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Sample records for microscopic photography reveals

  1. Photography through the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how to illuminate and optically stain slides for microscope use and how to interface a 35mm camera with a microscope using an adaptor. Provides equipment descriptions and sources, details about illumination, image formation, darkfield adaptors, centerable filter adaptors, darkfield stops, rheinburg filters, and choosing specimens to…

  2. Artificial submicron or nanometer speckle fabricating technique and electron microscope speckle photography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhanwei; Xie Huimin; Fang Daining; Dai Fulong; Wang Weining; Fang Yan

    2007-03-15

    In this article, a novel artificial submicro- or nanometer speckle fabricating technique is proposed by taking advantage of submicro or nanometer particles. In the technique, submicron or nanometer particles were adhered to an object surface by using ultrasonic dispersing technique. The particles on the object surface can be regarded as submicro or nanometer speckle by using a scanning electronic microscope at a special magnification. In addition, an electron microscope speckle photography (EMSP) method is developed to measure in-plane submicron or nanometer deformation of the object coated with the artificial submicro or nanometer speckles. The principle of artificial submicro or nanometer speckle fabricating technique and the EMSP method are discussed in detail in this article. Some typical applications of this method are offered. The experimental results verified that the artificial submicro or nanometer speckle fabricating technique and EMSP method is feasible.

  3. Microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microscopic-photography for phenotyping vegetative and reproductive phases in Fusarium virguliforme, which is pathogenic to soybean

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jill; Qiao, Xuan; Baumbach, Jordan; Xie, Jingyu; Dong, Liang; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse microscopic-photography allows in-depth phenotyping of microorganisms. Here we report development of such a system using a microfluidic device, generated from polydimethylsiloxane and glass slide, placed on a motorized stage of a microscope for conducting time-lapse microphotography of multiple observations in 20 channels simultaneously. We have demonstrated the utility of the device in studying growth, germination and sporulation in Fusarium virguliforme that causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. To measure the growth differences, we developed a polyamine oxidase fvpo1 mutant in this fungus that fails to grow in minimal medium containing polyamines as the sole nitrogen source. Using this system, we demonstrated that the conidiospores of the pathogen take an average of five hours to germinate. During sporulation, it takes an average of 10.5 h for a conidiospore to mature and get detached from its conidiophore for the first time. Conidiospores are developed in a single conidiophore one after another. The microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microphotography reported here should be suitable for screening compounds, peptides, micro-organisms to identify fungitoxic or antimicrobial agents for controlling serious plant pathogens. The device could also be applied in identifying suitable target genes for host-induced gene silencing in pathogens for generating novel disease resistance in crop plants. PMID:28295054

  4. Microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microscopic-photography for phenotyping vegetative and reproductive phases in Fusarium virguliforme, which is pathogenic to soybean.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jill; Qiao, Xuan; Baumbach, Jordan; Xie, Jingyu; Dong, Liang; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-03-15

    Time-lapse microscopic-photography allows in-depth phenotyping of microorganisms. Here we report development of such a system using a microfluidic device, generated from polydimethylsiloxane and glass slide, placed on a motorized stage of a microscope for conducting time-lapse microphotography of multiple observations in 20 channels simultaneously. We have demonstrated the utility of the device in studying growth, germination and sporulation in Fusarium virguliforme that causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. To measure the growth differences, we developed a polyamine oxidase fvpo1 mutant in this fungus that fails to grow in minimal medium containing polyamines as the sole nitrogen source. Using this system, we demonstrated that the conidiospores of the pathogen take an average of five hours to germinate. During sporulation, it takes an average of 10.5 h for a conidiospore to mature and get detached from its conidiophore for the first time. Conidiospores are developed in a single conidiophore one after another. The microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microphotography reported here should be suitable for screening compounds, peptides, micro-organisms to identify fungitoxic or antimicrobial agents for controlling serious plant pathogens. The device could also be applied in identifying suitable target genes for host-induced gene silencing in pathogens for generating novel disease resistance in crop plants.

  5. Microscopic spiral waves reveal positive feedback in subcellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, P; Niggli, E

    1993-01-01

    The regenerative Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release mechanism is an important amplifier of signal transduction in diverse cells. In heart muscle cells, this mechanism contributes to the Ca2+ transient activating the mechanical contraction, but it is also believed to drive Ca2+ waves propagating within the cytosol. We investigated the subcellular Ca2+ distribution in heart muscle cells during spontaneous Ca2+ release using laser scanning confocal microscopy with a ratiometric fluorescent indicator technique. Besides planar Ca2+ waves with linear propagation, sequences of confocal optical sections also revealed spiral Ca2+ waves spinning around a subcellular core at approximately 1 Hz. Although the Ca2+ spirals were continuous processes they frequently exhibited an apparently oscillatory output function into the elongated cell body. These oscillatory waves emanating from the spiral at regular intervals were formally considered to be short outer segments of the spiral but could not be distinguished from planar Ca2+ waves propagating along the longitudinal cell axis. The complex spatiotemporal pattern of spiral Ca2+ waves implies the participation of an active process exhibiting a large degree of positive feedback, most likely the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release mechanism. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8312468

  6. Clinical photography.

    PubMed

    Jakowenko, Janelle

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, when used correctly, can provide the basis for telemedicine services. The increasing sophistication of digital cameras, combined with the improved speed and availability of the Internet, make them an instrument that every health-care professional should be familiar with. Taking satisfactory images of patients requires clinical photography skills. Photographing charts, monitors, X-ray films and specimens also requires expertise. Image capture using digital cameras is often done with insufficient attention, which can lead to inaccurate study results. The procedures in clinical photography should not vary from camera to camera, or from country to country. Taking a photograph should be a standardised process. There are seven main scenarios in clinical photography and health professionals who use cameras should be familiar with all of them. Obtaining informed consent prior to photography should be a normal part of the clinical photography routine.

  7. Electronic Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  8. Literature & Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattor, Emma E.

    An effective way to teach literature to students accustomed to electronic media is to use prose and poetry as raw materials for the production of photography projects that translate print into more familiar and exciting forms. Studies confirm that "visual literacy" should be an important part of a modern student's education. "Picture reading," an…

  9. Photography applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Goodman, James A.; Purkis, Samuel J.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.

  10. The asymmetrical structure of Golgi apparatus membranes revealed by in situ atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haijiao; Su, Weiheng; Cai, Mingjun; Jiang, Junguang; Zeng, Xianlu; Wang, Hongda

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus has attracted intense attentions due to its fascinating morphology and vital role as the pivot of cellular secretory pathway since its discovery. However, its complex structure at the molecular level remains elusive due to limited approaches. In this study, the structure of Golgi apparatus, including the Golgi stack, cisternal structure, relevant tubules and vesicles, were directly visualized by high-resolution atomic force microscope. We imaged both sides of Golgi apparatus membranes and revealed that the outer leaflet of Golgi membranes is relatively smooth while the inner membrane leaflet is rough and covered by dense proteins. With the treatment of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and Triton X-100, we confirmed the existence of lipid rafts in Golgi apparatus membrane, which are mostly in the size of 20 nm -200 nm and appear irregular in shape. Our results may be of significance to reveal the structure-function relationship of the Golgi complex and pave the way for visualizing the endomembrane system in mammalian cells at the molecular level.

  11. Amyloplast displacement is necessary for gravisensing in Arabidopsis shoots as revealed by a centrifuge microscope.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Ikeda, Norifumi; Sawai-Toyota, Satoe; Kato, Takehide; Gilroy, Simon; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao

    2013-11-01

    The starch-statolith hypothesis proposes that starch-filled amyloplasts act as statoliths in plant gravisensing, moving in response to the gravity vector and signaling its direction. However, recent studies suggest that amyloplasts show continuous, complex movements in Arabidopsis shoots, contradicting the idea of a so-called 'static' or 'settled' statolith. Here, we show that amyloplast movement underlies shoot gravisensing by using a custom-designed centrifuge microscope in combination with analysis of gravitropic mutants. The centrifuge microscope revealed that sedimentary movements of amyloplasts under hypergravity conditions are linearly correlated with gravitropic curvature in wild-type stems. We next analyzed the hypergravity response in the shoot gravitropism 2 (sgr2) mutant, which exhibits neither a shoot gravitropic response nor amyloplast sedimentation at 1 g. sgr2 mutants were able to sense and respond to gravity under 30 g conditions, during which the amyloplasts sedimented. These findings are consistent with amyloplast redistribution resulting from gravity-driven movements triggering shoot gravisensing. To further support this idea, we examined two additional gravitropic mutants, phosphoglucomutase (pgm) and sgr9, which show abnormal amyloplast distribution and reduced gravitropism at 1 g. We found that the correlation between hypergravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation and gravitropic curvature of these mutants was identical to that of wild-type plants. These observations suggest that Arabidopsis shoots have a gravisensing mechanism that linearly converts the number of amyloplasts that settle to the 'bottom' of the cell into gravitropic signals. Further, the restoration of the gravitropic response by hypergravity in the gravitropic mutants that we tested indicates that these lines probably have a functional gravisensing mechanism that is not triggered at 1 g.

  12. Femtosecond photography lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchenko, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Antic scientists, sailors, warriors, physician, etc. were perceiving the space by means of their eye vision system. Nowadays the same people use eyeglasses, telescopes, microscopes, image converters. All these devices fit the necessary magnification, intensification gain and image spectrum to the eyes. The human brain is processing the image data offered to him in a format pertaining to eyes. Hence, the cognition of images can be regarded as a direct measurement. As to the time scale converters, they turned out to be harder done as compared with the spatial scale converters. Hence, the development of the high-speed photography (HSP) continues for more than a hundred and fifty years. The recent pico- femtosecond HSP branch sprang up in 1949 at the Kurchatov Institute -- its cradle. All about the HSP had been advertised. Instead of reprinting what is already well known, it makes sense to emphasize some instructive lessons drawn from past experience. Also it is tempting to look a bit into the high-speed photography future.

  13. Using Photography to Tell a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan; Williams, Kayenta

    2008-01-01

    Photography can be an exciting way to integrate art and creativity into social studies. Photography allows students to use creative self-expression in revealing the symbolism in historic places, people, or scenes with a richness that words alone often cannot accomplish. In this article, the authors provide several ideas for creating photo essays.…

  14. A new centrifuge microscope reveals that mobile plastids trigger gravity sensing in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.; Gilroy, Simon

    2012-07-01

    The starch-statolith hypothesis is the most widely accepted model for plant gravity sensing and proposes that the sedimentation of high-density starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) in shoot endodermal cells and root columella cells is important for gravity sensing of each organ. However, starch-deficient phosphoglucomutase (pgm-1) mutants sense gravity and show gravitropism in inflorescence stems, even though most starchless amyloplasts in this mutant fail to sediment toward the gravity vector. These results raise the questions about the role of starch in gravity sensing and the features of statolith/statocyte essential for shoot gravity sensing. To address these questions, we developed a new centrifuge microscope and analyzed two gravitropic mutants, i.e., pgm-1 and endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1). All optical devices (e.g., objective lens, light source and CCD camera) and specimens were rotated on a direct-drive motor, and acquired images were wirelessly transmitted during centrifugation. Live-cell imaging during centrifugation revealed that the starchless amyloplasts sedimented to the hypergravity vector (10 and 30 g) in endodermal cells of pgm-1 stems, indicating that the density of the starchless amyloplasts is higher than that of cytoplasm. Electron micrographs of shoot endodermal cells in pgm-1 mutants suggested that the starchless amyloplast contains an organized thylakoid membrane but not starch granules, which morphologically resembles chloroplasts in the adjacent cortical cells. Therefore, the shoot amyloplasts without starch are possibly as dense as chloroplasts. We examined eal1 mutants, an allele of shoot gravitropism (sgr) 7/short-root (shr), which also have starchless amyloplasts due to abnormal differentiation of amyloplasts and show no gravitropic response at 1 g. Hypergravity up to 30 g induced little gravitropism in eal1 stems and the starchless amyloplasts failed to sediment under 30 g conditions. However, the eal1 mutants treated with

  15. Sociology through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  16. The future of photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Ricardo J.

    2010-01-01

    We are just a few years away from celebrating the 200th anniversary of photography. The first permanent photographic record was made by Niepce in 1826, the view from his window at Le Gras. After many development cycles, including some periods of stagnation, photography is now experience an amazing period of growth. Change since the mid 90's going into the next several years will completely modify photography and its industry. We propose that the digital photography revolution can be divided into two phases. The first, from about 1994 to 2009, was primarily the transformation of film-based equipment into their digital counterparts. Now, in the second phase, photography is starting to change into something completely different, with forces like social networks, cell phone cameras and computational photography changing the business, the methods and the use of photographs.

  17. Electron-beam irradiation induced conductivity in ZnS nanowires as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhi, Chunyi; Fang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Chengchun; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-08-01

    Electron transport variations in individual ZnS nanowires synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition process were in situ studied in transmission electron microscope under convergent electron-beam irradiation (EBI). It was found that the transport can dramatically be enhanced using proper irradiation conditions. The conductivity mechanism was revealed based on a detailed study of microstructure and composition evolutions under irradiation. EBI-induced Zn-rich domains' appearance and related O doping were mainly responsible for the conductivity improvements. First-principles theoretical calculations additionally indicated that the generation of midbands within a ZnS band gap might also contribute to the improved conductivity.

  18. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscope Dissipation Reveals a Central Peak of SrTiO_{3} Structural Phase Transition.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, M; Pellegrini, F; Santoro, G E; Samadashvili, M; Pawlak, R; Benassi, A; Gysin, U; Buzio, R; Gerbi, A; Meyer, E; Tosatti, E

    2015-07-24

    The critical fluctuations at second order structural transitions in a bulk crystal may affect the dissipation of mechanical probes even if completely external to the crystal surface. Here, we show that noncontact force microscope dissipation bears clear evidence of the antiferrodistortive phase transition of SrTiO_{3}, known for a long time to exhibit a unique, extremely narrow neutron scattering "central peak." The noncontact geometry suggests a central peak linear response coupling connected with strain. The detailed temperature dependence reveals for the first time the intrinsic central peak width of order 80 kHz, 2 orders of magnitude below the established neutron upper bound.

  19. Different precursor populations revealed by microscopic studies of bulk damage in KDP and DKDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    DeMange, P; Negres, R A; Radousky, H B; Demos, S G

    2005-10-31

    We present experimental results aiming to reveal the relationship between damage initiating defect populations in KDP and DKDP crystals under irradiation at different wavelengths. Our results indicate that there is more than one type of defects leading to damage initiation, each defect acting as damage initiators over a different wavelength range. Results showing disparities in the morphology of damage sites from exposure at different wavelengths provides additional evidence for the presence of multiple types of defects responsible for damage initiation.

  20. Art in Portrait Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Explains that the best way for students to learn to recognize high-quality portrait photography is to study as many good examples as possible. Provides examples of portrait photography by David Hockney, Dorothea Lange, Edward Steichen, and Thomas M. Easterly in order to demonstrate different portrait styles and techniques and to promote…

  1. Photography in Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Cornelius; And Others

    The use of photography to add a new dimension to outdoor education activities is described in this paper. It is noted that photography can be an aid to outdoor education in a number of ways: students learn to communicate ideas visually, students learn to think through problems and find ways of solving them, students gain increased appreciation of…

  2. Correspondence between dermoscopic features and epidermal structures revealed by scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoko; Tsuchida, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    It is already known that some typical dermoscopic patterns seen in melanocytic nevi on the sole have their own favorite site. In the weight-bearing area, melanocytic nevi with a parallel furrow pattern were preferentially observed. Those with a lattice-like pattern were observed in the arch area, whereas those with a crista reticulated pattern were seen in the border area. To investigate the relationship between the distribution of the dermoscopic patterns seen in plantar melanocytic nevi and the 3-D structures of the epidermis, the basal surfaces of the plantar epidermis from 14 skin lesions were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our SEM observations revealed that transverse ridges formed a couple of parallel lamellae on the crista profunda limitans (limiting ridges). Between the limiting ridges and the crista profunda intermedia (intermediate ridges), the transverse ridges had different shapes according to the anatomical location of the sole. From these results, it was suggested that the characteristic dermoscopic patterns seen in acquired and junctional melanocytic nevi on the sole simulate the arrangement of transverse ridges.

  3. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  4. Astronomical photography, part T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkelman, L.; Mercer, R. D.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Photographic observations of astronomical interest conducted during the Apollo 15 mission are discussed. Procedures used in photographing the solar corona are described together with calibration and reduction methods. In addition, selected preliminary results obtained from the photography are presented.

  5. Correlations between DTI and FLAIR images reveal the relationships of microscopic and macroscopic white matter degeneration in elderly subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, W.; Zhang, Y.; Lorenzen, P.; Mueller, S. G.; Schuff, N.; Weiner, M. W.

    2008-03-01

    Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) detects the T2 prolongation in whiter matter lesions (WML) measured on a macroscopic scale, whereas diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) more specifically detects the white matter (WM) integrity alterations as measured by water diffusion on a microscopic scale. Both techniques have been widely used to evaluate WM changes associated with aging, dementia and cerebral vascular disease, however, the relationship between white matter lesions (FLAIR) and changes of DTI remains largely unknown. We addressed this issue using a voxel based correlation analysis between DTI and FLAIR images acquired from 33 elderly subjects at 4T. The WML volume and intensity were correlated the fraction anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD) across all the subjects on a voxelwise basis. Our results revealed that significant DTI-WML correlations occur at regions overlapping the major WML distributions with moderate intensity, and that no significant correlations were detected in periventricular regions where the FLAIR intensities are particularly high. We investigated WM degeneration as a continuum from normal WM to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a two-compartment WM model. The simulation results indicated that the FLAIR intensity of WML reaches a maximum when the lesion severity is around 0.7, which is the same point where correlations between DTI and WML disappear. Based on these findings, WM degeneration in elderly subjects may be better characterized by using regional DTI-WML correlations in different stages of WM degeneration. DTI and FLAIR, taken together improve specificity for characterization of WM degeneration than each measure alone.

  6. Dynamic interactions of snow and plants in the boreal forest, winter 2011-2012 revealed by time-lapse photography and LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filhol, S. V.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    The winter blanket of snow in the boreal forest is anything but still. In winter 2011-2012 we followed the evolution of a snowpack on a boreal forest plot (0.5 ha) from first snowfall to the beginning of the melt in springtime. We used multiple methods such as time-lapse ground-based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), time-lapse photography, imagery from a suspended cableway, snow-depth sensors, and frequent manual snow-pits. The experimental site is located near Fairbanks, Alaska, a typical boreal forest underlain by permafrost with sparse black spruce, larch, willow, and dwarf birch. We observed snowpack properties to be greatly affected by the vegetation substrate. Interactions between snow and plants are mainly dependent on falling snow properties (rate, wetness), plant heights and stiffness, plant canopy structure (leaves, number of branches, density), succession of weather events (wind before or after snow, thaw events) and pre-existing snow depth. Time-lapse imagery shows interception of snow by trees and shrubs controlled by air-temperature and wind events. LiDAR and snow pit measurements show one class of flexible shrubs (i.e. dwarf birch) bending under load, while a second class (willows) were far stiffer and resisted bending. Where dwarf birch branches were dense, it prevented snow from reaching the ground, leaving a significant air space under the snowpack. This vertical air gap can be as high as 10% of the total snow depth by the end of winter. Improving our understanding of the dynamic relationships between plants and snow is a fundamental key for studying boreal snow physics and snow ecology.

  7. [Photography in medical research].

    PubMed

    Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    Medical photography is an adequate scientific document when performed on a standard fashion. A proper photography is an important issue on a scientific publication. Plastic surgeons are experts in clinical photography and, frequently, an image is a more significant data than the written part of a paper. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles developed in this specialty. Basic photographic equipment used for clinical pictures is described. Standardized pictures determined by patient position and framing using anatomical references are reported. Using these rules it is possible to compare pre and post operative pictures. Topics such as intra operative pictures in endoscopic surgery, computer fotogrametry and in Experimental Surgery are also analyzed.

  8. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  9. Photography in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lowell

    1980-01-01

    Described are some ideas for using photography in the elementary classroom. Justification for using photography in the classroom includes student interaction with the photography materials, building teacher-student rapport, the potential for integration into different areas of elementary curriculum, and support for the developmental theorists'…

  10. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  11. Photography as Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routh, Robert D.

    Image making, like writing and speaking, is a carrier of ideas. This paper presents photography as therapy, a useful concept for advocates of humanistic education. The paper shows that Western civilization, due to its preoccupation with science, technology, and commerce, enhances and promotes left-hemispheric brain functions (verbal, analytical,…

  12. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  13. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  14. Photography in Pink Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Liz

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

  15. [Photography, language and healthcare].

    PubMed

    Georgantelis, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Photography as an art is a way of accessing our emotions, naming them, understanding them and taking them into account in the healthcare relationship. A training session on the Photolangage method enables us not only to increase our knowledge but also to share our emotional experience and encourages reflection.

  16. Using LiDAR, Aerial Photography, and Geospatial Technologies to Reveal and Understand Past Landscapes in Four West Central Missouri Counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. Zane

    This dissertation focuses on Hugh Prince's principle of using the present (in this case as seen through remotely sensed imagery) to understand the past via relict features. I studied ghost towns, cemeteries, and abandoned railroads via NAIP and LiDAR imagery in four west-central Missouri Counties (Carroll, Chariton, Lafayette, and Saline). The remnants of ghost towns, cemeteries, and abandoned railroads ("relict features") often manifest themselves in surface spatial patterns and terrain deformation. Each sensor offers unique advantages and disadvantages due to the design and construction of the sensor. LiDAR can strip away vegetation to present a bare earth model (a DTM) of terrain, useful in the detection of features revealed by subtle elevation and terrain changes. Specifically, LiDAR was useful for revealing historic roads and depressions in ghost towns, exposing abandoned railroad beds under tree canopies, and for the detection of monuments and other larger features in cemeteries. In addition, LiDAR also proves useful for uncovering previously undocumented roads and offers precise locations of railroad beds that were previously uncertain. NAIP presents a researcher with a color (either natural color or near-infrared) birds-eye view of the earth, revealing spatial patterns on the surface of the earth. For ghost towns, NAIP imagery was most useful for the detection of historic roads in recently abandoned ghost towns. NAIP imagery was also useful for the detection of abandoned railroads where the bed is exposed or when there is a single tree line in the bed and for visualizing the spatial patterning of cemeteries.

  17. Standing-wave-excited multiplanar fluorescence in a laser scanning microscope reveals 3D information on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Amor, Rumelo; Mahajan, Sumeet; Amos, William Bradshaw; McConnell, Gail

    2014-12-08

    Standing-wave excitation of fluorescence is highly desirable in optical microscopy because it improves the axial resolution. We demonstrate here that multiplanar excitation of fluorescence by a standing wave can be produced in a single-spot laser scanning microscope by placing a plane reflector close to the specimen. We report here a variation in the intensity of fluorescence of successive planes related to the Stokes shift of the dye. We show by the use of dyes specific for the cell membrane how standing-wave excitation can be exploited to generate precise contour maps of the surface membrane of red blood cells, with an axial resolution of ≈90 nm. The method, which requires only the addition of a plane mirror to an existing confocal laser scanning microscope, may well prove useful in studying diseases which involve the red cell membrane, such as malaria.

  18. Standing-wave-excited multiplanar fluorescence in a laser scanning microscope reveals 3D information on red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Rumelo; Mahajan, Sumeet; Amos, William Bradshaw; McConnell, Gail

    2014-12-01

    Standing-wave excitation of fluorescence is highly desirable in optical microscopy because it improves the axial resolution. We demonstrate here that multiplanar excitation of fluorescence by a standing wave can be produced in a single-spot laser scanning microscope by placing a plane reflector close to the specimen. We report here a variation in the intensity of fluorescence of successive planes related to the Stokes shift of the dye. We show by the use of dyes specific for the cell membrane how standing-wave excitation can be exploited to generate precise contour maps of the surface membrane of red blood cells, with an axial resolution of ~90 nm. The method, which requires only the addition of a plane mirror to an existing confocal laser scanning microscope, may well prove useful in studying diseases which involve the red cell membrane, such as malaria.

  19. Scanning internal-photoemission microscopy: An imaging technique to reveal microscopic inhomogeneity at metal-semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Tsugunori

    1996-12-01

    We have developed scanning internal-photoemission microscopy (SIPM) which is capable of imaging Schottky-barrier distribution at {open_quotes}buried{close_quotes} metal-semiconductor interfaces. By using this technique, inhomogeneous reaction at annealed interfaces of Ti/Pt/Au/GaAs and epitaxial-Al/Si(111) systems has been studied in relation to their microscopic as well as macroscopic electrical properties.

  20. Informed consent for clinical photography.

    PubMed

    Johns, Martin K

    2002-06-01

    The question of (informed) consent to medical photography has long been a vexed one. This paper briefly considers key landmarks in the debate, and examines in detail the evolution of the Addenbrooke's NHS Trust policy Photography and Video Recordings of Patients: Confidentiality and Consent, Copyright and Storage. The impact of the 1998 Data Protection Act, the Department of Health's Model Policy on Consent, and the implications of wider access to digital photography are discussed together with their integration into the Addenbrooke's policy.

  1. The photography of fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.D.

    1982-06-01

    The last few years have seen a number of new flaps described and a renewed interest in the use of fluorescein, but there have been few photographs of the fluorescein effect, because special light sources were required with the filters that were employed. The realization that fluorescein can be excited by electromagnetic radiation in the visible range allows a simplified technique in which an ordinary electronic flash unit may serve as the only light source. The photography of fluorescein is not difficult to perform, and since minimal additional equipment is required, all workers who use fluorescein should begin to document their work more accurately and dramatically.

  2. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  3. TOCM digital color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoying; Mu, Guoguang; Fang, Zhiliang; Li, Zhengqun; Fang, Hui; Yang, Yong

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, total optical color modulator (TOCM) digital color photography is presented. TOCM has the character of multi-wave superposed in spatial domain and separated in frequency domain. If TOCM is close-contacted with the image plane of a black-and-white (B&W) CCD, the encoding B&W CCD is formed. Image from the encoding B&W CCD are digital encoded by the TOCM. The decoded color image can be obtained by computer program. The program includes four main steps. The first step is Fourier transforming of the encoded image. The second step is filtering the spectra of the first and zero order in frequency domain. The third is inverse Fourier transforming of the filtered spectra. The last is melting the image with zero order. Then the digital color image will be shown on the display of the computer. The experiment proves that this technique is feasible. The principle of encoding color information in B&W image can be applied to color-blind sensors to get digital color image. Furthermore, it can be applied to digital multi-spectra color photography.

  4. Photography of orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. W.

    1983-02-01

    U.S. Air Force facilities and uses for ground-based close-up photography of objects in space out to GEO are discussed. The telescopes and cameras have been employed to monitor cosmonaut EVAs around Salyut 6 and in an attempt to assess the tile damage on STS-1. Two classified systems, Teal Amber and Teal Blue, in addition to the five DoD ground-based Electrooptical Deep Space Surveillance stations can detect an approximately one foot diameter object in GEO. The initial Cloudcroft, NM facility, contracted in 1957 to use Baker-Nunn telescopes coupled to an IBM 1800 computer, is described. Uses of the detection systems to monitor a possible Soviet development of an ASAT system, such as installation of antisatellite torpedo tubes on the Salyut space station, are indicated.

  5. Fundamentals of Digital Photography 1. Silver Halide Photography and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji

    A major difference between silver halide photography and digital photography lies in the way of processing image data. Parallel processing of the whole image area can be accomplished in silver halide photography. However, image data must be processed serially in digital photography, and this serial processing of image data is called "scan". In silver halide photography, an almighty device "film" does everything from signal conversion, signal processing to signal storage. But separate devices take each role in digital photography.

  6. Complexity of Lipid Domains and Rafts in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Revealed by Combining Imaging and Microscopic and Macroscopic Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Borst, JanWillem; Fedorov, Alexander; Prieto, Manuel; Visser, Antonie J. W. G.

    2007-01-01

    The application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to study gel/fluid and raftlike lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) is demonstrated here. Different regions of the ternary dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol phase diagram were studied. The head-labeled phospholipid Rhodamine-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (Rhod-DOPE) was used as a fluorescent probe. Gel/fluid and liquid-ordered (lo)/liquid-disordered (ld) phase separation were clearly visualized upon two-photon excitation. Fluorescence intensity decays in different regions of a GUV were also obtained with the microscope in fixed laser-beam configuration. The ensemble behavior of the system was studied by obtaining fluorescence intensity decays of Rhod-DOPE in nongiant vesicle suspensions. The fingerprints for gel/fluid coexistence and for the presence of lo raftlike phase, based on fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy histograms and images, and on the fluorescence intensity decay parameters of Rhod-DOPE, are presented. The presence of three lipid phases in one single GUV is detected unequivocally. From the comparison of lifetime parameters, it can be concluded that the lo phase is formed in the binary dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol but not in the dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol mixture. The domains apparent in fluorescence intensity images have a more complex substructure revealed by analysis of the lifetime data. The potential applications of this combined imaging/microscopic/macroscopic methodology are discussed. PMID:17449668

  7. Multiscale gigapixel photography.

    PubMed

    Brady, D J; Gehm, M E; Stack, R A; Marks, D L; Kittle, D S; Golish, D R; Vera, E M; Feller, S D

    2012-06-20

    Pixel count is the ratio of the solid angle within a camera's field of view to the solid angle covered by a single detector element. Because the size of the smallest resolvable pixel is proportional to aperture diameter and the maximum field of view is scale independent, the diffraction-limited pixel count is proportional to aperture area. At present, digital cameras operate near the fundamental limit of 1-10 megapixels for millimetre-scale apertures, but few approach the corresponding limits of 1-100 gigapixels for centimetre-scale apertures. Barriers to high-pixel-count imaging include scale-dependent geometric aberrations, the cost and complexity of gigapixel sensor arrays, and the computational and communications challenge of gigapixel image management. Here we describe the AWARE-2 camera, which uses a 16-mm entrance aperture to capture snapshot, one-gigapixel images at three frames per minute. AWARE-2 uses a parallel array of microcameras to reduce the problems of gigapixel imaging to those of megapixel imaging, which are more tractable. In cameras of conventional design, lens speed and field of view decrease as lens scale increases, but with the experimental system described here we confirm previous theoretical results suggesting that lens speed and field of view can be scale independent in microcamera-based imagers resolving up to 50 gigapixels. Ubiquitous gigapixel cameras may transform the central challenge of photography from the question of where to point the camera to that of how to mine the data.

  8. Micromechanics of ultra-toughened electrospun PMMA/PEO fibres as revealed by in-situ tensile testing in an electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Richard L.; Ström, Valter; Gedde, Ulf W.; Mallon, Peter E.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.; Olsson, Richard T.

    2014-09-01

    A missing cornerstone in the development of tough micro/nano fibre systems is an understanding of the fibre failure mechanisms, which stems from the limitation in observing the fracture of objects with dimensions one hundredth of the width of a hair strand. Tensile testing in the electron microscope is herein adopted to reveal the fracture behaviour of a novel type of toughened electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide) fibre mats for biomedical applications. These fibres showed a toughness more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of pristine PMMA fibres. The in-situ microscopy revealed that the toughness were not only dependent on the initial molecular alignment after spinning, but also on the polymer formulation that could promote further molecular orientation during the formation of micro/nano-necking. The true fibre strength was greater than 150 MPa, which was considerably higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (17 MPa). This necking phenomenon was prohibited by high aspect ratio cellulose nanocrystal fillers in the ultra-tough fibres, leading to a decrease in toughness by more than one order of magnitude. The reported necking mechanism may have broad implications also within more traditional melt-spinning research.

  9. Bereavement Photography for Children: Program Development and Healthcare Professionals’ Response

    PubMed Central

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin; Frader, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. We describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs’ reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July, 2007 through April, 2010 families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n=34, 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n=30, 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n=34, 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n=37, 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open ended questions revealed four categories: the program’s general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs. PMID:24520925

  10. Professionalism and Awards in Television News Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Conrad; Hubbard, Tom

    1987-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that photojournalists with high professionalism scores are more likely to win news photography awards. Suggests that television news photography awards recognize skills gained through experience rather than specific professional values. (MM)

  11. Theatre Photography: Capturing Your Productions on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Jon R.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests a number of steps that can be taken to improve the aesthetic and technical quality of stage photography. Discusses finding a photographer, film choices, equipment, other technical considerations, the photo call, and digital photography. (RS)

  12. Using Digital Photography to Enhance Student Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help students develop their digital photography skills and see the world through new eyes. An emphasis is placed on using digital photography to communicate ideas and feelings. (Contains 6 figures and 2 tables.)

  13. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  14. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  15. Digital dental photography. Part 3: Principles of digital photography.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I

    2009-05-23

    Although we live in a digital age, our knowledge of the processes and technology involved is often limited. As a foundation to understanding the subsequent parts of this series, this part describes the fundamental aspects of digital photography, which includes the sensors, processing and display.

  16. Data users note: Apollo 17 lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.; Doyle, F. J.; Levenson, L.; Michlovitz, K.

    1974-01-01

    The availability of Apollo 17 pictorial data is announced as an aid to the selection of the photographs for study. Brief descriptions are presented of the Apollo 17 flight, and the photographic equipment used during the flight. The following descriptions are also included: service module photography, command module photography, and lunar surface photography.

  17. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  18. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.10 Still photography. (a) Policy and procedures...) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography,...

  19. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  20. John Herschel, photography and the camera lucida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, L. J.

    John Herschel's use of the camera lucida as a drawing aid and the part played by this instrument in Henry Fox Talbot's motivation to invent photography are described. Herschel's seminal contributions to the early progress of photography, his attempts at colour photography, his invention of the "blueprint" process and his assistance to other photographic pioneers are discussed.

  1. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial photography. 1005.5....5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  2. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  3. Photography-based image generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  4. [Edgar Degas, photography and voyeurism].

    PubMed

    Küchenhoff, J

    1990-08-01

    Degas has drawn his paintings in a voyeuristic perspective. This voyeurism is not due to the painter's personal psychopathology. Instead, Degas has recognized the voyeuristic change of visual perception as a result of the development of photography as a new medium; meanwhile this change has become unconscious. Degas' paintings thus confront us with the historicity of visual perception and of the visual partial instinct.

  5. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  6. Digital Photography for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neckers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…

  7. On Photography: Uses in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, David

    This paper introduces and defines photography, presents an overview of its applications, and shows how photographs can be used adjunctively as both artifacts and metaphors. Examples are given to demonstrate the usefulness of pictures in gathering information about a client's world, taking a history, formulating a diagnosis, and creating…

  8. Keynote Address: Photography From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Richard W.

    1984-11-01

    Since the beginning of history, mankind has dreamed of soaring above his planet and recording his impressions. Others dreamed of a journey to the Moon, to the other planets, and indeed to the stars. NASA cameras have changed the dreams to stark reality. Space photography is not only striking in beauty, but also permits us to unlock many of the secrets of our universe.

  9. Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Kenneth S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

  10. Teaching Field Biology with Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Ronald L.; Howell, W. Mike; Davenport, L. J.; Wood, Linda F.

    2003-01-01

    Photography makes an easy and excellent tool for teaching field biology courses, allowing students to study nature without harming it. This photographic technique is used in capturing images of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants during class field trips, then making these images available for students to identify and study from a departmental…

  11. Surprising Beauty in Technical Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Imaging and Photographic Technology area, in which the author teaches, is an applications- and technology-oriented photography program designed to prepare students for work in technical, corporate, industrial, and scientific environments. One day, the author received an e-mail message from an editor who had found his Web site and thought he…

  12. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  13. Scanning tunneling spectroscopic evidence for a magnetic field-revealed microscopic order in the high-TC superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, A. D.; Grinolds, M. S.; Teague, M. L.; Yeh, N.-C.; Tajima, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present spatially resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of YBa2Cu3O7-δ as a function of magnetic field and at T<reveals two sets of non-dispersive, field-enhanced conductance modulations with periods of 3.4+0.5 and 7.3+0.5 lattice constants. Energy histograms of QP spectra show a significant shift from SC to primarily PG-like spectra and a growing enhancement of spectral weight at δ' as magnetic field increases, implying a significant interplay between SC and a field-enhanced microscopic order. Ref.: Beyer, et.al. [arxiv:0808.3016].

  14. Correlations of three-dimensional motion of chromosomal loci in yeast revealed by the double-helix point spread function microscope

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Mikael P.; Joyner, Ryan; Weis, Karsten; Moerner, W. E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-particle tracking has been applied to study chromatin motion in live cells, revealing a wealth of dynamical behavior of the genomic material once believed to be relatively static throughout most of the cell cycle. Here we used the dual-color three-dimensional (3D) double-helix point spread function microscope to study the correlations of movement between two fluorescently labeled gene loci on either the same or different budding yeast chromosomes. We performed fast (10 Hz) 3D tracking of the two copies of the GAL locus in diploid cells in both activating and repressive conditions. As controls, we tracked pairs of loci along the same chromosome at various separations, as well as transcriptionally orthogonal genes on different chromosomes. We found that under repressive conditions, the GAL loci exhibited significantly higher velocity cross-correlations than they did under activating conditions. This relative increase has potentially important biological implications, as it might suggest coupling via shared silencing factors or association with decoupled machinery upon activation. We also found that on the time scale studied (∼0.1–30 s), the loci moved with significantly higher subdiffusive mean square displacement exponents than previously reported, which has implications for the application of polymer theory to chromatin motion in eukaryotes. PMID:25318676

  15. Microscope basics.

    PubMed

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter.

  16. [Microscopic colitis].

    PubMed

    Bohr, Johan

    2002-02-11

    Microscopic colitis is an umbrella term for a newly described group of colitides, belonging to the inflammatory bowel diseases, which are only diagnosable by microscopic evaluation of a macroscopically normal colon mucosa. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are the most common of these colitides. Microscopic colitis is characterised clinically by chronic non-bloody watery diarrhoea. Crampy abdominal pain, nocturnal diarrhoea, urgency, and initial weight loss are usual. Concomitant diseases of autoimmune origin and arthralgia are commonly seen. Treatment of microscopic colitis follows the guidelines for treatment of other inflammatory bowel diseases, but a substantial part of the patients with microscopic colitis enter spontaneous remission after some years. A minor part, however, have very troublesome symptoms and are almost refractory to treatment. Microscopic colitis has apparently no malignant potential.

  17. Bioassay and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations Reveal High Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, on the Onion Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wu, Shengyong; Xing, Zhenlong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-12-01

    When flies were dipped in 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml conidia suspensions and then kept in the incubator (22 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH), scanning electron microscope observations revealed that, at 2 h, the majority of adhering Beauveria bassiana conidia were attached to either the wing surface or the interstitial area between the macrochaetae on the thorax and abdomen of the onion maggot adults. Germ tubes were being produced and had oriented toward the cuticle by 18 h. Penetration of the insect cuticle had occurred by 36 h, and by 48 h, germ tubes had completely penetrated the cuticle. Fungal mycelia had emerged from the insect body and were proliferating after 72 h. The superficial area and structure of the wings and macrochaetae may facilitate the attachment of conidia and enable effective penetration. The susceptibility of adults to 12 isolates, at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) conidia/ml, was tested in laboratory experiments. Eight of the more potent strains caused in excess of 85% adult mortality 8 d post inoculation, while the median lethal time (LT50) of these strains was <6 d. The virulence of the more effective strains was further tested, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50) were calculated by exposing adults to doses ranging from 10(3)-10(7) conidia/ml. The lowest LC50 value, found in the isolate XJWLMQ-32, for the adults was 3.87 × 10(3) conidia/ml. These results demonstrate that some B. bassiana strains are highly virulent to onion maggot adults and should be considered as potential biocontrol agents against the adult flies.

  18. Modernizing medical photography, part 2.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Part 1 of this paper explored the origins of process activity mapping, one of the major tools currently being used to modernize patient pathways in the National Health Service in Great Britain. Within medical photography the current notion of modernization is inextricably linked to the development of digital technology. Whilst the core principle of capturing light on a sensitive medium remains as clear and relevant as ever, the mechanisms by which the image is processed and presented to the client have changed profoundly. Part 2 shows how the principles of lean thinking and process activity mapping can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large disparate teaching hospital.

  19. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  20. Imagers for digital still photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosiers, Jan; Dillen, Bart; Draijer, Cees; Manoury, Erik-Jan; Meessen, Louis; Peters, Inge

    2006-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of the requirements for, and current state-of-the-art of, CCD and CMOS imagers for use in digital still photography. Four market segments will be reviewed: mobile imaging, consumer "point-and-shoot cameras", consumer digital SLR cameras and high-end professional camera systems. The paper will also present some challenges and innovations with respect to packaging, testing, and system integration.

  1. Photography, Pixels and New Technology: Is There a "Paradigm Shift?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Shiela

    The computer age is redefining photography, and yet notions of photography can still be colored by the 19th-century view that photography is a slice of time and hence, of reality. One inventor of photography called it "nature's pencil," and courts have seemed to agree by traditionally allowing photography as evidence in trials. The core…

  2. Ocular Fundus Photography as an Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy.

  3. The Dynamic Interplay between Photochemistry and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Samuel A.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the early photochemical and photographic research of French, German and English natural philosophers. Describes how these investigators developed photography and the laws which govern photochemical reactions. (MLH)

  4. The use of time lapse photography in an in vitro fertilization programme for better selection for embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Borut; Hojnik, Nina; Vlaisavljević, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    The time lapse photography is not a new method for assessing the dynamics of early embryo development in vitro. It has been used many times in the past for studying cleavages and blastulation of embryos of various animal species. However, this technique became available for routine use in an human in vitro fertilization (IVF) programme only a couple years ago and it becomes more and more popular today. The new time lapse systems are using modified microscopes which are positioned within the incubators. The observation of embryos does not need the opening of incubators. By sequential photographing of each embryo separately with camera of low intensity illumination, more than 1400 pictures of embryo are made. All these pictures are collected together and transformed into a short movie with software. This system offers the observation of dynamics of embryo development. The studies, which have used a time lapse technique for studying embryo development, revealed that the timing between different events can be used for predicting its developmental potential. In this paper the advantages and drawbacks of time lapse photography is precisely described. An overview through the published papers analyzing the dynamics of human embryo development from the zygote toward blastocyst is done and new timing parameters for grading zygotes, early embryos and blastocysts are analyzed.

  5. Photography as an Agent of Transformation: Education, Community and Documentary Photography in Post-War Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Radical political activism in the 1970s and 1980s had a huge impact on documentary photography in Britain. Community organisations and photography collectives emerged and endeavoured to democratise the arts for those who would not otherwise have come into contact with them. Community photography used the technology to break down the barriers…

  6. Comparison of Color Fundus Photography, Infrared Fundus Photography, and Optical Coherence Tomography in Detecting Retinal Hamartoma in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Da-Yong; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Jun-Yang; Li, Li; Gao, Jun; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: A sensitive method is required to detect retinal hamartomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The aim of the present study was to compare the color fundus photography, infrared imaging (IFG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the detection rate of retinal hamartoma in patients with TSC. Methods: This study included 11 patients (22 eyes) with TSC, who underwent color fundus photography, IFG, and spectral-domain OCT to detect retinal hamartomas. TSC1 and TSC2 mutations were tested in eight patients. Results: The mean age of the 11 patients was 8.0 ± 2.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was −0.55 ± 1.42 D by autorefraction with cycloplegia. In 11 patients (22 eyes), OCT, infrared fundus photography, and color fundus photography revealed 26, 18, and 9 hamartomas, respectively. The predominant hamartoma was type I (55.6%). All the hamartomas that detected by color fundus photography or IFG can be detected by OCT. Conclusion: Among the methods of color fundus photography, IFG, and OCT, the OCT has higher detection rate for retinal hamartoma in TSC patients; therefore, OCT might be promising for the clinical diagnosis of TSC. PMID:27174333

  7. Slit lamp photography: The basics.

    PubMed

    Painter, Rosalyn

    2015-06-01

    This introductory paper is designed to explain the basics of slit lamp photography with the use of illustrations and sample images. The two primary methods of illumination are described with reference to positioning and magnification, as well as the use of background illumination. Filters and dye usage are described along with a brief explanation of associated imaging techniques. Further explanation of techniques will be looked at in subsequent articles, this paper aims to give an over view rather than an in-depth discussion of techniques.

  8. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sharon A.; Seo, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis In 1923, Friedrich Wohlwill described two patients with a “microscopic form of periarteritis nodosa”, which was distinct from classical polyarteritis nodosa. This disease, now known as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), is a primary systemic vasculitis characterized by inflammation of the small-caliber blood vessels and the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Typically, microscopic polyangiitis presents with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis, although involvement of the skin, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Treatment of MPA generally requires use of a cytotoxic agent (such as cyclophosphamide) in addition to high-dose glucocorticoids. Recent research has focused on identifying alternate treatment strategies that minimize or eliminate exposure to cytotoxic agents. This article will review the history, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MPA. PMID:20688249

  9. Martian Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  10. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    PubMed Central

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  11. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  12. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  13. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may...

  14. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  15. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  16. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  17. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  18. Microscopic structure of heterogeneous lipid-based formulations revealed by 13C high-resolution solid-state and 1H PFG NMR methods.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Armel; Gerbaud, Guillaume; Bardet, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Lipid-based formulations such as lip glosses that are very alike on the base of their components may have significant differences in their expected macroscopic properties as cosmetics. To differentiate such formulations, high-resolution (13)C NMR was performed under magic angle spinning to investigate the properties at both molecular and microscopic levels. Temperature studies were carried out and no polymorphism in the solid domains could be evidenced after the thermal treatment performed for obtaining the commercial lip glosses. (13)C NMR spectra also showed that some waxes remain partially solubilized in the oils of formulations. The microscopic structure of the wax-oil liquid domains was worked out on the basis of restricted diffusion properties obtained with proton pulsed-field gradient NMR. Changing a single wax component, in two identical formulations, yields significant morphological differences. In the first one the liquid phase appears as a continuum whereas in the second one, the liquid phase is fractionated into micrometric droplets.

  19. Microscopic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Valerio, Luca; Annicchiarico, Brigida Eleonora; Milani, Alessandro; Siciliano, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen), biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data. PMID:23180940

  20. Photography equipment and techniques. A survey of NASA developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo program has been the most complex exploration ever attempted by man, requiring extensive research, development, and engineering in most of the sciences before the leap through space could begin. Photography has been used at each step of the way to document the efforts and activities, isolate mistakes, reveal new phenomena, and to record much that cannot be seen by the human eye. At the same time, the capabilities of photography were extended because of the need of meeting space requirements. The results of this work have been applied to community planning and ecology, for example, as well as to space and engineering. Special uses of standard equipment, modifications and new designs, as well as film combinations that indicate actual or potential ecological problems are described.

  1. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  2. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  3. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  4. Evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the multiband photography concept that tonal differences between rock formations on aerial photography can be improved through the selection of the appropriate bands. The concept involves: (1) acquiring band reference data for the rocks being considered; (2) selecting the best combination of bands to discriminate the rocks using these reference data; (3) acquiring aerial photography using these selected bands; and (4) extracting the desired geologic information in an optimum manner. The test site geology and rock reflectance are discussed in detail. The evaluation found that the differences in contrast ratios are not statistically significant, and the spectral information in different bands is not advantageous.

  5. Does underwater flash photography affect the behaviour, movement and site persistence of seahorses?

    PubMed

    Harasti, D; Gladstone, W

    2013-11-01

    The effect of flash photography on seahorse species has never been tested. An experiment was established to test the effect of flash photography and the handling of Hippocampus whitei, a medium-sized seahorse species endemic to Australia, on their behavioural responses, movements and site persistence. A total of 24 H. whitei were utilized in the experiment with eight in each of the three treatments (flash photography, handling and control). The effect of underwater flash photography on H. whitei movements was not significant; however, the effect of handling H. whitei to take a photograph had a significant effect on their short-term behavioural responses to the photographer. Kaplan-Meier log-rank test revealed that there was no significant difference in site persistence of H. whitei from each of the three treatments and that flash photography had no long-term effects on their site persistence. It is concluded that the use of flash photography by divers is a safe and viable technique with H. whitei, particularly if photographs can be used for individual identification purposes.

  6. Astronomical photography. Part A: Gum nebula, galactic cluster, and zodiacal light photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Mattingly, T. K.

    1972-01-01

    It is reported that the Apollo 16 command module astronomical photography was performed with the specific objective of capitalizing on the uniqueness of the double umbra as a vantage point to collect astronomical data that are obtainable only near our Moon. For this reason, these data will be compared directly to analogous photography performed from Earth orbit during Project Mercury and the Gemini Program as well as to the Apollo-duplicated photography taken from sites on the Earth surface. Comparison with Earth-based photography should yield direct information on the Earth airglow layer and on atmospheric scattering and extinction.

  7. Multiband photography - Forestry and agricultural applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.; Benson, A. S.; Hay, C. M.

    1971-01-01

    The usefulness of multiband photography in forestry and agricultural applications was evaluated by a large group of skilled photo interpreters within four California test sites. Environmental parameters selected included crop types, forest vegetation types, and tree species composition. Quantitative analyses were made of the interpretability of (1) multiband black and white photos viewed separately, (2) multiband black and white photos combined into true and false color composites, and (3) color and color infrared photos obtained simultaneously with the multiband black and white photography. Tests indicated that multiband photography consistently yielded higher interpretation accuracies than any types of single-band photography. Black and white multiband photos which were properly procured and displayed as false-color composite imagery in all cases rendered as much (or as little) information as conventional tri-emulsion color or infrared color film.

  8. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Conclusion: Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196. PMID:25206221

  9. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Forgan, E. M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.; Briffa, A. K. R.; Chang, J.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S. D.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.; Hardy, W. N.; Christensen, N. B.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Hücker, M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6.54 at its superconducting transition temperature ∼60 K. We find that the CDWs in this material break the mirror symmetry of the CuO2 bilayers. The ionic displacements in the CDWs have two components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the CuO2 planes, and are out of phase with each other. The planar oxygen atoms have the largest displacements, perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. Our results allow many electronic properties of the underdoped cuprates to be understood. For instance, the CDWs will lead to local variations in the electronic structure, giving an explicit explanation of density-wave states with broken symmetry observed in scanning tunnelling microscopy and soft X-ray measurements. PMID:26648114

  10. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by x-ray diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    E. M. Forgan; Huecker, M.; Blackburn, E.; ...

    2015-12-09

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6.54 at its superconducting transition temperature ~60 K. We find that the CDWs in this material break the mirror symmetry of the CuO2 bilayers. The ionic displacements in the CDWs have two components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the CuO2 planes, and are out of phase with each other. The planar oxygen atoms have the largest displacements, perpendicularmore » to the CuO2 planes. Our results allow many electronic properties of the underdoped cuprates to be understood. For example, the CDWs will lead to local variations in the electronic structure, giving an explicit explanation of density-wave states with broken symmetry observed in scanning tunnelling microscopy and soft X-ray measurements.« less

  11. Determination of the microscopic equilibrium dissociation constants for risedronate and its analogues reveals two distinct roles for the nitrogen atom in nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate drugs.

    PubMed

    Hounslow, Andrea M; Carran, John; Brown, Richard J; Rejman, Dominik; Blackburn, G Michael; Watts, Donald J

    2008-07-24

    Microscopic equilibrium dissociation constants, k as, were determined for four nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BP): risedronate and its analogues 2-(2-aminophenyl)-1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate, NE 11807, and NE 97220. The proportion of each and of analogues 2-(3'-( N-ethyl)pyridinium)-ethylidenebisphosphonate and 2-(3-piperinidyl)-1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate, having a positively charged nitrogen and three negative charges on the bisphosphonate group ("carbocation analogue") at pH 7.5, was calculated. When set in order of increasing potency at inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) synthase (their intracellular target), the N-BPs are also ranked in order of decreasing mole fraction of carbocation analogue. However, only a weak correlation exists between potency for inhibiting FDP synthase and potency for inhibiting Dictyostelium discoideum growth. It is concluded that, although high potency for inhibiting FDP synthase is favored when the nitrogen atom in a N-BP is uncharged, N-BPs having a positively charged nitrogen can still be potent inhibitors of Dictyostelium growth owing to favorable interaction with a second, unidentified target.

  12. Photography Facts & Folklore: Role of Quality Photography Has Blurred over the Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Les

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the technical quality of publication photography has remained static in the last 10 years, despite advances in digital technology. Discusses fact and folklore regarding six statements about photography, including auto focus cameras are superior to manual; action pictures are better than posed pictures; and layout and design are more…

  13. Access to Photography: Making Photography Accessible to Persons with Exceptional Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Charles R., Ed.

    This guide to making photography accessible to persons with exceptional educational needs contains several papers, a list of 27 organizational and bibliographic resources, a list of sources of adaptive equipment, and drawings of sample equipment modifications. Nine papers make up the text of the guide. In "An Adventure into Photography," Charles…

  14. Evolution of photography in maxillofacial surgery: from analog to 3D photography – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, Heidrun; Malik, Christoph Yves; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; Streckbein, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    In maxillofacial surgery, digital photographic documentation plays a crucial role in clinical routine. This paper gives an overview of the evolution from analog to digital in photography and highlights the integration of digital photography into daily medical routine. The digital workflow is described and we show that image quality is improved by systematic use of photographic equipment and post-processing of digital photographs. One of the advantages of digital photography is the possibility of immediate reappraisal of the photographs for alignment, brightness, positioning, and other photographic settings, which aids in avoiding errors and allows the instant repetition of photographs if necessary. Options for avoiding common mistakes in clinical photography are also described and recommendations made for post-processing of pictures, data storage, and data management systems. The new field of 3D digital photography is described in the context of cranial measurements. PMID:23674904

  15. Evolution of photography in maxillofacial surgery: from analog to 3D photography - an overview.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Heidrun; Malik, Christoph Yves; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; Streckbein, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    In maxillofacial surgery, digital photographic documentation plays a crucial role in clinical routine. This paper gives an overview of the evolution from analog to digital in photography and highlights the integration of digital photography into daily medical routine. The digital workflow is described and we show that image quality is improved by systematic use of photographic equipment and post-processing of digital photographs. One of the advantages of digital photography is the possibility of immediate reappraisal of the photographs for alignment, brightness, positioning, and other photographic settings, which aids in avoiding errors and allows the instant repetition of photographs if necessary. Options for avoiding common mistakes in clinical photography are also described and recommendations made for post-processing of pictures, data storage, and data management systems. The new field of 3D digital photography is described in the context of cranial measurements.

  16. Ecological Landscape Classification Using Astronaut Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Castle, J. V.

    2006-12-01

    Digital astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station is a potentially useful dataset for ecologic, geologic, and land use/land cover studies as it varies greatly in resolution (6 m/pixel minimum) and temporal frequency (minimum 1 day repeat cycle). The entire digital astronaut dataset is freely available from http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov. The dataset includes imagery from 1961 to present, and includes data for much of the Earth's surface. The National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network provides an ideal framework for assessment of the quantitative potential of digital astronaut photography. The Network of 26 sites represent a wide range of biomes including temperate and tropical forest, deserts, grasslands, tundra, and urban human-dominated ecosystems. This wide range of sites provides an excellent database for comparison of digital astronaut photography with remotely sensed data (i.e. Landsat) as well as field-based validation and measurement data. Used with remotely-sensed satellite and airborne data, digital astronaut photography can increase the temporal resolution of observed variables such as land cover, land use change, vegetation dynamics, and surface soil processes. In contrast to traditional narrow bandwidth remote sensing instruments, digital astronaut photography is acquired using off-the-shelf digital cameras sensitive to the visible red, green, and blue wavelengths; decisions to acquire imagery are made on-the-fly by the astronaut. The wide bandpasses of the camera make traditional classification approaches difficult as discrete spectral information is not typically obtained. We apply a multilevel, object-oriented image segmentation approach to high resolution digital astronaut photography of LTER sites representing a range of continental and island biomes. This approach emphasizes spatial relationships of similar pixels in addition to spectral information. Results include comparison of classification

  17. Near-terminator photography, part R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Lloyd, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    The advantages resulting from the use of near-terminator photography in lunar surface investigations are discussed. It is pointed out that, under near-terminator conditions, small changes in slope produce greater contrast changes than at high sun elevation angles. This desirable phenomenon is confirmed by an examination of the near-terminator photography taken during the Apollo 15 mission. Many of the photographs obtained show lunar surface areas within a few degrees of the terminator and are therefore of significant geologic interest. In addition, many geologic features stand out in a distinct manner not normal in conventional lunar photography, thus providing additional data on the surface morphology and the configuration of a large number of lunar surface structures.

  18. Earth observations and photography experiment MA-136

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Mitchell, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of the earth observations and photography experiment of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project were to photograph various terrestrial structures and to use the capabilities of man as a trained observer in visually studying earth features and phenomena. Man's special capabilities include the sensitivity of the eye to subtle color variations and the speed with which the eye/brain system can interpret what is seen and select targets for photography. Real time astronaut observations constitute a useful complement to orbital photographs and greatly aid in their interpretation. Targets for mapping and hand held photography were selected on the basis of their value to specialists in the earth sciences including geology, oceanography, desert study, hydrology, meteorology, and environmental science.

  19. Bereavement photography for children: program development and health care professionals' response.

    PubMed

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin

    2013-07-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. The authors describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs' reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July 2007 through April 2070, families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n = 34; 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n = 30; 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n = 34; 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n = 37; 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended questions revealed 4 categories: the program's general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs.

  20. Ethereal presences in holography and photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M.; Byrne, Kay

    2007-02-01

    This paper examines the concept of the 'Presence of Absence' in post-mortem photography and holography, drawing upon both historical and lesser-known images as reference. To create a photographic negative one needs the presence of light to expose the light sensitive surface, be it glass, a polished plate or plastic. A hologram may also be created when a coherent light source, for example from a Laser, travels through a light sensitive material and falls upon the subject to be recorded. A holograph however, retains the optical qualities of both phase and amplitude, the memory of light. Both mediums recall, as it were, 'now absent moments', and confronts us with what is 'not there' as much as 'what is'. This paper examines the exploration of absence and presence in post-mortem photography and holography and it's a richly visceral visual language. A photonic syntax can interpret death as an elegant yet horrific aesthetic, the photograph may be beautify screened and yet obscene in its content. In essence one can be a voyeur, experiencing a mere visual whisper of the true nature of the subject. Our Victorian forefathers explored postmortem photography as an object of mourning, and at the close of the nineteenth century when Jack the Ripper had the inhabitants of White Chapel in a grip of fear, photography made its mark as a documentation of violent crime. Today, within contemporary photography, death is now presented within the confines of the 'Art Gallery', as a sensual, and at times, sensationalised art form. In exploring post-mortem imagery, both in holography and conventional photography, absence presents an aspect of death as startling in its unanimated form and detailed in its finite examination of mortality.

  1. Clinical photography in the dermatology practice.

    PubMed

    Witmer, William K; Lebovitz, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Photography has been accepted for decades as a standard means for documenting dermatologic conditions and as an adjunct to their treatment, in both medical practice and research. The emergence of low-cost easy-to-use digital imaging systems has made good-quality photography more accessible to practitioners, while providing improved functionality in the clinical environment. Primary concerns are controlling lighting and positioning to provide a clear record of the patients skin condition and maintaining consistency over time to assure meaningful comparison of clinical end points.

  2. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  3. Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography is a new technique intended to enhance the quality of the photographs provided to families following their loss. Water immersion appears to be most helpful following a second trimester fetal demise. This technique can be used by nurses, professional photographers and others in addition to more traditional neonatal bereavement photography. It does not require special skills or equipment and can be implemented in virtually any perinatal setting. The enhanced quality of photographs produced with this method can potentially provide a source of comfort to grieving families.

  4. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA426 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit..., Auckland, New Zealand has applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography of... for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and...

  5. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY..., Auckland, New Zealand to conduct commercial/educational photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES: The... request for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography on 12 cetacean species had...

  6. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... conduct commercial/educational photography in Alaska. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are.../educational photography had been submitted by the above- named applicant. The requested permit has been...

  7. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  8. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  9. Digital Photography and Its Impact on Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Chris

    Today the chemical processing of film is being replaced by a virtual digital darkroom. Digital image storage makes new levels of consistency possible because its nature is less volatile and more mutable than traditional photography. The potential of digital imaging is great, but issues of disk storage, computer speed, camera sensor resolution,…

  10. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE... filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the use of...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE... filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the use of...

  12. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves...

  13. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves...

  14. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS... to cooperate, but will instead seek the assistance of appropriate civil authorities and/or...

  15. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS... to cooperate, but will instead seek the assistance of appropriate civil authorities and/or...

  16. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on taking photos by the general public, given in § 705.5 apply also to media representatives. (b) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography, OPNAVINST... material has been photographed. In such cases, all unclassified photos will be returned promptly to...

  17. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on taking photos by the general public, given in § 705.5 apply also to media representatives. (b) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography, OPNAVINST... material has been photographed. In such cases, all unclassified photos will be returned promptly to...

  18. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  19. Time sequence photography of Roosters Comb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of understanding natural landscape changes is key in properly determining rangeland ecology. Time sequence photography allows a landscape snapshot to be documented and enables the ability to compare natural changes overtime. Photographs of Roosters Comb were taken from the same vantag...

  20. "Transformative Looks": Practicing Citizenship through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sónia; Maiztegui-Oñate, Concha; Mata-Codesal, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The article discusses the meanings of citizenship and citizenship education when formal citizenship is restricted by exploring the potential of photography education and practice as a tool that promotes the exercise of citizenship in the context of non-formal critical adult education. By doing it, this text aims to enhance our…

  1. Photography/Digital Imaging: Parallel & Paradoxical Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Mary Stieglitz

    With the introduction of photography and photomechanical printing processes in the 19th century, the first age of machine pictures and reproductions emerged. The 20th century introduced computer image processing systems, creating a digital imaging revolution. Rather than concentrating on the adversarial aspects of the computer's influence on…

  2. Real-time speckle photography: a breakthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-12-01

    Speckle photography for small displacements can be carried out rather easily. It is a well established method. Unfortunately problems arise when specklegrams must be obtained in real time. Silver halide media infer lengthy multi-stage photoprocessing of specklegrams. Real time speckle photography utilizing non-silver media can be implemented but the techniques involved are rather complicated. Extremely simple and inexpensive approaches to speckle photography are introduced here. They combine positive features of speckle photography and momental holography. This permits the user to produce quasi real time specklegrams within a few seconds. High quality speckle photographs were obtained with different laser sources on high resolution silver halide media: Russian PFG-03, PFG-03 C (color), Agfa-Gevaert 8E 75 HD films and plates. Very good specklegrams were obtained also in lighted environment. Hybrid holospecklegrams i.e. holograms and speckle photographs of the same object were obtained simultaneously on the same media. Such holospecklegrams were also produced within fa few seconds. Quite unexpectedly good specklegrams were recorded even in water. Photographs of momentally produced specklegrams are given.

  3. Photography and the Creation of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Roy H.

    1979-01-01

    In this theoretical discussion, still photography is viewed as a tool which can be used in the creation of meaning and as a medium for social inquiry. Three specific functions of photographic inquiry are explored: the anthropological, the normative, and the intuitive. (Author/SJL)

  4. The Use of Photography in Family Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entin, Alan D.

    Photographs and family albums are helpful in marriage and family psychotherapy to aid in the understanding of family processes, relationship patterns, goals, expectations, values, traditions, and ideals. Based on the assumption that a photograph is a form of communication, photography can be used to: (1) examine typical family picture-taking…

  5. The vision of digital dental photography.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel H

    2007-05-01

    Digital dental photography has been crucial to the advancement of cosmetic dental procedures. It is an effective and necessary tool in the aesthetic dentist's armamentarium. Practice will allow the dentist to archive treatment results and allow every case to be improved. Dentists wishing to advance their techniques and to complete accreditation protocols should master these techniques.

  6. Kohoutek, photometric photography experiment (S233)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Craven, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    The final results of the Skylab 4 experiment S233, Kohoutek photometric photography experiment, which undertook a series of visible light photographs suitable for photometry and for a photographic history of Comet Kohoutek are described. The experiment concept, the data reduction method, and the results obtained are discussed.

  7. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  8. Multispectral Photography: the obscure becomes the obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polgrean, John

    1974-01-01

    Commonly used in map making, real estate zoning, and highway route location, aerial photography planes equipped with multispectral cameras may, among many environmental applications, now be used to locate mineral deposits, define marshland boundaries, study water pollution, and detect diseases in crops and forests. (KM)

  9. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  10. Use of aerial photography to inventory aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to inventory submersed macrophytes in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. For this purpose, we obtained aerial color transparencies and collateral ground truth information about submersed vegetation at 160 stations within four study sites in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, September 17 to October 4, 1984. Photographs were interpreted by five test subjects to determine with what accuracy they could detect beds of submersed macrophytes, and the precision of delineating the extent of such vegetation beds. The interpreters correctly determined the presence or absence of vegetation 80% of the time (range 73-86%). Differences between individuals were statistically significant. Determination of the presence or absence of macrophytes depended partly on their relative abundance and water clarity. Analysis of one photograph from each of the four study sites revealed that photointerpreters delineated between 35 and 75 ha of river bottom covered by vegetation. This wide range indicates that individuals should be tested to assess their relative capability and be trained before they are employed to delineate plant beds in large-scale inventories. Within limits, low-altitude aerial photography, combined with collateral ground truth information, can be used to determine the presence or absence and delineate the extent of submersed macrophytes in connecting channels of the Great Lakes.

  11. Proceedings of the International Congress on High-Speed Photography (9th) held at Denver, Colorado on August 2-7 1970,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SYMPOSIA, *TELEVISION EQUIPMENT, * MOTION PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY, HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY, HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY, IMAGE CONVERTERS, HIGH SPEED CAMERAS, LIGHTING EQUIPMENT, X RAY PHOTOGRAPHY, STEREOPHOTOGRAPHY.

  12. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  13. Benchmarking clinical photography services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Arbon, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking is used in services across the National Health Service (NHS) using various benchmarking programs. Clinical photography services do not have a program in place and services have to rely on ad hoc surveys of other services. A trial benchmarking exercise was undertaken with 13 services in NHS Trusts. This highlights valuable data and comparisons that can be used to benchmark and improve services throughout the profession.

  14. Monitoring tropical environments with Space Shuttle photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981-88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962-1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the greater Amazon, tropical Africa and Madagascar, South and Southeast Asia, and the Indo-Pacific archipelagoes.

  15. Mars Cameras Make Panoramic Photography a Snap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    If you wish to explore a Martian landscape without leaving your armchair, a few simple clicks around the NASA Web site will lead you to panoramic photographs taken from the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Many of the technologies that enable this spectacular Mars photography have also inspired advancements in photography here on Earth, including the panoramic camera (Pancam) and its housing assembly, designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Cornell University for the Mars missions. Mounted atop each rover, the Pancam mast assembly (PMA) can tilt a full 180 degrees and swivel 360 degrees, allowing for a complete, highly detailed view of the Martian landscape. The rover Pancams take small, 1 megapixel (1 million pixel) digital photographs, which are stitched together into large panoramas that sometimes measure 4 by 24 megapixels. The Pancam software performs some image correction and stitching after the photographs are transmitted back to Earth. Different lens filters and a spectrometer also assist scientists in their analyses of infrared radiation from the objects in the photographs. These photographs from Mars spurred developers to begin thinking in terms of larger and higher quality images: super-sized digital pictures, or gigapixels, which are images composed of 1 billion or more pixels. Gigapixel images are more than 200 times the size captured by today s standard 4 megapixel digital camera. Although originally created for the Mars missions, the detail provided by these large photographs allows for many purposes, not all of which are limited to extraterrestrial photography.

  16. Clinical Photography for Periorbital and Facial Aesthetic Practice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact.

  17. Clinical Photography for Periorbital and Facial Aesthetic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact. PMID:27398013

  18. A survey of earth resources on Apollo 9 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1969-01-01

    The types of photography obtained on the Apollo 9 mission and on concurrent flights made by supporting aircraft are described. The need for earth resource surveys and the value of aircraft and spacecraft as the platforms from which to make such surveys are considered along with the rational for using multiband photography and the means by which such photography can be enhanced. Aerial and space photographs are presented and analyzed. The feasibility of conducting earth resource surveys by means of space photography is discussed and results are summarized.

  19. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin.

  20. Forum: Strobe Photography: A Brief History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1984-08-01

    The first known photograph taken by a flash of light from an electrical discharge (spark) was accomplished about 1850 by Henry Fox-Talbot in England shortly after he invented the negative-positive process that is used so widely today. However, electrically produced flashes did not become a commonly used method until quite recently. In this article I discuss some of the exciting developments of the recent past in strobe photography, and relate some of the history that brought about this remarkable revolution in the photographic world.

  1. TEAM Electron Microscope Animation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The TEAM Electron Microscope, a device that enables atomic-scale imaging in 3-D, has a rotating stage that can hold and position samples inside electron microscopes with unprecedented stability, position-control accuracy, and range of motion.The TEAM Stage makes one of the world's most powerful electron microscopes even better, and enables previously impossible experiments.

  2. Using Digital Photography to Supplement Learning of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norflus, Fran

    2012-01-01

    The author used digital photography to supplement learning of biotechnology by students with a variety of learning styles and educational backgrounds. Because one approach would not be sufficient to reach all the students, digital photography was used to explain the techniques and results to the class instead of having to teach each student…

  3. The Roles of Photography for Developing Literacy across the Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Marva; Lafferty, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers can capitalize on the overwhelmingly visual nature of contemporary society for learning and teaching through integrating photography in their classroom instruction. In offering an alternative pathway for acquiring and expressing knowledge, photography has the potential to strengthen instruction across disciplines by drawing on multiple…

  4. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography on killer (Orcinus orca) and...

  5. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  6. Digital dental photography. Part 10: printing, publishing and presentations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I

    2009-09-26

    The final part of this series on digital dental photography details how to use images to their maximum potential. The purpose and uses of dental photography have previously been covered in Part 2, and the ensuing discussion concentrates on the technical aspects of printing, publishing and audio-visual presentations.

  7. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method.

  8. Challenges and progress in digital photography standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    2003-12-01

    The ISO TC42/WG18-20-22-23 and ANSI/I3A IT10 Technical Committees have now been developing digital photography standards for over a decade. This work has led to the publication of standards on digital imaging terminology, digital camera ISO speed measurements, resolution measurements, OECF (linearity) measurements, image formats and metadata, and picture transfer protocol (PTP). More recently, standards on color encoding specifications and color architectures, a JPEG 2000 profile for digital cameras, camera noise and dynamic range measurements, digital camera specification reporting, and scanner resolution have been finalized. Work in progress includes image quality subjective testing methods, digital camera color characterization, and scanner dynamic range measurements. This paper will review past and current technical challenges, and the state of the solutions provided. In most cases, development includes a significant and innovative research component, which is discussed in relation to fundamental imaging issues. These standards are viewed from a broad digital photography perspective, and placed in context with other work in this area. In addition to providing a forum for the development of standards, technical committees are an important avenue for interaction between companies, user groups, and the government. Such avenues can have a great impact on emerging technologies.

  9. Early Astronomical Sequential Photography, 1873-1923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2011-11-01

    In 1873 Jules Janssen conceived the first automatic sequential photographic apparatus to observe the eagerly anticipated 1874 transit of Venus. This device, the 'photographic revolver', is commonly considered today as the earliest cinema precursor. In the following years, in order to study the variability or the motion of celestial objects, several instruments, either manually or automatically actuated, were devised to obtain as many photographs as possible of astronomical events in a short time interval. In this paper we strive to identify from the available documents the attempts made between 1873 and 1923, and discuss the motivations behind them and the results obtained. During the time period studied astronomical sequential photography was employed to determine the time of the instants of contact in transits and occultations, and to study total solar eclipses. The technique was seldom used but apparently the modern film camera invention played no role on this situation. Astronomical sequential photographs were obtained both before and after 1895. We conclude that the development of astronomical sequential photography was constrained by the reduced number of subjects to which the technique could be applied.

  10. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm(2) object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  11. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  12. Observations of the freeze/thaw performance of lithium fluoride by motion picture photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Perry, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    To gain direct observation of the molten salt phase change, a novel containerless technique was developed where the high surface tension of lithium fluoride was used to suspend a bead of the molten salt inside a specially designed wire cage. By varying the current passing through the wire, the cage also served as a variable heat source. In this way, the freeze/thaw performance of the lithium fluoride could be photographed by motion picture photography without the influence of container walls. The motion picture photography of the lithium fluoride sample revealed several zones during the phase change, a solid zone and a liquid zone, as expected, and a slush zone that was predicted by thermal analysis modeling.

  13. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    PubMed

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  14. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  15. Stratigraphy of snow profiles using near-infrared photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzl, M.; Schneebeli, M.

    2002-12-01

    The detailed representation of the layers in snow profiles is extremly time consuming. Translucent profiles are used to reveal layer boundaries, however no method is known to relate the transmitted light intensity to morphologic parameters. We use digital near-infrared photography (NIP), centered at a wavelength of 890 nm, to determine optical grainsize on snow profiles. The reflectivity was calibrated with snow samples of different grain size and shape. The digital image of a snow profile is optically and geometrically corrected and the intensities are then converted to optical grainsize. The measured snow profiles on different slopes are compared to planar sections and classical snow profiles. In several cases the NIP image revealed thin layers, layer transitions and disturbances which are also visible in the planar section, but were not recorded in the snow profile. NIP profiles could be as large as 1 m high and 3 m long at very high spatial resolution by assembling several images. NIP of snow profiles is well suited to document and analyse snow stratigraphy and to determine optical diameter .

  16. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  17. Photography and imagery: a clarification of terms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1963-01-01

    The increased use of pictorial displays of data in the fields of photogrammetry and photo interpretation has led to some confusion of terms, not so much b photogrammetrists as bu users and interpreters of pictorial data. The terms "remote sensing" and "remote sensing of environment" are being used as general terms to describe "the measurement of some property of an object without having the measuring device physically in contact with the object" (Parker, 1962).Measurements of size and shape by photogrammetric and optical means are common examples of remote sensing and therefore require no elaboration. Other techniques of remote sensing of electromagnetic radiation in and beyond the limits of the visible spectrum require some explanation and differentiation from the techniques used in the visible spectrum.The following definitions of "photography" and "imagery" are proposed to clarify these two terms in hope that this will lead to more precise understanding and explanation of the processes.

  18. Dimensional Review of Scales for Forensic Photography.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Massimiliano; Doiron, Theodore D; Thompson, Robert M; Jones, John P; Freeman, Adam J; Neiman, Janice A

    2016-03-01

    Scales for photography provide a geometrical reference in the photographic documentation of a crime scene, pattern, or item of evidence. The ABFO No. 2 Standard Reference Scale (1) is used by the forensic science community as an accurate reference scale. We investigated the overall accuracy of the major centimeter graduations, internal/external diameters of the circles, error in placement of the circle centers, and leg perpendicularity. Four vendors were selected for the scales, and the features were measured on a vision-based coordinate measurement system. The scales were well within the specified tolerance for the length graduations. After 4 years, the same scales were measured to determine what change could be measured. The scales demonstrated acceptable stability in the scale length and center-to-center measurements; however, the perpendicularity exhibited change. The study results indicate that scale quality checks using certified metal rulers are good practice.

  19. Digital Speckle X-Ray Flash Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, S. G.; Proud, W. G.

    2002-07-01

    The new technique of digital speckle X-ray flash photography (DSXFP), which has been successfully applied to polyester and cement specimens, is being further developed and used to study materials in ballistic situations in a way not previously possible. The technique involves seeding the specimen with a lead layer and then taking flash X-ray images before and during an impact event. Digital cross-correlation can then be used to make measurements of the internal displacements occurring throughout the specimen. Using a stereoscopic geometry the out of plane displacements can also be determined and a full 3-dimensional displacement map constructed. In this paper these two powerful and complementary techniques of flash X-rays and DSXFP are used to study the ballistic response of a borosilicate sample to produce information that other techniques are unable to provide.

  20. Lunar orbital photography of astronomical phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reports further progress on photography of faint astronomical and geophysical phenomena accomplished during the recent Apollo missions. Command module pilots have been able to photograph such astronomical objects as the solar corona, zodiacal light-corona transition region, lunar libration region, and portions of the Milky Way. The methods utilized for calibration of the film by adaptation of the High Altitude Observatory sensitometer are discussed. Kodak 2485 high-speed recording film was used in both 35-mm and 70-mm formats. The cameras used were Nikon f/1.2 55-mm focal length and Hasselblad f/2.8 80-mm focal length. Preflight and postflight calibration exposures were included on both the flight and control films, corresponding to luminances extending from the inner solar corona to as faint as 1/10 of the luminance of the light of the night sky. The photographs obtained from unique vantage points available during lunar orbit are discussed.

  1. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  2. The Biggest Microscopic Image Ever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a mosaic of four individual frames taken by the microscopic imager that have been very carefully stitched together to reveal the entire 5-centimeter-diameter (almost 2-inch) hole left on the rock dubbed 'Humphrey.' The holes were created by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic, created on March 7, 2004, is the first of its kind of an abraded surface on Mars, and gave scientists their first ever microscopic imager view of the entire drilled area. While it is easy for the panoramic camera and the navigation cameras to fit an area this size into their field of view, the microscopic imager can only capture a portion of the ground area with each image.

    Scientists are interested in many of the small features on 'Humphrey' uncovered by the rock abrasion tool and made visible by the microscopic imager. The sinuous veins within the rock could be evidence that water was trickling through the material while it was deep underground, whereas the dark 'age spots' in the center of the hole may be crystals of the mineral olivine.

  3. 50 CFR 27.71 - Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial filming and still photography... Disturbing Violations: Filming, Photography, and Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Commercial filming and still photography and audio recording. (a) We authorize commercial filming and still photography...

  4. Guidelines for standard photography in gross and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers are supposed to demonstrate the required information clearly. Thus, photographs should be taken with certain techniques in order to obtain high quality and standardization. Camera, lens, lighting, background, and certain photographic techniques are among the factors to achieve precise images. A set of suggested guidelines for accomplishing these standards are given for anatomists.

  5. Mailing microscope slides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  6. The Homemade Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Roger C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Directions for the building of a pocket microscope that will make visible the details of insect structure and living bacteria are described. Background information on the history of microscopes and lenses is provided. The procedures for producing various types of lenses are included. (KR)

  7. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography.

  8. [Investigation about particularity of dental clinical digital photography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng

    2012-04-01

    Dental photography is one of the special field in photography because of the particularity of the technology and approach. Lack of depth of field is one of the most possible problems for new learners. In dental photography, the control of depth of field depends on aperture only, deep depth of field can be achieved by decreasing the aperture. The parameters of exposure include aperture, shutter speed, flash intensity and ISO, which control the exposure together. The area of pictures is controlled by proportion, with manual exposure for getting right exposure. Manual focusing is suggested instead of auto focusing. The appropriate technology, method and right area are the most important factors for dental photography, and later treatment has to be avoided.

  9. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

  11. Images Stronger than Words: Teaching Black and White Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Ute

    2000-01-01

    Describes how black and white photography has been taught at the college level to explore social and cultural issues related to technology. Explains how the approach can be adapted for use at the high school level. (JOW)

  12. Principles of photography in rhinoplasty for the digital photographer.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Ravi S; Sykes, Jonathan M; Most, Sam P

    2010-04-01

    The art and technology of photography can be overwhelming to the facial plastic surgeon. Photographic documentation of patients undergoing rhinoplasty is essential for patient consultation, perioperative planning, and postsurgical evaluation. Possession of a basic understanding of photographic principles, technique, equipment, as well as consideration regarding consistency of patient positioning is essential for producing the best photographic results. This article reviews the basic principles of photography and discusses their application to facial plastic surgery practice, and rhinoplasty in particular.

  13. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    PubMed

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D; Switz, Neil A; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  14. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  15. Impact Damage Evaluation Method of Friction Disc Based on High-Speed Photography and Tooth-Root Stress Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Shao, Y. M.; Liu, J.; Zheng, H. L.

    2015-07-01

    The stability of friction disc could be seriously affected by the tooth surface damage due to poor working conditions of the wet multi-disc brake in heavy trucks. There are few current works focused on the damage of the friction disc caused by torsion-vibration impacts. Hence, it is necessary to investigate its damage mechanisms and evaluation methods. In this paper, a damage mechanism description and evaluation method of a friction disc based on the high-speed photography and tooth-root stress coupling is proposed. According to the HighSpeed Photography, the collision process between the friction disc and hub is recorded, which can be used to determine the contact position and deformation. Combined with the strain-stress data obtained by the strain gauge at the place of the tooth-root, the impact force and property are studied. In order to obtain the evaluation method, the damage surface morphology data of the friction disc extracted by 3D Super Depth Digital Microscope (VH-Z100R) is compared with the impact force and property. The quantitative relationships between the amount of deformation and collision number are obtained using a fitting analysis method. The experimental results show that the damage of the friction disc can be evaluated by the proposed impact damage evaluation method based on the high-speed photography and tooth-root stress coupling.

  16. Assessment of Petrological Microscopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Charter Innes

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a set of procedures designed to check the design, ergonomics, illumination, function, optics, accessory equipment, and image quality of a microscope being considered for purchase. Functions for use in a petrology or mineralogy laboratory are stressed. (CW)

  17. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  18. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  19. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; O’Donoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  20. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  1. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  2. Digital photography: a primer for pathologists.

    PubMed

    Riley, Roger S; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M; Massey, Davis; Slyter, Rodney L; Romagnoli, Gina

    2004-01-01

    The computer and the digital camera provide a unique means for improving hematology education, research, and patient service. High quality photographic images of gross specimens can be rapidly and conveniently acquired with a high-resolution digital camera, and specialized digital cameras have been developed for photomicroscopy. Digital cameras utilize charge-coupled devices (CCD) or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors to measure light energy and additional circuitry to convert the measured information into a digital signal. Since digital cameras do not utilize photographic film, images are immediately available for incorporation into web sites or digital publications, printing, transfer to other individuals by email, or other applications. Several excellent digital still cameras are now available for less than 2,500 dollars that capture high quality images comprised of more than 6 megapixels. These images are essentially indistinguishable from conventional film images when viewed on a quality color monitor or printed on a quality color or black and white printer at sizes up to 11x14 inches. Several recent dedicated digital photomicroscopy cameras provide an ultrahigh quality image output of more than 12 megapixels and have low noise circuit designs permitting the direct capture of darkfield and fluorescence images. There are many applications of digital images of pathologic specimens. Since pathology is a visual science, the inclusion of quality digital images into lectures, teaching handouts, and electronic documents is essential. A few institutions have gone beyond the basic application of digital images to developing large electronic hematology atlases, animated, audio-enhanced learning experiences, multidisciplinary Internet conferences, and other innovative applications. Digital images of single microscopic fields (single frame images) are the most widely utilized in hematology education at this time, but single images of many

  3. Changes in the west antarctic ice sheet since 1963 from declassified satellite photography

    PubMed

    Bindschadler; Vornberger

    1998-01-30

    Comparison of declassified satellite photography taken in 1963 with more recent satellite imagery reveals that large changes have occurred in the region where an active ice stream enters the Ross Ice Shelf. Ice stream B has widened by 4 kilometers, at a rate much faster than suggested by models, and has decreased in speed by 50 percent. The ice ridge between ice streams B and C has eroded 14 kilometers. These changes, along with changes in the crevassing around Crary Ice Rise, imply that this region's velocity field shifted during this century.

  4. Electronic photography at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    1994-01-01

    The field of photography began a metamorphosis several years ago which promises to fundamentally change how images are captured, transmitted, and output. At this time the metamorphosis is still in the early stages, but already new processes, hardware, and software are allowing many individuals and organizations to explore the entry of imaging into the information revolution. Exploration at this time is prerequisite to leading expertise in the future, and a number of branches at LaRC have ventured into electronic and digital imaging. Their progress until recently has been limited by two factors: the lack of an integrated approach and the lack of an electronic photographic capability. The purpose of the research conducted was to address these two items. In some respects, the lack of electronic photographs has prevented application of an integrated imaging approach. Since everything could not be electronic, the tendency was to work with hard copy. Over the summer, the Photographics Section has set up an Electronic Photography Laboratory. This laboratory now has the capability to scan film images, process the images, and output the images in a variety of forms. Future plans also include electronic capture capability. The current forms of image processing available include sharpening, noise reduction, dust removal, tone correction, color balancing, image editing, cropping, electronic separations, and halftoning. Output choices include customer specified electronic file formats which can be output on magnetic or optical disks or over the network, 4400 line photographic quality prints and transparencies to 8.5 by 11 inches, and 8000 line film negatives and transparencies to 4 by 5 inches. The problem of integrated imaging involves a number of branches at LaRC including Visual Imaging, Research Printing and Publishing, Data Visualization and Animation, Advanced Computing, and various research groups. These units must work together to develop common approaches to image

  5. Automatic Focus Adjustment of a Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFOCUS is a computer program for use in a control system that automatically adjusts the position of an instrument arm that carries a microscope equipped with an electronic camera. In the original intended application of AUTOFOCUS, the imaging microscope would be carried by an exploratory robotic vehicle on a remote planet, but AUTOFOCUS could also be adapted to similar applications on Earth. Initially control software other than AUTOFOCUS brings the microscope to a position above a target to be imaged. Then the instrument arm is moved to lower the microscope toward the target: nominally, the target is approached from a starting distance of 3 cm in 10 steps of 3 mm each. After each step, the image in the camera is subjected to a wavelet transform, which is used to evaluate the texture in the image at multiple scales to determine whether and by how much the microscope is approaching focus. A focus measure is derived from the transform and used to guide the arm to bring the microscope to the focal height. When the analysis reveals that the microscope is in focus, image data are recorded and transmitted.

  6. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  7. Nightscape Photography Reclaims the Natural Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak

    2015-08-01

    Nightscape photos and timelapse videos, where the Earth & sky are framed together with an astronomical purpose, support the dark skies activities by improving public awareness. TWAN or The World at Night program (www.twanight.org) presents the world's best collection of such landscape astrophotos and aims to introduce the night sky as a part of nature, an essential element of our living environment besides being the astronomers lab. The nightscape images also present views of our civilizations landmarks, both natural and historic sites, against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. In this context TWAN is a bridge between art, science and culture.TWAN images contribute to programs such as the Dark Sky Parks by the International Dark Sky Association or Starlight reserves by assisting local efforts in better illustrating their dark skies and by producing stunning images that not only educate the local people on their night sky heritage also communicate with the governments that are responsible to support the dark sky area.Since 2009 TWAN organizes the world's largest annual photo contest on nightscape imaging, in collaboration with the Dark Skies Awareness, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and Astronomers Without Borders. The International Earth & Sky Photo Contest promotes the photography that documents the beauty of natural skies against the problem of light pollution. In 2014 the entries received from about 50 countries and the contest result news was widely published in the most popular sources internationally.*Babak A. Tafreshi is a photographer and science communicator. He is the creator of The World At Night program, and a contributing photographer to the National Geographic, Sky&Telescope magazine, and the European Southern Observatory. http://twanight.org/tafreshi

  8. Image modulation in corona discharge photography.

    PubMed

    Pehek, J O; Kyler, H J; Faust, D L

    1976-10-15

    Photographic images obtained by the Kirlian technique are principally a record of corona activity during an exposure interval. Most of the variations in the images of the corona of a living subject who is in contact with the photographic film can be accounted for by the presence of moisture on or within the subject's surface. During exposure, moisture is transferred from the subject to the emulsion surface of the photographic film and causes an alteration of the electric charge pattern on the film, hence the electric field at the surface of the subject. As a result, large variations in the density of corona images, corona streamer trajectories, and image coloration can be brought about. The radial extent of corona images--that is, the range of corona streamers--is an inverse function of the resistance in the circuit formed by the high-voltage supply, the subject, and the film-electrode configuration. This is because the voltage at which corona is initiated is dependent on the rate of rise of the voltage impressed between the subject and the electrode, and the rate of rise is governed by the applied voltage waveform and the voltage drop across the resistance. The range of streamers is proportional to the corona onset voltage. However, we have not seen any influence of large changes in skin resistance on streamer range. Presumably, this is due to the shunting effect of skin capacitance. In general, the photographic response to moisture suggests that corona discharge photography may be useful in the detection and quantification of moisture in animate and inanimate specimens through the orderly modulation of the image due to various levels of moisture.

  9. The art and science of photography in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keming; Kowalski, Evan J; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-03-01

    High-quality medical photography plays an important role in teaching and demonstrating the functional capacity of the hands as well as in medicolegal documentation. Obtaining standardized, high-quality photographs is now an essential component of many surgery practices. The importance of standardized photography in facial and cosmetic surgery has been well documented in previous studies, but no studies have thoroughly addressed the details of photography for hand surgery. In this paper, we provide a set of guidelines and basic camera concepts for different scenarios to help hand surgeons obtain appropriate and informative high-quality photographs. A camera used for medical photography should come equipped with a large sensor size and an optical zoom lens with a focal length ranging anywhere from 14 to 75 mm. In a clinic or office setting, we recommend 6 standardized views of the hand and 4 views for the wrist; additional views should be taken for tendon ruptures, nerve injuries, or other deformities of the hand. For intraoperative pictures, the camera operator should understand the procedure and pertinent anatomy in order to properly obtain high-quality photographs. When digital radiographs are not available and radiographic film must be photographed, it is recommended to reduce the exposure and change the color mode to black and white to obtain the best possible pictures. The goal of medical photography is to present the subject in an accurate and precise fashion.

  10. Electron microscope studies

    SciTech Connect

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  11. Digital data from shuttle photography: The effects of platform variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce E.

    1987-01-01

    Two major criticisms of using Shuttle hand held photography as an Earth science sensor are that it is nondigital, nonquantitative and that it has inconsistent platform characteristics, e.g., variable look angles, especially as compared to remote sensing satellites such as LANDSAT and SPOT. However, these criticisms are assumptions and have not been systematically investigated. The spectral effects of off-nadir views of hand held photography from the Shuttle and their role in interpretation of lava flow morphology on the island of Hawaii are studied. Digitization of photography at JSC and use of LIPS image analysis software in obtaining data is discussed. Preliminary interpretative results of one flow are given. Most of the time was spent in developing procedures and overcoming equipment problems. Preliminary data are satisfactory for detailed analysis.

  12. Medical Photography: Documentation, Art, and the Expression of Human Emotions.

    PubMed

    Aberer, Elisabeth; Stieber, Werner; Homayoon, Donja; Fink-Puches, Regina; Lichen, Roland; Salmhofer, Wolfgang; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Medical photography is the state of the art for the documentation of dermatological disease. Experienced photographers take pictures of the most typical skin lesions in order to assist the clinician in assessing disease morphology and activity. In this study, we present 6 individuals with a variety of dermatoses and the expression of the patients' emotions. The patients were asked to show their diseased skin and to present typically involved areas in the respective disease. The feelings expressed by their body movements and positions are viewed and interpreted. The patients' history will be reported retrospectively. The aim of the report is to show that the art of medical photography does not only document skin lesions but also the disease burden and the associated impairment of quality of life. Moreover, dermatologic photography is a sensitive intervention for patients viewed in the light of teaching and patient care.

  13. The Role of Photography in the Study of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizcarra, N. B.; Wallace, A.

    2011-12-01

    Often a photograph of parts of the Earth--a landslide, an underwater reef, or the tongue of a glacier-is just what a scientist needs to strengthen a theory or to crush it. In today's digital world where more people are taking and publishing photographs, how are scientists using photography to understand how the Earth's climate is changing? This poster examines examples from the past, such as the National Snow and Ice Data Center's archive of old and recent glacier photographs. It also explores how scientists use photography now, through such sites as Flickr and Google Earth, and the photographic methods they use, such as 360-degree-panoramas and time-lapse photography.

  14. [The Indian in Brazilian photography: incursions into image and medium].

    PubMed

    Tacca, Fernando de

    2011-03-01

    The article explores contradictions and convergences between a medium (photography) and the image of the Brazilian Indian from the perspective of the history of Brazilian photography. During the first of three distinct moments, the image of the Indian was of someone exotic, in contradiction with the modern meaning of photography under the Second Empire. During the second moment, in the first fifty years of the twentieth century, the boundaries between ethnography and Brazil as a nation were blurred, as exemplified by the Rondon Commission/Indian Protection Bureau's Research Section (Serviço de Proteção ao Índio) and Brazil's modern photojournalism, as found in the magazine Cruzeiro. During the third moment, the expressions of an ethno-poetry present in the photographs of Cláudia Andujar can be seen to blend medium and image as an ethnographic space in contemporary art.

  15. Determining density of maize canopy. 1: Digitized photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Swain, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different densities of maize (Zea mays L.) canopies and the energy reflected by these canopies was studied. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of maize, on a dark soil and on a very light colored surface soil. Spectral and spatial data were obtained from color and color infrared photography taken from a vertical distance of 10 m above the maize canopies. Estimates of ground cover were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover was predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Color infrared photography proved helpful in determining the density of maize canopy on dark soils. Color photography was useful for determining canopy density on light colored soils. The near infrared dye layer is the most valuable in canopy density determinations.

  16. Medical Photography: Documentation, Art, and the Expression of Human Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Aberer, Elisabeth; Stieber, Werner; Homayoon, Donja; Fink-Puches, Regina; Lichen, Roland; Salmhofer, Wolfgang; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Medical photography is the state of the art for the documentation of dermatological disease. Experienced photographers take pictures of the most typical skin lesions in order to assist the clinician in assessing disease morphology and activity. In this study, we present 6 individuals with a variety of dermatoses and the expression of the patients’ emotions. The patients were asked to show their diseased skin and to present typically involved areas in the respective disease. The feelings expressed by their body movements and positions are viewed and interpreted. The patients’ history will be reported retrospectively. The aim of the report is to show that the art of medical photography does not only document skin lesions but also the disease burden and the associated impairment of quality of life. Moreover, dermatologic photography is a sensitive intervention for patients viewed in the light of teaching and patient care. PMID:27790112

  17. Facilitating the Development and Evaluation of a Citizen Science Web Site: A Case Study of Repeat Photography and Climate Change in Southwest Alaska's National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Karina C.; Newman, Gregory; Thompson, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews with national park visitors across the country revealed that climate change education through place-based, hands-on learning using repeat photographs and technology is appealing to park visitors. This manuscript provides a summary of the development of a repeat photography citizen science Web site for national parks in Southwest Alaska.…

  18. 77 FR 50542 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “New Photography 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``New Photography 2012: Michele Abeles... objects to be included in the exhibition ``New Photography 2012: Michele Abeles, Birdhead (Ji Weiyu...

  19. 76 FR 53993 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “New Photography 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``New Photography 2011: Zhang Dali... objects to be included in the exhibition ``New Photography 2011: Zhang Dali, Moyra Davey, George...

  20. 78 FR 40544 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “New Photography 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``New Photography 2013: Adam Broomberg..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``New Photography...

  1. Microscope on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  2. Making Art with Microscopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedis-Grab, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teaching is a great way to focus on overarching concepts and help students make connections across disciplines. Historically, art and science have been connected disciplines. The botanical prints of the 18th and 19th centuries and early work with microscopes are two examples of a need for strong artistic skills in the science…

  3. Monitoring of deltaic wetland processes with seasonal aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, A. R., Jr.; Snell, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A year-long study of four river deltas, using color infrared photography at three-month intervals, showed clearly the impact of damming the lower river or channelizing its outlet on the wetland environment. An important result of the season's photography was the dramatic appearance of the detrital material being flushed out of the deltaic wetlands by flood waters, and moved down into the lower estuaries for use by the marine organisms in the lower tropical levels. The species makeup and relative vigor of the deltaic plant communities were well recognizable on the imagery, as was the flushing mechanism in one still viable delta marsh.

  4. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  5. Inventory of native vegetation and related resources from space photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The application of space and high flight photography to vegetational resources in Arizona is discussed. Ecologically based vegetation-landform and land use maps are prepared. The use of material from the Apollo 9 flight and high flight aerial photography are discussed. Land uses that result in a conversion or strong modification of the natural vegetation are presented. The vegetation-landform units have an ecological basis and are meaningful from a land use point of view because they identify areas with unique potentials or limitations for use or development under various land uses. Examples of these relationships are given.

  6. Crop, soil, and geological mapping from digitized multispectral satellite photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Kristof, S. J.; Levandowski, D. W.; Phillips, T. L.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of digitized multispectral satellite photography to seek answers to the following two questions: what are the data handling problems and requirements of converting photographic density measurements to a usable digital form, and what surface features can be distinguished using multispectral data taken at satellite altitudes. Results include the digitization of three multiband black and white photographs and a color infrared photograph, the conversion of the results of digitization to a useful digital form, and several data analysis experiments. As a whole, they encourage the use of multiband photography as a multispectral data collection instrument.

  7. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. M. Forgan; Huecker, M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.; Briffa, A. K. R.; Chang, J.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S. D.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.; Hardy, W. N.; Christensen, N. B.; von Zimmermann, M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2015-12-09

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6.54 at its superconducting transition temperature ~60 K. We find that the CDWs in this material break the mirror symmetry of the CuO2 bilayers. The ionic displacements in the CDWs have two components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the CuO2 planes, and are out of phase with each other. The planar oxygen atoms have the largest displacements, perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. Our results allow many electronic properties of the underdoped cuprates to be understood. For example, the CDWs will lead to local variations in the electronic structure, giving an explicit explanation of density-wave states with broken symmetry observed in scanning tunnelling microscopy and soft X-ray measurements.

  8. Formative Assessment Probes: Representing Microscopic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. The author discusses the formative assessment probe "Pond Water," which reveals how elementary children will often apply what they know about animal structures to newly discovered microscopic organisms, connecting their knowledge of the familiar to the unfamiliar through…

  9. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  10. Moving toward Visual Literacy: Photography as a Language of Teacher Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Jane; Tegano, Deborah W.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents one portrayal of the role of photography as a language of teacher inquiry. To inform teachers' use of photography, the first part of the article presents a brief historical perspective of photography's role in the study of human behavior in the fields of visual anthropology, visual sociology, photojournalism, and media…

  11. 78 FR 58342 - Proposed Fee Schedule for Commercial Filming and Still Photography Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Forest Service Proposed Fee Schedule for Commercial Filming and Still Photography Permits AGENCY: Office... proposed fee schedule for commercial filming and still photography conducted on public lands under their... commercial filming and still photography that are consistent for the National Park Service, the U.S. Fish...

  12. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  13. 78 FR 52087 - Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 27 RIN 1024-AD30 Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography... similar projects and certain still photography activities. DATES: The rule is effective September 23, 2013... of equipment present, and other factors. Authorizes commercial filming and still photography...

  14. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  15. 78 FR 52209 - Proposed Fee Schedule for Commercial Filming and Still Photography Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Forest Service Proposed Fee Schedule for Commercial Filming and Still Photography Permits AGENCY: Office... commercial filming and still photography conducted on public lands under their jurisdiction. The proposed fee schedule would establish land-use fees for commercial filming and still photography that are consistent...

  16. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  17. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  18. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  19. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  20. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  1. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Photography for advertising or... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial purposes... approval. Photography for advertising and commercial purposes may be conducted only with the...

  2. 7 CFR 500.23 - Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... National Arboretum Facilities and Grounds § 500.23 Fees for commercial photography and cinematography on... photography or cinematography as specified in § 500.24. Facilities and grounds are available for use...

  3. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy

  4. Acoustic imaging microscope

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2006-10-17

    An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

  5. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  6. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  7. Color Laser Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  8. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  9. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-10-11

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as how the morphological features of the crystals dictates how the dissolution process proceeds, and how materials can be purified by re-crystallization techniques.

  10. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  11. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M.; Peterson, B.; Kesteron, J.

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  12. Thimble microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Rubinstein, Jaden; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Kong, Gary; Lee, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    Wearable computing devices, e.g. Google Glass, Smart watch, embodies the new human design frontier, where technology interfaces seamlessly with human gestures. During examination of any subject in the field (clinic, surgery, agriculture, field survey, water collection), our sensory peripherals (touch and vision) often go hand-in-hand. The sensitivity and maneuverability of the human fingers are guided with tight distribution of biological nerve cells, which perform fine motor manipulation over a range of complex surfaces that is often out of sight. Our sight (or naked vision), on the other hand, is generally restricted to line of sight that is ill-suited to view around corner. Hence, conventional imaging methods are often resort to complex light guide designs (periscope, endoscopes etc) to navigate over obstructed surfaces. Using modular design strategies, we constructed a prototype miniature microscope system that is incorporated onto a wearable fixture (thimble). This unique platform allows users to maneuver around a sample and take high resolution microscopic images. In this paper, we provide an exposition of methods to achieve a thimble microscopy; microscope lens fabrication, thimble design, integration of miniature camera and liquid crystal display.

  13. Conservation Photography as Environmental Education: Focus on the Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Bruce Evan

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the genre of conservation photography as a legitimate and highly relevant pedagogical enterprise well poised amid the proliferation of digital media and environmental crises. This small-scale qualitative study closely follows the work of four professional photojournalists. This research asserts that the professional…

  14. Metrics for Litho Photography, Offset Stripping, Offset Platemaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in litho photography, offset stripping, and offset platemaking, this instructional package is one of six for the communication media occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students…

  15. Re-Picturing Photography: A Language in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navab, Aphrodite Desiree

    2001-01-01

    For over one hundred and fifty years practitioners, critics, and historians have continuously challenged and added dimensions to the meaning and uses of photography. Yet there has been little challenge to its highly disturbing linguistic conventions. By uncritically accepting and using these conventions, those involved in the culture of…

  16. "Who Photographs Us?" The Workers' Photography Movement in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Karin B.; Hardt, Hanno

    In a discussion of the attempts of the organized workers' photography movement in Weimar Germany to redirect the use of photographs in everyday life, this paper analyzes photographs published in the "Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung," (AIZ) a large and successful picture magazine that emphasized a left-wing, humanitarian approach. The paper…

  17. The Ground They Walk on: Photography and Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelle, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the author explores a novel variation on an established social science research method, photo-elicitation. The author photographed eight school principals during a two-year period and asked the principals to respond to the photographs by writing narratives below each. The author uses photography, reflections, and her own memories…

  18. Photography of photograph (original print located at Engineering Management Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photography of photograph (original print located at Engineering Management Building, Naval Shipyard, Long Beach). U.S. Naval Air Station San Pedro Photograph, May 7, 1945, Photograph #9374. NET PIER, FACING NORTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Net Pier, Corner of Richardson Avenue & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state.

  20. A Spreadsheet-based GIS tool for planning aerial photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...

  1. Photography and Writing: Alternative Ways of Learning for ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Helen Lepp

    2012-01-01

    To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…

  2. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop.

  3. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  4. Participatory Photography: Can It Help Adult Learners Develop Agency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…

  5. Encouraging Creativity in Mathematics and Science through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Mika; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of a survey of the science and mathematics students at our university, we observed that students do not consider mathematics and science to be creative endeavors, though the traditional artistic disciplines rank high in this regard. To address this problem in perception, the authors used photography as a means to encourage…

  6. Picture Science: Using Digital Photography to Teach Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann-Hinds, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Young children love to investigate the natural world, and they love to take photographs. "Picture Science" goes beyond just documenting class projects. The book shows how to use digital photography to make each step in the scientific process--from posing a question, to gathering data, to showing findings--concrete and fun for children. Keyed…

  7. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  8. Pupil Mortification: Digital Photography and Identity Construction in Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Cultural theorists have illuminated how photographic images contribute to autobiographical remembering and identity formation. This has new significance given that digital photography now allows personal images to circulate rapidly amongst peer groups. Taking these insights into classroom contexts, this paper draws on recent case-study data to…

  9. Open Courses, Informal, Social Learning and Mobile Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and contextualizes them within the broader trends of open, informal and mobile learning. It then discuss Phonar Nation, a free, open, non-credit five-week photography course that was offered twice in 2014 using mobile media to reach youth from 12-18 years of age. The author…

  10. Drawing on Dynamic Local Knowledge through Student-Generated Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Monson, Bayley; Moses, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors explored how teachers using student-generated photography draw on local knowledge. The study draws on the framework of funds of knowledge to highlight the assets marginalized students bring to the classroom and the need for culturally relevant pedagogy to address the needs of a diverse public school population. The…

  11. Digital Photography as a Tool to Measure School Cafeteria Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background: Assessing actual consumption of school cafeteria meals presents challenges, given recall problems of children, the cost of direct observation, and the time constraints in the school cafeteria setting. This study assesses the use of digital photography as a technique to measure what elementary-aged students select and actually consume…

  12. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  13. Estimation of Laminar Burning Velocities by Direct Digital Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uske, J.; Barat, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Bunsen burner flame, which is the most common flame in the laboratory, can be easily studied for its dynamics because of modern, economical digital technology available to student laboratories. Direct digital photography of Bunsen flames is used to obtain laminar burning velocities of selected gaseous hydrocarbon/air flames.

  14. Cross Cultural Images: The ETSU/NAU Special Photography Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Donna; Sluss, Dorothy; Lewis, Jamie; Vervelde, Peggy; Prater, Greg; Minner, Sam

    Recreation is a significant part of a full and rich life but is frequently overlooked in relation to handicapped children. A project called Cross-Cultural Images aimed to improve the quality of life for handicapped children by teaching them avocational photography skills. The project involved mildly handicapped children aged 7-11 in Appalachia, on…

  15. Photography and the Curriculum...More Focus on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Barbara K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a variety of innovative, inexpensive, and effective uses for photography that have been seen in elementary and secondary school classrooms. Activities in four areas are included: curriculum enhancement in literature, writing, science, social studies, and art; problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity; school public relations; and…

  16. Photography Education in a Web 2.0 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Erik

    2009-01-01

    As a novice teacher, the author was confident in his ability to teach digital photography but didn't initially realize the extent to which blogs, wikis, and social networks could reshape and enhance how students learn, and how, by incorporating these tools into his curriculum, he would ultimately find ways to use Web 2.0 tools to truly engage and…

  17. 41. PHOTOGRAPHY OF BLUE PRINT (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) END AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PHOTOGRAPHY OF BLUE PRINT (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) END AND CENTRE CASTING OF CAST STEEL, MASONRY CASTING OF CAST IRON CASTING, FOR MINNEAPOLIS STEEL ARCH (4 x 5 negative) - Steel Arch Bridge, Hennepin Avenue spanning west channel of Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. User services available from USDA'S aerial photography field office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    APFO furnishes LANDSAT imagery and supporting NASA aircraft imagery to NASA-funded principal investigators who are working within the agriculture discipline. The office holds and reproduces Skylab imagery and a variety of aircraft photography (including infrared) from various government agencies. Available products are listed. Other topics discussed include quality control of photographic materials, analytical aerotriangulation, and photographic processes.

  19. An optical system for monochromatic photography of the electron corona.

    PubMed

    Kissell, K E; Morais, C; Righini, A; Righini, G

    1970-12-01

    Description and the performance are given of a reflecting telescope and accessory optics used to feed a Lyot Halpha tunable filter, and then to obtain monochromatic images near the Halpha wavelength. The instrumentation has been designed for coronal photography to be taken inside and outside the line during a total eclipse.

  20. The brothers Lumière. Pioneers in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Aterman, K; Grimaud, J A

    1983-10-01

    A brief historical sketch of the brothers Lumière, the inventors of the cinématographe, is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on their perfection of "Autochromes," photographic plates suitable for color photography, and on their foresight in putting these advances to use in medical illustrations.

  1. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  2. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  3. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  4. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  5. Planetary Research Center. [astronomical photography of planetary surfaces and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, W. A.; Millis, R. L.; Bowell, E. L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Extensive Earth-based photography of Mars, Jupiter, and Venus is presented which monitors the atmospheric and/or surface changes that take place day to day. Color pictures are included of the 1973 dust storm on Mars, showing the daily cycle of the storm's regeneration. Martian topography, and the progress of the storm is examined. Areas most affected by the storm are summarized.

  6. SMILE: Using Photography To Enhance Reading/Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Beverly D.; Grindler, Martha C.

    The Apple/Polaroid Language Experience Approach is an extension of the language experience approach which combines photography (a form of communication) and word processing skills. It is considered a holistic approach because it is based on the whole language model of teaching literacy which develops reading skills naturally through the…

  7. Basic Photography; A Primer for Professionals. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Michael J.

    In this textbook, which was written for the professional photography student, both photographic theory and practice are thoroughly explained. The author examines the principles of light and the properties of lenses and gives a detailed evaluation of camera movement, camera shutters, and the camera as a whole. He outlines the manufacture and…

  8. Graphic Communications--Commercial Photography. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--commercial photography. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the…

  9. 75 FR 3862 - Photography in Public Exhibit Space

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1280 RIN 3095-AB60 Photography in Public Exhibit Space AGENCY: National... 2003, NARA completed a two year renovation of the Rotunda and constructed additional exhibit space...

  10. Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from ISS - Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Slack, Kelley; Olson, V.; Trenchard, M.; Willis, K.; Baskin, P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation asks the question "Is the observation of earth from the ISS a positive (salutogenic) experience for crew members?"All images are distributed to the public via the "Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov. The objectives of the study are (1) Mine the dataset of Earth Observation photography--What can it tell us about the importance of viewing the Earth as a positive experience for the crewmembers? (2) Quantify extent to which photography was self-initiated (not requested by scientists) (3) Identify patterns photography activities versus scientific requested photography.

  11. The use of near-infrared photography for biodegradable pollution monitoring of tidal rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.; Lear, D. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    On October 2, 1972, a pattern of chlorophyll a containing phytoplankton (algae) was detected from 3-km altitude in a series of near-infrared photographs of the Potomac River 'Salt Wedge Area.' Densitometer traces over the film images, related to in situ measurements of chlorophyll a concentrations that varied from 4 to more than 3000 micrograms/liter, revealed a phytoplankton 'bloom' threshold in the near infrared between the concentration of 34 and 51 micrograms/liter. The photography also revealed bottom features through two meters of water and made it possible to integrate chlorophyll a concentrations over a 16 sq km area to demonstrate this remote sensing technique for biodegradable pollution monitoring.

  12. Ultrawide-field fundus photography of the first reported case of gyrate atrophy from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Thomas P; O’Hagan, Stephen; Lee, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare chorioretinal dystrophy inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We describe the first documented case of gyrate atrophy from Australia in a 56-year-old woman with a history of previous diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and worsening night vision in her right eye over several years. She was myopic and bilaterally pseudophakic, and fundus examination revealed pale optic discs and extensive peripheral chorioretinal atrophy exposing bare sclera bilaterally with only small islands of normal-appearing retina at each posterior pole. Visual field testing showed grossly constricted fields, blood testing showed hyperornithinemia, and further questioning revealed consanguinity between the patient’s parents. We then used the patient’s typical retinal findings of gyrate atrophy to demonstrate the potential use of ultrawide-field fundus photography and angiography in diagnosis and monitoring response in future treatment. PMID:25187693

  13. Ultrawide-field fundus photography of the first reported case of gyrate atrophy from Australia.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Thomas P; O'Hagan, Stephen; Lee, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare chorioretinal dystrophy inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We describe the first documented case of gyrate atrophy from Australia in a 56-year-old woman with a history of previous diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and worsening night vision in her right eye over several years. She was myopic and bilaterally pseudophakic, and fundus examination revealed pale optic discs and extensive peripheral chorioretinal atrophy exposing bare sclera bilaterally with only small islands of normal-appearing retina at each posterior pole. Visual field testing showed grossly constricted fields, blood testing showed hyperornithinemia, and further questioning revealed consanguinity between the patient's parents. We then used the patient's typical retinal findings of gyrate atrophy to demonstrate the potential use of ultrawide-field fundus photography and angiography in diagnosis and monitoring response in future treatment.

  14. Q: How do Microscopes Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimov, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Microscopes allow scientists to examine everyday objects in extraordinary ways. They provide high-resolution images that show objects in fine detail. This brief article describes the many types of microscopes and how they are used in different scientific venues.

  15. 43 CFR 5.5 - When will an agency deny a permit for commercial filming or still photography?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... commercial filming or still photography? 5.5 Section 5.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER... still photography? We will deny a permit authorizing commercial filming or still photography if...

  16. 43 CFR 5.5 - When will an agency deny a permit for commercial filming or still photography?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... commercial filming or still photography? 5.5 Section 5.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER... still photography? We will deny a permit authorizing commercial filming or still photography if...

  17. Shooting disabled soldiers: medicine and photography in World War I America.

    PubMed

    Linker, Beth

    2011-07-01

    This article challenges conventional theories about the role of medical photography in the early twentieth century. Some scholars argue that the camera intensified the Foucauldian medical gaze, reducing patients to mere pathologies. Others maintain that with the rise of the new modern hospital and its state-of-the-art technologies, the patient fell from view entirely, with apertures pointing toward streamlined operating rooms rather than the human subjects who would go under the knife. The Army Surgeon General's World War I rehabilitation journal, Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, problematizes these assumptions. Hoping to persuade a skeptical public that the Army's new programs in medical rehabilitation for disabled soldiers provided the best means of veteran welfare, the editorial officials at Carry On photographed patients fully clothed, wounds hidden, engaged in everyday activities in order to give the impression that the medical sciences of the day could cure permanent disabilities. In the end, Carry On shows us that medical doctors could, and did, use photography to conceal as well as reveal the reality faced by injured soldiers. In doing so, they (like other Progressive reformers at the time) hoped to persuade the public that rehabilitation had the power to make the wounds of war disappear.

  18. Adirondack Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday, Jan. 15, 2004. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists have begun using the microscopic imager instrument at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

  19. Solid state optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  20. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  1. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  2. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  3. Microscopic Rayleigh Droplet Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    A periodically triggered Rayleigh Droplet Beam (RDB) delivers a perfectly linear and periodic stream of identical, monoenergetic droplets that are phase-locked to the trigger signal. The droplet diameter and spacing are easily adjusted of choice of nozzle diameter and trigger frequency. Any liquid of low viscosity may be emloyed as the beam fluid. Although the field of nanofluidics is expanding rapidly, little effort has yet been devoted to ``external flows'' such as RDB's. At ASU we have generated RDB's of water and methanol down to 2 microns in droplet diameter. Nozzle clogging is the sole impediment to smaller droplets. Microscopic Rayleigh droplet beams offer tremendous potential for fundamental physical measurements, fluid dynamics research, and nanofabrication. This talk will describe the apparatus and techniques used at ASU to generate RDB's (surprisingly simple and inexpensive), discuss the triboelectric phenomena that play a role (surprisingly significant), present some initial experimental fluid dynamics measurements, and briefly survey RDB applications. Our particular interest in RDB's is as microscopic transport systems to deliver hydrated, undenatured proteins into vacuum for structure determination via serial diffraction of x-rays or electrons. This may offer the first general method for structure determination of non-crystallizable proteins.

  4. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  5. Microscopic Tribotactic Walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    The translational motion of a rotating object near a surface is strongly dependent on the friction between the object and the surface. The process of friction is inherently directional and the friction coefficient can be anisotropic even in the absence of a net friction coefficient gradient. This is macroscopically observed in the ordering motif of some animal hair or scales and a microscopic analog can be imagined where the friction coefficient is determined by the strength and density of reversible bonds between a rotating object and the substrate. For high friction coefficients most of the rotational motion is converted into translational motion; conversely for low friction coefficients the object primarily rotates in place. We exploited this property to design and test a new class of motile system that displays tribotaxis, which is the process by which an object detects differences in the local friction coefficient and moves accordingly either to regions of higher or lower friction. These synthetic tribotactic microscopic walkers, composed of a pair of functionalized superparamagnetic beads, detect gradients in the spatial friction coefficient and migrate towards high friction areas when actuated in a random fashion. The effective friction between the walkers and the substrate is controlled by the local density of active receptors in the substrate. The tribotactic walkers also displayed trapping in high friction areas where the density of free receptors is higher.

  6. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  7. The ethics of clinical photography and social media.

    PubMed

    Palacios-González, César

    2015-02-01

    Clinical photography is an important tool for medical practice, training and research. While in the past clinical pictures were confined to the stringent controls of surgeries and hospitals technological advances have made possible to take pictures and share them through the internet with only a few clicks. Confronted with this possibility I explore if a case could be made for using clinical photography in tandem with social media. In order to do this I explore: (1) if patient's informed consent is required for the publication of any clinical images that depicts her, irrespective of whether the patient can be identified from the image or not, (2) if social media is an adequate place for clinical images to be displayed, and finally (3) if there are special considerations that should be taken into account when publishing clinical images on social media.

  8. Clinical photography and patient rights: the need for orthopraxy.

    PubMed

    Berle, I

    2008-02-01

    The increasing use of digital image recording devices, whether they are digital cameras or mobile phone cameras, has democratised clinical photography in the UK. However, when non-professional clinical photographers take photographs of patients the issues of consent and confidentiality are either ignored or given scant attention. Whatever the status of the clinician, the taking of clinical photographs must be practised within the context of a professional etiquette. Best practice recognises the need for informed consent and the constraints associated with confidentiality. Against the background of the poverty of the current discourse of these issues, as presented during the Valentine GMC Fitness to Practice hearing, the paper considers the need for orthopraxy in the use of clinical photography.

  9. High Speed Photography What Role Does It Play In Mining?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, William A.

    1987-09-01

    High speed photography is being employed to help improve the efficiency of a number of different mining activities. Its principal use, however, is as an aid in the optimization of blasting operations. Blasts are commonly of very short duration and great benefit can thus be gained by being able to observe the events at a suitably selected slow motion over an extended period of time. This paper presents an overview of some of the high speed photographic applications in both surface and underground operations using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The primary use is the direct photography of the blast, the analysis of the resulting films representing the bulk of the optimization work. Other applications are designed to check out individual blast components, particularly evaluating blast tamping, and actual delay element times for such accessories as detonating relays, down-the-hole delays and other delaying and initiating systems.

  10. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence.

  11. Mars Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This magnified look at the martian soil near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, shows coarse grains sprinkled over a fine layer of sand. The image was captured by the rover's microscopic imager on the 10th day, or sol, of its mission. Scientists are intrigued by the spherical rocks, which can be formed by a variety of geologic processes, including cooling of molten lava droplets and accretion of concentric layers of material around a particle or 'seed.'

    The examined patch of soil is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. The circular grain in the lower left corner is approximately 3 millimeters (.12 inches) across, or about the size of a sunflower seed.

  12. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  13. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

    This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

    The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

    The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

    At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. 5. Photographic copy of historic photography. Original snapshot print is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of historic photography. Original snapshot print is in narrative reports of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for the 1930s, on file at the headquarters of the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Upham, North Dakota. DREDGING CHANNEL FOR THE SOURIS RIVER FOR DRAINAGE PURPOSES IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  15. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  16. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  17. Colposcopic photography of genital injury following sexual intercourse in adults.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate interpretations and the reproducibility of interpretations when looking at colposcopic photographs in a forensic setting, as well as discussing some of the dilemmas and pitfalls of forensic colposcopic photography. A total of 316 colposcopic photographs from 51 women taken on three occasions following consensual sexual intercourse, and 78 colposcopic photographs from 39 rape victims, were evaluated by four different observers. Photographs were taken in the same setting, by the same group of investigators, before and after application of toluidine blue dye. The overall Kappa-value for the four observers' judgment of lesion vs. no lesion was 0.41 which can be interpreted as moderate agreement. Intra-observer agreement was calculated for two of the observers looking at photographs with a 10 months' time-gap, and the Kappa-values were 0.41 and 0.52. Positive and negative predictive values of the photographs were 82 and 81 % respectively. This study demonstrates relatively poor reliability of colposcopic photography. Some would argue that this makes colposcopic photography a low-quality method of evaluation and that forensic science should aim for higher standards because of its use in court. Others would argue that as long as the limitations of a scientific method are acknowledged then it is still eligible for use. The moderate agreement and accuracy stresses the need for quality control in the gynecological part of a rape examination. Colposcopic photography also provides a good option for supervision and teaching in an ethically difficult setting. It strengthens the legal rights for both victim and perpetrator.

  18. Acceptance and perception of Nigerian patients to medical photography.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, W L; Mofikoya, B O; Akadiri, O A; James, O; Fashina, A A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the acceptance and perception of Nigerian patients to medical photography. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among Nigerian patients attending oral and maxillofacial surgery and plastic surgery clinics of 3 tertiary health institutions. Information requested included patients' opinion about consent process, capturing equipment, distribution and accessibility of medical photographs. The use of non-identifiable medical photographs was more acceptable than identifiable to respondents for all purposes (P = 0.003). Most respondents were favourably disposed to photographs being taken for inclusion in the case note, but opposed to identifiable photographs being used for other purposes most especially in medical websites and medical journals. Female respondents preferred non-identifiable medical photographs to identifiable ones (P = 0.001). Most respondents (78%) indicated that their consent be sought for each of the outline needs for medical photography. Half of the respondents indicated that identifiable photographs may have a negative effect on their persons; and the most commonly mentioned effects were social stigmatization, bad publicity and emotional/psychological effects. Most of the respondents preferred the use of hospital-owned camera to personal camera/personal camera-phone for their medical photographs. Most respondents (67.8%) indicated that they would like to be informed about the use of their photographs on every occasion, and 74% indicated that they would like to be informed of the specific journal in which their medical photographs are to be published. In conclusion, non-identifiable rather than identifiable medical photography is acceptable to most patients in the studied Nigerian environment. The use of personal camera/personal camera-phone should be discouraged as its acceptance by respondents is very low. Judicious use of medical photography is therefore advocated to avoid breach of principle of

  19. Digital dental photography. Part 2: Purposes and uses.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I

    2009-05-09

    Although the primary purpose of using digital photography in dentistry is for recording various aspects of clinical information in the oral cavity, other benefits also accrue. Detailed here are the uses of digital images for dento-legal documentation, education, communication with patients, dental team members and colleagues and for portfolios, and marketing. These uses enhance the status of a dental practice and improve delivery of care to patients.

  20. A Review Of Oculoplastic Photography: A Guide For Clinician Photographers

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Jun Fai; Wai, Yong Zheng; Ng, Qi Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Clinical photography in the field of oculoplastic surgery has many applications. It is possible for clinicians to obtain standardized clinical photographs without a studio. A clinician photographer has the advantage of knowing exactly what to photograph as well as having immediate access to the images. In order to maintain standardization in the photographs, the photographic settings should remain constant. This article covers essential photographic equipment, camera settings, patient pose, and digital asset management. PMID:27630805

  1. The Photoshop Smile Design technique (part 1): digital dental photography.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Garber, David A; Figueira, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of digital photography and imaging devices is enhancing clinicians' ability to visually document patients' intraoral conditions. By understanding the elements of esthetics and learning how to incorporate technology applications into clinical dentistry, clinicians can predictably plan smile design and communicate anticipated results to patients and ceramists alike. This article discusses camera, lens, and flash selection and setup, and how to execute specific types of images using the Adobe Photoshop Smile Design (PSD) technique.

  2. National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

  3. Kirlian Photography as a Teaching Tool of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrel, Andy; Thacker, Beth Ann, , Dr.

    2002-10-01

    There are a number of groups across the country working on redesigning introductory physics courses by incorporating physics education research, modeling, and making the courses appeal to students in broader fields. We spent the summer exploring Kirlian photography, a subject that can be understood by students with a basic comprehension of electrostatics but is still questioned by many people in other fields. Kirlian photography's applications have captivated alternative medicine but still requires research from both physics and biology to understand if it has potential as medical tool. We used a simple setup to reproduce the physics that has been done to see if it could be used in an educational setting. I will demonstrate how Kirlian photography can be explained by physics but also how the topic still needs research to completely understand its possible biological applications. By incorporating such a topic into a curriculum, one is able to teach students to explore supposed supernatural phenomena scientifically and to promote research among undergraduate students.

  4. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  5. Analysis of seasonal characteristics of Sambhar Salt Lake, India, from digitized Space Shuttle photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Sambhar Salt Lake is the largest salt lake (230 sq km) in India, situated in the northwest near Jaipur. Analysis of Space Shuttle photographs of this ephemeral lake reveals that water levels and lake basin land-use information can be extracted by both the digital and manual analysis techniques. Seasonal characteristics captured by the two Shuttle photos used in this study show that additional land use/cover categories can be mapped from the dry season photos. This additional information is essential for precise cartographic updates, and provides seasonal hydrologic profiles and inputs for potential mesoscale climate modeling. This paper extends the digitization and mensuration techniques originally developed for space photography and applied to other regions (e.g., Lake Chad, Africa, and Great Salt Lake, USA).

  6. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey.

    PubMed

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-02-11

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum.

  7. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey

    PubMed Central

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum. PMID:26864429

  8. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum.

  9. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-10-15

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

  10. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    PubMed

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3.

  11. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOEpatents

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  12. Ethical considerations of clinical photography in an area of emerging technology and smartphones.

    PubMed

    Van der Rijt, Rhys; Hoffman, Stuart

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in digital technology including internet, email and smartphones has revolutionised clinical photography and medical record data storage. The use of smartphones is becoming ubiquitous among medical professionals and the use of clinical photography has become an integral component of the management of patients in a variety of visually orientated specialties. Although clinical photography has its benefits, with this evolving technology also emerge new ethical, legal and social issues, which clinicians must be aware of.

  13. Athena microscopic Imager investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F.; Maki, J.N.; Arneson, H.M.; Bertelsen, P.; Brown, D.I.; Collins, S.A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliott, S.T.; Goetz, W.; Hagerott, E.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, M.J.; Kirk, R.L.; McLennan, S.; Morris, R.V.; Scherr, L.M.; Schwochert, M.A.; Shiraishi, L.R.; Smith, G.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Wadsworth, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI). The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400-700 nm). The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 ?? 31 mm across a 1024 ?? 1024 pixel CCD image. The MI acquires images using only solar or skylight illumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Coarse focusing (???2 mm precision) is achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor has been activated. The MI optics are protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm, allowing color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. MI data will be used to place other MER instrument data in context and to aid in petrologic and geologic interpretations of rocks and soils on Mars. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Light tries the expert eye: the introduction of photography in nineteenth-century macroscopic neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    de Rijcke, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that photography's scientific inauguration meaningfully coincided with a shift towards the ideal of mechanical objectivity. Values of disinterestedness and precision were readily attributed to photography and were cherished by the emerging field of neurology as well. However, after the publication of the first neuroanatomical atlas to contain photographs, Jules Bernard Luys' Iconographie Photographique des Centres Nerveux (1873), the use of photography in macroscopic neuroanatomy remained rare. The present article sketches this largely overlooked terrain of investigation and will expand on why in macroscopical neuroanatomy photography failed to offer a satisfactory alternative to drawing or engraving.

  15. The Latest in Handheld Microscopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2004-01-01

    Around 1590, Zacharias Jansenn of Holland invented the microscope. Jansenn, an eyeglass maker by trade, experimented with lenses and discovered that things appeared closer with combinations of lenses. Over the past 400 years, several refinements to microscopes have occurred, making it possible to magnify objects between 200 and 1,500 times their…

  16. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  17. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  18. Comparison of 10 digital SLR cameras for orthodontic photography.

    PubMed

    Bister, D; Mordarai, F; Aveling, R M

    2006-09-01

    Digital photography is now widely used to document orthodontic patients. High quality intra-oral photography depends on a satisfactory 'depth of field' focus and good illumination. Automatic 'through the lens' (TTL) metering is ideal to achieve both the above aims. Ten current digital single lens reflex (SLR) cameras were tested for use in intra- and extra-oral photography as used in orthodontics. The manufacturers' recommended macro-lens and macro-flash were used with each camera. Handling characteristics, colour-reproducibility, quality of the viewfinder and flash recharge time were investigated. No camera took acceptable images in factory default setting or 'automatic' mode: this mode was not present for some cameras (Nikon, Fujifilm); led to overexposure (Olympus) or poor depth of field (Canon, Konica-Minolta, Pentax), particularly for intra-oral views. Once adjusted, only Olympus cameras were able to take intra- and extra-oral photographs without the need to change settings, and were therefore the easiest to use. All other cameras needed adjustments of aperture (Canon, Konica-Minolta, Pentax), or aperture and flash (Fujifilm, Nikon), making the latter the most complex to use. However, all cameras produced high quality intra- and extra-oral images, once appropriately adjusted. The resolution of the images is more than satisfactory for all cameras. There were significant differences relating to the quality of colour reproduction, size and brightness of the viewfinders. The Nikon D100 and Fujifilm S 3 Pro consistently scored best for colour fidelity. Pentax and Konica-Minolta had the largest and brightest viewfinders.

  19. Mapping Chinese tallow with color-infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.; Seeger, E.B.; Martella, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne color-infrared photography (CIR) (1:12,000 scale) was used to map localized occurrences of the widespread and aggressive Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum), an invasive species. Photography was collected during senescence when Chinese tallow's bright red leaves presented a high spectral contrast within the native bottomland hardwood and upland forests and marsh land-cover types. Mapped occurrences were conservative because not all senescing tallow leaves are bright red simultaneously. To simulate low spectral but high spatial resolution satellite/airborne image and digital video data, the CIR photography was transformed into raster images at spatial resolutions approximating 0.5 in and 1.0 m. The image data were then spectrally classified for the occurrence of bright red leaves associated with senescing Chinese tallow. Classification accuracies were greater than 95 percent at both spatial resolutions. There was no significant difference in either forest in the detection of tallow or inclusion of non-tallow trees associated with the two spatial resolutions. In marshes, slightly more tallow occurrences were mapped with the lower spatial resolution, but there were also more misclassifications of native land covers as tallow. Combining all land covers, there was no difference at detecting tallow occurrences (equal omission errors) between the two resolutions, but the higher spatial resolution was associated with less inclusion of non-tallow land covers as tallow (lower commission error). Overall, these results confirm that high spatial (???1 m) but low spectral resolution remote sensing data can be used for mapping Chinese tallow trees in dominant environments found in coastal and adjacent upland landscapes.

  20. Application Of High Speed Photography In Science And Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu Ji-Zong, Wu; Yu-Ju, Lin

    1983-03-01

    The service works in high-speed photography carried out by the Department of Precision Instruments, Tianjin University are described in this paper. A compensation type high-speed camera was used in these works. The photographic methods adopted and better results achieved in the studies of several technical fields, such as velocity field of flow of overflow surface of high dam, combustion process of internal combustion engine, metal cutting, electrical are welding, experiment of piling of steel tube piles for supporting the marine platforms and characteristics of motion of wrist watch escape mechanism and so on are illustrated in more detail. As the extension of human visual organs and for increasing the abi-lities of observing and studying the high-speed processes, high-speed photography plays a very important role. In order to promote the application and development on high-speed photography, we have carried out the consultative and service works inside and outside Tianjin Uni-versity. The Pentazet 35 compensation type high-speed camera, made in East Germany, was used to record the high-speed events in various kinds of technical investigations and necessary results have been ob-tained. 1. Measurement of flow velocity on the overflow surface of high dam. In the design of a key water control project with high head, it is extremely necessary to determinate various characteristics of flow velocity field on the overflow surface of high dam. Since the water flow on the surface of high overflow dam possesses the features of large flow velocity and shallow water depth, therefore it is difficult to use the conventional current meters such as pilot tube, miniature cur-rent meter or electrical measuring methods of non-electrical quantities for studying this problem. Adopting the high-speed photographic method to study analogously the characteristics of flow velocity field on the overflow surface of high dam is a kind of new measuring method. People

  1. New horizons for the national high-altitude photography program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermel, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    The National High-Altitude Photography Program (NHAP) is a multi-Federal agency activity to acquire uniform imagery for the establishment of a national high-altitude photographic data base. Federal agencies participating in NHAP have pooled their resources and consolidated photographic requirements in a systematic 6-year effort that will minimize duplication of photographic programs, reduce overall Federal expenditures for aerial photography, and provide imagery for a wide range of public and private users, The U.S. Geological Survey has the lead coordination role and shares, with the other participating agencies, the responsibility for funding the acquisition of photography. Since the inception of NHAP in 1980, black-and-white and color infrared stereoscopic imagery has been acquired for about 50% of the 3,000,000 square miles in the conterminous United States. An additional 40% of the 48-State area is under contract to provide aerial survey firms, and the sixth and final contract to achieve complete once-over coverage will be awarded early in 1985. Extensive use has been made of the newly established data base for mapping, landform studies, land use planning, natural resource inventory, evaluation and management, engineering, and education. In anticipation of the completion of once-over coverage, the participating agencies have begun studies to define the requirements for a maintenance program which would provide cyclic coverage of the conterminous United States and imagery for specific agency needs. Although continued funding at the same level is not assured, under consideration are requirements for new cameras, films, and other remote sensors, photographic parameters, and extension of program coverage to Alaska, Hawaii, and outlying areas. In addition, new applications of the data base to prepare cartographic map and data products are being investigated. It is becoming increasingly clear that some major decision needs to be made soon if a NHAP II is to begin in

  2. Astronomy education through hands-on photography workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I.; Connors, M. G.; Holmberg, R.

    2013-12-01

    Athabasca University (AU), Athabasca University Geophysical and Geo-Space Observatories (AUGO / AUGSO), the Rotary Club of Athabasca and Science Outreach Athabasca has designed a three day science workshop entitled Photography and the Night Sky. This pilot workshop, aimed primarily at high-school aged students, serves as an introduction to observational astronomy as seen in the western Canadian night sky using digital astrophotography without the use of a telescope or tracking mount. Participants learn the layout of the night sky by proficiently photographing it using digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) kits including telephoto and wide-angle lenses, tripod and cable release. The kits are assembled with entry-level consumer-grade camera gear as to be affordable by the participants, if they so desire to purchase their own equipment after the workshop. Basic digital photo editing is covered using free photo editing software (IrfanView). Students are given an overview of observational astronomy using interactive planetarium software (Stellarium) before heading outdoors to shoot the night sky. Photography is conducted at AU's auroral observatories, both of which possess dark open sky that is ideal for night sky viewing. If space weather conditions are favorable, there are opportunities to photograph the aurora borealis, then compare results with imagery generated by the all-sky auroral imagers located at the Geo-Space observatory. The aim of this program is to develop awareness to the science and beauty of the night sky, while promoting photography as a rewarding, lifelong hobby. Moreover, emphasis is placed on western Canada's unique subauroral location that makes aurora watching highly accessible and rewarding in 2013, the maximum of the current solar cycle.

  3. American ASTP prime crew participate in photography mission briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three American ASTP prime crew astronauts participate in a photography mission briefing in bldg 5 with Dr. Farouk El-Baz (wearing face mask) during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) pre-flight activity at JSC. They are, left to right, Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; Dr. El-Baz; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot. Dr. El-Baz is with the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. The face mask is to protect the crewmen from possible exposure to disease prior to launch time.

  4. Forensic photography. Ultraviolet imaging of wounds on skin.

    PubMed

    Barsley, R E; West, M H; Fair, J A

    1990-12-01

    The use of ultraviolet light (UVL) to study and document patterned injuries on human skin has opened a new frontier for law enforcement. This article discusses the photographic techniques involved in reflective and fluorescent UVL. Documentation of skin wounds via still photography and dynamic video photographic techniques, which utilize various methods of UV illumination, are covered. Techniques important for courtroom presentation of evidence gathered from lacerations, contusions, abrasions, and bite marks are presented through case studies and controlled experiments. Such injuries are common sequelae in the crimes of child abuse, rape, and assault.

  5. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  6. Pre- and postoperative portrait photography: standardized photos for various procedures.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Ravi S; Most, Sam P

    2010-05-01

    Photodocumentation in facial plastic surgery is essential in the perioperative setting, and with meticulous uniformity and standardization it serves as the primary tool for surgical planning and critical analysis of results. Accurate photodocumentation is dependent on strict and consistent use of equipment, lighting, and patient positioning. The purpose of this article is to review the principles of standardization in perioperative patient photography for common facial plastic procedures and to provide the facial plastic surgeon with the tools necessary to develop consistent and accurate patient photographs.

  7. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor

    2007-05-10

    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements.

  8. Photography & Physics: A Way to Enhance Student Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Fred

    2007-10-01

    A teaching/learning strategy that I have developed over the years for high school students involves the use of photographic images of ordinary objects or scenes to help engage students in the intrigue and beauty of physics. The images help focus classroom discussions, raise curiosity levels among students, and promote creativity of thinking. The photographs can be used in a variety of ways, including assessment, framing discussions, homework assignment, and constructive classroom games. This presentation will describe the various ways photography can be used and will model some techniques. Dozens of ``physics images'' will be shown.

  9. Skylab-2 handheld photography alphabetized geographical features list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniel, J. L.; Devalcourt, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This publication represents a relisting of the Skylab-2, PTD Handheld Photography Catalog. The purpose of this publication is to provide imagery researchers a supplement to the PTD Catalog by alphabetically sorting together all similar major and minor features. Some cross-referencing of feature names was accomplished where the authors deemed necessary; however, no attempt was made to exhaust all possible means of cross-referencing. An example of the cross-referencing which was done: Kuril Islands may be found under the major feature column and also as a minor feature of Islands.

  10. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) Coverage of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Seider, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a nine-week summer project examining all Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) of Antarctica. It was discovered that the data were collected in three separate missions during 1962 and 1963. The first two missions covered only the coastal areas, while the third mission covered the entire continent. Many of the 1782 frames collected were cloudy. This is especially true of West Antarctica. An optimal set of photographs covering the entire Antarctic coastline is identified along with some examples that show changes in the coastline which have occurred since the early 1960s.

  11. A vertical coarse approach scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevniok, Benedict

    A Pan-style scanning tunneling microscope (STM), with a vertical coarse approach mechanism, was designed, built and tested. The microscope will be operated in ultra-high vacuum and also at cryogenic temperatures (8 K) inside a continuous flow cryostat. Fundamental differences in operating principle exist between the new microscope and the beetle-type inertial sliders [1] that have been the mainstay of the group for the last eight years. While Pan-style microscopes do already exist [2], they remain challenging to build, and an active area of research [3]. This system represents a bold departure from well-trodden paths, and will greatly expand the range of experiments that our group can perform. The operating principles of inertial piezoelectric motors are detailed. Design guidelines for a piezoelectric motor are given, and used in the design of the vertical coarse approach motor. A simple, inexpensive implementation for creating waveforms with an extremely fast fall time is discussed. Motor performance is tested, and a minimum step size of 20nm is found for frequencies ranging from 0 Hz to 3 kHz. The motor operates with high dynamic range: individual 20nm steps can be taken, as well as being able to move at a velocity of 0.4mm s-1. Little is known about the vibrational properties of Pan-style microscopes. Vibrational testing of the microscope revealed the expected scanner bending mode at 1.6 kHz (above the scanner bending mode of our beetles at 1.2 kHz), and a complicated response signal above this frequency. Custom extension springs for an eddy-current damping system are built and tested. A low resonant frequency of 1.8 Hz is found, which is ideal for the application. Initial testing of the STM in ambient conditions is performed on two different surfaces. A moire supermesh [4] with periodicity 3nm is observed on a highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, and agrees well with previously published results. Using a flame-annealed Gold on mica surface, a low

  12. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  13. Detection of retinal lesions in diabetic retinopathy: comparative evaluation of 7-field digital color photography versus red-free photography.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Sharma, Reetika; Vashist, Nagender; Vohra, Rajpal; Garg, Satpal

    2015-10-01

    Red-free light allows better detection of vascular lesions as this wavelength is absorbed by hemoglobin; however, the current gold standard for the detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy remains 7-field color fundus photography. The goal of this study was to compare the ability of 7-field fundus photography using red-free light to detect retinopathy lesions with corresponding images captured using standard 7-field color photography. Non-stereoscopic standard 7-field 30° digital color fundus photography and 7-field 30° digital red-free fundus photography were performed in 200 eyes of 103 patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy ranging from mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The color images (n = 1,400) were studied with corresponding red-free images (n = 1,400) by one retina consultant (PV) and two senior residents training in retina. The various retinal lesions [microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, soft exudates, intra-retinal microvascular anomalies (IRMA), neovascularization of the retina elsewhere (NVE), and neovascularization of the disc (NVD)] detected by all three observers in each of the photographs were noted followed by determination of agreement scores using κ values (range 0-1). Kappa coefficient was categorized as poor (≤0), slight (0.01-0.20), fair (0.2 -0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), substantial (0.61-0.80), and almost perfect (0.81-1). The number of lesions detected by red-free images alone was higher for all observers and all abnormalities except hard exudates. Detection of IRMA was especially higher for all observers with red-free images. Between image pairs, there was substantial agreement for detection of hard exudates (average κ = 0.62, range 0.60-0.65) and moderate agreement for detection of hemorrhages (average κ = 0.52, range 0.45-0.58), soft exudates (average κ = 0.51, range 0.42-0.61), NVE (average κ = 0.47, range 0.39-0.53), and NVD

  14. 15 CFR 265.42 - Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Photography for advertising or commercial purposes; advertising and soliciting. 265.42 Section 265.42 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.42 Photography for advertising or commercial...

  15. Photography as a Data Generation Tool for Qualitative Inquiry in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Marva

    This paper discusses the ways in which photography was used for data generation in a 9-month qualitative study on a mixed-age elementary school classroom. Through a review of the research literature in anthropology, sociology, and education, and an analysis of the research data, the usefulness of photography for educational research with young…

  16. The Importance of Artificial Light in the Development of Night Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Deloris

    This study traces the development of night photography, from February 7, 1839, when the effect of the moon on a Daguerreotype was first recorded by Alexander Von Humboldt, to the present. The contributions of the following photographers who advanced the field of night photography are discussed: Margaret Bourke-White, Paul Martin, Brassai, Bill…

  17. Early Social Documentary Photography: The Photographs of "Charities," 1897-1909.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethune, Beverly M.

    The preliminary development of social documentary photography can be traced in the early issues of "Charities," a journal established in 1897 by the New York Charity Organization Society. During the journal's earliest years, 1897 to 1902, photography was already associated with social work in the minds of the public; but…

  18. The Evolution of Photography and Three-Dimensional Imaging in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M

    2016-11-21

    Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have refined not only the plastic surgeon's armamentarium, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography.Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphological analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both pre and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes, however the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations.We intend to familiarize readers with the notion that 3D photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied upon.This paper reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.

  19. Photography Basics. Capturing the Essence of Physical Education and Sport Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluka, Darlene A.; Mitchell, Carolyn B.

    1990-01-01

    The physical educator or coach may be responsible for marketing programs to the public, and skill in 35mm photography can help. Ingredients necessary for successful 35mm movement photography are discussed: knowledge of the movement and the appropriate equipment; techniques for capturing movement; positioning for the ultimate shot; and practice.…

  20. Setting apart the amateur from the professional: maintaining the value of standardised representational photography.

    PubMed

    Banks, Debbie

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of standard representational photography in clinical photography and its aid in maintaining the gold standard in the medical illustration profession. it is important that professionals are aware of potential threats to good practice with many areas identified in the article.

  1. Using Photography and Art in Concept Mapping Research with Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams Carawan, Lena; Nalavany, Blace

    2010-01-01

    Reflexive photography for individual interviews and the use of art with focus groups provides a valuable method for exploring the psychosocial issues encountered by adults with dyslexia. Reflexive photography and art is particularly appropriate when interviewing adults with dyslexia who may have difficulty expressing and focusing on what they want…

  2. The Power of Photography as a Catalyst for Teaching Informational Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Elizabeth; Fields, Charla

    2014-01-01

    Writing and photography are composition processes that help develop children's linguistic and visual competencies, respectively. Using photography in teaching writing has been found to enhance students' literacy skills by naturally invoking their interest and motivation, and eventually strengthening the reading-writing relationship. Children can…

  3. Counseling through Images: Using Photography to Guide the Counseling Process and Achieve Treatment Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginicola, Misty M.; Smith, Cheri; Trzaska, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Creative approaches to counseling help counselors to meet the needs of diverse populations. The utility of photography in counseling has been demonstrated through several case studies; however, clear implications of how photography relates to the counseling process have not been well delineated. The existing literature on phototherapy is reviewed…

  4. Investigative Photography, 16-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text consists of nine lessons dealing with investigative photography. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: light (light as the basis of photography, the behavior of light, the composition of white light, light transmission, reflection and absorption, illumination, and pinholes and light); camera…

  5. Digital Photography and Web-Based Assignments in an Urban Field Course: Snapshots from Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alan; McCormack, Derek P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects on the use of digital photography in urban-based human geography fieldwork. It draws on the authors' experience of introducing digital photography into the teaching and assessment of a level 3 undergraduate field course in Berlin. To begin they outline how they sought to use simple digital technologies in order to facilitate…

  6. The Evolution of Photography and Three-Dimensional Imaging in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M

    2017-03-01

    Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.

  7. Simultaneous velocity interferometry and electronic streak photography of laser-launched plates

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Laser-launched, miniature, pseudo-one-dimensional flyer plates are evaluated by three distinct optical techniques that may be incorporated into an optical diagnostic system to give a complete understanding of the plate performance. These techniques are: velocity interferometry, streak photography, and pulsed laser stereo photography. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. The use of high altitude aerial photography to inventory wildlife habitat in Kansas: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, J. W.; Waddell, B. H.

    1974-01-01

    The use of aerial photography as a method for determining the wildlife conditions of an area is discussed. Color infrared photography is investigated as the most effective type of remote sensor. The characteristics of the remote sensing systems are described. Examples of the remote sensing operation and the method for reducing the data are presented.

  9. Quantification of the Information Limit of Transmission Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Thust, A.

    2008-11-14

    The resolving power of high-resolution transmission electron microscopes is characterized by the information limit, which reflects the size of the smallest object detail observable with a particular instrument. We introduce a highly accurate measurement method for the information limit, which is suitable for modern aberration-corrected electron microscopes. An experimental comparison with the traditionally applied Young's fringe method yields severe discrepancies and confirms theoretical considerations according to which the Young's fringe method does not reveal the information limit.

  10. Earth observation photography: Looking back 20 years after Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    A committee of trained classroom teachers, backed by a volunteer team of technical experts and academic advisors has developed a program for earth science based on photographs obtained from low earth orbit. In selecting targeting objectives, immediate note was made of the fact nearly one generation (20 years) has passed since the United States' ambitious SKYLAB program was conducted. A critical part of those missions was the acquisition of earth photography using a six camera, multi-spectral camera system. This objective was systematically furthered through the term of three separate crew visits to the Space Station. Not merely an exercise in randomly photographing the Earth below, the purpose of the Earth Resource Experiment Package (EREP) was to determine what kind, and how much, photographic data could be acquired of the broad variety of Earth features witnessed on the mission's ground track. The collection of 35,000 photos produced by EREP represents the most complete coverage of Earth. However, it remains under used. GAS 324 intends to revisit, and to add a tier of relevancy to this inventory. The photography of GAS 324 should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes in the globe in the last 20 years. format in both coverage and quality. The photogra phy acquired by CAN DO should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes that have occured to the Globe in the last twenty years.

  11. Skin lesion metrics: role of photography in acne.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Audris; Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-04-01

    Accurate assessment of acne severity is essential for determining the appropriate treatment required. This paper reviews photographic methods for such assessment. Literature included met the following criteria: proposed photographic standards to assess acne, evaluated such standards, or offered photographic methods to improve visualization and assessment. Validity was evaluated by comparing given photographic grading methods to other methods, such as lesion counting. Many photographic standards were shown to be objective, time-efficient, and have intra-grader and inter-grader consistency. Photography also documents progress for retrospective verification. Drawbacks include not allowing determination of depth, minimization of small lesions and erythema, and difficulty in maintaining consistent settings. Fluorescence and polarized photography improve visualization beyond clinical observation alone. Advances such as computer alignment, imaging segmentation, and three-dimensional analysis methods track lesions and measure objective characteristics. The combined experience summarized here strongly promotes the use of a photographic standard in assessing acne severity. Cook's method can also be used to train and qualify graders. Photographic advancements improve accuracy of assessment by solving problems with consistent settings and depth visualization. Further advancements can improve image analysis through analysis of objective attributes.

  12. STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery Performs Back Flip For Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery's heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

  13. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.

  14. Capturing the worlds of multiple sclerosis: Hannah Laycock's photography.

    PubMed

    Bolaki, Stella

    2017-03-01

    This essay explores UK photographer Hannah Laycock's Awakenings and, to a lesser extent, Perceiving Identity that were created in 2015, following her diagnosis with multiple sclerosis (MS) in 2013. It draws on scholarship by people with chronic illness while situating these two MS projects in the context of Laycock's earlier art and portrait photography dealing with fragility, image and desire, and power relations between subject and observer. The analysis illustrates how her evocative photography captures the lived or subjective experience of an invisible and often misunderstood condition by initially focusing on the tension between transparency and opacity in her work. It further shows how her images counter dominant didactic metaphors such as, 'the body as machine', that perpetuate the dehumanising and objectifying aspects of medical care. Subsequent sections trace the influence that Oliver Sacks has had on Laycock's practice, and reflect on other metaphors and tropes in Awakenings that illuminate the relationship between body and self in MS. The essay concludes by acknowledging the therapeutic power of art and calling upon health professionals to make more use of such artistic work in clinical practice.

  15. Computational photography with plenoptic camera and light field capture: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Lam, Edmund Y

    2015-11-01

    Photography is a cornerstone of imaging. Ever since cameras became consumer products more than a century ago, we have witnessed great technological progress in optics and recording mediums, with digital sensors replacing photographic films in most instances. The latest revolution is computational photography, which seeks to make image reconstruction computation an integral part of the image formation process; in this way, there can be new capabilities or better performance in the overall imaging system. A leading effort in this area is called the plenoptic camera, which aims at capturing the light field of an object; proper reconstruction algorithms can then adjust the focus after the image capture. In this tutorial paper, we first illustrate the concept of plenoptic function and light field from the perspective of geometric optics. This is followed by a discussion on early attempts and recent advances in the construction of the plenoptic camera. We will then describe the imaging model and computational algorithms that can reconstruct images at different focus points, using mathematical tools from ray optics and Fourier optics. Last, but not least, we will consider the trade-off in spatial resolution and highlight some research work to increase the spatial resolution of the resulting images.

  16. Photographic technology development project: Timber typing in the Tahoe Basin using high altitude panoramic photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures were developed and tested for using KA-80A optical bar camera panoramic photography for timber typing forest land and classifying nonforest land. The study area was the south half of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Final products from this study include four timber type map overlays on 1:24,000 orthophoto maps. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1) established conventional timber typing procedures can be used on panoramic photography if the necessary equipment is available, (2) The classification and consistency results warrant further study in using panoramic photography for timber typing; and (3) timber type mapping can be done as fast or faster with panoramic photography than with resource photography while maintaining comparable accuracy.

  17. Macroscopic observables experimentally linked to microscopic processes in the explosive fracture and fragmentation of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Lawrence M

    2010-12-16

    The response of a metal element to explosive loading depends on a broad spectrum of explosive and metal properties, macroscopic geometry plays a crucial role in defining the localized loading history and the resulting gradients of interest, while microscopic effects and defects are generally believed responsible for damage nucleation. Certain experiments reduce the complexity by producing conditions that are uniform in some sense, allowing dynamic measurement of variables that can be correlated with corresponding microscopic effects observed in recovery experiments. Spherical expansion of thin shells, that eventually fragment, and steady wave loading of flat plates are two such experiments. Proton radiography, x-radiography, laser velocimetry, imaging IR, and visible light photography all have produced dynamic measurements in 4340 steel, copper, uranium alloys, tantalum, and titanium. Correlation of the macroscopic measurements with microscopy on recovered samples has been done with a statistical approach.

  18. Adirondack Under the Microscope-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera. It shows the approximate region where the rover's microscopic imager began its first close-up inspection.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z.; Suh, B.J.; Roukes, M.L.; Midzor, M.; Wigen, P.E.; Childress, J.R.

    1999-06-03

    Our objectives were to develop the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) into an instrument capable of scientific studies of buried structures in technologically and scientifically important electronic materials such as magnetic multilayer materials. This work resulted in the successful demonstration of MRFM-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a microscopic characterization tool for thin magnetic films. Strong FMR spectra obtained from microscopic Co thin films (500 and 1000 angstroms thick and 40 x 200 microns in lateral extent) allowed us to observe variations in sample inhomogeneity and magnetic anisotropy field. We demonstrated lateral imaging in microscopic FMR for the first time using a novel approach employing a spatially selective local field generated by a small magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet. These successful applications of the MRFM in materials studies provided the basis for our successful proposal to DOE/BES to employ the MRF M in studies of buried interfaces in magnetic materials.

  20. Microscopic derivation of discrete hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Anero, Jesús G; Zúñiga, Ignacio

    2009-12-28

    By using the standard theory of coarse graining based on Zwanzig's projection operator, we derive the dynamic equations for discrete hydrodynamic variables. These hydrodynamic variables are defined in terms of the Delaunay triangulation. The resulting microscopically derived equations can be understood, a posteriori, as a discretization on an arbitrary irregular grid of the Navier-Stokes equations. The microscopic derivation provides a set of discrete equations that exactly conserves mass, momentum, and energy and the dissipative part of the dynamics produces strict entropy increase. In addition, the microscopic derivation provides a practical implementation of thermal fluctuations in a way that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is satisfied exactly. This paper points toward a close connection between coarse-graining procedures from microscopic dynamics and discretization schemes for partial differential equations.

  1. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  2. Recent Athena Microscopic Imager Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ashley, J. W.; Johnson, J. R.; Parker, T. J.; Athena Science Team

    2012-03-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity arrived at the rim of Endeavour Crater in August 2011. This presentation summarizes Opportunity Microscopic Imager observations of ejecta, bedrock, a gypsum vein, and other materials in the crater rim rocks.

  3. (Center of excellence: Microlaser microscope)

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This Center-of-Excellence grant has two components: development of an imaging system based on microlaser arrays forms a central project among a group of laser diagnostic and therapeutic efforts primarily funded outside the grant. In these first 8 months we have set up the Microlaser Microscope using small microlaser arrays. We have emphasized the basics of microlaser handling and electronic addressing and the optics of the microscope. Details of electronics and optics given here will be used in the larger arrays which should be available soon. After a description of the central Microlaser Microscope project, we touch briefly on the other projects of the Center, which have been outstandingly fruitful this year. Publications are necessarily concerned with the smaller projects, since the Microlaser Microscope is in its early stages.

  4. Preknock Vibrations in a Spark-Ignition Engine Cylinder as Revealed by High-Speed Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Cearcy D; Logan, Walter O , Jr

    1944-01-01

    The high-speed photographic investigation of the mechanics of spark-ignition engine knock recorded in three previous reports has been extended with use of the NACA high-speed camera and combustion apparatus with a piezoelectric pressure pickup in the combustion chamber. The motion pictures of knocking combustion were taken at the rate of 40,000 frames per second. Existence of the preknock vibrations in the engine cylinder suggested in Technical Report no.727 has been definitely proved and the vibrations have been analyzed both in the high-speed motion pictures and the pressure traces. Data are also included to show that the preknock vibrations do not progressively build up to cause knock. The effect of tetraethyl lead on the preknock vibrations has been studied and results of the tests are presented. Photographs are presented which in some cases clearly show evidence of autoignition in the end zone a considerable length of time before knock occurs.

  5. 43 CFR 5.2 - When do I need a permit for commercial filming or still photography?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... filming or still photography? 5.2 Section 5.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT... and Wildlife Service § 5.2 When do I need a permit for commercial filming or still photography?...

  6. 43 CFR 5.2 - When do I need a permit for commercial filming or still photography?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... filming or still photography? 5.2 Section 5.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT... and Wildlife Service § 5.2 When do I need a permit for commercial filming or still photography?...

  7. 43 CFR 5.15 - When must I ask permission from individual Indians to conduct filming and photography?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Indians to conduct filming and photography? 5.15 Section 5.15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS... permission from individual Indians to conduct filming and photography? Anyone who desires to go on to...

  8. 43 CFR 5.15 - When must I ask permission from individual Indians to conduct filming and photography?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Indians to conduct filming and photography? 5.15 Section 5.15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS... permission from individual Indians to conduct filming and photography? Anyone who desires to go on to...

  9. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  11. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-11-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high TC SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio.

  12. Single-wavelength STED microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Stephen C.

    2011-03-01

    The zero-point STED microscope (US Pat. 5,866,911)1 was the first far-field microscope to overcome the diffraction limit, but optimally it requires two expensive synchronized short-pulsed lasers. Replacing the synchronized pulsed lasers with CW lasers had been proposed to reduce costs1, but this seriously reduced resolution compared to a similarly powered pulsed STED microscope. A recent theoretical and experimental study (Nat. Methods 4, 915 (2007))3 argued that CW STED has better resolution than previously believed, but there appear to be flaws in the theory sufficient to raise questions about its reported experimental confirmation. We describe an alternative approach to reducing cost of the STED microscope while preserving resolution. A portion of the beam from a femtosecond pulsed laser of a wavelength able to excite fluorescence by multiphoton absorption, is passed through a long optical fiber to stretch the pulses to reduce their peak power so they can no longer excite but can quench by stimulated emission. The stretched pulses are shaped into a doughnut profile and then recombined with the first beam for interaction with the specimen. With suitable fluorophores, this instrument should be able to match the resolution performance of the pulsed laser STED microscope using separate lasers. Particularly when added to an existing multiphoton microscope, such performance should be achievable at extremely low added cost.

  13. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  14. High-speed photography of microscale blast wave phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, John M.; Kleine, Harald

    2005-03-01

    High-speed photography has been a primary tool for the study of blast wave phenomena, dating from the work of Toepler, even before the invention of the camera! High-speed photography was used extensively for the study of blast waves produced by nuclear explosions for which, because of the large scale, cameras running at a few hundred frames per second were adequate to obtain sharp images of the supersonic shock fronts. For the study of the blast waves produced by smaller explosive sources, ever-increasing framing rates were required. As a rough guide, for every three orders of magnitude decrease in charge size a ten-fold increase of framing rate was needed. This severely limited the use of photography for the study of blast waves from laboratory-scale charges. There are many techniques for taking single photographs of explosive phenomena, but the strongly time-dependent development of a blast wave, requires the ability to record a high-speed sequence of photographs of a single event. At ICHSPP25, Kondo et al of Shimadzu Corporation demonstrated a 1 M fps video camera that provides a sequence of up to 100 high-resolution frames. This was subsequently used at the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University to record the blast waves generated by an extensive series of silver azide charges ranging in size from 10 to 0.5mg. The resulting images were measured to provide radius-time histories of the primary and secondary shocks. These were analyzed with techniques similar to those used for the study of explosions from charges with masses ranging from 500 kg to 5 kt. The analyses showed the cube-root scaling laws to be valid for the very small charges, and provided a detailed record of the peak hydrostatic pressure as a function of radius for a unit charge of silver azide, over a wide range of scaled distances. The pressure-radius variation was compared to that from a unit charge of TNT and this permitted a detailed determination of the TNT equivalence of silver azide

  15. High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.

    2001-04-01

    Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

  16. Using Digitized Handheld Space Shuttle Photography for Terrain Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckardt, F. D.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Lulla, K. P.

    2000-01-01

    Digital terrain models are becoming increasingly available and are readily generated at a whole range of scales. However, the lack of realistic colour and tone in images of terrains remains a problem. Realistic colour and tone are very desirable attributes because they contribute significantly to a powerful visualization of landscapes, both for scientists (Kam's ref) and for the general public. But these attributes are generally still unavailable because few sensors, air- or space-borne, provide true colour, and even fewer do so at a realistic cost. The exception is the growing and accessible archive of US Space Shuttle photography which provides a wealth of potential data suited for more realistic visualization of landscapes.

  17. Application of multispectral color photography to flame flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffers, G.

    1979-01-01

    For flames of short duration and low intensity of radiation a spectroscopical flame diagnostics is difficult. In order to find some other means of extracting information about the flame structure from its radiation, the feasibility of using multispectral color photography was successfully evaluated. Since the flame photographs are close-ups, there is a considerable parallax between the single images, when several cameras are used, and additive color viewing is not possible. Each image must be analyzed individually, it is advisable to use color film in all cameras. One can either use color films of different spectral sensitivities or color films of the same type with different color filters. Sharp cutting filters are recommended.

  18. Absorbing New Subjects: Holography as an Analog of Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2006-05-01

    I discuss the early history of holography and explore how perceptions, applications, and forecasts of the subject were shaped by prior experience. I focus on the work of Dennis Gabor (1900 1979) in England,Yury N. Denisyuk (b. 1924) in the Soviet Union, and Emmett N. Leith (1927 2005) and Juris Upatnieks (b. 1936) in the United States. I show that the evolution of holography was simultaneously promoted and constrained by its identification as an analog of photography, an association that influenced its assessment by successive audiences of practitioners, entrepreneurs, and consumers. One consequence is that holography can be seen as an example of a modern technical subject that has been shaped by cultural influences more powerfully than generally appreciated. Conversely, the understanding of this new science and technology in terms of an older one helps to explain why the cultural effects of holography have been more muted than anticipated by forecasters between the 1960s and 1990s.

  19. My Life in Nuclear Physics, Photography, and Opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Norton M.

    2012-06-01

    I sketch my life as an experimental nuclear physicist, beginning as a graduate student at Harvard University from 1948 to 1951, then as a postdoctoral fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory from 1951 to 1952, and finally as a faculty member at the University of Minnesota from 1952 until my retirement in 1991. I also carried out research at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Indiana University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and I participated in a number of summer schools and international conferences on nuclear physics. I also have worked in photography and opera. Over the years, I met and collaborated with many people in many walks of life who became friends for life.

  20. NEW HORIZONS FOR THE NATIONAL HIGH-ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAPHY PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermel, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    The National High-Altitude Photography Program (NHAP) is a multi-Federal agency activity to acquire uniform imagery for the establishment of a national high-altitude photographic data base. Since the inception of NHAP in 1980, black-and-white and color infrared stereoscopic imagery has been acquired for about 50% of the 3,000,000 square miles in the conterminous United States. An additional 40% of the 48-State area is under contract to private aerial survey firms, and the sixth and final contract to achieve complete once-over coverage will be awarded early in 1985. Extensive use has been made of the newly established data base. The participating agencies have begun studies to define the requirements for a maintenance program which would provide cyclic coverage of the conterminous United States and imagery for specific agency needs.

  1. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  2. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  3. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  4. Let's go outside: using photography to explore values and culture in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Aranda, K; de Goeas, S; Davies, S; Radcliffe, M; Christoforou, A

    2015-06-01

    Creative and imaginative approaches to mental healthcare education are known to help students explore emotions, empathy and others' experiences, as well as address ambivalence and ambiguity. Very few studies in mental health nursing education specifically utilise photography as a participatory pedagogic tool, with even fewer utilising photography to explore understandings of culture, values and diversity. Photography makes visible complex, collaborative forms of learning and previously unidentified, unarticulated ideas about culture and values. Photography as a critical pedagogic method helps develop critical, politicized understandings of culture and values. Increasing culturally diverse populations means complex and conflicting values have become a common feature in mental health nursing. In education the need to critically examine such topics necessitates creative and engaging pedagogy, and visual methods are readily acknowledged as such. Yet while many studies advocate and demonstrate the value of art-based methods in student learning, very few studies in mental health nursing specifically utilize photography as a participatory pedagogic tool, and fewer still use photography to explore understandings of culture, values and diversity. In this paper, we discuss a qualitative study where mental health nursing students used photography to create images in order to explore their own and often dominant culture and attendant values. Findings suggest that photography makes visible situated, relational and collaborative learning, and surfaces previously unidentified, unarticulated ideas about culture and values. These practices mimic important processes central to mental health nursing practice and contemporaneous understandings of diverse cultures. We argue that photography provides an important resource with which to unearth subjugated knowledge, promote critical understandings of culture and values, and thereby help address inequalities in mental health care.

  5. Microscope and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  6. Scanning thermal-conductivity microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Grover, Ranjan

    2006-02-01

    This article describes a novel implementation of an atomic force microscope that can map thermal-conductivity features across a sample with a high spatial resolution. The microscope employs a single-sided, metal-coated cantilever, which acts as a bimetallic strip together with a heating laser whose beam is focused on the cantilever's free end, on the opposite side of its tip. Subtracting the topography obtained by the unheated and heated cantilevers yields a map of thermal conductivity across the surface of a sample. The article presents (a) the theory of operation of the microscope and (b) the experimental results obtained on a silicon sample with oxide features, showing good agreement between the two.

  7. Microscope and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1984-04-17

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers. 7 figs.

  8. Microscope and method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1981-08-18

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  9. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

    Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

    This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mammadov, Rashad; Tekinay, Ayse B; Dana, Aykutlu; Guler, Mustafa O

    2012-02-01

    Peptide-based nanomaterials have been utilized for various applications from regenerative medicine to electronics since they provide several advantages including easy synthesis methods, numerous routes for functionalization and biomimicry of secondary structures of proteins which leads to design of self-assembling peptide molecules to form nanostructures. Microscopic characterization at nanoscale is critical to understand processes directing peptide molecules to self-assemble and identify structure-function relationship of the nanostructures. Here, fundamental studies in microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures are discussed to provide insights in widely used microscopy tools. In this review, we will encompass characterization studies of peptide nanostructures with modern microscopes, such as TEM, SEM, AFM, and advanced optical microscopy techniques. We will also mention specimen preparation methods and describe interpretation of the images.

  11. Parental grief and memento mori photography: narrative, meaning, culture, and context.

    PubMed

    Blood, Cybele; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem photography is a widespread practice in perinatal bereavement care, yet few studies have explored how it affects bereaved parents, or how it might be received by parents of older children. This study is an examination of the meaning, utility, and social context of postmortem photography in a sample of 181 bereaved parents. Data were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Photographs were positively regarded by most parents after perinatal death and several parents of older children. Other parents rejected postmortem photography for aesthetic, personal, or cultural reasons. Brief recommendations are offered for healthcare providers.

  12. An investigation to improve selenodetic control through surface and orbital lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, H. J., III

    1970-01-01

    The use of lunar surface photography to achieve the photogrammetric transfer of available selenographic coordinates from future lunar landing sites to neighboring, photoidentifiable features was investigated. It can be implied from the procedures developed that overhead photography, were it available, could be utilized and would provide a material strengthening of the total solution. By the methodic selection of features and confirmation that they can in reality be identified from orbital photography, a modest selenodetic control system can be expanded into a net that could ultimately control all future, manned or unmanned, orbital photographic missions.

  13. Measurement of static convergence and accommodation responses to images of integral photography and binocular stereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Hitoshi; Komine, Kazuteru; Arai, Jun; Mishina, Tomoyuki

    2017-02-20

    Static convergence and accommodation responses were measured by comparing integral photography images, binocular stereoscopic images, and real objects in a measurement range from 450 to 900 mm. The experimental results were evaluated with a multiple comparison test. It was found that six of the ten observers did not have an accommodation-convergence conflict in viewing integral photography in the range. Moreover, the required resolution was found to be 0.7 or more and less than 1.4 cycles per degree for inducing accommodation. In conclusion, integral photography can provide a natural 3D image that looks like a real object.

  14. Microscopic Materials on a Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images show a comparison of the weak magnet OM7 from the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander before (left) and after (right) soil deposition.

    The microscope took the left image during Phoenix's Sol 15 (June 10, 2008) and the right image during Sol 21 (Jun 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  16. Science and Photography Linked in iPad and iPhone Apps About Climate Change and Repeat Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, G.; Hone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Red Hill Studio and World View of Global Warming co-developed apps for the iPad and iPhone which graphically show climate-driven changes in repeat photographs and maps. The climate app, with 17 interactive screens that show climate changes to glaciers, coasts, rivers and world temperature, reaches a new part of the public, was featured in USA Today and is used in schoolrooms and museums. It led a list of top ten climate apps for 2012. The low price for this app encourages more users and income is being shared with the Union of Concerned Scientists. Red Hill Studio is also developing an app which is an aid for making time series and repeat photography. The Now & Then Cam app will allow scientists and citizens to take closely aligned repeat photos by overlaying the iPad/iPhone's camera image on top of an archival photo. This guides the photographer back towards the original location of the archival shot - leading to a more carefully aligned repeat photograph. The developers hope this app will contribute to both scientific and artistic creation of time-series photographs, an important and persuasive visualization of change. The Painting with Time and Now & Then Cam apps build upon a traveling museum exhibition, Playing with Time, and an international documentary special, Exploring Time, that were developed by Red Hill Studios under grants from the National Science Foundation. The app programmers, Charlie Brown and J.A. Nelson, use Objective C to create fluid, responsive interfaces with no distracting latencies or delays. World View of Global Warming is an independent photojournalistic documentation of global warming and rapid climate change begun in 1999. Repeat and time-series photography is an integral part it its climate communication.

  17. Switch on Micro*scope!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Sarah; Bahr, Michele; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Patterson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, have created micro*scope, a free, searchable knowledge environment for exploring the microbial world. Microbiology can easily be incorporated into the curriculum, because microbial communities are easy to access. Organisms grow quickly, making certain arrays of…

  18. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  19. Nature Study with the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollberger, Dwight E.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies specific instruction difficulties, potential problems, solutions, and activities for successful use of microscopes in the classroom. Procedures are outlined for guiding students in creating their own slides with monocotyledon and dicotyledon stems, fern spores, stomata, lichens, and red onions. (MCO)

  20. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  1. Chasing Meteors With a Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes types of meteors and micrometeorites that enter the Earth's atmosphere. Presents an activity where students collect micrometeorites with a strip of tape in an undisturbed outdoor area. After 24 hours, they examine the tape by sandwiching it between 2 glass slides and view through a microscope at 100X. (PR)

  2. An evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination. [sedimentary rocks of Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. With the advent of ERTS and Skylab satellites, multiband imagery and photography have become readily available to geologists. The ability of multiband photography to discriminate sedimentary rocks was examined. More than 8600 in situ measurements of band reflectance of the sedimentary rocks of the Front Range, Colorado, were acquired. Statistical analysis of these measurements showed that: (1) measurements from one site can be used at another site 100 miles away; (2) there is basically only one spectral reflectance curve for these rocks, with constant amplitude differences between the curves; and (3) the natural variation is so large that at least 150 measurements per formation are required to select best filters. These conclusions are supported by subjective tests with aerial multiband photography. The designed multiband photography concept for rock discrimination is not a practical method of improving sedimentary rock discrimination capabilities.

  3. From photography to cinematography: recording movement and gait in a neurological context.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-09-01

    The major challenge of photography has been freezing movement, to transform it into a fixed image or series of images. Very soon, photographers became interested in movement itself and tried to use photography as a tool to analyze movement. At the early stages, physicians interested in movement, perhaps surprisingly, made important technical contributions. Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, by Duchenne, the first book with physiological experiments illustrated by photographs, is a landmark in this historical development. At the Salpêtrière, thanks to Charcot, photography officially entered clinical neurology. Medical journals with photographs were actively developed by Bourneville. Londe established a clinical photographic laboratory and published the first book on medical photography. The study of animal and human movement by Muybridge and Marey in the 1880s led to chronophotography and later cinematography. Clinicians such as Dercum and Richer took advantage of these new techniques to study pathological movement and gait in neurological diseases.

  4. Application of computer image enhancement techniques to shuttle hand-held photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of frequent Space Transportation System Shuttle missions, photography from hyperaltitudes stands to become an accessible and convenient resource for scientists and environmental managers. As satellite products (such as LANDSAT) continue to spiral in costs, all but the most affluent consumer is finding Earth imagery from space to be more and more unavailable. Therefore, the potential for Shuttle photography to serve a wide variety of users is increasing. However, despite the popularity of photos from space as public relations tools and report illustrations, little work has been performed to prove their scientific worth beyond that as basic mapping bases. It is the hypothesis of this project that hand-held Earth photography from the Space Shuttle has potentially high scientific merit and that primary data can be extracted. In effect, Shuttle photography should be considered a major remote sensing information resource.

  5. The establishment of a 3D breast photography service in medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Winder, R J; Ruddock, A; Hendren, K; O'Neill, P; Boyd, L A; McCaughan, E; McIntosh, S A

    2014-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the development of a 3D breast photography service managed by the Medical Illustration Department, in the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland. Dedicated 3D breast photography equipment was installed in Medical Illustration for 18 months. Women were referred for a variety of indications including pre- and post-surgical assessment. A dedicated 3D breast photography protocol was developed locally and this requires further refinement to allow reproducibility in other centres. There are image/data artefacts associated with this technology and special techniques are required to reduce these. Specialist software is necessary for clinicians and scientists to use 3D breast photography data in surgical planning and measurement of surgical outcome.

  6. The availability of local aerial photography in southern California. [for solution of urban planning problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W., III; Sledge, B.; Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the major photography and photogrammetric suppliers and users located in Southern California are listed. Recent trends in aerial photographic coverage of the Los Angeles basin area are also noted, as well as the uses of that imagery.

  7. Airborne photography of chemical releases and analysis of twilight sky brightness data, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    The photography from aboard an aircraft of chemical releases is reported. The equipment installation on the aircraft is described, and photographs of the releases are included. An extensive analysis of twilight sky photographs is presented.

  8. Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  9. Very High Resolution Panoramic Photography to Improve Conventional Rangeland Monitoring 1994

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland monitoring often includes repeat photographs as a basis for documentation and although photographic equipment and electronics have been evolving rapidly, basic rangeland photo monitoring methods have changed little over time. Ground based digital photography is underutilized, especially s...

  10. Remote sensing as an aid for marsh management: Lafouche parish, Louisiana. [aerial photography of Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, J. G.; Green, J. H.; Whitehurst, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, was used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.

  11. A vegetational and ecological resource analysis from space and high flight photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Faulkner, D. P.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    A hierarchial classification of vegetation and related resources is considered that is applicable to convert remote sensing data in space and aerial synoptic photography. The numerical symbolization provides for three levels of vegetational classification and three levels of classification of environmental features associated with each vegetational class. It is shown that synoptic space photography accurately projects how urban sprawl affects agricultural land use areas and ecological resources.

  12. The use of four band multispectral photography to identify forest cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Four-band multispectral aerial photography and a color additive viewer were employed to identify forest cover types in Northern Alabama. The multispectral photography utilized the blue, green, red and near-infrared spectral regions and was made with black and white infrared film. On the basis of color differences alone, a differentiation between conifers and hardwoods was possible; however, supplementary information related to forest ecology proved necessary for the differentiation of various species of pines and hardwoods.

  13. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P. Doucet, M.; Resseguier, T. de

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  14. Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Johnson, N.C.; Belnap, J.; Koch, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) communities (composed of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria) may be more dynamic on short-time scales than previously thought, requiring new and informative short-term monitoring techniques. We used repeat digital photography and image analysis, which revealed a change in area of a dominant BSC lichen, Collema tenax. The data generated correlated well with gross photosynthesis (r=0.57) and carotenoid content (r=0.53), two variables that would be expected to be positively related to lichen area. We also extracted fatty acids from lichen samples and identified useful phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) indicators for the Collema mycobiont (20:1, 15:0, 23:0), and the Collema photobiont (18:3??3). The 18:3??3 correlated well with chlorophyll a (r=0.66), a more traditional proxy for cyanobacterial biomass. We also compared total PLFA as a proxy for total Collema biomass with our photographically generated areal change data, and found them to be moderately correlated (r=0.44). Areal change proved to be responsive on short-time scales, while fatty acid techniques were information-rich, providing data on biomass of lichens, and both photo- and mycobionts separately, in addition to the physiological status of the mycobiont. Both techniques should be refined and tested in field situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.; de Resseguier, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  16. Counting black hole microscopic states in loop quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.

    2006-09-15

    Counting of microscopic states of black holes is performed within the framework of loop quantum gravity. This is the first calculation of the pure horizon states using statistical methods, which reveals the possibility of additional states missed in the earlier calculations, leading to an increase of entropy. Also for the first time a microcanonical temperature is introduced within the framework.

  17. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

    2008-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS

  18. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution. PMID:26832263

  19. Nanocarpets for Trapping Microscopic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, Flavio; Chen, Fei; Hunt, Brian; Bronikowski, Michael; Hoenk, Michael; Kowalczyk, Robert; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Nanocarpets that is, carpets of carbon nanotubes are undergoing development as means of trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis. Examples of such particles include inorganic particles, pollen, bacteria, and spores. Nanocarpets can be characterized as scaled-down versions of ordinary macroscopic floor carpets, which trap dust and other particulate matter, albeit not purposefully. Nanocarpets can also be characterized as mimicking both the structure and the particle-trapping behavior of ciliated lung epithelia, the carbon nanotubes being analogous to cilia. Carbon nanotubes can easily be chemically functionalized for selective trapping of specific particles of interest. One could, alternatively, use such other three-dimensionally-structured materials as aerogels and activated carbon for the purposeful trapping of microscopic particles. However, nanocarpets offer important advantages over these alternative materials: (1) Nanocarpets are amenable to nonintrusive probing by optical means; and (2) Nanocarpets offer greater surface-to-volume ratios.

  20. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  1. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  2. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity

  3. Microscopic Description of Scission Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubray, N.; Goutte, H.; Berger, J. F.

    2007-02-26

    Properties of 226Th, 256Fm, 258Fm and 260Fm nuclei in the scission region are described using a full-microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with the effective Gogny nucleon-nucleon interaction. In a first step, the Potential Energy Surfaces are computed in the (q 20, q30) plane, the scission lines are found, fulfilling a given criterion on the density in the nuclear neck. Finally a few properties of the fragments along this line are presented.

  4. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  5. Digital photography in the dental practice--an overview (II).

    PubMed

    Bengel, W

    2000-05-01

    The advantage of digital cameras is the instant, digitalized availability of photos. The image quality has reached that of conventionally taken photographs, and for most applications, the digital origin of the photo is no longer discernable. Thus, digital photos are suited for immediate data transmission, for instance to the lab or a colleague. Similarly, they can also be instantly integrated into the practice's software and stored there. If one expects the same quality of digital photo documentation as from conventional photo documentation, then there is no alternative to the still-expensive professional digital reflex cameras, which are in the same price range as intraoral videosystems. These systems can be considered technically mature and suitable for routine practice applications. However, the advantages of digital photos can only be had at greater technical (regarding cameras and peripheral devices) expense. Amateur-class digital viewfinder cameras and reflex cameras without zoom lenses have only limited applications in terms of documentation, where they may supplement conventional photography. Before acquiring a digital camera, it makes good sense to draw up a cost-benefit list and consider alternatives. As dental practices become more and more computerized, digital photo documentation will also be a standard procedure of the future. In any case, it is worthwhile to start looking closely at these media now.

  6. Principles and practice of external digital photography in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan

    2012-01-01

    It is mandatory to incorporate clinical photography in an ophthalmic practice. Patient photographs are routinely used in teaching, presentations, documenting surgical outcomes and marketing. Standardized clinical photographs are part of an armamentarium for any ophthalmologist interested in enhancing his or her practice. Unfortunately, many clinicians still avoid taking patient photographs for want of basic knowledge or inclination. The ubiquitous presence of the digital camera and digital technology has made it extremely easy and affordable to take high-quality images. It is not compulsory to employ a professional photographer or invest in expensive equipment any longer for this purpose. Any ophthalmologist should be able to take clinical photographs in his/her office settings with minimal technical skill. The purpose of this article is to provide an ophthalmic surgeon with guidelines to achieve standardized photographic views for specific procedures, to achieve consistency, to help in pre-operative planning and to produce accurate pre-operative and post-operative comparisons, which will aid in self-improvement, patient education, medicolegal documentation and publications. This review also discusses editing, storage, patient consent, medicolegal issues and importance of maintenance of patient confidentiality. PMID:22446907

  7. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  8. Efficient organic photomemory with photography-ready programming speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mincheol; Seong, Hyejeong; Lee, Seungwon; Kwon, Hyukyun; Im, Sung Gap; Moon, Hanul; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2016-07-01

    We propose a device architecture for a transistor-type organic photomemory that can be programmed fast enough for use in electrical photography. Following the strategies used in a flash memory where an isolated charge storage node or floating gate is employed, the proposed organic photomemory adopts an isolated photo-absorption zone that is embedded between upper and lower insulator layers without directly interfacing with a semiconductor channel layer. This isolated photo-absorption zone then allows the device to operate in electrically ‘on’ state, in which the high electric-field region can have a maximal spatial overlap with the illuminated area for efficient and facile light-programming. With the proposed approach, a significant threshold voltage shift is attained even with the exposure time as short as 5 ms. High quality dielectric layers prepared by initiated chemical vapor deposition ensure erasing to occur only with electrical signal in a controlled manner. Retention time up to 700 s is demonstrated.

  9. "Say Cheese": teaching photography skills to adults with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Edrisinha, Chaturi; O'Reilly, Mark F; Choi, Ha Young; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a video prompting procedure to teach adults with developmental disabilities to take a digital photograph and print it using a laptop computer and a printer. Participants were four men with developmental disabilities. Training was conducted at the participants' residential facility. During baseline, participants were told to take a photograph, but were given no other instruction. During intervention, participants received instruction using a video prompting procedure. Video prompting consisted of watching a clip of each step of the task analysis and then having the opportunity to imitate that step. Video prompting was evaluated using a multiple-probe across participants design. Following acquisition, video prompting was removed to assess maintenance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks and at 6 months. During naturalistic probes, participants had the opportunity to take a picture of their choice of flora, surroundings or persons. All four participants learned to take and print a digital photograph with the video prompting procedures. The skills generalized to novel situations and were maintained at each follow-up probe. These data suggest that video prompting may be an effective instructional strategy for teaching digital photography skills to adults with developmental disabilities.

  10. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results achieved during a study of the Detail Content of Apollo Orbital Photography are reported. The effect of residual motion smear or image reproduction processes upon the detail content of lunar surface imagery obtained from the orbiting command module are assessed. Data and conclusions obtained from the Apollo 8, 12, 14 and 15 missions are included. For the Apollo 8, 12 and 14 missions, the bracket-mounted Hasselblad camera had no mechanism internal to the camera for motion compensation. If the motion of the command module were left totally uncompensated, these photographs would exhibit a ground smear varying from 12 to 27 meters depending upon the focal length of the lens and the exposure time. During the photographic sequences motion compensation was attempted by firing the attitude control system of the spacecraft at a rate to compensate for the motion relative to the lunar surface. The residual smear occurring in selected frames of imagery was assessed using edge analyses methods to obtain and achieved modulation transfer function (MTF) which was compared to a baseline MTF.

  11. Efficient organic photomemory with photography-ready programming speed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mincheol; Seong, Hyejeong; Lee, Seungwon; Kwon, Hyukyun; Im, Sung Gap; Moon, Hanul; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2016-01-01

    We propose a device architecture for a transistor-type organic photomemory that can be programmed fast enough for use in electrical photography. Following the strategies used in a flash memory where an isolated charge storage node or floating gate is employed, the proposed organic photomemory adopts an isolated photo-absorption zone that is embedded between upper and lower insulator layers without directly interfacing with a semiconductor channel layer. This isolated photo-absorption zone then allows the device to operate in electrically ‘on’ state, in which the high electric-field region can have a maximal spatial overlap with the illuminated area for efficient and facile light-programming. With the proposed approach, a significant threshold voltage shift is attained even with the exposure time as short as 5 ms. High quality dielectric layers prepared by initiated chemical vapor deposition ensure erasing to occur only with electrical signal in a controlled manner. Retention time up to 700 s is demonstrated. PMID:27457189

  12. Diffusing light photography of solitons and capillary-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.; Budak, R.; Putterman, S. )

    1994-11-01

    The attenuation of light propagating through a slab of water (containing a dilute concentration of polyballs) is approximately proportional to its thickness. Application of this insight to the local elevation of a fluid surface has enabled us to use photography to determine the instantaneous global topography of the surface of a fluid in motion. Use of diffusing light enables us to obtain images that are free of the caustics which plague shadowgraphs. Applications include breather solitons and wave turbulence which results from the nonlinear interaction of a broadband spectrum of high amplitude surface ripples. Measurements indicate that as the amplitude of excitation of the surface of water is increased the wave number of the capillary motion displays a transition to a broadband spectrum. The temporal response of a single pixel yields the power spectrum of the surface height as a function of frequency [ital f].'' The numerous harmonics which can be seen at low amplitude merge at high amplitude into a broadband spectrum which goes as 1/[ital f][sup 3]. This technique should permit the measurement of turbulent parameters which go beyond the purported range of current theories. [Work supported by US DOE Division of Engineering and Geophysics and NASA Microgravity.

  13. Principles and practice of external digital photography in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan

    2012-01-01

    It is mandatory to incorporate clinical photography in an ophthalmic practice. Patient photographs are routinely used in teaching, presentations, documenting surgical outcomes and marketing. Standardized clinical photographs are part of an armamentarium for any ophthalmologist interested in enhancing his or her practice. Unfortunately, many clinicians still avoid taking patient photographs for want of basic knowledge or inclination. The ubiquitous presence of the digital camera and digital technology has made it extremely easy and affordable to take high-quality images. It is not compulsory to employ a professional photographer or invest in expensive equipment any longer for this purpose. Any ophthalmologist should be able to take clinical photographs in his/her office settings with minimal technical skill. The purpose of this article is to provide an ophthalmic surgeon with guidelines to achieve standardized photographic views for specific procedures, to achieve consistency, to help in pre-operative planning and to produce accurate pre-operative and post-operative comparisons, which will aid in self-improvement, patient education, medicolegal documentation and publications. This review also discusses editing, storage, patient consent, medicolegal issues and importance of maintenance of patient confidentiality.

  14. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  15. HD Photo: a new image coding technology for digital photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Tu, Chengjie; Regunathan, Shankar L.; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces the HD Photo coding technology developed by Microsoft Corporation. The storage format for this technology is now under consideration in the ITU-T/ISO/IEC JPEG committee as a candidate for standardization under the name JPEG XR. The technology was developed to address end-to-end digital imaging application requirements, particularly including the needs of digital photography. HD Photo includes features such as good compression capability, high dynamic range support, high image quality capability, lossless coding support, full-format 4:4:4 color sampling, simple thumbnail extraction, embedded bitstream scalability of resolution and fidelity, and degradation-free compressed domain support of key manipulations such as cropping, flipping and rotation. HD Photo has been designed to optimize image quality and compression efficiency while also enabling low-complexity encoding and decoding implementations. To ensure low complexity for implementations, the design features have been incorporated in a way that not only minimizes the computational requirements of the individual components (including consideration of such aspects as memory footprint, cache effects, and parallelization opportunities) but results in a self-consistent design that maximizes the commonality of functional processing components.

  16. Validity of pressure ulcer diagnosis using digital photography.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Mona; Margolis, David J; Selekof, Joan L; Moye, Nancy; Jones, Patricia S; Shardell, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of digital photographs for the assessment of the presence of pressure ulcers stage 2 or higher. Participants were 48 patients (28 white and 20 black) with pressure ulcers identified in the course of a wound specialist's routine clinical practice at the University of Maryland Medical Center. One pressure ulcer and one unaffected skin area were photographed on each participating patient. The gold standard diagnosis (stage 2 pressure ulcer vs. stage 1 or no pressure ulcer) was recorded by the wound specialist based on bedside examination. The photographs were reviewed blindly by another wound expert. The sensitivity of the blinded assessment was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-100%). The specificity was 97% (95% CI 92-100%). The sensitivity and specificity were both 100% in the white patients. In black patients, the sensitivity and specificity were 92% (95% CI 75-100%) and 93% (95% CI 82-100%), respectively. These results suggest that the use of photographic images to assess the presence or absence of a pressure ulcer stage 2 or higher has a high degree of validity. Since blinded outcome assessment is one of the cornerstones of good clinical trial design, photography offers the potential to strengthen future studies.

  17. Using 70-mm aerial photography to identify rangeland sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Bowen, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A south Texas rangeland area was used as a study site to test the use of microdensitometry on 70-mm color-infrared and black-and-white photographs (scale 1:19,000) for distinguishing among 11 range sites (two brushland, seven grassland, two barren land) during the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 1976. Color-infrared photographs were also taken at a scale of 1:42,000 for the summer date. Film optical density readings were made on one color-infrared film with white light only. The best separations among density readings for all range sites were obtained using white light exposed on color-infrared film in the summer when vegetation was at peak foliage development. Results from this study indicate that 70-mm aerial color-infrared photography at a scale of 1:19,000 or 1:42,000 has good potential for identifying range sites in large and inaccessible areas, and could be a useful tool for range management.

  18. Infrared photography and imagery in water resources research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1965-01-01

    Infrared photography has restricted usefulness in general water resources studies but is particularly useful in special problems such as shoreline mapping. Infrared imagery is beginning to be used in water resources studies for the identification of surface and sub surface thermal anomalies as expressed at the surface and the measurement of apparent water surface temperatures. It will attain its maximum usefulness only when interpretation criteria for infrared imagery are fully developed. Several important hydrologic problems to which infrared imagery may be applied are: (1) determination of circulation and cooling of water in power plant cooling ponds, (2) measurement of river temperature and temperature decline downstream from power plants discharging heated water, (3) identification of submarine springs along coasts, and (4) measurement of temperature differences along streams as indicators of effluent seepage of ground water. Although it is possible at this time to identify many features of importance to hydrology by the use of infrared imagery, the task remaining is to develop criteria to show the hydrologic significance of the features.

  19. Microscope Image of Scavenged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope shows a strongly magnetic surface which has scavenged particles from within the microscope enclosure before a sample delivery from the lander's Robotic Arm. The particles correspond to the larger grains seen in fine orange material that makes up most of the soil at the Phoenix site. They vary in color, but are of similar size, about one-tenth of a millimeter.

    As the microscope's sample wheel moved during operation, these particles also shifted, clearing a thin layer of the finer orange particles that have also been collected. Together with the previous image, this shows that the larger grains are much more magnetic than the fine orange particles with a much larger volume of the grains being collected by the magnet. The image is 2 milimeters across.

    It is speculated that the orange material particles are a weathering product from the larger grains, with the weathering process both causing a color change and a loss of magnetism.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  1. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  2. Scanned probe microscope for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiburin, Vil B.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Shcherbakov, Anatolyi A.; Malakhaeva, Alina N.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Yuri P.

    1997-12-01

    In our biophysical laboratory has been developed a new scanned probe microscope (SPM) for biological application. The SPM allows to investigate a biological samples' surface by means of three different near field microscopes: scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The SPM is very rigid and can be operated in ordinary laboratory without any vibration isolation. The scanning area of the microscope is about 10 by 10 micrometers. Some different biological objects were visualized by means of the SPM viz. bacteria (E. Coli, plague, cholera, staphylococcus), macromolecules (DNA, plague proteins) and phage (T2).

  3. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  4. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  5. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  8. Microscopic theory of ultrafast spin linear reversal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G P

    2011-05-25

    A recent experiment (Vahaplar et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 117201) showed that a single femtosecond laser can reverse the spin direction without spin precession, or spin linear reversal (SLR), but its microscopic theory has been missing. Here we show that SLR does not occur naturally. Two generic spin models, the Heisenberg and Hubbard models, are employed to describe magnetic insulators and metals, respectively. We find analytically that the spin change is always accompanied by a simultaneous excitation of at least two spin components. The only model that has prospects for SLR is the Stoner single-electron band model. However, under the influence of the laser field, the orbital angular momenta are excited and are coupled to each other. If a circularly polarized light is used, then all three components of the orbital angular momenta are excited, and so are their spins. The generic spin commutation relation further reveals that if SLR exists, it must involve a complicated multiple state excitation.

  9. A preliminary training guide for utilizing high-altitude, color-infrared photography in compiling soil maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. E.; Parkhurst, W. H.; Ward, J. F.; Almond, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Instruction for acquiring and analytically processing small-scale color-infrared photography to perform a soil resources inventory over forests of the southern U.S. is provided. Planning the project; acquiring aerial photography, materials, equipment and supplemental data; and preparing the photography for analysis are discussed. The procedures for preparing ancillary and primary component overlays are discussed. The use of correlation charts and dichotomous keys for mountain landforms, water regime, and vegetation is explained.

  10. Using High Resolution Balloon Photography to Provide Topographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, K.; Bauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    For site-scale projects, the Bureau of Reclamation has used low altitude balloon photogrammetry to obtain high-resolution photographs and detailed topographic information. These data are collected in a fraction of the time and effort it would take to obtain a similar level of detail using traditional methods. This is accomplished at a significantly reduced cost compared to flying LiDAR or aerial photography, which can be prohibitively expensive for small or medium scale projects. Low altitude balloon photogrammetry is a process where overlapping photographs and ground survey control points are input into a photogrammetry software program (AdamTechnology 3DM Analyst Mine Mapping Suite) to produce orthophotographs and digital terrain model (DTM) elevation points. To acquire the photos a digital camera is attached to an 8-foot diameter helium balloon. The balloon is tethered and flown above the location of interest. The camera is controlled remotely while a live image is transmitted to a receiver on the ground. Ground survey control is established by using GPS equipment to survey ground targets placed within the area to be photographed. There are limitations to the process. Data collection is very weather dependent; too much wind causes the balloon to be unstable. Site conditions also determine the feasibility: power lines, trees, and steep embankments can cause difficulties maneuvering the balloon. Although some of the photographs show the underwater portion of the channel; there is little agreement between GPS points and the processed DTM elevations in the channel. The balloon has been used to survey large woody debris (LWD) structures and channel morphology in the Middle Fork John Day River (central Oregon) and monitoring debris after the removal of Chiloquin Dam (Sprague River, southern Oregon). Seventeen LWD structures were installed on the Middle Fork John Day River near John Day, OR in 2007 and 2008 to provide aquatic habitat. Balloon photos were obtained in

  11. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  12. Stimulated Parametric Emission Microscope Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Isobe, Keisuke

    2006-10-01

    We present a novel microscopy technique based on the fourwave mixing (FWM) process that is enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance induced by a pump pulse along with stimulated emission induced by a dump pulse. A Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used as light sources for the pump and dump pulses, respectively. We demonstrate that our FWM technique can be used to obtain two-dimensional microscopic images of an unstained leaf of Camellia sinensis and an unlabeled tobacco BY2 Cell.

  13. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue. PMID:26691398

  14. Microscopic tubes in igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, D.; Simmons, G.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic tubes have been observed in several igneous rocks and may be quite common. They occur in single crystals and have either elliptical or circular cross-sections 1 to 5 microns in diameter and are ten to hundreds of microns long. Microtubes may be hollow or partially or completely filled with another phase, but are distinct from acicular crystals of accessory minerals such as rutile. Microtubes can form by at least three processes: (1) the partial annealing of microcracks, (2) the natural etching of dislocations, or (3) the primary inclusion of fluid material during crystal growth.

  15. Electronic Photography at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jack; Judge, Nancianne

    1995-01-01

    An electronic photography facility has been established in the Imaging & Photographic Technology Section, Visual Imaging Branch, at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of this facility is to provide the LaRC community with access to digital imaging technology. In particular, capabilities have been established for image scanning, direct image capture, optimized image processing for storage, image enhancement, and optimized device dependent image processing for output. Unique approaches include: evaluation and extraction of the entire film information content through scanning; standardization of image file tone reproduction characteristics for optimal bit utilization and viewing; education of digital imaging personnel on the effects of sampling and quantization to minimize image processing related information loss; investigation of the use of small kernel optimal filters for image restoration; characterization of a large array of output devices and development of image processing protocols for standardized output. Currently, the laboratory has a large collection of digital image files which contain essentially all the information present on the original films. These files are stored at 8-bits per color, but the initial image processing was done at higher bit depths and/or resolutions so that the full 8-bits are used in the stored files. The tone reproduction of these files has also been optimized so the available levels are distributed according to visual perceptibility. Look up tables are available which modify these files for standardized output on various devices, although color reproduction has been allowed to float to some extent to allow for full utilization of output device gamut.

  16. Using digital photography to examine grazing in montane meadows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Berg, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) numbers on national forests are allocated based on allotment grazing capacity, but spatial patterns of timing and density at smaller scales are difficult to assess. However, it is often in meadows or riparian areas that grazing may affect hydrology, biodiversity, and other important ecosystem characteristics. To explore real-time animal presence in montane meadows we distributed 18 digital cameras across nine sites in the Sierra National Forest, California. Our objectives were to document seasonal and diurnal presence of both cattle and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), identify the effects of three fencing treatments on animal distribution, and test digital photography as a tool for documenting cattle presence. We recorded 409 399 images during daylight hours for two grazing seasons, and we identified 5 084 and 24 482 cattle "marks" (instances of animal occurrence) in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Deer presence was much lower, with 331 marks in 2006 and 598 in 2007. Morning cattle presence was highest before 0800 hours both years (13.7% and 15.4% of total marks for 2006 and 2007, respectively). Marks decreased until 1100 hours and then increased around 1400 hours and remained relatively stable until 1900 hours. Marks then rose precipitously, with >20% of total marks recorded after 1900 hours both years. Deer presence was less than 10% per hour until 1800 hours, when >20% of total marks were recorded after this time both years. Among treatments, cattle marks were highest outside fences at partially fenced meadows, and deer were highest within completely fenced meadows. Our experience suggests that cameras are not viable tools for meadow monitoring due to variation captured within meadows and the time and effort involved in image processing and review.

  17. Direct Observation of Two Proton Radioactivity Using Digital Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pfutzner, M.; Dominik, Wojciech; Janas, Z.; Miernik, K.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, Henryk; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, Waldemar; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, Mustafa; Stolz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently the observation of a new type of spontaneous radioactive decay has been claimed in which two protons are simultaneously ejected by an atomic nucleus from the ground state1,2,3. Experimental data obtained for the extremely neutron-deficient nuclei 45Fe and 54Zn, were interpreted as the first evidence of such a decay mode which has been sought since 1960.4 However, the technique applied in those studies allowed only measurements of the decay time and the total energy released. Particles emitted in the decay were not identified and the conclusions had to be supported by theoretical arguments. Here we show for the first time, directly and unambiguously, that 45Fe indeed disintegrates by two-proton decay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the decay branch of this isotope leads to various particle emission channels including two-proton and three-proton emission. To achieve this result we have developed a new type of detector V the Optical Time Projection Chamber (OTPC) in which digital photography is applied to nuclear physics for the first time. The detector records images of tracks from charged particles, allowing for their unambiguous identification and the reconstruction of decay events in three dimensions. This new and simple technique provides a powerful method to identify exotic decay channels involving emission of charged particles. It is expected that further studies with the OTPC device will yield important information on nuclei located at and beyond the proton drip-line, thus providing new material for testing and improving models of very unstable atomic nuclei.

  18. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  19. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  20. Tomographic reconstruction of three-dimensional density fields using laser speckle photography and laser interferometry projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hanseo

    The reconstruction accuracies of Fourier convolution (FC) and algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) are examined for laser speckle photography and laser interferometry. Computer synthesized phantoms are used to calculate asymmetric density fields for limited cases of 5 and 3 projections. To simulate experimental uncertainties, random noise levels are imposed on projected data before they are used for reconstruction. Experiments are also performed for a speckle photography system, a Mach- Zehnder interferometer, and an oxygen analyzer for a half-blocked nozzle and a two-hole nozzle to measure asymmetric helium density fields. Reconstructed density fields are calculated by the FC and the ART from projected data of the speckle photography and the interferometry. The reconstructed fields are compared with the results of the directly measured data using oxygen analyzer. The non-algebraic ART requires a modification for its use for laser speckle photography. Both the ART and the FC have been used for both non- algebraic speckle photography and algebraic interferometry. The present ART method shows a significant improvement in the reconstruction accuracy over the existing Fourier convolution (FC) method.

  1. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    PubMed

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.

  2. Inspection with Robotic Microscopic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Liam; Deans, Matthew; Kunz, Clay; Sargent, Randy; Chen, Alan; Mungas, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Future Mars rover missions will require more advanced onboard autonomy for increased scientific productivity and reduced mission operations cost. One such form of autonomy can be achieved by targeting precise science measurements to be made in a single command uplink cycle. In this paper we present an overview of our solution to the subproblems of navigating a rover into place for microscopic imaging, mapping an instrument target point selected by an operator using far away science camera images to close up hazard camera images, verifying the safety of placing a contact instrument on a sample or finding nearby safe points, and analyzing the data that comes back from the rover. The system developed includes portions used in the Multiple Target Single Cycle Instrument Placement demonstration at NASA Ames in October 2004, and portions of the MI Toolkit delivered to the Athena Microscopic Imager Instrument Team for the MER mission still operating on Mars today. Some of the component technologies are also under consideration for MSL mission infusion.

  3. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  4. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  5. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  6. Martian Magnets Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this microscopic imager view of its capture magnet on sol 92 (April 6, 2004). Both Spirit and the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity are equipped with a number of magnets. The capture magnet, as seen here, has a stronger charge than its sidekick, the filter magnet. The lower-powered filter magnet captures only the most magnetic airborne dust with the strongest charges, while the capture magnet picks up all magnetic airborne dust.

    The magnets' primary purpose is to collect the martian magnetic dust so that scientists can analyze it with the rovers' Moessbauer spectrometers. While there is plenty of dust on the surface of Mars, it is difficult to confirm where it came from, and when it was last airborne. Because scientists are interested in learning about the properties of the dust in the atmosphere, they devised this dust-collection experiment.

    The capture magnet is about 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter and is constructed with a central cylinder and three rings, each with alternating orientations of magnetization. Scientists have been monitoring the continual accumulation of dust since the beginning of the mission with panoramic camera and microscopic imager images. They had to wait until enough dust accumulated before they could get a Moessbauer spectrometer analysis. The results of that analysis, performed on sol 92, have not been sent back to Earth yet.

  7. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  8. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, B.; Cerca, M.; García-Márquez, J.; Hernández-Bernal, C.

    2008-04-01

    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies.

  9. Global geologic applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, M. J.; Pitts, David; Amsbury, David

    1993-01-01

    The advantages of the astronaut photography during Space Shuttle missions are briefly examined, and the scope and applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database are discussed. The global and multidisciplinary nature of the data base is illustrated by several examples of geologic applications. These include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippine Islands), heat flow and ice cover on Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia), and windblown dust in South America. It is noted that hand-held photography from the U.S. Space Shuttle provides unique remotely-sensed data for geologic applications because of the combination of varying perspectives, look angles, and illumination, and changing resolution resulting from different lenses and altitudes.

  10. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2008-04-15

    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies.

  11. Hinko Emili of Rijeka: a physician, a scientist and a photography enthusiast.

    PubMed

    Radovancevic, Ljubomir

    2008-01-01

    This review is dedicated to the life and work of a physician, scientist, and university professor Hinko Emili (Rijeka, 1900-1983). Particular attention has been given to the artistic part of his vast work. As an epidemiologist, he was particularly interested in water (its sources, exploitation, distribution, disease-causing bacteria, microorganisms, and chemical elements in it). The article brings a bibliography counting 84 published research articles. Just as interesting is Dr Emili's work in photography, which went beyond mere hobby and has a genuine artistic merit. Well many documents witness to either of his passions. Describing the sophisticated artistic atmosphere in the Rijeka of the 1920s and 1930s, this article shows how much of it is owed to amateur and art photography. It concludes that both passions of professor Hinko Emili- medicine and art photography - share a common drive, that is, his strong sense of humanism and a subtle outlook on the world of his time.

  12. Reviews and syntheses: Australian vegetation phenology: new insights from satellite remote sensing and digital repeat photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Caitlin E.; Brown, Tim; Keenan, Trevor F.; Duursma, Remko A.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Beringer, Jason; Culvenor, Darius; Evans, Bradley; Huete, Alfredo; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Maier, Stefan; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Sonnentag, Oliver; Specht, Alison; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; van Gorsel, Eva; Liddell, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological occurrences and can provide important insights into the influence of climatic variability and change on ecosystems. Understanding Australia's vegetation phenology is a challenge due to its diverse range of ecosystems, from savannas and tropical rainforests to temperate eucalypt woodlands, semi-arid scrublands, and alpine grasslands. These ecosystems exhibit marked differences in seasonal patterns of canopy development and plant life-cycle events, much of which deviates from the predictable seasonal phenological pulse of temperate deciduous and boreal biomes. Many Australian ecosystems are subject to irregular events (i.e. drought, flooding, cyclones, and fire) that can alter ecosystem composition, structure, and functioning just as much as seasonal change. We show how satellite remote sensing and ground-based digital repeat photography (i.e. phenocams) can be used to improve understanding of phenology in Australian ecosystems. First, we examine temporal variation in phenology on the continental scale using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), calculated from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Spatial gradients are revealed, ranging from regions with pronounced seasonality in canopy development (i.e. tropical savannas) to regions where seasonal variation is minimal (i.e. tropical rainforests) or high but irregular (i.e. arid ecosystems). Next, we use time series colour information extracted from phenocam imagery to illustrate a range of phenological signals in four contrasting Australian ecosystems. These include greening and senescing events in tropical savannas and temperate eucalypt understorey, as well as strong seasonal dynamics of individual trees in a seemingly static evergreen rainforest. We also demonstrate how phenology links with ecosystem gross primary productivity (from eddy covariance) and discuss why these processes are linked in some ecosystems but not others. We conclude that

  13. Using Photography as a Method to Explore Adolescent Challenges and Resilience in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cathryn; Schatz, Desmond A.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Lyles, Shannon; Rohrs, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered approaches to disease management are consistently recognized as valuable tools for improving health outcomes, yet studies are rarely designed to elicit adolescent perspectives. This study sought to better understand the perspectives of youths with type 1 diabetes according to key demographic variables. We conducted an exploratory study through which 40 youths were provided with disposable cameras and prompted to take five photographs each that captured what diabetes meant to them and to provide narratives to accompany their photo choices. Demographic variables examined included sex, age, disease duration, socioeconomic status (SES), race, and glycemic control (A1C). Content analysis was used for photos and open-ended responses to assign photo index scores, which were then analyzed by demographic variables using Mann-Whitney U tests for statistical significance. Analysis of photos/narratives (n = 202) revealed five main types of representations depicted by at least 50% of the young people. “Challenge” photos included diabetes supplies as tethering, food as a source of frustration, and the body as a territory for disease encroachment. “Resilience” photos included coping mechanisms and symbols of resistance. Overall, these representations were consistent across demographic categories with two exceptions. Males took more food depictions than females (P <0.005) and had fewer coping depictions (P <0.05). Youths from more affluent households were more likely to take photos of resistance (P <0.05). The use of photo index scores expands previous studies using photography by comparing demographic variation within a sample. Our findings provide insight into coping strategies and indicate that SES may provide an advantage for affluent youths in meeting diabetes-specific challenges. PMID:25987807

  14. The Gold of Naples: the volcanic landscape throught photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Serio, Claudio; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In the last twenty years, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, section of Naples Vesuvius Observatory, public research institute in charge of volcanic research and surveillance, Italy, publish a thematic calendar about volcanoes. This year, the Vesuvius Observatory has produced a calendar dedicated to the volcanoes of the city of Naples, from Mount Vesuvius, the island of Ischia and the Campi Flegrei caldera. The great treasures of this beautiful city, among the oldest in Europe ever, are exemplified here by its volcanoes. 'The Gold of Naples', the subject of this calendar, is represented by the splendor of the territory, the culture and the passion of its people, and is inextricably linked to the presence of volcanoes. The volcanoes have given the fertility, the splendor of the landscape and the climate, the warmth and flavor of its thermal waters, the gentle hills and the safe haven of its natural inlets; and they have always been, for people that lives and loves this country since at least 4,000 years, an irresistible attraction. The meaning that we wanted to give is to look at the volcanoes not only as risk, but also as a large land resources, as they were always considered. In the images of the calendar we wanted to put in evidence the bridge between of art and science through photography, the impression of beauty and strength given to this land from its volcanoes, and along with their interaction with the history and culture of these areas. An immanent presence that certainly have to, now more than ever, warn us to respect volcanic nature, very rich but dangerous, using the knowledge to defend ourselves against the most devastating manifestations, fortunately rare, of volcanoes themselves. A tribute to Naples, its beauty and passion, which implies a strong hope in the future: the volcanic risk is seen today as an opportunity to redesign and make safe and accessible one of the most beautiful territory in the world, enhancing at most the great

  15. Photography and Oral History as a Means of Chronicling the Homeless in Miami: The "StreetWays" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F.; Ameen, Edward; Bengochea, Alain; Doorn, Kristen; Pontier, Ryan; Sembiante, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of Photography and Oral History research methods as part of a collaborative research project on homelessness in Miami. Issues involving the use of documentary photography and oral history as a means of creating greater social awareness in the general public are explored, as well as broader issues of Social Justice.…

  16. Remote sensing evaluation of the Klondike Mining District, Nevada. Part 1: Geology, photography and infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Chapman, P. E.; Chipp, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    During August of 1970 Mission 140 was flown with the NASA P3A aircraft over the Klondike Mining District, Nevada. High quality metric photography, thermal infrared imagery, multispectral photography and multichannel microwave radiometry were obtained. Geology and ground truth data are presented and relationships of the physical attributes of geologic materials to remotely sensed data is discussed. It is concluded that remote sensing data was valuable in the geologic evaluation of the Klondike Mining District and would be of value in other mining districts.

  17. [Medical photography and cinematography before 1914: privileged rapport with the neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Aubert, M G

    2000-01-01

    Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, professor at the Université catholique de Louvain, was an enthusiastic user of photography and a pioneer of medical cinematography. He used these techniques widely in order to illustrate his lectures, papers and his neurological textbook. His films and photographic plates are at the present time being studied and restored. The nitrate films are the oldest belgian films surviving. Neuroscientists have played a major role in the development of medical photography and cinematography and in the use of these techniques for clinical, research or didactic purposes.

  18. Detection and damage assessment of citrus tree losses with aerial color infrared photography /ACIR/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.

  19. EROS main image file - A picture perfect database for Landsat imagery and aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1966 under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. The retrieval system employed to search the EROS database is called INORAC (Inquiry, Ordering, and Accounting). A description is given of the types of images identified in EROS, taking into account Landsat imagery, Skylab images, Gemini/Apollo photography, and NASA aerial photography. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File.

  20. Mirrors in early clinical photography (1862-1882): a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Horgmo, Øystein H

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-nineteenth century, photographers used mirrors to document different views of a patient in the same image. The first clinical photographs were taken by portrait photographers. As conventions for clinical photography were not yet established, early clinical photographs resemble contemporary portraits. The use of mirrors in clinical photography probably originated from the portrait studios, as several renowned photographers employed mirrors in their studio portraits. Clinical photographs taken for the US Army Medical Museum between 1862 and 1882 show different ways of employing this mirror technique.