nanometer scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes by analyzing 4-D optical data using the through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) method. These initial results show that TSOM-determined cross-sectional (3-D) shape differences of 30 nm-40 nm wide lines agree well with critical-dimension atomic force microscope measurements. The TSOM method showed a linewidth uncertainty of 1.22 nm (k = 2). Complex optical simulations are not needed for analysis using the TSOM method, making the process simple, economical, fast, and ideally suited for high volume nanomanufacturing process monitoring.

  18. Negative frequencies in wave propagation: A microscopic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Bugler-Lamb, S.

    2016-06-01

    A change in the sign of the frequency of a wave between two inertial reference frames corresponds to a reversal of the phase velocity. Yet from the point of view of the relation E =ℏ ω , a positive quantum of energy apparently becomes a negative-energy one. This is physically distinct from a change in the sign of the wave vector and can be associated with various effects such as Cherenkov radiation, quantum friction, and the Hawking effect. In this work we provide a more detailed understanding of these negative-frequency modes based on a simple microscopic model of a dielectric medium as a lattice of scatterers. We calculate the classical and quantum mechanical radiation damping of an oscillator moving through such a lattice and find that the modes where the frequency has changed sign contribute negatively. In terms of the lattice of scatterers we find that this negative radiation damping arises due to the phase of the periodic force experienced by the oscillator due to the relative motion of the lattice.

  19. Optical modeling of extraoral defects.

    PubMed

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Notni, Gunther; Heinze, Matthias; Schöne, Christine; Schmidt, Annette; Fichtner, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce the stress caused to patients by conventional methods of modeling using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an optical modeling process has been developed for extraoral defects and body areas. The selected body part is digitized using optical 3-coordinate measuring technology, providing an extensive data record. This is adapted for further use by equalizing the point clouds to obtain a Computer Aided Design (CAD) model, which is converted to a physical model by means of a stereolithographic process. With this technology, the patient's physical and psychological stress may be reduced. This article describes a technique for optical modeling of an ocular prosthesis.

  20. Long-working-distance microscopic imaging in a turbid medium by use of an ultrafast optical Kerr gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuhu; Tan, Wenjiang; Zheng, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tong, Junyi

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a long-working-distance microscopic imaging of hidden objects in a turbid medium by use of an ultrafast optical Kerr gate (OKG). The results show that the working distance and the spatial resolution of the long-working-distance microscopic imaging system have been increased simultaneously compared with those of the conventional 4f OKG imaging systems. A compound lens consisting of a long-focus achromatic doublet and a microscope objective is used to increase the long working distance and ensure the sufficient spatial resolution. The microscopic OKG imaging system with a working distance of 245 mm and a maximal spatial resolution of approximately 7 μm has been performed.

  1. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Multilayer Coated X-Ray Optics for the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Dwight C.

    1996-01-01

    Hoover et. al. built and tested two imaging Schwarzschild multilayer microscopes. These instruments were constructed as prototypes for the "Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope," which is a doubly reflecting, multilayer x-ray microscope configured to operate within the "water window." The "water window" is the narrow region of the x-ray spectrum between the K absorption edges of oxygen (lamda = 23.3 Angstroms) and of carbon (lamda = 43.62 Angstroms), where water is relatively highly transmissive and carbon is highly absorptive. This property of these materials, thus permits the use of high resolution multilayer x-ray microscopes for producing high contrast images of carbon-based structures within the aqueous physiological environments of living cells. We report the design, fabrication and testing of multilayer optics that operate in this regime.

  2. Long-working-distance microscopic imaging in a turbid medium by use of an ultrafast optical Kerr gate.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuhu; Tan, Wenjiang; Zheng, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tong, Junyi

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a long-working-distance microscopic imaging of hidden objects in a turbid medium by use of an ultrafast optical Kerr gate (OKG). The results show that the working distance and the spatial resolution of the long-working-distance microscopic imaging system have been increased simultaneously compared with those of the conventional 4f OKG imaging systems. A compound lens consisting of a long-focus achromatic doublet and a microscope objective is used to increase the long working distance and ensure the sufficient spatial resolution. The microscopic OKG imaging system with a working distance of 245 mm and a maximal spatial resolution of approximately 7 μm has been performed. PMID:27370460

  3. Identification of unknown experimental parameters from noisy apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope data with an evolutionary procedure.

    PubMed

    Macías, D; Barchiesi, D

    2005-10-01

    We determine a set of experimental parameters through the application of an evolutionary inversion procedure. The input to the algorithm is experimental apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope data. The performance of our inversion procedure is assessed by means of a comparison with a nonevolutionary technique.

  4. Microscopic modelling of semi-insulating GaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, A.; Vasanelli, L.; Reggiani, L.; Cavallini, A.; Nava, F.

    1997-08-01

    We present a drift-diffusion model of semi-insulating n-GaAs detectors, taking into account the presence of hot-carrier dynamics, conduction band features and the kinetics of trapping and detrapping from deep and shallow centres. We provide unambiguous evidence of a field-enhanced capture cross section for EL2 and EL3 centres as conjectured by McGregor [1] for the case of EL2. This result is shown to be strictly correlated with the active thickness of the detector varying almost linearly with the applied voltage, in excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements performed with the Optical Beam-Induced Currents (OBIC) technique. Evidence of Poole-Frenkel effects at the highest applied voltages is provided by the current-voltage characteristics.

  5. An electron microscopic and optical diffraction analysis of the structure of Limulus telson muscle thick filaments

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Long, thick filaments (greater than 4.0 micrometer) rapidly and gently isolated from fresh, unstimulated Limulus muscle by an improved procedure have been examined by electron microscopy and optical diffraction. Images of negatively stained filaments appear highly periodic with a well-preserved myosin cross-bridge array. Optical diffraction patterns of the electron micrographs show a wealth of detail and are consistent with a myosin helical repeat of 43.8 nm, similar to that observed by x-ray diffraction. Analysis of the optical diffraction patterns, in conjunction with the appearance in electron micrographs of the filaments, supports a model for the filament in which the myosin cross-bridges are arranged on a four-stranded helix, with 12 cross-bridges per turn or each helix, thus giving an axial repeat every third level of cross-bridges (43.8 nm). PMID:7199531

  6. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling of femtosecond laser ablation of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Fokin, Vladimir B.; Levashov, Pavel R.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation of femtosecond laser ablation of a bulk aluminum target is performed using two complementary approaches. The first method is single-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamics (HD) completed with a two-temperature equation of state (EOS). The second approach is a combination of classical molecular dynamics (MD) and a continuum model of a free electron subsystem. In both methods, an identical and accurate description of optical and transport properties of the electron subsystem is based on wide-range models reproducing effects of electron heat wave propagation, electron-phonon/ion coupling and laser energy absorption on a time-dependent profile of the dielectric function. For simulation of homogeneous nucleation in a metastable liquid phase, a kinetic model of nucleation is implemented in the HD approach. The phase diagrams of the EOS and MD potential are in good agreement that gives opportunity to compare the dynamics of laser ablation obtained by both methods directly. Results of simulation are presented in the range of incident fluences 0.1-20 J/cm2 and match well with experimental findings for an ablation crater depth. The MD accurately reproduces nonequilibrium phase transitions and takes into account surface effects on nanoscale. The HD approach demonstrates good qualitative agreement with the MD method in the dynamics of phase explosion and spallation. Other advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are examined and discussed.

  7. Wave optics theory and 3-D deconvolution for the light field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Yang, Samuel; Cohen, Noy; Andalman, Aaron; Deisseroth, Karl; Levoy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Light field microscopy is a new technique for high-speed volumetric imaging of weakly scattering or fluorescent specimens. It employs an array of microlenses to trade off spatial resolution against angular resolution, thereby allowing a 4-D light field to be captured using a single photographic exposure without the need for scanning. The recorded light field can then be used to computationally reconstruct a full volume. In this paper, we present an optical model for light field microscopy based on wave optics, instead of previously reported ray optics models. We also present a 3-D deconvolution method for light field microscopy that is able to reconstruct volumes at higher spatial resolution, and with better optical sectioning, than previously reported. To accomplish this, we take advantage of the dense spatio-angular sampling provided by a microlens array at axial positions away from the native object plane. This dense sampling permits us to decode aliasing present in the light field to reconstruct high-frequency information. We formulate our method as an inverse problem for reconstructing the 3-D volume, which we solve using a GPU-accelerated iterative algorithm. Theoretical limits on the depth-dependent lateral resolution of the reconstructed volumes are derived. We show that these limits are in good agreement with experimental results on a standard USAF 1951 resolution target. Finally, we present 3-D reconstructions of pollen grains that demonstrate the improvements in fidelity made possible by our method. PMID:24150383

  8. Sensitivity maximized near-field scanning optical microscope with dithering sample stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Lee, Seung Gol; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2012-09-01

    We developed a new scheme for a higher sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) by using a dithering sample stage rather than a dithering probe for the constant gap control between probe and sample. In a conventional NSOM, which use tip dithering feedback mechanism, the Q factor drastically decreases from 7783 to 1000 (13%) or even to 100 (1%) because harmonic oscillating characteristic is deteriorated owing to the large change of stiffness and mass of one prong of tuning fork when a probe is attached to it. In our proposed scheme, on the other hand, we use sample dithering feedback mechanism, where the probe is not attached to the tuning fork and the sample is loaded directly onto the surface of dithering tuning fork. Thus, the Q factor does not decrease significantly, from only 7783 to 7480 (96%), because the loaded sample hardly changes the stiffness and mass of tuning fork. Accordingly, gap control between the immobile fiber probe and the dithering sample is performed precisely by detecting the shear force with high sensitivity. Consequently, the extremely high Q factor enables clear observation of graphene sheets with sub-nanometer vertical resolution, which is not possible with a conventional NSOM setup.

  9. Sensitivity maximized near-field scanning optical microscope with dithering sample stage.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Lee, Seung Gol; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2012-09-01

    We developed a new scheme for a higher sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) by using a dithering sample stage rather than a dithering probe for the constant gap control between probe and sample. In a conventional NSOM, which use tip dithering feedback mechanism, the Q factor drastically decreases from 7783 to 1000 (13%) or even to 100 (1%) because harmonic oscillating characteristic is deteriorated owing to the large change of stiffness and mass of one prong of tuning fork when a probe is attached to it. In our proposed scheme, on the other hand, we use sample dithering feedback mechanism, where the probe is not attached to the tuning fork and the sample is loaded directly onto the surface of dithering tuning fork. Thus, the Q factor does not decrease significantly, from only 7783 to 7480 (96%), because the loaded sample hardly changes the stiffness and mass of tuning fork. Accordingly, gap control between the immobile fiber probe and the dithering sample is performed precisely by detecting the shear force with high sensitivity. Consequently, the extremely high Q factor enables clear observation of graphene sheets with sub-nanometer vertical resolution, which is not possible with a conventional NSOM setup. PMID:23020386

  10. Microscopic feature extraction from optical sections of contracting cardiac muscle cells recorded at high speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Kenneth P.; Lake, David S.; Lubell, Bradford A.

    1991-05-01

    The rapid motion of microscopic features such as the cross-striations of contracting cardiac muscle cells are difficult to capture with conventional RS-170 video systems and image processing approaches. In this report, efforts to extract, enhance and analyze striation data from widefield optical sections of single contracting cells recorded with a charge-coupled device (CCD) video camera modified for high-speed RS-170 compatible operation are described. Each video field from the camera provides four 1/4 height images separated by 4 ms in time for a 240 Hz image acquisition rate. Data are continuously recorded on S-VHS video tape during each experiment. Selected image sequences are digitized field by field and stored in a computer system under automated software control. The four individual images in each video field are separated, geometrically corrected for time base error, and reassembled as a single sequence of images for interpretable visualization. The images are then processed with digital filters and gray scale expansion to preferentially enhance the cross-striations and minimize out of focus features. Regions within each image containing striations are identified and their positions determined and followed during the contraction cycle to obtain individual, regional and cellular sarcomere dynamics. This approach permits the critical evaluation of the magnitude, time course and uniformity of contractile function throughout the volume of a single cell with higher temporal and spatial resolutions than previously possible.

  11. Microscopic modeling of charge transport in sensing proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Lino; Millithaler, Jean-Francois; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2012-06-01

    Sensing proteins (receptors) are nanostructures that exhibit very complex behaviors (ions pumping, conformational change, reaction catalysis, etc). They are constituted by a specific sequence of amino acids within a codified spatial organization. The functioning of these macromolecules is intrinsically connected with their spatial structure, which modifications are normally associated with their biological function. With the advance of nanotechnology, the investigation of the electrical properties of receptors has emerged as a demanding issue. Beside the fundamental interest, the possibility to exploit the electrical properties for the development of bioelectronic devices of new generations has attracted major interest. From the experimental side, we investigate three complementary kinds of measurements: (1) current-voltage (I-V) measurements in nanometric layers sandwiched between macroscopic contacts, (2) I-V measurements within an AFM environment in nanometric monolayers deposited on a conducting substrate, and (3) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements on appropriate monolayers of self-assembled samples. From the theoretical side, a microscopic interpretation of these experiments is still a challenging issue. This paper reviews recent theoretical results carried out within the European project, Bioelectronic Olfactory Neuron Device, which provides a first quantitative interpretation of charge transport experiments exploiting static and dynamic electrical properties of several receptors. To this purpose, we have developed an impedance network protein analogue (INPA) which considers the interaction between neighboring amino acids within a given radius as responsible of charge transfer throughout the protein. The conformational change, due to the sensing action produced by the capture of the ligand (photon, odour), induces a modification of the spatial structure and, thus, of the electrical properties of the receptor. By a scaling procedure, the

  12. Development and Optical Testing of the Camera, Hand Lens, and Microscope Probe with Scannable Laser Spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg S.; Gursel, Yekta; Sepulveda, Cesar A.; Anderson, Mark; La Baw, Clayton; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Deans, Matthew; Beegle, Luther; Boynton, John

    2008-01-01

    Conducting high resolution field microscopy with coupled laser spectroscopy that can be used to selectively analyze the surface chemistry of individual pixels in a scene is an enabling capability for next generation robotic and manned spaceflight missions, civil, and military applications. In the laboratory, we use a range of imaging and surface preparation tools that provide us with in-focus images, context imaging for identifying features that we want to investigate at high magnification, and surface-optical coupling that allows us to apply optical spectroscopic analysis techniques for analyzing surface chemistry particularly at high magnifications. The camera, hand lens, and microscope probe with scannable laser spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS) is an imaging/spectroscopy instrument capable of imaging continuously from infinity down to high resolution microscopy (resolution of approx. 1 micron/pixel in a final camera format), the closer CHAMP-SLS is placed to a feature, the higher the resultant magnification. At hand lens to microscopic magnifications, the imaged scene can be selectively interrogated with point spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, microscopic Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (micro-LIBS), laser ablation mass-spectrometry, Fluorescence spectroscopy, and/or Reflectance spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the optical design, development, and testing of the CHAMP-SLS optics.

  13. A preliminary optical visibility model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, K.; Levine, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    A model is being created to describe the effect of weather on optical communications links between space and ground sites. This article describes the process by which the model is developed and gives preliminary results for two sites. The results indicate nighttime attenuation of optical transmission at five wavelengths. It is representative of a sampling of nights at Table Mountain Observatory from January to June and Mount Lemmon Observatory from May and June. The results are designed to predict attenuation probabilities for optical communications links.

  14. Huxley's Model for Muscle Contraction Revisited: The Importance of Microscopic Reversibility.

    PubMed

    Astumian, R Dean

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Huxley's model for muscle contraction is the first mechanistic description of how an energy-providing chemical reaction, ATP hydrolysis, can be coupled by a molecule (myosin) to do work in the environment in a cyclic process. The model was originally used to fit experimentally obtained force vs velocity curves, and has served as a paradigm for understanding mechanochemical coupling ever since. Despite the remarkable success in fitting kinetic data, Huxley's model is thermodynamically inconsistent in several regards, most notably in its failure to include thermal noise in the description of the mechanical transitions by which motion occurs. This inconsistency has led subsequent workers to incorrect conclusions regarding the importance of mechanical transitions for determining the direction of motion, the efficiency of energy conversion, the ratio of forward to backward steps, and the applied force necessary to stop the motion of chemically driven molecular motors. In this chapter an extension of Huxley's model is described where the principle of microscopic reversibility provides a framework for developing a thermodynamically consistent description of a molecular machine. The results show clearly that mechanical strain and the so-called "power stroke" are irrelevant for determining the directionality and thermodynamic properties of any chemically driven molecular motor. Instead these properties are controlled entirely by the chemical specificity that describes how the relative rates of the ATP hydrolysis reaction depend, by allosteric interactions, on the mechanical state of the molecule. This mechanism has been termed an "information ratchet" in the literature. In contrast to the results for chemical driving, a power stroke can be a key component for the operation of an optically driven motor, the transitions of which do not obey microscopic reversibility. PMID:26122749

  15. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics. PMID:27078207

  16. Global analysis of isospin dependent microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials in a Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ruirui; Ma, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Yuan; van Dalen, E. N. E.; Müther, H.

    2016-09-01

    Background: For the study of exotic nuclei it is important to have an optical model potential that is reliable not only for stable nuclei but can also be extrapolated to nuclear systems with exotic numbers of protons and neutrons. An efficient way to obtain such a potential is to develop a microscopic optical potential (MOP) based on a fundamental theory with a minimal number of free parameters, which are adjusted to describe stable nuclei all over the nuclide chart. Purpose: The choice adopted in the present work is to develop the MOP within a relativistic scheme which provides a natural and consistent relation between the spin-orbit part and the central part of the potential. The Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach provides such a microscopic relativistic scheme, which is based on a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction and reproduces the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter without any adjustable parameter. Its solution using the projection technique within the subtracted T -matrix representation provides a reliable extension to asymmetric nuclear matter, which is important to describe the features of isospin asymmetric nuclei. The present work performs a global analysis of the isospin dependent nucleon-nucleus MOP based on the DBHF calculation in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter. Methods: The DBHF approach is used to evaluate the relativistic structure of the nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter at various densities and asymmetries. The Schrödinger equivalent potentials of finite nuclei are derived from these Dirac components by a local density approximation (LDA). The density distributions of finite nuclei are taken from the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with Gogny D1S force. An improved LDA approach (ILDA) is employed to get a better prediction of the scattering observables. A χ2 assessment system based on the global simulated annealing algorithm is developed to optimize the very few free components in this study. Results

  17. Angle of incidence averaging in reflectance measurements with optical microscopes for studying layered two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Nihit; Mukherjee, Amlan; Sugunakar, Vasam; Ghosh, Sandip

    2014-07-01

    Reflectance spectrum measured using an optical microscope with a large numerical aperture objective lens is shown to get modified. The change is most prominent when there are optical interference related features in the spectrum. This modification is shown to arise primarily due to the wide range of angles of incidence involved in the measurement and a simple formulation is provided to correct for this in simulations. The importance of such analysis is brought out through a reflectance contrast spectroscopy based study for identifying mono-layer and bi-layer graphene and MoS2.

  18. In-situ optical transmission electron microscope study of exciton phonon replicas in ZnO nanowires by cathodoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shize; Tian, Xuezeng; Wang, Lifen; Wei, Jiake; Qi, Kuo; Li, Xiaomin; Xu, Zhi E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn Wang, Wenlong; Zhao, Jimin; Bai, Xuedong E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, Enge E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn

    2014-08-18

    The cathodoluminescence spectrum of single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is measured by in-situ optical Transmission Electron Microscope. The coupling between exciton and longitudinal optical phonon is studied. The band edge emission varies for different excitation spots. This effect is attributed to the exciton propagation along the c axis of the nanowire. Contrary to free exciton emission, the phonon replicas are well confined in ZnO nanowire. They travel along the c axis and emit at the end surface. Bending strain increases the relative intensity of second order phonon replicas when excitons travel along the c-axis.

  19. Photon path distribution and optical responses of turbid media: theoretical analysis based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y

    2001-08-01

    A concise theoretical treatment has been developed to describe the optical responses of a highly scattering inhomogeneous medium using functions of the photon path distribution (PPD). The treatment is based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law and has been found to yield a complete set of optical responses by time- and frequency-domain measurements. The PPD is defined for possible photons having a total zigzag pathlength of l between the points of light input and detection. Such a distribution is independent of the absorption properties of the medium and can be uniquely determined for the medium under quantification. Therefore, the PPD can be calculated with an imaginary reference medium having the same optical properties as the medium under quantification except for the absence of absorption. One of the advantages of this method is that the optical responses, the total attenuation, the mean pathlength, etc are expressed by functions of the PPD and the absorption distribution.

  20. Predictions for RHIC: Critical Overview of Microscopic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulassy, Miklos

    1998-10-01

    The first measurements of inverse alchemy (Au+Auarrow; ?) at E_cm=200 AGeV will begin next year at RHIC. Some theorists are sticking their necks out to predicthadronic observables in this unknown energy domain, rather than fit fireballs to data as is popular at SPS. I will focus on the key uncertain assumptions and dynamical elements in current microscopic event generators and hadronic/partonic transport codes which are likely to cause neck aches next year. Topics will include entropy production and transverse energy systematics, baryon stopping, and flavor equilibration.

  1. Electron microscopic studies of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration of rat optic nerve after intravenous injection of colloidal carbon.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1978-01-01

    The origin of macrophages in the degenerating optic nerve of rats after eye enucleation was investigated electron microscopically following intravenous labelling of mononuclear leucoytes with colloidal carbon. In the various post-operative periods studied carbon-labelled macrophages were seen at the site of lesion. At 4 and 7 days after enucleation carbon-labelled cells were seen at the site of Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve over 4 mm distal to the site of the lesion. In the electron microscope these cells showed a flattened nucleus bearing coarse chromatin clumps, their cytoplasm contained a prominent Golgi complex and long isolate profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Clusters of carbon particles in the cytoplasms were membrane-bound. Lysosomal bodies embedded with carbon particles were also observed. In relation to the blood vessels of the optic nerve, endothelial cells and pericytes with ingested carbon were seen. Macrophages in the meninges covering the optic nerve were also labelled. The results suggest that some macrophages in the region of Wallerian degeneration in the optic nerve, as well as those at the actual site of the lesion, were transformed blood leucocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:649492

  2. Three-dimensional registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, David; Mehanna, Emile; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Brandt, Eric; Wen, Di; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S; Chamie, Daniel; Yamamoto, Hirosada; Fujino, Yusuke; Alian, Ali; Patel, Jaymin; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G; Wilson, David L

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests high-resolution, high-contrast, [Formula: see text] intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) can distinguish plaque types, but further validation is needed, especially for automated plaque characterization. We developed experimental and three-dimensional (3-D) registration methods to provide validation of IVOCT pullback volumes using microscopic, color, and fluorescent cryo-image volumes with optional registered cryo-histology. A specialized registration method matched IVOCT pullback images acquired in the catheter reference frame to a true 3-D cryo-image volume. Briefly, an 11-parameter registration model including a polynomial virtual catheter was initialized within the cryo-image volume, and perpendicular images were extracted, mimicking IVOCT image acquisition. Virtual catheter parameters were optimized to maximize cryo and IVOCT lumen overlap. Multiple assessments suggested that the registration error was better than the [Formula: see text] spacing between IVOCT image frames. Tests on a digital synthetic phantom gave a registration error of only [Formula: see text] (signed distance). Visual assessment of randomly presented nearby frames suggested registration accuracy within 1 IVOCT frame interval ([Formula: see text]). This would eliminate potential misinterpretations confronted by the typical histological approaches to validation, with estimated 1-mm errors. The method can be used to create annotated datasets and automated plaque classification methods and can be extended to other intravascular imaging modalities.

  3. Measurement of anchoring coefficient of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal using a polarizing optical microscope in reflective mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-In; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Although the homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals is widely used in LCD TVs, no easy method exists to measure its anchoring coefficient. In this study, we propose an easy and convenient measurement technique in which a polarizing optical microscope is used in the reflective mode with an objective lens having a low depth of focus. All measurements focus on the reflection of light near the interface between the liquid crystal and alignment layer. The change in the reflected light is measured by applying an electric field. We model the response of the director of the liquid crystal to the electric field and, thus, the change in reflectance. By adjusting the extrapolation length in the calculation, we match the experimental and calculated results and obtain the anchoring coefficient. In our experiment, the extrapolation lengths were 0.31 ± 0.04 μm, 0.32 ± 0.08 μm, and 0.23 ± 0.05 μm for lecithin, AL-64168, and SE-5662, respectively.

  4. Optical-Microphysical Cirrus Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Lin, R.-F.; Hess, M.; McGee, T. J.; Starr, D. O.

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that permits the simulation of the optical properties of cirrus clouds as measured with depolarization Raman lidars. It comprises a one-dimensional cirrus model with explicit microphysics and an optical module that transforms the microphysical model output to cloud and particle optical properties. The optical model takes into account scattering by randomly oriented or horizontally aligned planar and columnar monocrystals and polycrystals. Key cloud properties such as the fraction of plate-like particles and the number of basic crystals per polycrystal are parameterized in terms of the ambient temperature, the nucleation temperature, or the mass of the particles. The optical-microphysical model is used to simulate the lidar measurement of a synoptically forced cirrostratus in a first case study. It turns out that a cirrus cloud consisting of only monocrystals in random orientation is too simple a model scenario to explain the observations. However, good agreement between simulation and observation is reached when the formation of polycrystals or the horizontal alignment of monocrystals is permitted. Moreover, the model results show that plate fraction and morphological complexity are best parameterized in terms of particle mass, or ambient temperature which indicates that the ambient conditions affect cirrus optical properties more than those during particle formation. Furthermore, the modeled profiles of particle shape and size are in excellent agreement with in situ and laboratory studies, i.e., (partly oriented) polycrystalline particles with mainly planar basic crystals in the cloud bottom layer, and monocrystals above, with the fraction of columns increasing and the shape and size of the particles changing from large thin plates and long columns to small, more isometric crystals from cloud center to top. The findings of this case study corroborate the microphysical interpretation of cirrus measurements with lidar as suggested previously.

  5. Acoustic Models of Optical Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2014-01-01

    Students form a more exact idea of the action of optical mirrors if they can observe the wave field being formed during reflection. For this purpose it is possible to organize model experiments with flexural waves propagating in thin elastic plates. The direct and round edges of the plates are used as models of plane, convex and concave mirrors.…

  6. An evaluation of a combined scanning probe and optical microscope for lunar regolith studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Claus, D.; Rodenburg, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The microscopic properties of the lunar regolith such as the shape, the surface texture and the size distribution are required for an understanding of both past surface processes and potential hazards for future human exploration [1]. To reveal the particle morphology at the sub micrometer scale, scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), first used on the 2008 Phoenix mission [1], is a proven approach; however, there are two main challenges for the measurement of lunar particles. Firstly, the SPM tip is liable to move particles during scanning, even when using the lower contact forces of the dynamic-mode imaging. Hence the particles need to be stabilised during imaging. Secondly, typically the AFM tip extends about 10 μm from its cantilever, so larger particles protruding more than this height above their substrates cannot be scanned completely. To immobilize particles and eliminate large particles during SPM scanning, micromachined Si substrates, which have been successfully applied in the Phoenix project for Mars investigation in 2008 [2], have been investigated for lunar analogue material. On these substrates micrometer pits are patterned and serve as traps to enhance the stability of the AFM scanning by grasping the particles. In addition, the diameter of pits can determine the size of dusts to be captured and reduce the adhesion for the larger dust and so eliminate the oversized particles. To extend the imaging range and assist in selecting scan areas for the SPM, we use a type of lensless optical imaging (LOM) which uses ptychographic diffractive imaging [3] to eliminate the restrictions and performance limitations of conventional focusing devices. As a reference, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which minimizes particle-probe interactions and has the advantage of an extended depth of field, is employed to image the same particle fields at resolutions covering both the SPM and LOM. By comparing the differences and the similarities between SEM and LOM images, the

  7. Microscopic reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility: A lattice gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Cárdenas, Fernando C.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.

    2016-09-01

    We present coarse-grained descriptions and computations of the time evolution of a lattice gas system of indistinguishable particles, whose microscopic laws of motion are exactly reversible, in order to investigate how or what kind of macroscopically irreversible behavior may eventually arise. With increasing coarse-graining and number of particles, relative fluctuations of entropy rapidly decrease and apparently irreversible behavior unfolds. Although that behavior becomes typical in those limits and within a certain range, it is never absolutely irreversible for any individual system with specific initial conditions. Irreversible behavior may arise in various ways. We illustrate one possibility by replacing detailed integer occupation numbers at lattice sites with particle probability densities that evolve diffusively.

  8. Modeling an optical micromachine probe

    SciTech Connect

    Mittas, A.; Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.

    1997-08-01

    Silicon micromachines are fabricated using Surface Micro-Machining (SMM) techniques. Silicon micromachines include engines that consist of orthogonally oriented linear comb drive actuators mechanically connected to a rotating gear. These gears are as small a 50-{micro}m in diameter and can be driven at rotation rates exceeding 300,000-rpm. Measuring and analyzing microengine performance is basic to micromachine development and system applications. Optical techniques offer the potential for measuring long term statistical performance data and transient responses needed to optimize designs and manufacturing techniques. The authors describe the modeling of an optical probe developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Experimental data will be compared with output from the model.

  9. Optical Analysis of an Ultra-High resolution Two-Mirror Soft X-Ray Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, Cheng; Hoover, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    This work has summarized for a Schwarzschild microscope some relationships between numerical aperture (NA), magnification, diameter of the primary mirror, radius of curvature of the secondary mirror, and the total length of the microscope. To achieve resolutions better than a spherical Schwarzschild microscope of 3.3 Lambda for a perfectly aligned and fabricated system. it is necessary to use aspherical surfaces to control higher-order aberrations. For an NA of 0.35, the aspherical Head microscope provides diffraction limited resolution of 1.4 Lambda where the aspherical surfaces differ from the best fit spherical surface by approximately 1 micrometer. However, the angle of incidence varies significantly over the primary and the secondary mirrors, which will require graded multilayer coatings to operate near peak reflectivities. For higher numerical apertures, the variation of the angle of incidence over the secondary mirror surface becomes a serious problem which must be solved before multilayer coatings can be used for this application. Tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has shown that water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance for operations with 130 A radiation. Surface contour errors have been shown to have a significant impact on the MTF and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror.

  10. The Investigation of Electronic Properties and Microscopic Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Behavior of 1-SALICYLIDENE-3-THIO-SEMICARBAZONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Asli; Unver, Huseyin; Elmali, Ayhan

    To investigate the microscopic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of the 1-salicylidene-3-thio-semicarbazone Schiff base compound, the electric dipole moments (μ), linear static polarizabilities (α) and first static hyperpolarizabilites (β) have been calculated using finite field second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (FF MP2) theory. The ab-initio results on (hyper)polarizabilities show that the investigated molecule might have microscopic NLO properties with non-zero values. To understand the NLO behavior in the context of molecular orbital structure, we have also examined the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the HOMO-LUMO gap in the same theoretical framework as the (hyper)polarizability calculations. In addition to the NLO properties, the electronic transition spectra have been computed using a semi-empirical method (ZINDO). ZINDO calculation results show that the electronic transition wavelengths have been estimated to be shorter than 400 nm.

  11. Design and Development of a Microscopic Model for Polarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, E.; Psillos, D.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Viiri, J.

    2009-01-01

    As research shows that the knowledge and use of models and modelling by teachers is limited, particularly for predicting phenomena, we developed and applied a sequence of three representations of a simulated model focusing on polarization and specifically showing the behaviour of an atom, and forces exerted on a dipole and an insulator, when a…

  12. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications. PMID:26525841

  13. Chronic monitoring of cortical hemodynamics in behaving, freely-moving rats using a miniaturized head-mounted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Koletar, Margaret; Ringuette, Dene; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Growing interest within the neurophysiology community in assessing healthy and pathological brain activity in animals that are awake and freely-behaving has triggered the need for optical systems that are suitable for such longitudinal studies. In this work we report label-free multi-modal imaging of cortical hemodynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake, freely-behaving rats, using a novel head-mounted miniature optical microscope. The microscope employs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at three distinct wavelengths (680 nm, 795 nm, and 850 nm) to provide measurements of four hemodynamic markers: blood flow speeds, HbO, HbR, and total Hb concentration, across a > 2 mm field of view. Blood flow speeds are extracted using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), while oxygenation measurements are performed using Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging (IOSI). Longitudinal measurements on the same animal are made possible over the course of > 6 weeks using a chronic window that is surgically implanted into the skull. We use the device to examine changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in superficial cortical blood vessels and tissue in response to drug-induced absence-like seizures, correlating motor behavior with changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain.

  14. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications.

  15. Trapping and two-photon fluorescence excitation of microscopic objects using ultrafast single-fiber optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Yogeshwar N; Ingle, Ninad; Mohanty, Samarendra K

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of trapped microscopic objects using fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy is gaining considerable interest. We report on the development of single fiber ultrafast optical tweezers and its use in simultaneous two-photon fluorescence (TPF) excitation of trapped fluorescent microscopic objects. Using this method, trapping depth of a few centimeters was achieved inside a colloidal sample with TPF from the trapped particle being visible to the naked eye. Owing to the propagation distance of the Bessel-like beam emerging from the axicon-fiber tip, a relatively longer streak of fluorescence was observed along the microsphere length. The cone angle of the axicon was engineered so as to provide better trapping stability and high axial confinement of TPF. Trapping of the floating objects led to stable fluorescence emission intensity over a long period of time, suitable for spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, the stability of the fiber optic trapping was confirmed by holding and maneuvering the fiber by hand so as to move the trapped fluorescent particle in three dimensions. Apart from miniaturization capability into lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices, the proposed noninvasive microaxicon tipped optical fiber can be used in multifunctional mode for in-depth trapping, rotation, sorting, and ablation, as well as for two-photon fluorescence excitation of a motile sample.

  16. Microscopic model analysis of the 6He, 6Li+28Si total reaction cross sections at the energy range 5-50 A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, K. V.; Kukhtina, I. N.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.

    2007-05-22

    The existing and some preliminary experimental data on the total cross sections of the 4,6He, 6,7Li+28Si reactions at energies E=5-50 A MeV are demonstrated. The data on 6Li,6He+28Si are analyzed in the framework of the microscopic optical potential with real and imaginary parts obtained with a help of the double-folding procedure and by using the current models of densities of the projectile nuclei. Besides, the microscopic double-folding Coulomb potential is calculated and its effect on cross sections is compared with that when one applies the traditional Coulomb potential of the uniform charge distribution. The semi-microscopic potentials are constructed from both the renormalized microscopic potentials and their derivatives to take into account collective motion effect and to improve an agreement with experimental data.

  17. Effective microscopic models for sympathetic cooling of atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofrio, Roberto; Sundaram, Bala

    2015-09-01

    Thermalization of a system in the presence of a heat bath has been the subject of many theoretical investigations especially in the framework of solid-state physics. In this setting, the presence of a large bandwidth for the frequency distribution of the harmonic oscillators schematizing the heat bath is crucial, as emphasized in the Caldeira-Leggett model. By contrast, ultracold gases in atomic traps oscillate at well-defined frequencies and therefore seem to lie outside the Caldeira-Leggett paradigm. We introduce interaction Hamiltonians which allow us to adapt the model to an atomic physics framework. The intrinsic nonlinearity of these models differentiates them from the original Caldeira-Leggett model and calls for a nontrivial stability analysis to determine effective ranges for the model parameters. These models allow for molecular-dynamics simulations of mixtures of ultracold gases, which is of current relevance for optimizing sympathetic cooling in degenerate Bose-Fermi mixtures.

  18. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-04-15

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H{sub ∞} control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  19. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  20. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  1. Microscopic pressure-cooker model for studying molecules in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Ruben; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia

    2015-04-01

    A model for a system of a finite number of molecules in confinement is presented and expressions for determining the temperature, pressure, and volume of the system are derived. The present model is a generalisation of the Zwanzig-Langevin model because it includes pressure effects in the system. It also has general validity, preserves the ergodic hypothesis, and provides a formal framework for previous studies of hydrogen clusters in confinement. The application of the model is illustrated by an investigation of a set of prebiotic compounds exposed to varying pressure and temperature. The simulations performed within the model involve the use of a combination of molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods implemented on a computer system with a mixed CPU-GPU architecture.

  2. Laboratory-size three-dimensional water-window x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water-window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques. It consists of an electron-impact x-ray source emitting oxygen Kα x-rays, Wolter type I grazing incidence mirror optics, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit better than 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm-scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  3. Model-independent quantitative measurement of nanomechanical oscillator vibrations using electron-microscope linescans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huan; Fenton, J. C.; Chiatti, O.; Warburton, P. A.

    2013-07-15

    Nanoscale mechanical resonators are highly sensitive devices and, therefore, for application as highly sensitive mass balances, they are potentially superior to micromachined cantilevers. The absolute measurement of nanoscale displacements of such resonators remains a challenge, however, since the optical signal reflected from a cantilever whose dimensions are sub-wavelength is at best very weak. We describe a technique for quantitative analysis and fitting of scanning-electron microscope (SEM) linescans across a cantilever resonator, involving deconvolution from the vibrating resonator profile using the stationary resonator profile. This enables determination of the absolute amplitude of nanomechanical cantilever oscillations even when the oscillation amplitude is much smaller than the cantilever width. This technique is independent of any model of secondary-electron emission from the resonator and is, therefore, applicable to resonators with arbitrary geometry and material inhomogeneity. We demonstrate the technique using focussed-ion-beam–deposited tungsten cantilevers of radius ∼60–170 nm inside a field-emission SEM, with excitation of the cantilever by a piezoelectric actuator allowing measurement of the full frequency response. Oscillation amplitudes approaching the size of the primary electron-beam can be resolved. We further show that the optimum electron-beam scan speed is determined by a compromise between deflection of the cantilever at low scan speeds and limited spatial resolution at high scan speeds. Our technique will be an important tool for use in precise characterization of nanomechanical resonator devices.

  4. Microscopic Simulation and Macroscopic Modeling for Thermal and Chemical Non-Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Vinokur, Marcel; Clarke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the accurate microscopic simulation and macroscopic modeling of extreme non-equilibrium phenomena, such as encountered during hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere. The state-to-state microscopic equations involving internal excitation, de-excitation, dissociation, and recombination of nitrogen molecules due to collisions with nitrogen atoms are solved time-accurately. Strategies to increase the numerical efficiency are discussed. The problem is then modeled using a few macroscopic variables. The model is based on reconstructions of the state distribution function using the maximum entropy principle. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe the non-equilibrium gases. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients. The modeling is completely physics-based, and its accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used. The model makes no assumption at the microscopic level, and all possible collisional and radiative processes are allowed. The model is applicable to both atoms and molecules and their ions. Several limiting cases are presented to show that the model recovers the classical twotemperature models if all states are in one group and the model reduces to the microscopic equations if each group contains only one state. Numerical examples and model validations are carried out for both the uniform and linear distributions. Results show that the original over nine thousand microscopic equations can be reduced to 2 macroscopic equations using 1 to 5 groups with excellent agreement. The computer time is decreased from 18 hours to less than 1 second.

  5. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal. PMID:27140358

  6. A novel optical microscope for imaging large embryos and tissue volumes with sub-cellular resolution throughout

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Gail; Trägårdh, Johanna; Amor, Rumelo; Dempster, John; Reid, Es; Amos, William Bradshaw

    2016-01-01

    Current optical microscope objectives of low magnification have low numerical aperture and therefore have too little depth resolution and discrimination to perform well in confocal and nonlinear microscopy. This is a serious limitation in important areas, including the phenotypic screening of human genes in transgenic mice by study of embryos undergoing advanced organogenesis. We have built an optical lens system for 3D imaging of objects up to 6 mm wide and 3 mm thick with depth resolution of only a few microns instead of the tens of microns currently attained, allowing sub-cellular detail to be resolved throughout the volume. We present this lens, called the Mesolens, with performance data and images from biological specimens including confocal images of whole fixed and intact fluorescently-stained 12.5-day old mouse embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18659.001 PMID:27661778

  7. Nanocluster: photothermal bubble as optical probes for cytometric and microscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitri O.; Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Hafner, Jason H.

    2007-06-01

    The ability to detect optical signals form a cellular target depends upon the amount of optical energy that can be generated by this target as the signal. Given that the sensitivity of optical detectors has some finite limit, further increase of the sensitivity of optical diagnostic methods requires increasing the energy of target-generated signal. Usually this energy is converted by the cellular target upon its optical excitation and is limited by many factors such as: cell and target damage thresholds, efficiency of excitation energy conversion, size of the target etc. All these put principal limitation on sensing small targets (like molecules) in living cells with any optical method because the energy that can be safely converted by the target into a signal is limited. To overcome this limitation and to improve the sensitivity of optical microscopy of living cells (and cytometry in general) we propose the concept of intracellular amplification of the optical signal. This concept includes two major steps. First, primary (pump) optical radiation interacts with the target (a probe molecule) to generate a transient target. Second, the transient target is sensed with additional optical radiation that does not interact strongly with primary target or the cell, and, hence, may have high enough energy to increase the signal from transient target even above the energy of pump radiation, which is limited by cell and target damage thresholds. We propose to use optical scattering from clusters of gold nanoparticles (the target) that are selectively formed in specific cells through antibody-receptor interaction and through endocytosis. To amplify this optical signal we propose to generate photothermal bubbles (the transient target) around those clusters. In experiments with water suspensions and with individual tumor K562 cells we have achieved optical signal amplification in individual cells (relatively to the scattering signal from intact cells): with gold nanorod

  8. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modeling of taxation and redistribution in a closed society. This framework allows one to describe the evolution of income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  9. Cathodoluminescence-activated nanoimaging: noninvasive near-field optical microscopy in an electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wang, Zhe; Precht, Jake T; Kaz, David M; Schlom, Darrell G; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a new nanoimaging platform in which optical excitations generated by a low-energy electron beam in an ultrathin scintillator are used as a noninvasive, near-field optical scanning probe of an underlying sample. We obtain optical images of Al nanostructures with 46 nm resolution and validate the noninvasiveness of this approach by imaging a conjugated polymer film otherwise incompatible with electron microscopy due to electron-induced damage. The high resolution, speed, and noninvasiveness of this "cathodoluminescence-activated" platform also show promise for super-resolution bioimaging.

  10. Endodontic Treatment of Maxillary Premolar with Three Root Canals Using Optical Microscope and NiTi Rotatory Files System.

    PubMed

    Relvas, João Bosco Formiga; de Carvalho, Fredsom Marcio Acris; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report a clinical case of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three root canals using an optical microscope and rotary instrumentation technique. The main complaint of the patient, a 16-year-old girl, was pain in tooth 14. After clinical and radiographic examination, irreversible pulpitis was diagnosed. An alteration in the middle third of the pulp chamber radiographically observed suggested the presence of three root canals. Pulp chamber access and initial catheterization using size number 10 K-files were performed. The optical microscope and radiographic examination were used to confirm the presence of three root canals. PathFiles #13, #16, and #19 were used to perform catheterization and ProTaper files S1 and S2 for cervical preparation. Apical preparation was performed using F1 file in the buccal canals and F2 in the palatal canal up to the working length. The root canals were filled with Endofill sealer by thermal compaction technique using McSpadden #50. The case has been receiving follow-up for 12 months and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. The use of technological tools was able to assist the endodontic treatment of teeth with complex internal anatomy, such as three-canal premolars.

  11. Nano Goes to School: A Teaching Model of the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Kovac, Janez

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a teaching model of the atomic force microscope (AFM), which proved to be successful in the role of an introduction to nanoscience in high school. The model can demonstrate the two modes of operation of the AFM (contact mode and oscillating mode) as well as some basic principles that limit the resolution of the method. It can…

  12. Building cell models and simulations from microscope images.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    The use of fluorescence microscopy has undergone a major revolution over the past twenty years, both with the development of dramatic new technologies and with the widespread adoption of image analysis and machine learning methods. Many open source software tools provide the ability to use these methods in a wide range of studies, and many molecular and cellular phenotypes can now be automatically distinguished. This article presents the next major challenge in microscopy automation, the creation of accurate models of cell organization directly from images, and reviews the progress that has been made towards this challenge. PMID:26484733

  13. Microscopic formulation of the interacting boson model for rotational nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Kosuke; Shimizu, Noritaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Guo, Lu

    2011-04-15

    We propose a novel formulation of the interacting boson model (IBM) for rotational nuclei with axially symmetric, strong deformation. The intrinsic structure represented by the potential-energy surface (PES) of a given multinucleon system has a certain similarity to that of the corresponding multiboson system. Based on this feature, one can derive an appropriate boson Hamiltonian, as already reported. This prescription, however, has a major difficulty in the rotational spectra of strongly deformed nuclei: the bosonic moment of inertia is significantly smaller than the corresponding nucleonic one. We present that this difficulty originates in the difference between the rotational response of a nucleon system and that of the corresponding boson system, and could arise even if the PESs of the two systems were identical. We further suggest that the problem can be solved by implementing the L{center_dot}L term into the IBM Hamiltonian, with the coupling constant derived from the cranking approach of Skyrme mean-field models. The validity of the method is confirmed for rare-earth and actinoid nuclei, as their experimental rotational yrast bands are reproduced nicely.

  14. Design and calibration of a digital Fourier holographic microscope for particle sizing via goniometry and optical scatter imaging in transmission.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Vincent M; Jacques, Steven L

    2016-06-13

    Goniometry and optical scatter imaging have been used for optical determination of particle size based upon optical scattering. Polystyrene microspheres in suspension serve as a standard for system validation purposes. The design and calibration of a digital Fourier holographic microscope (DFHM) are reported. Of crucial importance is the appropriate scaling of scattering angle space in the conjugate Fourier plane. A detailed description of this calibration process is described. Spatial filtering of the acquired digital hologram to use photons scattered within a restricted angular range produces an image. A pair of images, one using photons narrowly scattered within 8 - 15° (LNA), and one using photons broadly scattered within 8 - 39° (HNA), are produced. An image based on the ratio of these two images, OSIR = HNA/LNA, following Boustany et al. (2002), yields a 2D Optical Scatter Image (OSI) whose contrast is based on the angular dependence of photon scattering and is sensitive to the microsphere size, especially in the 0.5-1.0µm range. Goniometric results are also given for polystyrene microspheres in suspension as additional proof of principle for particle sizing via the DFHM. PMID:27410298

  15. Imaging of InGaN inhomogeneities using visible aperturelessnear-field scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Stebounova, Larissa V.; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Chen, Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-06-14

    The optical properties of epitaxially grown islands of InGaN are investigated with nanometer-scale spatial resolution using visible apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy. Scattered light from the tip-sample system is modulated by cantilever oscillations and detected at the third harmonic of the oscillation frequency to distinguish the near-field signal from unwanted scattered background light. Scattered near-field measurements indicate that the as-grown InGaN islanded film may exhibit both inhomogeneous In composition and strain-induced changes that affect the optical signal at 633 nm and 532 nm. Changes are observed in the optical contrast for large 3D InGaN islands (100's of nm) of the same height. Near-field optical mapping of small grains on a finer scale reveals InGaN composition or strain-induced irregularities in features with heights of only 2 nm, which exhibit different near-field signals at 633 nm and 532 nm incident wavelengths. Optical signal contrast from topographic features as small as 30 nm is detected.

  16. Three-dimensional interactive graphics for displaying and modelling microscopic data.

    PubMed

    Basinski, M; Deatherage, J F

    1990-09-01

    EUCLID is a three-dimensional (3D) general purpose graphics display package for interactive manipulation of vector, surface and solid drawings on Evans and Sutherland PS300 series graphics processors. It is useful for displaying, comparing, measuring and modelling 3D microscopic images in real time. EUCLID can assemble groups of drawings into a composite drawing, while retaining the ability to operate upon the individual drawings within the composite drawing separately. EUCLID is capable of real time geometrical transformations (scaling, translation and rotation in two coordinate frames) and stereo and perspective viewing transformations. Because of its flexibility, EUCLID is especially useful for fitting models into 3D microscopic images.

  17. Visualizing microscopic structure of simulated model basalt melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohara, Bidur; Karki, Bijaya B.

    2013-08-01

    We perform a detailed visualization-based analysis of atomic-position series data for model basalt melt obtained from first-principles (quantum mechanical) molecular dynamics simulations. To gain insight into the short- and mid-range order of the melt structure, we extract and visualize the details of radial distribution function (RDF) and coordination environment. The first peaks of all partial RDFs lie in the distance range of 1.6-4 Å and the corresponding mean coordination numbers vary from less than 1 to more than 9. The coordination environments involving cations and anions differ substantially from each other, each consisting of a rich set of coordination states. These states vary both spatially and temporally: The per-atom coordination information extracted on the fly is rendered instantaneously as the spheres and polyhedra as well as along the corresponding trajectories using a color-coding scheme. The information is also visualized as clusters formed by atoms that are coordinated at different time intervals during the entire simulation. The Si-O coordination is comprised of almost all tetrahedra (4-fold) whereas the Al-O coordination includes both tetrahedra (4-fold) and pentahedra (5-fold). The animated visualization suggests that the melt structure can be viewed as a dynamic (partial) network of Al/Si-O coordination polyhedra connected via bridging oxygen in an inhomogeneous distribution of mobile magnesium and calcium atoms.

  18. Microscopic modeling of confined crystal growth and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Høgberget, Jørgen; Røyne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag K; Jettestuen, Espen

    2016-08-01

    We extend the (1+1)-dimensional fluid solid-on-solid (SOS) model to include a confining flat surface opposite to the SOS surface subject to a constant load. This load is balanced by a repulsive surface-surface interaction given by an ansatz which agrees with known analytical solutions in the limit of two separated flat surfaces. Mechanical equilibrium is imposed at all times by repositioning the confining surface. By the use of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) we calculate how the equilibrium concentration (deposition rate) depends on the applied load, and find it to reproduce analytical thermodynamics independent of the parameters of the interaction ansatz. We also study the dependency between the surface roughness and the saturation level as we vary the surface tension, and expand on previous analyses of the asymmetry between growth and dissolution by parametrizing the linear growth rate constant for growth and dissolution separately. We find the presence of a confining surface to affect the speed of growth and dissolution equally. PMID:27627386

  19. Microscopic modeling of confined crystal growth and dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høgberget, Jørgen; Røyne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag K.; Jettestuen, Espen

    2016-08-01

    We extend the (1+1)-dimensional fluid solid-on-solid (SOS) model to include a confining flat surface opposite to the SOS surface subject to a constant load. This load is balanced by a repulsive surface-surface interaction given by an ansatz which agrees with known analytical solutions in the limit of two separated flat surfaces. Mechanical equilibrium is imposed at all times by repositioning the confining surface. By the use of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) we calculate how the equilibrium concentration (deposition rate) depends on the applied load, and find it to reproduce analytical thermodynamics independent of the parameters of the interaction ansatz. We also study the dependency between the surface roughness and the saturation level as we vary the surface tension, and expand on previous analyses of the asymmetry between growth and dissolution by parametrizing the linear growth rate constant for growth and dissolution separately. We find the presence of a confining surface to affect the speed of growth and dissolution equally.

  20. Microscopic thin film optical anisotropy imaging at the solid-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A A

    2016-04-01

    Optical anisotropy of thin films has been widely investigated through ellipsometry, whereby typically an optical signal is averaged over a ∼1 cm(2) elliptical area that extends with increasing angle-of-incidence (AOI). Here, we report on spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry at the solid-liquid interface applied to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). We detail how a differential spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurement, between samples with and without optically anisotropic thin film on an absorbing substrate, can be applied to recover in and out of plane refractive indices of the thin film with known film thickness, hence determining the thin film optical anisotropy. We also present how optimal wavelength and AOI settings can be determined ensuring low parameter cross correlation between the refractive indices to be determined from a differential measurement in Δ ellipsometry angle. Furthermore, we detail a Monte Carlo type analysis that allows one to determine the minimal required optical ellipsometry resolution to recover a given thin film anisotropy. We conclude by presenting a new setup for a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry based on fiber supercontinuum laser technology, multi-wavelength diode system, and an improved liquid cell design, delivering a 5 ×-10 × ellipsometric noise reduction over state-of-the-art. We attribute this improvement to increased ellipsometer illumination power and a reduced light path in liquid through the use of a water dipping objective. PMID:27131681

  1. Microscopic thin film optical anisotropy imaging at the solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Optical anisotropy of thin films has been widely investigated through ellipsometry, whereby typically an optical signal is averaged over a ˜1 cm2 elliptical area that extends with increasing angle-of-incidence (AOI). Here, we report on spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry at the solid-liquid interface applied to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). We detail how a differential spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurement, between samples with and without optically anisotropic thin film on an absorbing substrate, can be applied to recover in and out of plane refractive indices of the thin film with known film thickness, hence determining the thin film optical anisotropy. We also present how optimal wavelength and AOI settings can be determined ensuring low parameter cross correlation between the refractive indices to be determined from a differential measurement in Δ ellipsometry angle. Furthermore, we detail a Monte Carlo type analysis that allows one to determine the minimal required optical ellipsometry resolution to recover a given thin film anisotropy. We conclude by presenting a new setup for a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry based on fiber supercontinuum laser technology, multi-wavelength diode system, and an improved liquid cell design, delivering a 5 ×-10 × ellipsometric noise reduction over state-of-the-art. We attribute this improvement to increased ellipsometer illumination power and a reduced light path in liquid through the use of a water dipping objective.

  2. Spatially resolved quantum nano-optics of single photons using an electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Tizei, L H G; Kociak, M

    2013-04-12

    We report on the experimental demonstration of single-photon state generation and characterization in an electron microscope. In this aim we have used low intensity relativistic (energy between 60 and 100 keV) electrons beams focused in a ca. 1 nm probe to excite diamond nanoparticles. This triggered individual neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers to emit photons which could be gathered and sent to a Hanbury Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer. The detection of a dip in the correlation function at small time delays clearly demonstrates antibunching and thus the creation of nonclassical light states. Specifically, we have also demonstrated single-photon states detection. We unveil the mechanism behind quantum states generation in an electron microscope, and show that it clearly makes cathodoluminescence the nanometer scale analog of photoluminescence. By using an extremely small electron probe size and the ability to monitor its position with subnanometer resolution, we also show the possibility of measuring the quantum character of the emitted beam with deep subwavelength resolution. PMID:25167267

  3. Single-spin microscope with sub-nanoscale resolution based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P; Chernobrod, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Invention of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) initiated a new era of material science and technology characterized by 2-D imaging with atomic resolution and manipulation of individual atoms. However, for further progress in material science, and in particular in structural biology, 3-D imaging with sub-nanometer resolution is very desirable. Currently the most promising technique for 3-D imaging is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), which senses individual electron spins [1,2] with nanoscale resolution and can detect collective magnetization of about 100 nuclear spins [3]. The highest sensitivity demonstrated by MRFM is based on a time modulation technique called the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAAR) which requires a long phase relaxation time T 2 of measured spins, which usually corresponds to rather low temperature. For example, a temperature of 300 mK was used in the case of 3D imaging of the tobacco mosaic virus [3]. This limitation is incompatible with the room-temperature operation needed for the study of biological systems under physiological conditions.

  4. Extended optical model for fission

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier ismore » used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.« less

  5. Time-domain model of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for wideband optical signals.

    PubMed

    Puris, D; Schmidt-Langhorst, C; Lüdge, K; Majer, N; Schöll, E; Petermann, K

    2012-11-19

    We present a novel theoretical time-domain model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier, that allows to simulate subpicosecond pulse propagation including power-based and phase-based effects. Static results including amplified spontaneous emission spectra, continuous wave amplification, and four-wave mixing experiments in addition to dynamic pump-probe simulations are presented for different injection currents. The model uses digital filters to describe the frequency dependent gain and microscopically calculated carrier-carrier scattering rates for the interband carrier dynamics. It can be used to calculate the propagation of multiple signals with different wavelengths or one wideband signal with high bitrate.

  6. The optical fiber tip: an inherently light-coupled microscopic platform for micro- and nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kostovski, Gorgi; Stoddart, Paul R; Mitchell, Arnan

    2014-06-18

    The flat tip of an optical fiber is a unique and unconventional platform for micro and nanotechnologies. The small cross-section and large aspect ratio of the fiber provide an inherently light-coupled substrate that is uniquely suited to remote, in vivo and in situ applications. However, these same characteristics challenge established fabrication technologies, which are best suited to large planar substrates. This review presents a broad overview of strategies for patterning the flat tip of an optical fiber. Techniques discussed include self-assembly, numerous lithographies, through-fiber patterning, hybrid techniques, and strategies for mass manufacture, while the diverse applications are discussed in context throughout. PMID:24599822

  7. In vivo optical detection of pH in microscopic tissue samples of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Mrázek, Jan; Martan, Tomáš; Matějec, Vlastimil; Hoyerová, Klára; Kamínek, Miroslav

    2013-12-01

    Minimally invasive in vivo measurement of pH in microscopic biological samples of μm or μl size, e.g. plant cells, tissues and saps, may help to explain complex biological processes. Consequently, techniques to achieve such measurements are a focus of interest for botanists. This paper describes a technique for the in vivo measurement of pH in the range pH5.0 to pH7.8 in microscopic plant tissue samples of Arabidopsis thaliana based on a ratiometric fluorescence method using low-loss robust tapered fiber probes. For this purpose tapered fiber probes were prepared and coated with a detection layer containing ion-paired fluorescent pH-transducer 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (c-HPTS). A fluorescence ratiometric approach was employed based on excitation at 415 nm and 450 nm and on the comparison of the fluorescence response at 515 nm. The suitability of tapered fiber probes for local detection of pH between 5.0 and 7.8 was demonstrated. A pH sensitivity of 0.15 pH units was achieved within the pH ranges 5.0-5.9 and 7.1-7.8, and this was improved to 0.04 pH units within the pH range 5.9-7.1. Spatial resolution of the probes was better than 20 μm and a time response within 15-20s was achieved. Despite the minute dimensions of the tapered fiber probes the setup developed was relatively robust and compact in construction and performed reliably. It has been successfully employed for the in vivo local determination of pH of mechanically resistant plant tissues of A. thaliana of microscopic scale. The detection of momentary pH gradients across the intact plant seems to be a good tool for the determination of changes in pH in response to experimental treatments affecting for example enzyme activities, availability of mineral nutrients, hormonal control of plant development and plant responses to environmental cues.

  8. Microscopic [ital T]-Violating Optical Potential: Implications for Neutron-Transmission Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.; Gould, C.R.; Hnizdo, V. Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 Department of Physics and Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050 )

    1994-12-26

    We derive a [ital T]-violating [ital P]-conserving optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering, starting from a uniquely determined two-body [rho]-exchange interaction with the same symmetry. We then obtain limits on the [ital T]-violating [rho]-nucleon coupling [ital [bar g

  9. Development of the water window imaging X-ray microscope utilizing normal-incidence multilayer optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A water-window imaging X-ray telescope configured with normal-incidence multilayer X-ray mirrors has been developed to obtain images with unprecedented spatial resolution and contrast of carbon-based microstructures within living cells. The narrow bandpass response inherent in multilayer X-ray optics is accurately tuned to wavelengths within the water window.

  10. Effect of cantilever geometry on the optical lever sensitivities and thermal noise method of the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Sader, John E; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied - in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry - neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.

  11. Effect of cantilever geometry on the optical lever sensitivities and thermal noise method of the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, John E.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-11-15

    Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied – in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry – neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.

  12. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  13. A Differential Interference Contrast-Based Light Microscopic System for Laser Microsurgery and Optical Trapping of Selected Chromosomes during Mitosis In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Richard W.; Khodjakov, Alexey; Wright, William H.; Rieder, Conly L.

    1995-10-01

    Laser microsurgery and laser-generated optical force traps (optical tweezers) are both valuable light microscopic-based approaches for studying intra- and extracellular motility processes, including chromosome segregation during mitosis. Here we describe a system in use in our laboratory that allows living cells to be followed by high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC) video-enhanced time-lapse light microscopy while selected mitotic organelles and spindle components are subjected to laser microsurgery and/or manipulation with an optical force trap. This system couples the output from two different Neodymium-YAG lasers to the same inverted light microscope equipped with both phase-contrast and de Senarmont compensation DIC optics, a motorized stage, and a high-resolution low-light-level CCD camera. Unlike similar systems using phase-contrast optics, our DIC-based system can image living cells in thin optical sections without contamination due to phase halos or out-of-focus object information. These advantages greatly facilitate laser-based light microscopic studies on mitotic organelles and components, including spindle poles (centrosomes) and kinetochores, which are at or below the resolution limit of the light microscope and buried within a large complex structure. When used in conjunction with image processing and high-resolution object-tracking techniques, our system provides new information on the roles that kinetochores and spindle microtubules play during chromosome segregation in plant and animal cells.

  14. Measuring intermolecular rupture forces with a combined TIRF-optical trap microscope and DNA curtains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja Yil; Wang, Feng; Fazio, Teresa; Wind, Shalom; Greene, Eric C

    2012-10-01

    We report a new approach to probing DNA-protein interactions by combining optical tweezers with a high-throughput DNA curtains technique. Here we determine the forces required to remove the individual lipid-anchored DNA molecules from the bilayer. We demonstrate that DNA anchored to the bilayer through a single biotin-streptavidin linkage withstands ∼20pN before being pulled free from the bilayer, whereas molecules anchored to the bilayer through multiple attachment points can withstand ⩾65pN; access to this higher force regime is sufficient to probe the responses of protein-DNA interactions to force changes. As a proof-of-principle, we concurrently visualized DNA-bound fluorescently-tagged RNA polymerase while simultaneously stretching the DNA molecules. This work presents a step towards a powerful experimental platform that will enable concurrent visualization of DNA curtains while applying defined forces through optical tweezers.

  15. Note: A stand on the basis of atomic force microscope to study substrates for imaging optics

    SciTech Connect

    Chkhalo, N. I.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Zorina, M. V.

    2015-01-15

    A description of a stand based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) for roughness measurements of large optical components with arbitrary surfaces is given. The sample under study is mounted on a uniaxial goniometer which allows the sample to be tilted in the range of ±30°. The inclination enables the local normal along the axis of the probe to be established at any point of the surface under study. A comparison of the results of the measurement of noise and roughness of a flat quartz sample, in the range of spatial frequencies 0.025–70 μm{sup −1}, obtained from “standard” AFM and developed versions is given. Within the experimental error, the measurement results were equivalent. Examples of applications of the stand for the study of substrates for X-ray optics are presented.

  16. Parallel force measurement with a polymeric microbeam array using an optical microscope and micromanipulator.

    PubMed

    Sasoglu, F Mert; Bohl, Andrew J; Allen, Kathleen B; Layton, Bradley E

    2009-01-01

    An image analysis method and its validation are presented for tracking the displacements of parallel mechanical force sensors. Force is measured using a combination of beam theory, optical microscopy, and image analysis. The primary instrument is a calibrated polymeric microbeam array mounted on a micromanipulator with the intended purpose of measuring traction forces on cell cultures or cell arrays. One application is the testing of hypotheses involving cellular mechanotransduction mechanisms. An Otsu-based image analysis code calculates displacement and force on cellular or other soft structures by using edge detection and image subtraction on digitally captured optical microscopy images. Forces as small as 250+/-50 nN and as great as 25+/-2.5 microN may be applied and measured upon as few as one or as many as hundreds of structures in parallel. A validation of the method is provided by comparing results from a rigid glass surface and a compliant polymeric surface.

  17. The analysis of quartz c-axis fabrics using a modified optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J L; Russell-Head, D S; Kunze, K; Viola, G

    2007-07-01

    A new fully automated microfabric analyzer (MiFA) is described that can be used for the fast collection of high-resolution spatial c-axis orientation data from a set of digital polarized light images. At the onset of an analysis the user is presented with an axial-distribution diagram (AVA -'Achsenverteilungsanalyse') of a thin section. It is then a simple matter to build-up c-axis pole figures from selected areas of interest. The c-axis inclination and colatitudes at any pixel site is immediately available to create bulk fabric diagrams or to select measurements in individual areas. The system supports both the interactive selection of c-axis measurement sites and grid array selection. A verification process allows the operator to exclude dubious measurements due to impurities, grain boundaries or bubbles. We present a comparison of bulk and individual c-axis MiFA measurements to pole figures measured with an X-ray texture goniometer and to data collected from a scanning electron microscope furnished with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) facility. A second sample, an experimentally deformed quartzite, illustrates that crystal orientations can be precisely linked to any location within an individual grain.

  18. Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes.

    PubMed

    Glazowski, Christopher; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-08-01

    Coherent speckle influences the resulting image when narrow spectral line-width and single spatial mode illumination are used, though these are the same light-source properties that provide the best radiance-to-cost ratio. However, a suitable size of the detection pinhole can be chosen to maintain adequate optical sectioning while making the probability density of the speckle noise more normal and reducing its effect. The result is a qualitatively better image with improved contrast, which is easier to read. With theoretical statistics and experimental results, we show that the detection pinhole size is a fundamental parameter for designing imaging systems for use in turbid media.

  19. Filtering for unwrapping noisy Doppler optical coherence tomography images for extended microscopic fluid velocity measurement range.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Darga, Donald; Smid, Jason; Zysk, Adam M; Teh, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A; Scott Carney, P

    2016-09-01

    In this Letter, we report the first application of two phase denoising algorithms to Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) velocity maps. When combined with unwrapping algorithms, significantly extended fluid velocity dynamic range is achieved. Instead of the physical upper bound, the fluid velocity dynamic range is now limited by noise level. We show comparisons between physical simulated ideal velocity maps and the experimental results of both algorithms. We demonstrate unwrapped DOCT velocity maps having a peak velocity nearly 10 times the theoretical measurement range. PMID:27607963

  20. Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Kyung Sang; Park, Hyunjoo; Ye, Jong Chul; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-12-30

    3-D refractive index (RI) distribution is an intrinsic bio-marker for the chemical and structural information about biological cells. Here we develop an optical diffraction tomography technique for the real-time reconstruction of 3-D RI distribution, employing sparse angle illumination and a graphic processing unit (GPU) implementation. The execution time for the tomographic reconstruction is 0.21 s for 96(3) voxels, which is 17 times faster than that of a conventional approach. We demonstrated the real-time visualization capability with imaging the dynamics of Brownian motion of an anisotropic colloidal dimer and the dynamic shape change in a red blood cell upon shear flow.

  1. Filtering for unwrapping noisy Doppler optical coherence tomography images for extended microscopic fluid velocity measurement range.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Darga, Donald; Smid, Jason; Zysk, Adam M; Teh, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A; Scott Carney, P

    2016-09-01

    In this Letter, we report the first application of two phase denoising algorithms to Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) velocity maps. When combined with unwrapping algorithms, significantly extended fluid velocity dynamic range is achieved. Instead of the physical upper bound, the fluid velocity dynamic range is now limited by noise level. We show comparisons between physical simulated ideal velocity maps and the experimental results of both algorithms. We demonstrate unwrapped DOCT velocity maps having a peak velocity nearly 10 times the theoretical measurement range.

  2. Deterministic and Stochastic Study for a Microscopic Angiogenesis Model: Applications to the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Marek; Piotrowska, Monika J.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis modelling is an important tool to understand the underlying mechanisms yielding tumour growth. Nevertheless, there is usually a gap between models and experimental data. We propose a model based on the intrinsic microscopic reactions defining the angiogenesis process to link experimental data with previous macroscopic models. The microscopic characterisation can describe the macroscopic behaviour of the tumour, which stability analysis reveals a set of predicted tumour states involving different morphologies. Additionally, the microscopic description also gives a framework to study the intrinsic stochasticity of the reactive system through the resulting Langevin equation. To follow the goal of the paper, we use available experimental information on the Lewis lung carcinoma to infer meaningful parameters for the model that are able to describe the different stages of the tumour growth. Finally we explore the predictive capabilities of the fitted model by showing that fluctuations are determinant for the survival of the tumour during the first week and that available treatments can give raise to new stable tumour dormant states with a reduced vascular network. PMID:27182891

  3. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  4. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Bessa, M. S.; Silva, C. R.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2016-06-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed.

  5. Multi-scale analysis for microscopic models in materials science and cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Alvin Thong-Juak

    2000-10-01

    In Part I, we study the effects of random fluctuations included in microscopic models for phase transitions, to macroscopic interface flows. We first derive asymptotically a stochastic mean curvature evolution law from the stochastic Ginzburg-Landau model and develop a corresponding level set formulation. Secondly we demonstrate numerically, using stochastic Ginzburg-Landau and Ising algorithms, that microscopic random perturbations resolve geometric and numerical instabilities in the event of non-uniqueness in the corresponding deterministic flow. In Part II, we analyze the effects of random local linker length variability on the global morphology of a very long, linear, homogeneous chromatin fiber that is modelled as a diffusion process which is parametrized by arclength under a suitable spatial re-scaling. We obtain a Fokker-Planck equation for the process whose solution, a probability density function describes the folding.

  6. Global bifurcation and hysteresis of self-generated oscillations in a microscopic model of nonlinear transport in p-Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüpper, G.; Schöll, E.; Reggiani, L.

    1989-12-01

    Starting from a Monte Carlo simulation of the microscopic energy and momentum relaxation processes of hot carriers in p-Ge at liquid helium temperatures we derive a set of coupled nonlinear dynamic equations for the mean carrier density, the mean carrier energy, and the electric field. The static current density - field characteristic displays N-shaped negative differential conductivity induced by impact ionization of a shallow acceptor level and optical phonon emission. In the positive differential conductivity regime of this characteristic we find a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and two global bifurcations of self-generated voltage oscillations (collision of two limit cycles, and bifurcation of a limit cycle from a separatrix with critical frequency scaling) and hysteresis between oscillatory and stationary states. Such behavior was not obtained in previous semiconductor models, but is supported by recent experimental findings.

  7. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recording using referenced heterodyning and a time microscope

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2010-06-15

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. This invention expands upon previous work in temporal imaging by adding heterodyning, which can be self-referenced for improved precision and stability, to convert frequency chirp (the second derivative of phase with respect to time) into a time varying intensity modulation. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  8. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using referenced heterodyning and a time microscope

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2011-11-22

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. This invention expands upon previous work in temporal imaging by adding heterodyning, which can be self-referenced for improved precision and stability, to convert frequency chirp (the second derivative of phase with respect to time) into a time varying intensity modulation. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  9. Multi-colour microscopic interferometry for optical metrology and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit; Nandigana, Krishna Mohan; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Interferometry has been widely used for optical metrology and imaging applications because of their precision, reliability, and versatility. Although single-wavelength interferometery can provide high sensitivity and resolution, it has several drawbacks, namely, it fails to quantify large-discontinuities, large-deformations, and shape of unpolished surfaces. Multiple-wavelength techniques have been successfully used to overcome the drawbacks associated with single wavelength analysis. The use of colour CCD camera allows simultaneous acquisition of multiple interferograms. The advances in colour CCD cameras and image processing techniques have made the multi-colour interferometry a faster, simpler, and cost-effective tool for industrial applications. This article reviews the recent advances in multi-colour interferometric techniques and their demanding applications for characterization of micro-systems, non-destructive testing, and bio-imaging applications.

  10. Measurement of the microscopic viscosities of microfluids with a dynamic optical tweezers system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuquan; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Yijia; Zhu, Siwei; Gao, Bruce Z; Yuan, X-C

    2016-01-01

    Viscosity coefficients of microfluids—Newtonian and non-Newtonian—were explored through the rotational motion of a particle trapped by optical tweezers in a microflute. Unlike conventional methods based on viscometers, our microfluidic system employs samples of less than 30 µl to complete a measurement. Viscosity coefficients of ethanol and fetal bovine serum, as typical examples of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, were obtained experimentally, and found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Additionally, a practical application to a DNA solution with incremental ethidium bromide content was employed and the results are consistent with clinical data, indicating that our system provides a potentially important complementary tool for use in such biological and medical applications. PMID:27087769

  11. Resolving three-dimensional shape of sub-50 nm wide lines with nanometer-scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Attota, Ravikiran Dixson, Ronald G.

    2014-07-28

    We experimentally demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations of nanometer-scale objects can be resolved and measured with sub-nanometer scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes by analyzing 4-D optical data using the through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) method. These initial results show that TSOM-determined cross-sectional (3-D) shape differences of 30 nm–40 nm wide lines agree well with critical-dimension atomic force microscope measurements. The TSOM method showed a linewidth uncertainty of 1.22 nm (k = 2). Complex optical simulations are not needed for analysis using the TSOM method, making the process simple, economical, fast, and ideally suited for high volume nanomanufacturing process monitoring.

  12. Modeling the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Pedersen, Trace R.; McNamara, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Creating an optical model of the Laser Interferometer Space antenna which can be used to predict optical sensitivities and set tolerances sufficiently well such that picometer level displacements can be reliably seen poses certain challenges. In part, because the distances between key optical elements, the proof masses, are constantly changing, at speeds of meters/second, the separation between them is about 5 million kilometers and a contributing factor to optical jitter is the self-gravity of the spacecraft. A discussion of the current state and future approach(s) to the creation of such an optical model will be presented.

  13. Neural network models for optical computing

    SciTech Connect

    Athale, R.A. ); Davis, J. )

    1988-01-01

    This volume comprises the record of the conference on neural network models for optical computing. In keeping with the interdisciplinary nature of the field, the invited papers are from diverse research areas, such as neuroscience, parallel architectures, neural modeling, and perception. The papers consist of three major classes: applications of optical neural nets for pattern classification, analysis, and image formation; development and analysis of neural net models that are particularly suited for optical implementation; experimental demonstrations of optical neural nets, particularly with adaptive interconnects.

  14. Optical models of the molecular atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuev, V. E.; Makushkin, Y. S.; Mitsel, A. A.; Ponomarev, Y. N.; Rudenko, V. P.; Firsov, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of optical and laser methods for performing atmospheric investigations has stimulated the development of the optical models of the atmosphere. The principles of constructing the optical models of molecular atmosphere for radiation with different spectral composition (wideband, narrowband, and monochromatic) are considered in the case of linear and nonlinear absorptions. The example of the development of a system which provides for the modeling of the processes of optical-wave energy transfer in the atmosphere is presented. Its physical foundations, structure, programming software, and functioning were considered.

  15. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Mitran, Sorin

    2013-01-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale. PMID:23729842

  16. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitran, Sorin

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  17. Power spectrum analysis with least-squares fitting: amplitude bias and its elimination, with application to optical tweezers and atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    Optical tweezers and atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers are often calibrated by fitting their experimental power spectra of Brownian motion. We demonstrate here that if this is done with typical weighted least-squares methods, the result is a bias of relative size between -2/n and +1/n on the value of the fitted diffusion coefficient. Here, n is the number of power spectra averaged over, so typical calibrations contain 10%-20% bias. Both the sign and the size of the bias depend on the weighting scheme applied. Hence, so do length-scale calibrations based on the diffusion coefficient. The fitted value for the characteristic frequency is not affected by this bias. For the AFM then, force measurements are not affected provided an independent length-scale calibration is available. For optical tweezers there is no such luck, since the spring constant is found as the ratio of the characteristic frequency and the diffusion coefficient. We give analytical results for the weight-dependent bias for the wide class of systems whose dynamics is described by a linear (integro)differential equation with additive noise, white or colored. Examples are optical tweezers with hydrodynamic self-interaction and aliasing, calibration of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models in finance, models for cell migration in biology, etc. Because the bias takes the form of a simple multiplicative factor on the fitted amplitude (e.g. the diffusion coefficient), it is straightforward to remove and the user will need minimal modifications to his or her favorite least-squares fitting programs. Results are demonstrated and illustrated using synthetic data, so we can compare fits with known true values. We also fit some commonly occurring power spectra once-and-for-all in the sense that we give their parameter values and associated error bars as explicit functions of experimental power-spectral values.

  18. Studying PMMA films on silica surfaces with generic microscopic and mesoscale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Mukherji, D.; Daoulas, K. Ch.

    2016-07-01

    Polymer films on solid substrates present significant interest for fundamental polymer physics and industrial applications. For their mesoscale study, we develop a hybrid particle-based representation where polymers are modeled as worm-like chains and non-bonded interactions are introduced through a simple density functional. The mesoscale description is parameterized to match a generic microscopic model, which nevertheless can represent real materials. Choosing poly (methyl methacrylate) adsorbed on silica as a case study, the consistency of both models in describing conformational and structural properties in polymer films is investigated. We compare selected quantifiers of chain-shape, the structure of the adsorbed layer, as well as the statistics of loops, tails, and trains. Overall, the models are found to be consistent with each other. Some deviations in conformations and structure of adsorbed layer can be attributed to the simplified description of polymer/surface interactions and local liquid packing in the mesoscale model. These results are encouraging for a future development of pseudo-dynamical schemes, parameterizing the kinetics in the hybrid model via the dynamics of the generic microscopic model.

  19. Investigating Students' Mental Models and Knowledge Construction of Microscopic Friction. I. Implications for Curriculum Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpuz, Edgar D.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the first phase of a multiphase study aimed at investigating the dynamics of students' knowledge construction in the context of unfamiliar physical phenomenon--microscopic friction. The first phase of this study involved the investigation of the variations in students' mental models of microscopic friction. Clinical…

  20. Integrating the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM) and optical instrument models to model complete visual optical systems inclusive of the typical or atypical eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William J., III

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: To present a commercially available optical modeling software tool to assist the development of optical instrumentation and systems that utilize and/or integrate with the human eye. METHODS: A commercially available flexible eye modeling system is presented, the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM). AHEM is a module that the engineer can use to perform rapid development and test scenarios on systems that integrate with the eye. Methods include merging modeled systems initially developed outside of AHEM and performing a series of wizard-type operations that relieve the user from requiring an optometric or ophthalmic background to produce a complete eye inclusive system. Scenarios consist of retinal imaging of targets and sources through integrated systems. Uses include, but are not limited to, optimization, telescopes, microscopes, spectacles, contact and intraocular lenses, ocular aberrations, cataract simulation and scattering, and twin eye model (binocular) systems. RESULTS: Metrics, graphical data, and exportable CAD geometry are generated from the various modeling scenarios.

  1. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  2. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  3. Label-free cellular structure imaging with 82 nm lateral resolution using an electron-beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Masuda, Yuriko; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-07-25

    We present label-free and high spatial-resolution imaging for specific cellular structures using an electron-beam excitation-assisted optical microscope (EXA microscope). Images of the actin filament and mitochondria of stained HeLa cells, obtained by fluorescence and EXA microscopy, were compared to identify cellular structures. Based on these results, we demonstrated the feasibility of identifying label-free cellular structures at a spatial resolution of 82 nm. Using numerical analysis, we calculated the imaging depth region and determined the spot size of a cathodoluminescent (CL) light source to be 83 nm at the membrane surface.

  4. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.

  5. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis. PMID:27505654

  6. Predicting vehicular emissions in high spatial resolution using pervasively measured transportation data and microscopic emissions model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyhan, Marguerite; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Kang, Chaogui; Robinson, Prudence; Corti, Andrea; Szell, Michael; Streets, David; Lu, Zifeng; Britter, Rex; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution related to traffic emissions pose an especially significant problem in cities; this is due to its adverse impact on human health and well-being. Previous studies which have aimed to quantify emissions from the transportation sector have been limited by either simulated or coarsely resolved traffic volume data. Emissions inventories form the basis of urban pollution models, therefore in this study, Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectory data from a taxi fleet of over 15,000 vehicles were analyzed with the aim of predicting air pollution emissions for Singapore. This novel approach enabled the quantification of instantaneous drive cycle parameters in high spatio-temporal resolution, which provided the basis for a microscopic emissions model. Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were thus estimated. Highly localized areas of elevated emissions levels were identified, with a spatio-temporal precision not possible with previously used methods for estimating emissions. Relatively higher emissions areas were mainly concentrated in a few districts that were the Singapore Downtown Core area, to the north of the central urban region and to the east of it. Daily emissions quantified for the total motor vehicle population of Singapore were found to be comparable to another emissions dataset. Results demonstrated that high-resolution spatio-temporal vehicle traces detected using GPS in large taxi fleets could be used to infer highly localized areas of elevated acceleration and air pollution emissions in cities, and may become a complement to traditional emission estimates, especially in emerging cities and countries where reliable fine-grained urban air quality data is not easily available. This is the first study of its kind to investigate measured microscopic vehicle movement in tandem with microscopic emissions modeling for a substantial study domain.

  7. Model of computation for Fourier optical processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Thomas J.

    2000-05-01

    We present a novel and simple theoretical model of computation that captures what we believe are the most important characteristics of an optical Fourier transform processor. We use this abstract model to reason about the computational properties of the physical systems it describes. We define a grammar for our model's instruction language, and use it to write algorithms for well-known filtering and correlation techniques. We also suggest suitable computational complexity measures that could be used to analyze any coherent optical information processing technique, described with the language, for efficiency. Our choice of instruction language allows us to argue that algorithms describable with this model should have optical implementations that do not require a digital electronic computer to act as a master unit. Through simulation of a well known model of computation from computer theory we investigate the general-purpose capabilities of analog optical processors.

  8. Relating the microscopic rules in coalescence-fragmentation models to the cluster-size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczycki, B.; Burnett, B.; Zhao, Z.; Johnson, N. F.

    2009-11-01

    Coalescence-fragmentation problems are now of great interest across the physical, biological, and social sciences. They are typically studied from the perspective of rate equations, at the heart of which are the rules used for coalescence and fragmentation. Here we discuss how changes in these microscopic rules affect the macroscopic cluster-size distribution which emerges from the solution to the rate equation. Our analysis elucidates the crucial role that the fragmentation rule can play in such dynamical grouping models. We focus our discussion on two well-known models whose fragmentation rules lie at opposite extremes. In particular, we provide a range of generalizations and new analytic results for the well-known model of social group formation developed by Eguíluz and Zimmermann, [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5659 (2000)]. We develop analytic perturbation treatments of this original model, and extend the analytic analysis to the treatment of growing and declining populations.

  9. SPY: A new scission point model based on microscopic ingredients to predict fission fragments properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, J.-F.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Panebianco, S.; Sida, J.-L.

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to determine fission fragments characteristics in a framework of a scission point model named SPY for Scission Point Yields. This approach can be considered as a theoretical laboratory to study fission mechanism since it gives access to the correlation between the fragments properties and their nuclear structure, such as shell correction, pairing, collective degrees of freedom, odd-even effects. Which ones are dominant in final state? What is the impact of compound nucleus structure? The SPY model consists in a statistical description of the fission process at the scission point where fragments are completely formed and well separated with fixed properties. The most important property of the model relies on the nuclear structure of the fragments which is derived from full quantum microscopic calculations. This approach allows computing the fission final state of extremely exotic nuclei which are inaccessible by most of the fission model available on the market.

  10. Pulse electrochemical machining on Invar alloy: Optical microscopic/SEM and non-contact 3D measurement study of surface analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Choi, S. G.; Choi, W. K.; Yang, B. Y.; Lee, E. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Invar alloy (Fe 63.5%, Ni 36.5%) was electrochemically polished by PECM (Pulse Electro Chemical Machining) in a mixture of NaCl, glycerin, and distilled water. A series of PECM experiments were carried out with different voltages and different electrode shapes, and then the surfaces of polished Invar alloy were investigated. The polished Invar alloy surfaces were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and non-contact 3D measurement (white light microscopes) and it was found that different applied voltages produced different surface characteristics on the Invar alloy surface because of the locally concentrated applied voltage on the Invar alloy surface. Moreover, we found that the shapes of electrode also have an effect on the surface characteristics on Invar alloy surface by influencing the applied voltage. These experimental findings provide fundamental knowledge for PECM of Invar alloy by surface analysis.

  11. Photography through the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how to illuminate and optically stain slides for microscope use and how to interface a 35mm camera with a microscope using an adaptor. Provides equipment descriptions and sources, details about illumination, image formation, darkfield adaptors, centerable filter adaptors, darkfield stops, rheinburg filters, and choosing specimens to…

  12. Microscopic modeling of the dynamics of frictional adhesion in the gecko attachment system.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Gravish, Nick; Autumn, Kellar; Creton, Costantino

    2009-03-26

    We present a simple microscopic model describing the unique friction behavior of gecko setal arrays as they are dragged on smooth surfaces. Unlike other solids of high elastic modulus that do not stick under van der Waals forces alone, the gecko setal arrays do not require a compressive force to display a drag resistance but rather develop a tensile normal force when they are dragged (J. Experim. Biol. 2006, 209, 3569). We describe this unique behavior with a microscopic model involving curved beam structures at two length scales: at the spatula level, thousands of independent curved beams repeat detachment and reattachment, whereas at the seta level, the curved beam geometry of the seta induces a coupling between the frictional force and the adhesive force that depends on the angle of contact, therefore allowing easy release when the animal needs it. Our model accounts well for the dependence of the drag and adhesion forces on the drag velocity and can also explain macroscopic attachment/ detachment cycles of the setal array.

  13. Nonequilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin-film active gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, D. A.; Briels, W. J.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    In the presence of adenosine triphosphate, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modeling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organization and dynamics on molecular and supramolecular length scales. Here, we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment, and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of nonequilibrium behavior. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles, or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit superdiffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with nonunique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modeling in the field of active gels.

  14. Assessment of Petrological Microscopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Charter Innes

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a set of procedures designed to check the design, ergonomics, illumination, function, optics, accessory equipment, and image quality of a microscope being considered for purchase. Functions for use in a petrology or mineralogy laboratory are stressed. (CW)

  15. 3D registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, David; Mehanna, Emile; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Wen, Di; Brandt, Eric; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Chamie, Daniel; Yamamoto, Hirosada; Fujino, Yusuke; Farmazilian, Ali; Patel, Jaymin; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    High resolution, 100 frames/sec intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) can distinguish plaque types, but further validation is needed, especially for automated plaque characterization. We developed experimental and 3D registration methods, to provide validation of IVOCT pullback volumes using microscopic, brightfield and fluorescent cryoimage volumes, with optional, exactly registered cryo-histology. The innovation was a method to match an IVOCT pullback images, acquired in the catheter reference frame, to a true 3D cryo-image volume. Briefly, an 11-parameter, polynomial virtual catheter was initialized within the cryo-image volume, and perpendicular images were extracted, mimicking IVOCT image acquisition. Virtual catheter parameters were optimized to maximize cryo and IVOCT lumen overlap. Local minima were possible, but when we started within reasonable ranges, every one of 24 digital phantom cases converged to a good solution with a registration error of only +1.34+/-2.65μm (signed distance). Registration was applied to 10 ex-vivo cadaver coronary arteries (LADs), resulting in 10 registered cryo and IVOCT volumes yielding a total of 421 registered 2D-image pairs. Image overlays demonstrated high continuity between vascular and plaque features. Bland- Altman analysis comparing cryo and IVOCT lumen area, showed mean and standard deviation of differences as 0.01+/-0.43 mm2. DICE coefficients were 0.91+/-0.04. Finally, visual assessment on 20 representative cases with easily identifiable features suggested registration accuracy within one frame of IVOCT (+/-200μm), eliminating significant misinterpretations introduced by 1mm errors in the literature. The method will provide 3D data for training of IVOCT plaque algorithms and can be used for validation of other intravascular imaging modalities.

  16. On the reproducibility of spatiotemporal traffic dynamics with microscopic traffic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Traffic flow is a very prominent example of a driven non-equilibrium system. A characteristic phenomenon of traffic dynamics is the spontaneous and abrupt drop of the average velocity on a stretch of road leading to congestion. Such a traffic breakdown corresponds to a boundary-induced phase transition from free flow to congested traffic. In this paper, we study the ability of selected microscopic traffic models to reproduce a traffic breakdown, and we investigate its spatiotemporal dynamics. For our analysis, we use empirical traffic data from stationary loop detectors on a German Autobahn showing a spontaneous breakdown. We then present several methods to assess the results and compare the models with each other. In addition, we will also discuss some important modeling aspects and their impact on the resulting spatiotemporal pattern. The investigation of different downstream boundary conditions, for example, shows that the physical origin of the traffic breakdown may be artificially induced by the setup of the boundaries.

  17. Rate turnover in mechano-catalytic coupling: A model and its microscopic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Mahua; Grazioli, Gianmarc; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2015-07-28

    A novel aspect in the area of mechano-chemistry concerns the effect of external forces on enzyme activity, i.e., the existence of mechano-catalytic coupling. Recent experiments on enzyme-catalyzed disulphide bond reduction in proteins under the effect of a force applied on the termini of the protein substrate reveal an unexpected biphasic force dependence for the bond cleavage rate. Here, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with Smoluchowski theory, we propose a model for this behavior. For a broad range of forces and systems, the model reproduces the experimentally observed rates by solving a reaction-diffusion equation for a “protein coordinate” diffusing in a force-dependent effective potential. The atomistic simulations are used to compute, from first principles, the parameters of the model via a quasiharmonic analysis. Additionally, the simulations are also used to provide details about the microscopic degrees of freedom that are important for the underlying mechano-catalysis.

  18. Dynamics of basaltic glass dissolution - Capturing microscopic effects in continuum scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradóttir, E. S. P.; Sigfússon, B.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Björnsson, G.; Jónsson, H.

    2013-11-01

    The method of 'multiple interacting continua' (MINC) was applied to include microscopic rate-limiting processes in continuum scale reactive transport models of basaltic glass dissolution. The MINC method involves dividing the system up to ambient fluid and grains, using a specific surface area to describe the interface between the two. The various grains and regions within grains can then be described by dividing them into continua separated by dividing surfaces. Millions of grains can thus be considered within the method without the need to explicity discretizing them. Four continua were used for describing a dissolving basaltic glass grain; the first one describes the ambient fluid around the grain, while the second, third and fourth continuum refer to a diffusive leached layer, the dissolving part of the grain and the inert part of the grain, respectively. The model was validated using the TOUGHREACT simulator and data from column flow through experiments of basaltic glass dissolution at low, neutral and high pH values. Successful reactive transport simulations of the experiments and overall adequate agreement between measured and simulated values provides validation that the MINC approach can be applied for incorporating microscopic effects in continuum scale basaltic glass dissolution models. Equivalent models can be used when simulating dissolution and alteration of other minerals. The study provides an example of how numerical modeling and experimental work can be combined to enhance understanding of mechanisms associated with basaltic glass dissolution. Column outlet concentrations indicated basaltic glass to dissolve stoichiometrically at pH 3. Predictive simulations with the developed MINC model indicated significant precipitation of secondary minerals within the column at neutral and high pH, explaining observed non-stoichiometric outlet concentrations at these pH levels. Clay, zeolite and hydroxide precipitation was predicted to be most abundant within

  19. SPY: a new scission-point model based on microscopic inputs to predict fission fragment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panebianco, Stefano; Dubray, Nöel; Goriely, Stéphane; Hilaire, Stéphane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Sida, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    Despite the difficulty in describing the whole fission dynamics, the main fragment characteristics can be determined in a static approach based on a so-called scission-point model. Within this framework, a new Scission-Point model for the calculations of fission fragment Yields (SPY) has been developed. This model, initially based on the approach developed by Wilkins in the late seventies, consists in performing a static energy balance at scission, where the two fragments are supposed to be completely separated so that their macroscopic properties (mass and charge) can be considered as fixed. Given the knowledge of the system state density, averaged quantities such as mass and charge yields, mean kinetic and excitation energy can then be extracted in the framework of a microcanonical statistical description. The main advantage of the SPY model is the introduction of one of the most up-to-date microscopic descriptions of the nucleus for the individual energy of each fragment and, in the future, for their state density. These quantities are obtained in the framework of HFB calculations using the Gogny nucleon-nucleon interaction, ensuring an overall coherence of the model. Starting from a description of the SPY model and its main features, a comparison between the SPY predictions and experimental data will be discussed for some specific cases, from light nuclei around mercury to major actinides. Moreover, extensive predictions over the whole chart of nuclides will be discussed, with particular attention to their implication in stellar nucleosynthesis. Finally, future developments, mainly concerning the introduction of microscopic state densities, will be briefly discussed.

  20. Optical potential obtained from relativistic-mean-field theory-based microscopic nucleon-nucleon interaction: applied to cluster radioactive decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S. K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2012-02-01

    A microscopic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is derived from the popular relativistic-mean-field (RMF) theory Lagrangian and used to obtain the optical potential by folding it with the RMF densities of cluster and daughter nuclei. The NN-interaction is remarkably related to the inbuilt fundamental parameters of RMF theory, and the results of the application of the so obtained optical potential, made to exotic cluster radioactive decays and α+α scattering, are found comparable to that for the well-known, phenomenological M3Y effective NN-interaction. The RMF-based NN-interaction can also be used to calculate a number of other nuclear observables.

  1. Microscopic model to nucleon spectra in hypernuclear non-mesonic weak decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E.

    2013-09-01

    A consistent microscopic model is applied to the calculation of the nucleon emission spectra in the non-mesonic weak decay of Λ-hypernuclei. We adopt a nuclear matter formalism extended to finite nuclei via the local density approximation, a one-meson exchange weak transition potential and a Bonn nucleon-nucleon strong potential. Ground state correlations and final state interaction, at second order in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, are introduced on the same footing for all the isospin channels of one- and two-nucleon induced decays. Double-coincidence nucleon spectra are predicted for 12ΛC and compared with recent KEK data. Discrepancies with data remain for proton emission and for both neutron-proton and neutron-neutron emission in the non-back-to-back kinematics region. Motivated by a recent triple-coincidence measurement by FINUDA, we estimate the three-body induced decay, where we have found, Γ3/Γ2≅0.23. Our microscopic model also predicts values for the asymmetry parameter in 12ΛC, consistent with the asymmetry measured at KEK.

  2. Human vaginal epithelium and the epithelial lining of a cyst model constructed from it: a comparative light microscopic and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I O; van Wyk, C W; Darling, M R

    2001-11-01

    The light microscopic features and keratin filament distribution of human vaginal epithelium resemble those of buccal mucosa. We used vaginal epithelium to establish a human cyst model in immunodeficient mice. To strengthen the view that this experimental cyst is a suitable model to study mucosal diseases, we compared specific light microscopic and ultra-structural features of vaginal epithelium and the epithelial lining of the cyst. Nineteen cyst walls and 6 specimens of vaginal mucosa, which had been used to establish the cysts, were examined. We counted the number of cell layers of 17 cyst linings and the 6 vaginal specimens. Surface keratinisation was evaluated on sections stained with the Picro-Mallory method. To demonstrate intercellular lamellae and membrane coating granules 2 cyst linings were examined ultra-structurally. The epithelium lining of the cyst wall was thinner than that of vaginal mucosa but the surface keratinisation and ultra-structural features of the intercellular lamellae and membrane coating granules were similar. We concluded that vaginal mucosa is a useful substitute for oral mucosa in the cyst model.

  3. A microscopic Monte Carlo approach to modeling of Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bošnjaković, D.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Dujko, S.

    2014-09-01

    We present a ''microscopic'' approach in modeling of Resistive Plate Chambers where individual electrons and their collisions with the gas molecules are followed using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Timing resolutions and efficiencies are calculated for a specific timing RPC with 0.3 mm gas gap and gas mixture of 85% C2H2F4 5% iso-C4H10 + 10% SF6. Calculations are performed for different sets of cross sections for electron scattering in C2H2F4 and primary cluster size distributions. Results of calculations are compared with those obtained in experimental measurements. Electron avalanche fluctuations are also studied and compared with analytical models.

  4. A Microscopic “Social Norm” Model to Obtain Realistic Macroscopic Velocity and Density Pedestrian Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Kanda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We propose a way to introduce in microscopic pedestrian models a “social norm” in collision avoiding and overtaking, i.e. the tendency, shared by pedestrians belonging to the same culture, to avoid collisions and perform overtaking in a preferred direction. The “social norm” is implemented, regardless of the specific collision avoiding model, as a rotation in the perceived velocity vector of the opponent at the moment of computation of the collision avoiding strategy, and justified as an expectation that the opponent will follow the same “social norm” (for example a tendency to avoid on the left and overtake on the right, as proposed in this work for Japanese pedestrians). By comparing with real world data, we show that the introduction of this norm allows for a better reproduction of macroscopic pedestrian density and velocity patterns. PMID:23227202

  5. Optical modeling of liquid crystal biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dae Kun; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2006-11-01

    Optical simulations of a liquid crystal biosensor device are performed using an integrated optical/textural model based on the equations of nematodynamics and two optical methods: the Berreman optical matrix method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502 (1972)] and the discretization of the Maxwell equations based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Testing the two optical methods with liquid crystal films of different degrees of orientational heterogeneities demonstrates that only the FDTD method is suitable to model this device. Basic substrate-induced texturing process due to protein adsorption gives rise to an orientation correlation function that is nearly linear with the transmitted light intensity, providing a basis to calibrate the device. The sensitivity of transmitted light to film thickness, protein surface coverage, and wavelength is established. A crossover incident light wavelength close to λco≈500nm is found, such that when λ >λco thinner films are more sensitive to the amount of protein surface coverage, while for λ <λco the reverse holds. In addition it is found that for all wavelengths the sensitivity increases with the amount of protein coverage. The integrated device model based on FDTD optical simulations in conjunction with the Landau-de Gennes nematodynamics model provides a rational basis for further progress in liquid crystal biosensor devices.

  6. Modeling of Macroscopic/Microscopic Transport and Growth Phenomena in Zeolite Crystal Solutions Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    . At the same time, however, there is increased urgency to develop such an understanding in order to more accurately quantify the process. In order to better understand the results obtained from our prior space experiments, and design future experiments, a detailed fluid dynamic model simulating the crystal growth mechanism is required. This will not only add to the fundamental knowledge on the crystallization of zeolites, but also be useful in predicting the limits of size and growth of these important industrial materials. Our objective is to develop macro/microscopic theoretical and computational models to study the effect of transport phenomena in the growth of crystals grown in solutions. Our effort has concentrated so far in the development of separate macroscopic and microscopic models. The major highlights of our accomplishments are described.

  7. A stacking-fault based microscopic model for platelets in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Alex; Nunes, Ricardo

    2005-03-01

    We propose a new microscopic model for the 001 planar defects in diamond commonly called platelets. This model is based on the formation of a metastable stacking fault, which can occur because of the ability of carbon to stabilize in different bonding configurations. In our model the core of the planar defect is basically a double layer of three-fold coordinated sp^2 carbon atoms embedded in the common sp^3 diamond structure. The properties of the model were determined using ab initio total energy calculations. All significant experimental signatures attributed to the platelets, namely, the lattice displacement along the [001] direction, the asymmetry between the [110] and the [11 0] directions, the infrared absorption peak B^' , and broad luminescence lines that indicate the introduction of levels in the band gap, are naturally accounted for in our model. The model is also very appealing from the point of view of kinetics, since naturally occurring shearing processes will lead to the formation of the metastable fault.Authors acknowledge financial support from the Brazilian agencies FAPESP, CNPq, FAEP-UNICAMP, FAPEMIG, and Instituto do Milênio em Nanociências-MCT

  8. Biophotonic Modelling of Cardiac Optical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    Computational models have been recently applied to simulate and better understand the nature of fluorescent photon scattering and optical signal distortion during cardiac optical imaging. The goal of such models is both to provide a useful post-processing tool to facilitate a more accurate and faithful comparison between computational simulations of electrical activity and experiments, as well as providing essential insight into the mechanisms underlying this distortion, suggesting ways in which it may be controlled or indeed utilised to maximise the information derived from the recorded fluorescent signal. Here, we present different modelling methodologies developed and used in the field to simulate both the explicit processes involved in optical signal synthesis and the resulting consequences of the effects of photon scattering within the myocardium upon the optically-detected signal. We focus our attentions to two main types of modelling approaches used to simulate light transport in cardiac tissue, specifically continuous (reaction-diffusion) and discrete stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods. For each method, we provide both a summary of the necessary methodological details of such models, in addition to brief reviews of relevant application studies which have sought to apply these methods to elucidate important information regarding experimentally-recorded optical signals under different circumstances.

  9. Analysis of a Thin Optical Lens Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivchenko, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    In this article a thin optical lens model is considered. It is shown that the limits of its applicability are determined not only by the ratio between the thickness of the lens and the modules of the radii of curvature, but above all its geometric type. We have derived the analytical criteria for the applicability of the model for different types…

  10. A microscopic derivation of nuclear collective rotation-vibration model and its application to nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulshani, P.

    2016-07-01

    We derive a microscopic version of the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for collective rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude. The nuclear Schrodinger equation is canonically transformed to collective co-ordinates, which is then linearized using a constrained variational method. The associated constraints are imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms for excitation energy, cut-off angular momentum, and other nuclear properties for the ground-state rotational band in some deformed nuclei. The results are compared with measured data.

  11. Capillarity of soft amorphous solids: a microscopic model for surface stress.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Joost H; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Andreotti, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    The elastic deformation of a soft solid induced by capillary forces crucially relies on the excess stress inside the solid-liquid interface. While for a liquid-liquid interface this "surface stress" is strictly identical to the "surface free energy," the thermodynamic Shuttleworth equation implies that this is no longer the case when one of the phases is elastic. Here we develop a microscopic model that incorporates enthalpic interactions and entropic elasticity, based on which we explicitly compute as the surface stress and surface free energy. It is found that the compressibility of the interfacial region, through the Poisson ratio near the interface, determines the difference between surface stress and surface energy. We highlight the consequence of this finding by comparing with recent experiments and simulations on partially wetted soft substrates. PMID:24827261

  12. Modeling of coherent ultrafast magneto-optical experiments: Light-induced molecular mean-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Hinschberger, Y.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2015-12-28

    We present calculations which aim to describe coherent ultrafast magneto-optical effects observed in time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Our approach is based on a nonlinear semi-classical Drude-Voigt model and is used to interpret experiments performed on nickel ferromagnetic thin film. Within this framework, a phenomenological light-induced coherent molecular mean-field depending on the polarizations of the pump and probe pulses is proposed whose microscopic origin is related to a spin-orbit coupling involving the electron spins of the material sample and the electric field of the laser pulses. Theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data. The model successfully reproduces the observed experimental trends and gives meaningful insight into the understanding of magneto-optical rotation behavior in the ultrafast regime. Theoretical predictions for further experimental studies are also proposed.

  13. A comprehensive mathematical model of microscopic dose deposition in photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kang-Hsin Wang, Ken; Mitra, Soumya; Foster, Thomas H.

    2007-01-15

    We have developed a comprehensive theoretical model for rigorously describing the spatial and temporal dynamics of oxygen ({sup 3}O{sub 2}) consumption and transport and microscopic photodynamic dose deposition during photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo. Previously published models have been improved by considering perfused vessels as a time-dependent {sup 3}O{sub 2} source and linking the {sup 3}O{sub 2} concentration in the vessel to that within the tissue through the Hill equation. The time-dependent photochemical {sup 3}O{sub 2} consumption rate incorporates sensitizer photobleaching effects and an experimentally determined initially nonuniform photosensitizer distribution. The axial transport of {sup 3}O{sub 2} is provided for in the capillaries and in the surrounding tissue. A self-sensitized singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2})-mediated bleaching mechanism and the measured, initially nonuniform distribution of meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin at 3 h after intravascular administration were used to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. Time-evolved distributions of {sup 3}O{sub 2} concentration were obtained by numerically solving two-dimensional diffusion-with-reaction equations both in the capillary and the adjacent tissue. Using experimentally established physiological and photophysical parameters, the mathematical model allows computation of the dynamic variation of hemoglobin-{sup 3}O{sub 2} saturation (SO{sub 2}) within the vessels, irreversible sensitizer degradation due to photobleaching, and the microscopic distributions of {sup 3}O{sub 2}, sensitizer concentration, and {sup 1}O{sub 2} dose deposition under various irradiation conditions. The simulations reveal severe axial gradients in {sup 3}O{sub 2} and in photodynamic dose deposition in response to a wide range of clinically relevant treatment parameters. Thus, unlike former Krogh cylinder-based models, which assume a constant {sup 3}O{sub 2} concentration at the vessel, this new model identifies

  14. Measurement with microscopic MRI and simulation of flow in different aneurysm models

    SciTech Connect

    Edelhoff, Daniel Frank, Frauke; Heil, Marvin; Suter, Dieter; Walczak, Lars; Weichert, Frank; Schmitz, Inge

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The impact and the development of aneurysms depend to a significant degree on the exchange of liquid between the regular vessel and the pathological extension. A better understanding of this process will lead to improved prediction capabilities. The aim of the current study was to investigate fluid-exchange in aneurysm models of different complexities by combining microscopic magnetic resonance measurements with numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of these methods, the fluid-exchange process between the unaltered vessel lumen and the aneurysm phantoms was analyzed quantitatively using high spatial resolution. Methods: Magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to visualize fluid-exchange in two different models produced with a 3D printer. One model of an aneurysm was based on histological findings. The flow distribution in the different models was measured on a microscopic scale using time of flight magnetic resonance imaging. The whole experiment was simulated using fast graphics processing unit-based numerical simulations. The obtained simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the magnetic resonance imaging measurements, taking into account flow and spin–lattice relaxation. Results: The results of both presented methods compared well for the used aneurysm models and the chosen flow distributions. The results from the fluid-exchange analysis showed comparable characteristics concerning measurement and simulation. Similar symmetry behavior was observed. Based on these results, the amount of fluid-exchange was calculated. Depending on the geometry of the models, 7% to 45% of the liquid was exchanged per second. Conclusions: The result of the numerical simulations coincides well with the experimentally determined velocity field. The rate of fluid-exchange between vessel and aneurysm was well-predicted. Hence, the results obtained by simulation could be validated by the experiment. The

  15. Stereoscopic Video Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, James F.

    1980-11-01

    The new electronic technology of three-dimensional video combined with the established. science of microscopy has created. a new instrument. the Stereoscopic Video Microscope. The specimen is illuminated so the stereoscopic objective lens focuses the stereo-pair of images side-by-side on the video camera's pick-up, tube. The resulting electronic signal can be enhanced, digitized, colorized, quantified, its polarity reverse., and its gray scale expanJed non-linearally. The signal can be transmitted over distances and can be stored on video. tape for later playback. The electronic signal is converted to a stereo-pair of visual images on the video monitor's cathode-ray-tube. A stereo-hood is used to fuse the two images for three-dimensional viewing. The conventional optical microscope has definite limitations, many of which can be eliminated by converting the optical image to an electronic signal in the video microscope. The principal aHvantages of the Stereoscopic Video Microscope compared to the conventional optical microscope are: great ease of viewing; group viewing; ability to easily recohd; and, the capability of processing the electronic signal for video. enhancement. The applications cover nearly all fields of microscopy. These include: microelectronics assembly, inspection, and research; biological, metallurgical, and che.illical research; and other industrial and medical uses. The Stereo-scopic Video Microscope is particularly useful for instructional and recordkeeping purposes. The video microscope can be monoscopic or three dimensional.

  16. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and ATR-mode sample excitation for super-resolution Raman imaging of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower "effective" pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.

  17. The connective tissue and glial framework in the optic nerve head of the normal human eye: light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tokuhide; Abe, Haruki; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2006-12-01

    The arrangement of connective tissue components (i.e., collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers) and glial elements in the optic nerve head of the human eye was investigated by the combined use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light-microscopically, the optic nerve head could be subdivided into four parts from the different arrangements of the connective tissue framework: a surface nerve fiber layer, and prelaminar, laminar, and postlaminar regions. The surface nerve fiber layer only possessed connective tissue elements around blood vessels. In the prelaminar region, collagen fibrils, together with delicate elastic fibers, formed thin interrupted sheaths for accommodating small nerve bundles. Immunohistochemistry for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed that GFAP-positive cells formed columnar structures (i.e., glial columns), with round cell bodies piled up into layers. These glial columns were located in the fibrous sheaths of collagen fibrils and elastic fibers. In the laminar region, collagen fibrils and elastic fibers ran transversely to the optic nerve axis to form a thick membranous layer - the lamina cribrosa - which had numerous round openings for accommodating optic nerve fiber bundles. GFAP-positive cellular processes also ran transversely in association with collagen and elastin components. The postlaminar region had connective tissues which linked the lamina cribrosa with fibrous sheaths for accommodating nerve bundles in the extraocular optic nerve, where GFAP-positive cells acquired characteristics typical of fibrous astrocytes. These findings indicate that collagen fibrils, as a whole, form a continuous network which serves as a skeletal framework of the optic nerve head for protecting optic nerve fibers from mechanical stress as well as for sustaining blood vessels in the optic nerve. The lamina cribrosa containing elastic fibers are considered to be plastic against the mechanical force affected by elevation

  18. Piecewise polynomial dielectric function model and its application for the retrieval of optical functions.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Domingos De Sousa; Rousseau, Benoit; Echegut, Patrick; Matzen, Guy

    2007-06-01

    A new expression of dielectric function model based on piecewise polynomials is introduced. Its association with spline and more recent shape preserving interpolation algorithms allows easy reproduction of every kind of experimental spectra and thus retrieval of all the linear optical functions of a material. Based on a pure mathematical framework, the expression of the model is always applicable and does not necessitate any knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms of absorption responsible for the optical response. The potential of piecewise polynomial dielectric functions is shown through synthetic examples and the analysis of experimental spectra.

  19. Electromagnetic model for near-field microwave microscope with atomic resolution: Determination of tunnel junction impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik, Alexander N.

    2014-08-25

    An electrodynamic model is proposed for the tunneling microwave microscope with subnanometer space resolution as developed by Lee et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183111 (2010)]. Tip-sample impedance Z{sub a} was introduced and studied in the tunneling and non-tunneling regimes. At tunneling breakdown, the microwave current between probe and sample flows along two parallel channels characterized by impedances Z{sub p} and Z{sub t} that add up to form overall impedance Z{sub a}. Quantity Z{sub p} is the capacitive impedance determined by the near field of the probe and Z{sub t} is the impedance of the tunnel junction. By taking into account the distance dependences of effective tip radius r{sub 0}(z) and tunnel resistance R{sub t}(z) = Re[Z{sub t}(z)], we were able to explain the experimentally observed dependences of resonance frequency f{sub r}(z) and quality factor Q{sub L}(z) of the microscope. The obtained microwave resistance R{sub t}(z) and direct current tunnel resistance R{sub t}{sup dc}(z) exhibit qualitatively similar behavior, although being largely different in both magnitude and the characteristic scale of height dependence. Interpretation of the microwave images of the atomic structure of test samples proved possible by taking into account the inductive component of tunnel impedance ImZ{sub t} = ωL{sub t}. Relation ωL{sub t}/R{sub t} ≈ 0.235 was obtained.

  20. Dielectric relaxation of cytochrome c oxidase: Comparison of the microscopic and continuum models.

    PubMed

    Leontyev, I V; Stuchebrukhov, A A

    2009-02-28

    We have studied a charge-insertion process that models the deprotonation of a histidine side chain in the active site of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) using both the continuum electrostatic calculations and the microscopic simulations. The group of interest is a ligand to Cu(B) center of CcO, which has been previously suggested to play the role of the proton pumping element in the enzyme; the group is located near a large internal water cavity in the protein. Using the nonpolarizable Amber-99 force field in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have calculated the nuclear part of the reaction-field energy of charging of the His group and combined it with the electronic part, which we estimated in terms of the electronic continuum (EC) model, to obtain the total reaction-field energy of charging. The total free energy obtained in this MDEC approach was then compared with that calculated using pure continuum electrostatic model with variable dielectric parameters. The dielectric constant for the "dry" protein and that of the internal water cavity of CcO were determined as those parameters that provide best agreement between the continuum and microscopic MDEC model. The nuclear (MD) polarization alone (without electronic part) of a dry protein was found to correspond to an unphysically low dielectric constant of only about 1.3, whereas the inclusion of electronic polarizability increases the protein dielectric constant to 2.6-2.8. A detailed analysis is presented as to how the protein structure should be selected for the continuum calculations, as well as which probe and atomic radii should be used for cavity definition. The dielectric constant of the internal water cavity was found to be 80 or even higher using "standard" parameters of water probe radius, 1.4 A, and protein atomic radii from the MD force field for cavity description; such high values are ascribed to the fact that the standard procedure produces unphysically small cavities. Using x-ray data for

  1. Monte-Carlo modelling of nano-material photocatalysis: bridging photocatalytic activity and microscopic charge kinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshun

    2016-04-28

    In photocatalysis, it is known that light intensity, organic concentration, and temperature affect the photocatalytic activity by changing the microscopic kinetics of holes and electrons. However, how the microscopic kinetics of holes and electrons relates to the photocatalytic activity was not well known. In the present research, we developed a Monte-Carlo random walking model that involved all of the charge kinetics, including the photo-generation, the recombination, the transport, and the interfacial transfer of holes and electrons, to simulate the overall photocatalytic reaction, which we called a "computer experiment" of photocatalysis. By using this model, we simulated the effect of light intensity, temperature, and organic surface coverage on the photocatalytic activity and the density of the free electrons that accumulate in the simulated system. It was seen that the increase of light intensity increases the electron density and its mobility, which increases the probability for a hole/electron to find an electron/hole for recombination, and consequently led to an apparent kinetics that the quantum yield (QY) decreases with the increase of light intensity. It was also seen that the increase of organic surface coverage could increase the rate of hole interfacial transfer and result in the decrease of the probability for an electron to recombine with a hole. Moreover, the increase of organic coverage on the nano-material surface can also increase the accumulation of electrons, which enhances the mobility for electrons to undergo interfacial transfer, and finally leads to the increase of photocatalytic activity. The simulation showed that the temperature had a more complicated effect, as it can simultaneously change the activation of electrons, the interfacial transfer of holes, and the interfacial transfer of electrons. It was shown that the interfacial transfer of holes might play a main role at low temperature, with the temperature-dependence of QY

  2. Monte-Carlo modelling of nano-material photocatalysis: bridging photocatalytic activity and microscopic charge kinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshun

    2016-04-28

    In photocatalysis, it is known that light intensity, organic concentration, and temperature affect the photocatalytic activity by changing the microscopic kinetics of holes and electrons. However, how the microscopic kinetics of holes and electrons relates to the photocatalytic activity was not well known. In the present research, we developed a Monte-Carlo random walking model that involved all of the charge kinetics, including the photo-generation, the recombination, the transport, and the interfacial transfer of holes and electrons, to simulate the overall photocatalytic reaction, which we called a "computer experiment" of photocatalysis. By using this model, we simulated the effect of light intensity, temperature, and organic surface coverage on the photocatalytic activity and the density of the free electrons that accumulate in the simulated system. It was seen that the increase of light intensity increases the electron density and its mobility, which increases the probability for a hole/electron to find an electron/hole for recombination, and consequently led to an apparent kinetics that the quantum yield (QY) decreases with the increase of light intensity. It was also seen that the increase of organic surface coverage could increase the rate of hole interfacial transfer and result in the decrease of the probability for an electron to recombine with a hole. Moreover, the increase of organic coverage on the nano-material surface can also increase the accumulation of electrons, which enhances the mobility for electrons to undergo interfacial transfer, and finally leads to the increase of photocatalytic activity. The simulation showed that the temperature had a more complicated effect, as it can simultaneously change the activation of electrons, the interfacial transfer of holes, and the interfacial transfer of electrons. It was shown that the interfacial transfer of holes might play a main role at low temperature, with the temperature-dependence of QY

  3. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-10-29

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.

  4. A Microscopic Model for the Strongly Coupled Electron-Ion System in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovorn, Timothy; Sarker, Sanjoy

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO2) near 340 K is accompanied by a structural transition, suggesting strong coupling between electronic and lattice degrees of freedom. To help elucidate this relationship, we construct and analyze a microscopic model in which electrons, described by a tight-binding Hamiltonian, are dynamically coupled to Ising-like ionic degrees of freedom. A mean-field decoupling leads to an interacting two-component (pseudo) spin-1 Ising model describing the ions. An analysis of the minimal ionic model reproduces the observed M1 and M2 dimerized phases and rutile metal phase, occurring in the observed order with increasing temperature. All three transitions are first order, as observed. We further find that both dimerization and correlations play crucial roles in describing the insulating M1 phase. We discuss why dynamical coupling of electrons and ions is key to obtain a full understanding of the phenomenology of VO2, particularly in the context of the phase coexistence observed near the MIT. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (DMR-1508680).

  5. Quantum molecular dynamics a microscopic model from UNILAC to CERN energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnack, C.; Zhuxia, Li; Neise, L.; Peilert, G.; Rosenhauer, A.; Sorge, H.; Aichelin, J.; Stöcker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1989-04-01

    We demonstrate that the microscopic QMD approach is useful to study heavy ion collisions from fusion fussion phenomena to the quest for signals of the quark gluon plasma. We discuss the possibilities and difficulties to determine the nuclear equation of state from heavy ion collisions. We investigate the influence of momentum dependent interactions and of in medium corrections to the nucleon-nucleon cross sections in the framework of the QMD model. The model is extended to low energies by including a Pauli potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We show that it is possible to extract information on the effective cross sections from the experimental rapidity distributions of the fragments. We also investigate the transverse momentum of complex fragments with and without in medium corrections. The experimental data yield evidence for a stiff equation of state. A covariant extension of the QMD model is presented, which is applied to very high energy (10…200 AGeV) heavy ion collisions. Particle production and decay of heavy resonances are included. Predictions of the stopping power at AGS and SPS are presented. The importance of secondary scattering and nuclear stopping up to the highest energies is demonstrated. This is particularly important for the recently observed enhancement of strangeness production, which was proposed as a signal for QGP formation.

  6. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-01-01

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769

  7. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (ρ), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug.

  8. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  10. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  12. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  13. Hyperspectral confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Michael B; Haaland, David M; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Jones, Howland D T

    2006-08-20

    We have developed a new, high performance, hyperspectral microscope for biological and other applications. For each voxel within a three-dimensional specimen, the microscope simultaneously records the emission spectrum from 500 nm to 800 nm, with better than 3 nm spectral resolution. The microscope features a fully confocal design to ensure high spatial resolution and high quality optical sectioning. Optical throughput and detection efficiency are maximized through the use of a custom prism spectrometer and a backside thinned electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) array. A custom readout mode and synchronization scheme enable 512-point spectra to be recorded at a rate of 8300 spectra per second. In addition, the EMCCD readout mode eliminates curvature and keystone artifacts that often plague spectral imaging systems. The architecture of the new microscope is described in detail, and hyperspectral images from several specimens are presented.

  14. Hyperspectral confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Haaland, David M.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new, high performance, hyperspectral microscope for biological and other applications. For each voxel within a three-dimensional specimen, the microscope simultaneously records the emission spectrum from 500 nm to 800 nm, with better than 3 nm spectral resolution. The microscope features a fully confocal design to ensure high spatial resolution and high quality optical sectioning. Optical throughput and detection efficiency are maximized through the use of a custom prism spectrometer and a backside thinned electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) array. A custom readout mode and synchronization scheme enable 512-point spectra to be recorded at a rate of 8300 spectra per second. In addition, the EMCCD readout mode eliminates curvature and keystone artifacts that often plague spectral imaging systems. The architecture of the new microscope is described in detail, and hyperspectral images from several specimens are presented.

  15. Hyperspectral confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Michael B; Haaland, David M; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Jones, Howland D T

    2006-08-20

    We have developed a new, high performance, hyperspectral microscope for biological and other applications. For each voxel within a three-dimensional specimen, the microscope simultaneously records the emission spectrum from 500 nm to 800 nm, with better than 3 nm spectral resolution. The microscope features a fully confocal design to ensure high spatial resolution and high quality optical sectioning. Optical throughput and detection efficiency are maximized through the use of a custom prism spectrometer and a backside thinned electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) array. A custom readout mode and synchronization scheme enable 512-point spectra to be recorded at a rate of 8300 spectra per second. In addition, the EMCCD readout mode eliminates curvature and keystone artifacts that often plague spectral imaging systems. The architecture of the new microscope is described in detail, and hyperspectral images from several specimens are presented. PMID:16892134

  16. Microscopic nuclear models for astrophysics: The Brussels BRUSLIB nuclear library and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.

    2006-10-01

    Astrophysics is in need of a broad variety of nuclear data. This concerns static ground state properties, characteristics of excited nuclei, spontaneous decay properties, or interactions of nuclei with (mainly) nucleons, α-particles or photons. A strong theoretical activity complementing laboratory efforts is also mandatory. A large variety of highly ‘exotic’ laboratory-unreachable nuclei are indeed involved in the astrophysics modelling. Even when laboratory-studied nuclei are considered, theory has very often to be called for. Mastering the huge volume of nuclear information and making it available in an accurate and usable form for incorporation into astrophysics models is clearly of pivotal importance. The recognition of this necessity has been the driving motivation for the construction of the Brussels library (BRUSLIB) of computed data of astrophysics relevance. It provides an extended information in tabular form on masses, nuclear level densities and partition functions, fission barriers, and thermonuclear reaction rates. In addition of the unprecedented broadness of its scope, BRUSLIB has the unique and most important feature of relying to the largest possible extent on global and coherent microscopic nuclear models. The models of this sort that we have developed to predict the basic properties of the nuclei and of their interactions are briefly reviewed. The content of the BRUSLIB library that relies on these models is described, as well as a user-friendly nuclear network generator (NETGEN) complementing BRUSLIB. Finally, an application of BRUSLIB and NETGEN to the p-process nucleosynthesis during He detonation in sub-Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs is proposed.

  17. Optical modeling of laser ablated microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, M. C.; Davies, E.; Holmes, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    From only an a priori knowledge of the optical parameters of a laser beam, the delivery system together with a substrate's material properties, a ray-tracing model capable of predicting the 3-D topology of micro/nanostructures machined by pulsed laser ablation has been developed. The model includes secondary illumination effects produced by the microstructure created by successive pulses (wall reflections, refraction, wave guiding, shadowing, etc.) as well as the complete optical properties of the beam delivery system. We have used material ablation by pulsed excimer lasers and associated beam delivery systems to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the model. Good agreement is obtained between computations and experimental results in terms of the predicted ablation depth per pulse and the wall taper angle of channels and holes. The model can predict ablated profiles of holes and indicate the most efficient drilling strategy in terms of material removal rates. The model also shows diffraction effects are not required to explain the tapering vertical walls observed when ablating microstructures. Finally, the model has been used to demonstrate aberrations in an optical imaging system limiting the creation of submicron features in an ablated microstructure. Provided photons are absorbed linearly in a substrate according to Beer's law with negligible thermal diffusion effects, the model is equally applicable to using other types of pulsed laser sources and systems with imaged or focused beams.

  18. Microscopic model calculations for the magnetization process of layered triangular-lattice quantum antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei

    2015-01-16

    Magnetization processes of spin-1/2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H≈0.7H_{s}, where H_{s} is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9} [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co^{2+}-based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states. PMID:25635561

  19. Aggregate formation in a model fluid with microscopic piecewise-continuous competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigala, G.; Costa, D.; Bomont, J.-M.; Caccamo, C.

    2015-09-01

    We use the hypernetted chain theory - complemented in a few selected cases by Monte Carlo simulations to assess its accuracy - to study a model fluid composed by hard spheres surrounded by an attractive square-well, followed by a linearly decreasing repulsive ramp. The proposed competing interaction allows us to study individually the influence of all the defining parameters on the formation of aggregates out of the homogeneous fluid, as signalled by the development of a local peak at low wavevectors in the static structure factor. We document an accurate linear scaling of the temperature whereupon aggregates develop (at constant density) as a function of both the square-well width and the height of the repulsive barrier, over a wide range of such properties; a much drastic dependence is instead observed on the repulsion range, well described by an exponential increase. We show that typical correlation distances among aggregates, in early conditions for their development, fall approximately at a constant fraction of the width of the repulsive barrier. We analyse different possibilities in which attraction or repulsion prevails in the overall balance of microscopic interaction: we document, as expected, that for sufficiently weak repulsion barriers, or sufficiently large attractive wells, the structure factor shows a trend to increase in the limit of vanishing wavevectors, heralding a standard liquid-vapour phase separation at low temperatures. At the opposite end, the development of aggregates seems to be hardly favoured, for the present model, if attraction is completely neglected.

  20. Microscopic deformation mechanisms in model thermoplastic elastomers by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Amanda; Rottler, Jörg

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) can be formed by exploiting the nanostructured morphology of triblock copolymers. Glassy end-blocks phase separate to form spherical regions which act as physical cross-links for the soft rubbery phase. Molecular dynamics simulations of TPEs allow us to relate the microscopic mechanisms active during plastic deformation to the macroscopic stress response. A coarse-grained bead-spring model of linear ABA triblock copolymers which forms the desired spherical morphology is used for pure stress and pure strain uniaxial deformations. The systems are first equilibrated using a soft pair potential. We observe increased strain hardening in triblocks when compared to homopolymers of the same chain length in accordance with experiments. We connect variations in the stress response for systems of different chain lengths to the non-affine deformation of chains and to the scale of phase separated regions. The stress response is also compared to rubbery elasticity models, taking into account the evolution of chain entanglements during deformation. We observe void formation at the interfaces of glassy regions or where these regions have broken up at large strain.

  1. Fission properties of Po isotopes in different macroscopic-microscopic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, J.; Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Schmitt, Ch

    2015-11-01

    Fission-barrier heights of nuclei in the Po isotopic chain are investigated in several macroscopic-microscopic models. Using the Yukawa-folded single-particle potential, the Lublin-Strasbourg drop (LSD) model, the Strutinsky shell-correction method to yield the shell corrections and the BCS theory for the pairing contributions, fission-barrier heights are calculated and found in quite good agreement with the experimental data. This turns out, however, to be only the case when the underlying macroscopic, liquid-drop (LD) type, theory is well chosen. Together with the LSD approach, different LD parametrizations proposed by Moretto et al are tested. Four deformation parameters describing respectively elongation, neck-formation, reflectional-asymmetric, and non-axiality of the nuclear shape thus defining the so called modified Funny Hills shape parametrization are used in the calculation. The present study clearly demonstrates that nuclear fission-barrier heights constitute a challenging and selective tool to discern between such different macroscopic approaches.

  2. Simulation and experimental results of optical and thermal modeling of gold nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Lida; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of synthesized magneto-optical nanoshells (MNSs) for biomedical applications. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with diameter of 9.5 ± 1.4 nm are fabricated using co-precipitation method and subsequently covered by a thin layer of gold to obtain 15.8 ± 3.5 nm MNSs. In this paper, simulations and detailed analysis are carried out for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of MNSs are assessed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Magnetic saturation of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are reduced from 46.94 to 11.98 emu/g after coating with gold. The performance of the proposed optical-thermal modeling technique is verified by simulation and experimental results. PMID:25063109

  3. Analytical modeling for microwave and optical metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Alessio; Soric, Jason; Alù, Andrea; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto

    2016-06-01

    A metasurface is an artificial structure composed by an ultrathin surface textured at a subwavelength scale. In the last years, metasurfaces have been revealed to be particularly useful in the design of electromagnetic scattering cancellation devices operating at microwave and optical frequencies. In this contribution we summarize our results about the analytical modelling of microwave and optical metasurfaces composed, respectively, by patterned metallic surfaces and arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles. The analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained with a proper set of full-wave simulations showing an excellent agreement.

  4. Comparison of human colorectal normal tissue with cancerous tissue autofluorescence image by optical sectioning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng; Chia, Teck-Chee; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Diong, Cheong Hoong; Tang, Choong Leong; Choen, Francis S.; Krishnan, Shankar M.

    2003-10-01

    We investigated normal and cancerous human colorectal tissues (fresh thick biopsy specimens) using Olympus Confocal laser scanning biological microscope (FV300). The different layers of autofluorescence images of the specimen were captured by 488 nm laser scanning and sectioning. Optical sectioning can be performed in the vertical plane. Laser scanning can be performed in the horizontal plane. By comparing the autofluorescence image of the normal colorectal tissue with cancerous tissue, the structures of the optical sectioning image layer were found to be significantly different. We have also obtained fibrous autofluorescence image inside tissue specimen. Our investigation may help provide some useful insight to other autofluorescence research studies like laser induced autofluorescence spectra of human colorectal tissue study as a diagnosis technique for clinical application.

  5. Optical models for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.; Sopori, B.

    1995-08-01

    Light trapping is an important design feature for high-efficiency silicon solar cells. Because light trapping can considerably enhance optical absorption, a thinner substrate can be used which, in turn, can lower the bulk carrier recombination and concommitantly increase open-circuit voltage, and fill factor of the cell. The basic concepts of light trapping are similar to that of excitation of an optical waveguide, where a prism or a grating structure increases the phase velocity of the incoming optical wave such that waves propagated within the waveguide are totally reflected at the interfaces. Unfortunately, these concepts break down because the entire solar cell is covered with such a structure, making it necessary to develop new analytical approaches to deal with incomplete light trapping in solar cells. This paper describes two models that analyze light trapping in thick and thin solar cells.

  6. Development of a shear-force scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for characterization of nanostructures' optical properties.

    PubMed

    Bercu, N B; Troyon, M; Molinari, M

    2016-09-01

    An original scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for nanostructure characterization has been developed and successfully tested. By using a bimorph piezoelectric stack both as actuator and detector, the developed setup constitutes a real improvement compared to previously reported SEM-based solutions. The technique combines a scanning probe and a scanning electron microscope in order to simultaneously offer near-field cathodoluminescence and topographic images of the sample. Share-force topography and cathodoluminescence measurements on GaN, SiC and ZnO nanostructures using the developed setup are presented showing a nanometric resolution in both topography and cathodoluminescence images with increased sensitivity compared to classical luminescence techniques. PMID:27125561

  7. A compact "water-window" microscope with 60-nm spatial resolution based on a double stream gas-puff target and Fresnel zone plate optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Torrisi, Alfio; Nawaz, Muhammad F.; Adjei, Daniel; Bartnik, Andrzej; Kostecki, Jerzy; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Vondrová, Šárka; Turňová, Jana; Fok, Tomasz; Jančarek, Alexandr; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    Radiation with shorter illumination wavelength allows for extension of the diffraction limit towards nanometer scale, which is a straightforward way to significantly improve a spatial resolution in photon based microscopes. Soft X-ray (SXR) radiation, from the so called "water window" spectral range, λ=2.3-4.4 nm, which is particularly suitable for biological imaging due to natural optical contrast, providing much better spatial resolution than one obtained with visible light microscopes. The high contrast is obtained because of selective absorption of radiation by carbon and water, being constituents of the biological samples. We present a desk-top system, capable of resolving 60 nm features in few seconds exposure time. We exploit the advantages of a compact, laser-plasma SXR source, based on a double stream nitrogen gas puff target, developed at the Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology. The source, emitting quasi-monochromatic, incoherent radiation, in the "water widow" spectral range at λ = 2.88 nm, is coupled with ellipsoidal, grazing incidence condenser and Fresnel zone plate objective. The construction of the microscope with some recent images of test and real samples will be presented and discussed.

  8. Microscopic model analysis of {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering at 62, 68.4, and 75 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M. Y. M.; Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.; Maridi, H. M.

    2009-01-15

    {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering data at three energies, 62, 68.4, and 75 MeV/nucleon, are analyzed with density-dependent M3Y and KH effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions in the framework of the single folding model. The parameters of the density-dependent term are adjusted to fulfill saturation of nuclear matter. The optical potentials (OP's) and cross sections are calculated using four model densities of {sup 11}Li, G (one-parameter Gaussian), GG (Gaussian-Gaussian), GO (Gaussian- oscillator), and the COSMA (cluster orbital shell model approximation). Comparative studies are performed for real, imaginary, and spin-orbit potentials with the phenomenological and microscopic forms. The microscopic volume and surface imaginary potentials are constructed from both the renormalized folded potentials and their derivatives. The sensitivity of the differential cross section to the four densities is tested. It is found that the {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering cross sections depend strongly upon the behavior of the corresponding potentials. The GG and GO densities obtained from analyzing the data, using Glauber multiple scattering theory at high energies, give good results at energies below 100 MeV/nucleon in the framework of the folding model. The OP's calculated in the microscopic form using few parameters give good agreement with the data. Thus, it is not necessary to introduce a large number of arbitrary fitting parameters as done in the phenomenological and semimicroscopic OP's. The KH effective interaction successfully describes {sup 11}Li+p elastic scattering as the popular M3Y interaction. The obtained results of the reaction cross section are in good agreement with previous calculations.

  9. Instruction manual, Optical Effects Module, Model OEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Optical Effects Module Model OEM-1, a laboratory prototype instrument designed for the automated measurement of radiation transmission and scattering through optical samples, is described. The system comprises two main components: the Optical Effects Module Enclosure (OEME) and the Optical Effects Module Electronic Controller and Processor (OEMCP). The OEM is designed for operation in the near UV at approximately 2540A, corresponding to the most intense spectral line activated by the mercury discharge lamp used for illumination. The radiation from this source is detected in transmission and reflection through a number of selectable samples. The basic objective of this operation is to monitor in real time the accretion of possible contamination on the surface of these samples. The optical samples are exposed outside of the OEME proper to define exposure conditions and to separate exposure and measurement environments. Changes in the transmissivity of the sample are attributable to surface contamination or to bulk effects due to radiation. Surface contamination will increase radiation scattering due to Rayleigh-Gans effect or to other phenomena, depending on the characteristics size of the particulate contaminants. Thus, also scattering from the samples becomes a part of the measurement program.

  10. An optical model for composite nuclear scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    The optical model of composite particle scattering is considered and compared to the accuracies of other models. A nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation with two-body potentials is used for the scattering of a single particle by an energy-dependent local potential. The potential for the elastic channel is composed of matrix elements of a single scattering operator taken between the ground states of the projectile and the target; the coherent amplitude is considered as dominating the scattering in the forward direction. A multiple scattering series is analytically explored and formally summed by the solution of an equivalent Schroedinger equation. Cross sections of nuclear scattering are then determined for He-4 and C-12 nuclei at 3.6 GeV/nucleus and O-16 projectiles at 2.1 GeV/nucleus, and the optical model approximations are found to be consistently lower and more accurate than approximations made by use of Glauber's theory.

  11. A rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking "myxedema coma" established by microscopic total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yosuke; Fujita, Masanori; Ono, Sachiko; Ogata, Sho; Tachibana, Shoichi; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-06-30

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a life-threatening endocrine crisis caused by severe hypothyroidism. However, validated diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for MC have not been established owing to its rarity. Therefore, a valid animal model is required to investigate the pathologic and therapeutic aspects of MC. The aim of the present study was to establish an animal model of MC induced by total thyroidectomy. We utilized 14 male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized via intramuscular ketamine and xylazine administration. A total of 7 rabbits were completely thyroidectomized under a surgical microscope (thyroidectomized group) and the remainder underwent sham operations (control group). The animals in both groups were monitored without thyroid hormone replacement for 15 weeks. Pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein immediately prior to the thyroidectomy and 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. The thyroidectomized rabbits showed a marked reduction of serum thyroxine levels at 4 weeks after the surgical procedure vs. controls (0.50±0.10 vs. 3.32±0.68 μg/dL, p<0.001). Additionally, thyroidectomized rabbits exhibited several signs of hypothyroidism such as hypothermia, systolic hypotension, bradycardia, and low voltage on ECGs, compared with controls. Of the 7 rabbits with severe hypothyroidism, 6 died from 4 to 14 weeks after the thyroidectomy possibly owing to heart failure, because histopathologic examinations revealed a myxedema heart. In summary, we have established a rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking MC, which may facilitate pathophysiological and molecular investigations of MC and evaluations of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:26924647

  12. A rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking "myxedema coma" established by microscopic total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yosuke; Fujita, Masanori; Ono, Sachiko; Ogata, Sho; Tachibana, Shoichi; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-06-30

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a life-threatening endocrine crisis caused by severe hypothyroidism. However, validated diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for MC have not been established owing to its rarity. Therefore, a valid animal model is required to investigate the pathologic and therapeutic aspects of MC. The aim of the present study was to establish an animal model of MC induced by total thyroidectomy. We utilized 14 male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized via intramuscular ketamine and xylazine administration. A total of 7 rabbits were completely thyroidectomized under a surgical microscope (thyroidectomized group) and the remainder underwent sham operations (control group). The animals in both groups were monitored without thyroid hormone replacement for 15 weeks. Pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein immediately prior to the thyroidectomy and 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. The thyroidectomized rabbits showed a marked reduction of serum thyroxine levels at 4 weeks after the surgical procedure vs. controls (0.50±0.10 vs. 3.32±0.68 μg/dL, p<0.001). Additionally, thyroidectomized rabbits exhibited several signs of hypothyroidism such as hypothermia, systolic hypotension, bradycardia, and low voltage on ECGs, compared with controls. Of the 7 rabbits with severe hypothyroidism, 6 died from 4 to 14 weeks after the thyroidectomy possibly owing to heart failure, because histopathologic examinations revealed a myxedema heart. In summary, we have established a rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking MC, which may facilitate pathophysiological and molecular investigations of MC and evaluations of new therapeutic interventions.

  13. Global properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in macroscopic-microscopic models

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Andrzej; Lojewski, Zdzislaw; Sieja, Kamila; Kowal, Michal

    2005-10-01

    A systematic study of global properties of superheavy nuclei in the framework of macroscopic-microscopic method is performed. Equilibrium deformations, masses, quadrupole moments, radii, shell energies, fission barriers and half-lives are calculated using the following macroscopic models: Myers-Swiatecki liquid drop, droplet, Yukawa-plus-exponential, and Lublin-Strasbourg drop. Shell and pairing energies are calculated in Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z=100 to 122. Magic and semimagic numbers occurring in this region are indicated and their influence on the observables is discussed. The strongest shell effects appear at proton number Z=114 and at neutron number N=184. Deformed shell closures are found at N=152 and 162. Spontaneous fission half-lives are calculated in a dynamical approach where the full minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional deformation space of {beta} deformations is performed. The fission half-lives obtained this way are two orders of magnitude smaller than the ones resulting from static calculations. The agreement of theoretical results and experimental data is satisfying.

  14. Competitive heterogeneous nucleation onto a microscopic impurity in a Potts model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asuquo, Cletus C.; McArthur, Danielle; Bowles, Richard K.

    2016-08-01

    Many metastable systems can nucleate to multiple competing stable or intermediate metastable states. In this work, a Potts model, subject to external fields, is used to study the competitive nucleation of two phases attempting to grow on a microscopic impurity. Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the free energy surfaces for the system under different conditions, where the relative stability of the phases is adjusted by changing the interaction parameters, and the nucleation rates obtained using multicomponent transition state theory (TST) are compared with the rates measured using the survival probability method. We find that the two methods predict similar nucleation rates when the free energy barrier used in the transition state theory is defined as the work required to form a critical embryo from the metastable phase. An analysis of the free energy surfaces also reveals that the competition between the nucleating phases leads to an effective drying of the impurity which slows down the nucleation rate compared to the single phase case.

  15. Modeling of Electronic Transport in Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tip-Carbon Nanotube Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A model is proposed for two observed current-voltage (I-V) patterns in a recent experiment with a scanning tunneling microscope tip and a carbon nanotube. We claim that there are two mechanical contact modes for a tip (metal) -nanotube (semiconductor) junction (1) with or (2) without a tiny vacuum gap (0.1 - 0.2 nm). With the tip grounded, the tunneling case in (1) would produce large dI/dV with V > 0, small dI/dV with V < 0, and I = 0 near V = 0 for an either n- or p-nanotube; the Schottky mechanism in (2) would result in I does not equal 0 only with V < 0 for an n-nanotube, and the bias polarities would be reversed for a p-nanotube. The two observed I-V patterns are thus entirely explained by a tip-nanotube contact of the two types, where the nanotube must be n-type.

  16. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures. PMID:21154435

  17. State-space models for optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kary L; Brockwell, Anthony E; Eddy, William F

    2007-09-20

    Measurement of stimulus-induced changes in activity in the brain is critical to the advancement of neuroscience. Scientists use a range of methods, including electrode implantation, surface (scalp) electrode placement, and optical imaging of intrinsic signals, to gather data capturing underlying signals of interest in the brain. These data are usually corrupted by artifacts, complicating interpretation of the signal; in the context of optical imaging, two primary sources of corruption are the heartbeat and respiration cycles. We introduce a new linear state-space framework that uses the Kalman filter to remove these artifacts from optical imaging data. The method relies on a likelihood-based analysis under the specification of a formal statistical model, and allows for corrections to the signal based on auxiliary measurements of quantities closely related to the sources of contamination, such as physiological processes. Furthermore, the likelihood-based modeling framework allows us to perform both goodness-of-fit testing and formal hypothesis testing on parameters of interest. Working with data collected by our collaborators, we demonstrate the method of data collection in an optical imaging study of a cat's brain.

  18. A density-matrix model of photosynthetic electron transfer with microscopically estimated vibrational relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, William W.; Warshel, Arieh

    2004-01-01

    The dispersed-polaron (spin-boson) model is reviewed briefly and then used to develop a density-matrix model for studies of electron transfer in condensed phases. The frequencies and Franck-Condon factors for solvent vibrational modes that are coupled to electron transfer are obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations by the dispersed-polaron treatment. Microscopic rate constants for vibrational relaxations, dephasing and coherence transfer between the solvent modes are obtained by fitting the time dependence of the solvent coordinates in the density-matrix treatment to the corresponding time dependence obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations with a classical linear-response approximation. This is done by adjusting a single parameter, the time constant for thermal equilibration of the two lowest levels of a solvent mode ( T10). The model thus focuses on the coupling between solvent modes, rather than on the more widely studied coupling of solute modes by the thermal bath. The resulting density-matrix model is used to examine vibronic coupling in the initial electron-transfer step in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers. Values of T10 in the range of 1-2 ps are consistent with molecular-dynamics simulations of the time-dependent energy gap between the reactant and product states (P* and P +B -), and also with the damping of coherent vibrational motions that are seen experimentally after excitation of reaction centers with a short pulse of light. In both the density-matrix model and the MD simulations, the autocorrelation function of the energy gap also has a decay component with a time constant of about 50 fs, which we ascribe to the group dephasing of oscillatory motions at many different frequencies. This component is insensitive to vibrational relaxations and is largely irrelevant to the electron-transfer dynamics. Using values of T10 in the range of 1-2 ps, a model with five vibrational modes reproduces the main features of electron transfer

  19. Confocal microscopic analysis of optical crosstalk in GaN micro-pixel light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. H.; Cheung, Y. F.; Cheung, W. S.; Choi, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    The optical crosstalk phenomenon in GaN micro-pixel light-emitting diodes (LED) has been investigated by confocal microscopy. Depth-resolved confocal emission images indicate light channeling along the GaN and sapphire layers as the source of crosstalk. Thin-film micro-pixel devices are proposed, whereby the light-trapping sapphire layers are removed by laser lift-off. Optical crosstalk is significantly reduced but not eliminated due to the remaining GaN layer. Another design involving micro-pixels which are completely isolated is further proposed; such devices exhibited low-noise and enhanced optical performances, which are important attributes for high-density micro-pixel LED applications including micro-displays and multi-channel optical communications.

  20. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  1. A Thermo-Optic Propagation Modeling Capability.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, Karl; Akau, Ron

    2014-10-01

    A new theoretical basis is derived for tracing optical rays within a finite-element (FE) volume. The ray-trajectory equations are cast into the local element coordinate frame and the full finite-element interpolation is used to determine instantaneous index gradient for the ray-path integral equation. The FE methodology (FEM) is also used to interpolate local surface deformations and the surface normal vector for computing the refraction angle when launching rays into the volume, and again when rays exit the medium. The method is implemented in the Matlab(TM) environment and compared to closed- form gradient index models. A software architecture is also developed for implementing the algorithms in the Zemax(TM) commercial ray-trace application. A controlled thermal environment was constructed in the laboratory, and measured data was collected to validate the structural, thermal, and optical modeling methods.

  2. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  3. Microscopic, electrical and optical studies on InGaN/GaN quantum wells based LED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutta, Geeta Rani; Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna; Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin

    2014-02-01

    We report here on the micro structural, electronic and optical properties of a GaN-based InGaN/GaN MQW LED grown by the MOVPE method. The present study shows that the threading dislocations present in these LED structures are terminated as V pits at the surface and have an impact on the electrical and optical activity of these devices. It has been pointed that these dislocations were of edge, screw and mixed types. EBIC maps suggest that the electrically active defects are screw and mixed dislocations and behave as nonradiative recombinant centres.

  4. Microscopic, electrical and optical studies on InGaN/GaN quantum wells based LED devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mutta, Geeta Rani; Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna

    2014-02-21

    We report here on the micro structural, electronic and optical properties of a GaN-based InGaN/GaN MQW LED grown by the MOVPE method. The present study shows that the threading dislocations present in these LED structures are terminated as V pits at the surface and have an impact on the electrical and optical activity of these devices. It has been pointed that these dislocations were of edge, screw and mixed types. EBIC maps suggest that the electrically active defects are screw and mixed dislocations and behave as nonradiative recombinant centres.

  5. A hybrid high-speed atomic force-optical microscope for visualizing single membrane proteins on eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Colom, Adai; Casuso, Ignacio; Rico, Felix; Scheuring, Simon

    2013-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy is a powerful tool for studying structure and dynamics of proteins. So far, however, high-speed atomic force microscopy was restricted to well-controlled molecular systems of purified proteins. Here we integrate an optical microscopy path into high-speed atomic force microscopy, allowing bright field and fluorescence microscopy, without loss of high-speed atomic force microscopy performance. This hybrid high-speed atomic force microscopy/optical microscopy setup allows positioning of the high-speed atomic force microscopy tip with high spatial precision on an optically identified zone of interest on cells. We present movies at 960 ms per frame displaying aquaporin-0 array and single molecule dynamics in the plasma membrane of intact eye lens cells. This hybrid setup allows high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging on cells about 1,000 times faster than conventional atomic force microscopy/optical microscopy setups, and allows first time visualization of unlabelled membrane proteins on a eukaryotic cell under physiological conditions. This development advances high-speed atomic force microscopy from molecular to cell biology to analyse cellular processes at the membrane such as signalling, infection, transport and diffusion.

  6. Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Paul; Migacz, Justin; O’Connell, Rachelle; Day, Shelley; Lee, Annie; Lin, Phoebe; Vann, Robin; Kuo, Anthony; Fekrat, Sharon; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Postel, Eric A.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We have recently developed a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) device designed to enable OCT acquisition simultaneous with surgical maneuvers. The purpose of this report is to describe translation of this device from preclinical testing into human intraoperative imaging. Methods Prior to human imaging, surgical conditions were fully simulated for extensive preclinical MIOCT evaluation in a custom model eye system. MIOCT images were then acquired in normal human volunteers and during vitreoretinal surgery in patients who consented to participate in a prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study. MIOCT images were obtained before and at pauses in surgical maneuvers and were compared based on pre-determined diagnostic criteria to images obtained with a high-resolution research handheld spectral domain OCT system (HHOCT, Bioptigen Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC) at the same time point. Cohorts of five consecutive patients were imaged. Successful endpoints were pre-defined, including ≥80% correlation in identification of pathology between MIOCT and HHOCT in ≥80% of patients. Results MIOCT was favorably evaluated by study surgeons and scrub nurses, all of whom responded that they would consider participating in human intraoperative imaging trials. The preclinical evaluation identified significant improvements that were made prior to MIOCT use during human surgery. The MIOCT transition into clinical human research was smooth. MIOCT imaging in normal human volunteers demonstrated high-resolution comparable to tabletop scanners. In the operating room, after an initial learning curve, surgeons successfully acquired human macular MIOCT images before and after surgical maneuvers. MIOCT imaging confirmed preoperative diagnoses, such as full-thickness macular hole and vitreomacular traction, and demonstrated post-surgical changes in retinal morphology. Two cohorts of five patients were imaged. In the

  7. Studies of porphyrin-containing specimens using an optical spectrometer connected to a confocal scanning laser microscope.

    PubMed

    Trepte, O; Rokahr, I; Andersson-Engels, S; Carlsson, K

    1994-12-01

    A spectrometer has been developed for use with a confocal scanning laser microscope. With this unit, spectral information from a single point or a user-defined region within the microscope specimen can be recorded. A glass prism is used to disperse the spectral components of the recorded light over a linear CCD photodiode array with 256 elements. A regulated cooling unit keeps the detector at 277 K, thereby allowing integration times of up to 60 s. The spectral resolving power, lambda/delta lambda, ranges from 350 at lambda = 400 nm to 100 at lambda = 700 nm. Since the entrance aperture of the spectrometer has the same size as the detector pinhole used during normal confocal scanning, the three-dimensional spatial resolution is equivalent to that of normal confocal scanning. Light from the specimen is deflected to the spectrometer by a solenoid controlled mirror, allowing fast and easy switching between normal confocal scanning and spectrometer readings. With this equipment, studies of rodent liver specimens containing porphyrins have been made. The subcellular localization is of interest for the mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumours. Spectroscopic detection is necessary to distinguish the porphyrin signal from other fluorescent components in the specimen. Two different substances were administered to the tissue, Photofrin, a haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and delta-amino levulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to protoporphyrin IX and haem in the haem cycle. Both are substances under clinical trials for PDT of malignant tumours. Following administration of these compounds to the tissue, the potent photosensitizer and fluorescent compound Photofrin, or protoporphyrin IX, respectively, is accumulated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. A numerical model for multiple detector energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Dycus, J H; Sang, X; LeBeau, J M

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a numerical approach to model a four quadrant energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer in the transmission electron microscope. The model includes detector geometries, specimen position and absorption, shadowing by the holder, and filtering by the Be carrier. We show that this comprehensive model accurately predicts absolute counts and intensity ratios as a function of specimen tilt and position. We directly compare the model to experimental results acquired with a FEI Super-X EDS four quadrant detector. The contribution from each detector to the sum is investigated. The program and source code can be downloaded from https://github.com/subangstrom/superAngle.

  9. A Computer-Controlled Classroom Model of an Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Tyler A.; Johnson, Matthew M.; Eklund, Peter C.; Russin, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "seeing by feeling" as a way to circumvent limitations on sight is universal on the macroscopic scale--reading Braille, feeling one's way around a dark room, etc. The development of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 extended this concept to imaging in the nanoscale. While there are classroom demonstrations that use…

  10. The Analog Atomic Force Microscope: Measuring, Modeling, and Graphing for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Valerie; Brandt, Sharon; Lieberman, Marya

    2013-01-01

    using an analog atomic force microscope (A-AFM) made from a cardboard box and mailing tubes. Varying numbers of ping pong balls inside the tubes mimic atoms on a surface. Students use a dowel to make macroscale measurements similar to those of a nanoscale AFM tip as it…

  11. Microscopic Description of the Exotic Nuclei Reactions by Using Folding model Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; El-Azab Farid, M.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.

    2011-10-27

    A microscopic folding approach based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear matter densities of the interacting nuclei has been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering reaction at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The corresponding reaction cross sections are also considered.

  12. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

    2013-12-01

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  13. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Henn, T.; Kiessling, T. Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Biermann, K.; Santos, P. V.

    2013-12-15

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast “white light” supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  14. A new microscope optics for laser dark-field illumination applied to high precision two dimensional measurement of specimen displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Naoki; Kamimura, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    With conventional light microscopy, precision in the measurement of the displacement of a specimen depends on the signal-to-noise ratio when we measure the light intensity of magnified images. This implies that, for the improvement of precision, getting brighter images and reducing background light noise are both inevitably required. For this purpose, we developed a new optics for laser dark-field illumination. For the microscopy, we used a laser beam and a pair of axicons (conical lenses) to get an optimal condition for dark-field observations. The optics was applied to measuring two dimensional microbead displacements with subnanometer precision. The bandwidth of our detection system overall was 10kHz. Over most of this bandwidth, the observed noise level was as small as 0.1nm/√Hz.

  15. Existence of a stable resonance zone with nearly unchanging vibration characteristics for a near-field scanning optical microscope probe dipped partially into a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjun; Kim, Seyoung; Kim, Dae-Chan; O, Beom-Hoan; Park, Se-Geun; Lee, Seung Gol

    2014-02-01

    The vibration characteristics of a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) probe, whose vibration was controlled by two-nodal-wedge method and tip was partially dipped into a liquid, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The resonant frequency and the Q value of the NSOM probe were found to remain nearly unchanged irrespective of the dipping depth of the probe, if the probe was kept within a dipping depth range of 0.4˜1.0 mm. With the achievement of a high Q value, the existence of this stable resonance zone implies that bio-samples immersed in a liquid can be accurately and stably measured using a NSOM controlled by using two-nodal-wedge method.

  16. Second harmonic generation in a KNbO3 nanorod and its detection by using a near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. J.; Kang, P. G.; Jung, J. H.; Lee, H. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on an observation of second harmonic generation in an individual KNbO3 nanorod by using a near-field scanning optical microscope. The second harmonic is successfully generated by irradiating with a femtosecond laser having center wavelengths of 1200, 1100, and 972 nm. Such a second harmonic yield shows a clear dependence on the incident laser polarization, where maximum yield is obtained when the incident laser polarization is parallel to the long axis of an individual nanorod. A spatially-resolved second harmonic image shows a bright spot at the edge of the nanorod, which is attributed to the elaborated intensity of both fundamental laser light and second harmonic light inside the nanowire owing to cavity-mode formation.

  17. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... include purplish bumps and spots pictured below (palpable purpura). These areas range in size from several millimeters ... Syndrome (EGPA) Cryoglobulinemia Giant Cell Arteritis Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Microscopic Polyangiitis Polyarteritis Nodosa Rheumatoid Vasculitis Takayasu’s Arteritis ...

  18. Bond models in linear and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.

    2015-08-01

    Bond models, also known as polarizable-point or mechanical models, have a long history in optics, starting with the Clausius-Mossotti relation but more accurately originating with Ewald's largely forgotten work in 1912. These models describe macroscopic phenomena such as dielectric functions and nonlinear-optical (NLO) susceptibilities in terms of the physics that takes place in real space, in real time, on the atomic scale. Their strengths lie in the insights that they provide and the questions that they raise, aspects that are often obscured by quantum-mechanical treatments. Statics versions were used extensively in the late 1960's and early 1970's to correlate NLO susceptibilities among bulk materials. Interest in NLO applications revived with the 2002 work of Powell et al., who showed that a fully anisotropic version reduced by more than a factor of 2 the relatively large number of parameters necessary to describe secondharmonic- generation (SHG) data for Si(111)/SiO2 interfaces. Attention now is focused on the exact physical meaning of these parameters, and to the extent that they represent actual physical quantities.

  19. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-02-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  20. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOEpatents

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  1. Development of scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, S.; Mimura, H.; Yumoto, H.; Sano, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Yabashi, M.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2006-10-15

    We developed a high-spatial-resolution scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope (SXFM) using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. As a result of two-dimensional focusing tests at BL29XUL of SPring-8, the full width at half maximum of the focused beam was achieved to be 50x30 nm{sup 2} (VxH) under the best focusing conditions. The measured beam profiles were in good agreement with simulated results. Moreover, beam size was controllable within the wide range of 30-1400 nm by changing the virtual source size, although photon flux and size were in a trade-off relationship. To demonstrate SXFM performance, a fine test chart fabricated using focused ion beam system was observed to determine the best spatial resolution. The element distribution inside a logo mark of SPring-8 in the test chart, which has a minimum linewidth of approximately 50-60 nm, was visualized with a spatial resolution better than 30 nm using the smallest focused x-ray beam.

  2. Tunable plasmon modes in single silver nanowire optical antennas characterized by far-field microscope polarization spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ming; Qian, Lihua; Long, Hua; Wang, Kai; Lu, Peixiang; Rakovich, Yury P; Hetsch, Frederik; Susha, Andrei S; Rogach, Andrey L

    2014-08-01

    Performing far-field microscope polarization spectroscopy and finite element method simulations, we investigated experimentally and theoretically the surface plasmon modes in single Ag nanowire antennas. Our results show that the surface plasmon resonances in the single Ag nanowire antenna can be tuned from the dipole plasmon mode to a higher order plasmon mode, which would result in the emission with different intensities and polarization states, for the semiconductor quantum dots coupled to the nanowire antenna. The fluorescence polarization is changed with different polarized excitation of the 800 nm light beam, while it remains parallel to the Ag nanowire axis at the 400 nm excitation. The 800 nm incident light interacts nonresonantly with the dipole plasmon mode with the polarized excitation parallel to the Ag nanowire axis, while it excites a higher order plasmon mode with the perpendicular excitation. Under excitation of 400 nm, either the parallel or perpendicular excitation can only result in a dipole plasmon mode. In addition, we demonstrate that the single Ag nanowire antenna can work as an energy concentrator for enhancing the two-photon excited fluorescence of semiconductor quantum dots.

  3. Scattering of electrically excited surface plasmon polaritons by gold nanoparticles studied by optical interferometry with a scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Rogez, Benoît.; Comtet, Geneviève; Le Moal, Eric; Abidi, Wafa; Remita, Hynd; Dujardin, Gérald; Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    We study the scattering of electrically excited surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) from individual nanostructures. The tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) are used to excite an out-going, circular SPP wave on a thin (50-nm) gold film on which isolated gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been deposited. Interaction of the excited SPPs with the NPs leads to both in-plane (SPP-to-SPP) and out-of-plane (SPP-to-photon) scattering. We use SPP leakage radiation microscopy to monitor the interference between the incident and in-plane scattered SPP waves in the image plane. By changing the location of the STM tip, the distance of the pointlike SPP source to the scatterers can be varied at will, which constitutes a key advantage over other existing techniques. As well, the out-of-plane scattered radiation interferes with the direct light emission from the STM tip in the back focal plane (Fourier plane). This confirms the mutual coherence of the light and SPP emission resulting from the inelastic tunneling of an electron in the STM junction. We use this effect to demonstrate that SPP-to-photon scattering at NPs is highly directional.

  4. Modeling nanoparticle optics and surface enhanced emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuford, Kevin L.

    2014-03-01

    This account focuses on using classical electrodynamics methods to model the optical properties of metal nanoparticles as well as the excitation dynamics of molecules interacting with them. We begin by reviewing several approaches being utilized currently to predict and interpret optical spectra and plasmonic phenomena. Results for various nanoparticles are presented to emphasize general concepts, extract trends, and correlate spectral features to specific plasmon modes. Next we show how coupling a molecule to a nanostructure can drastically alter the fluorescence. As an example, we present the emission characteristics of a molecule placed in the gap of a nanoparticle dimer. In contrast to the single nanosphere-molecule system, we find that the emission intensity undergoes a quenching effect only when the inter-nanoparticle gap distance of the dimer is very small, meaning that strong coupling prevails over energy engaged in the heating process unless the molecule is extremely close to the metal surface. These examples highlight the importance of accurately modeling the nanoparticle and understanding the interplay between system components in plasmonic applications.

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  6. The Abelian Higgs model on Optical Lattice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Bazavov, Alexei; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    We study the Lattice Gauge Theory of the U(1)-Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions in the strongly coupled regime. We discuss the plaquette corrections to the effective theory where link variables are integrated out. We discuss matching with the second-order perturbation theory effective Hamiltonian for various Bose-Hubbard models. This correspondence can be exploited for building a lattice gauge theory simulator on optical lattices. We propose to implement the quantum rotors which appear in the Hamiltonian formulation using Bose mixtures or p-orbitals. Recent progress on magnetic effects in 2+1 dimensions will be discussed. Supported by the Army Research Office of the Department of Defense under Award Number W911NF-13-1-0119.

  7. Optical quantitation of absorbers in variously shaped turbid media based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law. A new approach to optical computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y; Urakami, T

    1998-02-01

    To determine the concentrations of an absorber in variously shaped turbid media such as human tissue, we propose analytical expressions for diffuse re-emission in time and frequency domains, based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law that holds true when we trace a zigzag photon path in the medium. Our expressions are implicit for the scattering properties, the volume shape, and the source-detector separation. We show that three observables are sufficient to determine the changes in the concentration and the absolute concentrations of an absorber in scattering media as long as the scattering property remains constant. The three observables are: the re-emission, the mean pathlength or group delay, and the extinction coefficient of the absorber. We also show that our equations can be extended to describe photon migration in nonuniform media. The validity of the predictions is confirmed by measuring a tissue-like phantom.

  8. Towards coherent manipulation of the ground states of single cesium atom confined in a microscopic far-off-resonance optical dipole trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Wenting; He, Jun; Liu, Bei; Wang, Junmin

    2012-11-01

    This work deals with the cooling and trapping of single cesium (Cs) atoms in a large-magnetic-gradient magneto-optical trap (MOT) and the confinement of single Cs atoms in a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (FORT). The experiment setup is based on two large-numerical-aperture lens assemblies which allow us to strongly focus a 1064-nm TEM00-mode Gaussian laser beam to a 1/e2 radius of ~ 2.3 μm to form a microscopic FORT for isolating single atom with environment and to efficiently collect the laser-induced-fluorescence photons emitted by single atoms for detecting and recognizing single atom's internal state. We have tried both of "bottom-up" and "top-down" loading schemes to confine single atoms in the microscopic FORT. In the "bottom-up" scheme, we have successfully prepared single Cs atoms in the MOT and transferred it into FORT with a probability of almost 100%. In the "top-down" scheme, we have achieved ~ 74% of single atom loading probability in the FORT using light-assisted collisions induced by blue detuning laser and with prepared many Cs atoms in the MOT. The relaxation time in hyperfine level of ground state of trapped single Cs atom is measured to be ~5.4 s. To coherently manipulate atomic quantum bits (qubit) encoded in the clock states (mF = 0 states in Fg = 3 and 4 hyperfine levels) of single Cs atom via the two-photon simulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), we have prepared two phase-locked laser beams with a frequency difference of ~ 9.192 GHz by optically injecting an 852-nm master laser to lock the +1-order sideband of a 9-GHz current-modulated slave diode laser. The two phase-locked laser beams are used to drive STIRAP process in the Λ-type three-level system consists of Cs |6S1/2 Fg = 4, mF = 0> and |6S1/2 Fg = 3, mF = 0< long-lived clock states and Cs |6S1/2 Fe = 4, mF = +1 > excited state with the single-photon detuning of ~ -20 GHz. Rabi flopping experiments are in progress.

  9. Aberration correction during real time in vivo imaging of bone marrow with sensorless adaptive optics confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhibin; Wei, Dan; Wei, Ling; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Wei, Xunbin; Zhang, Yudong

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated adaptive correction of specimen-induced aberration during in vivo imaging of mouse bone marrow vasculature with confocal fluorescence microscopy. Adaptive optics system was completed with wavefront sensorless correction scheme based on stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Using image sharpness as the optimization metric, aberration correction was performed based upon Zernike polynomial modes. The experimental results revealed the improved signal and resolution leading to a substantially enhanced image contrast with aberration correction. The image quality of vessels at 38- and 75-μm depth increased three times and two times, respectively. The corrections allowed us to detect clearer bone marrow vasculature structures at greater contrast and improve the signal-to-noise ratio.

  10. Characterization of perovskite film prepared by pulsed laser deposition on ferritic stainless steel using microscopic and optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, E.; Jaglarz, J.; Kąc, S.; Przybylski, K.; El Kouari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF48) film was deposited on Crofer 22 APU ferritic stainless steel by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Morphological studies of the sample were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Information about film thickness and surface topography of the film and the steel substrate were obtained using following optical methods: spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) and total integrated reflectometry (TIS). In particular, the BRDF study, being complementary to atomic force microscopy, yielded information about surface topography. Using the previously mentioned methods, the following statistic surface parameters were determined: root-mean square (rms) roughness and autocorrelation length by determining the power spectral density (PSD) function of surface irregularities.

  11. Optical Performance Modeling of FUSE Telescope Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Friedman, Scott D.; Moos, H. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Metrology Data Processor (METDAT), the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC), and their application to the image evaluation of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mirrors. The FUSE instrument - designed and developed by the Johns Hopkins University and launched in June 1999 is an astrophysics satellite which provides high resolution spectra (lambda/Delta(lambda) = 20,000 - 25,000) in the wavelength region from 90.5 to 118.7 nm The FUSE instrument is comprised of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors, four Rowland circle spectrograph channels with holographic gratings, and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The OSAC code provides a comprehensive analysis of optical system performance, including the effects of optical surface misalignments, low spatial frequency deformations described by discrete polynomial terms, mid- and high-spatial frequency deformations (surface roughness), and diffraction due to the finite size of the aperture. Both normal incidence (traditionally infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet mirror systems) and grazing incidence (x-ray mirror systems) systems can be analyzed. The code also properly accounts for reflectance losses on the mirror surfaces. Low frequency surface errors are described in OSAC by using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence mirrors and Legendre-Fourier polynomials for grazing incidence mirrors. The scatter analysis of the mirror is based on scalar scatter theory. The program accepts simple autocovariance (ACV) function models or power spectral density (PSD) models derived from mirror surface metrology data as input to the scatter calculation. The end product of the program is a user-defined pixel array containing the system Point Spread Function (PSF). The METDAT routine is used in conjunction with the OSAC program. This code reads in laboratory metrology data in a normalized format. The code then fits the data using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence

  12. Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Ren; Hsu, Long; Chi, Sien

    2006-06-01

    Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system. PMID:16724154

  13. Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Yiren; Hsu Long; Chi Sien

    2006-06-01

    Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system.

  14. [Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy animal model and its treatment applications].

    PubMed

    Chuman, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most common acute unilaterally onset optic nerve diseases. One management problem in terms of NAION is the difficulty of differential diagnosis between NAION and anterior optic neuritis (ON). A second problem is that there is no established treatment for the acute stage of NAION. A third problem is that there is no preventive treatment for a subsequent attack on the fellow eye, estimated to occur in 15 to 25% of patients with NAION. For differentiation of acute NAION from anterior optic neuritis, we investigated the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had 29.5% decreased mean blur rate (MBR), which correlates to optic disc blood flow, of the NAION eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the anterior ON group, all 6 cases had 15.9% increased MBR of the anterior ON eye compared with the unaffected eye. Thus, LSFG showed a difference of the underlying pathophysiology between NAION and anterior ON despite showing disc swelling in both groups and could be useful for differentiating both groups. For the treatment of acute stage of NAION, we tried to reproduce the rodent model of NAION (rNAION) developed by Bernstein and colleagues. To induce rNAION, after the administration of rose bengal(RB) (2.5 mM) into the tail vein of SD rats, the small vessels of the left optic nerve were photoactivated using a 514 nm argon green laser (RB-laser-induction). In the RB-laser-induction eyes, the capillaries within the optic disc were reduced markedly, the optic disc became swollen, and fluorescein angiography showed filling defect in the choroid and the optic disc at an early stage, followed by hyperfluorescence at a late stage. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed that visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude was significantly decreased but an electroretinogram

  15. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.

  16. Martian Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  17. Optical modeling of the wide-field imaging interferometry testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anita K.; Martino, Anthony J.; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Leisawitz, David T.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Bradley J.

    2006-06-01

    The technique of wide field imaging for optical/IR interferometers for missions like Space Infrared Interferometric (SPIRIT), Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS), and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-I)/DARWIN has been demonstrated through the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT). In this paper, we present an optical model of the WIIT testbed using the commercially available optical modeling and analysis software FRED. Interferometric results for some simple source targets are presented for a model with ideal surfaces and compared with theoretical closed form solutions. Measured surface deformation data of all mirror surfaces in the form of Zernike coefficients are then added to the optical model compared with results of some simple source targets to laboratory test data. We discuss the sources of error and approximations in the current FRED optical model. Future plans to refine the optical model are also be discussed.

  18. Shearing microscopy using polarized optical microscope with shear stage and spectral analyser to study liquid crystalline polymers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Yonetake, K; Masuko, T; Akiyama, R

    2002-01-01

    In-situ polarized optical microscopy using a shear stage and a spectral analyser as well as a CCD camera were applied to study the phase transition under shear flow for a thermotropic and side-chain-type liquid crystalline polysiloxane. The onset of the appearance of anisotropic texture of the polysiloxane was observed under shear flow using the CCD camera at temperatures much higher than the isotropic-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature if the polysiloxane was cooled from the isotropic phase in the quiescent state. Both the onset temperature and the temperature for full development of the anisotropic texture across the field of view became higher as the shear rate increased. The transmitted light intensity was also measured using a spectral analyser with crossed polarisers at wavelengths from 300 nm to 800 nm, and the integrated intensity of the spectrum was calculated. Changes in the spectrum and the integrated intensity against temperature in the cooling process were compared with observation using the CCD camera. Temperature dependence of the integrated intensity showed that the onset of the appearance of the anisotropic texture under high shear rates was detected at temperatures slightly higher than that observed using the CCD camera. PMID:11856377

  19. Microscopic imaging techniques for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic imaging can enhance the drug discovery process by helping to describe how disease processes unfold and how potential therapies might intervene. Recently introduced technologies, and enhancements to existing techniques, are addressing technical issues that have limited the usefulness of microscopic imaging in the past. In particular, these innovations are improving spatial resolution, increasing tissue penetration, overcoming physical access issues and enhancing experimental throughput. Notable recent trends, which are discussed in this article, include the development of super-resolution microscopes, the incorporation of multiphoton techniques into intravital and fibre-optic microscopy and the automation of microscopy and image analysis for high-content screening. Together, these developments are augmenting the existing assays and disease models that are used in early drug discovery and, in some cases, enabling new ones.

  20. Microscopic analysis of Be,1110 elastic scattering on protons and nuclei, and breakup processes of 11Be within the 10Be +n cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, V. K.; Kadrev, D. N.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Spasova, K.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    The density distributions of 10Be and 11Be nuclei obtained within the quantum Monte Carlo model and the generator coordinate method are used to calculate the microscopic optical potentials (OPs) and cross sections of elastic scattering of these nuclei on protons and 12C at energies E <100 MeV/nucleon. The real part of the OP is calculated using the folding model with the exchange terms included, while the imaginary part of the OP that reproduces the phase of scattering is obtained in the high-energy approximation. In this hybrid model of OP the free parameters are the depths of the real and imaginary parts obtained by fitting the experimental data. The well-known energy dependence of the volume integrals is used as a physical constraint to resolve the ambiguities of the parameter values. The role of the spin-orbit potential and the surface contribution to the OP is studied for an adequate description of available experimental elastic scattering cross-section data. Also, the cluster model, in which 11Be consists of a n -halo and the 10Be core, is adopted. Within the latter, the breakup cross sections of 11Be nucleus on 9Be,93Nb,181Ta , and 238U targets and momentum distributions of 10Be fragments are calculated and compared with the existing experimental data.

  1. Integrated elastic microscope device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  2. Precise autofocusing microscope with rapid response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Jiang, Sheng-Hong

    2015-03-01

    The rapid on-line or off-line automated vision inspection is a critical operation in the manufacturing fields. Accordingly, this present study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with a rapid response and no reduction in the focusing accuracy. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises a high-speed rotating optical diffuser in which the variation of the image centroid position is reduced and consequently the focusing response is improved. The proposed microscope is characterized and verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes, the proposed microscope achieves a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Consequently, the proposed microscope represents another solution for both existing and emerging industrial applications of automated vision inspection.

  3. Dynamic ray tracing for modeling optical cell manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Sraj, Ihab; Szatmary, Alex C.; Marr, David W. M.; Eggleton, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for predicting stress distribution on a cell surface due to optical trapping forces are based on a traditional ray optics scheme for fixed geometries. Cells are typically modeled as solid spheres as this facilitates optical force calculation. Under such applied forces however, real and non-rigid cells can deform, so assumptions inherent in traditional ray optics methods begin to break down. In this work, we implement a dynamic ray tracing technique to calculate the stress distribution on a deformable cell induced by optical trapping. Here, cells are modeled as three-dimensional elastic capsules with a discretized surface with associated hydrodynamic forces calculated using the Immersed Boundary Method. We use this approach to simulate the transient deformation of spherical, ellipsoidal and biconcave capsules due to external optical forces induced by a single diode bar optical trap for a range of optical powers. PMID:20721060

  4. Direct observation of macrostructure formation of hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with 3D interconnectivity by optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Chen, Li-Hua; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-03-15

    Hierarchically structured spongy meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminum content were synthesized from a mixture of single molecular alkoxide precursor, (sec-BuO)2-Al-O-Si(OEt)3, already containing Si-O-Al bonds, and a silica coreactant, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The spontaneous byproduct templated macroporous structure formation has been directly visualized using in situ high-resolution optical microscopy (OM), allowing the crucial observation of a microbubble dispersion which is directly correlated to the macrostructure observed by electronic microscopies (SEM and TEM). This discovery leads to a comparative study with meso-macroporous pure metal oxide and to a proposal of the formation mechanism of meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with 3D interconnectivity. The aluminosilicate phase/microbubbles emulsion is produced by a phase separation process occurring between the aluminosilicate nanoparticles and the liquid hydrolysis-condensation reaction byproducts (water, methanol, ethanol, and butanol). The use of alkoxysilane improves the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminum alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica species but, above all, leads to the spontaneous generation of an unusual meso-macroporosity in alkaline media. The particles obtained at pH = 13.0 featured regular micrometer-sized macrospheres separated by very thin mesoporous walls and connected by submicrometric openings, providing a 3D interconnectivity. The slight increase in pH value to 13.5 induced significant modifications in morphology and textural properties due to the slower gelification process of the aluminosilicate phase, resulting in the formation of an aluminosilicate material constituted of 1-2 µm large independent hollow mesoporous spheres.

  5. Optics damage modeling and analysis at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z. M.; Raymond, B.; Gaylord, J.; Fallejo, R.; Bude, J.; Wegner, P.

    2014-10-01

    Comprehensive modeling of laser-induced damage in optics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been performed on fused silica wedge focus lenses with a metric that compares the modeled damage performance to online inspections. The results indicate that damage models are successful in tracking the performance of the fused silica final optics when properly accounting for various optical finishes and mitigation processes. This validates the consistency of the damage models and allows us to further monitor and evaluate different system parameters that potentially can affect optics performance.

  6. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  7. Macroscopic rates, microscopic observations, and molecular models of the dissolution of carbonate phases.

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Owen W.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Martin, Scot T.

    2004-05-01

    Bulk and surface energies are calculated for endmembers of the isostructural rhombohedral carbonate mineral family, including Ca, Cd, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Zn compositions. The calculations for the bulk agree with the densities, bond distances, bond angles, and lattice enthalpies reported in the literature. The calculated energies also correlate with measured dissolution rates: the lattice energies show a log-linear relationship to the macroscopic dissolution rates at circumneutral pH. Moreover, the energies of ion pairs translated along surface steps are calculated and found to predict experimentally observed microscopic step retreat velocities. Finally, pit formation excess energies decrease with increasing pit size, which is consistent with the nonlinear dissolution kinetics hypothesized for the initial stages of pit formation.

  8. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sandhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-20

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. As a result, we obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both tomore » the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.« less

  9. Microscopic models of non-radiative and high-current effects in LEDs: state of the art and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertazzi, Francesco; Goano, Michele; Calciati, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni; Bellotti, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Auger recombination is at the hearth of the debate on droop, the decline of the internal quantum efficiency at high injection levels. The theory of Auger recombination in quantum wells is reviewed. The proposed microscopic model is based on a full-Brillouin-zone description of the electronic structure obtained by nonlocal empirical pseudopotential calculations and the linear combination of bulk bands. The lack of momentum conservation along the confining direction in InGaN/GaN quantum wells enhances direct (i.e. phononless) Auger transitions, leading to Auger coefficients in the range of those predicted for phonon-dressed processes in bulk InGaN.

  10. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  11. [Peritoneal biofilms: microscopic features].

    PubMed

    Maloman, E; Lepadatu, C; Ciornâi, A; Sainsus, Natalia; Balica, I; Gladun, N

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotherapy remains one of the basic clinical tools, which can influence the evolution of severe peritonitis. Peritoneal biofilm formation may minimize the antibiotic effects due to dramatic growth of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) for matrix-enclosed bacteria. In this paper we demonstrate the presence and evolution of bacterial biofilms on the peritoneal surface during the course of severe secondary peritonitis using an experimental model and clinical material. Cecal Ligation Puncture was performed in 20 mice Swiss Webster. Peritoneal samples were studied at optic and electronic microscope at 10, 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperative. Clinical samples were taken from 10 patients with diffuse peritonitis. At 24 hours after the onset of the peritonitis bacterial colonies were detected on the peritoneal surface. The formation of mature multilayer polymicrobial biofilms with deep penetration in abdominal wall by 48-72 hours was documented. The bacterial biofilms appear in first 24 hours in the course of experimental generalized peritonitis. Our experimental and clinical data demonstrate formation of the mature polymicrobial biofilm in 48-72 hours after the onset of peritonitis. The possibility of resistant biofilm formation in secondary diffuse peritonitis should be taken into consideration in elaboration of treatment schemes.

  12. Suppression of single-cesium-atom heating in a microscopic optical dipole trap for demonstration of an 852-nm triggered single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bei; Jin, Gang; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-07-01

    We investigate single-cesium-atom heating owing to the momentum accumulation process induced by the resonant pulsed excitation in a microscopic optical dipole trap formed by a strongly focused 1064-nm laser beam. The heating depends on the trap frequency, which restricts the maximum repetition rate of the pulsed excitation. We experimentally verify the heating of a single atom and then demonstrate how to suppress it with an optimized pulsed excitation and cooling method. The typical trap lifetime of a single cesium atom is extended from 108 ±6 μ s to 2536 ±31 ms , and the corresponding number of excitations increases from ˜108 to ˜360 000 . In applying this faster cooling method, we use the trapped single cesium atom as a triggered single-photon source at an excitation repetition rate of 10 MHz. The second-order intensity correlations of the emitted single photons are characterized by implementing a Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup, and a clear antibunching effect has been observed.

  13. Computational modeling of cardiac dual calcium-voltage optical mapping.

    PubMed

    Walton, Richard D; Bernus, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging allows mapping the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of transmembrane potential and intracellular calcium in cardiac tissue. Several studies have shown that the epi-fluorescent optical action potential contains contributions from the sub-epicardium, owing to scattering of photons in tissue. Hybrid electro-optical models have allowed careful quantification of these scattering effects and have lead to a better interpretation of the optical action potential. However, until now, these effects have not been investigated for optically recorded calcium transients. Here, we develop a hybrid model of cardiac dual calcium-voltage epi-fluorescence mapping. This model allows simulating both optical action potentials and optical calcium transients and investigating the effects of photon scattering on their synthesis. We find that optical calcium transients contain contributions from sub-epicardial layers up to 0.8 mm below the epicardium. These lead to significant differences in rise time and activation times between the optically acquired calcium signal and the epicardial intracellular calcium concentration. As has been the case with optically recording action potentials, these results should be taken into account in the interpretation of experimental optical measurements of intracellular calcium.

  14. Spectral model of optical scintillation for terrestrial free-space optical communication link design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Kazaura, Kamugisha; Matsumoto, Mitsuji

    2011-03-01

    Since a deep and long-term fading in optical intensity results in considerable burst errors in the data, a terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) system has to be designed with consideration of a frequency characteristic of optical scintillation to achieve high quality wireless services over the link. In designing a terrestrial FSO link, we had better design the system considering variations caused by some slow time-varying parameters. This paper proposes a Butterworth-type spectral model of optical scintillation to design a terrestrial FSO link, which enables us to estimate the power spectral density of optical scintillation in a current optical wireless channel when time zone and weather parameters, such as temperature and rainfall intensity, are given. The spectral parameters of optical scintillation, cut-off frequency, and spectral slope are estimated from the data obtained in the experiment, and then their dependencies on time zone, temperature, and rainfall intensity are examined.

  15. Applications of non-periodic multilayer optics for high-resolution x-ray microscopes below 30 keVa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Rousseau, A.; Darbon, S.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Krumrey, M.

    2012-10-01

    Multilayer mirrors with enhanced bandwidth were developed with special performances for dense plasma diagnostics and mainly for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging. The multilayer coatings are designed to provide broadband x-ray reflectance at low grazing incidence angles. They are deposited onto toroidal mirror substrates. Our research is directed at the development of non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer specifically designed for use in the 1 to 30 keV photon energy band. First, we present a study for a 5 to 22 keV x-ray spectral window at 0.45° grazing angle. The goal is to obtain a high and constant reflectivity. Second, we have modeled a broadband mirror coating for harder x-rays in the range from 10 to 30 keV, with a non-periodic structure containing 300 W/SiC layers with periods in the range from 0.8 to 4 nm, designed for 0.35° grazing incidence angle.

  16. Applications of non-periodic multilayer optics for high-resolution x-ray microscopes below 30 keV.

    PubMed

    Troussel, Ph; Dennetiere, D; Rousseau, A; Darbon, S; Høghøj, P; Hedacq, S; Krumrey, M

    2012-10-01

    Multilayer mirrors with enhanced bandwidth were developed with special performances for dense plasma diagnostics and mainly for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging. The multilayer coatings are designed to provide broadband x-ray reflectance at low grazing incidence angles. They are deposited onto toroidal mirror substrates. Our research is directed at the development of non-periodic (depth graded) W∕Si multilayer specifically designed for use in the 1 to 30 keV photon energy band. First, we present a study for a 5 to 22 keV x-ray spectral window at 0.45° grazing angle. The goal is to obtain a high and constant reflectivity. Second, we have modeled a broadband mirror coating for harder x-rays in the range from 10 to 30 keV, with a non-periodic structure containing 300 W∕SiC layers with periods in the range from 0.8 to 4 nm, designed for 0.35° grazing incidence angle.

  17. Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.

    1998-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.

  18. A Computer-Controlled Classroom Model of an Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Tyler A.; Johnson, Matthew M.; Eklund, Peter C.; Russin, Timothy J.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of "seeing by feeling" as a way to circumvent limitations on sight is universal on the macroscopic scale—reading Braille, feeling one's way around a dark room, etc. The development of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 extended this concept to imaging in the nanoscale. While there are classroom demonstrations that use a tactile probe to map the topography or some other property of a sample, the rastering of the probe over the sample is manually controlled, which is both tedious and potentially inaccurate. Other groups have used simulation or tele-operation of an AFM probe. In this paper we describe a teaching AFM with complete computer control to map out topographic and magnetic properties of a "crystal" consisting of two-dimensional arrays of spherical marble "atoms." Our AFM is well suited for lessons on the "Big Ideas of Nanoscale" such as tools and instrumentation, as well as a pre-teaching activity for groups with remote access AFM or mobile AFM. The principle of operation of our classroom AFM is the same as that of a real AFM, excepting the nature of the force between sample and probe.

  19. Damping-induced size effect in surface plasmon resonance in metallic nano-particles: Comparison of RPA microscopic model with numerical finite element simulation (COMSOL) and Mie approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluczyk, K.; Jacak, W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate metal nano-particle size influence on plasmon resonance within theoretical and numerical approaches and compare results with available experimental data in order to improve resolution of optical identification of metallic nano-particle size and shape. The developed microscopic approach is the quantum random phase approximation model of plasmons in metallic nano-particles including plasmon damping by electron scattering and by radiative losses (i.e., by the so-called Lorentz friction). The numerical approach is by the finite element method solution of Maxwell equations for incident planar wave in spherical (also nano-rod, spheroid) geometry upon the system COMSOL and Mie treatment, supplemented with phenomenologically modeled dielectric function of metallic nano-particle. Comparison with experimental data for light extinction in Au and Ag nano-particle colloidal solutions with different particle sizes is presented. The crucial role of the Lorentz friction in the size effect of plasmon resonance in large (e.g., 20-60 nm for Au in vacuum) metallic nanoparticles is evidenced.

  20. Modeling optical absorption for thermoreflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia; Ziade, Elbara; Schmidt, Aaron J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical pump-probe techniques based on thermoreflectance, such as time domain thermoreflectance and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), have been widely used to characterize the thermal conductivity of thin films and the thermal conductance across interfaces. These techniques typically use a transducer layer to absorb the pump light and improve the thermoreflectance signal. The transducer, however, complicates the interpretation of the measured signal because the approximation that all the energy from the pump beam is deposited at the transducer surface is not always accurate. In this paper, we consider the effect of laser absorption in the top layer of a multilayer sample, and derive an analytical solution for the thermoreflectance signal in the diffusion regime based on volumetric heating. We analyze the measurement sensitivity to the pump absorption depth for transducers with different thermal conductivities, and investigate the additional effect of probe laser penetration depth on the measured signal. We validate our model using FDTR measurements on 490 nm thick amorphous silicon films deposited on fused silica and silicon substrates.

  1. Long range effects on the optical model of 6He around the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-García, J. P.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Moro, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    We present an optical model (OM) analysis of the elastic scattering data of the reactions 6He + 27Al and 6He + 208Pb at incident energies around the Coulomb barrier. The bare part of the optical potential is constructed microscopically by means of a double folding procedure, using the São Paulo prescription without any renormalization. This bare interaction is supplemented with a Coulomb dipole polarization (CDP) potential, which takes into account the effect of the dipole Coulomb interaction. For this CDP potential, we use an analytical formula derived from the semiclassical theory of Coulomb excitation. The rest of the optical potential is parametrized in terms of Woods-Saxon shapes. In the 6He + 208Pb case, the analysis confirms the presence of long range components, in agreement with previous works. Four-body Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels calculations have been performed in order to better understand the features of the optical potentials found in the OM analysis. This study searches to elucidate some aspects of the optical potential of weakly bound systems, such as the dispersion relation and the long range (attractive and absorptive) mechanisms.

  2. (Center of excellence: Microlaser microscope)

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This Center-of-Excellence grant has two components: development of an imaging system based on microlaser arrays forms a central project among a group of laser diagnostic and therapeutic efforts primarily funded outside the grant. In these first 8 months we have set up the Microlaser Microscope using small microlaser arrays. We have emphasized the basics of microlaser handling and electronic addressing and the optics of the microscope. Details of electronics and optics given here will be used in the larger arrays which should be available soon. After a description of the central Microlaser Microscope project, we touch briefly on the other projects of the Center, which have been outstandingly fruitful this year. Publications are necessarily concerned with the smaller projects, since the Microlaser Microscope is in its early stages.

  3. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-10-15

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

  4. Macroscopic and microscopic defects and nonlinear optical properties of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} crystals with embedded TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, Valentin G.; Vrable, Ian A.; Malovichko, Galina I.; Pritula, Igor M.; Bezkrovnaya, Olga N.; Kosinova, Anna V.; Yatsyna, Vasyl O.; Gayvoronsky, Vladimir Ya.

    2012-07-01

    Results from the successful growth of high quality KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) crystals with incorporated TiO{sub 2} anatase nanoparticles and the characterization of these crystals using several complementary methods are presented. The study allowed the nature and distribution of macroscopic and microscopic defects in the KDP:TiO{sub 2} crystals to be clarified. The relationship between these defects and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and the influence of incorporated nanoparticles on the nonlinear optical properties of composite crystals in comparison with pure crystals were also elucidated. Visual observations, transmission and scanning electron microscopy have shown that the anatase nanoparticles were captured mainly by the pyramidal growth sector and, to a considerably lesser extent, by the prismatic growth sector. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis was able to confirm that the growth layer stacks contain the TiO{sub 2} particles. Fourier transformation infrared spectra have clearly shown the presence of an absorption band at about 800 cm{sup -1} in both KDP:TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, and the disappearance of the band, associated with hydroxyl OH{sup -} groups on the TiO{sub 2} surface in KDP:TiO{sub 2}. Significant variation in the imaginary and real parts of the cubic nonlinear optical susceptibilities and refractive index changes at continuous wave excitation were found in prism and pyramid parts of pure KDP and KDP:TiO{sub 2} samples. Deciphering complicated electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in KDP:TiO{sub 2} and comparison with published data permitted the identification of paramagnetic defects along with their associated g-factors and zero-field splitting parameters (in some cases for the first time). It was found that the dominant lines belong to four different centers Fe{sub A}{sup 3+}, Fe{sub B}{sup 3+}, Cr{sub R}{sup 3+}, and Cr{sub GB}{sup 3+}. From analysis of line intensities it was concluded that the concentration of intrinsic

  5. Bursting noise in gene expression dynamics: linking microscopic and mesoscopic models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of short-lived mRNA results in bursts of protein production in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the propagation of bursting noise between different levels of mathematical modelling and demonstrate that conventional approaches based on diffusion approximations can fail to capture bursting noise. An alternative coarse-grained model, the so-called piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP), is seen to outperform the diffusion approximation in biologically relevant parameter regimes. We provide a systematic embedding of the PDMP model into the landscape of existing approaches, and we present analytical methods to calculate its stationary distribution and switching frequencies. PMID:26763330

  6. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  7. Acoustic imaging microscope

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2006-10-17

    An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

  8. Nonanalytic microscopic phase transitions and temperature oscillations in the microcanonical ensemble: An exactly solvable one-dimensional model for evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Dunkel, Jörn

    2006-07-01

    We calculate exactly both the microcanonical and canonical thermodynamic functions (TDFs) for a one-dimensional model system with piecewise constant Lennard-Jones type pair interactions. In the case of an isolated N -particle system, the microcanonical TDFs exhibit (N-1) singular (nonanalytic) microscopic phase transitions of the formal order N/2 , separating N energetically different evaporation (dissociation) states. In a suitably designed evaporation experiment, these types of phase transitions should manifest themselves in the form of pressure and temperature oscillations, indicating cooling by evaporation. In the presence of a heat bath (thermostat), such oscillations are absent, but the canonical heat capacity shows a characteristic peak, indicating the temperature-induced dissociation of the one-dimensional chain. The distribution of complex zeros of the canonical partition may be used to identify different degrees of dissociation in the canonical ensemble.

  9. Cluster statistics and quasisoliton dynamics in microscopic optimal-velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Xihua; Pang, John Z. F.; Monterola, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Using the non-linear optimal velocity models as an example, we show that there exists an emergent intrinsic scale that characterizes the interaction strength between multiple clusters appearing in the solutions of such models. The interaction characterizes the dynamics of the localized quasisoliton structures given by the time derivative of the headways, and the intrinsic scale is analogous to the "charge" of the quasisolitons, leading to non-trivial cluster statistics from the random perturbations to the initial steady states of uniform headways. The cluster statistics depend both on the quasisoliton charge and the density of the traffic. The intrinsic scale is also related to an emergent quantity that gives the extremum headways in the cluster formation, as well as the coexistence curve separating the absolute stable phase from the metastable phase. The relationship is qualitatively universal for general optimal velocity models.

  10. Thermal modeling for an optical refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K. W.; Schomacker, J.; Fraser, T.; Dodson, C.

    2015-03-01

    Optical refrigeration is currently the only completely solid state cooling method capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures from room temperature. Optical cooling utilizing Yb:YLF as the refrigerant crystal has resulted in temperatures lower than 123K measured via a fluorescence thermometry technique. However, to be useful as a refrigerator this cooling crystal must be attached to a sensor or other payload. The phenomenology behind laser cooling, known as anti-Stokes fluorescence, has a relatively low efficiency which makes the system level optimization and limitation of parasitic losses imperative. We propose a variety of potential designs for a final optical refrigerator, enclosure and thermal link; calculate conductive and radiative losses, and estimate direct fluorescence reabsorption. Our simulated designs show losses between 60 and 255 mW, depending on geometry and enclosure choice, with a lower bound as low as 23 mW.

  11. Microscopic spin dephasing and magnetization relaxation in an s-d model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Hans Christian; Baral, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the spin dynamics in a model of itinerant carriers coupled antiferromagnetically to a macrospin (''s-d model''). The dephasing comes in via the coupling to a phonon bath in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, which we take to be of the Bychkov-Rashba type. Using a mean-field approximation for the s-d model with an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, we derive Boltzmann scattering integrals for itinerant-carrier spin density matrix, i.e., for the distributions and spin coherences. The spin density matrix is needed because of a constant change of the longitudinal and transverse directions during the coupled dynamics of the itinerant spins and the macrospin. Due to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the resulting model describes a form of Elliot-Yafet type carrier-spin relaxation due to electron-phonon scattering within an equation-of-motion formalism. We extrapolate dephasing- and magnetization times T1 and T2 and draw a comparison to phenomenological equations such as the Landau-Lifshitz or Landau-Lifshitz Gilbert equations. We then analyze the magnetization precession and relaxation of the coupled carrier spins and macrospin in an anisotropy field, and find a carrier mediated dephasing of the macrospin via mean-field

  12. Decay of 5H in a microscopic three-cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashko, Yu. A.; Filippov, G. F.

    2008-12-01

    The Pauli-allowed states of a three-cluster model are shown to be orthonormal polynomials of a discrete variable, which become the Kravchuk polynomials as the number of oscillator quanta increases. Such asymptotic behavior corresponds to the subsequent decay of the 5H into the 4H and a neutron.

  13. Model-based estimation of microscopic anisotropy using diffusion MRI: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ianuş, Andrada; Drobnjak, Ivana; Alexander, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive estimation of cell size and shape is a key challenge in diffusion MRI. This article presents a model-based approach that provides independent estimates of pore size and eccentricity from diffusion MRI data. The technique uses a geometric model of finite cylinders with gamma-distributed radii to represent pores of various sizes and elongations. We consider both macroscopically isotropic substrates and substrates of semi-coherently oriented anisotropic pores and we use Monte Carlo simulations to generate synthetic data. We compare the sensitivity of single and double diffusion encoding (SDE and DDE) sequences to the size distribution and eccentricity, and further analyse different protocols of DDE sequences with parallel and/or perpendicular pairs of gradients. We show that explicitly accounting for size distribution is necessary for accurate microstructural parameter estimates, and a model that assumes a single size yields biased eccentricity values. We also find that SDE sequences support estimates, although DDE sequences with mixed parallel and perpendicular gradients enhance accuracy. In the case of macroscopically anisotropic substrates, this model-based approach can be extended to a rotationally invariant framework to provide features of pore shape (specifically eccentricity) in the presence of size distribution and orientation dispersion. PMID:27003223

  14. A multiphase microscopic diffusion model for stratum corneum permeability. I. Formulation, solution, and illustrative results for representative compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsuo-Feng; Kasting, Gerald B; Nitsche, Johannes M

    2006-03-01

    A two-dimensional microscopic transport model of the stratum corneum (SC) incorporating corneocytes of varying hydration and permeability embedded in an anisotropic lipid matrix is presented. Results are expressed in terms of a dimensionless permeability (P(SC/w)(comp), which is a function of two dimensionless parameters, R and sigma. R is a ratio of transbilayer to lateral molecular flows within a lipid bilayer and sigma is the ratio of (lateral) permeability in the lipid phase, D(lip)K(lip/w), to that in the corneocyte phase, D(cor)K(cor/w.) The shape of the dimensionless permeability surface is also governed by the arrangement of the SC lipids, where Model 1 represents the extreme in which lipid-phase transport can occur with no transbilayer transport, whereas Model 2 entails maximum transbilayer transport. Model calculations are exemplified by characterizing the skin permeability of four representative permeants: water, ethanol, nicotinamide, and testosterone. A comparison with experimental steady state permeability and partition data supports that the transport properties of the SC lipids are highly anisotropic, with lateral diffusivities several orders of magnitude higher than the equivalent diffusivity calculated from transbilayer hopping. Nevertheless, the calculations suggest that corneocyte-phase transport plays a major role for all four permeants. These results confirm our previous calculations on water permeability and present a marked contrast to the commonly stated doctrine that the SC transport pathway is primarily intercellular.

  15. Microscopic plasma Hamiltonian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    1974-01-01

    A Hamiltonian for the microscopic plasma model is derived from the Low Lagrangian after the dual roles of the generalized variables are taken into account. The resulting Hamilton equations are shown to agree with the Euler-Lagrange equations of the Low Lagrangian.

  16. Development and application of a ray-based model of light propagation through a spherical acousto-optic lens

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Geoffrey J.; Kirkby, Paul A.; Nadella, K. M. Naga Srinivas; Marin, Bóris; Silver, R. Angus

    2016-01-01

    A spherical acousto-optic lens (AOL) consists of four acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) that can rapidly and precisely control the focal position of an optical beam in 3D space. Development and application of AOLs has increased the speed at which 3D random access point measurements can be performed with a two-photon microscope. This has been particularly useful for measuring brain activity with fluorescent reporter dyes because neuronal signalling is rapid and sparsely distributed in 3D space. However, a theoretical description of light propagation through AOLs has lagged behind their development, resulting in only a handful of simplified principles to guide AOL design and optimization. To address this we have developed a ray-based computer model of an AOL incorporating acousto-optic diffraction and refraction by anisotropic media. We extended an existing model of a single AOD with constant drive frequency to model a spherical AOL: four AODs in series driven with linear chirps. AOL model predictions of the relationship between optical transmission efficiency and acoustic drive frequency including second order diffraction effects closely matched experimental measurements from a 3D two-photon AOL microscope. Moreover, exploration of different AOL drive configurations identified a new simple rule for maximizing the field of view of our compact AOL design. By providing a theoretical basis for understanding optical transmission through spherical AOLs, our open source model is likely to be useful for comparing and improving different AOL designs, as well as identifying the acoustic drive configurations that provide the best transmission performance over the 3D focal region. PMID:26368449

  17. Development and application of a ray-based model of light propagation through a spherical acousto-optic lens.

    PubMed

    Evans, Geoffrey J; Kirkby, Paul A; Naga Srinivas Nadella, K M; Marin, Bóris; Angus Silver, R

    2015-09-01

    A spherical acousto-optic lens (AOL) consists of four acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) that can rapidly and precisely control the focal position of an optical beam in 3D space. Development and application of AOLs has increased the speed at which 3D random access point measurements can be performed with a two-photon microscope. This has been particularly useful for measuring brain activity with fluorescent reporter dyes because neuronal signalling is rapid and sparsely distributed in 3D space. However, a theoretical description of light propagation through AOLs has lagged behind their development, resulting in only a handful of simplified principles to guide AOL design and optimization. To address this we have developed a ray-based computer model of an AOL incorporating acousto-optic diffraction and refraction by anisotropic media. We extended an existing model of a single AOD with constant drive frequency to model a spherical AOL: four AODs in series driven with linear chirps. AOL model predictions of the relationship between optical transmission efficiency and acoustic drive frequency including second order diffraction effects closely matched experimental measurements from a 3D two-photon AOL microscope. Moreover, exploration of different AOL drive configurations identified a new simple rule for maximizing the field of view of our compact AOL design. By providing a theoretical basis for understanding optical transmission through spherical AOLs, our open source model is likely to be useful for comparing and improving different AOL designs, as well as identifying the acoustic drive configurations that provide the best transmission performance over the 3D focal region. PMID:26368449

  18. A microscopic two-band model for the electron-hole asymmetry in high-Tc superconductors and reentering behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, J.-B.; Pedra, W. de Siqueira; Dömel, A.-S.

    2011-07-01

    To our knowledge there is no rigorously analyzed microscopic model explaining the electron-hole asymmetry of the critical temperature seen in high-Tc cuprate superconductors - at least no model not breaking artificially this symmetry. We present here a microscopic two-band model based on the structure of energetic levels of holes in CuO2 conducting layers of cuprates. In particular, our Hamiltonian does not contain ad hoc terms implying - explicitly - different masses for electrons and holes. We prove that two energetically near-lying interacting bands can explain the electron-hole asymmetry. Indeed, we rigorously analyze the phase diagram of the model and show that the critical temperatures for fermion densities below half-filling can manifest a very different behavior as compared to the case of densities above half-filling. This fact results from the inter-band interaction and intra-band Coulomb repulsion in interplay with thermal fluctuations between two energetic levels. So, if the energy difference between bands is too big (as compared to the energy scale defined by the critical temperatures of superconductivity) then the asymmetry disappears. Moreover, the critical temperature turns out to be a non-monotonic function of the fermion density and the phase diagram of our model shows "superconducting domes" as in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. This explains why the maximal critical temperature is attained at donor densities away from the maximal one. Outside the superconducting phase and for fermion densities near half-filling the thermodynamics governed by our Hamiltonian corresponds, as in real high-Tc materials, to a Mott-insulating phase. The nature of the inter-band interaction can be electrostatic (screened Coulomb interaction), magnetic (for instance, some Heisenberg-type one-site spin-spin interaction), or a mixture of both. If the inter-band interaction is predominately magnetic then - additionally to the electron-hole asymmetry - we observe a

  19. Microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng Wah; Schneider, Han Christian

    2014-10-03

    We study theoretically the performance of electrically pumped self-organized quantum dots as a gain material in the mid-infrared range at room temperature. We analyze an AlGaAs/InGaAs based structure composed of dots-in-a-well sandwiched between two quantum wells. We numerically analyze a comprehensive model by combining a many-particle approach for electronic dynamics with a realistic modeling of the electronic states in the whole structure. We investigate the gain both for quasi-equilibrium conditions and current injection. We find, comparing different structures, that steady-state gain can only be realized by an efficient extraction process, which prevents an accumulation of electrons in continuum states, that make the available scattering pathways through the quantum-dot active region too fast to sustain inversion.

  20. Microscopic Car-Following Models Revisited: From Road Works to Fundamental Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, T.; Gasser, I.; Werner, B.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the classical optimal velocity model for the case of road works. We introduce a new viewpoint, the so-called rotation solutions, which in case of an additional symmetry leads to Ponies-on-a-Merry-Go-Round-solutions (POMs) [D. G. Aronson, M. Golubitsky, and J. Mallet-Paret, Nonlinearity, 4 (1991), p. 903]. This approach, which is also useful for the case without road works, opens the possibility of analytical and numerical bifurcation studies, which show a wide variety in the possible dynamics of this very simple model. In addition, we mimic different measurement approaches and recover the famous inverse Greek lambda structure in the fundamental diagram.

  1. Microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng Wah; Schneider, Han Christian

    2014-10-03

    We study theoretically the performance of electrically pumped self-organized quantum dots as a gain material in the mid-infrared range at room temperature. We analyze an AlGaAs/InGaAs based structure composed of dots-in-a-well sandwiched between two quantum wells. We numerically analyze a comprehensive model by combining a many-particle approach for electronic dynamics with a realistic modeling of the electronic states in the whole structure. We investigate the gain both for quasi-equilibrium conditions and current injection. We find, comparing different structures, that steady-state gain can only be realized by an efficient extraction process, which prevents an accumulation of electrons in continuum states, thatmore » make the available scattering pathways through the quantum-dot active region too fast to sustain inversion.« less

  2. Multi-particle FEM modeling on microscopic behavior of 2D particle compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. X.; An, X. Z.; Zhang, Y. L.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the discrete random packing and various ordered packings such as tetragonal and hexagonal close packed structures generated by discrete element method and honeycomb, which is manually generated were input as the initial packing structures into the multi-particle finite element model (FEM) to study their densification during compaction, where each particle is discretized as a FEM mesh. The macro-property such as relative density and micro-properties such as local morphology, stress, coordination number and densification mechanism obtained from various initial packings are characterized and analyzed. The results show that the coupling of discrete feature in particle scale with the continuous FEM in macro-scale can effectively conquer the difficulties in traditional FEM modeling, which provides a reasonable way to reproduce the compaction process and identify the densification mechanism more accurately and realistically.

  3. Microscopic understanding of heavy-tailed return distributions in an agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thilo A.; Schäfer, Rudi; Münnix, Michael C.; Guhr, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The distribution of returns in financial time series exhibits heavy tails. It has been found that gaps between the orders in the order book lead to large price shifts and thereby to these heavy tails. We set up an agent-based model to study this issue and, in particular, how the gaps in the order book emerge. The trading mechanism in our model is based on a double-auction order book. In situations where the order book is densely occupied with limit orders we do not observe fat-tailed distributions. As soon as less liquidity is available, a gap structure forms which leads to return distributions with heavy tails. We show that return distributions with heavy tails are an order-book effect if the available liquidity is constrained. This is largely independent of specific trading strategies.

  4. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy. PMID:25518818

  5. Microscopic first-principles model of strain-induced interaction in concentrated size-mismatched alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; An, J. M.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    The harmonic Kanzaki-Krivoglaz-Khachaturyan model of strain-induced interaction is generalized to concentrated size-mismatched alloys and adapted to first-principles calculations. The configuration dependence of both Kanzaki forces and force constants is represented by real-space cluster expansions that can be constructed based on the calculated forces. The model is implemented for the fcc lattice and applied to Cu1 -xAux and Fe1 -xPtx alloys for concentrations x =0.25 , 0.5, and 0.75. The asymmetry between the 3 d and 5 d elements leads to large quadratic terms in the occupation-number expansion of the Kanzaki forces and thereby to strongly non-pairwise long-range interaction. The main advantage of the full configuration-dependent lattice deformation model is its ability to capture this singular many-body interaction. The roles of ordering striction and anharmonicity in Cu-Au and Fe-Pt alloys are assessed. Although the harmonic force constants defined with respect to the unrelaxed lattice are unsuitable for the calculation of the vibrational entropies, the phonon spectra for ordered and disordered alloys are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The model is further adapted to concentration wave analysis and Monte Carlo simulations by means of an auxiliary multiparametric real-space cluster expansion, which is used to find the ordering temperatures. Good agreement with experiment is found for all systems except CuAu3 (due to the known failure of the generalized gradient approximation) and FePt3, where the discrepancy is likely due to the neglect of magnetic disorder.

  6. Modeling of in vivo acousto-optic two-photon imaging of the retina in the human eye.

    PubMed

    Kusnyerik, Akos; Rozsa, Balazs; Veress, Mate; Szabo, Arnold; Nemeth, Janos; Maak, Pal

    2015-09-01

    Our aim is to establish a novel combined acousto-optical method for in vivo imaging of the human retina with the two-photon microscope. In this paper we present modeling results based on eye model samples constructed with parameters measured on patients. We used effectively the potential of the electronic compensation offered by the acousto-optic lenses to avoid the use of adaptive optical correction. Simulation predicted lateral resolution between 1.6 µm and 3 µm on the retina. This technology allows the visualization of single cells and promises real time measuring of neural activity in individual neurons, neural segments and cell assemblies with 30-100 µs temporal and subcellular spatial resolution. PMID:26368444

  7. Imaging Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Shealy, David L.; Core, David B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Kerstetter, Ted

    1993-01-01

    We have designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscopes. These instruments use flow-polished Zerodur mirror substrates which have been coated with multilayers optimized for maximum reflectivity at normal incidence at 135 A. They are being developed as prototypes for the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope. Ultrasmooth mirror sets of hemlite grade sapphire have been fabricated and they are now being coated with multilayers to reflect soft X-rays at 38 A, within the biologically important 'water window'. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of the microscope optics and structural components as well as the mounting of the optics and assembly of the microscopes. We also describe the optical alignment, interferometric and visible light testing of the microscopes, present interferometrically measured performance data, and provide the first results of optical imaging tests.

  8. A preliminary weather model for optical communications through the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary weather model is presented for optical propagation through the atmosphere. It can be used to compute the attenuation loss due to the atmosphere for desired link availability statistics. The quantitative results that can be obtained from this model provide good estimates for the atmospheric link budget necessary for the design of an optical communication system. The result is extended to provide for the computation of joint attenuation probability for n sites with uncorrelated weather patterns.

  9. Microscopic model of the actin-myosin interaction in muscular contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, B.; Moreau, M.; Schuman, B.

    2004-01-01

    We define and study a detailed many body model for the muscular contraction taking into account the various myosin heads. The state of the system is defined by the position of the actin and by an internal coordinate of rotation for each myosin head. We write a system of Fokker-Planck equations and calculate the average for the position, the number of attached myosin heads, and the total force exerted on the actin. We also study the correlation between these quantities, in particular between the number of attached myosin heads and the force on the actin.

  10. Can a microscopic stochastic model explain the emergence of pain cycles in patients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic model is introduced here to investigate the molecular mechanisms which trigger the perception of pain. The action of analgesic drug compounds is discussed in a dynamical context, where the competition with inactive species is explicitly accounted for. Finite size effects inevitably perturb the mean-field dynamics: oscillations in the amount of bound receptors are spontaneously manifested, driven by the noise which is intrinsic to the system under scrutiny. These effects are investigated both numerically, via stochastic simulations, and analytically, through a large size expansion. The claim that our findings could provide a consistent interpretative framework for explaining the emergence of cyclic behaviors in response to analgesic treatments is substantiated.

  11. Putting structure into context: fitting of atomic models into electron microscopic and electron tomographic reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Niels

    2012-02-01

    A complete understanding of complex dynamic cellular processes such as cell migration or cell adhesion requires the integration of atomic level structural information into the larger cellular context. While direct atomic-level information at the cellular level remains inaccessible, electron microscopy, electron tomography and their associated computational image processing approaches have now matured to a point where sub-cellular structures can be imaged in three dimensions at the nanometer scale. Atomic-resolution information obtained by other means can be combined with this data to obtain three-dimensional models of large macromolecular assemblies in their cellular context. This article summarizes some recent advances in this field.

  12. Microscopic calculation of interacting boson model parameters by potential-energy surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, I.; Frauendorf, S.

    2011-06-15

    A coherent state technique is used to generate an interacting boson model (IBM) Hamiltonian energy surface which is adjusted to match a mean-field energy surface. This technique allows the calculation of IBM Hamiltonian parameters, prediction of properties of low-lying collective states, as well as the generation of probability distributions of various shapes in the ground state of transitional nuclei, the last two of which are of astrophysical interest. The results for krypton, molybdenum, palladium, cadmium, gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium nuclei are compared with experiment.

  13. Microscopic theoretical model study of band gap opening in AA-stacked bi-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sivabrata; Parashar, S. K. S.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    We address here a tight-binding theoretical model calculation for AA-stacked bi-layer graphene taking into account of a biased potential between two layers to study the density of states and the band dispersion within the total Brillouin zone. We have calculated the electronic Green's function for electron operator corresponding to A and B sub lattices by Zubarev's Green's function technique from which the electronic density of states and the electron band energy dispersion are calculated. The numerically computed density of states and band energy dispersions are investigated by tuning the biased potential to exhibit the band gap by varying the different physical parameters.

  14. Microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2014-10-01

    We study theoretically the performance of electrically pumped self-organized quantum dots as a gain material in the mid-IR range at room temperature. We analyze an AlGaAs/InGaAs based structure composed of dots-in-a-well sandwiched between two quantum wells. We numerically analyze a comprehensive model by combining a many-particle approach for electronic dynamics with a realistic modeling of the electronic states in the whole structure. We investigate the gain both for quasiequilibrium conditions and current injection. Comparing different structures, we find that steady-state gain can only be realized by an efficient extraction process, which prevents an accumulation of electrons in continuum states, that make the available scattering pathways through the quantum dot active region too fast to sustain inversion. The tradeoff between different extraction/injection pathways is discussed. Comparing the modal gain to a standard quantum-well structure as used in quantum cascade lasers, our calculations predict reduced threshold current densities of the quantum dot structure for comparable modal gain. Such a comparable modal gain can, however, only be achieved for an inhomogeneous broadening of a quantum-dot ensemble that is close to the lower limit achievable today using self-organized growth.

  15. Safety improvements through Intelligent Transport Systems: a South African case study based on microscopic simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Marianne

    2008-03-01

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) can facilitate the delivery of a wide range of policy objectives. There are six main objectives/benefits identified in the international literature: Safety (reduction of (potential) crashes), mobility (reduction of delays and travel times), efficiency (optimise the use of existing infrastructure), productivity (cost saving), energy/environment and customer satisfaction [Mitretek Systems, 2001. Intelligent Transport System Benefits: 2001 update, Under Contract to the Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, US]. In the South African context, there is an interest for measures that can reduce (potential) crashes. In South Africa the number of year on year traffic related fatalities is still increasing. In 2005 the number of fatalities was 15393 (from 14135 in 2004) while the estimated costs for the same period increased from R8.89-billion to R9.99-billion [RTMC, 2007. Interim Road Traffic and Fatal Crash Report 2006, Road Traffic Management Corporation, Pretoria, SA]. Given the extent of the road safety problem and the potential benefits of ITS, the need for further research is apparent. A study with regards to the potential of different types of models (macroscopic, mesoscopic and miscroscopic simulation models) led to the use of Paramics. Two corridors and three types of ITS measures were investigated and safety benefits were estimated.

  16. Multistep approach to microscopic models for frustrated quantum magnets: the case of the natural mineral azurite.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Harald; Opahle, Ingo; Kandpal, Hem; Valentí, Roser; Das, Hena; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Janson, Oleg; Rosner, Helge; Brühl, Andreas; Wolf, Bernd; Lang, Michael; Richter, Johannes; Hu, Shijie; Wang, Xiaoqun; Peters, Robert; Pruschke, Thomas; Honecker, Andreas

    2011-05-27

    The natural mineral azurite Cu(3)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(2) is a frustrated magnet displaying unusual and controversially discussed magnetic behavior. Motivated by the lack of a unified description for this system, we perform a theoretical study based on density functional theory as well as state-of-the-art numerical many-body calculations. We propose an effective generalized spin-1/2 diamond chain model which provides a consistent description of experiments: low-temperature magnetization, inelastic neutron scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, magnetic susceptibility as well as new specific heat measurements. With this study we demonstrate that the balanced combination of first principles with powerful many-body methods successfully describes the behavior of this frustrated material.

  17. Microscopic Characterization of Membrane Transporter Function by In Silico Modeling and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vermaas, J V; Trebesch, N; Mayne, C G; Thangapandian, S; Shekhar, M; Mahinthichaichan, P; Baylon, J L; Jiang, T; Wang, Y; Muller, M P; Shinn, E; Zhao, Z; Wen, P-C; Tajkhorshid, E

    2016-01-01

    Membrane transporters mediate one of the most fundamental processes in biology. They are the main gatekeepers controlling active traffic of materials in a highly selective and regulated manner between different cellular compartments demarcated by biological membranes. At the heart of the mechanism of membrane transporters lie protein conformational changes of diverse forms and magnitudes, which closely mediate critical aspects of the transport process, most importantly the coordinated motions of remotely located gating elements and their tight coupling to chemical processes such as binding, unbinding and translocation of transported substrate and cotransported ions, ATP binding and hydrolysis, and other molecular events fueling uphill transport of the cargo. An increasing number of functional studies have established the active participation of lipids and other components of biological membranes in the function of transporters and other membrane proteins, often acting as major signaling and regulating elements. Understanding the mechanistic details of these molecular processes require methods that offer high spatial and temporal resolutions. Computational modeling and simulations technologies empowered by advanced sampling and free energy calculations have reached a sufficiently mature state to become an indispensable component of mechanistic studies of membrane transporters in their natural environment of the membrane. In this article, we provide an overview of a number of major computational protocols and techniques commonly used in membrane transporter modeling and simulation studies. The article also includes practical hints on effective use of these methods, critical perspectives on their strengths and weak points, and examples of their successful applications to membrane transporters, selected from the research performed in our own laboratory. PMID:27497175

  18. Modeling of sea optical signatures under natural illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haltrin, Vladimir I.

    1997-12-01

    The influence of the illumination by the direct sun light and the diffuse light of the sky on the spectral structure of the apparent optical properties of seawater is studied. The resulting formula of this paper couples the sea diffuse reflection coefficient with the angular distribution of the natural light and the inherent optical properties of the seawater. This work uses a self-consistent approach to solve the radiative transfer equation. That approach was developed earlier to calculate the apparent optical properties including the diffuse reflection coefficient. A model of the inherent optical properties of seawater is proposed. This model expresses the inherent optical properties through the concentrations of chlorophyll, yellow substance, and biogenic and terrigenic hydrosols. The transformations of sea optical signatures, due to the changes in illumination and concentrations of suspended and dissolved matter, are analyzed. It is shown that the atmospheric optical parameters and the sun elevation angle significantly influence optical signatures of the upwelling light. The effective wavelength -- the parameter that is weakly dependent on the conditions of illumination -- is proposed.

  19. Integrated structural and optical modeling of the orbiting stellar interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Yu, Jeffrey W.; Briggs, Hugh C.

    1993-11-01

    The Integrated Modeling of Optical Systems (IMOS) Integration Workbench at JPL has been used to model the effects of structural perturbations on the optics in the proposed Orbiting Stellar Interferometer (OSI). OSI consists of 3 pairs of interferometers and delay lines attached to a 7.5 meter truss. They are interferometrically monitored from a separate boom by a laser metrology system. The spatially distributed nature of the science instrument calls for a high level of integration between the optics and support structure. Because OSI is designed to achieve micro-arcsecond astrometry, many of its alignment, stability, and knowledge tolerances are in the submicron regime. The spacecraft will be subject to vibrations caused by reaction wheels and on-board equipment, as well as thermal strain due to solar and terrestrial heating. These perturbations affect optical parameters such as optical path differences and beam co-parallelism which are critical to instrument performance. IMOS provides an environment that allows one to design and perturb the structure, attach optics to structural or non-structural nodes, trace rays, and analyze the impact of mechanical perturbations on optical performance. This tool makes it simple to change the structure and immediately see performance enhancement/degradation. We have employed IMOS to analyze the effect of reaction wheel disturbances on the optical path difference in both the science and metrology interferometers.

  20. Rate equations model and optical external efficiency of optically pumped electrically driven terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadou, A.; Thobel, J.-L.; Lamari, S.

    2016-10-01

    A four level rate equations model for a terahertz optically pumped electrically driven quantum cascade laser is here introduced and used to model the system both analytically and numerically. In the steady state, both in the presence and absence of the terahertz optical field, we solve the resulting nonlinear system of equations and obtain closed form expressions for the levels occupation, population inversion as well as the mid-infrared pump threshold intensity in terms of the device parameters. We also derive, for the first time for this system, an analytical formula for the optical external efficiency and analyze the simultaneous effects of the cavity length and pump intensity on it. At moderate to high pump intensities, we find that the optical external efficiency scales roughly as the reciprocal of the cavity length.

  1. Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Klenk, R.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch; Topič, M.; Krč, J.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmonic scattering from metal nanostructures presents a promising concept for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The determination of optimal nanostructures and their position within the solar cell is crucial to boost the efficiency. Therefore we established a one-dimensional optical model combining plasmonic scattering and thin-film optics to simulate optical properties of thin-film solar cells including metal nanoparticles. Scattering models based on dipole oscillations and Mie theory are presented and their integration in thin-film semi-coherent optical descriptions is explained. A plasmonic layer is introduced in the thin-film structure to simulate scattering properties as well as parasitic absorption in the metal nanoparticles. A proof of modeling concept is given for the case of metal-island grown silver nanoparticles on glass and ZnO:Al/glass substrates. Using simulations a promising application of the nanoparticle integration is shown for the case of CuGaSe2 solar cells.

  2. A Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Okan, Melih; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have enabled experimental studies of quantum many-body physics in Hubbard-type lattice systems in a clean and well-controlled environment. In particular, the advent of quantum gas microscopes has made available new experimental probes ideally suited for observing magnetic order and spatial correlations. In the past year, several groups, including ours, first realized quantum gas microscopes for fermionic atoms. In this talk, we describe our experimental setup, which combines high-resolution imaging with Raman sideband cooling to achieve single-site-resolved fluorescent imaging of fermionic 40 K atoms. We also report on recent progress towards observing quantum phases of the Fermi-Hubbard model with single-site resolution.

  3. Microscopic two-dimensional lattice model of dimer granular compaction with friction.

    PubMed

    Fusco, C; Fasolino, A; Gallo, P; Petri, A; Rovere, M

    2002-09-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulation the compaction dynamics of hard dimers in two dimensions under the action of gravity, subjected to vertical and horizontal shaking, considering also the case in which a friction force acts for horizontal displacements of the dimers. These forces are modeled by introducing effective probabilities for all kinds of moves of the particles. We analyze the dynamics for different values of the time tau during which the shaking is applied to the system and for different intensities of the forces. It turns out that the density evolution in time follows a stretched exponential behavior if tau is not very large, while a power law tail develops for larger values of tau. Moreover, in the absence of friction, a critical value tau(*) exists, which signals the crossover between two different regimes: for tautau(*) it reaches logarithmically a maximal saturation value. Such behavior smears out when a finite friction force is present. In this situation the dynamics is slower and lower asymptotic densities are attained. In particular, for significant friction forces, the final density decreases linearly with the friction coefficient. We also compare the frictionless single tap dynamics to the sequential tapping dynamics, observing in the latter case an inverse logarithmic behavior of the density evolution, as found in the experiments. PMID:12366106

  4. Microscopic nuclear structure models and methods: chiral symmetry, wobbling motion and γ–bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Javid A.; Bhat, Gowhar H.; Dar, Waheed A.; Jehangir, Sheikh; Ganai, Prince A.

    2016-06-01

    A systematic investigation of the nuclear observables related to the triaxial degree of freedom is presented using the multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. These properties correspond to the observation of γ-bands, chiral doublet bands and the wobbling mode. In the TPSM approach, γ-bands are built on each quasiparticle configuration and it is demonstrated that some observations in high-spin spectroscopy that have remained unresolved for quite some time could be explained by considering γ-bands based on two-quasiparticle configurations. It is shown in some Ce-, Nd- and Ge-isotopes that the two observed aligned or s-bands originate from the same intrinsic configuration with one of them as the γ-band based on a two-quasiparticle configuration. In the present work, we have also performed a detailed study of γ-bands observed up to the highest spin in dysposium, hafnium, mercury and uranium isotopes. Furthermore, several measurements related to chiral symmetry breaking and wobbling motion have been reported recently. These phenomena, which are possible only for triaxial nuclei, have been investigated using the TPSM approach. It is shown that doublet bands observed in lighter odd–odd Cs-isotopes can be considered as candidates for chiral symmetry breaking. Transverse wobbling motion recently observed in 135Pr has also been investigated and it is shown that TPSM approach provides a reasonable description of the measured properties.

  5. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  6. Modeling the effect of microscopic driving behaviors on Kerner's time-delayed traffic breakdown at traffic signal using cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2016-12-01

    The signalized traffic is considerably complex due to the fact that various driving behaviors have emerged to respond to traffic signals. However, the existing cellular automaton models take the signal-vehicle interactions into account inadequately, resulting in a potential risk that vehicular traffic flow dynamics may not be completely explored. To remedy this defect, this paper proposes a more realistic cellular automaton model by incorporating a number of the driving behaviors typically observed when the vehicles are approaching a traffic light. In particular, the anticipatory behavior proposed in this paper is realized with a perception factor designed by considering the vehicle speed implicitly and the gap to its preceding vehicle explicitly. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a signal controlled road which is partitioned into three sections according to the different reactions of drivers. The effects of microscopic driving behaviors on Kerner's time-delayed traffic breakdown at signal (Kerner 2011, 2013) have been investigated with the assistance of spatiotemporal pattern and trajectory analysis. Furthermore, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been statistically examined. Finally, with the activation of the anticipatory behavior, the influences of the other driving behaviors on the formation of platoon have been investigated in terms of the number of platoons, the averaged platoon size, and the averaged flow rate.

  7. Modeling of Cerebral Oxygen Transport Based on In vivo Microscopic Imaging of Microvascular Network Structure, Blood Flow, and Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Louis; Smith, Amy F.; Boas, David A.; Devor, Anna; Secomb, Timothy W.; Sakadžić, Sava

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF) through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1) interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signals, and (2) investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline. Experimental data on the structure, flow and oxygen levels of microvascular networks are needed, together with theoretical methods to integrate this information and predict physiologically relevant properties that are not directly measurable. Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. These “bottom-up” models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans.

  8. Modeling of Cerebral Oxygen Transport Based on In vivo Microscopic Imaging of Microvascular Network Structure, Blood Flow, and Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Louis; Smith, Amy F.; Boas, David A.; Devor, Anna; Secomb, Timothy W.; Sakadžić, Sava

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF) through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1) interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signals, and (2) investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline. Experimental data on the structure, flow and oxygen levels of microvascular networks are needed, together with theoretical methods to integrate this information and predict physiologically relevant properties that are not directly measurable. Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. These “bottom-up” models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans. PMID:27630556

  9. Modeling of Cerebral Oxygen Transport Based on In vivo Microscopic Imaging of Microvascular Network Structure, Blood Flow, and Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Louis; Smith, Amy F; Boas, David A; Devor, Anna; Secomb, Timothy W; Sakadžić, Sava

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF) through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1) interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signals, and (2) investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline. Experimental data on the structure, flow and oxygen levels of microvascular networks are needed, together with theoretical methods to integrate this information and predict physiologically relevant properties that are not directly measurable. Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. These "bottom-up" models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans. PMID:27630556

  10. Optical Depth from Realistic Microlensing Models of M31

    SciTech Connect

    Gyuk, Geza; Crotts, Arlin

    2000-06-01

    We provide a set of microlensing optical depth maps for M31. Optical depths toward Andromeda were calculated on the basis of a four-component model of the lens and source populations: disk and bulge sources lensed by bulge, M31 halo, and Galactic halo lenses. We confirm the high optical depth and the strong optical depth gradient along the M31 minor axis due to a dark halo of lenses and also discuss the magnitude of the self-lensing due to the bulge. We explore how the shape of the optical depth maps to M31 vary with the halo parameters core radius and flattening. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  11. Photonic encryption : modeling and functional analysis of all optical logic.

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jason D.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Robertson, Perry J.

    2004-10-01

    With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. This paper documents the innovations and advances of work first detailed in 'Photonic Encryption using All Optical Logic,' [1]. A discussion of underlying concepts can be found in SAND2003-4474. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines S-SEED devices and how discrete logic elements can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of S-SEED devices in an optical circuit was modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay

  12. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

    Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

    This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Combination of microscopic model and VoF-multiphase approach for numerical simulation of nodular cast iron solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, E.; Huang, C.; Jakumeit, J.; Hediger, F.

    2015-06-01

    The ongoing increase in the size and capacity of state-of-the-art wind power plants is highlighting the need to reduce the weight of critical components, such as hubs, main shaft bearing housings, gear box housings and support bases. These components are manufactured as nodular iron castings (spheroid graphite iron, or SGI). A weight reduction of up to 20% is achievable by optimizing the geometry to minimize volume, thus enabling significant downsizing of wind power plants. One method for enhancing quality control in the production of thick-walled SGI castings, and thus reducing tolerances and, consequently, enabling castings of smaller volume is via a casting simulation of mould filling and solidification based on a combination of microscopic model and VoF-multiphase approach. Coupled fluid flow with heat transport and phase transformation kinetics during solidification is described by partial differential equations and solved using the finite volume method. The flow of multiple phases is described using a volume of fluid approach. Mass conservation equations are solved separately for both liquid and solid phases. At the micro-level, the diffusion-controlled growth model for grey iron eutectic grains by Wetterfall et al. is combined with a growth model for white iron eutectic grains. The micro-solidification model is coupled with macro-transport equations via source terms in the energy and continuity equations. As a first step the methodology was applied to a simple geometry to investigate the impact of mould-filling on the grey-to-white transition prediction in nodular cast iron.

  14. Application of Peterson's stray light model to complex optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fray, S.; Goepel, M.; Kroneberger, M.

    2016-07-01

    Gary L. Peterson (Breault Research Organization) presented a simple analytical model for in- field stray light evaluation of axial optical systems. We exploited this idea for more complex optical instruments of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) mission. For the Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) we evaluated the in-field stray light of its three-mirroranastigmat telescope, while for the Infrared Sounder (IRS) we performed an end-to-end analysis including the front telescope, interferometer and back telescope assembly and the cold optics. A comparison to simulations will be presented. The authors acknowledge the support by ESA and Thales Alenia Space through the MTG satellites program.

  15. Ray-tracing optical modeling of negative dysphotopsia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xin; Liu, Yueai; Karakelle, Mutlu; Masket, Samuel; Fram, Nicole R.

    2011-12-01

    Negative dysphotopsia is a relatively common photic phenomenon that may occur after implantation of an intraocular lens. The etiology of negative dysphotopsia is not fully understood. In this investigation, optical modeling was developed using nonsequential-component Zemax ray-tracing technology to simulate photic phenomena experienced by the human eye. The simulation investigated the effects of pupil size, capsulorrhexis size, and bag diffusiveness. Results demonstrated the optical basis of negative dysphotopsia. We found that photic structures were mainly influenced by critical factors such as the capsulorrhexis size and the optical diffusiveness of the capsular bag. The simulations suggested the hypothesis that the anterior capsulorrhexis interacting with intraocular lens could induce negative dysphotopsia.

  16. Multilayered model in optics and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, M. D.

    2009-08-01

    Three types of dispersion equations are analyzed that describe the eigenvalues of the effective refractive index of a multilayer plane optical waveguide and the energy eigenvalues of a quantum particle placed in a piecewise constant potential field. The first equation (D1) is derived by setting to zero the determinant of the system of linear equations produced by matching the solutions in the layers. The second equation (D2) is obtained using the well-known method of characteristic matrices. The third equation has been obtained in the general case by the author and is known as a multilayer equation. Simple relations between the three equations are established. It is shown that the set of roots of D2 exactly coincides with the set of eigenvalues of the multilayer problem, while the roots of D1 and the multilayer equation contain those equal to the refractive index in the optical case (or to the potential in the quantum case) in internal layers of the system, which may be superfluous. Examples are presented.

  17. Remark on: the neutron spherical optical-model absorption.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    The energy-dependent behavior of the absorption term of the spherical neutron optical potential for doubly magic {sup 208}Pb and the neighboring {sup 209}Bi is examined. These considerations suggest a phenomenological model that results in an intuitively attractive energy dependence of the imaginary potential that provides a good description of the observed neutron cross sections and that is qualitatively consistent with theoretical concepts. At the same time it provides an alternative to some of the arbitrary assumptions involved in many conventional optical-model interpretations reported in the literature and reduces the number of the parameters of the model.

  18. Optical Properties of the α-T3 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illes, Emilia; Carbotte, Jules; Nicol, Elisabeth

    The α-T3 model, recently introduced by Raoux et. al, provides a continuous evolution between the honeycomb lattice of graphene and the T3 or dice lattice. It is characterized by a variable Berry phase that changes continuously from π to 0. We present our calculations of optical properties of the α-T3 model, including the Hall quantization and optical conductivity, with an emphasis on the effect of the variable Berry's phase of the model. In particular, we describe the continuous evolution of the Hall quantization from a relativistic to a non-relativistic regime.

  19. Characterization of the binding of shikonin to human immunoglobulin using scanning electron microscope, molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    He, Wenying; Ye, Xinyu; Yao, Xiaojun; Wu, Xiuli; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Guolei; Hua, Yingjie; Hui, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Shikonin, one of the active components isolated from the root of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst, have anti-tumor, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities and has been used clinically in phlebitis and vascular purpura. In the present work, the interaction of human immunoglobulin (HIg) with shikonin has been investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization, synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling techniques under physiological conditions with drug concentrations of 3.33-36.67 μM. The results of SEM exhibited visually the special effect on aggregation behavior of the complex formed between HIg and shikonin. The fluorescence polarization values indicated that shikonin molecules were found in a motionally unrestricted environment introduced by HIg. Molecular docking showed the shikonin moiety bound to the hydrophobic cavity of HIg, and there are four hydrogen-bonding interactions between shikonin and the residues of protein. The synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectra confirmed that shikonin could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HIg and has an effect on the microenvironment around HIg in aqueous solution. The changes in the secondary structure of HIg were estimated by qualitative and quantitative FT-IR spectroscopic analysis. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters for shikonin-HIg systems were obtained under different temperatures (300 K, 310 K and 320 K). The above results revealed the binding mechanism of shikonin and HIg at the ultrastructure and molecular level.

  20. Developing a stochastic model for acousto-optic tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resink, Steffen G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2012-02-01

    Direct optical measurements in scattering media offer poor resolution due to the high scattering. Ultrasound is scattered orders of magnitude less in tissue compared with light and therefore offers good resolution. Photoacoustics and acoustooptics are both relatively new hybrid techniques that enable measurements of optical properties in scattering media by combining ultrasound and light. Quantified measurements of the fluence and absorption coefficient however are desired and can not be performed by these separate techniques. A new approach to achieve this goal is to combine both hybrid techniques. By combining photoacoustic and acousto-optic measurements there is sufficient information to calculate the absorption coefficient and fluence at the ultrasound focus used for the acousto-optics. We require knowledge on the interaction of light and sound inside tissue, so the size of the so called tagging volume can be determined. This tagging volume is defined by the size and shape of the ultrasound focus used in the acousto-optic measurements. A stochastic model for acousto-optics is under development that used existing knowledge on the in the interaction between light and sound. By separating light transport and the interactions of light and sound and writing this interaction as a probability density function it is possible to find the effective geometrical properties of the tagging volume. At the moment multiple interaction mechanisms of sound and light are added to this model. In the future this model will be validated in phantoms and biological tissue.

  1. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  2. A versatile optical model for hybrid rendering of volume data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Li, Qingde; Xiang, Dehui; Cao, Yong; Tian, Jie

    2012-06-01

    In volume rendering, most optical models currently in use are based on the assumptions that a volumetric object is a collection of particles and that the macro behavior of particles, when they interact with light rays, can be predicted based on the behavior of each individual particle. However, such models are not capable of characterizing the collective optical effect of a collection of particles which dominates the appearance of the boundaries of dense objects. In this paper, we propose a generalized optical model that combines particle elements and surface elements together to characterize both the behavior of individual particles and the collective effect of particles. The framework based on a new model provides a more powerful and flexible tool for hybrid rendering of isosurfaces and transparent clouds of particles in a single scene. It also provides a more rational basis for shading, so the problem of normal-based shading in homogeneous regions encountered in conventional volume rendering can be easily avoided. The model can be seen as an extension to the classical model. It can be implemented easily, and most of the advanced numerical estimation methods previously developed specifically for the particle-based optical model, such as preintegration, can be applied to the new model to achieve high-quality rendering results.

  3. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  4. Parameterized modeling and estimation of spatially varying optical blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Jonathan D.; Stevenson, Robert L.

    2015-02-01

    Optical blur can display significant spatial variation across the image plane, even for constant camera settings and object depth. Existing solutions to represent this spatially varying blur requires a dense sampling of blur kernels across the image, where each kernel is defined independent of the neighboring kernels. This approach requires a large amount of data collection, and the estimation of the kernels is not as robust as if it were possible to incorporate knowledge of the relationship between adjacent kernels. A novel parameterized model is presented which relates the blur kernels at different locations across the image plane. The model is motivated by well-established optical models, including the Seidel aberration model. It is demonstrated that the proposed model can unify a set of hundreds of blur kernel observations across the image plane under a single 10-parameter model, and the accuracy of the model is demonstrated with simulations and measurement data collected by two separate research groups.

  5. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  6. Representing the observer in electro-optical target acquisition models.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H

    2009-09-28

    Electro-optical target acquisition models predict the probability that a human observer recognizes or identifies a target. To accurately model targeting performance, the impact of imager blur and noise on human vision must be quantified. In the most widely used target acquisition models, human vision is treated as a "black box" that is characterized by its signal transfer response and detection thresholds. This paper describes an engineering model of observer vision. Characteristics of the observer model are compared to psychophysical data. This paper also describes how to integrate the observer model into both reflected light and thermal sensor models. PMID:19907512

  7. Simultaneous optical coherence and multiphoton microscopy of skin-equivalent tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Tang, Shuo; Lim, Ryan; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2007-07-01

    Three-layer skin-equivalent models (rafts) were created consisting of a collagen/fibroblast layer and an air-exposed keratinocyte layer. Rafts were imaged with a tri-modality microscope including optical coherence (OC), two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), and second harmonic generation (SHG) channels. Some rafts were stained with Hoechst 33343 or rhodamine 123, and some were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). OC microscopy revealed signal in cell cytoplasm and nuclear membranes, and a characteristic texture in the collagen/fibroblast layer. TPEF showed signal in cell cytoplasm and from collagen, and stained specimens revealed cell nuclei or mitochondria. There was little SHG in the keratinocyte layer, but strong signal from collagen bundles. Endogenous signals were severely attenuated in DMSO treated rafts; stained samples revealed shrunken and distorted cell structure. OC, TPEF, and SHG can provide complementary and non-destructive information about raft structure and effect of chemical agents.

  8. Shape quantification of single red blood cells based on their scattering patterns from microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gert; Artmann, Gerhard

    1995-02-01

    The differentiation between discocytic and stomatocytic red blood cell (RBC) shape using conventional microscopic imaging and image analysis tools is still on a very poor level. A procedure to differentiate the degree of stomatocytic shape changes was developed. We obtained multiple microscopic images of the same RBCs settled on a human albumin coated cover slip. The images were acquired when the microscope objective was subsequently focused through the cell layer. At equidistant horizontal planes (z-axis) below, within, and above the microscopic focal plane the light intensity distribution was considered. Using a model based on light refraction, we calculated the intensity distribution of the planes which are out of focus. Using this tool we are able to differentiate RBC shapes precisely. On the other hand, using this model from and the light intensity distributions of different focal planes, we are able to reconstruct the shape of one single RBC located in the optical axis of the microscope.

  9. Alignment microscope for rotating laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciel, A., Jr.; Beck, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Microscopic assembly for alignment of rotary laser focuses on small film area along scan line at oblique angle. Suitable choice of angle and location of optical components project laser beam line as X coordinate reticle. Coordination with horizontal recticle line included microscope facilitates Y coordinate position indexing.

  10. Numerical model for thermal parameters in optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori

    2016-04-01

    Thermal parameters of optical materials, such as thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, temperature coefficient of refractive index play a decisive role for the thermal design inside laser cavities. Therefore, numerical value of them with temperature dependence is quite important in order to develop the high intense laser oscillator in which optical materials generate excessive heat across mode volumes both of lasing output and optical pumping. We already proposed a novel model of thermal conductivity in various optical materials. Thermal conductivity is a product of isovolumic specific heat and thermal diffusivity, and independent modeling of these two figures should be required from the viewpoint of a clarification of physical meaning. Our numerical model for thermal conductivity requires one material parameter for specific heat and two parameters for thermal diffusivity in the calculation of each optical material. In this work we report thermal conductivities of various optical materials as Y3Al5O12 (YAG), YVO4 (YVO), GdVO4 (GVO), stoichiometric and congruent LiTaO3, synthetic quartz, YAG ceramics and Y2O3 ceramics. The dependence on Nd3+-doping in laser gain media in YAG, YVO and GVO is also studied. This dependence can be described by only additional three parameters. Temperature dependence of thermal expansion and temperature coefficient of refractive index for YAG, YVO, and GVO: these are also included in this work for convenience. We think our numerical model is quite useful for not only thermal analysis in laser cavities or optical waveguides but also the evaluation of physical properties in various transparent materials.

  11. Ultrastructural characterization of the optic pathway in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis-1 optic glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, K Y; Ju, W K; Hegedus, B; Gutmann, D H; Ellisman, M H

    2010-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the progression of changes in retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve glia in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) genetically-engineered mice with optic glioma. Optic glioma tumors were generated in Nf1+/- mice lacking Nf1 expression in GFAP+ cells (astrocytes). Standard immunohistochemistry methods were employed to identify astrocytes (GFAP, S100beta), proliferating progenitor cells (sox2, nestin), microglia (Iba1), endothelial cells (CD31) and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons (Neurofilament 68k) in Nf1+/-, Nf1(GFAP)CKO (wild-type mice with Nf1 loss in glial cells), and Nf1+/-(GFAP)CKO (Nf1+/- mice with Nf1 loss in glial cells) mice. Ultrastructural changes in the optic chiasm and nerve were assessed by electron microscopy (EM). RGC were counted in whole retina preparations using high-resolution, mosaic confocal microscopy following their delineation by retrograde FluoroGold labeling. We found that only Nf1+/-(GFAP)CKO mice exhibited gross pre-chiasmatic optic nerve and chiasm enlargements containing aggregated GFAP+/nestin+ and S100beta+/sox2+ cells (neoplastic glia) as well as increased numbers of blood vessels and microglia. Optic gliomas in Nf1+/-(GFAP)CKO mice contained axon fiber irregularities and multilamellar bodies of degenerated myelin. EM and EM tomographic analyses showed increased glial disorganization, disoriented axonal projections, profiles of degenerating myelin and structural alterations at nodes of Ranvier. Lastly, we found reduced RGC numbers in Nf1+/-(GFAP)CKO mice, supporting a model in which the combination of optic nerve Nf1 heterozygosity and glial cell Nf1 loss results in disrupted axonal-glial relationships, subsequently culminating in the degeneration of optic nerve axons and loss of their parent RGC neurons. PMID:20600672

  12. Grid Erosion Modeling of the NEXT Ion Thruster Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernhoff, Jerold W.; Boyd, Iain D.; Soulas, George (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Results from several different computational studies of the NEXT ion thruster optics are presented. A study of the effect of beam voltage on accelerator grid aperture wall erosion shows a non-monotonic, complex behavior. Comparison to experimental performance data indicates improvements in simulation of the accelerator grid current, as well as very good agreement with other quantities. Also examined is the effect of ion optics choice on the thruster life, showing that TAG optics provide better margin against electron backstreaming than NSTAR optics. The model is used to predict the change in performance with increasing accelerator grid voltage, showing that although the current collected on the accel grid downstream face increases, the erosion rate decreases. A study is presented for varying doubly-ionized Xenon current fraction. The results show that performance data is not extremely sensitive to the current fraction.

  13. Optical neural stimulation modeling on degenerative neocortical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, M.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases usually appear at advanced age. Medical advances make people live longer and as a consequence, the number of neurodegenerative diseases continuously grows. There is still no cure for these diseases, but several brain stimulation techniques have been proposed to improve patients' condition. One of them is Optical Neural Stimulation (ONS), which is based on the application of optical radiation over specific brain regions. The outer cerebral zones can be noninvasively stimulated, without the common drawbacks associated to surgical procedures. This work focuses on the analysis of ONS effects in stimulated neurons to determine their influence in neuronal activity. For this purpose a neural network model has been employed. The results show the neural network behavior when the stimulation is provided by means of different optical radiation sources and constitute a first approach to adjust the optical light source parameters to stimulate specific neocortical areas.

  14. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models.

    PubMed

    Wubs, M

    2015-11-30

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response, the transverse response, or both. In phenomenological scalar models the nonlocal response is described as a smearing out of the commonly assumed infinitely localized response, as characterized by a distribution with a finite width. Here we calculate explicitly whether and how tensorial models, such as the hydrodynamic Drude model and generalized nonlocal optical response theory, follow this phenomenological description. We find considerable differences, for example that nonlocal response functions, in contrast to simple distributions, assume negative and complex values. Moreover, nonlocal response regularizes some but not all diverging optical near fields. We identify the scalar model that comes closest to the hydrodynamic model. Interestingly, for the hydrodynamic Drude model we find that actually only one third (1/3) of the free-electron response is smeared out nonlocally. In that sense, nonlocal response is stronger for transverse and scalar nonlocal response models, where the smeared-out fractions are 2/3 and 3/3, respectively. The latter two models seem to predict novel plasmonic resonances also below the plasma frequency, in contrast to the hydrodynamic model that predicts standing pressure waves only above the plasma frequency. PMID:26698757

  15. Structure models: From shell model to ab initio methods. A brief introduction to microscopic theories for exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacca, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    A brief review of models to describe nuclear structure and reactions properties is presented, starting from the historical shell model picture and encompassing modern ab initio approaches. A selection of recent theoretical results on observables for exotic light and medium-mass nuclei is shown. Emphasis is given to the comparison with experiment and to what can be learned about three-body forces and continuum properties.

  16. Microscopic Materials on a Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images show a comparison of the weak magnet OM7 from the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander before (left) and after (right) soil deposition.

    The microscope took the left image during Phoenix's Sol 15 (June 10, 2008) and the right image during Sol 21 (Jun 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Model of optical scatter from microimpacts on the Hubble Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, L. B.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation and modelling of optical scatter from damaged or contaminated mirrors is of interest to those who wish to estimate the working life cycle of an optical system. A space born telescope faces a threat to its survival from naturally occurring micrometeoroids and man-made debris. High velocity, in the range of 4 to 14 km/s, impacts of small particles, in the range of 1 to 100 microns, will produce small craters on the impacted surface. These microcraters will typically have a size range of 3 to 300 microns for debris impacts and 6 to 600 microns for micrometeoroid impacts. If the microcraters accumulate on a telescope mirror, there will be an increase in optical scatter and a loss of image resolution. The micrometeoroid model of Cour-Palais and the orbital debris model of Kessler have been encoded in a computer program (SPENV) by the author. The output from this program has been matched with previous calculations and compared with impact data on the LDEF satellite. Subsequent work has been done to marry this computer program with an algorithm to compute optical scatter. The optical scatter algorithm employs Mie theory of scatter from small particles.

  18. Modelling global multi-conjugated adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotto, Valentina; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Magrin, Demetrio; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide

    2014-08-01

    The recently proposed concept of Global MCAO (GMCAO) aims to look for Natural Guide Stars in a very wide technical Field of View (FoV), to increase the overall sky coverage, and deals with the consequent depth of focus reduction introducing numerically a quite-high number of Virtual Deformable Mirrors (VDMs), which are then the starting point for an optimization of the real DMs shapes for the correction of the -smaller- scientific FoV. To translate the GMCAO concept into a real system, a number of parameters requires to be analyzed and optimized, like the number of references and VDMs to be used, the technical FoV size, the spatial samplings, the sensing wavelength. These and some other major choices, like the open loop WFSs concept and design, will then drive the requirements and the performance of the system (e.g. limiting magnitude, linear response, and sensitivity). This paper collects some major results of the on-going study on the feasibility of an Adaptive Optics system for the E-ELT, based on GMCAO, with a particular emphasis on the sky coverage issue. Besides the sensitivity analysis of the optimization of the already mentioned parameters, such a topic involves the implementation of an IDL code simulation tool to estimate the system performance in terms of Strehl Ratio in a 2×2 arcmin FoV, when a variable number of NGSs and VDMs are used. Different technical FoV diameters for the references selection and various constellations can be also compared. This study could be the starting point for a dedicated laboratory testing and, in the future, an on-sky experiment at an 8m telescope with a "scaled down" demonstrator.

  19. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of a murine model of chronic kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Andrews, Peter M.; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is characterized by a progressive loss in renal function over time. Pathology can provide valuable insights into the progression of CKD by analyzing the status of glomeruli and the uriniferous tubules over time. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new procedure that can analyze the microscopic structure of the kidney in a non-invasive manner. This is especially important because there are significant artifacts associated with excision biopsies and immersion fixation procedures. Recently, we have shown that OCT can provide real time images of kidney microstructure and Doppler OCT (DOCT) can image glomerular renal blood flow in vivo without administrating exogenous contrast agents. In this study, we used OCT to evaluate CKD in a model induced by intravenous Adriamycin injection into Munich-Wistar rats. We evaluated tubular density and tubular diameter from OCT images at several post- Adriamycin induction time points and compared them with conventional light microscopic histological imaging. Proteinurea and serum creatinine were used as physiological markers of the extent of CKD. Preliminary OCT results revealed changes in tubular density due to tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis within the first 4 weeks following Adriamycin injection. From week 4 to 8 after Adriamycin induction, changes in tubular density and diameter occurred due to both tubular loss and tubular dilation. The results suggest OCT can provide additional information about kidney histopathology in CKD. DOCT revealed reduced blood flow in some glomeruli probably as a consequence of focal glomerularsclerosis.

  20. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.