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Sample records for microsphere derived cerebral

  1. Radioactive microsphere study of cerebral blood flow under acceleration. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlees, K.J.; Yoder, J.E.; Toth, D.M.; Oloff, C.M.; Karl, A.

    1980-11-01

    A study using radioactive microspheres for the investigation of cerebral blood flow during acceleration is described. Details of a technique for the blunt dissection of cerebral tissues are included. Results of flow studies at 3 and 5 G sub z acceleration stress indicate there is no selective regional preservation of cerebral tissue. (Author)

  2. Unilateral intracarotid injection of holmium microspheres to induce bilateral MRI-validated cerebral embolization in rats.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Fellery; Dieleman, Jan M; Blezer, Erwin L A; Houston, Ralph J F; Kalkman, Cor J; Nijsen, J Frank W

    2009-01-30

    Cerebral embolization models have been hindered by the fact that delivery is predominantly one-sided and cannot be quantified easily. We have developed a model for bilateral cerebral micro-embolization. By using holmium microspheres, it is possible to quantify intracerebral delivery using MRI. To validate the quantification of holmium microspheres a phantom study was performed in which concentration of microspheres in solution was compared with the number of holmium-induced artifacts on MRI. After that identical microspheres were administered by unilateral injection in the carotid artery, while the opposite carotid artery was clamped. On post-injection MRI scans, intracerebral delivery and right/left distribution of the microspheres was determined. In the phantom study it was shown that quantification by MRI is possible and that MRI artifacts represent single microspheres. In the rat brain, about one-third of the injected dose was consistently located on the contralateral side. The administration was reproducible regarding distribution and number of microspheres. The use of holmium microspheres enables quantification of delivered dose as single microspheres induce artifacts on MRI. By clamping the contralateral carotid artery, one-third of the dose is diverted to the contralateral hemisphere.

  3. Iodine derivatives of chemically modified gum Arabic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat A; Ali, Akbar; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2015-09-20

    Acetylated gum Arabic (AGA) derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS 0.97-2.74) were synthesized using acetyl chloride and a base under varying reaction conditions. The AGA derivatives were obtained in the form of microspheres and thereafter stable iodine products were prepared by doping the microspheres with an iodinating agent, iodine monochloride (ICl). The reaction between electrophilic iodine and polar carbonyl groups was studied by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The products were also characterized by DSC, TGA and SEM studies. The incorporated iodine was released in aqueous medium as iodide ions (I(-)). A reaction scheme has been proposed for the iodination and de-iodination of the gum derivatives. This work suggests that the iodine derivatives of modified gum Arabic could be used as a source of iodide ions which is the nutritional form of iodine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a fluorescent microsphere technique for rapid histological determination of cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Eucker, Stephanie A.; Hoffman, Brenton D.; Natesh, Rahul; Ralston, Jill; Armstead, William M.; Margulies, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a more efficient fluorescent microsphere method to facilitate the rapid use of the histological technique and to enable its use in large tissue regions. Using fluorescent plate/slide imaging technology and automated detection and analysis software, we were able to rapidly image, detect, and count 3 separate microsphere colors in 200 μm-thick tissue sections from piglet brain. In resting newborn piglets (n = 6) on isoflurane anesthesia, we measured a median total cerebral blood flow (CBF) of 105 ml/min/100g (range 27–206 ml/min/100g). Compared with other FM analysis methods, our method reduces the time required to determine blood flow, improves accuracy in lipid-rich tissues and large tissue regions and, unlike the radiolabeled microsphere method, can be combined with histological analysis. PMID:20193669

  5. Development of a fluorescent microsphere technique for rapid histological determination of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Eucker, Stephanie A; Hoffman, Brenton D; Natesh, Rahul; Ralston, Jill; Armstead, William M; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-04-22

    The purpose of this study was to develop a more efficient fluorescent microsphere method to facilitate the rapid use of the histological technique and to enable its use in large tissue regions. Using fluorescent plate/slide imaging technology and automated detection and analysis software, we were able to rapidly image, detect, and count 3 separate microsphere colors in 200 microm thick tissue sections from piglet brain. In resting newborn piglets (n=6) on isoflurane anesthesia, we measured a median total cerebral blood flow (CBF) of 105 ml/min/100g (range 27-206 ml/min/100 g). Compared with other FM analysis methods, our method reduces the time required to determine blood flow, improves accuracy in lipid-rich tissues and large tissue regions and, unlike the radiolabeled microsphere method, can be combined with histological analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-03

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes.

  7. Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Vital information on a person's physical condition can be obtained by identifying and counting the population of T-cells and B-cells, lymphocytes of the same shape and size that help the immune system protect the body from the invasion of disease. The late Dr. Alan Rembaum developed a method for identifying the cells. The method involved tagging the T-cells and B-cells with microspheres of different fluorescent color. Microspheres, which have fluorescent dye embedded in them, are chemically treated so that they can link with antibodies. With the help of a complex antibody/antigen reaction, the microspheres bind themselves to specific 'targets,' in this case the T-cells or B-cells. Each group of cells can then be analyzed by a photoelectronic instrument at different wavelengths emitted by the fluorescent dyes. Same concept was applied to the separation of cancer cells from normal cells. Microspheres were also used to conduct many other research projects. Under a patent license Magsphere, Inc. is producing a wide spectrum of microspheres on a large scale and selling them worldwide for various applications.

  8. Effects of nefiracetam on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synapsin I mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of microsphere-embolized rats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tsuyoshi; Takagi, Norio; Takagi, Keiko; Kago, Tomoyuki; Takeo, Satoshi

    2005-01-10

    Our recent study demonstrated that nefiracetam, N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, prevented impairment of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in sustained cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether nefiracetam has an effect on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin I mRNAs that are believed to be produced via CREB, and the alteration in their protein contents in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. Sustained cerebral ischemia was induced by injection of 700 microspheres into the right hemisphere of each rat. The rats were treated once daily with 10 mg/kg nefiracetam, p.o., from 15 h after the operation. Treatment with nefiracetam reduced the prolongation of the escape latency in the water maze test on days 7-9 after microsphere embolism-induced sustained cerebral ischemia, suggesting an improvement in the spatial learning function. Microsphere-embolized rats on day 5 showed decreases in BDNF and synapsin I mRNA levels and their protein contents in the ipsilateral hippocampus. Treatment with nefiracetam partially attenuated the decreases. These results suggest that enhancement of BDNF and synapsin I expression by nefiracetam treatment may be, at least in part, due to the improvement in the CREB binding activity, contributing to the prevention of learning and memory dysfunction after sustained cerebral ischemia.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres consisting of dextran derivatives and cellulose acetate butyrate.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Ogihara, Kanako; Yakou, Shigeru; Nagai, Tsuneji; Takayama, Kozo

    2003-06-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate mucoadhesive properties and gastrointestinal transit of microspheres made of oppositely charged dextran derivatives and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). The microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. A reference microsphere was made of lactose instead of dextran derivatives. Microspheres with a diameter of 425-710 microm were examined for in vitro mucoadhesion by the everted sac method. The results indicated that the percentage of adherence to the rat small intestine was affected by the amount of dextran derivatives in the microspheres. After 1.5h, the adhering percent of the reference microspheres and the microspheres containing 50% of dextran derivatives were 34 and 74%, respectively. Then gastrointestinal transit after oral administration to rats was evaluated by counting the microspheres remaining in the stomach and small intestine. The microspheres containing 40% of dextran derivatives adhered to the stomach rather than the small intestine. Mathematical analysis revealed that the time required for 50% of microspheres to leave the stomach was 1.42h, three times longer than the reference. These findings suggest that the microsphere is a promising device as a multiple-unit mucoadhesive system.

  10. Cerebral blood flow quantification in the rat: a direct comparison of arterial spin labeling MRI with radioactive microsphere PET

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) has been recognised as a valuable method for non-invasive assessment of cerebral blood flow but validation studies regarding quantification accuracy by comparison against an accepted gold standard are scarce, especially in small animals. We have conducted the present study with the aim of comparing ASL flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-derived unidirectional water uptake (K1) and 68Ga/64Cu microsphere (MS)-derived blood flow (f) in the rat brain. Methods In 15 animals, K1and f were determined successively in dedicated small animal positron emission tomography and MR scanners. The Renkin-Crone model modified by a scaling factor was used for the quantification of f and K1. Results Below about 1 mL/min/mL, we obtain an approximately linear relationship between f and K1. At higher flow values, the limited permeability of water at the blood brain barrier becomes apparent. Within the accessed dynamic flow range (0.2 to 1.9 mL/min/mL), the data are adequately described by the Renkin-Crone model yielding a permeability surface area product of (1.53±0.46) mL/min/mL. Conclusion The ASL-FAIR technique is suitable for absolute blood flow quantification in the rat brain when using a one-compartment model including a suitable extraction correction for data evaluation. Trial registration 24-9168.21-4/2004-1 (registered in Freistadt Sachsen, Landesdirektion Dresden) PMID:22978819

  11. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Delivery into Collagen Gels Using Chitosan Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Baer, David G.; Walters, Thomas J.; Babu, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Integration of stem cells to injured tissues requires an appropriate delivery device and scaffolding system. In the present study we have developed an in vitro strategy to load and release adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) from chitosan microspheres (CSM) into a collagen gel scaffold. Porous CSM of uniform size and composition were prepared and used as a stem cell carrier. ASC were allowed to attach to the microspheres and infiltrate through the microsphere pores. The number of viable cells was counted in vitro, using MTT and Calcein acetoxymethyl ester (AM) assays, and it showed a proportional increase with seeding density and reached a maximum cell number by 24 h. The cells inside the microspheres remained metabolically active and viable, could be retrieved from the spheres, and maintained expression of stem-cell-specific markers. Electron microscopic evaluation of the cell–microsphere complex showed that the CSM were able to support cell attachment and that the cells had infiltrated into the pores of the microspheres. The ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate into adipogenic- and osteogenic-like precursors indicates that the cells have maintained their multipotency after migration out of the microspheres. To mimic cell delivery into a tissue, ASC-loaded CSM were embedded in type-1 collagen scaffold by mixing them with type-1 collagen solution while inducing gelation. By 14 days the cells released into the collagen gel and were able to populate the entire scaffold. When observed through transmission electron microscopy, the cells align along the collagen fibrils with a characteristic fibroblast-like morphology. This study provides a model to capture pluripotent stem cells, expand their cell number within a biomaterial scaffold in vitro, and deliver within an appropriate matrix to repair damaged tissue. PMID:19916819

  12. Nuclear fuel pellets fabricated from gel-derived microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, R. B.; Hart, P. E.

    1980-09-01

    UO2 pellets were fabricated from UO3 gel microspheres by a combined gel-sphere/pellet fabrication process. Desirable sphere properties were established; calcining cycles, pressing conditions, and sintering cycles sufficient to fabricate UO2 pellets with densities up to 96% TD were determined. The stoichoimetry, activity, density, size and deformability of the spheres had to be within specific ranges for fabrication of high density, crack-free pellets. Preliminary attempts to fabricate ThO2 and ThO2 -UO2 pellets are also described.

  13. Citrus Pectin-Derived Carbon Microspheres with Superior Adsorption Ability for Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, citrus pectin-derived, green, and tunable carbon microspheres with superior adsorption capacity and high adsorption rate, as well as good reusability toward methylene blue adsorption, were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method without any hazardous chemicals. The materials hold great potential for the treatment of methylene blue wastewater. PMID:28665303

  14. Radiosterilisation of indomethacin PLGA/PEG-derivative microspheres: protective effects of low temperature during gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carballido, Ana; Puebla, Patricia; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Pastoriza, Pilar

    2006-04-26

    Currently, gamma-irradiation seems to be a good method for sterilising drug delivery systems made from biodegradable polymers. The gamma-irradiation of microspheres can cause several physicochemical changes in the polymeric matrix. These modifications are affected by the temperature, irradiation dose and nature of the encapsulated drug and additives. This study has aimed to evaluate the influence of temperature during the sterilisation process by gamma irradiation in indomethacin PLGA microspheres including a PEG-derivative. Microspheres were prepared by the solvent evaporation method from o/w emulsion and were then exposed to gamma-irradiation. A dose of 25 kGy was used to ensure effective sterilisation. Some microspheres were sterilised with dry ice protection that guaranteed a low temperature during the process whilst others were sterilised without such dry ice protection. The effects of gamma-irradiation on the characteristics of non-loaded PLGA/PEG-derivative and indomethacin loaded PLGA/PEG-derivative microspheres with and without protection were studied. Non-protected microspheres showed changes in their morphological surface, polymer glass transition temperature, molecular weight and release rate of indomethacin after sterilisation. However, microspheres sterilised with protection did not show significant differences after gamma-irradiation exposure. The sterilisation method was satisfactory when the indomethacin loaded microspheres including a PEG-derivative were exposed to gamma-irradiation at low temperature.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow by the xenon/CT method and the microsphere method. A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, D.; Yonas, H.; Jackson, D.L.; Wolfson, S.K. Jr.; Rockette, H.; Good, W.F.; Cook, E.E.; Arena, V.C.; Willy, J.A.; Maitz, G.S.

    1985-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow have been performed in baboons to assess the correlation between the acute and invasive nondiffusible microsphere technique and the noninvasive xenon-enhanced CT method. Blood flows in small tissue volumes (approximately 1 cm3) were directly compared. The results of these studies demonstrate a statistically significant association between the two methods (P less than .001). Similar correlations were obtained by both the Kendall tau (tau) and the Spearman (r) methods. The problems and limitations of such correlations are discussed.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic performances of hierarchical ZnO/ZnAl2O4 microsphere derived from layered double hydroxide precursor spray-dried microsphere.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ruijie; Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Zhiping; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Sailong

    2013-10-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also called hydrotalcites, have been widely investigated for degradation of dye molecules, in the forms of direct photocatalysts, supports or precursors to ZnO-containing photocatalysts. LDH precursor-derived ZnO/ZnAl2O4 photocatalytic nanostructures have hitherto been created, involving ZnO/ZnAl2O4 powder and templated hierarchical frameworks with laboratory-scale preparations. We herein report a scalable preparation of ZnO/ZnAl2O4 microsphere derived from ZnAl-LDH precursor spray-dried microsphere. Survey of textural properties shows that ZnO/ZnAl2O4 microspheres maintain the hierarchically spherical feature and the relatively large surface area. Photocatalytic evaluation under UV irradiation shows that the ZnO/ZnAl2O4 microspheres exhibit highly enhanced photodegradation performance to methylene blue (MB) in comparison with the commercial ZnO powder. A preferential photodegradation to methyl orange (MO) of the MO/MB mixture was also observed, which was illustrated experimentally in terms of the favorable interaction and distribution between basic MO molecules and the acidic-site ZnO/ZnAl2O4 photocatalyst. Our results may initiate large-scale production of microspheres with promising photocatalytic performances.

  17. Validity of microsphere model in cerebral blood flow measurement using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, K.; Tanada, S.; Mogami, H.; Kawamura, M.; Miyagawa, M.; Yamada, M.; Higashino, H.; Lio, A.; Hamamoto, K. )

    1990-01-01

    A microsphere model is sometimes used when calculating cerebral blood flow (CBF) using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine (IMP), and is based on the assumption that there is essentially no washout of IMP. The validity of a microsphere model was investigated by comparison with the values of CBF obtained by means of a model which takes into consideration the diffusion of IMP from brain tissue to blood (nonmicrosphere model). When calculating CBF by the latter model, the look-up table method was used with expression of the double integral in the model equation by the recursion relations, a method which is useful for obtaining pixel-by-pixel values. The average rate constants for diffusion from brain to blood of gray and white matter were 0.021 and 0.0016 min-1, respectively. The values of CBF obtained by applying a microsphere model to the data acquired from 0 to 3.2 min after IMP injection were overestimated by approximately 23% compared with those values obtained using a nonmicrosphere model. This is considered to be due to the effect of the IMP activity in the vascular space. Values obtained using the data acquired from 3.2 to 6.4 min were underestimated by approximately 15%. When the values of CBF obtained by a microsphere model were interpolated, they became nearly equal to those obtained using a nonmicrosphere model at about 4 to 5 min after injection. This is suggested to be the reason why the underestimation due to diffusion from brain to blood is cancelled out by the overestimation due to the IMP in the vascular space. Our preliminary results suggest that it is necessary to take the diffusion of IMP from brain tissue to blood into account for the quantification of CBF using IMP.

  18. Intracardiac Echocardiography Guided Transeptal Catheter Injection of Microspheres for Assessment of Cerebral Microcirculation in Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Bellapart, Judith; Dunster, Kimble R.; Diab, Sara; Platts, David G.; Raffel, Christopher; Maybauer, Marc O.; Barnett, Adrian; Boots, Robert James; Fraser, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microspheres for the determination of regional microvascular blood flow (RMBF) has previously used different approaches. This study presents for the first time the intracardiac injection of microspheres using transeptal puncture under intracardiac echocardiography guidance. Five Merino sheep were instrumented and cardiovascularly supported according to local guidelines. Two catheter sheaths into the internal jugular vein facilitated the introduction of an intracardiac probe and transeptal catheter, respectively. Five million colour coded microspheres were injected into the left atrium via this catheter. After euthanasia the brain was used as proof of principle and the endpoint for determination of microcirculation at different time points. Homogeneous allocation of microspheres to different regions of the brain was found over time. Alternate slices from both hemispheres showed the following flow ranges: for slice 02; 0.57–1.02 mL/min/g, slice 04; 0.45–1.42 mL/min/g, slice 06; 0.35–1.87 mL/min/g, slice 08; 0.46–1.77 mL/min/g, slice 10; 0.34–1.28 mL/min/g. A mixed effect regression model demonstrated that the confidence interval did include zero suggesting that the apparent variability intra- and intersubject was not statistically significant, supporting the stability and reproducibility of the injection technique. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the transeptal injection of microspheres, showing a homogeneous distribution of blood flow through the brain unchanged over time and has established a new interventional model for the measurement of RMBF in ovine models. PMID:24102032

  19. Recombinant human collagen-based microspheres mitigate cardiac conduction slowing induced by adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Smit, Nicoline W; Ten Sande, Judith N; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van Amersfoorth, Shirley C M; Plantinga, Josée A; van Spreuwel-Goossens, Carolien A F M; van Dongen, Elisabeth M W M; van Dessel, Pascal F H M; Kluijtmans, Sebastianus G J M; Meijborg, Veronique M F; de Bakker, Jacques M T; Harmsen, Martin C; Coronel, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell therapy to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction is hampered by poor cell retention, while it may also increase the risk of arrhythmias by providing an arrhythmogenic substrate. We previously showed that porcine adipose tissue-derived-stromal cells (pASC) induce conduction slowing through paracrine actions, whereas rat ASC (rASC) and human ASC (hASC) induce conduction slowing by direct coupling. We postulate that biomaterial microspheres mitigate the conduction slowing influence of pASC by interacting with paracrine signaling. To investigate the modulation of ASC-loaded recombinant human collagen-based microspheres, on the electrophysiological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). Unipolar extracellular electrograms, derived from microelectrode arrays (8x8 electrodes) containing NRVM, co-cultured with ASC or ASC loaded microspheres, were used to determine conduction velocity (CV) and conduction heterogeneity. Conditioned medium (Cme) of (co)cultures was used to assess paracrine mechanisms. Microspheres did not affect CV in control (NRVM) monolayers. In co-cultures of NRVM and rASC, hASC or pASC, CV was lower than in controls (14.4±1.0, 13.0±0.6 and 9.0± 1.0 vs. 19.5±0.5 cm/s respectively, p<0.001). Microspheres loaded with either rASC or hASC still induced conduction slowing compared to controls (13.5±0.4 and 12.6±0.5 cm/s respectively, p<0.001). However, pASC loaded microspheres increased CV of NRVM compared to pASC and NRMV co-cultures (16.3±1.3 cm/s, p< 0.001) and did not differ from controls (p = NS). Cme of pASC reduced CV in control monolayers of NRVM (10.3±1.1 cm/s, p<0.001), similar to Cme derived from pASC-loaded microspheres (11.1±1.7 cm/s, p = 1.0). The presence of microspheres in monolayers of NRVM abolished the CV slowing influence of Cme pASC (15.9±1.0 cm/s, p = NS vs. control). The application of recombinant human collagen-based microspheres mitigates indirect paracrine conduction slowing through

  20. Recombinant human collagen-based microspheres mitigate cardiac conduction slowing induced by adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    van Amersfoorth, Shirley C. M.; Plantinga, Josée A.; van Spreuwel-Goossens, Carolien A. F. M.; van Dongen, Elisabeth M. W. M.; van Dessel, Pascal F. H. M.; Kluijtmans, Sebastianus G. J. M.; Meijborg, Veronique M. F.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Coronel, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Background Stem cell therapy to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction is hampered by poor cell retention, while it may also increase the risk of arrhythmias by providing an arrhythmogenic substrate. We previously showed that porcine adipose tissue-derived-stromal cells (pASC) induce conduction slowing through paracrine actions, whereas rat ASC (rASC) and human ASC (hASC) induce conduction slowing by direct coupling. We postulate that biomaterial microspheres mitigate the conduction slowing influence of pASC by interacting with paracrine signaling. Aim To investigate the modulation of ASC-loaded recombinant human collagen-based microspheres, on the electrophysiological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). Method Unipolar extracellular electrograms, derived from microelectrode arrays (8x8 electrodes) containing NRVM, co-cultured with ASC or ASC loaded microspheres, were used to determine conduction velocity (CV) and conduction heterogeneity. Conditioned medium (Cme) of (co)cultures was used to assess paracrine mechanisms. Results Microspheres did not affect CV in control (NRVM) monolayers. In co-cultures of NRVM and rASC, hASC or pASC, CV was lower than in controls (14.4±1.0, 13.0±0.6 and 9.0± 1.0 vs. 19.5±0.5 cm/s respectively, p<0.001). Microspheres loaded with either rASC or hASC still induced conduction slowing compared to controls (13.5±0.4 and 12.6±0.5 cm/s respectively, p<0.001). However, pASC loaded microspheres increased CV of NRVM compared to pASC and NRMV co-cultures (16.3±1.3 cm/s, p< 0.001) and did not differ from controls (p = NS). Cme of pASC reduced CV in control monolayers of NRVM (10.3±1.1 cm/s, p<0.001), similar to Cme derived from pASC-loaded microspheres (11.1±1.7 cm/s, p = 1.0). The presence of microspheres in monolayers of NRVM abolished the CV slowing influence of Cme pASC (15.9±1.0 cm/s, p = NS vs. control). Conclusion The application of recombinant human collagen-based microspheres mitigates indirect

  1. Release profiles of theophylline from microspheres consisting of dextran derivatives and cellulose acetate butyrate: effect of polyion complex formation.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Yakou, Shigeru; Nagai, Tsuneji; Takayama, Kozo

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of mixtures among oppositely charged dextran derivatives as constituents of a controlled release microsphere. Carboxymethyldextran (CMD) and dextran sulfate (DS) were used as polyanions, and [2-(diethylamino) ethyl] dextran (EA) and [2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium] dextran (CDC) as polycations. The microspheres consisting of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers were prepared by emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The mixtures, CMD/EA, CMD/CDC, DS/EA, and DS/CDC, were used as hydrophilic polymers, because they can interact with each other to form polyion complexes for the improvement of sustained-release performances. Cellulose acetate butyrate and theophylline were used as a model hydrophobic polymer and a model drug, respectively. The yield of microspheres was excellent (more than 95%). According to observation, by scanning election microscopy (SEM) microspheres were spherical with a rough surface. The in vitro drug release from microspheres was examined in the JP XIV first fluid, pH 1.2, and second fluid, p H 6.8, at 37 degrees C, and 100 rpm. In the DS/CDC system, drug release was depressed by formation of a polyion complex and not affected by pH of dissolution medium. The release rate was modulated by the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic matrix. This particulate system, in which the polyion complex matrix is strengthened by a hydrophobic polymer, is a promising formulation for drug delivery.

  2. Cerebral perfusion imaging with albumin microspheres tagged with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In in cases with internal carotid occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Etani, H.; Kimura, K.; Yoneda, S.; Tsuda, Y.; Isaka, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Asai, T.

    1982-09-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging with dual-tracer (/sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In) human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy) was performed in 15 cases with unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery, for the diagnosis and evaluation of collateral circulation patterns. After injection of /sup 99m/Tc microspheres into one common carotid artery and /sup 111/In HAMs into the other, two perfusion images, one for each carotid artery, were clearly differentiated by appropriate pulse-height discrimination. With this method, diagnosis of internal carotid artery occlusion was definitely made in eight patients, suspected in six, and missed in one. The collateral perfusion areas from the contralateral ICA and ipsilateal external carotid artery were well demonstrated by this method, and the scintigraphic results agreed well with the angiographic findings in all cases. Dual-tracer HAM scintigraphy is capable of adding information about collaterals at the capillary level to the anatomic information obtained by angiography.

  3. PEG-derivative effectively modifies the characteristics of indomethacin-PLGA microspheres destined to intra-articular administration.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Patricia; Pastoriza, Pilar; Barcia, Emilia; Fernández-Carballido, Ana

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain biodegradable indomethacin microspheres for intra-articular administration in rheumatoid arthritis, where angiogenic processes are involved. Indomethacin concentrations to achieve an anti-angiogenic effect would be five-times higher than an anti-inflammatory. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation using PLGA. Indomethacin is a poor water-soluble drug with it being possible that dissolved and non-dissolved drug co-exist within the polymeric matrix resulting in rapid release. To control this release, an oil-PEG-derivative was incorporated, producing changes in morphology, crystallinity and indomethacin release. To minimize the amount of microspheres administered, a two-factor five-level central rotable composite 2(2)+star design was employed with two independent variables: indomethacin percentage and PEG-derivative percentage. The optimum formulation showed mean encapsulation efficiency of 94.3+/-2.2% and released 7.99+/-0.25 microg indomethacin/day/mg microspheres for 21 days. A dose of 20-50 mg of this formulation could be appropriate to achieve both anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies performed in rat splenocytes showed an adequate cell viability.

  4. Fetal lamb cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen tensions during hypoxia: a comparison of laser Doppler and microsphere measurements of CBF

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, John M; Blood, Arlin B; Hunter, Christian J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare microsphere and laser Doppler flowmetry techniques for the measurement of cerebral blood flow, to assess the effect of probe implantation at the tip of the sensing probe and to measure brain tissue PO2 (tPO2) in response to acute hypoxia. Fetal sheep of ≈131 days gestation (n = 8) were chronically instrumented with bilateral laser Doppler probes in the parietal cortices and catheters for injection of fluorescent microspheres. Five days after surgery fetuses were subjected to 1 h periods of baseline control breathing, hypoxia and recovery. Microspheres were injected 10 min prior to and 10, 30, 50 and 120 min after initiation of hypoxia. Microspheres were counted in four 12 mm3 tissue samples from each hemisphere, the tip of the laser Doppler probe being positioned in the centre of one of the cubes. The cube containing the probe tip was also subdivided into 4 mm3 pieces of tissue. In response to hypoxia, fetal arterial PO2 declined from 21 ± 2 to 12 ± 1 Torr and brain tissue PO2 fell from 10 ± 1 to a nadir of 1 ± 1 Torr. Each method detected a significant increase in CBF that reached a maximum after 30–45 min, although the increase of flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry was less than that measured by spheres after 10 and 30 min (P < 0.05). Microspheres did not detect altered flow at the probe tip or heterogeneity of flow in surrounding volumes of cortical tissue. In summary, laser Doppler flowmetry is a useful measure of continuous relative changes of CBF in the chronically instrumented fetal sheep. Flow compensations in acute hypoxia are not adequate to sustain O2 delivery, and other compensations, including reduced metabolic rate, are possible. PMID:12563011

  5. Derivation of Functional Human Astrocytes from Cerebral Organoids.

    PubMed

    Dezonne, Rômulo Sperduto; Sartore, Rafaela Costa; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi; Saia-Cereda, Verônica M; Romão, Luciana Ferreira; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira; de Souza, Jorge Marcondes; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Rehen, Stevens Kastrup; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2017-03-27

    Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells. The cellular isolation of cerebral organoids yielded cells that were morphologically and functionally like astrocytes. Immunolabelling and proteomic assays revealed that human organoid-derived astrocytes express the main astrocytic molecular markers, including glutamate transporters, specific enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins. We found that organoid-derived astrocytes strongly supported neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth and responded to ATP through transient calcium wave elevations, which are hallmarks of astrocyte physiology. Additionally, these astrocytes presented similar functional pathways to those isolated from adult human cortex by surgical procedures. This is the first study to provide proteomic and functional analyses of astrocytes isolated from human cerebral organoids. The isolation of these astrocytes holds great potential for the investigation of developmental and evolutionary features of the human brain and provides a useful approach to drug screening and neurodegenerative disease modelling.

  6. Derivation of Functional Human Astrocytes from Cerebral Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Dezonne, Rômulo Sperduto; Sartore, Rafaela Costa; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi; Saia-Cereda, Verônica M.; Romão, Luciana Ferreira; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira; de Souza, Jorge Marcondes; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Rehen, Stevens Kastrup; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells. The cellular isolation of cerebral organoids yielded cells that were morphologically and functionally like astrocytes. Immunolabelling and proteomic assays revealed that human organoid-derived astrocytes express the main astrocytic molecular markers, including glutamate transporters, specific enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins. We found that organoid-derived astrocytes strongly supported neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth and responded to ATP through transient calcium wave elevations, which are hallmarks of astrocyte physiology. Additionally, these astrocytes presented similar functional pathways to those isolated from adult human cortex by surgical procedures. This is the first study to provide proteomic and functional analyses of astrocytes isolated from human cerebral organoids. The isolation of these astrocytes holds great potential for the investigation of developmental and evolutionary features of the human brain and provides a useful approach to drug screening and neurodegenerative disease modelling. PMID:28345587

  7. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  8. Fully automatic input function determination program for simple noninvasive (123)I-IMP microsphere cerebral blood flow quantification method.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ofuji, Asato; Mimura, Hiroaki; Okumiya, Shintaro; Takaki, Akihiro; Sone, Teruki; Ito, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    We recently developed a simple noninvasive (123)I-IMP microsphere (SIMS) method using chest dynamic planar images and brain single photon emission computed tomography. The SIMS method is an automatic analysis method, except for the process of setting the region of interest (ROI) of the input function. If a fully automatic ROI setting algorithm can be developed to determine the input function for the SIMS method, repeatability and reproducibility of the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the SIMS method can be guaranteed. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automatic input function determination program for the SIMS method and to confirm the clinical usefulness of this program. The automatic input function determination program consists of two ROI setting programs for the PA and lung regions, and it is developed using the image phase analysis of a chest RI angiogram. To confirm the clinical usefulness of this program, the rCBF in 34 patients measured using the automatic method were compared with the values obtained through the manual setting method. Input functions by the automatic and manual methods were approximately equal. A good correlation was observed between the rCBF values obtained by the automatic method and those obtained by the manual setting method (r=0.96, p<0.01). Further, the total time taken for the automatic SIMS analysis is 1-2min as compared to 20-30min for the current analysis, and therefore, this technique contributes to the improvement of the throughput of nuclear medical examinations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monolayer polystyrene micro-spheres array master derived by spin-coating method for UV nanoimprint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Que, Wenxiu; Gao, T X

    2012-08-01

    Polystyrene micro-spheres aqueous suspensions were obtained by an emulsifier-free polymerization method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser particle size distribution were used to characterize the colloidal solutions. Results indicate that the polystyrene micro-spheres colloidal solution has a good dispersion and the micro-spheres have a uniform size and smooth surface. The as-prepared polystyrene micro-spheres colloidal solution was spun onto glass substrates and then the coated sample was heated at 70 degrees C for 1 h to form close-packed monolayer polystyrene microspheres arrays, which are used as a master. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphological properties of the polystyrene micro-spheres array. A relative good result can be easily obtained by a spinning speed of 2000 rpm for 30 second, when the solution concentration is around 10 wt.%. Furthermore, the polydimethylsiloxane soft mold was replicated from the-fabricated polystyrene micro-spheres array master and was then imprinted onto the photosensitive hybrid film under UV-irradiation and thus the micro-lens arrays built in the photosensitive hybrid sol-gel film were obtained.

  10. Controlled delivery of platelet-derived growth factor-BB from injectable microsphere/hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Jiaoyan; Wu, Jingjing; Wan, Ying; Chen, Yun

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PGDF-BB) loaded gelatin microspheres with an average size of about 2μm was incorporated into chitosan/silk fibroin/glycerophosphate (GP) solutions to prepare composites. The formulated composite solutions were able to form into hydrogels in a temperature range between 32 and 37°C at a pH of ca.7. They had good fluidity at 25°C and showed shear-thinning features at both 25 and 37°C, revealing that they are injectable at room temperature. Elastic modulus of some composites at 37°C was about 10-fold higher than that of chitosan/GP gel, confirming that these composites behave like mechanically strong gels. Optimal composites showed abilities to administrate PDGF-BB release in an approximately linear manner up to 5 weeks. The PDGF-BB release could be regulated by the PDGF-BB load and the silk fibroin content in the composites in an individual or cooperative way. In vivo degradation of composites demonstrated that some of them had markedly enhanced degradation endurance as compared to the chitosan/GP gel. PDGF-BB-stimulated DNA synthesis in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and PDGF-BB-induced cell migration suggested that the bioactivity of released PDGF-BB was well retained.

  11. Characterization and in vitro degradation of salicylate-derived poly(anhydride-ester microspheres).

    PubMed

    Yeagy, Brian A; Prudencio, Almudena; Schmeltzer, Robert C; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Cook, Thomas J

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how glass transition temperature (Tg) influenced polymer microsphere formation and degradation of three chemically, similar novel salicylatebased poly(anhydride-esters): poly[1,6-bis(o-carboxyphenoxy)hexanoate] (CPH), Tg = 59 degrees C; poly[1,8-bis(o-carboxyphenoxy)octanoate] (CPO), Tg = 30 degrees C; and poly[1,10-bis(ocarboxyphenoxy) decanoate] (CPD), Tg = 27 degrees C. Microspheres of these polymers were prepared using a modified oil-in-water solvent evaporation method and processed by either resuspension or washed by centrifugation. The morphology of the microspheres determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that an extra washing step appears to increase aggregation as the Tg decreases; whereas only limited aggregation occurred in the polymer with the lowest Tg, CPD, in those not washed by centrifugation. Residual polyvinyl alcohol apparently affected the drug release rates from the microspheres by a stabilization process that produced an 8 h lag time and a 5% decrease in the amount of drug released over a 7 day period compared to microspheres washed free of PVA. These results demonstrate that salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters) with sufficiently high Tgs, can be processed into microspheres that release salicylate over a time period amenable for drug delivery applications.

  12. Correlation of flow probe determinations of common carotid artery blood flow and internal carotid artery blood flow with microsphere determinations of cerebral blood flow in piglets.

    PubMed

    Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Raju, T; John, E; Fornell, L; Shankararao, R

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether blood flow determined by a flow probe situated on one common carotid artery provided an accurate estimation of unilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) in piglets. In eight anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets, blood flow determined by an ultrasonic flow probe placed on the right common carotid artery was correlated with CBF determined by microspheres under two experimental conditions: 1) before ligation of the right external carotid artery with both the right external and internal carotid circulations intact [common carotid artery blood flow (CCABF) condition], and 2) after ligation of the right external carotid artery (ipsilateral to the flow probe) with all residual right-sided carotid artery blood flow directed through the right internal carotid artery [internal carotid artery blood flow (ICABF) condition]. The left carotid artery was not manipulated in any way in either protocol. Independent correlations of unilateral CCABF and ICABF with microsphere-determined unilateral CBF were highly significant over a 5-fold range of CBF induced by hypercarbia or hypoxia (r = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively; both p < 0.001). The slope of the correlation of unilateral CCABF versus unilateral CBF was 1.68 +/- 0.19 (SEM), suggesting that CCABF overestimated CBF by 68%. The slope of the correlation of unilateral ICABF versus unilateral CBF did not differ significantly from unity (1.06 +/- 0.15), and the y intercept did not differ significantly from zero [-1.3 +/- 5.2 (SEM) mL]. Consequently, unilateral ICABF determined by flow probe accurately reflected unilateral CBF determined by microspheres under these conditions. Flow probe assessments of CCABF and ICABF in piglets may provide information about dynamic aspects of vascular control in the cerebral circulation that has heretofore been unavailable.

  13. Comparison of CT-derived Ventilation Maps with Deposition Patterns of Inhaled Microspheres in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods: Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1µm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results: Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion: We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1µm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies.

  14. Comparison of CT-derived ventilation maps with deposition patterns of inhaled microspheres in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Lamm, Wayne J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1μm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1μm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies. PMID:25513951

  15. Bioavailability of theophylline and thiamine disulfide incorporated into mucoadhesive microspheres consisting of dextran derivatives and cellulose acetate butyrate.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Ogihara, Kanako; Yakou, Shigeru; Nagai, Tsuneji; Takayama, Kozo

    2003-12-01

    Mucoadhesive microspheres made of oppositely charged dextran derivatives and cellulose acetate butyrate (Ad-MS) were evaluated for their ability to improve the bioavailability of theophylline (TH) and thiamine disulfide (TDS). A drug suspension (or solution) and non-adhesive microspheres (MS) were used as references. In vitro drug release profiles from MS and Ad-MS were similar for each drug, whereas their gastrointestinal transits differed. The plasma concentration after oral administration of drug suspension (or solution), MS and Ad-MS was investigated in rats. In the case of TH, sustained plasma level profiles were observed after MS or Ad-MS administration, with similar C(max), T(max) and MRT( infinity ) values. AUC( infinity ) values of the suspension, MS and Ad-MS were statistically equivalence. These indicated that Ad-MS achieved a sustained plasma level profile without a decrease of AUC. In the case of TDS, MRT( infinity ) and AUC( infinity ) of Ad-MS were significantly larger than those of the solution and MS, indicating that the plasma level was sustained and the extent of bioavailability was increased. These results suggested that Ad-MS is a promising device for improvement of bioavailability of drugs those absorption windows are limited to upper part of the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Water-soluble chitosan-derived sustainable materials: towards filaments, aerogels, microspheres, and plastics.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nhan Thi Thanh; Chau, Trang The Lieu; Duong, Hau Van; Le, Hoa Thi; Tran, Thi Thi Van; Le, Thang Quoc; Vu, Tuyen Phi; Nguyen, Cuong Duc; Nguyen, Long Viet; Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2017-09-27

    Bioinspired materials have aroused great interest as their inherent biocompatible and structural characteristics have given rise to sustainable applications. In this work, we have reported the phase and morphology transformation of chitosan from crystalline nanofibrils into amorphous sheets for fabricating sustainable materials. Acetylation-induced aqueous dissolution of native chitosan nanofibrils affords water-soluble chitosan as a biopolymeric liquid. Water-soluble chitosan macromolecules self-aggregate into amorphous sheets on solidification, presenting an interesting way to inspire new structures of chitosan assemblies. Through control over gelation, lyophilization, and self-assembled confinement of water-soluble chitosan, we have fabricated novel chitosan materials including filaments, aerogels, microspheres, and plastics that are promising for sustainable use.

  17. Synthesis of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres by using polyacrylic acid coated iron phosphate nanoparticles derived from iron(III) acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Yan-Bing; Chu, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhaojun; Li, Baohua; He, Jianfu; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4 /C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performance are synthesized from iron phosphate/polyacrylic acid (FePO4 /PAA) nanoparticles. Iron(III) acrylate is used as a precursor for both the iron and carbon sources. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a coprecipitation reaction. The byproduct, acrylic acid ions, is polymerized in situ to form a uniform PAA layer on the surface of the FePO4 nanoparticles. The as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with sizes of 40-50 nm. The nanoparticles are fully coated with a thin, uniform carbon layer derived from the decomposition of the PAA layer. The uniform carbon-coating layer cooperates with interstitial and boundary carbon derived from sucrose successfully to construct an excellent interconnecting conductive network in the microspheres. As a result of the unique structure, the as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres display both high electronic and ionic conductivities, which contribute to their high rate performance (162.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.1C and 126.1 mAh g(-1) at 5C) and excellent cycling stability (97.1% of capacity retention after 500 cycles at 5C/5C).

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

    2013-09-05

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance. PMID:25206547

  20. Conferring Natural-Derived Porous Microspheres with Surface Multifunctionality through Facile Coordination-Enabled Self-Assembly Process.

    PubMed

    Han, Pingping; Shi, Jiafu; Nie, Teng; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xueyan; Yang, Pengfei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multifunctional chitin microspheres are synthesized and utilized as a platform for multiple potential applications in enzyme immobilization, catalytic reduction and adsorption. Porous chitin microspheres with an average diameter of 111.5 μm and a porous architecture are fabricated through a thermally induced phase separation method. Then, the porous chitin microspheres are conferred with surface multifunctionality through facile coordination-enabled self-assembly of tannic acid (TA) and titanium (Ti(IV)) bis(ammonium lactate)dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH). The multipoint hydrogen bonds between TA and chitin microspheres confer the TA-Ti(IV) coating with high adhesion capability to adhere firmly to the surface of the chitin microspheres. In view of the biocompatibility, porosity and surface activity, the multifunctional chitin microspheres are used as carriers for enzyme immobilization. The enzyme-conjugated multifunctional porous microspheres exhibit high catalytic performance (102.8 U·mg(-1) yeast alcohol dehydrogenase). Besides, the multifunctional chitin microspheres also find potential applications in the catalytic reduction (e.g., reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles) and efficient adsorption of heavy metal ions (e.g., Pb(2+)) taking advantages of their porosity, reducing capability and chelation property.

  1. Unique insights into the intestinal absorption, transit, and subsequent biodistribution of polymer-derived microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Joshua J.; Cho, Daniel Y.; Dingle, Yu-Ting; Morello, A. Peter; Jacob, Jules; Thanos, Christopher G.; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric microspheres (MSs) have received attention for their potential to improve the delivery of drugs with poor oral bioavailability. Although MSs can be absorbed into the absorptive epithelium of the small intestine, little is known about the physiologic mechanisms that are responsible for their cellular trafficking. In these experiments, nonbiodegradable polystyrene MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were delivered locally to the jejunum or ileum or by oral administration to young male rats. Following administration, MSs were taken up rapidly (≤5 min) by the small intestine and were detected by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that polymer was present in all tissue samples, including the brain. These results confirm that MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were absorbed by the small intestine and distributed throughout the rat. After delivering MSs to the jejunum or ileum, high concentrations of polystyrene were detected in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. The pharmacologic inhibitors chlorpromazine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and cytochalasin D caused a reduction in the total number of MSs absorbed in the jejunum and ileum, demonstrating that nonphagocytic processes (including endocytosis) direct the uptake of MSs in the small intestine. These results challenge the convention that phagocytic cells such as the microfold cells solely facilitate MS absorption in the small intestine. PMID:23922388

  2. Unique insights into the intestinal absorption, transit, and subsequent biodistribution of polymer-derived microspheres.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Joshua J; Cho, Daniel Y; Dingle, Yu-Ting; Morello, A Peter; Jacob, Jules; Thanos, Christopher G; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2013-08-20

    Polymeric microspheres (MSs) have received attention for their potential to improve the delivery of drugs with poor oral bioavailability. Although MSs can be absorbed into the absorptive epithelium of the small intestine, little is known about the physiologic mechanisms that are responsible for their cellular trafficking. In these experiments, nonbiodegradable polystyrene MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were delivered locally to the jejunum or ileum or by oral administration to young male rats. Following administration, MSs were taken up rapidly (≤ 5 min) by the small intestine and were detected by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed that polymer was present in all tissue samples, including the brain. These results confirm that MSs (diameter range: 500 nm to 5 µm) were absorbed by the small intestine and distributed throughout the rat. After delivering MSs to the jejunum or ileum, high concentrations of polystyrene were detected in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. The pharmacologic inhibitors chlorpromazine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and cytochalasin D caused a reduction in the total number of MSs absorbed in the jejunum and ileum, demonstrating that nonphagocytic processes (including endocytosis) direct the uptake of MSs in the small intestine. These results challenge the convention that phagocytic cells such as the microfold cells solely facilitate MS absorption in the small intestine.

  3. Upconversion Nanoparticles and Monodispersed Magnetic Polystyrene Microsphere Based Fluorescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Sulfaquinoxaline in Animal-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gaoshuang; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Junping; Wu, Xuening; Wang, Shuo

    2016-05-18

    A novel fluorescence immunoassay for detecting sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in animal-derived foods was developed using NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) conjugated with antibodies as fluorescence signal probes, and monodisperse magnetic polystyrene microspheres (MMPMs) modified with coating antigen as immune-sensing capture probes for trapping and separating the signal probes. Based on a competitive immunoassay format, the detection limit of the proposed method for detecting SQX was 0.1 μg L(-1) in buffer and 0.5 μg kg(-1) in food samples. The recoveries of SQX in spiked samples ranged from 69.80 to 133.00%, with coefficients of variation of 0.24-25.06%. The extraction procedure was fast, simple, and environmentally friendly, requiring no organic solvents. In particular, milk samples can be analyzed directly after simple dilution. This method has appealing properties, such as sensitive fluorescence response, a simple and fast extraction procedure, and environmental friendliness, and could be applied to detecting SQX in animal-derived foods.

  4. Development of a simple non-invasive microsphere quantification method for cerebral blood flow using I-123-IMP.

    PubMed

    Ofuji, Asato; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Kosuke; Takaki, Akihiro; Sone, Teruki; Ito, Shigeki

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice, measurement of the rCBF has mainly been conducted by I-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP) SPECT using the microsphere (MS) method, with continuous arterial blood sampling. While several non-invasive (123)I-IMP quantification methods have been developed, their accuracy has been shown to be lower than that of the MS method. Therefore, a non-invasive quantification method for use in routine clinical practice is being sought. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple non-invasive (123)I-IMP quantification method (SIMS method) with a simple input function-determining protocol based on the MS method. The input function for the SIMS method was determined using the administered dose and the integrated lung washout ratio obtained by analyzing the count-time activity curve of the pulmonary artery and lung on dynamic chest images. The mean CBF (mCBF) and input function measured in 80 patients by the SIMS method was compared with those determined using the MS method. A good correlation was observed between the counts measured by continuous arterial blood sampling in the MS method and the estimated counts by image analysis in the new method (r = 0.94, p < 0.01). Similarly, a good correlation was observed between the mCBF values determined by the MS method and the SIMS method (r = 0.83, p < 0.01). The mCBF values determined by the SIMS method were closely consistent with the values obtained by the MS method. This finding indicates the possibility of use of the SIMS method for routine clinical study.

  5. Wheat germ agglutinin anchored chitosan microspheres of reduced brominated derivative of noscapine ameliorated acute inflammation in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kamalpreet; Sodhi, Rupinder Kaur; Katyal, Anju; Aneja, Ritu; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katare, Om Prakash; Madan, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    Reduced brominated derivative of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos, EM012), has potent anti-inflammatory property. However, physicochemical limitations of Red-Br-Nos like low aqueous solubility (0.43×10(-3) g/mL), high lipophilicity (logP∼2.94) and ionization at acidic pH greatly encumber the scale-up of oral drug delivery systems for the management of colitis. Therefore, in present investigation, chitosan microspheres bearing Red-Br-Nos (CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) were prepared by emulsion polymerization method and later coated with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) to boost the bioadhesive property. The mean particle size and zeta-potential of CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos were measured to be 10.5±5.4 μm and 8.1±2.2 mV, significantly (P<0.05) lesser than, 30.2±3.2 μm and 19.2±2.3 mV of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos. Furthermore, various spectral techniques like SEM, FT-IR, DSC and PXRD substantiated that Red-Br-Nos was molecularly dispersed in tailored microspheres in amorphous state. Surface bioadhesive property of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos promoted the affinity toward colon mucin cells in simulated colonic fluid (SCF, pH∼7.2). In vitro release studies carried out on WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos indicated that SCF with colitis milieu (pH∼4.7) favored the controlled release of Red-Br-Nos, owing to solubilization at acidic pH. Consistently, in vivo investigation also demonstrated the utility of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos, which remarkably attenuated the DSS encouraged neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in C57BL6J mice, as compared to CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and Red-Br-Nos suspension. The noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos against acute colitis may be attributed to enhanced drug delivery, affinity and utmost drug exposure at inflamed mucosal layers of colon. In conclusion, WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos warrants further in-depth in vitro and in vivo investigations to scale-up the technology for clinical

  6. Short- and long-term peripheral nerve regeneration using a poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid scaffold containing nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor releasing microspheres.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ralph; Borntraeger, Andreas; Knight, Andrew M; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Spinner, Robert J; Malessy, Martijn J A; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J

    2012-08-01

    Addition of neural growth factors to bioengineered scaffolds may improve peripheral nerve regeneration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the short- and long term effect of microsphere delivered nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap. Eighty-four rats were assigned to seven groups (n = 6) at two endpoints (6 and 16 weeks): saline, saline NGF, saline NGF-microspheres, saline GDNF, saline GDNF-microspheres, saline blank microspheres, and autologous nerve graft. Total fascicular area and total number of myelinated fibers at mid-tube increased in all conduit groups between 6 and 16 weeks. Autologous, saline NGF-microsphere and saline GDNF-microsphere groups reached maximal histomorphometric values by 6 weeks (p < 0.05). Compound muscle action potentials returned after 6 weeks for the autologous graft and continued to increase to a level of 3.6 ± 1.9 mV at endpoint. No significant differences were found between study groups as measured by ankle angle. These experiments show an initial beneficial effect of incorporation of NGF- or GDNF-microspheres in a PLGA 85/15 nerve conduit, since histomorphometric values reached their maximum by 6 weeks compared to control groups. These results do not yet extrapolate into improved electrophysiological or functional improvement.

  7. Derivation of an Analytical Solution to a Reaction-Diffusion Model for Autocatalytic Degradation and Erosion in Polymer Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ford Versypt, Ashlee N; Arendt, Paul D; Pack, Daniel W; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical reaction-diffusion model is defined to describe the gradual decomposition of polymer microspheres composed of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that are used for pharmaceutical drug delivery over extended periods of time. The partial differential equation (PDE) model treats simultaneous first-order generation due to chemical reaction and diffusion of reaction products in spherical geometry to capture the microsphere-size-dependent effects of autocatalysis on PLGA erosion that occurs when the microspheres are exposed to aqueous media such as biological fluids. The model is solved analytically for the concentration of the autocatalytic carboxylic acid end groups of the polymer chains that comprise the microspheres as a function of radial position and time. The analytical solution for the reaction and transport of the autocatalytic chemical species is useful for predicting the conditions under which drug release from PLGA microspheres transitions from diffusion-controlled to erosion-controlled release, for understanding the dynamic coupling between the PLGA degradation and erosion mechanisms, and for designing drug release particles. The model is the first to provide an analytical prediction for the dynamics and spatial heterogeneities of PLGA degradation and erosion within a spherical particle. The analytical solution is applicable to other spherical systems with simultaneous diffusive transport and first-order generation by reaction.

  8. Multishelled Nix Co3-x O4 Hollow Microspheres Derived from Bimetal-Organic Frameworks as Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan-Lan; Wang, Zhuo; Long, Yan; Li, Jian; Liu, Yu; Wang, Qi-Shun; Wang, Xiao; Song, Shu-Yan; Liu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) featuring versatile topological architectures are considered to be efficient self-sacrificial templates to achieve mesoporous nanostructured materials. A facile and cost-efficient strategy is developed to scalably fabricate binary metal oxides with complex hollow interior structures and tunable compositions. Bimetal-organic frameworks of Ni-Co-BTC solid microspheres with diverse Ni/Co ratios are readily prepared by solvothermal method to induce the Ni x Co3-x O4 multishelled hollow microspheres through a morphology-inherited annealing treatment. The obtained mixed metal oxides are demonstrated to be composed of nanometer-sized subunits in the shells and large void spaces left between adjacent shells. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, Ni x Co3-x O4 -0.1 multishelled hollow microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1109.8 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) with an excellent high-rate capability. Appropriate capacities of 832 and 673 mAh g(-1) could also be retained after 300 cycles at large currents of 1 and 2 A g(-1) , respectively. These prominent electrochemical properties raise a concept of synthesizing MOFs-derived mixed metal oxides with multishelled hollow structures for progressive lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives for evaluating local cerebral blood flow

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation or regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  10. Radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives for evaluating local cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging. They comprise radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation or regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  11. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and copolymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  12. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and copolymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  13. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and co-polymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  14. Radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives for evaluating local cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1988-12-22

    An improved method of chemical synthesis of radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives useful in brain imaging is described. These 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines readily cross the blood- brain barrier and are retained in the brain for a sufficient length of time to allow evaluation of regional blood flow in the cerebrum. The advantages of the invention include a simpler synthesis route and a final compound which is less diluted with nonradioactive halogen. Use of this invention will allow clearer radioimaging or lower radiation doses to the patient, depending on the objective. 2 figs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  15. Exendin-4-loaded PLGA microspheres relieve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and neurologic deficits through long-lasting bioactivity-mediated phosphorylated Akt/eNOS signaling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chiang-Ting; Jou, Ming-Jia; Cheng, Tai-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Li, Ping-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation in the brain provides neuroprotection. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 analog, has seen limited clinical usage because of its short half-life. We developed long-lasting Ex-4-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PEx-4) and explored its neuroprotective potential against cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats. Compared with Ex-4, PEx-4 in the gradually degraded microspheres sustained higher Ex-4 levels in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for at least 2 weeks and improved diabetes-induced glycemia after a single subcutaneous administration (20 μg/day). Ten minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (CAO) combined with hemorrhage-induced hypotension (around 30 mm Hg) significantly decreased cerebral blood flow and microcirculation in male Wistar rats subjected to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. CAO increased cortical O2− levels by chemiluminescence amplification and prefrontal cortex edema by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging analysis. CAO significantly increased aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and led to cognition deficits. CAO downregulated phosphorylated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-Akt/p-eNOS) signaling and enhanced nuclear factor (NF)-κBp65/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in the cerebral cortex. PEx-4 was more effective than Ex-4 to improve CAO-induced oxidative injury and cognitive deficits. The neuroprotection provided by PEx-4 was through p-Akt/p-eNOS pathways, which suppressed CAO-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling, ER stress, and apoptosis. PMID:26058696

  16. Basophilic round bodies in gastric biopsies little known by pathologists: iatrogenic yttrium 90 microspheres deriving from selective internal radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Chan, John K C

    2013-10-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy is a relatively new technique that irradiates primary and metastatic liver cancer using yttrium 90 microspheres. Increasing reports have shown this to be a useful treatment for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma and others metastases from colon, lung, breast, sarcoma, and ocular melanoma. On the other hand, more and more therapy-related complications have been described. Since the morphologic description of injured organs are relatively uncommon, we report 2 cases of selective internal radiation therapy-related gastric injury, which represent basophilic round bodies in gastric biopsies little known by pathologists. The appearances in esophagogastroduodenoscopy include gastrointestinal ulcer, edema, and bleeding. Histological findings are mucosal atrophy, mild to moderate cytologic atypia, edema of the stroma, and inflammatory infiltration. The most characteristic feature is the presence of round blue and dark microspheres in the stromal blood vessels.

  17. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using magnesium-alginate/chitosan modified biochar microspheres derived from Thalia dealbata.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Dai, Xi; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using magnesium-alginate/chitosan modified biochar microspheres to enhance removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. The introduction of MgCl2 substantially increased surface area of biochar (116.2m(2)g(-1)), and both granulation with alginate/chitosan and modification with magnesium improved phosphate sorption on the biochars. Phosphate sorption on the biochars could be well described by a simple Langmuir model, and the MgCl2-alginate modified biochar microspheres exhibited the highest phosphate sorption capacity (up to 46.56mgg(-1)). The pseudo second order kinetic model better fitted the kinetic data, and both the Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models were superior to other models in describing phosphate dynamic sorption. Precipitation with minerals and ligand exchange were the possible mechanisms of phosphate sorption on the modified biochars. These results imply that MgCl2-alginate modified biochar microspheres have potential as a green cost-effective sorbent for remediating P contaminated water environment.

  18. Identification of two cerebral malaria resistance loci using an inbred wild-derived mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Bagot, Sébastien; Campino, Susana; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Pied, Sylviane; Cazenave, Pierre-André; Holmberg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Malaria is a complex infectious disease in which the host/parasite interaction is strongly influenced by host genetic factors. The consequences of plasmodial infections range from asymptomatic to severe complications like the neurological syndrome cerebral malaria induced by Plasmodium falciparum in humans and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in rodents. Mice infected with P. berghei ANKA show marked differences in disease manifestation and either die from experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) or from hemolytic anemia caused by hyperparasitemia (HP). A majority of laboratory mouse strains so far investigated are susceptible to ECM; however, a number of wild-derived inbred strains show resistance. To evaluate the genetic basis of this difference, we crossed a uniquely ECM-resistant, wild-derived inbred strain (WLA) with an ECM susceptible laboratory strain (C57BL/6J). All of the (WLA × C57BL/6J) F1 and 97% of the F2 progeny displayed ECM resistance similar to the WLA strain. To screen for loci contributing to ECM resistance, we analyzed a cohort of mice backcrossed to the C57BL/6J parental strain. A genome wide screening of this cohort provided significant linkage of ECM resistance to marker loci in two genetic regions on chromosome 1 (χ2 = 18.98, P = 1.3 × 10−5) and on chromosome 11 (χ2 = 16.51, P = 4.8 × 10−5), being designated Berr1 and Berr2, respectively. These data provide the first evidence of loci associated with resistance to murine cerebral malaria, which may have important implications for the search for genetic factors controlling cerebral malaria in humans. PMID:12114535

  19. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wentao; Fang, Jianjun; Yong, Qi; Li, Sufang; Xie, Qingping; Yin, Jingbo; Cui, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group) was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group) and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group) served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  20. Fluorescent microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1978-01-01

    Latex particles with attached antibodies have potential biochemical and environmental applications. Human red blood cells and lymphocytes have been labeled with fluorescent microspheres by either direct or indirect immunological technique. Immunolatex spheres can also be used for detecting and localizing specific cell surface receptors. Hormones and toxins may also be bondable.

  1. Stromal-derived factor 1 signalling regulates radial and tangential migration in the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liapi, Anastasia; Pritchett, James; Jones, Owen; Fujii, Nobutaka; Parnavelas, John G; Nadarajah, Bagirathy

    2008-01-01

    Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a known chemoattractant, and its receptor CXCR4 are widely expressed in the developing and adult cerebral cortex. Recent studies have highlighted potential roles for SDF-1 during early cortical development. In view of the current findings, our histological analysis has revealed a distinct pattern of SDF-1 expression in the developing cerebral cortex at a time when cell proliferation and migration are at peak. To determine the role of chemokine signalling during early cortical development, embryonic rat brain slices were exposed to a medium containing secreted SDF-1 to perturb the endogenous levels of chemokine. Alternatively, brain slices were treated with 40 muM of T140 or AMD3100, known antagonists of CXCR4. Using these experimental approaches, we demonstrate that chemokine signalling is imperative for the maintenance of the early cortical plate. In addition, we provide evidence that both neurogenesis and radial migration are concomitantly regulated by this signalling system. Conversely, interneurons, although not dependent on SDF-1 signalling to transgress the telencephalic boundary, require the chemokine to maintain their tangential migration. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SDF-1 with its distinct pattern of expression is essential and uniquely positioned to regulate key developmental events that underlie the formation of the cerebral cortex.

  2. Effect of adenosine triphosphate and some derivatives on cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, T; Harper, A M; MacKenzie, E T; Thomson, E M

    1979-01-01

    1. Responses of cerebral blood vessels to peri- and intravascular doses of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and some derivatives were studied in cat and baboon. 2. Perivascular application of ATP to cat pial arterioles gave a threshold dilatory effect at a concentration of 10(-11) M. This figure is comparable to the amount of ATP calculated to be released from electrically stimulated brain slices. 3. It is concluded that adenine nucleotides have a major role to play in the local control of cerebral blood flow. 4. Intracarotid injection of ATP showed a calculated threshold effect at 4 x 10(8) M in the cat and 4 x 10(-9) M in the baboon. 5. The threshold response of the vasculature to intracarotid adenosine lay between 4 x 10(-7) M and 4 x 10(-6) M in the baboon. Little effect was produced with AMP, pyrophosphate and inorganic phosphate. 6. Intracarotid ATP increased the oxygen consumption of the baboon brain parenchyma. This effect was attributed in part to an elevation of the cellular cyclic AMP levels. 7. Osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier in baboon did not affect the vasodilatory or metabolic effect of intracarotid ATP. 8. It is postulated that circulating purine compounds mediate a form of metabolic communication inthe body. Also, release of purine compounds from active local nerves might influence cerebral blood flow. PMID:119042

  3. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism Modulates Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Yang, Albert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) could be complicated by cerebral ischemic events. Hypothetical mechanisms of RCVS involve endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity, both of which were reported to be related to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The study investigated the association between functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and RCVS. Methods Patients with RCVS and controls were prospectively recruited and genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography were employed to evaluate cerebral vasoconstriction. Genotyping results, clinical parameters, vasoconstriction scores, mean flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA), and Lindegaard indices were analyzed. Split-sample approach was employed to internally validate the data. Principal Findings Ninety Taiwanese patients with RCVS and 180 age- and gender-matched normal controls of the same ethnicity completed the study. The genotype frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. Compared to patients with Met/Met homozygosity, patients with Val allele had higher mean vasoconstriction scores of all arterial segments (1.60±0.72 vs. 0.87±0.39, p<0.001), VMCA values (116.7±36.2 vs. 82.7±17.9 cm/s, p<0.001), and LI (2.41±0.91 vs. 1.89±0.41, p = 0.001). None of the Met/Met homozygotes, but 38.9% of the Val carriers, had VMCA values of >120 cm/s (p<0.001). Split-sample validation by randomization, age, entry time or residence of patients demonstrated concordant findings. Conclusions Our findings link BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with the severity of RCVS for the first time and implicate possible pathogenic mechanisms for vasoconstriction in RCVS. PMID:21437208

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met polymorphism modulates reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Yang, Albert C

    2011-03-18

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) could be complicated by cerebral ischemic events. Hypothetical mechanisms of RCVS involve endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity, both of which were reported to be related to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The study investigated the association between functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and RCVS. Patients with RCVS and controls were prospectively recruited and genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography were employed to evaluate cerebral vasoconstriction. Genotyping results, clinical parameters, vasoconstriction scores, mean flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)), and Lindegaard indices were analyzed. Split-sample approach was employed to internally validate the data. Ninety Taiwanese patients with RCVS and 180 age- and gender-matched normal controls of the same ethnicity completed the study. The genotype frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. Compared to patients with Met/Met homozygosity, patients with Val allele had higher mean vasoconstriction scores of all arterial segments (1.60±0.72 vs. 0.87±0.39, p<0.001), V(MCA) values (116.7±36.2 vs. 82.7±17.9 cm/s, p<0.001), and LI (2.41±0.91 vs. 1.89±0.41, p = 0.001). None of the Met/Met homozygotes, but 38.9% of the Val carriers, had V(MCA) values of >120 cm/s (p<0.001). Split-sample validation by randomization, age, entry time or residence of patients demonstrated concordant findings. Our findings link BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with the severity of RCVS for the first time and implicate possible pathogenic mechanisms for vasoconstriction in RCVS.

  5. Detection of Plasma Protease Activity Using Microsphere-Cytometry Assays with E. coli Derived Substrates: VWF Proteolysis by ADAMTS13

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Shobhit; Lo, Chi Y.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Protease levels in human blood are often prognostic indicators of inflammatory, thrombotic or oncogenic disorders. The measurement of such enzyme activities in substrate-based assays is complicated due to the low prevalence of these enzymes and steric hindrance of the substrates by the more abundant blood proteins. To address these limitations, we developed a molecular construct that is suitable for microsphere-cytometer based assays in the milieu of human blood plasma. In this proof of principle study, we demonstrate the utility of this substrate to measure metalloprotease ADAMTS13 activity. The substrate, expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein, contains the partial A2-domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF amino acids 1594–1670) that is mutated to include a single primary amine at the N-terminus and free cysteines at the C-terminus. N-terminus fluorescence conjugation was possible using NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. Maleimide-PEG(Polyethylene glycol)n-biotin coupling at the C-terminus allowed biotinylation with variable PEG spacer lengths. Once bound to streptavidin-bearing microspheres, the substrate fluorescence signal decreased in proportion with ADAMTS13 concentration. Whereas recombinant ADAMTS13 activity could be quantified using substrates with all PEG repeat-lengths, only the construct with the longer 77 PEG-unit could quantify proteolysis in blood plasma. Using this longer substrate, plasma ADAMTS13 down to 5% of normal levels could be detected within 30 min. Such measurements could also be readily performed under conditions resembling hyperbilirubinemia. Enzyme catalytic activity was tuned by varying buffer calcium, with lower divalent ion concentrations enhancing cleavage. Overall, the study highlights the substrate design features important for the creation of efficient proteolysis assays in the setting of human plasma. In particular, it emphasizes the need to introduce PEG spacers in plasma-based experiments, a design attribute commonly

  6. Electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy side promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zongjun; Wang, Lumin

    2012-07-25

    A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. In situ hybridization results showed that the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex increased after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Low frequency continuous wave electroacupuncture (frequency 2-6 Hz, current intensity 2 mA) stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side increased the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic cerebral cortex 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. At the same time, electroacupuncture stimulation of the healthy brachial plexus truck significantly decreased neurological function scores and alleviated neurological function deficits. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side can greatly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression and improve neurological function.

  7. In Vitro Validation of Endovascular Doppler-derived Flow Rates in Models of the Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    McGah, P M; Nerva, J D; Morton, R P; Barbour, M C; Levitt, M R; Mourad, P D; Kim, L J; Aliseda, A

    2015-01-01

    This study presents validation of endovascular Doppler velocimetry-based volumetric flow rate measurements conducted in a pulsatile flow loop simulating conditions in both the internal carotid and basilar artery. In vitro models of cerebral vessels, each containing an aneurysm, were fabricated from patient anatomies extracted from 3D rotational angiography. Flow velocity measurements were collected with three different experimental techniques: an endovascular Doppler wire, Particle Image Velocimetry, and a time-resolved ultrasonic flow meter. Womersley’s theory of pulsatile flow in a cylindrical vessel was used to compute time-resolved volumetric flow rates from the endovascular Doppler velocity. The volumetric flow rates computed from the Doppler measurements were compared to those from the Particle Image Velocimetry profile measurements, and the direct measurements from the ultrasonic flow meter. The study establishes confidence intervals for any systematic or random errors associated with the wire-derived flow rates as benchmarked to the other two modalities. There is an approximately 10% random error in the Doppler-derived peak and time-averaged flow rates. There is a measurable uniform bias, about 15% too low, in the time-averaged Doppler-derived flow rates. There is also a small proportional bias in the peak systolic Doppler-derived flow rates. Potential sources of error are also discussed. PMID:26450643

  8. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, R.M.

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  9. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  10. Enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis by mesoporous hydroxyapatite microspheres-derived simvastatin sustained release system for superior bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Qi, Chao; Zhao, Hua-Kun; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Wang; Sun, Ben-Ben; Shen, Ji; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Dao-Yun; He, Yao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Biomaterials with both excellent osteogenic and angiogenic activities are desirable to repair massive bone defects. In this study, simvastatin with both osteogenic and angiogenic activities was incorporated into the mesoporous hydroxyapatite microspheres (MHMs) synthesized through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt (FBP) as an organic phosphorous source. The effects of the simvastatin-loaded MHMs (S-MHMs) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells were investigated. The results showed that the S-MHMs not only enhanced the expression of osteogenic markers in rBMSCs but also promoted the migration and tube formation of EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, the S-MHMs were incorporated into collagen matrix to construct a novel S-MHMs/collagen composite scaffold. With the aid of MHMs, the water-insoluble simvastatin was homogenously incorporated into the hydrophilic collagen matrix and presented a sustained release profile. In vivo experiments showed that the S-MHMs/collagen scaffolds enhanced the bone regeneration and neovascularization simultaneously. These results demonstrated that the water-insoluble simvastatin could be incorporated into the MHMs and maintained its biological activities, more importantly, the S-MHMs/collagen scaffolds fabricated in this study are of immense potential in bone defect repair by enhancing osteogenesis and angiogenesis simultaneously. PMID:28287178

  11. Hybrid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Substrates, particularly inert synthetic organic resin beads (10) or sheet (12) such as polystyrene are coated with a covalently bound layer (24) of polyacrolein by irradiation a solution (14) of acrolein or other aldehyde with high intensity radiation. Individual microspheres (22) are formed which attach to the surface to form the aldehyde containing layer (24). The aldehyde groups can be converted to other functional groups by reaction with materials such as hydroxylamine. Adducts of proteins such as antibodies or enzymes can be formed by direct reaction with the surface aldehyde groups.

  12. Administration of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treatment of Cerebral Palsy Patients: A Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Himanshu; Singh, Lipi; Verma, Poonam; Agrawal, Anupama; Leon, Jerry; Sundell, I Birgitta; Koka, Prasad S

    Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous bone marrow stem cells may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. To assess autologous marrow stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 10 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this clinical study with 24 months follow-up. A total of 10 cerebral palsy patients received autologous bone marrow cells transplantation (4.5 × 10(8) mononuclear cells; 90% viability) into the subarachnoid cavity and rehabilitation. We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, manual ability function measurement score, and adverse events up to 24 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores were significantly higher at month 6 post-treatment compared with the baseline scores and were stable up to 24 months follow-up. The increase in manual ability and communication function measurement scores at 6 months were not significant when compared to the baseline score. All the 10 patients survived and none of the patients experienced any serious adverse events or complications. Our results indicated that bone marrow derived MNCs are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomized clinical trials are necessary to establish the efficacy of this procedure.

  13. Co-delivery of adipose-derived stem cells and growth factor-loaded microspheres in RGD-grafted N-methacrylate glycol chitosan gels for focal chondral repair.

    PubMed

    Sukarto, Abby; Yu, Claire; Flynn, Lauren E; Amsden, Brian G

    2012-08-13

    The coencapsulation of growth factor-loaded microspheres with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within a hydrogel matrix was studied as a potential means to enhance ASC chondrogenesis in the development of a cell-based therapeutic strategy for the regeneration of partial thickness chondral defects. A photopolymerizable N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) was employed to form an in situ gel used to encapsulate microspheres loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) with human ASCs. ASC viability and retention were enhanced when the Young's modulus of the MGC ranged between 225 and 380 kPa. Grafting an RGD-containing peptide onto the MGC backbone (RGD-MGC) improved ASC viability within the gels, remaining at greater than 90% over 14 days in culture. The effects of BMP-6 and TGF-β3 released from the polymer microspheres on ASC chondrogenesis were assessed, and the level of differentiation was compared to ASCs in control gels containing nongrowth factor-loaded microspheres cultured with and without the growth factors supplied in the medium. There was enhanced expression of chondrogenic markers at earlier time points when the ASCs were induced with the sustained and local release of BMP-6 and TGF-β3 from the microspheres. More specifically, the normalized glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II protein expression levels were significantly higher than in the controls. In addition, the ratio of collagen type II to type I was significantly higher in the microsphere delivery group and increased over time. End-point RT-PCR analysis supported that there was a more rapid induction and enhancement of ASC chondrogenesis in the controlled release group. Interestingly, in all of the assays, there was evidence of chondrogenic differentiation when the ASCs were cultured in the gels in the absence of growth factor stimulation. Overall, the co-delivery of growth-factor-loaded microspheres and ASCs in RGD-modified MGC gels

  14. Paradoxical binding levels of vasoactive amines to cultured cerebral microvessel derived endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.; TenEyck, C.J.; Linthicum, D.S.; Hart, M.N.

    1986-03-01

    Vascular sensitization to vasoactive amines (VAA) may be critical for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis as well as other autoimmune diseases. Some inbred stains of mice such as SJL/J are particularly sensitive to the effects of VAA while others (BALB/c) are not. This study was performed to determine if the differing response to VAA in vivo is due to differing levels of binding of VAA to cultured brain endothelial (En) cells in vitro. Cells were isolated, grown to confluence, washed twice with binding buffer and incubated with either /sup 3/H-histamine, /sup 3/H-mepyramine or /sup 3/H-5 hydroxytryptamine (5HT) for 1 hour at 37/sup 0/C. Results showed that the BALB derived En cells specifically bound approximately twice as much mepyramine and three times as much 5-HT as the SJL derived En cells. The relative low binding of VAA to SJL En cells may reflect the extreme in vivo sensitivity that this mouse strain displays toward VAA. These seemingly paradoxical levels of VAA binding in the cultured cerebral endothelium may be due to genetic factors and may give insight into diseases that affect the blood brain barrier.

  15. Headache, cerebral aneurysms, and the use of triptans and ergot derivatives.

    PubMed

    Baron, Eric P

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the correlation between unruptured cerebral aneurysms and their role in headache etiology. It is also unclear whether surgical endovascular treatment may improve or worsen the headache, and if there are predictable factors for headache outcome such as pre-existing headache features, aneurysm characteristics, or other medical history. There is debate regarding safe treatment of migraine in patients with aneurysms, both before and after endovascular treatments. Particularly, there is hesitancy to use the triptans and ergot derivatives such as dihydroergotamine because of their vasoconstrictive effects and concern for adverse events related to the aneurysm such as aneurysmal instability and rupture. To review the literature regarding the anatomy, pathophysiology, and association between headache, untreated vs surgically treated aneurysms, and the use of triptans and ergot derivatives for migraine treatment in this setting. Associations between some headaches and aneurysms may exist. Some chronic headaches may respond to surgical aneurysm repair while others may worsen. These associations are undefined by current literature because of variable results, study methods, and limited data. Prospective studies are needed which incorporate pre- and post-procedure headache character and diagnosis, aneurysm characteristics, type of aneurysm repair, associated risk factors for worsening post-procedure headache, and ultimately combining all of these data to better predict headache outcome following surgical aneurysm treatment. Lastly, the caution and avoidance of triptan and ergot derivative use for migraine in the setting of aneurysm is not supported by the current evidence, and much of this concern may be excessive and unwarranted, although more evidence confirming safety is needed. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  16. microsphere assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Flores, Jesús I.; Palomec-Garfias, Abraham F.; Márquez-Beltrán, César; Sánchez-Mora, Enrique; Gómez-Barojas, Estela; Pérez-Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    The effect of Fe ion concentration on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of TiO2 films supported on silica (SiO2) opals has been studied. TiO2:Fe2O3 films were prepared by the sol-gel method in combination with a vertical dip coating procedure; precursor solutions of Ti and Fe were deposited on a monolayer of SiO2 opals previously deposited on a glass substrate by the same procedure. After the dip coating process has been carried out, the samples were thermally treated to obtain the TiO2:Fe2O3/SiO2 composites at the Fe ion concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show the formation of colloidal silica microspheres of about 50 nm diameter autoensembled in a hexagonal close-packed fashion. Although the X-ray diffractograms show no significant effect of Fe ion concentration on the crystal structure of TiO2, the μ-Raman and reflectance spectra do show that the intensity of a phonon vibration mode and the energy bandgap of TiO2 decrease as the Fe+3 ion concentration increases.

  17. Pharmacological Effects of Erythropoietin and its Derivative Carbamyl erythropoietin in Cerebral White Matter Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury in the premature infant and the most common cause of cerebral palsy, yet no therapy currently exists for this serious human disorder. As PVL often occurs in preterm infants suffering from cerebral hypoxia/ischemia with or without prior exposure to maternal-fetal infection/inflammation, we used hypoxia/ischemia with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, to produce clinically relevant PVL-like lesions in the white matter in postnatal day six (P6) mice. We studied the white matter pathology under different conditions, such as different durations of hypoxia and different doses of LPS, to evaluate the effects of those etiological factors on neonatal white matter injury. Distinct related pathological events were investigated at different time points during the progression of PVL. We used immunohistochemistry, histological analysis, and electron microscopy (EM) to study demylination that occurs in the white matter area, which is consistent with the pathology of human PVL. Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivative carbamylated EPO (CEPO) are neuroprotective in various experimental models of brain injury. However, none of these studies investigated their efficacy against white matter injury using appropriate animal models of PVL. We produced unilateral or bilateral white matter injury in P6 mice using unilateral carotid ligation (UCL) followed by hypoxia (6% oxygen, 35 min) or by UCL/hypoxia plus LPS injection, respectively. We administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of EPO or CEPO (5000 IU/kg) immediately after the insult, and found both drugs to provide significant protection against white matter injury in PVL mice compared to vehicle-treated groups. In addition, EPO and CEPO treatments attenuated neurobehavioral dysfunctions in an acute manner after PVL injury. EPO and CEPO have relatively few adverse effects, and thus may be a therapeutic agent

  18. Evaluation of MR derived cerebral oxygen metabolic index in experimental hyperoxic hypercapnia, hypoxia and ischemia

    PubMed Central

    An, Hongyu; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Yasheng; Lin, Weili

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose A non-invasive MRI method to measure cerebral oxygen metabolism has the potential to assess tissue viability during cerebral ischemia. The purposes of this study were 1) to validate MR oxygenation measurements across a wide range of global cerebral oxygenation; and 2) to examine the spatiotemporal evolution of oxygen metabolism during focal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Methods A group of rats (n=28) under normal, hyperoxic hypercapnia and hypoxia were studied to compare MR measured cerebral oxygen saturation (O2SatMRv) with blood gas oximetry measurements in the jugular vein (O2SatJV) and superior sagittal sinus (O2SatSSS). In a separate group of rats (n=31), MR measured cerebral oxygen metabolic index (MR_COMI) was acquired at multiple time-points during MCAO. Histogram analysis was performed on the normalized MR_COMI (rMR_COMI) to examine evolution of oxygen metabolism during acute ischemia. Results Highly linear relationships were obtained between O2SatMRv and O2SatJV/O2SatSSS in rats under global cerebral oxygenation alterations. In the focal ischemia study, rMR_COMI values were significantly lower within the areas of eventual infarction than other regions. Moreover, the rMR_COMI values within the ischemic territory decreased with time, concomitant with an increase in the number of voxels with severely impaired oxygen metabolism. Conclusion Accurate estimates of O2SatMRv can be obtained across a broad and physiologically relevant range of cerebral oxygenation. Furthermore, this method demonstrates a dynamic alteration of cerebral oxygen metabolism during acute ischemia in rats. PMID:19359642

  19. Chitosan/nHAC/PLGA microsphere vehicle for sustained release of rhBMP-2 and its derived synthetic oligopeptide for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanhui; Wang, Mingbo; Liu, Weiqiang; Chen, Changsheng; Cui, Wei; Sun, Tingfang; Feng, Qingling; Guo, Xiaodong

    2016-11-10

    Both of the osteogenic factor and the suitable delivery system in bone tissue engineering are essential for bone regeneration. In this study, we manufactured two kinds of composite vehicles for sustained release of rhBMP-2 and its derived synthetic oligopeptide (Peptide-24, abbreviated as P24) for osteogenesis and bone defect repair. The composite vehicle was based on cross-linked chitosan, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC), and poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid microsphere. The physicochemical properties of the composite vehicles (abbreviated as CS/nHAC/PLGA-MS) were investigated. The rhBMP-2 and P24 release kinetics from the vehicles were examined and the secondary structure of rhBMP-2 and P24 after 28 days' release process was analyzed. In vitro cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and rat calvarial defect repair were evaluated. The results proved that the composite vehicle had favorable compressive strength, elastic modulus, the porosity, and the bulk density. The secondary structures of rhBMP-2 and P24 kept stability during microencapsulation and release process. P24 from the vehicle kept a geared-up release and rhBMP-2 from the vehicle kept a three-stage mode release process. The results of in vitro cell detection showed that the composite vehicle had good biocompatibility and osteoinduction. In vivo rat calvarial defect repair demonstrated that both groups of vehicles with rhBMP2 and P24 exhibited satisfied bone defect repair. This research showed that the composite vehicle could exhibit sustained release of osteogenic factors. CS/nHAC/PLGA-MS loading rhBMP-2 or P24 could be a novel and ideal scaffold for bone regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical Whispering Gallery Modes in Chalcogenide Arsenic Selenide Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Hong-Quan

    Anisotropic chalcogenide microsphere is introduced for coupling theoretical analyzing and coupling experiment. Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) of isotropic microsphere is introduced and the TE & TM WGMs dispersion relationship is derived from electromagnetic vector equations in the spherical coordinate. The Maxwell equations can be solved in 2D model for the 3D model of axisymmetric or Rotational symmetry isotropic microsphere. First 4 TE&TM WGMs are simulated in 2D model using finite-element weak method. The binding capability, mode volume V and quality factor Q depend on the refractive index and size of the microsphere. Plane wavefront light wave is assumed to propagate inside the microsphere; coupling coefficient is determined by WGMs numbers and the distance between the microsphere and the micro-taper. Coupling related Q factor is analyzed; TE & TM nonlinear microsphere coupling is introduced with Matlab simulation. Chalcogenide coupling experiments for transmission, reflection and drop-port function are conducted. The light waves for coupling are broadband incoherent light source and narrowband tunable laser. Broadband light gave sensitive results while the coherent laser gave easy coupling capability. The chalcogenide microsphere was used as a feedback element of an amplifying medium. Comparing with silica microsphere, chalcogenide microsphere's response is more unstable due to free carriers perturbation and thermal activity

  1. Cerebral artery selective inhibition of protein kinase c-mediated contraction by hns-32, a novel azulene-1-carboxamidine derivative.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, K; Saitoh, M; Nakazawa, T; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, Y; Shigenobu, K

    2000-01-01

    The vasorelaxant actions of a novel azulene-1-carboxamidine derivative, HNS-32, were investigated on the tension development evoked by phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu) in cerebral and femoral arteries isolated from the dogs. In basilar artery, HNS-32 inhibited almost completely PDBu-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with potency about 10 times stronger than that of fasudil, a protein kinase inhibitor. In contrast, in femoral artery, HNS-32 failed to suppress the tension development in response to PDBu whereas fasudil inhibited it with a similar potency as in basilar artery. These findings indicate that HNS-32 selectively suppresses cerebral artery contraction mediated via an activation of protein kinase C.

  2. Diesterified Derivatives of 5-Iodo-2′-Deoxyuridine as Cerebral Tumor Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Rösler, Thomas W.; Matusch, Andreas; Librizzi, Damiano; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Freundlieb, Nils; Hoeffken, Helmut; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to develop beneficial tracers for cerebral tumors, we tested two novel 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (IUdR) derivatives, diesterified at the deoxyribose residue. The substances were designed to enhance the uptake into brain tumor tissue and to prolong the availability in the organism. We synthesized carrier added 5-[125I]iodo-3′,5′-di-O-acetyl-2′-deoxyuridine (Ac2[125I]IUdR), 5-[125I]iodo-3′,5′-di-O-pivaloyl-2′-deoxyuridine (Piv2[125I]IUdR) and their respective precursor molecules for the first time. HPLC was used for purification and to determine the specific activities. The iodonucleoside tracer were tested for their stability against human thymidine phosphorylase. DNA integration of each tracer was determined in 2 glioma cell lines (Gl261, CRL2397) and in PC12 cells in vitro. In mice, we measured the relative biodistribution and the tracer uptake in grafted brain tumors. Ac2[125I]IUdR, Piv2[125I]IUdR and [125I]IUdR (control) were prepared with labeling yields of 31–47% and radiochemical purities of >99% (HPLC). Both diesterified iodonucleoside tracers showed a nearly 100% resistance against degradation by thymidine phosphorylase. Ac2[125I]IUdR and Piv2[125I]IUdR were specifically integrated into the DNA of all tested tumor cell lines but to a less extend than the control [125I]IUdR. In mice, 24 h after i.p. injection, brain radioactivity uptakes were in the following order Piv2[125I]IUdR>Ac2[125I]IUdR>[125I]IUdR. For Ac2[125I]IUdR we detected lower amounts of radioactivities in the thyroid and stomach, suggesting a higher stability toward deiodination. In mice bearing unilateral graft-induced brain tumors, the uptake ratios of tumor-bearing to healthy hemisphere were 51, 68 and 6 for [125I]IUdR, Ac2[125I]IUdR and Piv2[125I]IUdR, respectively. Esterifications of both deoxyribosyl hydroxyl groups of the tumor tracer IUdR lead to advantageous properties regarding uptake into brain tumor tissue and metabolic stability. PMID:25028935

  3. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  4. The edaravone and 3-n-butylphthalide ring-opening derivative 10b effectively attenuates cerebral ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai; Sheng, Xiao; Li, Ting-ting; Wang, Lin-na; Zhang, Yi-hua; Huang, Zhang-jian; Ji, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Compound 10b is a hybrid molecule of edaravone and a ring-opening derivative of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of compound 10b on brain damage in rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: SD rats were subjected to 2-h-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). At the onset of reperfusion, the rats were orally treated with NBP (60 mg/kg), edaravone (3 mg/kg), NBP (60 mg/kg)+edaravone (3 mg/kg), or compound 10b (70, 140 mg/kg). The infarct volume, motor behavior deficits, brain water content, histopathological alterations, and activity of GSH, SOD, and MDA were analyzed 24 h after reperfusion. The levels of relevant proteins in the ipsilateral striatum were examined using immunoblotting. Results: Administration of compound 10b (70 or 140 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume and neurological deficits in MCAO rats. The neuroprotective effects of compound 10b were more pronounced compared to NBP, edaravone or NBP+edaravone. Furthermore, compound 10b significantly upregulated the protein levels of the cytoprotective molecules Bcl-2, HO-1, Nrf2, Trx, P-NF-κB p65, and IκB-α, while decreasing the expression of Bax, caspase 3, caspase 9, Txnip, NF-κB p65, and P-IκB-α. Conclusion: Oral administration of compound 10b effectively attenuates rat cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:26073328

  5. Measurement of anterior and posterior circulation flow contributions to cerebral blood flow. An ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Boyajian, R A; Schwend, R B; Wolfe, M M; Bickerton, R E; Otis, S M

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis may be useful in answering questions of basic physiological interest in the cerebrovascular circulation. Using this technique, the authors have sought to describe quantitatively the complete concurrent flow relations among all four arteries supplying the brain. The aim of this study of normal subjects was to determine the relative flow contributions of the anterior (internal carotid arteries) and posterior (vertebral arteries) cerebral circulation. Comparisons between the observed and theoretically expected anterior and posterior flow distribution would provide an opportunity to assess traditional rheological conceptions in vivo. Pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure mean flow rates in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in 21 normal adults. The anterior circulation (internal carotid arteries bilaterally) carried 82% of the brain's blood supply and comprised 67% of the total vascular cross-sectional area. These values demonstrate precise concordance between observations in vivo and the theoretically derived (Hagen-Poiseuille) expected flow distribution. These cerebrovascular findings support the traditional conception of macroscopic blood flow. Further studies using ultrasound-derived volumetric analysis of the brain's arterial flow relations may illuminate the vascular pathophysiology underlying aging, cerebral ischemia, and dementias.

  6. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  7. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  8. Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia selectively disrupts tight junctions complexes in stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Page, Shyanne; Munsell, Alli; Al-Ahmad, Abraham J

    2016-10-11

    Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB responds to such injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of the human BBB to chemical and environmental H/I in vitro. In this study, we used immortalized hCMEC/D3 and IMR90 stem-cell derived human brain microvascular endothelial cell lines (IMR90-derived BMECs). Hypoxic stress was achieved by exposure to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or by exposure to 1 % hypoxia and oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) was used to model ischemic injury. We assessed barrier function using both transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and sodium fluorescein permeability. Changes in cell junction integrity were assessed by immunocytochemistry and cell viability was assessed by trypan-blue exclusion and by MTS assays. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). CoCl2 selectively disrupted the barrier function in IMR90-derived BMECs but not in hCMEC/D3 monolayers and cytotoxic effects did not drive such disruption. In addition, hypoxia/OGD stress significantly disrupted the barrier function by selectively disrupting tight junctions (TJs) complexes. In addition, we noted an uncoupling between cell metabolic activity and barrier integrity. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of IMR90-derived BMECs to respond to hypoxic/ischemic injury triggered by both chemical and environmental stress by showing a disruption of the barrier function. Such disruption was selectively targeting TJ complexes and was not driven by cellular apoptosis. In conclusion, this study suggests the suitability of stem cell-derived human BMECs monolayers as a model of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia in vitro.

  9. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Henning, S.A.

    1990-12-31

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800--1200{mu} diameter and 100--300{mu} wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  10. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Henning, Sten A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  11. Metabolism of proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The literature of metabolism in proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres is reviewed and criticized from a biochemical and experimental point of view. Closely related literature is also reviewed in order to understand the function of proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres. Proteinoids or proteinoid microspheres have many activities. Esterolysis, decarboxylation, amination, deamination, and oxidoreduction are catabolic enzyme activities. The formation of ATP, peptides or oligonucleotides is synthetic enzyme activities. Additional activities are hormonal and inhibitory. Selective formation of peptides is an activity of nucleoproteinoid microspheres; these are a model for ribosomes. Mechanisms of peptide and oligonucleotide syntheses from amino acids and nucleotide triphosphate by proteinoid microspheres are tentatively proposed as an integrative consequence of reviewing the literature.

  12. Metabolism of proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The literature of metabolism in proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres is reviewed and criticized from a biochemical and experimental point of view. Closely related literature is also reviewed in order to understand the function of proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres. Proteinoids or proteinoid microspheres have many activities. Esterolyis, decarboxylation, amination, deamination, and oxidoreduction are catabolic enzyme activities. The formation of ATP, peptides or oligonucleotides is synthetic enzyme activities. Additional activities are hormonal and inhibitory. Selective formation of peptides is an activity of nucleoproteinoid microspheres; these are a model for ribosomes. Mechanisms of peptide and oligonucleotide syntheses from amino acids and nucleotide triphosphate by proteinoid microspheres are tentatively proposed as an integrative consequence of reviewing the literature.

  13. Metabolism of proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The literature of metabolism in proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres is reviewed and criticized from a biochemical and experimental point of view. Closely related literature is also reviewed in order to understand the function of proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres. Proteinoids or proteinoid microspheres have many activities. Esterolyis, decarboxylation, amination, deamination, and oxidoreduction are catabolic enzyme activities. The formation of ATP, peptides or oligonucleotides is synthetic enzyme activities. Additional activities are hormonal and inhibitory. Selective formation of peptides is an activity of nucleoproteinoid microspheres; these are a model for ribosomes. Mechanisms of peptide and oligonucleotide syntheses from amino acids and nucleotide triphosphate by proteinoid microspheres are tentatively proposed as an integrative consequence of reviewing the literature.

  14. Metabolism of proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The literature of metabolism in proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres is reviewed and criticized from a biochemical and experimental point of view. Closely related literature is also reviewed in order to understand the function of proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres. Proteinoids or proteinoid microspheres have many activities. Esterolysis, decarboxylation, amination, deamination, and oxidoreduction are catabolic enzyme activities. The formation of ATP, peptides or oligonucleotides is synthetic enzyme activities. Additional activities are hormonal and inhibitory. Selective formation of peptides is an activity of nucleoproteinoid microspheres; these are a model for ribosomes. Mechanisms of peptide and oligonucleotide syntheses from amino acids and nucleotide triphosphate by proteinoid microspheres are tentatively proposed as an integrative consequence of reviewing the literature.

  15. Cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstriction restrains hypoxia-mediated cerebral vasodilation in young adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrell, John W; Schrage, William G

    2014-01-15

    Poor cerebrovascular function in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) likely contributes to elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease in this growing clinical population. Younger MetSyn adults without clinical evidence of cerebrovascular disease exhibit preserved hypercapnic vasodilation yet markedly impaired hypoxic vasodilation, but the mechanisms behind reduced hypoxic vasodilation are unknown. Based on data from rats, we tested the hypothesis that younger adults with MetSyn exhibit reduced cerebral hypoxic vasodilation due to loss of vasodilating prostaglandins. Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound in adults with MetSyn (n = 13, 33 ± 3 yr) and healthy controls (n = 15, 31 ± 2 yr). Isocapnic hypoxia was induced by titrating inspired oxygen to lower arterial saturation to 90% and 80% for 5 min each. Separately, hypercapnia was induced by increasing end-tidal CO2 10 mmHg above baseline levels. Cyclooxygenase inhibition (100 mg indomethacin) was conducted in a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design. MCAv was normalized for group differences in blood pressure (healthy: 89 ± 2 mmHg vs. MetSyn: 102 ± 2 mmHg) as cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi), and used to assess cerebral vasodilation. Hypoxia increased CVCi in both groups; however, vasodilation was ∼55% lower in MetSyn at SpO2 = 80% (P < 0.05). Indomethacin tended to decrease hypoxic vasodilation in healthy controls, and unexpectedly increased dilation in MetSyn (P < 0.05). In contrast to hypoxia, hypercapnia-mediated vasodilation was similar between groups, as was the decrease in vasodilation with indomethacin. These data indicate increased production of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins restrains hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in MetSyn, preventing them from responding appropriately to this important physiological stressor.

  16. Cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstriction restrains hypoxia-mediated cerebral vasodilation in young adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Poor cerebrovascular function in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) likely contributes to elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease in this growing clinical population. Younger MetSyn adults without clinical evidence of cerebrovascular disease exhibit preserved hypercapnic vasodilation yet markedly impaired hypoxic vasodilation, but the mechanisms behind reduced hypoxic vasodilation are unknown. Based on data from rats, we tested the hypothesis that younger adults with MetSyn exhibit reduced cerebral hypoxic vasodilation due to loss of vasodilating prostaglandins. Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound in adults with MetSyn (n = 13, 33 ± 3 yr) and healthy controls (n = 15, 31 ± 2 yr). Isocapnic hypoxia was induced by titrating inspired oxygen to lower arterial saturation to 90% and 80% for 5 min each. Separately, hypercapnia was induced by increasing end-tidal CO2 10 mmHg above baseline levels. Cyclooxygenase inhibition (100 mg indomethacin) was conducted in a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design. MCAv was normalized for group differences in blood pressure (healthy: 89 ± 2 mmHg vs. MetSyn: 102 ± 2 mmHg) as cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi), and used to assess cerebral vasodilation. Hypoxia increased CVCi in both groups; however, vasodilation was ∼55% lower in MetSyn at SpO2 = 80% (P < 0.05). Indomethacin tended to decrease hypoxic vasodilation in healthy controls, and unexpectedly increased dilation in MetSyn (P < 0.05). In contrast to hypoxia, hypercapnia-mediated vasodilation was similar between groups, as was the decrease in vasodilation with indomethacin. These data indicate increased production of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins restrains hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in MetSyn, preventing them from responding appropriately to this important physiological stressor. PMID:24213610

  17. Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for the detection of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadri, P. R.; Majumder, A.; Morgan, C. J.; Pyne, G. J.; Zuccarello, M.; Jauch, E.; Wagner, K. R.; Clark, J. F.; Caffery, J., Jr.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2003-11-01

    A cerebral aneurysm is a weakened portion of an artery in the brain. When a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, a specific type of bleeding known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs. No test exists currently to screen people for the presence of an aneurysm. The diagnosis of a SAH is made after an aneurysm ruptures, and the literature indicates that nearly one-third of patients with a SAH are initially misdiagnosed and subjected to the risks associated with aneurysm re-rupture. For those individuals with a suspected SAH, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain usually demonstrates evidence of the bleeding. However, in a considerable portion of people, the CT scan is unable to detect the blood that has escaped from the blood vessel. For circumstances when a SAH is suspected despite a normal CT scan, physicians make the diagnosis of SAH by performing a spinal tap. A spinal tap uses a needle to sample the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the patient"s back; CSF is tainted with blood after the aneurysm ruptures. To distinguish between a common headache and a SAH, a fast and an effective solution is required. We describe the development of an effective detection system integrating hardware and a powerful software interface solution. Briefly, CSF from the patient is aspirated and excited with an appropriate wavelength of light. The software employs spectrophotometric analysis of the output spectra and lays the foundation for the development of portable and user-friendly equipment for detection of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

  18. Effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Fu, Qiang; Cao, Jiangbei; Mi, Weidong

    2012-07-25

    We intraperitoneally injected 10 and 50 mg/kg of propofol for 7 consecutive days to treat a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia. A low-dose of propofol promoted the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, and cAMP in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, but a high-dose of propofol inhibited their expression. Results indicated that the protective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia in aged rats is related to changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus, and that the cAMP-cAMP responsive element binding protein pathway is involved in the regulatory effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  19. Whispering gallery modes in coated silica microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Davor; Chiasera, Alessandro; Moser, Enrico; Feron, Patrice; Cibiel, Gilles; Ivanda, Mile; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Silica microspheres were made by melting the tip of a standard telecom fiber and were coated with a 70SiO2 - 30 HfO2 sol-gel derived glass activated by 0.3 mol % of Er3+ ions. The samples were coated using a dip coating apparatus. The thickness of the coating was estimated to be around 1 μm. The whispering gallery modes of the coated resonator were studied using a full taper - microsphere coupling setup. Upon excitation at 1480 nm sharp peaks at wavelengths 1540- 1565 nm were observed. They were attributed to the whispering gallery modes of the microsphere falling in the wavelength range of the erbium emission.

  20. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the course of experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Linares, María; Marín-García, Patricia; Pérez-Benavente, Susana; Sánchez-Nogueiro, Jesús; Puyet, Antonio; Bautista, José M; Diez, Amalia

    2013-01-15

    The role of neurotrophic factors on the integrity of the central nervous system (CNS) during cerebral malaria (CM) infection remains obscure, but the long-standing neurocognitive sequelae often observed in rescued children can be attributed in part to the modulation of neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. To discriminate the contribution of key responses in the time-sequence of the pathogenic events that trigger the development of neurocognitive malaria syndrome we defined four stages (I-IV) of the neurological progression of CM in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Upregulation of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, e-selectin and p-selectin expression was detected in all cerebral regions before parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) accumulation. As the severity of symptoms increased, BDNF mRNA progressively diminished in several brain regions, earliest in the thalamus-hypothalamus, cerebellum, brainstem and cortex, and correlated with a four-stage disease sequence. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy revealed changes in the BDNF distribution pattern, suggesting altered axonal transport. During CM progression, molecular markers of neurological infection and inflammation in the parasite and the host, respectively, were accompanied by a switch in the brain constitutive proteasome to the immunoproteasome, which could impede normal protein turnover. In parallel with BDNF downregulation, NCAM expression also diminished with increased CM severity. Together, these data suggest that changes in BDNF availability could be involved in the pathogenesis of CM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis through the characterisation of host-derived plasma microparticle protein content

    PubMed Central

    Tiberti, Natalia; Latham, Sharissa L.; Bush, Stephen; Cohen, Amy; Opoka, Robert O.; John, Chandy C.; Juillard, Annette; Grau, Georges E.; Combes, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection responsible for thousands of deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. CM pathogenesis remains incompletely understood but a number of effectors have been proposed, including plasma microparticles (MP). MP numbers are increased in CM patients’ circulation and, in the mouse model, they can be localised within inflamed vessels, suggesting their involvement in vascular damage. In the present work we define, for the first time, the protein cargo of MP during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with the overarching hypothesis that this characterisation could help understand CM pathogenesis. Using qualitative and quantitative high-throughput proteomics we compared MP proteins from non-infected and P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. More than 360 proteins were identified, 60 of which were differentially abundant, as determined by quantitative comparison using TMTTM isobaric labelling. Network analyses showed that ECM MP carry proteins implicated in molecular mechanisms relevant to CM pathogenesis, including endothelial activation. Among these proteins, the strict association of carbonic anhydrase I and S100A8 with ECM was verified by western blot on MP from DBA/1 and C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that MP protein cargo represents a novel ECM pathogenic trait to consider in the understanding of CM pathogenesis. PMID:27917875

  3. Angelica injection reduces cognitive impairment during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Junjian; Liu, Hanxing; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaolian

    2008-02-01

    The current study investigated whether chronic cerebral hypoperfusion produced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-vessel occlusion (2-VO)) induced cognitive impairment and whether angelica injections alleviated the impairment. Furthermore, the study examined whether 2-VO altered the expression patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus of rats and whether angelica injections attenuated the alteration. Rats were divided into four groups to receive either 2-VO surgery or sham surgery followed by either angelica injections or saline injections for eight weeks. Spatial learning in Morris water maze and the expression patterns of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampus of all rats were examined. The results showed that 2-VO significantly impaired spatial learning and memory, and angelica injections significantly reversed the learning and memory impairment. Furthermore, 2-VO resulted in significantly decreased BDNF protein, NGF protein, and NGF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Angelica injections significantly attenuated the decreased expression. Moreover, spatial learning in Morris water maze was positively correlated to the expression of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampus. Thus, angelica injections might alleviate cognitive impairment during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through BDNF and NGF.

  4. Nano-particle delivery of brain derived neurotrophic factor after focal cerebral ischemia reduces tissue injury and enhances behavioral recovery.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nia M; Ritzel, Rodney; Mancini, Nickolas S; Jiang, Yuhang; Yi, Xiang; Manickam, Devika S; Banks, William A; Kabanov, Alexander V; McCullough, Louise D; Verma, Rajkumar

    Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are linked to delayed neurological recovery, depression, and cognitive impairment following stroke. Supplementation with BDNF reverses these effects. Unfortunately, systemically administered BDNF in its native form has minimal therapeutic value due to its poor blood brain barrier permeability and short serum half-life. In this study, a novel nano-particle polyion complex formulation of BDNF (nano-BDNF) was administered to mice after experimental ischemic stroke. Male C57BL/6J (8-10weeks) mice were randomly assigned to receive nano-BDNF, native-BDNF, or saline treatment after being subjected to 60min of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Mice received the first dose at 3 (early treatment), 6 (intermediate treatment), or 12h (delayed treatment) following stroke onset; a second dose was given in all cohorts at 24h after stroke onset. Post-stroke outcome was evaluated by behavioral, histological, and molecular analysis for 15days after stroke. Early and intermediate nano-BDNF treatment led to a significant reduction in cerebral tissue loss. Delayed treatment led to improved memory/cognition, reduced post-stroke depressive phenotypes, and maintained myelin basic protein and brain BDNF levels, but had no effect on tissue atrophy. The results indicate that administration of a novel nano-particle formulation of BDNF leads to both neuroprotective and neuro-restorative effects after stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional recovery after transplantation of neural stem cells modified by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats with cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J M; Zhao, Y Y; Chen, S D; Zhang, W H; Lou, L; Jin, X

    2011-01-01

    Functional recovery after transplantation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-modified neural stem cells (NSCs) was evaluated in a rat model of cerebral ischaemia damage induced by temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated upregulated BDNF protein expression by rat embryonic NSCs transfected with the human BDNF gene (BDNF-NSCs). BDNF-NSCs stimulated neurite outgrowth in cocultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, suggesting that BDNF increased neurogenesis in vitro. In vivo, BDNF promoted recovery of tMCAO. Phosphate-buffered saline, untransformed NSCs or BDNF-NSCs were introduced into the penumbra zone of the right striatum of tMCAO rats and neurological function deficit was assessed for up to 12 weeks using the neurological severity score (NSS). The NSS was significantly lower in the BDNF-NSC transfected transplant group than in all the other groups from week 10. BDNF-NSCs recovered 1 week after transplantation expressed BDNF protein. Transplanted NSCs had differentiated into mature neurons 12 weeks after transplantation. Transgenic NSCs have potential as a therapeutic agent for brain ischaemia.

  6. I.V. infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene-modified human mesenchymal stem cells protects against injury in a cerebral ischemia model in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Honmou, O; Harada, K; Houkin, K; Hamada, H; Kocsis, J D

    2005-01-01

    I.V. delivery of mesenchymal stem cells prepared from adult bone marrow reduces infarction size and ameliorates functional deficits in rat cerebral ischemia models. Administration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor to the infarction site has also been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. To test the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cell delivery, we compared the efficacy of systemic delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells and human mesenchymal stem cells transfected with a fiber-mutant F/RGD adenovirus vector with a brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cells). A permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced by intraluminal vascular occlusion with a microfilament. Human mesenchymal stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cells were i.v. injected into the rats 6 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Lesion size was assessed at 6 h, 1, 3 and 7 days using MR imaging, and histological methods. Functional outcome was assessed using the treadmill stress test. Both human mesenchymal stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cells reduced lesion volume and elicited functional improvement compared with the control sham group, but the effect was greater in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cell group. ELISA analysis of the infarcted hemisphere revealed an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the human mesenchymal stem cell groups, but a greater increase in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-human mesenchymal stem cell group. These data support the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia and cellular delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor can be achieved by i.v. delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells.

  7. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-06-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs+ and/or Sr2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs+ and/or Sr2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900-1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs+ and/or Sr2+ are glass-crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite-nepheline, Sr-feldspar-nepheline and Sr-feldspar-pollucite composites including ˜60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10-20 wt.% of glass. The 137Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10-7 g cm-2 day-1 was determined for the pollucite glass-ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water).

  8. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  9. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kong, Fung-Ming; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  10. Superparamagnetic folate-immobilized dye labeled microspheres for oral cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenfeld, Bernd

    A design concept is presented and developed for a screening test for oral cancer. The application is based on generating specific binding between microspheres and receptors known to be expressed specifically on malignant cells. Quantification of the test is derived from a ratiometric determination of test microspheres immobilized with folate against control microspheres. Microspheres were suspension copolymerized polymethyl methacrylate and aminoethyl methacrylate, and were doped with superparamagnetic iron oxide to permit magnetic separation of microspheres from testing suspension. Magnetic separation was demonstrated. Specific binding was provided by folic acid that was immobilized on the microsphere surface by carbodiimide chemistry. Microsphere labeling was performed by covalent bonding of fluorophores to monomers prior to polymerization, permitting spatial imaging of microspheres by fluorescence microscopy. Testing of specific binding of folate to tumorous cell lines was performed using cell lines known to overexpress folate receptors. Cell lines used included NCI-H23 human lung adenocarcinoma, with controls provided by normal human dermal fibroblasts. It was found that the folate-immobilized microspheres were preferentially retained by the tumourous cell line, relative to control microspheres (p = 0.0074). There was no significant difference between the retention of folate-immobilized microspheres by the cancerous cell line as compared to the control cell line (p = 0.90) as determined by pooled data. Testing of specific binding to relevant tissue was performed using excised oral cancer tissue that had been frozen and sectioned onto slides. It was found that the folate immobilized microspheres were retained by the cancerous tissue at a higher rate than the control microspheres (p = 0.037). Controls performed with normal tissue shows that the folate-immobilized microspheres were retained by normal tissue at a higher rate than the cancerous tissue. Both cell

  11. Compartmentalization in proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, S.; Fox, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Proteinoid microspheres with stable internal compartments and internal structure are made from acidic proteinoid and basic proteinoid with calcium. The populations of microspheres are characterized by a wide diversity of structure. A model of primitive intracellular communication is suggested by the observed movement of internal particles between compartments of a multicompartmentalized unit. Differential response to pH change and to temperature change has been demonstrated within one population and suggests one mode of adaptive selection among primordial cell populations.

  12. The role of prostaglandins and endothelium-derived relaxation factor in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen utilization in the piglet: operationalizing the concept of an essential circulation.

    PubMed

    Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Bell, A; Lozon, M; Randle, C; Hipps, R

    1994-06-01

    The brain is considered an "essential" organ, defined as one whose blood supply is preferentially maintained vis-à-vis other less-essential circulations during periods of reduced systemic cardiac output (CO). We asked whether the actions of either prostaglandins or endothelium-derived relaxation factor might underlie the essential qualities of the cerebral circulation; that is, would the absence of one or the other impair the ability of the brain to preferentially redirect systemic blood flow during a period of reduced systemic CO. We compared hemodynamics in the cerebral and systemic circulations in 33 anesthetized piglets under three conditions that reduced systemic CO equivalently: endothelium-derived relaxation factor inhibition with the substituted L-arginine analog N-nitro-L-arginine (NNLA; 25 mg/kg), prostaglandin inhibition with indomethacin (INDO; 5 mg/kg), and inflation of a left atrial balloon (LAB) catheter. NNLA, INDO, and LAB each reduced CO to an equivalent value (approximately 30% from baseline). NNLA and INDO, but not LAB elevated systemic blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and cerebral vascular resistance (CVR). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was preserved after NNLA and LAB but fell after INDO (-35%). Despite the equivalent reduction in CO noted during the three experimental protocols, the proportion of systemic blood flow directed toward the brain (CBF/CO) rose significantly during LAB and NNLA (+30%) but fell significantly during INDO (-12%). Similarly, relative cerebral vascular resistance (CVR/SVR) fell significantly during LAB and NNLA but rose during INDO.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Electro-acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment via improvement of brain-derived neurotropic factor-mediated hippocampal synaptic plasticity in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruhui; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Weilin; Chen, Wenlie; Yu, Kunqiang; Zhao, Congkuai; Huang, Jia; Yang, Shanli; Peng, Hongwei; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2017-01-01

    A previous study by our group found that electro-acupuncture (EA) at the Shenting (DU24) and Baihui (DU20) acupoints ameliorates cognitive impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the precise mechanism of action has remained largely unknown. The present study investigated whether brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) mediates hippocampal synaptic plasticity as the underlying mechanism. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: The sham operation control (Sham) group, the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, and the I/R with EA treatment (I/R+EA) group. The I/R+EA group received EA treatment at the Shenting (DU24) and Baihui (DU20) acupoints after the operation. EA treatment was found to ameliorate neurological deficits (P<0.05) and reduce the cerebral infarct volume (P<0.01). In addition, EA improved cognitive function in cerebral I/R-injured rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, EA treatment promoted synaptic plasticity. Simultaneously, EA increased the hippocampal expression of BDNF, its high-affinity tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the rats with cerebral I/R injury. Collectively, the findings suggested that BDNF-mediated hippocampal synaptic plasticity may be one mechanism via which EA treatment at the Shenting (DU24) and Baihui (DU20) acupoints improves cognitive function in cerebral I/R injured rats. PMID:28962170

  14. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of CdS-Decorated TiO2/Carbon Core-Shell Microspheres Derived from Microcrystalline Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Li, Yinliang; Yang, Jun; Wang, Bo; Ma, Mingguo; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of reusable and biodegradation materials from renewable resources such as cellulose is essential for a sustainable world. The core-shell structured CdS-decorated TiO2/Carbon microspheres (CdS/TiO2/Carbon MS) photocatalyst was synthesized with controlled hydrolysis and a novel sonochemical method. It was prepared by using crosslinked microcrystalline cellulose as the core, tetrabutyl titanate as the titania source and CdS as the photosensitizer. The morphology, chemical structure and properties of the obtained material were characterized by many means. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the CdS/TiO2/Carbon MS was evaluated by the photodegradation efficiency of Rhodamine B solution, which reached 95.24% under visible light irradiation. This study demonstrated the excellent photocatalytic performance of CdS/TiO2/Carbon MS, which might have promising applications in environmental treatments. PMID:28773368

  15. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  16. Effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam on neurotransmitters in brain regions after microsphere embolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takeo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Miyake, Keiko; Takagi, Kaori; Tadokoro, Mina; Takagi, Norio; Oshikawa, Sayuri

    1997-01-01

    The effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam, a novel nootropic drug, on neurotransmitters of brain regions were examined in rats with microsphere embolism-induced cerebral ischaemia. Cerebral ischaemia was induced by administration of 900 microspheres (48 μm) into the internal carotid artery. The rats with stroke-like symptoms were treated p.o. with 30 mg kg−1 nebracetam twice daily. The levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus of animals with microsphere embolism were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) on the 3rd and 7th days after the operation. Although the microsphere embolism induced significant changes in most of the neurotransmitters and some of their metabolites in the brain regions, the delayed treatment with nebracetam partially restored only the hippocampal 5-HT and the striatal dopamine metabolite contents on the 3rd day. The hippocampal in vivo 5-HT synthesis, but not the striatal dopamine synthesis, was attenuated in rats with microsphere embolism on the 3rd day, but was restored by treatment with nebracetam. In vivo striatal dopamine turnover rate of the rats with microsphere embolism was inhibited on the 3rd day irrespective of treatment with nebracetam. The present study provides evidence for a possible action of nebracetam on 5-HT metabolism in the ischaemic brain. PMID:9179389

  17. Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Administration and Mild Hypothermia Induction on Delayed Neuronal Death After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Sung Phil; Kwon, Sung Won; Suh, Sang Won

    2017-05-01

    Global cerebral ischemia is a cause of poor prognosis after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Various attempts have been made to minimize global cerebral ischemia but none been more effective than mild hypothermia induction. A few studies have shown the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on global cerebral ischemia, but no studies have compared this effect with mild hypothermia or assessed any possible interaction. We aimed to show the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on delayed neuronal death after global cerebral ischemia and to compare this effect with mild hypothermia. Experimental study. Animal research laboratory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g. Rats were subjected to 7 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia and randomized into four groups: control, mild hypothermia, injection of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and combined application of mild hypothermia and mesenchymal stem cells, along with four sham groups treated identically. Rats were euthanized 7 days after global cerebral ischemia. Degree of neuronal death in hippocampus was significantly higher in control than in other groups. The number of activated microglia was higher in control group than in other groups and was higher in mild hypothermia than shams, mesenchymal stem cells, mild hypothermia/mesenchymal stem cells. Degree of blood-brain barrier disruption and the count of infiltrated neutrophils were significantly higher in control than in other groups. Degree of oxidative injury was significantly higher in control than other groups. It was higher in mild hypothermia than sham groups, mesenchymal stem cells, mild hypothermia/mesenchymal stem cells and was higher in mesenchymal stem cells group than sham groups. Significantly, worse functional results were found in control than in other groups. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells after transient global cerebral ischemia has a prominent protective effect on delayed neuron death, even compared with mild

  18. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia's score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia's score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  19. Characterisation of radioiodinated flavonoid derivatives for SPECT imaging of cerebral prion deposits

    PubMed Central

    Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yuki; Kawasaki, Masao; Ogawa, Ayaka; Haratake, Mamoru; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ubagai, Kaori; Ono, Masahiro; Yoshida, Sakura; Nishida, Noriyuki; Nakayama, Morio

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterised by deposition of amyloid plaques containing abnormal prion protein aggregates (PrPSc). This study aimed to evaluate the potential of radioiodinated flavonoid derivatives for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of PrPSc. In vitro binding assays using recombinant mouse PrP (rMoPrP) aggregates revealed that the 4-dimethylamino-substituted styrylchromone derivative (SC-NMe2) had higher in vitro binding affinity (Kd = 24.5 nM) and capacity (Bmax = 36.3 pmol/nmol protein) than three other flavonoid derivatives (flavone, chalcone, and aurone). Fluorescent imaging using brain sections from mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mBSE)-infected mice demonstrated that SC-NMe2 clearly labelled PrPSc-positive prion deposits in the mice brain. Two methoxy SC derivatives, SC-OMe and SC-(OMe)2, also showed high binding affinity for rMoPrP aggregates with Ki values of 20.8 and 26.6 nM, respectively. In vitro fluorescence and autoradiography experiments demonstrated high accumulation of [125I]SC-OMe and [125I]SC-(OMe)2 in prion deposit-rich regions of the mBSE-infected mouse brain. SPECT/computed tomography (CT) imaging and ex vivo autoradiography demonstrated that [123I]SC-OMe showed consistent brain distribution with the presence of PrPSc deposits in the mBSE-infected mice brain. In conclusion, [123I]SC-OMe appears a promising SPECT radioligand for monitoring prion deposit levels in the living brain. PMID:26669576

  20. Characterisation of radioiodinated flavonoid derivatives for SPECT imaging of cerebral prion deposits.

    PubMed

    Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yuki; Kawasaki, Masao; Ogawa, Ayaka; Haratake, Mamoru; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ubagai, Kaori; Ono, Masahiro; Yoshida, Sakura; Nishida, Noriyuki; Nakayama, Morio

    2015-12-16

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterised by deposition of amyloid plaques containing abnormal prion protein aggregates (PrP(Sc)). This study aimed to evaluate the potential of radioiodinated flavonoid derivatives for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of PrP(Sc). In vitro binding assays using recombinant mouse PrP (rMoPrP) aggregates revealed that the 4-dimethylamino-substituted styrylchromone derivative (SC-NMe2) had higher in vitro binding affinity (Kd = 24.5 nM) and capacity (Bmax = 36.3 pmol/nmol protein) than three other flavonoid derivatives (flavone, chalcone, and aurone). Fluorescent imaging using brain sections from mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mBSE)-infected mice demonstrated that SC-NMe2 clearly labelled PrP(Sc)-positive prion deposits in the mice brain. Two methoxy SC derivatives, SC-OMe and SC-(OMe)2, also showed high binding affinity for rMoPrP aggregates with Ki values of 20.8 and 26.6 nM, respectively. In vitro fluorescence and autoradiography experiments demonstrated high accumulation of [(125)I]SC-OMe and [(125)I]SC-(OMe)2 in prion deposit-rich regions of the mBSE-infected mouse brain. SPECT/computed tomography (CT) imaging and ex vivo autoradiography demonstrated that [(123)I]SC-OMe showed consistent brain distribution with the presence of PrP(Sc) deposits in the mBSE-infected mice brain. In conclusion, [(123)I]SC-OMe appears a promising SPECT radioligand for monitoring prion deposit levels in the living brain.

  1. Method for preparing hollow metal oxide microsphere

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, C.R.

    1974-02-12

    Hollow refractory metal oxide microspheres are prepared by impregnating resinous microspheres with a metallic compound, drying the impregnated microspheres, heating the microspheres slowly to carbonize the resin, and igniting the microspheres to remove the carbon and to produce the metal oxide. Zirconium oxide is given as an example. (Official Gazette)

  2. Microarray expression profiles of genes in lung tissues of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway.

  3. Inhalation of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats - A possible new hydrogen resource for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Dongchen; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Gu, Zhengrong; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Sun, Xuejun; Ji, Fang; Hou, Jiong; Su, Jiacan

    2016-10-29

    Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to make cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Pathologically, tissues from rats in hydrogen inhalation group showed no significant difference compared with the control group in HE staining pictures. The blood biochemical findings matched the HE staining result. TTC, Nissl, and TUNEL staining showed the significant improvement of infarction volume, neuron morphology, and neuron apoptosis in rat with hydrogen treatment. Biochemically, hydrogen inhalation decreased brain caspase-3, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells and inflammation factors concentration. Water electrolysis-derived hydrogen inhalation had neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats with the effect of suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is a possible new hydrogen resource to electrolyze water at the bedside clinically.

  4. Microarray expression profiles of genes in lung tissues of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores. We demonstrated that the transplantation of BMSCs (passage 3) via the tail vein into the lung tissues attenuated lung injury. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in lung tissues from the rats with focal cerebral ischemia and transplanted with BMSCs using a Gene microarray. Moreover, the Gene Ontology database was employed to determine gene function. We found that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were downregulated in the BMSC transplantation groups, compared with the control group. These results suggested that BMSC transplantation may attenuate lung injury following focal cerebral ischemia and that this effect is associated with the downregulation of TGF-β, PDGF and the PI3K-AKT pathway. PMID:27922691

  5. Ameliorating effect of hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor against impaired glucose metabolism after cerebral ischemic stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has potent neuroprotective effects against brain injury. We recently reported that glucose intolerance/hyperglycemia could be induced by ischemic stress (i.e., post-ischemic glucose intolerance) following ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of BDNF on the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. On day 1, the expression levels of BDNF were significantly decreased in the cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor, a BDNF receptor, decreased in the hypothalamus and liver and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of BDNF (50 ng/mouse) suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage on day 3 after MCAO. In the liver and skeletal muscle, the expression levels of insulin receptors decreased, while gluconeogenic enzyme levels increased on day 1 after MCAO. These changes completely recovered to normal levels in the presence of BDNF. These results indicate that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance by BDNF may suppress ischemic neuronal damage.

  6. Susceptibility to Experimental Cerebral Malaria Induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA in Inbred Mouse Strains Recently Derived from Wild Stock

    PubMed Central

    Bagot, S.; Idrissa Boubou, M.; Campino, S.; Behrschmidt, C.; Gorgette, O.; Guénet, J.-L.; Penha-Gonçalves, C.; Mazier, D.; Pied, S.; Cazenave, P.-A.

    2002-01-01

    The neurological syndrome caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA in rodents partially mimics the human disease. Several rodent models of cerebral malaria (CM) exist for the study of the mechanisms that cause the disease. However, since common laboratory mouse strains have limited gene pools, the role of their phenotypic variations causing CM is restricted. This constitutes an obstacle for efficient genetic analysis relating to the pathogenesis of malaria. Most common laboratory mouse strains are susceptible to CM, and the same major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype may exhibit different levels of susceptibility. We analyzed the influence of the MHC haplotype on overcoming CM by using MHC congenic mice with C57BL/10 and C3H backgrounds. No correlation was found between MHC molecules and the development of CM. New wild-derived mouse strains with wide genetic polymorphisms were then used to find new models of resistance to CM. Six of the twelve strains tested were resistant to CM. For two of them, F1 progeny and backcrosses performed with the reference strain C57BL/6 showed a high level of heterogeneity in the number and characteristics of the genetic factors associated with resistance to CM. PMID:11895970

  7. Uptake of parasite-derived vesicles by astrocytes and microglial phagocytosis of infected erythrocytes may drive neuroinflammation in cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Sandeep K; Dalko, Esther; Delcroix-Genete, Delphine; Herbert, Fabien; Cazenave, Pierre-André; Pied, Sylviane

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes and microglia are activated during cerebral malaria (CM) and contribute to the production and release of several mediators during neuroinflammatory processes. Whether these changes are the consequence of a direct crosstalk between glial cells and the malarial parasite and how these cells participate in the pathogenesis of CM is not yet clear. We therefore examined the interaction of astrocytes and microglia with Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected red blood cells using primary cell cultures derived from newborn C57BL/6 mice. We observed a dynamic transfer of vesicles from the parasite to astrocytes within minutes of contact, and the phagocytosis of infected red blood cells by microglia. Differential gene expression studies using the Affymetrix GeneChip(®) microarray, and quantitative PCR analyses showed the increase in expression of the set of genes belonging to the immune response network in parasite activated astrocytes and microglia. Interestingly, expression of these genes was also significantly upregulated in brains of mice dying from CM compared with uninfected mice or infected mice that did not develop the neuropathology. Accumulation of parasite-derived vesicles within astrocytes, and the phagocytosis of infected red blood cells by microglia induced a subsequent increase in interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP10) in both the brain and plasma of infected mice at the onset of CM, confirming a role for this molecule in CM pathogenesis. Altogether, these observations point to a possible role for glial cells in the neuropathological processes leading to CM. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2017;65:75-92. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  9. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  10. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  11. Polyvinyl pyridine microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microspheres are produced by cobalt gamma radiation initiated polymerization of a dilute aqueous vinyl pyridine solution. Addition of cross-linking agent provides higher surface area beads. Addition of monomers such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate acrylamide or methacrylamide increases hydrophilic properties and surface area of the beads. High surface area catalytic supports are formed in the presence of controlled pore glass substrate.

  12. Polyvinyl pyridine microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Microspheres are produced by cobalt gamma radiation initiated polymerization of a dilute aqueous vinyl pyridine solution. Addition of cross-linking agent provides higher surface area beads. Addition of monomers such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate acrylamide or methacrylamide increases hydrophilic properties and surface area of the beads. High surface area catalytic supports are formed in the presence of controlled pore glass substrate.

  13. Fusion microsphere targets

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, J.C.

    1980-07-28

    It was shown that a microsphere within the structure limitations is hydrodynamically stable. To insure its perfect formation, the initial chemical compositions must have a blowing capability, more important, the resultant liquid compositions must also have sufficient surface tension and low viscosity.

  14. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with and without brain damage.

    PubMed

    Kokaia, Z; Zhao, Q; Kokaia, M; Elmér, E; Metsis, M; Smith, M L; Siesjö, B K; Lindvall, O

    1995-11-01

    Levels of mRNA for c-fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), TrkB, and TrkC were studied using in situ hybridization in the rat brain at different reperfusion times after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Short-term (15 min) MCAO, which does not cause neuronal death, induced elevated BDNF mRNA expression confined to ipsilateral frontal and cingulate cortices outside the ischemic area. With a longer duration of MCAO (2 h), which leads to cortical infarction, the increase was more marked and elevated BDNF mRNA levels were also detected bilaterally in dentate granule cells and CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Maximum expression was found after 2 h of reperfusion. At 24 h BDNF mRNA expression had returned to control values. In the ischemic core of the parietal cortex only scattered neurons were expressing high levels of BDNF mRNA after 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Analysis of different BDNF transcripts showed that MCAO induced a marked increase of exon III mRNA but only small increases of exon I and II mRNAs in cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to BDNF mRNA, elevated expression of c-fos mRNA was observed in the entire ipsilateral cerebral cortex, including the ischemic core, after both 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Two hours of MCAO also induced transient, bilateral increases of NGF and TrkB mRNA levels and a decrease of NT-3 mRNA expression, confined to dentate granule cells. The upregulation of BDNF mRNA expression in cortical neurons after MCAO is probably triggered by glutamate through a spreading depression-like mechanism. The lack of response of the BDNF gene in the ischemic core may be due to suppression of signal transduction or transcription factor synthesis caused by the ischemia. The observed pattern of gene expression after MCAO agrees well with a neuroprotective role of BDNF in cortical neurons. However, elevated levels of NGF and BDNF protein could also increase synaptic efficacy in the

  15. Use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a model for Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naomi; Ashour, Danah; Dratz, Edward; Halonen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite with approximately one-third of the worlds' population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides primarily in cysts within neurons in the central nervous system. The chronic infection in immunocompetent individuals has been considered to be asymptomatic but increasing evidence indicates the chronic infection can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders such as Schizophrenia, prenatal depression and suicidal thoughts. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) by which the parasite exerts effects on human behavior is limited due to lack of suitable human neuronal models. In this paper, we report the use of human neurons derived from normal cord blood CD34+ cells generated via genetic reprogramming, as an in vitro model for the study T. gondii in neurons. This culture method resulted in a relatively pure monolayer of induced human neuronal-like cells that stained positive for neuronal markers, MAP2, NFL, NFH and NeuN. These induced human neuronal-like cells (iHNs) were efficiently infected by the Prugniad strain of the parasite and supported replication of the tachyzoite stage and development of the cyst stage. Infected iHNs could be maintained through 5 days of infection, allowing for formation of large cysts. This induced human neuronal model represents a novel culture method to study both tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of T. gondii in human neurons. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Porous microsphere and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Porous microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of porous microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the porous microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359

  17. Accuracy of percentage of signal intensity recovery and relative cerebral blood volume derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted, contrast-enhanced MRI in the preoperative diagnosis of cerebral tumours

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Timothy; Chaganti, Joga

    2015-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for diagnosis of cerebral tumours, and has become an increasingly powerful tool for their evaluation; however, the diagnosis of common contrast-enhancing lesions can be challenging, as it is sometimes impossible to differentiate them using conventional imaging. Histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, there are significant risks associated with the invasive procedure and definitive diagnosis is not always achieved. Early accurate diagnosis is important, as management differs accordingly. Advanced MRI techniques have increasing utility for aiding diagnosis in a variety of clinical scenarios. Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI is a perfusion imaging technique and a potentially important tool for the characterisation of cerebral tumours. The percentage of signal intensity recovery (PSR) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) derived from DSC MRI provide information about tumour capillary permeability and neoangiogenesis, which can be used to characterise tumour type and grade, and distinguish tumour recurrence from treatment-related effects. Therefore, PSR and rCBV potentially represent a non-invasive means of diagnosis; however, the clinical utility of these parameters has yet to be established. We present a review of the literature to date. PMID:26475485

  18. Ginsenoside Reduces Cognitive Impairment During Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Through Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulated by Epigenetic Modulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qun; Ma, Xue; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Ting; Xia, Feng; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2016-03-28

    Increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with memory-enhancing and neuroprotective properties of some drugs under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) condition. Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is widely used for brain protection. However, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms implied in the BDNF modulation after GSRd treatment for CCH remain elusive. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GSRd and the involved mechanisms. We demonstrated that GSRd administration ameliorated CCH-induced impairment of learning and memory behaviors, evidenced by decreased escape latency and increased number of crossing the platform in Morris water maze test. This improvement was associated with promoted neuron survival and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of CCH mice. GSRd improved neuron survival and decreased neuron apoptosis and the level of caspase-3 under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) by upregulation of BDNF as well as in vitro. The levels of acetylated histone H3 (Ac-H3) and histone deacetylase (histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2)) were altered under OGD/R in a time-dependent manner, and GSRd reestablished the balance between Ac-H3 and HDAC2 which resulted in upregulation of BDNF and increased neuron survival. MS-275, an inhibitor of class I HDACs, abolished the levels of Ac-H3 at the bdnf promoters and enhanced upregulation of BDNF after GSRd administration, suggesting a synergistic effect between GSRd and MS-275. All the data suggested that GSRd provided neuroprotection by epigenetic modulation which accounted for the regulation of BDNF in CCH mice.

  19. Deriving therapies for children with primary CNS tumors using pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of cerebral microdialysis data.

    PubMed

    Jacus, M O; Throm, S L; Turner, D C; Patel, Y T; Freeman, B B; Morfouace, M; Boulos, N; Stewart, C F

    2014-06-16

    The treatment of children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors continues to be a challenge despite recent advances in technology and diagnostics. In this overview, we describe our approach for identifying and evaluating active anticancer drugs through a process that enables rational translation from the lab to the clinic. The preclinical approach we discuss uses tumor subgroup-specific models of pediatric CNS tumors, cerebral microdialysis sampling of tumor extracellular fluid (tECF), and pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to overcome challenges that currently hinder researchers in this field. This approach involves performing extensive systemic (plasma) and target site (CNS tumor) pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of the data derived from these studies are then used to inform future decisions regarding drug administration, including dosage and schedule. Here, we also present how our approach was used to examine two FDA approved drugs, simvastatin and pemetrexed, as candidates for new therapies for pediatric CNS tumors. We determined that due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic characteristics and insufficient concentrations in tumor tissue in a mouse model of ependymoma, simvastatin would not be efficacious in further preclinical trials. In contrast to simvastatin, pemetrexed was advanced to preclinical efficacy studies after our studies determined that plasma exposures were similar to those in humans treated at similar tolerable dosages and adequate unbound concentrations were found in tumor tissue of medulloblastoma-bearing mice. Generally speaking, the high clinical failure rates for CNS drug candidates can be partially explained by the fact that therapies are often moved into clinical trials without extensive and rational preclinical studies to optimize the transition. Our approach addresses this limitation by using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of data generated from appropriate in vivo models to

  20. Deriving Therapies for Children with Primary CNS Tumors Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation of Cerebral Microdialysis Data

    PubMed Central

    Jacus, M.O.; Throm, S.L.; Turner, D.C.; Patel, Y.T.; Freeman, B.B.; Morfouace, M.; Boulos, N.; Stewart, C. F.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors continues to be a challenge despite recent advances in technology and diagnostics. In this overview, we describe our approach for identifying and evaluating active anticancer drugs through a process that enables rational translation from the lab to the clinic. The preclinical approach we discuss uses tumor subgroup-specific models of pediatric CNS tumors, cerebral microdialysis sampling of tumor extracellular fluid (tECF), and pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to overcome challenges that currently hinder researchers in this field. This approach involves performing extensive systemic (plasma) and target site (CNS tumor) pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of the data derived from these studies are then used to inform future decisions regarding drug administration, including dosage and schedule. Here, we also present how our approach was used to examine two FDA approved drugs, simvastatin and pemetrexed, as candidates for new therapies for pediatric CNS tumors. We determined that due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic characteristics and insufficient concentrations in tumor tissue in a mouse model of ependymoma, simvastatin would not be efficacious in further preclinical trials. In contrast to simvastatin, pemetrexed was advanced to preclinical efficacy studies after our studies determined that plasma exposures were similar to those in humans treated at similar tolerable dosages and adequate unbound concentrations were found in tumor tissue of medulloblastoma-bearing mice. Generally speaking, the high clinical failure rates for CNS drug candidates can be partially explained by the fact that therapies are often moved into clinical trials without extensive and rational preclinical studies to optimize the transition. Our approach addresses this limitation by using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of data generated from appropriate in vivo models to

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Vessel Size Imaging and Cerebral Blood Volume Derived from Perfusion MR Imaging on Glioma Grading.

    PubMed

    Kang, H-Y; Xiao, H-L; Chen, J-H; Tan, Y; Chen, X; Xie, T; Fang, J-Q; Wang, S; Yang, Y; Zhang, W-G

    2016-01-01

    Vascular proliferation is a major criterion for grading gliomas on the basis of histology. Relative cerebral blood volume can provide pathophysiologic information about glioma grading. Vessel size imaging, in some animals, can be used to estimate the microvascular caliber of a glioma, but its clinical use remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to compare the predictive power of relative cerebral blood volume and vessel size imaging in glioma grading, with grading based on histology. Seventy patients with glioma participated in the study; 30 patients underwent MR perfusion imaging with a spin-echo sequence and vessel size imaging with a gradient-echo and spin-echo sequence successively at 24-hour intervals before surgery. We analyzed the vessel size imaging values and relative cerebral blood volume of differently graded gliomas. The microvessel parameters were histologically evaluated and compared with those on MR imaging. The cutoff values of vessel size imaging and relative cerebral blood volume obtained from receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to predict glioma grading in another 40 patients. Vessel size imaging values and relative cerebral blood volume were both increased in high-grade gliomas compared with low-grade gliomas (P < .01). Moreover, vessel size imaging values had higher specificity and sensitivity in differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas compared with relative cerebral blood volume. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between vessel size imaging values and microvessel diameters (r > 0.8, P < .05) and between relative cerebral blood volume and microvessel area (r = 0.6579, P < .05). Most important, the use of vessel size imaging cutoff values to predict glioma grading was more accurate (100%) than use of relative cerebral blood volume (85%) values. Vessel size imaging can provide more accurate information on glioma grading and may serve as an effective biomarker for the prognosis of patients with gliomas

  2. Dual growth factor-immobilized microspheres for tissue reinnervation: in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Ho; Oh, Se Heang; An, Dan Bi; Lee, Ji Youl; Lee, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors (GFs) (basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or nerve growth factor (NGF))-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 microspheres were prepared using an isolated particulate-melting method and the sequential binding of heparin and GFs onto the microspheres. The GFs immobilized on the microspheres were released in a sustained manner over 28 days, regardless of GF type. From the in vitro culture of muscle-derived stem cells, it was observed that the NGF-immobilized microspheres induced more neurogenic differentiation than the bFGF-immobilized microspheres, as evidenced by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific neurogenic markers (Nestin, GFAP, β-tubulin, and MAP2) and Western blot (Nestin and β-tubulin) analyses. The dual bFGF/NGF-immobilized microspheres showed better neurogenic differentiation than the microspheres immobilized with single bFGF or NGF. From the preliminary animal study, the dual bFGF/NGF-immobilized microsphere group also showed effective nerve regeneration, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry using a marker - β-tubulin. The dual bFGF/NGF-immobilized PCL/Pluronic F127 microspheres may be a promising candidate for nerve regeneration in certain target tissues (i.e. muscles) leading to sufficient reinnervation.

  3. Functional magnetic microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Landel, Robert F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Functional magnetic particles are formed by dissolving a mucopolysaccharide such as chitosan in acidified aqueous solution containing a mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. As the pH of the solution is raised magnetite is formed in situ in the solution by raising the pH. The dissolved chitosan is a polyelectrolyte and forms micelles surrounding the granules at pH of 8-9. The chitosan precipitates on the granules to form microspheres containing the magnetic granules. On addition of the microspheres to waste aqueous streams containing dissolved ions, the hydroxyl and amine functionality of the chitosan forms chelates binding heavy metal cations such as lead, copper, and mercury and the chelates in turn bind anions such as nitrate, fluoride, phosphate and borate.

  4. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  5. Immunofluorescence detection methods using microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurdoki, Ferenc; Michael, Karri L.; Agrawal, Divya; Taylor, Laura C.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Walt, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Microsphere-based immunoassays were devised for compounds of agricultural and biomedical interest (e.g., digoxin, theophylline, and zearalenone). Commercially available microspheres with surface functional groups for chemical derivatization were used as solid carriers. After immobilizing the target substances, the surface of the haptenized microspheres was blocked by a protein to reduce aspecific binding. Competitive immunoassays were performed using the functionalized microspheres and antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Immunofluorescence signal amplification was achieved by enzyme-catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD). An epifluorescence microscope, a CCD camera interfaced with a computer, and microscopy image analysis software were employed for quantitative detection of fluorescent light emitted from individual microspheres. Integration of several such immunoassays and application of an optical encoding method enabled multianalyte determination. These immunoassays can also be utilized in an immunosensor array format. This immunoarray format could facilitate miniaturization and automation of multianalyte immunoassays.

  6. Neural stem cell-like cells derived from autologous bone mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojun; Wang, Yali; Xu, Zhenyu; Fang, Feng; Xu, Renmei; Wang, Yue; Hu, Xiaoli; Fan, Lixing; Liu, Houqi

    2013-01-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous MSCs may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. To assess neural stem cell-like (NSC-like) cells derived from autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 60 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this open-label, non-randomised, observer-blinded controlled clinical study with a 6-months follow-up. For the transplantation group, a total of 30 cerebral palsy patients received an autologous NSC-like cells transplantation (1-2 × 107 cells into the subarachnoid cavity) and rehabilitation treatments whereas 30 patients in the control group only received rehabilitation treatment. We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, language quotients, and adverse events up to 6 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores in the transplantation group were significantly higher at month 3 (the score increase was 42.6, 95% CI: 9.8-75.3, P=.011) and month 6 (the score increase was 58.6, 95% CI: 25.8-91.4, P=.001) post-treatment compared with the baseline scores. The increase in the Gross Motor Function Measurement scores in the control group was not significant. The increases in the language quotients at months 1, 3, and 6 post-treatment were not statistically significant when compared with the baseline quotients in both groups. All the 60 patients survived, and none of the patients experienced serious adverse events or complications. Our results indicated that NSC-like cells are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to establish the efficacy of this procedure.

  7. Neural stem cell-like cells derived from autologous bone mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous MSCs may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. Methods To assess neural stem cell–like (NSC-like) cells derived from autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 60 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this open-label, non-randomised, observer-blinded controlled clinical study with a 6-months follow-up. For the transplantation group, a total of 30 cerebral palsy patients received an autologous NSC-like cells transplantation (1-2 × 107 cells into the subarachnoid cavity) and rehabilitation treatments whereas 30 patients in the control group only received rehabilitation treatment. Results We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, language quotients, and adverse events up to 6 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores in the transplantation group were significantly higher at month 3 (the score increase was 42.6, 95% CI: 9.8–75.3, P=.011) and month 6 (the score increase was 58.6, 95% CI: 25.8–91.4, P=.001) post-treatment compared with the baseline scores. The increase in the Gross Motor Function Measurement scores in the control group was not significant. The increases in the language quotients at months 1, 3, and 6 post-treatment were not statistically significant when compared with the baseline quotients in both groups. All the 60 patients survived, and none of the patients experienced serious adverse events or complications. Conclusion Our results indicated that NSC-like cells are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to

  8. Protections of SMND-309, a novel derivate of salvianolic acid B, on brain mitochondria contribute to injury amelioration in cerebral ischemia rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yubai; Zhang, Yunjuan; Meng, Qingsheng; Li, Changlu; Liu, Fu

    2009-08-01

    SMND-309, a novel compound named (2E)-2-{6-[(E)-2-carboxylvinyl]-2,3-dihydroxyphenyl}-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propenoic acid, is a new derivate of salvianolic acid B. The present study was conducted to investigate whether SMND-309 has a protective effect on brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia, and if it did so, to investigate its effects on brain mitochondria. Adult male SD rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by bipolar electro-coagulation. Behavioral tests and brain patho-physiological tests were used to evaluate the damage to central nervous system. Origin targets including mitochondria production of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant potentia, membrane potential, energy metabolism, mitochondrial respiratory enzymes activities and mitochondria swelling degree were evaluated. The results showed that SMND-309 decreased neurological deficit scores, reduced the number of dead hippocampal neuronal cells in accordance with its depression on mitochondria swelling degree, reactive oxygen species production, improvements on mitochondria swelling, energy metabolism, membrane potential level and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities. All of these findings indicate that SMND-309 exerted potent neuroprotective effects in the model of permanent cerebral ischemia, contributed to its protections on brain mitochondrial structure and function.

  9. Protective effect of a novel vinca alkaloid derivative, vinconate, against alterations in binding sites of second messengers after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kato, H; Kogure, K

    1992-01-01

    1. We investigated the alterations in binding sites of three major second messengers, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and forskolin following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils, and examined the effects of a novel vinca alkaloid derivative, vinconate against the alterations in the binding of the second messengers following ischemia. 2. Transient cerebral ischemia produced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries was induced for 10 min, and intraperitoneal administration of vinconate (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was given 10 min before ischemia. 3. Morphological study indicated that transient ischemia can produce severe neuronal damage in striatum, hippocampal CA1 sector and hippocampal CA3 sector. 4. Transient cerebral ischemia caused the postischemic alterations in the binding of three second messengers. 5. The postischemic alterations in the binding of second messengers were ameliorated by pretreatment with vinconate. This effect was especially observed in the striatum which was most vulnerable to ischemia. 6. These findings are discussed in relation to the mechanism of ischemic neuronal damage.

  10. Astrocyte-derived CO is a diffusible messenger that mediates glutamate-induced cerebral arteriolar dilation by activating smooth muscle cell KCa channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anlong; Xi, Qi; Umstot, Edward S.; Bellner, Lars; Schwartzman, Michal L.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Leffler, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocyte signals can modulate arteriolar tone, contributing to regulation of cerebral blood flow, but specific intercellular communication mechanisms are unclear. Here we used isolated cerebral arteriole myocytes, astrocytes, and brain slices to investigate whether carbon monoxide (CO) generated by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) acts as an astrocyte-to-myocyte gasotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate stimulated CO production by astrocytes with intact HO-2, but not those genetically deficient in HO-2. Glutamate activated transient KCa currents and single KCa channels in myocytes that were in contact with astrocytes, but did not affect KCa channel activity in myocytes that were alone. Pre-treatment of astrocytes with chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP), a HO inhibitor, or genetic ablation of HO-2 prevented glutamate-induced activation of myocyte transient KCa currents and KCa channels. Glutamate decreased arteriole myocyte intracellular Ca2+ concentration and dilated brain slice arterioles and this decrease and dilation were blocked by CrMP. Brain slice arteriole dilation to glutamate was also blocked by L-2-alpha aminoadipic acid, a selective astrocyte toxin, and paxilline, a KCa channel blocker. These data indicate that an astrocytic signal, notably HO-2 derived CO, is employed by glutamate to stimulate arteriole myocyte KCa channels and dilate cerebral arterioles. Our study explains the astrocyte and HO dependence of glutamatergic functional hyperemia observed in the newborn cerebrovascular circulation in vivo. PMID:17991880

  11. Microbiological and clinical effects of enamel matrix derivative and sustained-release micro-spherical minocycline application as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy in peri-implant mucosal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Goharfar, Zahra; Pourabbas, Reza; Kashefimehr, Atabak; Shirmohmmadi, Adileh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the microbial and clinical effects of mechanical debridement (MD) alone or in combination with the application of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and sustained-release micro-spherical minocycline (MSM) for treatment of peri-implant mucosal infl ammation (PIMI). Materials and Methods Subjects with at least one implant with PIMI were included and divided into control and two different test groups. In all three groups, MD was performed. In the MSM group, following MD, MSM was placed subgingivally around the implants. In the EMD group, after MD, EMD was placed in the sulcus around the implants. Sampling of peri-implant crevicular fl uid for microbial analysis with real-time polymerase chain reaction and recording of probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were performed prior to as well as two weeks and three months after treatment. Median values and interquartile range were estimated for each variable during the various assessment intervals of the study. Results In all groups, at two weeks and three months, the counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis decreased significantly compared to baseline. Levels of P. gingivalis were significantly reduced in MSM (P<0.001) and EMD (P=0.026) groups compared to the control group. Also, clinical parameters improved significantly at two weeks and three months. Reduction of PD was significant in MSM (P<0.001) and EMD (P<0.001) groups. The decrease in BOP in the MSM, EMD, and control groups was 60%, 50%, and 20%, respectively. Conclusion The use of MSM and EMD can be an adjunctive treatment for management of PIMI and improves clinical parameters and reduces P. gingivalis burden three months after treatment. PMID:26339576

  12. In vitro model of cerebral ischemia by using brain microvascular endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kokubu, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kawabata, Kenji

    2017-04-29

    Brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which play a central role in blood brain barrier (BBB), can be used for the evaluation of drug transport into the brain. Although human BMEC cell lines have already been reported, they lack original properties such as barrier integrity. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be used for various applications such as regenerative therapy, drug screening, and pathological study. In the recent study, an induction method of BMECs from PSCs has been established, making it possible to more precisely study the in vitro human BBB function. Here, using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived BMECs, we examined the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and OGD/reoxygenation (OGD/R) on BBB permeability. OGD disrupted the barrier function, and the dysfunction was rapidly restored by re-supply of the oxygen and glucose. Interestingly, TNF-α, which is known to be secreted from astrocytes and microglia in the cerebral ischemia, prevented the restoration of OGD-induced barrier dysfunction in an apoptosis-independent manner. Thus, we could establish the in vitro BBB disease model that mimics the cerebral ischemia by using iPS cell-derived BMECs.

  13. Modular scaffolds assembled around living cells using poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres with macroporation via a non-cytotoxic porogen

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Evan A.; Nichols, Michael D.; Kuntz-Willits, Rebecca; Elbert, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Modular, bioactive, macroporous scaffolds were formed by crosslinking poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microspheres around living cells. Hydrogel microspheres were produced from reactive PEG derivatives in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without the use of surfactants or copolymers. Microspheres were formed following thermally induced phase separation if the gel point was reached prior to extensive coarsening of the PEG-rich domains. Three types of PEG microspheres with different functionalities were used to form scaffolds. One type of PEG microsphere provided mechanical support, the second type provided controlled delivery of the angiogenesis-promoting molecule, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and the third type served as a slowly dissolving non-cytotoxic porogen. Scaffolds were formed by centrifuging microspheres in the presence of HepG2 hepatoma cells, resulting in a homogenous distribution of cells. During overnight incubation at 37°C, the microspheres reacted with serum proteins in cell culture medium to stabilize the scaffolds. Within two days in culture, macropores formed due to the dissolution of the porogenic PEG microspheres, without affecting cell viability. Gradients in porosity were produced by varying the buoyancy of the porogenic microspheres. Conjugated RGD cell adhesion peptides and delivery of sphingosine 1-phosphate promoted endothelial cell infiltration through macropores in the scaffolds. The scaffolds presented here differ from previous hydrogel scaffolds in that: 1) cells are not encapsulated in hydrogel, 2) macropores form in the presence of cells, and 3) scaffold properties are controlled by the modular assembly of different microspheres that perform distinct functions. PMID:19607945

  14. Cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Newton, C.; Hien, T. T.; White, N.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral malaria may be the most common non-traumatic encephalopathy in the world. The pathogenesis is heterogenous and the neurological complications are often part of a multisystem dysfunction. The clinical presentation and pathophysiology differs between adults and children. Recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and raised possible interventions. Antimalarial drugs, however, remain the only intervention that unequivocally affects outcome, although increasing resistance to the established antimalarial drugs is of grave concern. Artemisinin derivatives have made an impact on treatment, but other drugs may be required. With appropriate antimalarial drugs, the prognosis of cerebral malaria often depends on the management of other complications—for example, renal failure and acidosis. Neurological sequelae are increasingly recognised, but further research on the pathogenesis of coma and neurological damage is required to develop other ancillary treatments.

 PMID:10990500

  15. Immunolocalization of platelet‐derived growth factor receptor‐β (PDGFR‐β) and pericytes in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Richard; Oakley, Arthur E.; Ihara, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is identified by aggregates of NOTCH3 extracellular domain (N3ECD) along capillaries and the deposition of granular osmiophilic material (GOM). We assessed the pattern of distribution of pericytes in relation to N3ECD deposits in cerebral microvessels of CADASIL subjects. Methods We assessed post mortem brains from (n = 50) subjects with CADASIL, cerebral small vessel disease, and similar‐age cognitively normal and older controls. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining methods were used to study the distribution and quantify immunoreactivities of the platelet‐derived growth factor receptor‐β (PDGFR‐β) (for pericytes) and microvascular markers in the frontal cortex and white matter. Results PDGFR‐β antibody stained cells typical of pericytes in capillaries and small arterioles in both the grey and white matter. PDGFR‐β reactive pericytes adopted ‘crescent’ morphology wrapped closely around capillary walls readily evident in cross‐sections. We noted considerable overlap between PDGFR‐β and N3ECD imunoreactivities in capillaries. Quantitative analysis of PDGFR‐β immunoreactivity revealed significant differences in PDGFR‐β %A in CADASIL compared with young controls (P < 0.05). PDGFR‐β %A was further positively correlated with the basement membrane marker collagen IV (r = 0.529, P = 0.009), but was not associated with GLUT‐1, the marker for endothelial cells. Conclusions Our results suggest increased expression of PDGFR‐β immunoreactive pericytes in cerebral microvessels in CADASIL compared with similar age controls. While we cannot confirm whether PDGFR‐β‐expressing pericytes produce N3ECD and hence GOM, our findings demonstrate that up‐regulation of pericyte‐like cells is associated with microvascular changes, including loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in CADASIL. PMID:25303037

  16. Chalcogenide glass microsphere laser.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Gregor R; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Zervas, Michalis N; Hewak, Daniel W

    2010-12-06

    Laser action has been demonstrated in chalcogenide glass microsphere. A sub millimeter neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass sphere was pumped at 808 nm with a laser diode and single and multimode laser action demonstrated at wavelengths between 1075 and 1086 nm. The gallium lanthanum sulphide family of glass offer higher thermal stability compared to other chalcogenide glasses, and this, along with an optimized Q-factor for the microcavity allowed laser action to be achieved. When varying the pump power, changes in the output spectrum suggest nonlinear and/or thermal effects have a strong effect on laser action.

  17. Photonic crystal microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokhov, A. A.; Masalov, V. M.; Sukhinina, N. S.; Matveev, D. V.; Dolganov, P. V.; Dolganov, V. K.; Emelchenko, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spherical samples of photonic crystals formed by colloidal SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. Synthesis of microspheres from 160 nm, 200 nm and 430 nm diameter colloidal nanoparticles was performed over a wide size range, from 5 μm to 50 μm. The mechanism of formation of void microparticles exceeding 50 μm is discussed. The spectral measurements verified the association of the spectra with the peaks of selective reflection from the cubic lattice planes. The microparticle morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Surface modification of PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Vörös, J; Csúcs, G; Walter, E; Danuser, G; Merkle, H P; Spencer, N D; Textor, M

    2003-07-01

    Microspheres made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are biocompatible and biodegradable, rendering them a promising tool in the context of drug delivery. However, nonspecific adsorption of plasma proteins on PLGA micro- and nanospheres is a main limitation of drug targeting. Poly(L-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), physisorbed on flat metal oxide surfaces, has previously been shown to suppress protein adsorption drastically. The goal of our work was to characterize the efficiency of the protein repellent character of PLL-g-PEG on PLGA microspheres and to show the feasibility of introducing functional groups on the PLGA microspheres via functionalized PLL-g-PEG. To quantify the adsorbed amount of protein, a semiquantitative method that uses confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied. The first part of the experiment confirms the feasibility of introducing specific functional groups on PLL-g-PEG-coated PLGA microspheres. In the second part of the experiment, PLL-g-PEG-coated PLGA microspheres show a drastic decrease of adsorbed proteins by two orders of magnitude in comparison to uncoated PLGA microspheres. Low protein-binding, functionalizable microspheres provide a fundamental basis for the design of drug delivery and biosensor systems. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut.

  20. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity.

    PubMed

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate crosslinker respectively, due to theirs thermosensitivity exhibit increase in protecting activity against UV radiation when heated to 45 degrees C. The MX microspheres have higher increase in terms of UV absorbance, comparing to DX microspheres, when heated in the 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. Studied microspheres have high potential for application as components of sun-screens used in elevated temperatures.

  1. Carboxymethyldextran/magnetite hybrid microspheres designed for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Anan, Shota; Ishida, Eiichi; Kawashita, Masakazu

    2013-05-01

    Recently, organic-inorganic hybrids composed of derivatives of dextran, a polysaccharide, and magnetite nanoparticles have attracted much attention as novel thermoseeds. If they can be fabricated into microspheres of size 20-30 μm, they are expected to show not only hyperthermia effects but also embolization effects in human liver and kidney cancers. In this study, we examined the fabrication of carboxymethyldextran/magnetite microspheres using a water/oil emulsion as the reaction medium. Improvement of the chemical stability of the microcapsules by coating with silica using a sol-gel process was also investigated. The obtained hollow microspheres contained particles of size 20-30 μm. Silica coating using an appropriate catalyst for hydrolysis and polycondensation of alkoxysilanes was found to be effective for preventing dissolution and collapse in simulated body environments.

  2. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  3. Towards Monodispersed Polymer Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senuma, Yoshinori; Hilborn, Jons

    1998-03-01

    Uniform polymer microspheres prepared by Spinning Disk Atomization Our spinning disk atomization (SDA) can, relative to other existing techniques, produce micron-sized particles of very narrow size distribution. Around the edge of the disk, small teeth channel the flow into identical droplets that are flung off over the disk rim. These solidify during flight to form spherical particles. Applications for spheres produced by SDA can be found in areas such as adhesives, powder coatings, food, biomedical use, drug delivery systems, etc. We have atomized polyethyleneglycol into very narrowly dispersed microspheres ranging from 50 to 500 =B5m. The aim of this work is to model the droplet formation occurring at the rim of the spinning disk in order to better understand the experimental results. The viscosity contribution in the fluid breakup is qualitatively analyzed and is adapted to the theoretical model to show how it affects the droplet size. We have used the pendant drop model (Ramesh Babu, S. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 116, 350-372 (1987).) for spinning disk atomization to describe the drop-shape evolution during growth.

  4. Glass microsphere lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the

  5. A novel Bayesian approach to accounting for uncertainty in fMRI-derived estimates of cerebral oxygen metabolism fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aaron B; Dubowitz, David J; Blockley, Nicholas P; Buxton, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    Calibrated blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging is a multimodal functional MRI technique designed to estimate changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism from measured changes in cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal. This technique addresses fundamental ambiguities associated with quantitative BOLD signal analysis; however, its dependence on biophysical modeling creates uncertainty in the resulting oxygen metabolism estimates. In this work, we developed a Bayesian approach to estimating the oxygen metabolism response to a neural stimulus and used it to examine the uncertainty that arises in calibrated BOLD estimation due to the presence of unmeasured model parameters. We applied our approach to estimate the CMRO2 response to a visual task using the traditional hypercapnia calibration experiment as well as to estimate the metabolic response to both a visual task and hypercapnia using the measurement of baseline apparent R2' as a calibration technique. Further, in order to examine the effects of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) signal contamination on the measurement of apparent R2', we examined the effects of measuring this parameter with and without CSF-nulling. We found that the two calibration techniques provided consistent estimates of the metabolic response on average, with a median R2'-based estimate of the metabolic response to CO2 of 1.4%, and R2'- and hypercapnia-calibrated estimates of the visual response of 27% and 24%, respectively. However, these estimates were sensitive to different sources of estimation uncertainty. The R2'-calibrated estimate was highly sensitive to CSF contamination and to uncertainty in unmeasured model parameters describing flow-volume coupling, capillary bed characteristics, and the iso-susceptibility saturation of blood. The hypercapnia-calibrated estimate was relatively insensitive to these parameters but highly sensitive to the assumed metabolic response to CO2.

  6. A novel Bayesian approach to accounting for uncertainty in fMRI-derived estimates of cerebral oxygen metabolism fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Aaron B.; Dubowitz, David J.; Blockley, Nicholas P.; Buxton, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Calibrated blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging is a multimodal functional MRI technique designed to estimate changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism from measured changes in cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal. This technique addresses fundamental ambiguities associated with quantitative BOLD signal analysis; however, its dependence on biophysical modeling creates uncertainty in the resulting oxygen metabolism estimates. In this work, we developed a Bayesian approach to estimating the oxygen metabolism response to a neural stimulus and used it to examine the uncertainty that arises in calibrated BOLD estimation due to the presence of unmeasured model parameters. We applied our approach to estimate the CMRO2 response to a visual task using the traditional hypercapnia calibration experiment as well as to estimate the metabolic response to both a visual task and hypercapnia using the measurement of baseline apparent R2′ as a calibration technique. Further, in order to examine the effects of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) signal contamination on the measurement of apparent R2′, we examined the effects of measuring this parameter with and without CSF-nulling. We found that the two calibration techniques provided consistent estimates of the metabolic response on average, with a median R2′-based estimate of the metabolic response to CO2 of 1.4%, and R2′- and hypercapnia-calibrated estimates of the visual response of 27% and 24%, respectively. However, these estimates were sensitive to different sources of estimation uncertainty. The R2′-calibrated estimate was highly sensitive to CSF contamination and to uncertainty in unmeasured model parameters describing flow-volume coupling, capillary bed characteristics, and the iso-susceptibility saturation of blood. The hypercapnia-calibrated estimate was relatively insensitive to these parameters but highly sensitive to the assumed metabolic response to CO2. PMID:26790354

  7. Effect of treadmill exercise on 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor and brain derived neurophic factor in rats after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaofang; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Wan; Zheng, Zongju; Wu, Yuan; Zeng, Qian; Liu, Shudong; Liu, Ke; Li, Guangqin

    2014-05-01

    It has been well documented that exercise promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with cerebral ischemia. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to discuss the effect of treadmill exercise on expression levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) and brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF) in rat brains after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). A total of 55 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: pMCAO group, pMCAO and treadmill exercise (pMCAO + Ex) group, and sham-operated group. Rats in pMCAO + Ex group underwent treadmill exercise for 16 days. Neurological function was evaluated by modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS). High-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system was used to determine the content of 5-HT in cortex tissues. The protein levels of 5-HT1AR, BDNF and synaptophysin were measured by Western blot. The mNSS in pMCAO + Ex group was lower than that in pMCAO group on day 19 post-MCAO (p < 0.001). The content of 5-HT dropped to 3.81 ± 1.86 ng/ml in pMCAO group (43.84 ± 2.05 ng/ml in sham-operated group), but increased in pMCAO + Ex group (10.06 ± 1.80 ng/ml). The protein expressions levels of synaptophysin, 5-HT1AR and BDNF were downregulated after cerebral ischemia (p < 0.05), and upregulated after treadmill exercise (p < 0.05). These results indicate that treadmill exercise improves neurologic function, enhances neuronal plasticity and upregulates the levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1AR and BDNF in rats with pMCAO.

  8. Adenovirus-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression regulated by hypoxia response element protects brain from injury of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qindong; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xinlin; Lu, Haixia; Tian, Yumei; Parker, T L; Liu, Yong

    2009-11-20

    Some gene expression may be regulated by hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) that is bound by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) which is up-regulated during cerebral ischemia. To explore ischemia/hypoxia-controlled expression and the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after ischemic brain injury, an adenoviral vector using five copies of hypoxia response element (HRE) in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene to regulate the expression of BDNF gene (Ad5HRE:BDNF) was constructed, and its efficacy was verified for driving BDNF expression in cultured Hela cells under hypoxic condition by ELISA. We found that the concentration of BDNF in the Ad5HRE:BDNF-transfected culture media was 28-fold greater in a hypoxic condition than under normoxia. To examine the effect of Ad5HRE:BDNF on ischemic brain injury in vivo, Ad5HRE:BDNF was injected into right caudate putamen of adult mice 7 days prior to 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). It was found that exogenous BDNF expression was increased in the Ad5HRE-BDNF-treated group and infarct volume of the Ad5HRE:BDNF-treated group at 3 days after MCAO was significantly smaller than that of vehicle- or AdNull-treated groups. Moreover, Ad5HRE:BDNF injection resulted in significantly improved sensorimotor scores 7 days after MCAO and induced a reduction in the number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive neurons and TUNEL-positive cells, compared with vehicle- or AdNull-injection. Our findings suggest that BDNF expression could be regulated in hypoxia/ischemia condition with five copies of HRE and ameliorates ischemic brain injury in a mouse focal cerebral ischemia model.

  9. Modelling Zika Virus Infection of the Developing Human Brain In Vitro Using Stem Cell Derived Cerebral Organoids.

    PubMed

    Salick, Max R; Wells, Michael F; Eggan, Kevin; Kaykas, Ajamete

    2017-09-19

    The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in susceptible populations has led to an abrupt increase in microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental conditions in newborn infants. While mosquitos are the main route of viral transmission, it has also been shown to spread via sexual contact and vertical mother-to-fetus transmission. In this latter case of transmission, due to the unique viral tropism of ZIKV, the virus is believed to predominantly target the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the developing brain. Here a method for modeling ZIKV infection, and the resulting microcephaly, that occur when human cerebral organoids are exposed to live ZIKV is described. The organoids display high levels of virus within their neural progenitor population, and exhibit severe cell death and microcephaly over time. This three-dimensional cerebral organoid model allows researchers to conduct species-matched experiments to observe and potentially intervene with ZIKV infection of the developing human brain. The model provides improved relevance over standard two-dimensional methods, and contains human-specific cellular architecture and protein expression that are not possible in animal models.

  10. Activated microglia provide a neuroprotective role by balancing glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion after subacute cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Yang, Zhitang; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Yuanzheng; Chen, Yibing

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are the major immune cells in the central nervous system and play a key role in brain injury pathology. However, the role of activated microglia after subacute cerebral ischemia (SCI) remains unknown. To address this issue, we established a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) rat model and treated pMCAO rats with N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide (PJ34) (an inhibitor of microglial activation), or with vehicle alone. Finally, we determined the differences between the PJ34-and vehicle-treated rats with respect to neurological deficits, infarct volume, neuronal loss and the expression of CD11b (a marker of microglial activation), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment. We found that the PJ34-treated rats had more severe neurological deficits and a larger infarct volume and exhibited a decreased CD11b expression, more neuronal loss, decreased expression of GDNF mRNA and protein but increased expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein compared with the vehicle-treated rats at 3 and 7 days after treatment. These results indicate that activated microglia provide a neuroprotective role through balancing GDNF and TNF-α expression following SCI.

  11. Imaging the time-integrated cerebral metabolic activity with subcellular resolution through nanometer-scale detection of biosynthetic products deriving from (13)C-glucose.

    PubMed

    Takado, Yuhei; Knott, Graham; Humbel, Bruno M; Masoodi, Mojgan; Escrig, Stéphane; Meibom, Anders; Comment, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain but also an important source of building blocks for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Little is known about the use of glucose for biosynthesis in tissues at the cellular level. We demonstrate that local cerebral metabolic activity can be mapped in mouse brain tissue by quantitatively imaging the biosynthetic products deriving from [U-(13)C]glucose metabolism using a combination of in situ electron microscopy and secondary ion mass-spectroscopy (NanoSIMS). Images of the (13)C-label incorporated into cerebral ultrastructure with ca. 100 nm resolution allowed us to determine the timescale on which the metabolic products of glucose are incorporated into different cells, their sub-compartments and organelles. These were mapped in astrocytes and neurons in the different layers of the motor cortex. We see evidence for high metabolic activity in neurons via the nucleus (13)C enrichment. We observe that in all the major cell compartments, such as e.g. nucleus and Golgi apparatus, neurons incorporate substantially higher concentrations of (13)C-label than astrocytes.

  12. Quantitative agreement between [(15)O]H2O PET and model free QUASAR MRI-derived cerebral blood flow and arterial blood volume.

    PubMed

    Heijtel, D F R; Petersen, E T; Mutsaerts, H J M M; Bakker, E; Schober, P; Stevens, M F; van Berckel, B N M; Majoie, C B L M; Booij, J; van Osch, M J P; van Bavel, E T; Boellaard, R; Lammertsma, A A; Nederveen, A J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was an agreement between quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVA) measurements by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) and model-free QUASAR MRI. Twelve healthy subjects were scanned within a week in separate MRI and PET imaging sessions, after which quantitative and qualitative agreement between both modalities was assessed for gray matter, white matter and whole brain region of interests (ROI). The correlation between CBF measurements obtained with both modalities was moderate to high (r(2): 0.28-0.60, P < 0.05), although QUASAR significantly underestimated CBF by 30% (P < 0.001). CBVA was moderately correlated (r(2): 0.28-0.43, P < 0.05), with QUASAR yielding values that were only 27% of the [(15)O]H2O-derived values (P < 0.001). Group-wise voxel statistics identified minor areas with significant contrast differences between [(15)O]H2O PET and QUASAR MRI, indicating similar qualitative CBVA and CBF information by both modalities. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that QUASAR MRI and [(15)O]H2O PET provide similar CBF and CBVA information, but with systematic quantitative discrepancies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  14. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  15. Minocycline upregulates cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus of cerebral ischemia rats and improves behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Ming; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays an important role in the mechanism of cognitive impairment and is also pivotal in the switch from short-term to long-term memory. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems a promising avenue in the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury since this neurotrophin could stimulate structural plasticity and repair cognitive impairment. Several findings have displayed that the dysregulation of the CREB-BDNF cascade has been involved in cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerebral ischemia on learning and memory as well as on the levels of CREB, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), and BDNF, and to determine the effect of minocycline on CREB, pCREB, BDNF, and behavioral functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. The animal model was established by permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Behavior was evaluated 5 days before decapitation with Morris water maze and open-field task. Four days after permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, minocycline was administered by douche via the stomach for 4 weeks. CREB and pCREB were examined by Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. BDNF was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The model rats after minocycline treatment swam shorter distances than control rats before finding the platform (P=0.0007). The number of times the platform position was crossed for sham-operation rats was more than that of the model groups in the corresponding platform location (P=0.0021). The number of times the platform position was crossed for minocycline treatment animals was significantly increased compared to the model groups in the corresponding platform position (P=0.0016). CREB, pCREB, and BDNF were downregulated after permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries in the model group. Minocycline increased the expression of CREB

  16. Nanocarrier-Integrated Microspheres: Nanogel Tectonic Engineering for Advanced Drug-Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yoshiro; Mukai, Sada-Atsu; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2015-09-09

    A nanocarrier-integrated bottom-up method is a promising strategy for advanced drug-release systems. Self-assembled nanogels, which are one of the most beneficial nanocarriers for drug-delivery systems, are tectonically integrated to prepare nanogel-crosslinked (NanoClik) microspheres. NanoClik microspheres consisting of nanogel-derived structures (observed by STED microscopy) release "drug-loaded nanogels" after hydrolysis, resulting in successful sustained drug delivery in vivo.

  17. Microspheres and their methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Anima B; Yang, Junbing

    2015-03-24

    Carbon microspheres are doped with boron to enhance the electrical and physical properties of the microspheres. The boron-doped carbon microspheres are formed by a CVD process in which a catalyst, carbon source and boron source are evaporated, heated and deposited onto an inert substrate.

  18. Core-double-shell Fe3O4@carbon@poly(In(III)-carboxylate) microspheres: cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides on coordination polymer shells constituted by imidazolium-derived Al(III)-Salen bifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    An, Qiao; Li, Zifeng; Graff, Robert; Guo, Jia; Gao, Haifeng; Wang, Changchun

    2015-03-04

    A hydrid microsphere Fe3O4@carbon@poly(In(III)-carboxylate) consisting of a cluster of Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core, a carbon layer as the inner shell and a porous In(III)-carboxylate coordination polymer as the outer shell was prepared and applied as a recyclable catalyst for the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 and epoxides. Construction of this hybrid microsphere was achieved in the two steps, including (1) the one-pot solvothermal synthesis of Fe3O4@C particles with the abundant carboxylic groups on the carbon surface and (2) the subsequent growth of the outer shell polymers based on the precipitation coordination polymerization. Imidazolium-substituted Salen ligands were synthesized and chelated with the In(III) ions using the terminal carboxylic groups. The coordination polymer shell was formed on the Fe3O4@C particles, and the structures including shell thickness, surface area and porosity could be varied by tuning the feeding ratios of the In(III) ions and the ligands. The optimal structure of the coordination polymers showed a shell thickness of ca. 45 nm with ∼5 nm of mesopore, 174.7 m(2)/g of surface area and 0.2175 cm(3)/g of pore volume. In light of gas uptake capability, catalytic activity and magnetic susceptibility, cycloaddition of CO2 with a series of epoxides were studied by using Al-complexed Fe3O4@C@In(III)-[IL-Salen] microspheres. The results validated that the self-supporting catalytic layer with high surface area was of remarkable advantages, which were attributed from great increment of effective active sites and combination of nucleophilic/electrophilic synergistic property and CO2 uptake capability. Therefore, these hybrid microspheres provided excellent catalytic activity, prominent selectivity to cyclic carbonates and outstanding recyclability with the assistance of an applied magnetic field.

  19. Multilayered polymer microspheres by thermal imprinting during microsphere growth.

    PubMed

    Takekoh, Ryu; Li, Wen-Hui; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2006-01-11

    Modulation of the polymerization temperature in precipitation polymerizations was used to form onion-type polymer microspheres consisting of multiple nested layers. Specifically, the copolymerization of chloromethylstyrene and divinylbenzene-55 in acetonitrile, at temperatures ramping between 65 and 75 degrees C, led to monodisperse, cross-linked microspheres of about 10 mum diameter that have radial density profiles closely reflecting the thermal profiles used. This thermal imprinting is attributed to the copolymer formed being close to its theta point during the polymerization. As the microspheres grow by continuously capturing oligomers from solution, the resulting transient surface gel layer expands and contracts with temperature, and thus records the reaction temperature profile in the form of a corresponding density profile, even as it cross-links.

  20. Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

  1. Neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells extend long-distance axonal projections through growth along host white matter tracts after intra-cerebral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Denham, Mark; Parish, Clare L.; Leaw, Bryan; Wright, Jordan; Reid, Christopher A.; Petrou, Steven; Dottori, Mirella; Thompson, Lachlan H.

    2012-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells have the capacity for directed differentiation into a wide variety of neuronal subtypes that may be useful for brain repair. While a substantial body of research has lead to a detailed understanding of the ability of neurons in fetal tissue grafts to structurally and functionally integrate after intra-cerebral transplantation, we are only just beginning to understand the in vivo properties of neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Here we have utilized the human embryonic stem (ES) cell line Envy, which constitutively expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP), in order to study the in vivo properties of neurons derived from human ES cells. Rapid and efficient neural induction, followed by differentiation as neurospheres resulted in a GFP+ neural precursor population with traits of neuroepithelial and dorsal forebrain identity. Ten weeks after transplantation into neonatal rats, GFP+ fiber patterns revealed extensive axonal growth in the host brain, particularly along host white matter tracts, although innervation of adjacent nuclei was limited. The grafts were composed of a mix of neural cell types including differentiated neurons and glia, but also dividing neural progenitors and migrating neuroblasts, indicating an incomplete state of maturation at 10 weeks. This was reflected in patch-clamp recordings showing stereotypical properties appropriate for mature functional neurons, including the ability to generate action potentials, as well profiles consistent for more immature neurons. These findings illustrate the intrinsic capacity for neurons derived from human ES cells to integrate at a structural and functional level following transplantation. PMID:22470319

  2. Neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells extend long-distance axonal projections through growth along host white matter tracts after intra-cerebral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Denham, Mark; Parish, Clare L; Leaw, Bryan; Wright, Jordan; Reid, Christopher A; Petrou, Steven; Dottori, Mirella; Thompson, Lachlan H

    2012-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells have the capacity for directed differentiation into a wide variety of neuronal subtypes that may be useful for brain repair. While a substantial body of research has lead to a detailed understanding of the ability of neurons in fetal tissue grafts to structurally and functionally integrate after intra-cerebral transplantation, we are only just beginning to understand the in vivo properties of neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Here we have utilized the human embryonic stem (ES) cell line Envy, which constitutively expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP), in order to study the in vivo properties of neurons derived from human ES cells. Rapid and efficient neural induction, followed by differentiation as neurospheres resulted in a GFP+ neural precursor population with traits of neuroepithelial and dorsal forebrain identity. Ten weeks after transplantation into neonatal rats, GFP+ fiber patterns revealed extensive axonal growth in the host brain, particularly along host white matter tracts, although innervation of adjacent nuclei was limited. The grafts were composed of a mix of neural cell types including differentiated neurons and glia, but also dividing neural progenitors and migrating neuroblasts, indicating an incomplete state of maturation at 10 weeks. This was reflected in patch-clamp recordings showing stereotypical properties appropriate for mature functional neurons, including the ability to generate action potentials, as well profiles consistent for more immature neurons. These findings illustrate the intrinsic capacity for neurons derived from human ES cells to integrate at a structural and functional level following transplantation.

  3. The effects of continuous phonation on 133xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow).

    PubMed

    Formby, C; Thomas, R G; Brown, W S; Halsey, J H

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (133Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  4. Modeling the Formation of Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. B.; Weiser, E. S.; Gonsoulin, B.; Hubert, P.

    2002-01-01

    High temperature polyimide microspheres have been developed from polyimide solid residuum by a simple inflation process. Microspheres have been fabricated from several polyimide precursors through the use of a circulating air oven. Microsphere formation and final physical property characterization have been limited to simple mechanical and thermal testing. The present paper focuses on developing an understanding of microsphere formation through simple geometric rules for an incompressible polymeric material and microscopic observations of precursor residuum inflation. Inflation kinematics of the hollow polyimide microspheres as a function of time and temperature is discussed.

  5. Polarization Dependent Whispering Gallery Modes in Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A tunable resonant system is provided and includes a microsphere that receives an incident portion of a light beam generated via a light source, the light beam having a fundamental mode, a waveguide medium that transmits the light beam from the light source to the microsphere, and a polarizer disposed in a path of the waveguide between the light source and the microsphere. The incident portion of the light beam creates a fundamental resonance inside the microsphere. A change in a normalized frequency of the wavelength creates a secondary mode in the waveguide and the secondary mode creates a secondary resonance inside the microsphere.

  6. A Microsphere-Based Vaccine Prevents and Reverses New-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Brett; Nylander, Karen; Harnaha, Jo; Machen, Jennifer; Lakomy, Robert; Styche, Alexis; Gillis, Kimberly; Brown, Larry; Gallo, Michael; Knox, Janet; Hogeland, Kenneth; Trucco, Massimo; Giannoukakis, Nick

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was aimed at ascertaining the efficacy of antisense oligonucleotide-formulated microspheres to prevent type 1 diabetes and to reverse new-onset disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Microspheres carrying antisense oligonucleotides to CD40, CD80, and CD86 were delivered into NOD mice. Glycemia was monitored to determine disease prevention and reversal. In recipients that remained and/or became diabetes free, spleen and lymph node T-cells were enriched to determine the prevalence of Foxp3+ putative regulatory T-cells (Treg cells). Splenocytes from diabetes-free microsphere-treated recipients were adoptively cotransferred with splenocytes from diabetic NOD mice into NOD-scid recipients. Live animal in vivo imaging measured the microsphere accumulation pattern. To rule out nonspecific systemic immunosuppression, splenocytes from successfully treated recipients were pulsed with β-cell antigen or ovalbumin or cocultured with allogeneic splenocytes. RESULTS The microspheres prevented type 1 diabetes and, most importantly, exhibited a capacity to reverse clinical hyperglycemia, suggesting reversal of new-onset disease. The microspheres augmented Foxp3+ Treg cells and induced hyporesponsiveness to NOD-derived pancreatic β-cell antigen, without compromising global immune responses to alloantigens and nominal antigens. T-cells from successfully treated mice suppressed adoptive transfer of disease by diabetogenic splenocytes into secondary immunodeficient recipients. Finally, microspheres accumulated within the pancreas and the spleen after either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection. Dendritic cells from spleen of the microsphere-treated mice exhibit decreased cell surface CD40, CD80, and CD86. CONCLUSIONS This novel microsphere formulation represents the first diabetes-suppressive and reversing nucleic acid vaccine that confers an immunoregulatory phenotype to endogenous dendritic cells. PMID:18316361

  7. Mechanical Injury Induces Brain Endothelial-Derived Microvesicle Release: Implications for Cerebral Vascular Injury during Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Allison M.; Lutton, Evan M.; Merkel, Steven F.; Razmpour, Roshanak; Ramirez, Servio H.

    2016-01-01

    . These results indicate that following TBI, the cerebral endothelium undergoes vascular remodeling through shedding of eMVs containing TJPs and endothelial markers. The detection of this shedding potentially allows for a novel methodology for real-time monitoring of cerebral vascular health (remodeling), BBB status and neuroinflammation following a TBI event. PMID:26973460

  8. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  9. Absolute brightness of fluorescent microspheres.

    PubMed

    Finger, Isaac; Phillips, Scott; Mobley, Elizabeth; Tucker, Robert; Hess, Henry

    2009-02-07

    The absolute brightness of fluorescent particles, such as dye-containing nano- and microspheres or quantum dots, is a critical design parameter for many applications relying on fluorescence detection. The absolute brightness, defined as the ratio of radiant intensity of emission to illumination intensity of excitation, of nile-red fluorescent microspheres with a 1 micrometre diameter is measured to be 4.2 +/- 1 x 10(-16) m(2)/sr, and the implications for the design of kinesin motor protein-powered "smart dust" devices and the remote detection of fluorescence are discussed.

  10. Gallium nitride induces neuronal differentiation markers in neural stem/precursor cells derived from rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Ruei; Li, Yi-Chen; Young, Tai-Horng

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, gallium nitride (GaN) was used as a substrate to culture neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs), isolated from embryonic rat cerebral cortex, to examine the effect of GaN on the behavior of NSPCs in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in serum-free medium. Morphological studies showed that neurospheres maintained their initial shape and formed many long and thick processes with the fasciculate feature on GaN. Immunocytochemical characterization showed that GaN could induce the differentiation of NSPCs into neurons and astrocytes. Compared to poly-d-lysine (PDL), the most common substrate used for culturing neurons, there was considerable expression of synapsin I for differentiated neurons on GaN, suggesting GaN could induce the differentiation of NSPCs towards the mature differentiated neurons. Western blot analysis showed that the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) activity was one of the effects of GaN-promoted NSPC differentiation into neurons. Finally, compared to PDL, GaN could significantly improve cell survival to reduce cell death after long-term culture. These results suggest that GaN potentially has a combination of electric characteristics suitable for developing neuron and/or NSPC chip systems.

  11. Sustained-release microsphere formulation containing an agrochemical by polyurethane polymerization during an agitation granulation process.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takatoshi; Tagami, Manabu; Ohtsubo, Toshiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-07-25

    In this report, a new solventless microencapsulation method by synthesizing polyurethane (PU) from polyol and isocyanate during an agglomeration process in a high-speed mixing apparatus was developed. Clothianidin (CTD), which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and highly effective against a wide variety of insect pests, was used as the model compound. The microencapsulated samples covered with PU (CTD microspheres) had a median diameter of <75μm and sustained-release properties. The CTD microspheres were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography measurements. Multiple cores of CTD and other solid excipient were dispersed in PU. Although voids appeared in the CTD microspheres after CTD release, the spherical shape of the microspheres remained stable and no change in its framework was observed. The experimental release data were highly consistent with the Baker-Lonsdale model derived from drug release of spherical monolithic dispersions and consistent with the computed tomography measurements.

  12. Properties and self-healing behavior of oil absorbent microspheres modified cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyu; Bu, Yuhuan; Zhao, Letian

    2017-09-01

    This paper concerns the properties and self-healing behavior of cement composites modified by oil absorbent microspheres with fumed silica shell. These microspheres, prepared by Pickering polymerization, possessed excellent properties, such as uniform particle size, good hydrophilicity and fine thermal stability. Furthermore, the effect of these microspheres on the properties of cement slurry was studied. The results showed that these microspheres had good compatibility with cement slurry, except for a slight effect on the consistency of cement slurry and the compressive strength of cement stone. At last, we derived the mathematical formulation of valid sealing for microcracks in self-healing cement, and measured sealing pressure under different filling conditions. The self-healing cement would guarantee the health, safety and high efficiency in the process of oil and gas production.

  13. CO2 Biofixation of Actinobacillus succinogenes Through Novel Amine-Functionalized Polystyrene Microsphere Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhao; Li, Qiang; Dai, Ning

    2017-02-01

    CO2-derived succinate production was enhanced by Actinobacillus succinogenes through polystyrene (PSt) microsphere materials for CO2 adsorption in bioreactor, and the adhesion forces between A. succinogenes bacteria and PSt materials were characterized. Synthesized uniformly sized and highly cross-linked PSt microspheres had high specific surface areas. After modification with amine functional groups, the novel amine-functionalized PSt microspheres exhibited a high adsorption capacity of 25.3 mg CO2/g materials. After addition with the functionalized microspheres into the culture broth, CO2 supply to the cells increased. Succinate production by A. succinogenes can be enhanced from 29.6 to 48.1 g L(-1). Moreover, the characterization of interaction forces between A. succinogenes cells and the microspheres indicated that the maximal adhesive force was about 250 pN. The amine-functionalized PSt microspheres can adsorb a large amount of CO2 and be employed for A. succinogenes anaerobic cultivation in bioreactor for high-efficiency production of CO2-derived succinate.

  14. Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ...

  15. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect ... resource—it highlights the ADDM Network’s data on cerebral palsy in a way that is useful for stakeholders ...

  16. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  17. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A.; Giovagnoli, Stefano; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

  18. Multifunctionalized biocompatible microspheres for sensing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M; Alexander, Lois; Bradley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We present our achievements in the synthesis and application of multifunctionalized, cross-linked, polystyrene microspheres, which remarkably and quite generally are taken up by all cell types studied to date. Importantly, the nature of these synthetic beads allows multistep solid-phase chemistry and the ability to bind essentially any molecule/sensor/nucleic acid to them. These microspheres have a number of advantages over other cellular delivery approaches. First, a diverse range of compounds can be attached to the microspheres, and we have demonstrated that these materials are effectively delivered into cells; second, the cellular cargo can be modulated through modification of bead loading; third, they are large enough to be visualized using standard microscopy techniques; and fourth, their cargos are not diluted within the cell. Populations of cells containing beads can be readily sorted from other cells for subsequent analysis with very high, but controllable, uptake rates, which can be modulated through modulation of the bead size and incubation time. Recent work has focused on the development of these microspheres as sensors for intracellular calcium and pH.

  19. Microspheres and nanoparticles from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Won Hyuk

    Improved preparations of various examples of monodispersed, porous, hollow, and core-shell metal and semiconductor nanoparticles or nanowires have been developed. Now titania microspheres and nanoparticles and silica microspheres can be synthesized using an inexpensive high frequency (1.7 MHz) ultrasonic generator (household humidifier; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis; USP). Morphology and pore size of titania microspheres were controlled by the silica to Ti(IV) ratio and silica particle size. Fine tuning the precursor ratio affords sub-50 nm titania nanoparticles as well. In terms of silica microspheres, morphology was controlled by the silica to organic monomer ratio. In liquids irradiated with high intensity ultrasound (20 kHz; HIUS), acoustic cavitation produces high energy chemistry through intense local heating inside the gas phase of collapsing bubbles in the liquid. HIUS and USP confine the chemical reactions to isolated sub-micron reaction zones, but sonochemistry does so in a heated gas phase within a liquid, while USP uses a hot liquid droplet carried by a gas flow. Thus, USP can be viewed as a method of phase-separated synthesis using submicron-sized droplets as isolated chemical reactors for nanomaterial synthesis. While USP has been used to create both titania and silica spheres separately, there are no prior reports of titania-silica composites. Such nanocomposites of metal oxides have been produced, and by further manipulation, various porous structures with fascinating morphologies were generated. Briefly, a precursor solution was nebulized using a commercially available household ultrasonic humidifier (1.7 MHz ultrasound generator), and the resulting mist was carried in a gas stream of air through a quartz glass tube in a hot furnace. After exiting the hot zone, these microspheres are porous or hollow and in certain cases magnetically responsive. In the case of titania microspheres, they are rapidly taken up into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and

  20. Mechanical oscillations in lasing microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toncelli, A.; Capuj, N. E.; Garrido, B.; Sledzinska, M.; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.; Tredicucci, A.; Navarro-Urrios, D.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the feasibility of activating coherent mechanical oscillations in lasing microspheres by modulating the laser emission at a mechanical eigenfrequency. To this aim, 1.5%Nd3+:Barium-Titanium-Silicate microspheres with diameters around 50 μm were used as high quality factor (Q > 106) whispering gallery mode lasing cavities. We have implemented a pump-and-probe technique in which the pump laser used to excite the Nd3+ ions is focused on a single microsphere with a microscope objective and a probe laser excites a specific optical mode with the evanescent field of a tapered fibre. The studied microspheres show monomode and multi-mode lasing action, which can be modulated in the best case up to 10 MHz. We have optically transduced thermally activated mechanical eigenmodes appearing in the 50-70 MHz range, the frequency of which decreases with increasing the size of the microspheres. In a pump-and-probe configuration, we observed modulation of the probe signal up to the maximum pump modulation frequency of our experimental setup, i.e., 20 MHz. This modulation decreases with frequency and is unrelated to lasing emission, pump scattering, or thermal effects. We associate this effect to free-carrier-dispersion induced by multiphoton pump light absorption. On the other hand, we conclude that, in our current experimental conditions, it was not possible to resonantly excite the mechanical modes. Finally, we discuss on how to overcome these limitations by increasing the modulation frequency of the lasing emission and decreasing the frequency of the mechanical eigenmodes displaying a strong degree of optomechanical coupling.

  1. Phase Separation Derived Core/Shell Structured Cu11 V6 O26 /V2 O5 Microspheres: First Synthesis and Excellent Lithium-Ion Anode Performance with Outstanding Capacity Self-Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jian; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Qiang; Bie, Changfeng; Sun, Jingxue

    2017-05-01

    Novel amorphous vanadium oxide coated copper vanadium oxide (Cu11 V6 O26 /V2 O5 ) microspheres with 3D hierarchical architecture have been successfully prepared via a microwave-assisted solution method and subsequent annealing induced phase separation process. Pure Cu11 V6 O26 microspheres without V2 O5 coating are also obtained by an H2 O2 solution dissolving treatment. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized hybrid exhibits large reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and outstanding capacity self-recovery. Under the condition of high current density of 1 A g(-1) , the 3D hierarchical Cu11 V6 O26 /V2 O5 hybrid maintains a reversible capacity of ≈1110 mA h g(-1) . Combined electrochemical analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation during cycling reveals that the amorphous V2 O5 coating plays an important role on enhancing the electrochemical performances and capacity self-recovery, which provides an active amorphous protective layer and abundant grain interfaces for efficient inserting and extracting of Li-ion. As a result, this new copper vanadium oxide hybrid is proposed as a promising anode material for LIBs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optically active microspheres constructed by helical substituted polyacetylene and used for adsorption of organic compounds in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junya; Song, Ci; Deng, Jianping

    2014-11-12

    This article reports optically active microspheres consisting of chiral helical substituted polyacetylene and β-cyclodextrin-derivative (β-CD-A). The microspheres showed remarkable adsorption toward various organic compounds in water. To prepare the microspheres, an acetylenic-derived helical macro-monomer was synthesized and then underwent aqueous suspension copolymerization with octadecyl acrylate and butyl acrylate by using azobis(isobutyronitrile) as initiator and β-CD-A simultaneously as comonomer and cross-linking agent. The helical macro-monomer chains enabled the microspheres to exhibit desirable enantio-differentiating adsorption capacity toward chiral compounds respectively dissolved in organic solvent, dispersed in water, and dissolved in water. The saturated absorbency toward (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine was 29 and 12 mg · g(-1), respectively. The microspheres also showed large oil absorbency (e.g., 22 g · g(-1) CCl4) and a large adsorption toward methyl red (as a model for organic dyes) dispersed in water. The presence of β-CD-A moieties improved the adsorption performance of the microspheres. The present optically active microspheres open a new approach for preparing adsorbents particularly chiral adsorbents with potentials for wastewater treatment.

  3. Filling Porous Microspheres With Magnetic Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium; Colvin, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    New process produces magnetic microspheres with controllable sizes, compositions, and properties for use in medical diagnostic tests, biological research, and chemical processes. Paramagnetic microspheres also made with process. Porous plastic microspheres prepared by polymerization of monomer in diluent by cross-linking agent. When diluent removed, it leaves tiny pores throughout polymerized spheres. Size and distribution of pores determined by amount and type of diluent and cross-linking agent.

  4. Magnetoresponsive Photonic Microspheres with Structural Color Gradient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Jongkook; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Jung H; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-02-06

    Photonic Janus particles are created by alternately sputtering silica and titania on microspheres in order to obtain a structural color gradient. In addition, the microspheres are rendered magnetoresponsive. The Janus microspheres with optical and magnetic anisotropy enable on-demand control over orientation and structural color through manipulation of an external magnetic field, thereby being useful as active color pigments for reflection-mode displays.

  5. Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

  6. Glass microspheres for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in <1 week, without causing any detectable joint damage. The combination of dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres and EDTA chelation therapy provides an unique "tool" for the medical community, which can deliver a large dose (>100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass

  7. Effects of experimental cerebral malaria in memory, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and acetylcholinesterase activity [correction for acitivity] in the hippocampus of survivor mice.

    PubMed

    Comim, Clarissa M; Reis, Patrícia A; Frutuoso, Valber S; Fries, Gabriel R; Fraga, Daiane B; Kapczinski, Flávio; Zugno, Alexandra I; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2012-08-15

    Malaria is the most important human parasitic disease and cerebral malaria (CM), its main neurological complication, is characterized by neurological and cognitive damage in both human and animal survivors. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be involved with activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. There is great interest regarding its role in learning and memory as well as acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) that is implicated in many cognitive functions and probably plays important roles in neurodegenerative disorders. In the present work, we evaluated BDNF protein levels and AChE activity in the hippocampus and habituation in an animal model of CM using C57BL/6 mice after fifteen days of the induction. The results demonstrated that there was a decrease in BDNF levels in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice infected with PbA when compared with C57BL/6 non-infected mice and C57BL/6 non-infected mice that received treatment with chloroquine. However, no difference was observed in AChE activity in the hippocampus. When habituation was evaluated there was memory impairment in the C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). In conclusion, we believe that the decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus may be related with memory impairment without alterations on AChE activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 99mTc(CO)3-Labeled Benzothiazole Derivatives Preferentially Bind Cerebrovascular Amyloid: Potential Use as Imaging Agents for Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jianhua; Cui, Mengchao; Dai, Jiapei; Liu, Boli

    2015-08-03

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder affecting the elderly that is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in blood vessel walls of the brain. A series of 99mTc(CO)3-labeled benzothiazole derivatives as potential SPECT imaging probes for cerebrovascular Aβ deposition is reported. Rhenium surrogate displayed high affinities to Aβ aggregates with Ki values ranging from 106 to 42 nM, and they strongly stained Aβ deposits in transgenic mice (Tg) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In vitro autoradiography on brain sections of Tg and AD patients confirmed that [99mTc]24 possessed sufficient affinity for Aβ plaques, and [99mTc]24 could only label Aβ deposition in blood vessels but not Aβ plaques in the parenchyma of the brain of AD patients. Moreover, [99mTc]24 possessed favorable initial uptake (1.21% ID/g) and fast blood washout (blood2 min/blood60 min=23) in normal mice. These preliminary results suggest that [99mTc]24 may be used as an Aβ imaging probe for the detection of CAA.

  9. Effect of Single and Double Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kim, Yona; Chang, Jong Wook; Yang, Yoon Sun; Oh, Wonil; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2017-02-01

    Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones. We observed notable motor dysfunction and a significant decrease in infarcted brain volume, as well as increases in neurons and vessels in both single and repeated hUCB-MSC treatments compared to the control group. Interestingly, repeated administration of hUCB-MSCs was not found to elicit additional or synergistic improvements over monotherapy. This study suggests that a clearer understanding of the therapeutic window after stroke will facilitate the development of more efficient treatment protocols in the clinical application of stem cell therapy.

  10. Effect of Single and Double Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kim, Yona; Chang, Jong Wook; Yang, Yoon Sun; Oh, Wonil; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones. We observed notable motor dysfunction and a significant decrease in infarcted brain volume, as well as increases in neurons and vessels in both single and repeated hUCB-MSC treatments compared to the control group. Interestingly, repeated administration of hUCB-MSCs was not found to elicit additional or synergistic improvements over monotherapy. This study suggests that a clearer understanding of the therapeutic window after stroke will facilitate the development of more efficient treatment protocols in the clinical application of stem cell therapy. PMID:28243167

  11. Coupling system to a microsphere cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Yao, Steve (Inventor); Wu, Chi (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system of coupling optical energy in a waveguide mode, into a resonator that operates in a whispering gallery mode. A first part of the operation uses a fiber in its waveguide mode to couple information into a resonator e.g. a microsphere. The fiber is cleaved at an angle .PHI. which causes total internal reflection within the fiber. The energy in the fiber then forms an evanescent field and a microsphere is placed in the area of the evanescent field. If the microsphere resonance is resonant with energy in the fiber, then the information in the fiber is effectively transferred to the microsphere.

  12. Self-assembly of polymeric microspheres of complex internal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkowski, Marcin; Bitner, Agnieszka; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2005-01-01

    Self-assembly can easily produce intricate structures that would be difficult to make by conventional fabrication means. Here, self-assembly is used to prepare multicomponent polymeric microspheres of arbitrary internal symmetries. Droplets of liquid prepolymers are printed onto a water-soluble hydrogel, and are allowed to spread and coalesce into composite patches. These patches are then immersed in an isodense liquid, which both compensates the force of gravity and dissolves the gel beneath the polymers. Subsequently, the patches fold into spheres whose internal structures are dictated by the arrangement of the droplets printed onto the surface. The spheres can be solidified either thermally or by ultraviolet radiation. We present a theoretical analysis of droplet spreading, coalescence and folding. Conditions for the stability of the folded microspheres are derived from linear stability analysis. The composite microbeads that we describe are likely to find uses in optics, colloidal self-assembly and controlled-delivery applications.

  13. Microsphere cytometry to interrogate microenvironment-dependent cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertsås, Henriette Christie; Nolan, Garry P; LaBarge, Mark A; Lorens, James B

    2017-02-20

    Microenvironmental cues comprising surface-mediated and soluble factors control cellular signaling mechanisms underlying normal cellular responses that define homeostatic and diseased cell states. In order to measure cell signaling in single adherent cells, we developed a novel microsphere-based flow cytometry approach. Single normal or neoplastic cells were adhered to uniform microspheres that display mimetic-microenvironments comprising surface combinations of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the presence of soluble agonists/antagonists. Temporal signaling responses were measured with fluorophore-conjugated antibodies that recognize response-dependent epitopes by multiparametric flow cytometry. Using this approach we demonstrate that microenvironment-mimetic combinations of growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins generate distinct cellular signal networks that reveal unique cell signatures in normal and patient biopsy-derived neoplastic cells.

  14. Derivation of a Predictive Score for Hemorrhagic Progression of Cerebral Contusions in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Randall Z.; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Hayashi, Michael; Donovan, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds After traumatic brain injury (TBI), hemorrhagic progression of contusions (HPCs) occurs frequently. However, there is no established predictive score to identify high-risk patients for HPC. Methods Consecutive patients who were hospitalized (2008–2013) with non-penetrating moderate or severe TBI were studied. The primary outcome was HPC, defined by both a relative increase in contusion volume by ≥30 % and an absolute increase by ≥10 mL on serial imaging. Logistic regression models were created to identify independent risk factors for HPC. The HPC Score was then derived based on the final model. Results Among a total of 286 eligible patients, 61 (21 %) patients developed HPC. On univariate analyses, HPC was associated with older age, higher initial blood pressure, antiplatelet medications, anticoagulants, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) subdural hematoma (SDH), skull fracture, frontal contusion, larger contusion volume, and shorter interval from injury to initial CT. In the final model, SAH (OR 6.33, 95 % CI, 1.80–22.23), SDH (OR 3.46, 95 % CI, 1.39–8.63), and skull fracture (OR 2.67, 95 % CI, 1.28–5.58) were associated with HPC. Based on these factors, the HPC Score was derived (SAH = 2 points, SDH = 1 point, and skull fracture = 1 point). This score had an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.77. Patients with a score of 0–2 had a 4.0 % incidence of HPC, while patients with a score of 3–4 had a 34.6 % incidence of HPC. Conclusions A simple HPC Score was developed for early risk stratification of HPC in patients with moderate or severe TBI. PMID:27473209

  15. Derivation of a Predictive Score for Hemorrhagic Progression of Cerebral Contusions in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Allison, Randall Z; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Hayashi, Michael; Donovan, Daniel J; Koenig, Matthew A

    2017-02-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), hemorrhagic progression of contusions (HPCs) occurs frequently. However, there is no established predictive score to identify high-risk patients for HPC. Consecutive patients who were hospitalized (2008-2013) with non-penetrating moderate or severe TBI were studied. The primary outcome was HPC, defined by both a relative increase in contusion volume by ≥30 % and an absolute increase by ≥10 mL on serial imaging. Logistic regression models were created to identify independent risk factors for HPC. The HPC Score was then derived based on the final model. Among a total of 286 eligible patients, 61 (21 %) patients developed HPC. On univariate analyses, HPC was associated with older age, higher initial blood pressure, antiplatelet medications, anticoagulants, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) subdural hematoma (SDH), skull fracture, frontal contusion, larger contusion volume, and shorter interval from injury to initial CT. In the final model, SAH (OR 6.33, 95 % CI, 1.80-22.23), SDH (OR 3.46, 95 % CI, 1.39-8.63), and skull fracture (OR 2.67, 95 % CI, 1.28-5.58) were associated with HPC. Based on these factors, the HPC Score was derived (SAH = 2 points, SDH = 1 point, and skull fracture = 1 point). This score had an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.77. Patients with a score of 0-2 had a 4.0 % incidence of HPC, while patients with a score of 3-4 had a 34.6 % incidence of HPC. A simple HPC Score was developed for early risk stratification of HPC in patients with moderate or severe TBI.

  16. Preconditioning of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by tetramethylpyrazine enhances cell migration and improves functional recovery after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Chu, Lisheng; Fang, Yan; Yang, Yan; Qu, Tiebing; Zhang, Jianping; Yin, Yuanjun; Gu, Jingjing

    2017-05-12

    Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is one of the new therapeutic strategies for treating ischemic stroke. However, the relatively poor migratory capacity of BMSCs toward infarcted regions limited the therapeutic potential of this approach. Pharmacological preconditioning can increase the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in BMSCs and enhance cell migration toward the injury site. In the present study, we investigated whether tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) preconditioning could enhance BMSCs migration to the ischemic brain and improve functional recovery through upregulating CXCR4 expression. BMSCs were identified by flow cytometry analysis. BMSCs migration was evaluated in vitro by transwell migration assay, and CXCR4 expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In rats with focal cerebral ischemia, the neurological function was evaluated by the modified neurological severity score, the adhesive removal test and the corner test. The homing BMSCs and angiogenesis were detected by immunofluorescence, and expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 was measured by western blot analysis. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that BMSCs expressed CD29 and CD90, but not CD34 and CD45. TMP pretreatment dose-dependently induced BMSCs migration and CXCR4 expression in vitro, which was significantly inhibited by AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. In rat stroke models, we found more TMP-preconditioned BMSCs homing toward the infarcted regions than nonpreconditioned cells, leading to improved neurological performance and enhanced angiogenesis. Moreover, TMP-preconditioned BMSCs significantly upregulated the protein expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in the ischemic boundary regions. These beneficial effects of TMP preconditioning were blocked by AMD3100. TMP preconditioning enhances the migration and homing ability of BMSCs, increases CXCR4 expression

  17. Peroxynitrite formed during a transient episode of brain ischaemia increases endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type dilations in thromboxane/prostaglandin receptor-stimulated rat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Onetti, Y; Dantas, A P; Pérez, B; McNeish, A J; Vila, E; Jiménez-Altayó, F

    2017-05-01

    Increased thromboxane A2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite. Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A2 mimetic 9,11-dideoxy-9α, 11α -methano-epoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619) in MCA of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to MCA occlusion (90 min)/reperfusion (24 h) or sham operation, and in non-operated (control) rats. Some rats were treated with saline or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron (III) (20 mg kg(-1) ). Protein expression was evaluated in MCA and in human microvascular endothelial cells submitted to hypoxia (overnight)/reoxygenation (24 h) (H/R) using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In U46619-pre-constricted MCA, EDH-type relaxation by the proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist serine-leucine-isoleucine-glycine-arginine-leucine-NH2 (SLIGRL) was greater in I/R than sham rats due to an increased contribution of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa ), which was confirmed by the enlarged relaxation to the SKCa activator N-cyclohexyl-N-2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine. I/R and H/R induced endothelial protein tyrosine nitration and filamentous-actin disruption. In control MCA, either cytochalasin D or peroxynitrite disrupted endothelial filamentous-actin and augmented EDH-type relaxation. Furthermore, peroxynitrite decomposition during I/R prevented the increase in EDH-type responses. Following TP stimulation in MCA, EDH-type relaxation to SLIGRL is greater after I/R due to endothelial filamentous-actin disruption by peroxynitrite, which prevents TP-induced block of SKCa input to EDH. These

  18. Brain-derived peptides reduce the size of cerebral infarction and loss of MAP2 immunoreactivity after focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Schwab, M; Antonow-Schlorke, I; Zwiener, U; Bauer, R

    1998-01-01

    The effects of brain-derived peptides (BDP; Cerebrolysin) upon the amount of brain injury due to focal brain ischemia were assessed. Male Thomae rats were divided randomly into a sham-operated group (n = 5), an ischemic control (untreated) group (n = 7) and an ischemic BDP-treated group (n = 6) and subjected to reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h followed by 90min of reperfusion. Local cortical blood flow (LCBF) was monitored by Laser-Doppler flowmetry to assess the MCAO and to measure the blood flow in regions peripheral to the infarction. Infarcted areas of the hippocampus and subcortical structures were quantified in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stainings. Functional disturbances of the neurons were detected by immunohistochemical staining of the microtubule associated protein MAP2. Moreover, brain edema was estimated morphometrically. LCBF was estimated from the periphery of infarcted areas and was reduced to 55 to 65% of baseline values (p < 0.05). Reperfusion led to LCBF being increased again to baseline values. No differences in LCBF between the control and the BDP-treated animals were found. In the hippocampus, BDP-treated animals showed a significant reduction of loss of MAP2 immunoreactivity in the subiculum and CA1 region by 59% and 64%, respectively, in comparison to control animals (p < 0.05). The amount of irreversibly damaged neurons in these regions was decreased in tendency. However, the inner blade of the dentate gyrus in BDP-treated animals showed a significant reduction of neuronal injury by 98% (p < 0.05). Likewise, BDP treatment reduced the size of the areas showing a loss of MAP2 immunoreactivity in the thalamic and hypothalamic structures by 51% and in the mesencephalon by 81% (p < 0.05). The size of the infarcted areas in these regions (H&E) was reduced in tendency. In the caudate putamen, no protective effect of BDP-treatment could be proven. Cerebral infarction was accompanied by an increase in the volume of the

  19. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  20. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  1. Microspherical resonators for biophotonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenci, M.; Calzolai, R.; Cosi, F.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G. C.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays biological sensing is representing a very active area of research due to the many possible applications in environmental control, food testing, pharmaceutical screening, and genetic analysis. A particular need exists for miniature biosensors for the detection of proteins, DNA, toxins and, more generally, infectious agents. Several optical techniques have proven to be quite effective, and biophotonics is a continuously growing discipline. Here we provide a quick overview of the recent progresses in the development of optical biosensors based on resonant cavities constituted by dielectric microspheres, where light propagation occurs through whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). The effect of any perturbation to the optical resonance structure of a microsphere is such that a very high sensitivity can be achieved.

  2. Nonaggregating Microspheres Containing Aldehyde Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Cobalt gamma irradiation of hydrophilic monomers in presence of acrolein yields exceptionally-stable, nonaggregating microspheres. Mixtures of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrolein form homogeneous solutions in distilled water containing 0.4 percent polyethylene oxide (PEO). After deaeration with nitrogen, mixtures irradiated at room temperature with gamma rays from cobalt source; total exposure time 4 hours, at rate of 0.2 milliroentgen per hour. Reaction product centrifuged three times for purification and kept in distilled water.

  3. Making Latex Microspheres in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, D. M.; Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment yields larger, more uniform particles. Two NASA reports describe first commercial product to be manufactured in space. Product monodisperse latex, suspension of spherical particles of essentially same diameter. Carried aboard Space Shuttle on its orbital missions, monodisperse latex reactor (MLR) produces spheres of much larger size than possible on Earth. Mircospheres 30 micrometers in diameter produced, whereas 5 micrometers is limit for Earthbound reactors. Microspheres as large as 100 micrometers scheduled for production in MLR.

  4. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  5. Making Latex Microspheres in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, D. M.; Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment yields larger, more uniform particles. Two NASA reports describe first commercial product to be manufactured in space. Product monodisperse latex, suspension of spherical particles of essentially same diameter. Carried aboard Space Shuttle on its orbital missions, monodisperse latex reactor (MLR) produces spheres of much larger size than possible on Earth. Mircospheres 30 micrometers in diameter produced, whereas 5 micrometers is limit for Earthbound reactors. Microspheres as large as 100 micrometers scheduled for production in MLR.

  6. Cerebral accumulation of dietary derivable plant sterols does not interfere with memory and anxiety related behavior in Abcg5-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Rutten, Kris; van Vark-van der Zee, Leonie C; Friedrichs, Silvia; Bloks, Vincent W; Blokland, Arjan; Ramaekers, Frans C; Sijbrands, Eric; Steinbusch, Harry; Prickaerts, Jos; Kuipers, Folkert; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mulder, Monique

    2011-06-01

    Plant sterols such as sitosterol and campesterol are frequently applied as functional food in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Recently, it became clear that plasma derived plant sterols accumulate in murine brains. We questioned whether plant sterols in the brain are associated with alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis and subsequently with brain functions. ATP binding cassette (Abc)g5-/- mice, a phytosterolemia model, were compared to Abcg5+/+ mice for serum and brain plant sterol accumulation and behavioral and cognitive performance. Serum and brain plant sterol concentrations were respectively 35-70-fold and 5-12-fold increased in Abcg5-/- mice (P<0.001). Plant sterol accumulation resulted in decreased levels of desmosterol (P<0.01) and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (P<0.01) in the hippocampus, the brain region important for learning and memory functions, and increased lanosterol levels (P<0.01) in the cortex. However, Abcg5-/- and Abcg5+/+ displayed no differences in memory functions or in anxiety and mood related behavior. The swimming speed of the Abcg5-/- mice was slightly higher compared to Abcg5+/+ mice (P<0.001). In conclusion, plant sterols in the brains of Abcg5-/- mice did have consequences for brain cholesterol metabolism, but did not lead to an overt phenotype of memory or anxiety related behavior. Thus, our data provide no contra-indication for nutritional intake of plant sterol enriched nutrition.

  7. Effects of "nourishing liver and kidney" acupuncture therapy on expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and synaptophysin after cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-Guang; Zheng, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of "nourishing liver and kidney" acupuncture therapy on motor and cognitive deficits, and the underlying mechanism following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) via increasing the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN) in the hippocampus. Healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (n=51), model group (n=51), acupuncture group (n=51) and acupuncture control group (n=51). The middle cerebral I/R model was established. Acupunctures were performed in the acupuncture group and acupuncture control group at acupoints of Taixi (K103), Taichong (ST09) of both sides, for 30 min once daily every morning. The animals in the sham operation group and model group were conventionally fed in the cage, without any intervention therapy. The rats of each group were assessed with modified neurological severity scores (mNSS). The expression of BDNF and SYN in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemical SP method and the synaptic structure in hippocampus area was assessed morphologically and quantitatively at the 3rd, 7th and 14th day. The Morris water Maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the rats' learning and memory abilities on the 15th day after acupuncture. The animals in the acupuncture control group and sham operation group presented no neurological deficit. In the acupuncture group, the nerve functional recovery was significantly better than that in the model group at the 7th and 14th day after modeling. The average MWM escape latency in the acupuncture group was shorter than that in the model group at the 3rd, 4th and 5th day. The number of crossings of the platform quadrant in the acupuncture group was significantly more than that in the model group. At the each time point, the expression levels of BDNF and SYN in the hippocampal regions increased significantly in the model group as compared with the sham operation group and the acupuncture

  8. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  9. Taste masking microspheres for orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianchen; Bovet, Li Li; Zhao, Kang

    2008-07-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of microspheres for taste masking when incorporated into orally disintegrating tablets. The microspheres were produced by spray drying a mixture of the model compound (famotidine) with taste masking material. The spray process was optimized using a central composite design for two variables to obtain microspheres with desirable characteristics. Then the microspheres were mixed with other excipients to form orally disintegrating tablets. The optimal spray-drying process parameters were 34mg/ml for solid concentration and 7ml/min for feed rate. The drug encapsulation efficiency of the spray-dried microspheres ranges from of 37.59 to 61.56%, with a mean diameter of less than 10microm size and low moisture content (less than 4%). Results from an evaluation by a panel of six human volunteers demonstrated that the orally disintegrating tablets with taste masking microspheres improved the taste significantly. Furthermore, an in vivo study in rats showed that the microspheres neither decrease the bioavailability nor retard the release of famotidine significantly. In conclusion, spray-dried microspheres can effectively mask the bitter taste of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in combination with the orally disintegrating tablets.

  10. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... and Drug Administration on or before December 26, 1996 for any trace microsphere that was...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... and Drug Administration on or before December 26, 1996 for any trace microsphere that was...

  12. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport Universitaire Vaudois )

    1988-02-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  13. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere. (a...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere. (a...

  16. Integrated Cryogenic Experiment (ICE) microsphere investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradley, I.; Read, D.

    1989-09-01

    The main objective is to determine the performance of microsphere insulation in a 0-g environment and compare its performance to reference insulations such as multilayer insulation. The Lockheed Helium Extended-Life Dewar (HELD) is used to provide superfluid-helium cold sink for the experiment. The use of HELD allows the low-g dynamic properties of Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) to be characterized and provides a flight demonstration of the PODS system. The thermal performance of microspheres in 1 and 0 g was predicted, a flight experiment was designed to determine microsphere thermal performance, and the interface was also designed between the experimental package and the shuttle through HELD and the Hitchhiker-M carrier. A single test cell was designed and fabricated. The cell was filled with uncoated glass microspheres and tested with a liquid-nitrogen cold sink. The data were found to agree with predictions of microsphere performance in 1 g.

  17. Integrated Cryogenic Experiment (ICE) microsphere investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, I.; Read, D.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the performance of microsphere insulation in a 0-g environment and compare its performance to reference insulations such as multilayer insulation. The Lockheed Helium Extended-Life Dewar (HELD) is used to provide superfluid-helium cold sink for the experiment. The use of HELD allows the low-g dynamic properties of Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) to be characterized and provides a flight demonstration of the PODS system. The thermal performance of microspheres in 1 and 0 g was predicted, a flight experiment was designed to determine microsphere thermal performance, and the interface was also designed between the experimental package and the shuttle through HELD and the Hitchhiker-M carrier. A single test cell was designed and fabricated. The cell was filled with uncoated glass microspheres and tested with a liquid-nitrogen cold sink. The data were found to agree with predictions of microsphere performance in 1 g.

  18. Thermal response of chalcogenide microsphere resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H; Aryanfar, I; Lim, K S; Chong, W Y; Harun, S W

    2012-05-31

    A chalcogenide microsphere resonator (CMR) used for temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The CMR is fabricated using a simple technique of heating chalcogenide glass and allowing the molten glass to form a microsphere on the waist of a tapered silica fibre. The thermal responses of the CMR is investigated and compared to that of a single-mode-fibre (SMF) based microsphere resonator. It is observed that the CMR sensitivity to ambient temperature changes is 8 times higher than that of the SMF-based microsphere resonator. Heating the chalcogenide microsphere with a laser beam periodically turned on and off shows periodic shifts in the transmission spectrum of the resonator. By injecting an intensity-modulated cw signal through the resonator a thermal relaxation time of 55 ms is estimated.

  19. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Affects the Relationship Between an Anxiety-Related Personality Trait and Resting Regional Cerebral Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shau-Ming; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Nabel, Katherine G; Kohn, Philip D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Berman, Karen F

    2017-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important modulator of constitutive stress responses mediated by limbic frontotemporal circuits, and its gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val66Met) that may influence trait stress sensitivity. Reports of an association of this polymorphism with anxiety-related personality traits have been controversial and without clear neurophysiological support. We, therefore, determined the relationship between resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and a well-validated measure of anxiety-related personality, the TPQ Harm Avoidance (HA) scale, as a function of BDNF Val66Met genotype. Sixty-four healthy participants of European ancestry underwent resting H215O positron emission tomography scans. For each genotype group separately, we first determined the relationship between participants' HA scores and their resting rCBF values in each voxel across the entire brain, and then directly compared these HA-rCBF relationships between Val66Met genotype groups. HA-rCBF relationships differed between Val homozygotes and Met carriers in several regions relevant to stress regulation: subgenual cingulate, orbital frontal cortex, and the hippocampal/parahippocampal region. In each of these areas, the relationship was positive in Val homozygotes and negative in Met carriers. These data demonstrate a coupling between trait anxiety and basal resting blood flow in frontolimbic neurocircuitry that may be determined in part by genetically mediated BDNF signaling. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Effect of microgravity on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor gene expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tsybko, A S; Ilchibaeva, T V; Kulikov, A V; Kulikova, E A; Krasnov, I B; Sychev, V N; Shenkman, B S; Popova, N K; Naumenko, V S

    2015-09-01

    Mice were exposed to 1 month of space flight on the Russian biosatellite BION-M1 to determine its effect on the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of the mouse brain dopamine system. The current article focuses on the genes encoding glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF). Space flight reduced expression of the GDNF gene in the striatum and hypothalamus but increased it in the frontal cortex and raphe nuclei area. At the same time, actual space flight reduced expression of the gene encoding CDNF in the substantia nigra but increased it in the raphe nuclei area. To separate the effects of space flight from environmental stress contribution, we analyzed expression of the investigated genes in mice housed for 1 month on Earth in the same shuttle cabins that were used for space flight and in mice of the vivarium control group. Shuttle cabin housing failed to alter the expression of the GDNF and CDNF genes in the brain structures investigated. Thus, actual long-term space flight produced dysregulation in genetic control of GDNF and CDNF genes. These changes may be related to downregulation of the dopamine system after space flight, which we have shown earlier. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Our results provide the first evidence of microgravity effects on expression of the GDNF and CDNF neurotrophic factor genes. A considerable decrease in mRNA level of GDNF and CDNF in the nigrostriatal dopamine system was found. Because both GDNF and CDNF play a significant role in maintenance and survival of brain dopaminergic neurons, we can assume that this dysregulation in genetic control of GDNF and CDNF genes in substantia nigra could be among the reasons for the deleterious effects of space flight on the dopamine system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biocompatible magnetic microspheres for Use in PDT and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, C B; Cerize, N N P; Morais, P C; Ré, M I; Tedesco, A C

    2012-06-01

    Loaded microspheres with a silicon (IV) phthalocyanine derivative (NzPC) acting as a photosensitizer were prepared from polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBHV) and poly(ecaprolactone) (PCL) polymers using the emulsification solvent evaporation method (EE). The aim of our study was to prepare two systems of these biodegradable PHBHV/PCL microspheres. The first one containing only photosensitizer previously incorporated in the PHBHV and poly(ecaprolactone) (PCL) microspheres and the second one with the post magnetization of the DDS with magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic fluid is successfully used for controlled incorporation of nanosized magnetic particles within the micron-sized template. This is the first time that we could get a successful pos incorporation of nanosized magnetic particles in a previously-prepared polymeric template. This procedure opens a great number of possibilities of post-functionalization of polymeric micro or nanoparticles with different bioactive materials. The NzPC release profile of the systems is ideal for PDT, the zeta potential and the size particle are stable upon aging in time. In vitro studies were evaluated using gingival fibroblastic cell line. The dark citotoxicity, the phototoxicity and the AC magnetic field assays of the as-prepared nanomagnetic composite were evaluated and the cellular viability analyzed by the classical test of MTT.

  2. Cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rénia, Laurent; Wu Howland, Shanshan; Claser, Carla; Charlotte Gruner, Anne; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Hui Teo, Teck; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is the most severe pathology caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to cerebral malaria are still poorly defined as studies have been hampered by limited accessibility to human tissues. Nevertheless, histopathology of post-mortem human tissues and mouse models of cerebral malaria have indicated involvement of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria. In contrast to viruses and bacteria, malaria parasites do not infiltrate and infect the brain parenchyma. Instead, rupture of the blood-brain barrier occurs and may lead to hemorrhages resulting in neurological alterations. Here, we review the most recent findings from human studies and mouse models on the interactions of malaria parasites and the blood-brain barrier, shedding light on the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, which may provide directions for possible interventions. PMID:22460644

  3. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W. )

    1987-10-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-{mu}m radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}100 g{sup {minus}1}, and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 {plus minus} 0.23 ml O{sub 2}{center dot}100 g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1} during normothermia (39{degree}C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35{degree}C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced.

  4. The effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model depends on their engraftment rate.

    PubMed

    Grudzenski, Saskia; Baier, Sebastian; Ebert, Anne; Pullens, Pim; Lemke, Andreas; Bieback, Karen; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Schad, Lothar R; Alonso, Angelika; Hennerici, Michael G; Fatar, Marc

    2017-04-26

    In the field of experimental stem cell therapy, intra-arterial (IA) delivery yields the best results concerning, for example, migrated cell number at the targeted site. However, IA application also appears to be associated with increased mortality rates and infarction. Since many rodent studies systemically apply 1 × 10(6) cells, this could also be a consequence of engrafted cell number. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of different doses of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on engraftment rates and stroke outcome measured in vivo using 9.4-T high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (n = 43) underwent a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 45 or 90 min, followed by IA delivery of either saline or 1 × 10(6), 3 × 10(5), or 5 × 10(4) ASCs pre-labelled with very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOPs). MRI (9.4-T) analysis was performed 48 h and 9 days post-MCAo. Lesion volumes were assessed by analysis of T2-weighted images and cell signal tracking showing cell engraftment and active cell migration by an improved T2*-analysis. The ASC-derived signal intensity increased in the affected hemisphere 48 h post MCAo with injected cell number (p < 0.05). The analysis of stroke volumes revealed an increased infarction after injection of 1 × 10(6) ASCs compared to controls or application of 5 × 10(4) ASCs (p < 0.05). At 9 days post-MCAo, injection of 3 × 10(5) ASCs resulted in reduced infarct volumes (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, MRI analysis revealed no changes in cell numbers between both MRI examinations but showed active ASC migration to the site of infarction. Our results confirm that IA injection is an efficient way of targeting damaged brain tissue but its usefulness strongly depends on the right dose of delivered stem cells since this factor has a strong influence on migration rate and infarct volume, with better results for doses below 1

  5. Cerebral blood flow with [15O]water PET studies using an image-derived input function and MR-defined carotid centerlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Edward K.; Carson, Richard E.

    2013-03-01

    Full quantitative analysis of brain PET data requires knowledge of the arterial input function into the brain. Such data are normally acquired by arterial sampling with corrections for delay and dispersion to account for the distant sampling site. Several attempts have been made to extract an image-derived input function (IDIF) directly from the internal carotid arteries that supply the brain and are often visible in brain PET images. We have devised a method of delineating the internal carotids in co-registered magnetic resonance (MR) images using the level-set method and applying the segmentations to PET images using a novel centerline approach. Centerlines of the segmented carotids were modeled as cubic splines and re-registered in PET images summed over the early portion of the scan. Using information from the anatomical center of the vessel should minimize partial volume and spillover effects. Centerline time-activity curves were taken as the mean of the values for points along the centerline interpolated from neighboring voxels. A scale factor correction was derived from calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using gold standard arterial blood measurements. We have applied the method to human subject data from multiple injections of [15O]water on the HRRT. The method was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the IDIF and the CBF, and comparing these to values computed using the gold standard arterial input curve. The average ratio of IDIF to arterial AUC (apparent recovery coefficient: aRC) across 9 subjects with multiple (n = 69) injections was 0.49 ± 0.09 at 0-30 s post tracer arrival, 0.45 ± 0.09 at 30-60 s, and 0.46 ± 0.09 at 60-90 s. Gray and white matter CBF values were 61.4 ± 11.0 and 15.6 ± 3.0 mL/min/100 g tissue using sampled blood data. Using IDIF centerlines scaled by the average aRC over each subjects’ injections, gray and white matter CBF values were 61.3 ± 13.5 and 15.5 ± 3.4 mL/min/100 g tissue. Using global

  6. Soluble low-Km 5'-nucleotidase from electric-ray (Torpedo marmorata) electric organ and bovine cerebral cortex is derived from the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ectoenzyme by phospholipase C cleavage.

    PubMed

    Vogel, M; Kowalewski, H; Zimmermann, H; Hooper, N M; Turner, A J

    1992-06-15

    Soluble and membrane-bound low-Km 5'-nucleotidase was isolated from high-speed supernatants and membrane fractions derived from the electric organ of the electric ray (Torpedo marmorata) or from bovine brain cerebral cortex. Purification of both enzymes included chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and AMP-Sepharose. The contribution to the total of soluble enzyme activity was lower in electric organ (1.6%) than in bovine cerebral cortex (27.9%). Membrane-bound and soluble forms have very similar Km values for AMP and are inhibited by micromolar concentrations of ATP. Both forms cross-react with, and are inhibited by, an antibody against the membrane-bound surface-located (ecto-) 5'-nucleotidase from electric organ. The HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope is present on both forms of the Torpedo enzyme, but is entirely absent from bovine cerebral-cortex 5'-nucleotidase. An antibody specific for the inositol 1,2-(cyclic)monophosphate that is formed on phospholipase C cleavage of an intact glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor binds to the soluble, but not to the membrane-bound, form of the enzyme from both sources. Our results suggest that soluble low-Km 5'-nucleotidase in both electric organ and bovine brain is derived from the membrane-bound GPI-anchored form of the enzyme by the action of a phospholipase C and is not a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme.

  7. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  8. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Willey, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties.

  9. Hierarchical ZnO-Ag-C composite porous microspheres with superior electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2014-11-26

    Hierarchical ZnO-Ag-C composite porous microspheres are successfully synthesized by calcination of the preproduced zinc-silver citrate porous microspheres in argon. The carbon derives from the in situ carbonization of carboxylic acid groups in zinc-silver citrate during annealing treatment. The average particle size of ZnO-Ag-C composite porous microspheres is approximate 1.5 μm. When adopted as the electrode materials in lithium ion batteries, the obtained composite porous microspheres display high specific capacity, excellent cyclability, and good rate capability. A discharge capacity as high as 729 mA h g(-1) can be retained after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1). The excellent electrochemical properties of ZnO-Ag-C are ascribed to its unique hierarchical porous configuration as well as the modification of silver and carbon.

  10. Facile fabrication of porous ZnO microspheres by thermal treatment of ZnS microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Li, KunWei; Wang, Hao

    2010-02-15

    Porous ZnO microspheres with an average size of around 500 nm had been synthesized by thermal treatment of ZnS microspheres in an air atmosphere. The ZnS spheres had been synthesized at a low temperature of 100 degrees C by using L-cysteine (an ordinary amino acid) as a sulfur source with the assist of gelatin. By combining the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier transformation infrared spectra (FTIR), a structural and morphological characterization of the products was performed. The photocatalytic activity of ZnS microspheres and porous ZnO microspheres have been tested by degradation of Rhodamine-B (RB) under UV light, indicating that the porous ZnO microspheres showed enhanced photocatalytic performance compared to ZnS microspheres and commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2).

  11. Microsphere microscopic imaging with the coherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sha; Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Lin, Qiaowen; Rong, Lu

    2016-10-01

    The microsphere has great potential to improve the resolution of the system. The high frequency information of the object can be collected by the microsphere to enhance the imaging resolution. However, the unavoidable chromatic dispersion exists in the microsphere incoherence imaging, which reduces the image quality. In this paper, the microsphere microscopy system is designed with the coherent light. The polystyrene (PS) microspheres with the diameter of 50μm and 90μm are applied, and their refractive index is 1.59. The object is a transmission grating with a cycle of 1.2μm and line spacing of 600 nm. The result indicates that the grating can be clearly detected, and the magnification of the microsphere with the diameter of 50μm and 90μm is 2.33 and 1.96 respectively. Comparing with the traditional white light microscopy, the imaging contrast has been improved though the speckle noise is introduced for coherent light. Therefore the microsphere has the potential to improve the resolution of the phase-contrast imaging.

  12. Bisphosphonate release profiles from magnetite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Matsubara, Takao; Matsumine, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthermia has been suggested as a novel, minimally invasive cancer treatment method. After implantation of magnetic nano- or microparticles around a tumour through blood vessels, irradiation with alternating magnetic fields facilitates the efficient in situ hyperthermia even for deep-seated tumours. On the basis of this idea, if the microspheres are capable of delivering drugs, they could be promising multifunctional biomaterials effective for chemotherapy as well as hyperthermia. In the present study, magnetite microspheres were prepared by aggregation of the iron oxide colloid in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The release behaviour of alendronate, a typical bisphosphonate, from the microspheres was examined in vitro as a model of the bone tumour prevention and treatment system. The alendronate was successfully incorporated onto the porous magnetite microspheres in vacuum conditions. The drug-loaded microspheres maintained their original spherical shapes even after shaking in ultrapure water for 3 days, suggesting that they have sufficient mechanical integrity for clinical use. It was attributed to high aggregation capability of the magnetite nanoparticles through van der Waals and weak magnetic attractions. The microspheres showed slow release of the alendronate in vitro, resulting from tight covalent or ionic interaction between the magnetite and the alendronate. The release rate was diffusion-controlled type and well controlled by the alendronate concentration in drug incorporation to the microspheres.

  13. Coupled-resonator-induced transparency in two microspheres as the element of angular velocity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Dong

    2016-11-01

    We proposed a two-coupled microsphere resonator structure as the element of angular velocity sensing under the Sagnac effect. We analyzed the theoretical model of the two coupled microspheres, and derived the coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) transfer function, the effective phase shift, and the group delay. Experiments were also carried out to demonstrate the CRIT phenomenon in the two-coupled microsphere resonator structure. We calculated that the group index of the two-coupled sphere reaches n g = 180.46, while the input light at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225504, 61171056, and 91123036) and the Program for the Top Young Academic Leaders of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.

  14. Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Christian; Bian Shuning; Magi, Eric C.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2008-04-28

    We report the fabrication and optical characterization of microsphere in chalcogenide (As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}). We show that high Q modes of a 9.2 {mu}m diameter chalcogenide glass can be efficiently excited via evanescent coupling using a silica tapered fiber. Loaded Q factors of more than 20 000 have been measured. Fine analysis of the coupling spectrum around 1619 nm led to an estimation of the microsphere eccentricity of less than 1%. Owing to the unique combination properties of chalcogenide glass and the microspheres geometry, we expect this architecture to offer an ideal environment for versatile applications on both the telecommunication and midinfrared wavelength windows.

  15. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  16. In Acute Stroke, Can CT Perfusion-Derived Cerebral Blood Volume Maps Substitute for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Identifying the Ischemic Core?

    PubMed Central

    Copen, William A.; Morais, Livia T.; Wu, Ona; Schwamm, Lee H.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; González, R. Gilberto; Yoo, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In the treatment of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, increasing evidence suggests the importance of measuring the volume of the irreversibly injured “ischemic core.” The gold standard method for doing this in the clinical setting is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), but many authors suggest that maps of regional cerebral blood volume (CBV) derived from computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) can substitute for DWI. We sought to determine whether DWI and CTP-derived CBV maps are equivalent in measuring core volume. Methods 58 patients with suspected stroke underwent CTP and DWI within 6 hours of symptom onset. We measured low-CBV lesion volumes using three methods: “objective absolute,” i.e. the volume of tissue with CBV below each of six published absolute thresholds (0.9–2.5 mL/100 g), “objective relative,” whose six thresholds (51%-60%) were fractions of mean contralateral CBV, and “subjective,” in which two radiologists (R1, R2) outlined lesions subjectively. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each method, threshold, and radiologist in detecting infarction, and the degree to which each over- or underestimated the DWI core volume. Additionally, in the subset of 32 patients for whom follow-up CT or MRI was available, we measured the proportion of CBV- or DWI-defined core lesions that exceeded the follow-up infarct volume, and the maximum amount by which this occurred. Results DWI was positive in 72% (42/58) of patients. CBV maps’ sensitivity/specificity in identifying DWI-positive patients were 100%/0% for both objective methods with all thresholds, 43%/94% for R1, and 83%/44% for R2. Mean core overestimation was 156–699 mL for objective absolute thresholds, and 127–200 mL for objective relative thresholds. For R1 and R2, respectively, mean±SD subjective overestimation were -11±26 mL and -11±23 mL, but subjective volumes differed from DWI volumes by up to 117 and 124

  17. Optical Tracking of Anomalous Diffusion Kinetics in Polymer Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    In this Letter we propose the use of whispering gallery mode resonance tracking as a label-free optical means to monitor diffusion kinetics in glassy polymer microspheres. Approximate solutions to the governing diffusion equations are derived for the case of slow relaxation and small Stefan number. Transduction of physical changes in the polymer, including formation of a rubbery layer, swelling, and dissolution, into detectable resonance shifts are described using a perturbative approach. Concrete examples of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene spheres in water are considered.

  18. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Results Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. Conclusions The present

  19. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Ali S; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli Rs; Iskander, Asm; Chopp, Michael

    2012-12-06

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled

  20. [Total flavones derived from Lagotis brevituba maxim reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease mice].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bailing; Hou, Qian; Hu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism behind the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with total flavones derived from Lagotis brevituba maxim (TF-LBM). Methods Fifty SAMP8 mice (aged 8 months) were randomly divided into 5 groups, (150, 300, 600) mg/kg TF-LBM groups, 0.65 g/kg donepezil HCl group and AD model group; 10 SAMR1 mice (aged 8 months) were used as a control group of normal aging. The AD model group and the normal aging control group were given the same volume of distilled water as TF-LBM groups. Eight weeks after intragastric administration, Morris water maze experiment was conducted to calculate the latency of place navigation. After the behavioral experiment, the brain cortical tissue and hippocampus (CA1 region) of the mice from various groups were taken to observe the morphological changes of the cortical tissue and hippocampus and test IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α content. Results Compared with the model group, the escape latency of the normal aging group, the high-dose TF-LBM group and the donepezil HCl group were evidently shortened; compared with the normal aging group, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-αof the model group increased significantly; compared with the model group, IL-1β content of the low-dose TF-LBM group had no obvious difference, while IL-1β content of the median-dose and high-dose TF-LBM groups and the donepezil HCl group decreased significantly; IL-6 content decreased in all TF-LBM groups and the donepezil HCl group; TNF-α level in the low-dose and median-dose TF-LBM groups had no evident difference, while it was reduced significantly in the high-dose TF-LBM group and the donepezil HCl group. Compared with the normal aging group, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α content of the model group increased significantly; compared with the model group, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α content of all TF-LBM groups and the donepezil HCl group decreased. Conclusion TF-LBM can improve the behavior change of SAMP8 mice with AD. TF-LBM can reduce the content of IL-6, IL-1β and

  1. A prospective, multicenter pilot study investigating the utility of flat detector derived parenchymal blood volume maps to estimate cerebral blood volume in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Fiorella, David; Turk, Aquilla; Chaudry, Imran; Turner, Raymond; Dunkin, Jared; Roque, Clemente; Sarmiento, Marily; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Denice, Christine M; Baumeister, Marlene; Parker, Adrian T; Woo, Henry H

    2014-07-01

    Newer flat panel angiographic detector (FD) systems have the capability to generate parenchymal blood volume (PBV) maps. The ability to generate these maps in the angiographic suite has the potential to markedly expedite the triage and treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The present study compares FP-PBV maps with cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps derived using standard dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) in a population of patients with stroke. 56 patients with cerebrovascular ischemic disease at two participating institutions prospectively underwent both standard dynamic CTP imaging followed by FD-PBV imaging (syngo Neuro PBV IR; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) under a protocol approved by both institutional review boards. The feasibility of the FD system to generate PBV maps was assessed. The radiation doses for both studies were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of the PBV technique to detect (1) any blood volume deficit and (2) a blood volume deficit greater than one-third of a vascular territory, were defined using standard dynamic CTP CBV maps as the gold standard. Of the 56 patients imaged, PBV maps were technically adequate in 42 (75%). The 14 inadequate studies were not interpretable secondary to patient motion/positioning (n=4), an injection issue (n=2), or another reason (n=8). The average dose for FD-PBV was 219 mGy (median 208) versus 204 mGy (median 201) for CT-CBV. On CT-CBV maps 26 of 42 had a CBV deficit (61.9%) and 15 (35.7%) had a deficit that accounted for greater than one-third of a vascular territory. FD-PBV maps were 100% sensitive and 81.3% specific to detect any CBV deficit and 100% sensitive and 62.9% specific to detect any CBV deficit of greater than one-third of a territory. PBV maps can be generated using FP systems. The average radiation dose is similar to a standard CTP examination. PBV maps have a high sensitivity for detecting CBV deficits defined by conventional CTP. PBV maps often overestimate the size of CBV deficits. We

  2. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  3. Characterization of a Polyamine Microsphere and Its Adsorption for Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Pei; Nie, Tingting; Wei, Huixian; Cui, Zhenggang

    2013-01-01

    A novel polyamine microsphere, prepared from the water-in-oil emulsion of polyethylenimine, was characterized. The investigation of scanning electron microscopy showed that the polyamine microsphere is a regular ball with a smooth surface. The diameter distribution of the microsphere is 0.37–4.29 μm. The isoelectric point of the microsphere is 10.6. The microsphere can adsorb proteins through the co-effect of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Among the proteins tested, the highest value of adsorption of microsphere, 127.8 mg·g−1 microsphere, was obtained with lipase. In comparison with other proteins, the hydrophobic force is more important in promoting the adsorption of lipase. The microsphere can preferentially adsorb lipase from an even mixture of proteins. The optimum temperature and pH for the selective adsorption of lipase by the microsphere was 35 °C and pH 7.0. PMID:23344018

  4. Titania coated hollow glass microspheres for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Mark C.

    The potential applicability of titania coated hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) to the photocatalytic degradation of microbiological and organic chemical water pollutants could have dramatic positive effects on improving the quality of industrial wastewaters that empty into rivers and streams, as well as potential use in economically improving the quality of drinking water. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titania has been extensively studied since the 1990's because of its non-toxic nature, its high quantum yield of electrons and photo-holes, and its ability to use ambient solar radiation as a power source. Although titania embodies extraordinarily attractive properties for a range of environmental applications, a viable substrate or method of using the material effectively has not been recognized. HGMs are particularly attractive as a support for titania because of their low density and high surface area to volume ratio, but details of how they react to imposed loading, wear, and impact have not been addressed, nor have materials engineering analyses that could maximize their utility been made. In this study we have examined the microstructure, morphology and micro-compression properties of two types of titania coated hollow microspheres, a commercially produced HGM and cenospheres, a derivative of fly ash. Comparisons of uncoated and titania coated hollow microspheres showed improved failure loads and facture energies for the titania coated materials over the uncoated hollow microspheres. Also, the relationship between failure load and hollow microsphere diameter was characterized and the function employed to explain part of the gain in average failure load for the HGMs. Microscopic examination of titania coated HGMs that were subjected to various turbulent conditions, as well as intentional fracture, indicated good interfacial integrity, which supports the viability of both types of HGMs for potential applications. The photocatalytic reactivity of the titania

  5. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-Yue; Zhang, Ze-Peng; Mo, Zhou-Yun; Chen, Shi-Jie; Xiang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Xue, Min

    2015-09-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury.

  6. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-yue; Zhang, Ze-peng; Mo, Zhou-yun; Chen, Shi-jie; Xiang, Si-yu; Zhang, Qing-shan; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury. PMID:26604912

  7. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy A A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  8. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  9. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  10. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kong, Fung-Ming; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  11. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-04-16

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  12. Carbon microsphere-filled Pyrrone foams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Syntactic foam formulations were prepared from mixtures of Pyrrone prepolymers and hollow carbon microspheres. Very low curing shrinkages were obtained for high volume loadings of microspheres. The resulting syntactic foams were found to be remarkably stable over a wide range in temperature. A technique was developed for the emplacement of these foam formulations in polyimide-fiberglass, titanium alloy and stainless steel honeycomb without sacrificing low curing shrinkage or thermal stability.

  13. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qian; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ɛ, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ɛ insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  14. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, G.; Hendricks, C.

    1996-10-01

    This project is a collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and W.J. Schafer Associates (WJSA). The authors plan to experimentally verify the performance characteristics of engineered glass microspheres that are relevant to the storage and transport of hydrogen for energy applications. They will identify the specific advantages of hydrogen transport by microspheres, analyze the infrastructure implications and requirements, and experimentally measure their performance characteristics in realistic, bulk storage situations.

  15. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.; Koo, Jackson C.; Rosencwaig, Allan

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  16. Mucoadhesive, triclosan-loaded polymer microspheres for application to the oral cavity: preparation and controlled release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kockisch, Sandra; Rees, Gareth D; Tsibouklis, John; Smart, John D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mucoadhesive microspheres that can be utilised for the controlled release of triclosan in oral-care formulations, specifically dental pastes. Using a double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique, triclosan was incorporated into microspheres that were prepared from Gantreztrade mark MS-955, Carbopol 974P, polycarbophil or chitosan and the profiles for its release were established under simulated 'in use' conditions. Triclosan was rapidly released into a sodium lauryl sulphate containing buffer from all but the chitosan microspheres. The release of triclosan from microspheres suspended in a non-aqueous paste, was found to be sustained over considerable time-periods, which were influenced strongly by the nature of the polymeric carrier. For microspheres that were fabricated from Gantrez, Carbopol or polycarbophil, the release appeared to obey zero-order kinetics whereas in the case of chitosan-derived vehicles, the release profile fitted the Baker and Lonsdale model. The work has demonstrated that these polymeric microspheres, particularly those of chitosan, are promising candidates for the sustained release of triclosan in the oral cavity.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Silica Aerogel Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qifeng; Wang, Hui; Sun, Luyi

    2017-01-01

    Silica aerogel microspheres based on alkali silica sol were synthesized using the emulsion method. The experimental results revealed that the silica aerogel microspheres (4–20 µm in diameter) were mesoporous solids with an average pore diameter ranging from 6 to 35 nm. The tapping densities and specific surface areas of the aerogel microspheres are in the range of 0.112–0.287 g/cm3 and 207.5–660.6 m2/g, respectively. The diameter of the silica aerogel microspheres could be tailored by varying the processing conditions including agitation rate, water/oil ratio, mass ratio of Span 80: Tween 80, and emulsifier concentration. The effects of these parameters on the morphology and textural properties of the synthesized silica aerogel microspheres were systematically investigated. Such silica aerogel microspheres can be used to prepare large-scale silica aerogels at an ambient pressure for applications in separation and high efficiency catalysis, which requires features of high porosity and easy fill and recovery. PMID:28772795

  18. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on silica microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Kai; Chen, Chia-Yin; Han, Jin-Lin; Chen, Chii-Chang; Jiang, Meng-Dan; Hsu, Jen-Sung; Chan, Chia-Hua; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang

    2010-01-01

    The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been immobilized onto silica microspheres through the adsorption and subsequent reduction of Ag+ ions on the surfaces of the silica microspheres. The neat silica microspheres that acted as the core materials were prepared through sol-gel processing; their surfaces were then functionalized using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The major aims of this study were to immobilize differently sized Ag particles onto the silica microspheres and to understand the mechanism of formation of the Ag nano-coatings through the self-assembly/adsorption behavior of Ag NPs/Ag+ ions on the silica spheres. The obtained Ag NP/silica microsphere conglomerates were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Their electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness were also tested and studied. The average particle size of the obtained Ag NPs on the silica microsphere was found that could be controllable (from 2.9 to 51.5 nm) by adjusting the ratio of MPTMS/TEOS and the amount of AgNO3.

  19. Metronidazole loaded pectin microspheres for colon targeting.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Ankur; Jain, Aviral; Khare, Piush; Agrawal, Ram K; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-11-01

    A multiparticulate system having pH-sensitive property and specific enzyme biodegradability for colon-targeted delivery of metronidazole was developed. Pectin microspheres were prepared using emulsion-dehydration technique. These microspheres were coated with Eudragit(R) S-100 using oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. The SEM was used to characterize the surface of these microspheres and a distinct coating over microspheres could be seen. The in vitro drug release studies exhibited no drug release at gastric pH, however continuous release of drug was observed from the formulation at colonic pH. Further, the release of drug from formulation was found to be higher in the presence of rat caecal contents, indicating the effect of colonic enzymes on the pectin microspheres. The in vivo studies were also performed by assessing the drug concentration in various parts of the GIT at different time intervals which exhibited the potentiality of formulation for colon targeting. Hence, it can be concluded that Eudragit coated pectin microspheres can be used for the colon specific delivery of drug. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  20. Demonstration of Microsphere Insulation in Cryogenic Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, R. G.; Myers, E. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Morris, D. L.; Sokalski, E. R.

    2006-04-01

    While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual use in full-scale cryogenic storage tanks has not been demonstrated until now. The performance and life-cycle-cost advantages previously predicted have now been proven. Most bulk cryogenic storage tanks are insulated with either multilayer insulation (MLI) or perlite. Microsphere insulation, consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. These properties were proven during recent field testing of two 22,700-L (6,000-gallon) liquid nitrogen tanks, one insulated with microsphere insulation and the other with perlite. Normal evaporation rates (NER) for both tanks were monitored with precision test equipment and insulation levels within the tanks were observed through view ports as an indication of insulation compaction. Specific industrial applications were evaluated based on the test results and beneficial properties of microsphere insulation. Over-the-road trailers previously insulated with perlite will benefit not only from the reduced heat leak, but also the reduced mass of microsphere insulation. Economic assessments for microsphere-insulated cryogenic vessels including life-cycle cost are also presented.

  1. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Colver, Allan; Fairhurst, Charles; Pharoah, Peter O D

    2014-04-05

    The syndrome of cerebral palsy encompasses a large group of childhood movement and posture disorders. Severity, patterns of motor involvement, and associated impairments such as those of communication, intellectual ability, and epilepsy vary widely. Overall prevalence has remained stable in the past 40 years at 2-3·5 cases per 1000 livebirths, despite changes in antenatal and perinatal care. The few studies available from developing countries suggest prevalence of comparable magnitude. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder; approaches to intervention, whether at an individual or environmental level, should recognise that quality of life and social participation throughout life are what individuals with cerebral palsy seek, not improved physical function for its own sake. In the past few years, the cerebral palsy community has learned that the evidence of benefit for the numerous drugs, surgery, and therapies used over previous decades is weak. Improved understanding of the role of multiple gestation in pathogenesis, of gene environment interaction, and how to influence brain plasticity could yield significant advances in treatment of the disorder. Reduction in the prevalence of post-neonatal cerebral palsy, especially in developing countries, should be possible through improved nutrition, infection control, and accident prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect voltammetric determination of trace hydroxylamine using magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2003-02-01

    A new indirect voltammetric method for the determination of hydroxylamine is described. It is based on the reduction of an electroactive derivative of hydroxylamine on the surface of a magnetic electrode. The electroactive derivative produced by hydroxylamine reacted with magnetic polymer microspheres containing carbonyl groups on the surface. The experimental conditions are discussed. It was found that the peak potential (Ep) of the derivative was -0.46 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) under optimum conditions. Hydroxylamine could be determined in the range of 5-2,000 microg l(-1) with the detection limit of 2 microg l(-1) and relative standard deviation for the determination of 100 microg l(-1) hydroxylamine was 2.35%. Satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of hydroxylamine in aqueous medium.

  3. Growth Factor Gradients via Microsphere Delivery in Biopolymer Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Wenk, Esther; Zhang, Xiaohui; Meinel, Lorenz; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Temporally and spatially controlled delivery of growth factors in polymeric scaffolds is crucial for engineering composite tissue structures, such as osteochondral constructs. In the present study, microsphere-mediated growth factor delivery in polymer scaffolds and its impact on osteochondral differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was evaluated. Two growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I), were incorporated as a single concentration gradient or reverse gradient combining two factors in the scaffolds. To assess the gradient making system and the delivery efficiency of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and silk fibroin microspheres, initially an alginate gel was fabricated into a cylinder shape with microspheres incorporated as gradients. Compared to PLGA microspheres, silk microspheres were more efficient in delivering rhBMP-2, probably due to sustained release of the growth factor, while less efficient in delivering rhIGF-I, likely due to loading efficiency. The growth factor gradients formed were shallow, inducing non-gradient trends in hMSC osteochondral differentiation. Aqueous-derived silk porous scaffolds were used to incorporate silk microspheres using the same gradient process. Both growth factors formed deep and linear concentration gradients in the scaffold, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After seeding with hMSCs and culturing for 5 weeks in a medium containing osteogenic and chondrogenic components, hMSCs exhibited osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation along the concentration gradients of rhBMP-2 in the single gradient of rhBMP-2 and reverse gradient of rhBMP-2/rhIGF-I, but not the rhIGF-I gradient system, confirming that silk microspheres were more efficient in delivering rhBMP-2 than rhIGF-I for hMSCs osteochondrogenesis. This novel silk microsphere/scaffold system offers a new option for the delivery of multiple growth factors

  4. Elevated brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in plasma but not serum reflect in vivo functional viability of infused mesenchymal stem cells after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasaki, Masanori; Kataoka-Sasaki, Yuko; Oka, Shinichi; Nakazaki, Masahito; Namioka, Takahiro; Namioka, Ai; Onodera, Rie; Suzuki, Junpei; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Mikami, Takeshi; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Honmou, Osamu

    2017-02-08

    Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult bone marrow elicits functional recovery in rat stroke models and clinical studies in patients are ongoing. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor produced by MSCs and may contribute to their therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to determine if BDNF is elevated in infarcted brain and in which compartment of blood (plasma or serum) after intravenous MSC infusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in the rat. In rats, a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced by intraluminal vascular occlusion with a microfilament and MSCs were intravenously administered 6 h after right MCAO induction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of brain, serum and plasma BDNF were performed after the MSC infusion following the MCAO induction. Lesion volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Functional outcome was assessed using the Limb Placement Test. Infused MSCs reduced lesion volume and elicited functional improvement compared to the vehicle infused group. ELISA analysis of the MSC treated group revealed an increase BDNF levels in the infarcted hemisphere of the brain and plasma, but not in serum. The MSC group showed a greater increase in BDNF levels than sham control. In the MSC group, the expression of increased plasma BDNF levels correlated with increased brain BDNF levels. These results support the hypothesis that BDNF levels in plasma, but not serum, may be more appropriate to detect circulating BDNF in vivo following MSC infusion in a cerebral infarction rat model of ischemic stroke. Further, plasma BDNF might reflect in vivo functional viability of infused MSCs after stroke.

  5. Experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses.

    PubMed

    Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Clark, Mary Ellen; Wen, Xin; Sears, William; Huber, Leslie; Ackerley, Cameron; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses. 7 horses with and 3 horses without a history of RAO. RAO-susceptible horses ranged in age from 17 to approximately 30 years, and control horses ranged in age from 7 to approximately 15 years. Pure mold cultures were derived from repeated culture of hay and identified via gene amplification and sequencing. Pulmonary function testing and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed before and after nebulization with a suspension of spores derived from 3 fungi, lipopolysaccharide, and 1-microm silica microspheres in all horses. This was followed by a 4-month washout period and a further pulmonary function test followed by saline (0.9% NaCl) solution challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage. Lichtheimia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Eurotium amstelodami were consistently identified in cultures of moldy hay. Nebulization with fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and microspheres induced significant increases in pleural pressure in RAO-susceptible but not control horses. Airway neutrophilia developed in both groups of horses with exposure to challenge material but more severely in RAO-susceptible horses. Results indicated that inhalation of fungal spores in combination with lipopolysaccharide and silica microspheres can induce disease exacerbation in susceptible horses and may thus be a useful model for future standardized studies of RAO in horses.

  6. Terrace-microsphere lasers: spherical cavity lasers for multiwavelength emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hiyori; Yano, Tetsuji; Shibata, Shuichi

    2010-02-01

    We have successfully made terrace-microspheres for laser emission: micrometer size spherical cavity laser having terrace shaped pumping light entrance. "Terrace-microsphere" is a high refractive index glass sphere (nD=1.93) of 30μm in diameter with terrace portion of organic-inorganic materials. The glass sphere is in BaO-SiO2-TiO2 glass system and contain a few ppm of Nd3+. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials of refractive index nD=1.45 were prepared by sol-gel technique using 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethoxysilane as starting materials. To make terrace portion, a pico-liter of sol droplet was supplied with a micro-capillary into the boundary between a glass sphere and a Teflon sheet. The sol-derived part attached to a sphere showed the flat portion like a terrace structure. The terrace-microspheres were pumped with a tunable CW Ti:sapphire laser (λ=700nm-850nm) for choosing the suitable pumping wavelengths to WGMs. Pumping the terrace portion at around 800nm wavelength, strong resonances due to WGMs were demonstrated. The resonances originated from Raman scattering and Nd3+ fluorescence were observed at 840-880nm and 880-940nm wavelength region respectively. Consequently, we can show the potential application for a multi-wavelength laser (about 100 lines) at the extended wavelength range (840-940nm) in the near-infrared. Stimulated Raman emission of WGMs was performed with threshold of 4mW.

  7. Cerebral Malaria.

    PubMed

    Marsden, P D; Bruce-Chwatt, L J

    1975-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is an acute diffuse encephalopathy associated only with Plasmodium falciparum. It is probably a consequence of the rapid proliferation of the parasites in the body of man in relation to red cell invasion, and results in stagnation of blood flow in cerebralcapillaries with thromobotic occlusion of large numbers of cerebral capillaries. The subsequent cerebral pathology is cerebral infarction with haemorrhage and cerebral oedema. The wide prevalence of P. falciparum in highly endemic areas results in daily challenges to patients from several infected mosquitoes. It is thus important to understand the characteristics of P. falciparum, since this is one of the most important protozoan parasites of man and severe infection from it constitutes one of the few real clinical emergencies in tropical medicine. One of the more important aspects of the practice of medicine in the tropics is to establish a good understanding of the pattern of medical practice in that area. This applies to malaria as well as to other diseases. The neophyte might be somewhat surprised to learn, for example that an experienced colleague who lives in a holoendemic malarious area such as West Africa, sees no cerebral malaria. But the explanation is simple when the doctor concerned has a practice which involves treating adults only. Cerebral malaria is rare in adults, because in highly endemic areas, by the age of 1 year most of the infants in a group under study have already experienced their first falciparum infection. By the time they reach adult life, they have a solid immunity against severe falciparum infections. In fact, "clinical malaria" could occur in such a group under only two circumstances: 1) in pregnancy, a patent infection with P. falciparum might develop, probably due to an IgG drain across the placenta to the foetus;2) in an individual who has constantly taken antimalarials and who may have an immunity at such a low level that when antimalarial therapy is interrupted

  8. Flexible Microsphere-Embedded Film for Microsphere-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Feng, Chao; Xu, Jiayu; Dong, Peng; Guan, Wei; Zeng, Yong; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2017-09-27

    Dielectric microspheres with extraordinary microscale optical properties, such as photonic nanojets, optical whispering-gallery modes (WGMs), and directional antennas, have drawn interest in many research fields. Microsphere-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MERS) is an alternative approach for enhanced Raman detection by dielectric microstructures. Unfortunately, fabrication of microsphere monolayer arrays is the major challenge of MERS for practical applications on various specimen surfaces. Here we report a microsphere-embedded film (MF) by immersing a highly refractive microsphere monolayer array in the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film as a flexible MERS sensing platform for one- to three-dimensional (1D to 3D) specimen surfaces. The directional antennas and wave-guided whispering-gallery modes (WG-WGMs) contribute to the majority of Raman enhancement by the MFs. Moreover, the MF can be coupled with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to provide an extra >10-fold enhancement. The limit of detection is therefore improved for sensing of crystal violet (CV) and Sudan I molecules in aqueous solutions at concentrations down to 10(-7) M. A hybrid dual-layer microsphere enhancer, constructed by depositing a MF onto a microsphere monolayer array, is also demonstrated, wherein the WG-WGMs become dominant and boost the enhancement ratio >50-fold. The present work opens up new opportunities for design of cost-effective and flexible MERS sensing platforms as individual or associated techniques toward practical applications in ultrasensitive Raman detection.

  9. Effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine on regional cerebral blood flow in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Kovách, A G; Szabó, C; Benyó, Z; Csáki, C; Greenberg, J H; Reivich, M

    1992-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), a potent inhibitor of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway, and L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, on regional cerebral blood flow, electrocortical activity and ex vivo cerebrovascular reactivity in the cat. Flow was measured via radiolabelled microspheres, and vascular responses were studied by measuring isometric tension of isolated middle cerebral arterial rings. 2. NOLA (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 1 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) caused an approximately 40 mmHg elevation in the mean arterial blood pressure, a regionally heterogenous increase of the regional cerebrovascular resistance and a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow 15 and 40 min after the start of its administration. In contrast L-arginine (30 mg kg-1 bolus followed by 10 mg kg-1 min-1 infusion) did not alter blood pressure, cerebrovascular resistance nor regional cerebral blood flow 15 min after the start of its administration. The NOLA-induced changes in tissue flow were the most pronounced in the cerebellum, pituitary and medulla oblongata, whereas there was no decrease in the flow of the cortex and white matter. 3. NOLA caused characteristic changes in total fronto-occipital EEG power and in power spectra which were unlikely to have been due to cerebral ischaemia. In addition, the ex vivo reactivity of the middle cerebral arteries showed signs of impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis: there were enhanced noradrenaline-induced contractions and N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced relaxations and markedly attenuated acetylcholine- and ATP-induced relaxations after NOLA treatment. 4. The present data indicate that resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular resistance are regulated by nitric oxide derived from L-arginine in a regionally heterogenous way and that exogenous L-arginine availability is not a limiting factor in this nitric oxide generation. Possibly, both the vascular endothelium and the

  10. Nano-functionalization of protein microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungkwon; Nichols, William T.

    2014-08-01

    Protein microspheres are promising building blocks for the assembly of complex functional materials. Here we demonstrate a set of three techniques that add functionality to the surface of protein microspheres. In the first technique, a positive surface charge on the protein spheres is deposited by electrostatic adsorption. Negatively charged silica and gold nanoparticle colloids can then electrostatically bind reversibly to the microsphere surface. In the second technique, nanoparticles are covalently anchored to the protein shell using a simple one-pot process. The strong covalent bond between sulfur groups in cysteine in the protein shell irreversibly binds to the gold nanoparticles. In the third technique, surface morphology of the protein microsphere is tuned through hydrodynamic instability at the water-oil interface. This is accomplished through the degree of solubility of the oil phase in water. Taken together these three techniques form a platform to create nano-functionalized protein microspheres, which can then be used as building blocks for the assembly of more complex macroscopic materials.

  11. Dosimetry of in situ activated dysprosium microspheres.

    PubMed

    Adnani, N

    2004-03-07

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the dosimetry of stable dysprosium microspheres activated, in situ, by a linac generated photon beam. In phantom measurements of the neutron flux within an 18 MV photon beam were performed using CR-39 detectors and gold activation. The results were used in conjunction with a Monte Carlo computer simulation to investigate the dose distribution resulting from the activation of dysprosium (Dy) microspheres using an 18 MV photon beam. Different depths, lesion volumes and volume concentrations of microspheres are investigated. The linac lower collimator jaws are assumed completely closed to shield the tumour volume from the photon dose. Using a single AP field with 0 x 0 cm2 field size (closed jaws), a photon dose rate of 600 MU min(-1) and 80 cm SSD for 10 min, an average dose exceeding 1 Gy can be delivered to spherical lesions of 0.5 cm and higher diameter. The variation of the average dose with the size of the lesion reaches saturation for tumour volumes exceeding 1 cm in diameter. This report shows that the photon beam of a high-energy linac can be used to activate Dy microspheres in situ and, as a result, deliver a significant dose of beta radiation. Non-radioactive Dy microspheres do not have the toxicity and imaging problems associated with commercially available yttrium-90 based products.

  12. [Effects of adipose-derived stem cells transplantation on the neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-12 in the brain post focal cerebral ischemia in rats].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-hui; Liu, Nan; Xiao, Ying-chun; Chen, Rong-hua; DU, Hou-wei; Wang, Jie-hua; Zhang, Yi-xian; Liu, De-shan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation on neuronal apoptosis in the brain after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. 72 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham-operated group , Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, Vehicle group and ADSC-treated group (n=18). MCAO model was established with the modified Longa's method. One day after right MCAO, 30 μL of cell suspension containing 1×10(6); cells were injected into the lateral ventricle of ADSC-treated group and the same dose of PBS was given to the vehicle group. At 4 d, 7 d and 14 d after MCAO, the apoptosis of neuron was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method and the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-12 in ischemic region was detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. TUNEL-positive cells in ischemic region of ADSC-treated group were less than that in MCAO group and Vehicle group at 4 d, 7 d and 14 d post MCAO (P<0.05). Compared with MCAO group and Vehicle group, the expression of Bcl-2 significantly up-regulated while caspase-12 expression significantly decreased in ADSC-treated group at any time point post MCAO (P<0.05). The transplantation of ADSCs can reduce neuronal apoptosis of rats with cerebral ischemic injury partly by promoting the expression of Bcl-2 which participates in apoptotic signals after mitochondrial damage and inhibiting the expression of caspase-12 which mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis.

  13. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Righini, Giancarlo C.; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 108–109 lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed. PMID:27322282

  14. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Righini, Giancarlo C; Soria, Silvia

    2016-06-17

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 10⁸-10⁸ lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed.

  15. Acrolein Microspheres Are Bonded To Large-Area Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan; Yen, Richard C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Reactive cross-linked microspheres produced under influence of ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein, with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Diameters of spheres depend on concentrations of ingredients. If polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, or polypropylene object immersed in solution during irradiation, microspheres become attached to surface. Resulting modified surface has grainy coating with reactivity similar to free microspheres. Aldehyde-substituted-functional microspheres react under mild conditions with number of organic reagents and with most proteins. Microsphere-coated macrospheres or films used to immobilize high concentrations of proteins, enzymes, hormones, viruses, cells, and large number of organic compounds. Applications include separation techniques, clinical diagnostic tests, catalytic processes, and battery separators.

  16. Localized drugs delivery hydroxyapatite microspheres for osteoporosis therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ko, I. H.; Jeon, S.-H.; Chae, J. H.; Lee, E. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the preparation of hydroxyapatite microspheres for local drugs delivery. The formation of the hydroxyapatite microspheres was initiated by enzymatic decomposition of urea and accomplished by emulsification process (water-in-oil). The microspheres obtained were sintered at 500°C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the microspheres have various porous with random size, which maximizes the surface area. Cytotoxicity was not observed after sintering. Osteoporosis drugs, alendronate and BMP-2, were loaded into HAp microspheres and the releases of both molecules showed sustained releasing profiles.

  17. Acrolein Microspheres Are Bonded To Large-Area Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan; Yen, Richard C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Reactive cross-linked microspheres produced under influence of ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein, with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Diameters of spheres depend on concentrations of ingredients. If polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, or polypropylene object immersed in solution during irradiation, microspheres become attached to surface. Resulting modified surface has grainy coating with reactivity similar to free microspheres. Aldehyde-substituted-functional microspheres react under mild conditions with number of organic reagents and with most proteins. Microsphere-coated macrospheres or films used to immobilize high concentrations of proteins, enzymes, hormones, viruses, cells, and large number of organic compounds. Applications include separation techniques, clinical diagnostic tests, catalytic processes, and battery separators.

  18. Surface-assembled poly(I:C) on PEGylated PLGA microspheres as vaccine adjuvant: APC activation and bystander cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Annina M; Corthésy, Blaise; Textor, Marcus; Merkle, Hans P

    2016-11-30

    Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are potential vehicles to deliver antigens for vaccination. Because they lack the full capacity to activate professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), combination with an immunostimulatory adjuvant may be considered. A candidate is the synthetic TLR3 ligand polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), which drives cell-mediated immunity. However, poly(I:C) has also been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, as affected by widespread stimulation of non-hematopoietic bystander cells. To address this aspect, we propose to minimize the poly(I:C) dose as well as to control the stimulation of non-immune bystander cells by poly(I:C). To facilitate the maturation of APCs with minimal poly(I:C) doses, we surface-assembled poly(I:C) onto PLGA microspheres. The microspheres' surface was further modified by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coronas with varying PEG-densities. PLGA microspheres loaded with tetanus toxoid (tt) as model antigen were manufactured by microextrusion-based solvent extraction. The negatively charged PLGA(tt) microspheres were coated with polycationic poly(l-lysine) (PLL) polymers, either PLL itself or PEG-grafted PLL (PLL-g-PEG) with varying grafting ratios (g=2.2 and g=10.1). Stable surface assembly of poly(I:C) was achieved by subsequent incubation of polymer-coated PLGA microspheres with aqueous poly(I:C) solutions. We evaluated the immunostimulatory potential of such PLGA(tt) microsphere formulations on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) as well as human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) as model for non-hematopoietic bystander cells. Formulations with surface-assembled poly(I:C) readily activated MoDCs with respect to the expression of maturation-related surface markers, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and directed migration. When surface-assembled, poly(I:C) enhanced its immunostimulatory activity by more than one order of magnitude as compared to free poly

  19. Improving photoprotection: 4-methylbenzylidene camphor microspheres.

    PubMed

    Centini, Marisanna; Miraglia, Giovanna; Quaranta, Valeria; Buonocore, Anna; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2014-05-22

    Abstract We propose a new approach for photoprotection. 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), one of the most widely used UV filters, was encapsulated in microspheres, with a view to overcoming problems (percutaneous absorption, photodegradation and lack of lasting effect) arising with organic sunscreens, and to achieve safe photoprotection. We focused on this filter in the light of the Cosmetics Europe opinion concerning its possible effects on the thyroid gland. Microspheres were prepared by emulsification-solvent evaporation, using different amounts of 4-MBC and characterized for morphology, encapsulation efficiency and particle size. The particles were then mixed in O/W emulsions. The in vitro sun protection factors, in vitro release and photostability were investigated and compared with emulsions containing the free sunscreen. The new microspheres offer good morphology and loading (up to 40%), and the same photoprotection as the free filter while at the same time protecting it from photodegradation. The systems also give a slower release from the emulsions.

  20. Proteinoid/hydroxyapatite hybrid microsphere composites.

    PubMed

    Tallawi, Marwa

    2011-02-01

    Organic/hydroxyapatite (HA) hybrid composites are promising materials for orthopedic applications. Proteinoid/HA hybrid microsphere composite is an ideal material for bioresorbable and biocompatible three-dimensional scaffolds. Proteinoids are thermally condensed mixtures of amino acids, forming microspheres via self-assembly of proteinoid chains. Synthesis of an onion-type multilayer proteinoid/HA hybrid composite is achieved by thermally condensing a mixture of amino acids in the presence of commercially available HA. Proteinoid/HA microsphere composite of about 40 μm are achieved as a result of heterogeneous nucleation of HA on proteinoids chains. The formation mechanism is based on the interaction between calcium ions of HA and carboxyl side groups of proteinoid. The morphology was gleaned by scanning electron microscopy, and the organic and inorganic constituents were characterized by several analytical methods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  2. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive electrospun cartilage substitute by integrating cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment with sustained growth factor delivery microspheres. Specifically, CAP was applied to a poly(ε-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold with homogeneously distributed bioactive factors (transforming growth factor-β1 and bovine serum albumin) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres. We have shown that CAP treatment renders electrospun scaffolds more hydrophilic thus facilitating vitronectin adsorption. More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production). Furthermore, CAP can substantially enhance 3D cell infiltration (over two-fold increase in infiltration depth after 1 day of culture) in the scaffolds. By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration. PMID:26222527

  3. Preparation and photocatalytic property of porous CuO hollow microspheres via carbon sphere templates.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qian; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Qingyun; Wang, Lingyun; Kang, Chao; Wang, Qingyao; Ge, Shengsong

    2011-11-01

    Porous copper oxide (CuO) hollow microspheres have been successfully fabricated by using carbon spheres as templates. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The influences of different experimental parameters on the morphology of CuO structures have been investigated in detail and the possible formation mechanism of porous CuO hollow microspheres has also been proposed. The specific surface area of the hollow spheres with 74.805 m2/g is measured by BET method. Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) calculations for the pore size distribution, derived from desorption data, reveal that the average pore radius is 8.56 nm, and the total pore volume (r = 1686.1 A, P/P0 = 0.994296) is 0.107257 cc/g. UV-vis absorption spectrum shows quantum size effect of porous CuO hollow microspheres. Furthermore, the porous CuO hollow microspheres exhibit high efficiency for photodegradation of a sample organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under UV light.

  4. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia through prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption and endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Chung, Sung Phil; Kwon, Sung Won; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-02-01

    Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) is the leading cause of a poor prognosis even after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Therapeutic induction of hypothermia (TH) is the only proven therapy-and current standard care-for GCI after cardiac arrest; however, its application has been significantly limited owing to technical difficulties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to suppress neuronal death after cerebral ischemia. The prevention of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has not been suggested as a mechanism of MSC treatment but has for TH. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of MSC administration on BBB disruption and neutrophil infiltration after GCI. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MSC treatment, rats were subjected to 7 minutes of transient GCI and treated with MSCs immediately after reperfusion. Hippocampal neuronal death was evaluated at 7 days after ischemia using Fluoro-Jade B (FJB). BBB disruption, endothelial damage, and neutrophil infiltration were evaluated at 7 days after ischemia by immunostaining for IgG leakage, Rat endothelial antigen-1, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Rats treated with MSCs showed a significantly reduced FJB+ neuron count compared with the control group. They also showed reduced IgG leakage, endothelial damage, and MPO+ cell counts. The present study demonstrated that administration of MSCs after transient GCI provides a dramatic protective effect against hippocampal neuronal death. We hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of MSC treatment might be associated with the prevention of BBB disruption and endothelial damage and a decrease in neutrophil infiltration. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Magnetic microsphere-based mixers for microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tamal; Sinha, Ashok; Chakraborty, Sayan; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2009-02-01

    While droplet-based microfluidic systems have several advantages over traditional flow-through devices, achieving adequate mixing between reagents inside droplet-based reactors remains challenging. We describe an active mixing approach based on the magnetic stirring of self-assembled chains of magnetic microspheres within the droplet as these stirrers experience a rotating magnetic field. We measure the mixing of a water-soluble dye in the droplet in terms of a dimensional mixing parameter as the field-rpm, fluid viscosity, and microsphere loading are parametrically varied. These show that the mixing rate has a maximum value at a critical Mason number that depends upon the operating conditions.

  6. Cell specific, variable density, polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric microspheres having an average diameter below about 3 microns and having density at least 15% greater or lesser than organic cells and having covalent binding sites are provided in accordance with this invention. The microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing a hydroxy or amine substituted acrylic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate with a light or dense comonomer such as a fluoromonomer. A lectin or antibody is bound to the hydroxy or amine site of the bead to provide cell specificity. When added to a cell suspension the marked bead will specifically label the cell membrane by binding to specific receptor sites thereon. The labelled membrane can then be separated by density gradient centrifugation.

  7. Electrophoretic cell separation by means of microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A. J. K.; Nerren, B. H.; Margel, S.; Rembaum, A.

    1979-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility of fixed human erythrocytes immunologically labeled with poly(vinylpyridine) or poly(glutaraldehyde) microspheres was reduced by approximately 40%. This observation was utilized in preparative scale electrophoretic separations of fixed human and turkey erythrocytes, the mobilities of which under normal physiological conditions do not differ sufficiently to allow their separation by continuous flow electrophoresis. We suggest that resolution in the electrophoretic separation of cell subpopulations, currently limited by finite and often overlapping mobility distributions, may be significantly enhanced by immunospecific labeling of target populations using microspheres.

  8. Impact of Yttrium-90 Microsphere Density, Flow Dynamics, and Administration Technique on Spatial Distribution: Analysis Using an In Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Caine, Marcus; McCafferty, Michael S; McGhee, Scott; Garcia, Pedro; Mullett, Wayne M; Zhang, Xunli; Hill, Martyn; Dreher, Matthew R; Lewis, Andrew L

    2017-02-01

    To investigate material density, flow, and viscosity effects on microsphere distribution within an in vitro model designed to simulate hepatic arteries. A vascular flow model was used to compare distribution of glass and resin surrogates in a clinically derived flow range (60-120 mL/min). Blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) composed of glycerol and water (20%-50% vol/vol) was used to simulate a range of blood viscosities. Microsphere distribution was quantified gravimetrically, and injectate solution was dyed to enable quantification by UV spectrophotometry. Microsphere injection rate (5-30 mL/min) and the influence of contrast agent dilution of injection solution (0%-60% vol/vol) were also investigated. No significant differences in behavior were observed between the glass and resin surrogate materials under any tested flow conditions (P = .182; n = 144 injections). Microspheres tend to align more consistently with the saline injection solution (r2 = 0.5712; n = 144) compared with total BMF flow distribution (r2 = 0.0104; n = 144). The most predictable injectate distribution (ie, greatest alignment with BMF flow, < 5% variation) was demonstrated with > 10-mL/min injection rates of pure saline solution, although < 20% variation with glass microsphere distribution was observed with injection solution containing as much as 30% contrast medium when injected at > 20 mL/min. Glass and resin yttrium-90 surrogates demonstrated similar distribution in a range of clinically relevant flow conditions, suggesting that microsphere density does not have a significant influence on microsphere distribution. Injection parameters that enhanced the mixing of the spheres with the BMF resulted in the most predictable distribution. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Cerebral ... cerebral Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills (the ability to move in a coordinated and ...

  10. Impact of pump flow rate during selective cerebral perfusion on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Haldenwang, Peter L; Strauch, Justus T; Amann, Igor; Klein, Tobias; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Christ, Hildegard; Wahlers, Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Although hypothermic selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) is widely used for cerebral protection during aortic surgery, little is known about the ideal pump-flow management during this procedure. This study explored cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism at two different flow rates. Fourteen pigs (33 to 38 kg) were cooled on cardiopulmonary bypass to 25°C. After 10 minutes of hypothermic circulatory arrest, the animals were randomly assigned to 60 minutes of SCP at two different pump flow rates: 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (n = 7) and 18 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (n = 7). Microspheres were injected at baseline, coolest temperature, and at 5, 15, 25, and 60 minutes of SCP to calculate cerebral blood flow, cerebral vascular resistance, metabolic rate, and intracranial pressure. Cerebral blood flow decreased during cooling to 41% of the baseline value (from 57 ± 10 to 23 ± 4 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). It recovered during the initial 15 minutes of SCP, showing a significantly higher increase (p = 0.017) at high-flow versus low-flow perfusion (139 ± 41 versus 75 ± 22 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). After 60 minutes of SCP the cerebral blood flow almost returned to baseline values in the low-flow group (43 ± 25 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)), but showed an unexpected decrease (30 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) in the high-flow group. The highest regional cerebral blood flow was seen in the cortex (66 ± 12 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)), followed by the cerebellum (63 ± 12 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)), the pons (51 ± 17 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)), and the hippocampus (36 ± 9 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). Intracranial pressure increased from 11 ± 3 to 13 ± 5 mm Hg during cooling on cardiopulmonary bypass. During low-flow SCP, it stayed stable at baseline values, whereas high-flow perfusion resulted in significantly higher intracranial pressures (17 ± 3 mm Hg; p = 0.001). Changes in cerebral vascular resistance and metabolic rate showed no significant differences between the groups. High-flow SCP provides no

  11. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-11-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine.

  12. Multiplex-microsphere-quantitative polymerase chain reaction: nucleic acid amplification and detection on microspheres.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang; Lai, Richard; Arora, Neetika; Zhang, Kang Liang; Yeh, Che-Cheng; Barnett, Graeme R; Voigt, Paul; Corrie, Simon R; Barnard, Ross T

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a new system to monitor the amplification of nucleic acids on microspheres. This was realized by the design of (i) a "universal" oligonucleotide "tagged" polymerase chain reaction (PCR) forward primer, (ii) a sensor sequence complementary to the universal sequence on the forward PCR primer modified with a fluorescent dye, and (iii) a universal oligonucleotide coupled to Luminex microspheres. The PCR takes place with the microspheres present in the reaction tube. With the consumption of the universal oligonucleotide tagged forward primer, the fluorescently labeled sequences can bind to the universal oligonucleotide on the microspheres. We tested the microsphere quantitative PCR system with up to three different target genes (Neisseria meningitides porA and ctrA and influenza A M gene segment) as templates in a single PCR tube. The analytical sensitivity of this quantitative PCR system was tested and compared with the TaqMan system. The multiplex-microsphere-quantitative PCR system does not require design of unique internal probes for each target and has potential for a high degree of multiplexing, greater than the limited multiplexing achievable with current real-time protocols.

  13. Oligodendrogenesis after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilan; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rodent brain generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that disperse throughout the corpus callosum and striatum where some of OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Studies in animal models of stroke demonstrate that cerebral ischemia induces oligodendrogenesis during brain repair processes. This article will review evidence of stroke-induced proliferation and differentiation of OPCs that are either resident in white matter or are derived from SVZ neural progenitor cells and of therapies that amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain. PMID:24194700

  14. Facile Synthesis of Porous Nickel/Carbon Composite Microspheres with Enhanced Electromagnetic Wave Absorption by Magnetic and Dielectric Losses.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Song; Lyu, Hailong; Liu, Jiurong; Liu, Yuzhen; Wu, Nannan; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-10

    Porous nickel/carbon (Ni/C) composite microspheres with diameters of ca. 1.2-1.5 μm were fabricated by a solvothermal method combined with carbon reduction. The pore size of the synthesized Ni/C composite microspheres ranged from several nanometers to 50 nm. The porous Ni/C composite microspheres exhibited a saturation magnetization (MS) of 53.5 emu g(-1) and a coercivity (HC) of 51.4 Oe. When tested as an electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption material, the epoxy resin composites containing 60% and 75% porous Ni/C microspheres provided high-performance EM wave absorption at thicknesses of 3.0-11.0 and 1.6-7.0 mm in the corresponding frequency ranges of 2.0-12 and 2.0-18 GHz, respectively. The superior EM wave absorption performances of porous Ni/C composite microspheres were derived from the synergy effects generated by the magnetic loss of nickel, the dielectric loss of carbon, and the porous structure.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of heparin immobilized "side-on" to polystyrene microspheres coated with end-group activated polyethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pranav; Schilke, Karl F; Fry, Allyson; McGuire, Joseph; Bird, Karyn

    2010-08-01

    Thiol (-SH) groups were introduced into unfractionated heparin by reaction of carboxyl groups in its uronic acid residues with 3,3'dithiobis(propanoic)hydrazide. Thiolated heparin derivatives were then linked to pyridyl disulfide-activated polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide triblocks, which had previously been coated onto the surfaces of 1.15 microm polystyrene microspheres. The heparin immobilization reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically as colored pyridine-2-thione was released. In addition, the zeta potentials of uncoated, triblock-coated, and heparin-containing microsphere suspensions were recorded to demonstrate the successful attachment of heparin on the surface. However this "side-on" attachment of heparin to pendant, polyethylene oxide chains did not significantly increase the anticoagulant or anti-Factor Xa activity of microsphere suspensions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  17. Preparation of small bio-compatible microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such a hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  18. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.; Koo, J.C.; Rosencwaig, A.

    A method is described for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500..mu.. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4/sub ..mu../) and thick walls (5 to 20/sub ..mu../) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, D, H/sub 2/, DT, He, N/sub 2/, Ne, CO/sub 2/, etc., in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-form-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace.

  19. Subcritical CO2 Sintering of Microspheres of Different Polymeric Materials to Fabricate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage Tissue Engineering Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 µm microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. PMID:24094202

  20. Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 μm microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. © 2013.

  1. The development of colour-encapsulated microspheres for novel colour cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen R; Grey, Bryan D; Mistry, Kishor K; Wildgust, Paul G

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, the preparation, characterization and colour retention properties of organic colour-loaded microspheres are described. The study aimed to produce shatter-resistant, low-bleeding polymeric microspheres with particle diameters of 20 µm containing 10-20% (w/w) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic grade colourants FD&C Blue No. 1 Al Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 5 Al Lake and D&C Red No. 36 by utilizing an aqueous-dispersed polymer water-in-oil (W/O) solvent evaporation process featuring styrene/acrylates-based copolymers. The influences of matrix polymeric components on the shape, integrity and dye retention of the microspheres were studied. Encapsulation matrices based on alkali soluble polymers yielded misshapen spheroids that were prone both to swelling and decreased dye retention in aqueous environments, as well as loss of shape at 70°C in cosmetic oils under shear. A resin supported emulsion (RSE)-based matrix, in comparison, yielded highly spherical microspheres resistant to shape deformation and swelling. Additions of up to 15% (w/w) of an alkali soluble polymer to the RSE system improved colour dispersion without detrimentally affecting the structural integrity of the microspheres while also slightly decreasing dye concentrations released into aqueous solutions. The in vitro dye release of the colour-loaded microspheres in a cosmetic-type water-in-silicone (W/Si) emulsion was evaluated and compared to the in vitro dye release studies in aqueous solutions. No direct correlations between the emulsion system and single-component aqueous solutions could be made. Dye-release levels evaluated from contacting the microspheres with a complex aqueous medium (CAM5), which incorporated ingredient classes typically encountered in the aqueous phase of an emulsion, were found to correlate to levels determined in the generic W/Si emulsion with a 93% linear regression between the data sets. This study demonstrates that the CAM5 protocol (or, alternatively, a CAM2

  2. Composition and structure of calcium aluminosilicate microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharonova, O. M.; Oreshkina, N. A.; Zhizhaev, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    The composition was studied of calcium aluminosilicate microspheres of three morphological types in high-calcium fly ash from combustion of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk basin in slag-tap boilers at temperatures from 1400 to 1500°C and sampled in the first field of electrostatic precipitators at the Krasnoyarsk Cogeneration Power Station no. 2 (TETs-2). Gross compositions and the composition of local areas were determined using a scanning electron microscopy technique and an energy-dispersive analysis with full mapping of globules. With a high content of basic oxides O ox (68 to 79 wt %) and a low content of acid oxides K ox (21 to 31 wt %), type 1 microspheres are formed. They consist of heterogeneous areas having a porous structure and crystalline components in which the content of CaO, SiO2, or Al2O3 differs by two to three times and the content of MgO differs by seven times. With a lower content of O ox (55 to 63 wt %) and an elevated content of K ox (37 to 45 wt %), type 2 microspheres are formed. They are more homogeneous in the composition and structure and consist of similar crystalline components. Having a close content of O ox (46 to 53 wt %) and K ox (47 to 54 wt %), type 3 microspheres, which are a dense matter consisting of amorphous substance with submicron- and nanostructure of crystalline components, are formed. The basic precursor in formation of high-calcium aluminosilicate microspheres is calcium from the organomineral matter of coals with various contribution of Mg, Fe, S, or Na from the coal organic matter and Al, Fe, S, or Si in the form of single mineral inclusions in a coal particle. On the basis of the available data, the effect was analyzed of the composition of a CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO system on the melting and viscous properties of the matter in microspheres and formation of globules of different morphology. The results of this analysis will help to find a correlation with properties of microspheres in their use as functional

  3. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X B; Schreyer, David J

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate.

  4. Surface properties of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Karen; Largier, John; Mazet, Jonna A K; Bernt, William; Ell, John R; Melli, Ann C; Conrad, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    The physical properties that govern the waterborne transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from land to sea were evaluated and compared to the properties of carboxylated microspheres, which could serve as surrogates for T. gondii oocysts in transport and water treatment studies. The electrophoretic mobilities of T. gondii oocysts, lightly carboxylated Dragon Green microspheres, and heavily carboxylated Glacial Blue microspheres were determined in ultrapure water, artificial freshwater with and without dissolved organic carbon, artificial estuarine water, and artificial seawater. The surface wettabilities of oocysts and microspheres were determined using a water contact angle approach. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and microspheres were negatively charged in freshwater solutions, but their charges were neutralized in estuarine water and seawater. Oocysts, Glacial Blue microspheres, and unwashed Dragon Green microspheres had low contact angles, indicating that they were hydrophilic; however, once washed, Dragon Green microspheres became markedly hydrophobic. The hydrophilic nature and negative charge of T. gondii oocysts in freshwater could facilitate widespread contamination of waterways. The loss of charge observed in saline waters may lead to flocculation and subsequent accumulation of T. gondii oocysts in locations where freshwater and marine water mix, indicating a high risk of exposure for humans and wildlife in estuarine habitats with this zoonotic pathogen. While microspheres did not have surface properties identical to those of T. gondii, similar properties shared between each microsphere type and oocysts suggest that their joint application in transport and fate studies could provide a range of transport potentials in which oocysts are likely to behave.

  5. Assembly of functional gold nanoparticle on silica microsphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Lan; Lee, Fu-Cheng; Tang, Tse-Yu; Zhou, Chenguang; Tsai, De-Hao

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a controlled synthesis of silica microsphere with the surface-decorated functional gold nanoparticles. Surface of silica microsphere was modified by 3-aminopropypltriethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane to generate a positive electric field, by which the gold nanoparticles with the negative charges (unconjugated, thiolated polyethylene glycol functionalized with the traceable packing density and conformation) were able to be attracted to the silica microsphere. Results show that both the molecular conjugation on gold nanoparticle and the uniformity in the amino-silanization of silica microsphere influenced the loading and the homogeneity of gold nanoparticles on silica microsphere. The 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane-functionalized silica microsphere provided an uniform field to attract gold nanoparticles. Increasing the ethanol content in aminosilane solution significantly improved the homogeneity and the loading of gold nanoparticles on the surface of silica microsphere. For the gold nanoparticle, increasing the molecular mass of polyethylene glycol yielded a greater homogeneity but a lower loading on silica microsphere. Bovine serum albumin induced the desorption of gold nanoparticles from silica microsphere, where the extent of desorption was suppressed by the presence of high-molecular mass polyethylene glycol on gold nanoparticles. This work provides the fundamental understanding for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle-silica microsphere constructs useful to the applications in chemo-radioactive therapeutics.

  6. Plants to Polyelectrolytes: Theophylline Polymers and Their Microsphere Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Ryan; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-04-01

    To extend fossil oil supplies, sustainable feed stocks for the production of useful reagents and polymers should be harnessed. In this regard, chemicals derived from plants are excellent candidates. While the vast majority of plant sources used for polymer science only contain C x H y O z , alkaloids such as caffeine, nicotine, and theophylline possess nitrogen functionality that can provide new functions for bioderived polymers and their synthesis. In this context, the chemistry of theophylline, a natural product found in chocolate and tea, is exploited to create a cationic "poly(theophylline)" in a straightforward fashion for the first time. This work demonstrates how this new polymer can be synthesized and used for the creation of narrowly disperse cationic microspheres. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Role of Large Arteries in Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Heistad, Donald D.; Marcus, Melvin L.; Abboud, Francois M.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a significant pressure gradient from carotid artery to pial or middle cerebral arteries. This pressure gradient suggests that large cerebral arteries contribute to cerebral resistance. We have tested the hypothesis that large cerebral arteries contribute to regulation of cerebral blood flow during changes in blood gases and arterial pressure. Microspheres were used to measure brain blood flow in anesthetized dogs. Resistance of large cerebral arteries was estimated by determining the pressure gradient between common carotid and wedged vertebral artery catheters. Systemic hypercapnia and hypoxia dilated large cerebral arteries, and hypocapnia constricted large cerebral arteries. Resistance of large arteries was 0.6±0.1 (mean ± SE) mm Hg per ml/min per 100 g during normocapnia. During hypercapnia and hypoxia, large artery resistance decreased significantly to 0.2 ± 0.03 and 0.3 ± 0.05, respectively. During hypocapnia large artery resistance increased significantly to 1.0 ± 0.1. In other experiments, we found that large cerebral arteries participate in auto-regulatory responses to hemorrhagic hypotension. When arterial pressure was reduced from 110 to 58 mm Hg, autoregulation maintained cerebral blood flow constant, and resistance of large cerebral arteries decreased significantly from 1.0 ± 0.2 to 0.6 ± 0.1 mm Hg per ml/min per 100 g. In absolute terms, we calculated that 20-45% of the change in total cerebral resistance during these interventions was accounted for by changes in large artery resistance. These studies indicate that large cerebral arteries, as well as arterioles, participate actively in regulation of cerebral blood flow during changes in arterial blood gases and during autoregulatory responses to hemorrhagic hypotension. PMID:701475

  8. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  9. Controlled study on the effect of pentoxifylline and an ergot alkaloid derivative on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, A.; Tsuda, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 90 patients with CBF decreased due to vascular diseases was studied by using the xenon 133 inhalation technique and a 32-detector setup. Whereas 30 patients received their standard basic therapy only and were regarded as controls, 30 others received 3 x 2 mg/day of an ergot alkaloid (co-dergocrine mesylate), and 30 others received 3 x 400 mg pentoxifylline (slow-release formulation)/day orally. Therapy was performed for eight weeks and CBF measured before start of treatment, after a four-week treatment period, and at the end of the study. CBF did not change significantly in the control group; both the pentoxifylline and the ergot alkaloid group presented with a significant increase in the CBF. This positive effect was significantly more pronounced in the pentoxifylline group and affected more ischemic than other brain tissues. In addition, symptoms like sleep disturbances, vertigo, and tinnitus improved significantly during the pentoxifylline observation period.

  10. Pluronic F127/chitosan blend microspheres for mucoadhesive drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, W. Z.; Hu, X. F.

    2017-01-01

    Pluronic F127/chitosan blend microspheres were prepared via emulsification and cross-linking process using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Compared with chitosan microspheres fabricated under the same experimental conditions, blend microspheres exhibited better physical stability and higher swelling capacity. Puerarin, a traditional Chinese medicine, was incorporated into microparticlesas the model drug. The in vitro release of puerarin from blend microspheres was reduced because of the improved compatibility of the drug with the matrices. According to the results from in vitro adhesion experiments, mucoadhesive behavior of blend microspheres on a mucosa-like surface was similar to that of chitosan microspheres, despite their good ability of anti-protein absorption in solution.

  11. Laser-assisted fabrication of highly viscous alginate microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yafu; Huang, Yong

    2011-04-01

    Encapsulated microspheres have been widely used in various biomedical applications. However, fabrication of encapsulated microspheres from highly viscous materials has always been a manufacturing challenge. The objective of this study is to explore a novel metallic foil-assisted laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), a laser-assisted fabrication technique, to make encapsulated microspheres using high sodium alginate concentration solutions. The proposed four-layer approach includes a quartz disk, a sacrificial and adhesive layer, a metallic foil, and a transferred suspension layer. It is found that the proposed four-layer modified LIFT approach provides a promising fabrication technology for making of bead-encapsulated microspheres from highly viscous solutions. During the process, the microsphere only can be formed if the direct-writing height is larger than the critical direct-writing height; otherwise, tail structured droplets are formed; and the encapsulated microsphere diameter linearly increases with the laser fluence and decreases with the sodium alginate concentration.

  12. Optically Levitated Microspheres as a Probe for New Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, Alexander; Moore, David; Blakemore, Charles; Lu, Marie; Gratta, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    We are developing novel techniques to probe new interactions at micron distances using optically levitated dielectric microspheres. Levitated microspheres are an ideal probe for short-range interactions because they are suspended using the radiation pressure at the focus of a laser beam, which means that the microspheres can be precisely manipulated and isolated from the surrounding environment at high vacuum. We have performed a search for unknown charged particles bound within the bulk of the microspheres. Currently, we are searching for the presence of a Chameleon field postulated to explain the presence of dark energy in the universe. In the future we plan to use optically levitated microspheres to search for micron length-scale gravity like interactions that could couple between a microsphere and another mass. We will present resent results from these experiments and plans for future searches for new interactions.

  13. Method of detecting luminescent target ions with modified magnetic microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Kaminski, Michael D

    2014-05-13

    This invention provides methods of using modified magnetic microspheres to extract target ions from a sample in order to detect their presence in a microfluidic environment. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules on the surface that allow the target ions in the sample to form complexes with specific ligand molecules on the microsphere surface. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules that sequester the target ions from the sample, but specific ligand molecules in solution subsequently re-extract the target ions from the microspheres into the solution, where the complexes form independent of the microsphere surface. Once the complexes form, they are exposed to an excitation wavelength light source suitable for exciting the target ion to emit a luminescent signal pattern. Detection of the luminescent signal pattern allows for determination of the presence of the target ions in the sample.

  14. Preparation and characterization of sustained-release microspheres of chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z G; Oh, K H; Kim, C K

    1998-01-01

    Sustained release microspheres of chlorpromazine were prepared from Eudragit RS 100 by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method using a six-baffled vessel. The morphology of microspheres was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the presence of aluminium tristearate (5%), microspheres were spherical in shape and uniform. The release of chlorpromazine from microspheres was pH-independent. With increasing amount of aluminium tristearate and increasing ratio of Eudragit RS 100/drug from 1:1 to 9:1, the particle size of chlorpromazine microspheres was reduced and the release rate decreased. The microspheres prepared with the polymer/drug ratio of 9:1 produced a 12-h sustained release pattern.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release loxoprofen loaded microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, P.; Manavalan, R.; Valliappan, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate the loxoprofen loaded Sustained release microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Ethylcellulose, a biocompatible polymer is used as the retardant material. The effects of process conditions such as drug loading, polymer type and solvent type on the characteristics of microspheres were investigated. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their particle size and drug loading and drug release. The in-vitro release studies were carried out in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The prepared microspheres were white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The drug-loaded microspheres showed 71.2% of entrapment and the in-vitro release studies showed that Loxoprofen microspheres of 1:3 ratios showed better sustained effect over a period of 8 hours PMID:24826017

  16. Electrostatic Assembly of Sandwich-like Ag-C@ZnO-C@Ag-C Hybrid Hollow Microspheres with Excellent High-Rate Lithium Storage Properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Wang, Xuanpeng; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Mai, Liqiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-26

    Herein, we introduce a facile electrostatic attraction approach to produce zinc-silver citrate hollow microspheres, followed by thermal heating treatment in argon to ingeniously synthesize sandwich-like Ag-C@ZnO-C@Ag-C hybrid hollow microspheres. The 3D carbon conductive framework in the hybrids derives from the in situ carbonation of carboxylate acid groups in zinc-silver citrate hollow microspheres during heating treatment, and the continuous and homogeneous Ag nanoparticles on the outer and inner surfaces of hybrid hollow microspheres endow the shells with the sandwiched configuration (Ag-C@ZnO-C@Ag-C). When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the fabricated hybrid hollow microspheres with sandwich-like shells reveal a very large reversible capacity of 1670 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g(-1). Even at the very large current densities of 1.6 and 10.0 A g(-1), the high specific capacities of about 1063 and 526 mAh g(-1) can be retained, respectively. The greatly enhanced electrochemical properties of Ag-C@ZnO-C@Ag-C hybrid microspheres are attributed to their special structural features such as the hollow structures, the sandwich-like shells, and the nanometer-sized building blocks.

  17. Beat frequency ultrasonic microsphere contrast agent detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system for and method of detecting and measuring concentrations of an ultrasonically-reflective microsphere contrast agent involving detecting non-linear sum and difference beat frequencies produced by the microspheres when two impinging signals with non-identical frequencies are combined by mixing. These beat frequencies can be used for a variety of applications such as detecting the presence of and measuring the flow rates of biological fluids and industrial liquids, including determining the concentration level of microspheres in the myocardium.

  18. Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Han, Ming; Wang, Anbo; Liu, Zhiwen; Heflin, James R

    2008-04-25

    We analyze second order parametric processes in a silica microsphere coated with radially aligned nonlinear optical molecules. In a high-Q nonlinear microsphere, we discover that it is possible to achieve ultralow threshold parametric oscillation that obeys the rule of angular momentum conservation. Based on symmetry considerations, one can also implement parametric processes that naturally generate quantum entangled photon pairs. Practical issues regarding implementation of the nonlinear microsphere are also discussed.

  19. Beat frequency ultrasonic microsphere contrast agent detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system for and method of detecting and measuring concentrations of an ultrasonically-reflective microsphere contrast agent involving detecting non-linear sum and difference beat frequencies produced by the microspheres when two impinging signals with non-identical frequencies are combined by mixing. These beat frequencies can be used for a variety of applications such as detecting the presence of and measuring the flow rates of biological fluids and industrial liquids, including determining the concentration level of microspheres in the myocardium.

  20. Pretreated Glehnia littoralis Extract Prevents Neuronal Death Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia through Increases of Superoxide Dismutase 1 and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expressions in the Gerbil Hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 1 Area

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Yan, Bing-Chun; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jong Dai; Hong, Seongkweon; Lee, Young Joo; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Glehnia littoralis, as a traditional herbal medicine to heal various health ailments in East Asia, displays various therapeutic properties including antioxidant effects. However, neuroprotective effects of G. littoralis against cerebral ischemic insults have not yet been addressed. Therefore, in this study, we first examined its neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus using a gerbil model of transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI). Methods: Gerbils were subjected to TGCI for 5 min. G. littoralis extract (GLE; 100 and 200 mg/kg) was administrated orally once daily for 7 days before ischemic surgery. Neuroprotection was examined by neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. Gliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1. For neuroprotective mechanisms, immunohistochemistry for superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was done. Results: Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of GLE protected pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area from ischemic insult area (F = 29.770, P < 0.05) and significantly inhibited activations of astrocytes (F = 22.959, P < 0.05) and microglia (F = 44.135, P < 0.05) in the ischemic CA1 area. In addition, pretreatment with GLE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 (F = 28.561, P < 0.05) and BDNF (F = 55.298, P < 0.05) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the sham- and ischemia-operated groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that pretreatment with GLE can protect neurons from ischemic insults, and we suggest that its neuroprotective mechanism may be closely associated with increases of SOD1 and BDNF expressions as well as attenuation of glial activation. PMID:28748852

  1. Polymeric microspheres as protein transduction reagents.

    PubMed

    Nagel, David; Behrendt, Jonathan M; Chimonides, Gwen F; Torr, Elizabeth E; Devitt, Andrew; Sutherland, Andrew J; Hine, Anna V

    2014-06-01

    Discovering the function of an unknown protein, particularly one with neither structural nor functional correlates, is a daunting task. Interaction analyses determine binding partners, whereas DNA transfection, either transient or stable, leads to intracellular expression, though not necessarily at physiologically relevant levels. In theory, direct intracellular protein delivery (protein transduction) provides a conceptually simpler alternative, but in practice the approach is problematic. Domains such as HIV TAT protein are valuable, but their effectiveness is protein specific. Similarly, the delivery of intact proteins via endocytic pathways (e.g. using liposomes) is problematic for functional analysis because of the potential for protein degradation in the endosomes/lysosomes. Consequently, recent reports that microspheres can deliver bio-cargoes into cells via a non-endocytic, energy-independent pathway offer an exciting and promising alternative for in vitro delivery of functional protein. In order for such promise to be fully exploited, microspheres are required that (i) are stably linked to proteins, (ii) can deliver those proteins with good efficiency, (iii) release functional protein once inside the cells, and (iv) permit concomitant tracking. Herein, we report the application of microspheres to successfully address all of these criteria simultaneously, for the first time. After cellular uptake, protein release was autocatalyzed by the reducing cytoplasmic environment. Outside of cells, the covalent microsphere-protein linkage was stable for ≥90 h at 37 °C. Using conservative methods of estimation, 74.3% ± 5.6% of cells were shown to take up these microspheres after 24 h of incubation, with the whole process of delivery and intracellular protein release occurring within 36 h. Intended for in vitro functional protein research, this approach will enable study of the consequences of protein delivery at physiologically relevant levels, without recourse to

  2. [Cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The term cerebral palsy (CP), is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the non-evolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  3. Enzymatic and solid-phase synthesis of new donepezil-based L- and d-glutamic acid derivatives and their pharmacological evaluation in models related to Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Monjas, Leticia; Arce, Mariana P; León, Rafael; Egea, Javier; Pérez, Concepción; Villarroya, Mercedes; López, Manuela G; Gil, Carmen; Conde, Santiago; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

    2017-04-21

    Previously, we have described N-Bz-L-Glu[NH-2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl]-O-nHex (IQM9.21, L-1) as an interesting multifunctional neuroprotective compound for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we describe new derivatives and different synthetic routes, such as chemoenzymatic and solid-phase synthesis, aiming to improve the previously described route in solution. The lipase-catalysed amidation of L- and D-Glu diesters with N-benzyl-4-(2-aminoethyl)piperidine has been studied, using Candida antarctica and Mucor miehei lipases. In all cases, the α-amidated compound was obtained as the main product, pointing out that regioselectivity was independent of the reacting Glu enantiomer and the nature of the lipase. An efficient solid-phase route has been used to produce new donepezil-based L- and D-Glu derivatives, resulting in good yield. At micromolar concentrations, the new compounds inhibited human cholinesterases and protected neurons against toxic insults related to Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia. The CNS-permeable compounds N-Cbz-L-Glu(OEt)-[NH-2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl] (L-3) and L-1 blocked the voltage-dependent calcium channels and L-3 protected rat hippocampal slices against oxygen-glucose deprivation, becoming promising anti-Alzheimer and anti-stroke lead compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting the pressure-volume curve of an elastic microsphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascalis, Riccardo; David Abrahams, I.; Parnell, William J.

    2013-04-01

    The effective macroscopic response of nonlinear elastomeric inhomogeneous materials is of great interest in many applications including nonlinear composite materials and soft biological tissues. The interest of the present work is associated with a microsphere composite material, which is modelled as a matrix-inclusion composite. The matrix phase is a homogeneous isotropic nonlinear rubber-like material and the inclusion phase is more complex, consisting of a distribution of sizes of stiff thin spherical shells filled with gas. Experimentally, such materials have been shown to undergo complex deformation under cyclic loading. Here, we consider microspheres embedded in an unbounded host material and assume that a hydrostatic pressure is applied in the 'far-field'. Taking into account a variety of effects including buckling of the spherical shells, large deformation of the host phase and evolving microstructure, we derive a model predicting the pressure-relative volume change load curves. Nonlinear constitutive behaviour of the matrix medium is accounted for by employing neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin incompressible models. Moreover a nearly incompressible solution is derived via asymptotic analysis for a spherical cavity embedded in an unbounded isotropic homogeneous hyperelastic medium loaded hydrostatically. The load-curve predictions reveal a strong dependence on the microstructure of the composite, including distribution of microspheres, the stiffness of the shells, and on the initial volume fraction of the inclusions, whereas there is only a modest dependence on the characteristic properties of the nonlinear elastic model used for the rubber host.

  5. Preparation of uniform magnetic recoverable catalyst microspheres with hierarchically mesoporous structure by using porous polymer microsphere template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lianbing; Teng, Chao; Zhu, Lili; He, Jie; Wang, You; Zuo, Xinbing; Hong, Mei; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Biwang; Zhao, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Merging nanoparticles with different functions into a single microsphere can exhibit profound impact on various applications. However, retaining the unique properties of each component after integration has proven to be a significant challenge. Our previous research demonstrated a facile method to incorporate magnetic nanoparticles into porous silica microspheres. Here, we report the fabrication of porous silica microspheres embedded with magnetic and gold nanoparticles as magnetic recoverable catalysts. The as-prepared multifunctional composite microspheres exhibit excellent magnetic and catalytic properties and a well-defined structure such as uniform size, high surface area, and large pore volume. As a result, the very little composite microspheres show high performance in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol, special convenient magnetic separability, long life, and good reusability. The unique nanostructure makes the microspheres a novel stable and highly efficient catalyst system for various catalytic industry processes.

  6. Preparation of uniform magnetic recoverable catalyst microspheres with hierarchically mesoporous structure by using porous polymer microsphere template

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Merging nanoparticles with different functions into a single microsphere can exhibit profound impact on various applications. However, retaining the unique properties of each component after integration has proven to be a significant challenge. Our previous research demonstrated a facile method to incorporate magnetic nanoparticles into porous silica microspheres. Here, we report the fabrication of porous silica microspheres embedded with magnetic and gold nanoparticles as magnetic recoverable catalysts. The as-prepared multifunctional composite microspheres exhibit excellent magnetic and catalytic properties and a well-defined structure such as uniform size, high surface area, and large pore volume. As a result, the very little composite microspheres show high performance in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol, special convenient magnetic separability, long life, and good reusability. The unique nanostructure makes the microspheres a novel stable and highly efficient catalyst system for various catalytic industry processes. PMID:24708885

  7. Analysis of the distribution of intra-arterial microspheres in human liver following hepatic yttrium-90 microsphere therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Andrew M.; Bailey, Ian H.; Burton, Mark A.

    2000-04-01

    The microscopic distribution of microspheres in human liver following hepatic infusion of 32 µm diameter resin microspheres labelled with 90 Y as treatment for an 80 millimetre diameter liver cancer has been investigated. Microspheres were found to deposit inhomogeneously in tissues, preferentially lodging in a region approximately 6 mm wide around the periphery of the tumour. A relative concentration of microspheres of 50 to 70 times that of normal hepatic parenchyma and 65 to 94 times that in the tumour centre was measured in this region. The deposition of spheres in the tumour periphery was not uniform, and cluster analysis showed that the spheres could be classified into clusters. The number of microspheres in a cluster was skewed towards low numbers and cluster sizes varied from 20 to 1500 µm. The observed deposition patterns indicate that the vascular tumour periphery will receive much greater radiation doses from radioactive microspheres than both normal tissue and the avascular tumour centre.

  8. Microsphere based improved sunscreen formulation of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate.

    PubMed

    Gogna, Deepak; Jain, Sunil K; Yadav, Awesh K; Agrawal, G P

    2007-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHM) were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method to improve its photostability and effectiveness as sunscreening agent. Process parameters like stirring speed and aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration were analyzed in order to optimize the formulations. Shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Particle size of the microspheres was determined using laser diffraction particle size analyzer. The PMMA microspheres of EHM were incorporated in water-removable cream base. The in vitro drug release of EHM in pH 7.4 was performed using dialysis membrane. Thin layer chromatography was performed to determine photostability of EHM inside the microspheres. The formulations were evaluated for sun protection factor (SPF) and minimum erythema dose (MED) in albino rats. Cream base formulation containing microspheres prepared using EHM:PMMA in ratio of 1:3 (C(3)) showed slowest drug (EHM) release and those prepared with EHM: PMMA in ratio of 1:1 showed fastest release. The cream base formulations containing EHM loaded microspheres had shown better SPF (more than 16.0) as compared to formulation C(d) that contained 3% free EHM as sunscreen agent and showed SPF 4.66. These studies revealed that the incorporation of EHM loaded PMMA microspheres into cream base had greatly increased the efficacy of sunscreen formulation approximately four times. Further, photostability was also shown to be improved in PMMA microspheres.

  9. Microspheres with ultrahigh holmium content for radioablation of malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bult, W; Seevinck, P R; Krijger, G C; Visser, T; Kroon-Batenburg, L M J; Bakker, C J G; Hennink, W E; van het Schip, A D; Nijsen, J F W

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an intravascularly placed catheter. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy, coulter counter, titrimetry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). Microspheres, thus prepared displayed a smooth surface. The holmium content of the HoAcAc microspheres (44% (w/w)) was higher than the holmium content of the starting material, HoAcAc crystals (33% (w/w)). This was attributed to the loss of acetylacetonate from the HoAcAc complex, during rearrangement of acetylacetonate around the holmium ion. The increase of the holmium content allows for the detection of (sub)microgram amounts of microspheres using MRI and CT. HoAcAc microspheres with an ultra-high holmium content were prepared. These microspheres are suitable for radioablation of tumors by intratumoral injections or treatment of liver tumors through transcatheter administration.

  10. Patterning of silica microsphere monolayers with focused femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Wenjian; Piestun, Rafael

    2006-03-13

    We demonstrate the patterning of monolayer silica microsphere lattices with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. We selectively removed microspheres from a lattice and characterized the effect on the lattice and the substrate. The proposed physical mechanism for the patterning process is laser-induced breakdown followed by ablation of material. We show that a microsphere focuses radiation in its interior and in the near field. This effect plays an important role in the patterning process by enhancing resolution and accuracy and by reducing the pulse energy threshold for damage. Microsphere patterning could create controlled defects within self-assembled opal photonic crystals.

  11. Controlled Delivery of Gentamicin Using Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Lydia; Meng, Decheng; Knowles, Jonathan; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Roy, Ipsita

    2011-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), produced from Bacillus cereus SPV using a simple glucose feeding strategy was used to fabricate P(3HB) microspheres using a solid-in-oil-water (s/o/w) technique. For this study, several parameters such as polymer concentration, surfactant and stirring rates were varied in order to determine their effect on microsphere characteristics. The average size of the microspheres was in the range of 2 μm to 1.54 μm with specific surface areas varying between 9.60 m2/g and 6.05 m2/g. Low stirring speed of 300 rpm produced slightly larger microspheres when compared to the smaller microspheres produced when the stirring velocity was increased to 800 rpm. The surface morphology of the microspheres after solvent evaporation appeared smooth when observed under SEM. Gentamicin was encapsulated within these P(3HB) microspheres and the release kinetics from the microspheres exhibiting the highest encapsulation efficiency, which was 48%, was investigated. The in vitro release of gentamicin was bimodal, an initial burst release was observed followed by a diffusion mediated sustained release. Biodegradable P(3HB) microspheres developed in this research has shown high potential to be used in various biomedical applications. PMID:21845079

  12. MR-derived cerebral spinal fluid hydrodynamics as a marker and a risk factor for intracranial hypertension in astronauts exposed to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Larry A; Hasan, Khader M; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Hamilton, Douglas R; Riascos, Roy F; Carson, William K; Heimbigner, Jared; Patel, Vipulkumar S; Romo, Seferino; Otto, Christian

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the change in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) production rate and maximum systolic velocity in astronauts before and after exposure to microgravity and identify any physiologic trend and/or risk factor related to intracranial hypertension. Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, with waiver of informed consent, a retrospective review of 27 astronauts imaged at 3T was done. Qualitative analysis was performed on T2 -weighted axial images through the orbits for degree of flattening of the posterior globe according to the following grades: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe. One grade level change postflight was considered significant for exposure to intracranial hypertension. CSF production rate and maximum systolic velocity was calculated from cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and compared to seven healthy controls. Fourteen astronauts were studied. The preflight CSF production rate in astronauts was similar to controls (P = 0.83). Six astronauts with significant posterior globe flattening demonstrated a 70% increase in CSF production rate postflight compared to baseline (P = 0.01). There was a significant increase in CSF maximum systolic velocity in the subgroup without posterior globe flattening (P = 0.01). The increased postflight CSF production rate in astronauts with positive flattening is compatible with the hypothesis of microgravity-induced intracranial hypertension inferring downregulation in CSF production in microgravity that is upregulated upon return to normal gravity. Increased postflight CSF maximum systolic velocity in astronauts with negative flattening suggests increased craniospinal compliance and a potential negative risk factor to microgravity-induced intracranial hypertension. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Splenic CD11c+ cells derived from semi-immune mice protect naïve mice against experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lam Q; Nhi, Dang M; Huy, Nguyen T; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji

    2015-01-28

    Immunity to malaria requires innate, adaptive immune responses and Plasmodium-specific memory cells. Previously, mice semi-immune to malaria was developed. Three cycles of infection and cure ('three-cure') were required to protect mice against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) infection. C57BL/6 J mice underwent three cycles of P. berghei infection and drug-cure to become semi-immune. The spleens of infected semi-immune mice were collected for flow cytometry analysis. CD11c(+) cells of semi-immune mice were isolated and transferred into naïve mice which were subsequently challenged and followed up by survival and parasitaemia. The percentages of splenic CD4(+) and CD11c(+) cells were increased in semi-immune mice on day 7 post-infection. The proportion and number of B220(+)CD11c(+)low cells (plasmacytoid dendritic cells, DCs) was higher in semi-immune, three-cure mice than in their naïve littermates on day 7 post-infection (2.6 vs 1.1% and 491,031 vs 149,699, respectively). In adoptive transfer experiment, three months after the third cured P. berghei infection, splenic CD11c(+) DCs of non-infected, semi-immune, three-cure mice slowed Plasmodium proliferation and decreased the death rate due to neurological pathology in recipient mice. In addition, anti-P. berghei IgG1 level was higher in mice transferred with CD11c(+) cells of semi-immune, three-cure mice than mice transferred with CD11c(+) cells of naïve counterparts. CD11c(+) cells of semi-immune mice protect against experimental cerebral malaria three months after the third cured malaria, potentially through protective plasmacytoid DCs and enhanced production of malaria-specific antibody.

  14. Microfluidic chip-based synthesis of alginate microspheres for encapsulation of immortalized human cells

    PubMed Central

    Workman, V. L.; Dunnett, S. B.; Kille, P.; Palmer, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    Cellular transplantation is a promising technology with great clinical potential in regenerative medicine and disease management. However, effective control over patient immunological response is essential. The encapsulation of cells within hydrogel microspheres is an increasingly prevalent method for the protection of cellular grafts from immune rejection. Microfluidic “chip” reactors present elegant solutions to several capsule generation issues, including the requirement for intercapsule uniformity, high reproducibility, and sterile, good manufacturing practice compliance. This study presents a novel method for the on-chip production of stable, highly monodisperse alginate microspheres and demonstrates its utility in the encapsulation of an immortalized human-derived cell line. Four populations of immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) were encapsulated on chip within monodisperse alginate capsules. Cell viability measurements were recorded for each of the four encapsulated populations for 90 days. PMID:19693354

  15. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Mackie, Simon; Aslan, Peter; Cade, David; Delprado, Warick

    2016-12-01

    Intra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of (90)Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model. In each of six pigs, ~25-33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with (90)Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8-9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from (90)Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Kidneys embolized with (90)Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30-70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the (90)Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10(6)) of bland microspheres. This study showed that radioembolization with (90)Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of (90)Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  16. Leiomyoma infarction after uterine artery embolization: a prospective randomized study comparing tris-acryl gelatin microspheres versus polyvinyl alcohol microspheres.

    PubMed

    Siskin, Gary P; Beck, Avi; Schuster, Michael; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Herr, Allen

    2008-01-01

    To determine the degree of leiomyoma infarction after uterine artery embolization (UAE) performed with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres. Patients determined to be candidates and scheduled for UAE were randomized prospectively to receive tris-acryl gelatin microspheres or PVA microspheres. The manufacturers' recommended technique was used for both products during the UAE procedures (including the recently described refined protocol for PVA microspheres). All patients underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis with contrast agent enhancement before and after the UAE procedure. On the postprocedural MR study, the degree of tumor infarction was assessed on postcontrast images. These findings were classified as follows: 100% infarction, 90%-99% infarction, 50%-89% infarction, and less than 50% infarction. Treatment failure was defined by enhancement of more than 10% of a patient's entire tumor burden. A total of 53 patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven (mean age, 44.9 years) received PVA microspheres and 26 (mean age, 45.1 years) received tris-acryl gelatin microspheres. There were no significant differences in the preprocedural uterine volume, dominant tumor volume, location of dominant tumor, and presenting symptoms between populations. In the PVA microsphere group, treatment failure was seen in eight patients (29.6%). In the tris-acryl gelatin microsphere group, treatment failure was seen in one patient (3.8%), which was a significant difference between groups (P < or = .025). There was a significantly greater degree of tumor infarction in patients treated with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres during UAE than in patients who received PVA microspheres administered in accordance with a newly refined protocol. Given the known risk of recurrence in patients with persistent tumor enhancement after UAE, it is concluded that tris-acryl gelatin microspheres should be the preferred agent for UAE at this time.

  17. Cell specific, variable density, polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric microspheres having an average diameter below about 3 microns and having a density at least 15% greater or lesser than organic cells and having covalent binding sites are provided in accordance with this invention. The microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing a hydroxy or amine substituted acrylic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate with a light or dense comonomer such as a fluoromonomer. A lectin or antibody is bound to the hydroxy or amine site of the bead to provide cell specificity. When added to a cell suspension the marked bead will specifically label the cell membrane by binding to specific receptor sites thereon. The labelled membrane can then be separated by density gradient centrifugation.

  18. Optical microspherical resonators for biomedical sensing.

    PubMed

    Soria, Silvia; Berneschi, Simone; Brenci, Massimo; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.

  19. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Silvia; Berneschi, Simone; Brenci, Massimo; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field. PMID:22346603

  20. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonathan D.; White, Ian M.; Fan, Xudong

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer as receptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface is modified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectral position of the microsphere's whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on the order of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptamer oligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding between aptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughput than current technology.

  1. Photonic properties of erbium activated coated microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jestin, Y.; Armellini, C.; Chiappini, A.; Chiasera, A.; Dumeige, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Féron, P.; Ghisa, L.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Trebaol, S.; Righini, G. C.

    2008-02-01

    μA simple method based on the sol-gel technology has been developed to coat passive microspheres with an active coating. The microspheres were prepared by fusion of a standard telecom fiber with a dimension of about 200 μm and 400 μm and have been respectively dipped in a 70SiO II-30HfO II sol activated by 1 mol% and 0.1 mol% of erbium ions. Here we first report about the luminescence properties of a silica-hafnia coating doped with erbium ions and then whispering gallery mode spectra were analysed for different sphere diameters, thickness of coating and erbium concentration. The thickness of the coating has been chosen in order to support at least one whispering gallery mode at 1.5 μm.

  2. Fluorescence dynamics of microsphere-adsorbed sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.

    2005-03-01

    Sunscreens are generally oily substances which are prepared in organic solvents, emulsions or dispersions with micro- or nanoparticles. These molecules adsorb to and integrate into skin cells. In order to understand the photophysical properties of the sunscreen, we compare steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence in organic solvent of varying dielectric constant ɛ and adsorbed to polystyrene microspheres and dispersed in water. Steady-state fluorescence is highest and average fluorescence lifetime longest in toluene, the solvent of lowest ɛ. However, there is no uniform dependence on ɛ. Sunscreens PABA and padimate-O show complex emission spectra. Microsphere-adsorbed sunscreens exhibit highly non-exponential decay, illustrative of multiple environments of the adsorbed molecule. The heterogeneous fluorescence dynamics likely characterizes sunscreen adsorbed to cells.

  3. Containerless polymeric microsphere production for biomedical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Hyson, M. T.; Chung, S. K.; Colvin, M.; Chang, M.

    1987-01-01

    A containerless method that produces highly uniform microspheres (greater than 50 microns in diameter) from many materials has been developed for biomedical applications. A piezoelectrically vibrated drop generator forms uniform (monodisperse) monomer droplets that are either electrostatistically levitated and polymerized using UV irradiation, or free-radical polymerized. Spheres of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer have been produced with diameters of 155 microns + or - 1.57 percent.

  4. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Arthur T.; Hosford, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simultaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure 12 comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets 16 is machined out to form a dimple 11. Glass microballoons, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  5. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  6. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosford, C.D.; Lowe, A.T.

    1981-11-24

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simultaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  7. Deep-UV microsphere projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Brown, Robert L; Fathipour, Vala; Dexheimer, Eric; Jang, Sung Jun; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we present a single-exposure deep-UV projection lithography at 254-nm wavelength that produces nanopatterns in a scalable area with a feature size of 80 nm. In this method, a macroscopic lens projects a pixelated optical mask on a monolayer of hexagonally arranged microspheres that reside on the Fourier plane and image the mask's pattern into a photoresist film. Our macroscopic lens shrinks the size of the mask by providing an imaging magnification of ∼1.86×10(4), while enhancing the exposure power. On the other hand, microsphere lens produces a sub-diffraction limit focal point-a so-called photonic nanojet-based on the near-surface focusing effect, which ensures an excellent patterning accuracy against the presence of surface roughness. Ray-optics simulation is utilized to design the bulk optics part of the lithography system, while a wave-optics simulation is implemented to simulate the optical properties of the exposed regions beneath the microspheres. We characterize the lithography performance in terms of the proximity effect, lens aberration, and interference effect due to refractive index mismatch between photoresist and substrate.

  8. Resorcinol-formaldehyde and carbon aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Alviso, C.T.; Pekela, R.W.; Gross, J.; Lu, X.; Caps, R.; Fricke, J

    1996-04-01

    Aerogels are a unique class of materials possessing an open-cell structure with ultrafine cells/pores (<100nm), high surface area (400--1100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10nm. Although monolithic aerogels are ideal candidates for many applications (e.g. transparent window insulation), current processing methods have limited their introduction into the commercial marketplace. Our research focuses on the formation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel microspheres which offer an attractive alternative to monolith production. An inverse emulsion polymerization is used to produce these spherical gel particles which undergo solvent exchange followed by supercritical drying with carbon dioxide. This process yields aerogel microspheres (10--80{mu} diameter) which can be used as loosely packed powders, compression molded into near-net shapes using a polymer binder, or used as additives in conventional foaming operations to produce new aerogel composites with superior thermal properties. The emulsification procedure, thermal characterization, mechanical properties, and potential applications of RF aerogel microspheres will be discussed.

  9. Custom-Made Microspheres for Optical Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Jannasch, Anita; Abdosamadi, Mohammad K; Ramaiya, Avin; De, Suman; Ferro, Valentina; Sonnberger, Aaron; Schäffer, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Due to their high position and force sensitivity and the ability to remotely apply forces and torques, optical tweezers are widely used in diverse fields, such as biology, material science, and physics. Often, small dielectric particles are trapped and used as probes, which for experimental convenience are mostly spherical and composed of silica or polystyrene. The optical properties of these materials together with the microsphere size determine the trapping efficiency, and the position and force resolution. However, using only a single, homogeneous, isotropic, and unstructured material limits the range of trapping properties and thereby the applications of optical tweezers. Here, we show how custom-made microspheres composed of coated high-refractive-index materials-titania and nanodiamonds-and birefringent, liquid crystals extend the range and combination of desired trapping properties. These custom-made microspheres either enable the generation of high forces, a high force or time resolution, or the applications of torques. Custom-made probes expand the range of possible experiments and approaches broadening the scope and applicability of optical tweezers.

  10. Optimization of sustained release aceclofenac microspheres using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rameshwar K; Naik, Jitendra B

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac were prepared by single emulsion (oil-in-water) solvent evaporation method using response surface methodology (RSM). Microspheres were prepared by changing formulation variables such as the amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by statistical experimental design in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency (E.E.) of the microspheres. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for their size, morphology, E.E., and in vitro drug release. The amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of PVA were found to be significant factors respectively for determining the E.E. of the microspheres. A linear mathematical model equation fitted to the data was used to predict the E.E. in the optimal region. Optimized formulation of microspheres was prepared using optimal process variables setting in order to evaluate the optimization capability of the models generated according to IV-optimal design. The microspheres showed high E.E. (74.14±0.015% to 85.34±0.011%) and suitably sustained drug release (minimum; 40% to 60%; maximum) over a period of 12h. The optimized microspheres formulation showed E.E. of 84.87±0.005 with small error value (1.39). The low magnitudes of error and the significant value of R(2) in the present investigation prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The absence of interactions between drug and polymers was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with smooth surface. The results demonstrate that these microspheres could be promising delivery system to sustain the drug release and improve the E.E. thus prolong drug action and achieve the highest healing effect with minimal gastrointestinal side effects.

  11. Preparation of peptide microspheres using tumor antigen-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Santwana; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Ali, Riyasat; Rao, D N

    2014-01-01

    Due to its distinct biological attributes, poly(D,L lactide-co glycolide) (PLGA) is one of the most preferred methods for DNA/protein/peptide encapsulation for therapeutics. Importantly, PLGA acts as an adjuvant for weakly immunogenic antigens and mimics booster responses after a single dose of administration, thereby serving as a single-shot vaccine delivery vehicle. Efficient delivery of antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) has been made possible by the use of a PLGA particle-based vaccine delivery system. Also, the plasma half-life of the PLGA-encapsulated vaccine increases as it is protected from degradation, prior to its further release. PLGAs are reported to be catabolized into individual nontoxic units once inside the host and further degraded via normal metabolic pathways. In this chapter, we have described the preparation and characterization of tumor peptide encapsulated PLGA microparticles as a model for controlled-release peptide delivery system.

  12. Monitoring of cerebral autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Marek; Miller, Chad

    2014-12-01

    Pressure autoregulation is an important hemodynamic mechanism that protects the brain against inappropriate fluctuations in cerebral blood flow in the face of changing cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Static autoregulation represents how far cerebrovascular resistance changes when CPP varies, and dynamic autoregulation represents how fast these changes happen. Both have been monitored in the setting of neurocritical care to aid prognostication and contribute to individualizing CPP targets in patients. Failure of autoregulation is associated with a worse outcome in various acute neurological diseases. Several studies have used transcranial Doppler ultrasound, intracranial pressure (ICP with vascular reactivity as surrogate measure of autoregulation), and near-infrared spectroscopy to continuously monitor the impact of spontaneous fluctuations in CPP on cerebrovascular physiology and to calculate derived variables of autoregulatory efficiency. Many patients who undergo such monitoring demonstrate a range of CPP in which autoregulatory efficiency is optimal. Management of patients at or near this optimal level of CPP is associated with better outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Many of these studies have utilized the concept of the pressure reactivity index, a correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial pressure. While further studies are needed, these data suggest that monitoring of autoregulation could aid prognostication and may help identify optimal CPP levels in individual patients.

  13. Surface Wrinkling on Polydimethylsiloxane Microspheres via Wet Surface Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties. PMID:25028198

  14. Pectin/zein microspheres as a sustained drug delivery system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of microspheres were prepared from pectins and corn proteins from various sources in the presence of the divalent ions calcium or zinc. The results showed that the yield of microsphere and the efficiency of drug incorporation were dependent on the type and ratio of biopolymers, the size of ...

  15. Coacervate droplets, proteinoid microspheres, and the genetic apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Differences between typical coacervate droplets and typical proteinoid microspheres are examined. It is pointed out that coacervate droplets are produced from polymers obtained from contemporary organisms. The microspheres considered are aggregates of proteinoid formed from monomeric amino acids under geologically relevant conditions. Aspects regarding the primordial sequence are discussed along with the origin of the genetic apparatus and the genetic code.

  16. Coacervate droplets, proteinoid microspheres, and the genetic apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Differences between typical coacervate droplets and typical proteinoid microspheres are examined. It is pointed out that coacervate droplets are produced from polymers obtained from contemporary organisms. The microspheres considered are aggregates of proteinoid formed from monomeric amino acids under geologically relevant conditions. Aspects regarding the primordial sequence are discussed along with the origin of the genetic apparatus and the genetic code.

  17. Porous-wall hollow glass microspheres as carriers for biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shuyi; Dynan, William S; Wicks, George; Serkiz, Steven

    2013-09-17

    The present invention includes compositions of porous-wall hollow glass microspheres and one or more biomolecules, wherein the one or more biomolecules are positioned within a void location within the hollow glass microsphere, and the use of such compositions for the diagnostic and/or therapeutic delivery of biomolecules.

  18. Surface wrinkling on polydimethylsiloxane microspheres via wet surface chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-07-16

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties.

  19. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  20. Fluorescence calibration research of microspheres in a microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Lian, Kun; Goettert, Jost

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence calibration is usually done by preparing bio-samples with a series of concentrations and measuring their corresponding fluorescence intensities. A simplified approach is studied by using a microfluidic chip and microspheres. The fluorescence calibration can be carried out on the chip with only one concentration of the microspheres. Microspheres with the diameter of 1~5μm are very useful in bio-detection research. These microspheres are manufactured using high-quality, ultraclean polystyrene microspheres and loaded with a variety of proprietary dyes. They can be labeled with biotin-, NeutrAvdin-, streptavidin- and protein, which can be used as tracers for bio-detections. A microfluidic chip was successfully fabricated for the experiment, and preliminary experimental results have proved the feasibility of the approach for fluorescence calibration.

  1. Controlled shaping of photonic nanojets using core shell microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, P. K.; Patel, H. S.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    Photonic nanojet (PNJ), the sub wavelength confinement of light by dielectric microspheres is finding applications in nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy and nano lithography. These applications require control over the length and lateral dimension of the nanojets. In the paper we present the results of numerical simulation to show that a core shell microspheres can be used to generate photonic nanojet with controllable length and confinement by varying the relative refractive index of the microspheres and the separation between the core and shell centers. We show that a length of up to 27λ can be achieved when the core microsphere has lower refractive index than the shell and lateral dimensions down to λ/3 with core microsphere having higher refractive index.

  2. NOTE: Estimating perfusion using microCT to locate microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, M.; Paget, C.; Yu, L. X.; Henkelman, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The injection of microspheres into the blood stream has been a common method to measure the spatial distribution of blood flow (perfusion). A technique to conduct this kind of measurement in small animal organs is presented using silver-coated microspheres with a diameter of 16 µm and high-resolution computed tomography (microCT) to detect individual microspheres. Phantom experiments demonstrate the detectability of individual spheres. The distribution of microspheres within a rat heart is given as an example. Using non-destructive, three-dimensional imaging for microsphere detection avoids the cumbersome dissection of the organ into samples or slices and their subsequent registration. The detection of individual spheres allows high-resolution measurements of perfusion and arbitrary definition of regions of interest. These, in turn, allow for accurate statistical analysis of perfusion such as relative dispersion curves.

  3. Polyacrolein microspheres as a new tool in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Margel, S; Beitler, U; Ofarim, M

    1982-08-01

    Polyacrolein (PA) microspheres in sizes ranging from 0.04 micron to 40 microns were synthesized. Magnetic and fluorescent PA microspheres were formed by carrying out the polymerization process in the presence of appropriate ferrofluidic or fluorochromic compounds, respectively. The microspheres carry reactive aldehyde groups, through which various ligands, containing primary amino groups, were covalently bound at physiological pH values. The potential use of these microspheres was demonstrated by the specific labelling of fresh human red blood cells (RBC) and by the separation of human RBC from turkey RBC by means of a magnetic field. PA microspheres were also bound covalently to the anti-allergic drug disodium chromoglycate (DSCG) and the conjugate was used for the labelling of rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

  4. Radiation trapping forces on microspheres with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. H.; Sonek, G. J.; Berns, M. W.

    1993-08-01

    Axial trapping forces exerted on microspheres are predicted using a Gaussian beam electromagnetic field model and a ray-optics model, and compared with experimental measurements. Ray-optics predicts a maximum trapping efficiency Q= -0.14 for optically trapped polystyrene microspheres in water, compared to a measured value of -0.12 ± 0.014 for 10 μm diam microspheres. When the microspheres are composed of amorphous silica, the predicted ray-optics Q decreases to -0.11, compared to a Q = -0.034 predicted by the electromagnetic field model, and a measured value of -0.012 ± 0.001 for 1 μm diam microspheres. These results indicate that the two models have applicability in two different size regimes, and thus, are complementary.

  5. Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, N; HogenEsch, H; Guo, P; North, A; Suckow, M; Mittal, S K

    1999-01-01

    Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo. Images Figure 3. PMID:10369574

  6. Material candidates for optical frequency comb generation in microspheres.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Afshar V, Shahraam; François, Alexandre; Monro, Tanya M

    2015-06-01

    This paper evaluates the opportunities for using materials other than silica for optical frequency comb generation in whispering gallery mode microsphere resonators. Different materials are shown to satisfy the requirement of dispersion compensation in interesting spectral regions such as the visible or mid-infrared and for smaller microspheres. This paper also analyses the prospects of comb generation in microspheres within aqueous solution for potential use in applications such as biosensing. It is predicted that to achieve comb generation with microspheres in aqueous solution the visible low-loss wavelength window of water needs to be exploited. This is because efficient comb generation necessitates ultra-high Q-factors, which are only possible for cavities with low absorption of the evanescent field outside the cavity. This paper explores the figure of merit for nonlinear interaction efficiency and the potential for dispersion compensation at unique wavelengths for a host of microsphere materials and dimensions and in different surroundings.

  7. β-Cyclodextrin-based oil-absorbent microspheres: preparation and high oil absorbency.

    PubMed

    Song, Ci; Ding, Lei; Yao, Fei; Deng, Jianping; Yang, Wantai

    2013-01-02

    This article reports the preparation and evaluation of polymeric microspheres as a new class of oil-absorbent (POAMs). Based on our earlier oil-absorbents, the present microspheres contained β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties as both cross-linking agent and porogen agent, and showed exciting high oil absorbency, fast oil absorption speed and good reusability. Such microspheres were prepared via suspension polymerization with octadecyl acrylate and butyl acrylate as co-monomers, β-CD derivative as cross-linking agent, 2,2'-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator and polyvinylalcohol as stabilizer. Oil absorbency of the POAMs was, for CCl(4), 83.4; CHCl(3), 75.1; xylene, 48.7; toluene, 42.8; gasoline, 30.0; kerosene 27.1; and diesel, 18.2 g/g (oil/POAMs). Saturation oil absorption reached within 3h in CCl(4). The POAMs exhibited high oil retention percentage (>90%), and can be reused for at least 10 times while keeping oil absorbency almost unchanged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The dynamics of shrinking and expanding drug-loaded microspheres: A semi-empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Simon, Laurent; Ospina, Juan; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2014-07-16

    The dynamics of shrinking and expanding drug-loaded microspheres were studied using a diffusion equation in spherical coordinates. A movable boundary condition was incorporated as a convection term in the original model. The resulting convective-diffusive problem was solved using Laplace transform techniques with the Bromwich integral and the residue theorem. Analytical solutions were derived for the general case of shrinking or expanding microspheres and three particular kinetics expressions: linear growth, exponential swelling and exponential shrinking. Simulations show that microspheres with fast-swelling kinetics released their therapeutic cargo at a relatively slow rate in the first two cases. Ninety-nine percent of the medication was delivered at four times the effective time constant. In line with laboratory studies using bovine serum albumin, an increase in the shrinking rate led to a fast release of the medication from its carrier. The method was applied to analyze insulin transport through spherical Ca-alginate beads. A good agreement was noted between predicted and experimental data. The theoretical effective time constant was 114.0 min.

  9. United Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay up to date with everything UCP! Affiliate Network UCP affiliates provide services and support on a ... with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with cerebral palsy and other disabilities deserve ...

  10. Cerebral Palsy (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy A A A ... the things that kids do every day. What's CP? Some kids with CP use wheelchairs and others ...

  11. Effects of nefiracetam on spatial memory function and acetylcholine and GABA metabolism in microsphere-embolized rats.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Tomoko; Miyake-Takagi, Keiko; Nagakura, Akira; Omino, Kunio; Okuyama, Noriko; Ando, Tsuyoshi; Takagi, Norio; Furuya, Yoshitaka; Takeo, Satoshi

    2002-10-18

    The present study aimed to determine whether nefiracetam, N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, a cognition enhancer, has an effect on learning and memory function in sustained cerebral ischemia, and whether the effect, if any, may accompany modification of the cholinergic or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system, which are conceived to be involved in the learning and memory function, in the ischemic brain. Sustained cerebral ischemia was induced by the injection of 700 microspheres into the right hemisphere of the rat. The animals were treated once daily with 10 mg/kg nefiracetam p.o. from 15 h after the operation to either 10 days for the water maze study, or 3 or 5 days after the operation for neurochemical examination. Microsphere-embolized rats showed stroke-like symptoms 15 h after the operation and lengthened the escape latency in the water maze task on days 7-10, suggesting a spatial learning dysfunction. The delayed treatment did not reduce the stroke-like symptoms, but effectively shortened the escape latency. The animals at days 3 and 5 after the operation showed decreases in acetylcholine content and choline acetyltransferase activity, which were not prevented by nefiracetam. The microsphere-embolized rats showed decreases in GABA content and glutamic acid decarboxylase activity. The delayed treatment appreciably restored GABA content in the hippocampus on day 5 and reversed glutamic acid decarboxylase activity in both brain regions on day 5. These results suggest that the GABAergic activity rather than the cholinergic activity may be, at least in part, involved in the pharmacological effects of nefiracetam in the ischemic brain.

  12. Splenic differentiation and emergence of CCR5+CXCL9+CXCL10+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the brain during cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Hirako, Isabella C.; Ataide, Marco A.; Faustino, Lucas; Assis, Patricia A.; Sorensen, Elizabeth W.; Ueta, Hisashi; Araújo, Natalia M.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Luster, Andrew D.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells have an important role in immune surveillance. After being exposed to microbial components, they migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and activate T lymphocytes. Here we show that during mouse malaria, splenic inflammatory monocytes differentiate into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DCs), which are CD11b+F4/80+CD11c+MHCIIhighDC-SIGNhighLy6c+ and express high levels of CCR5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 (CCR5+CXCL9/10+ MO-DCs). We propose that malaria-induced splenic MO-DCs take a reverse migratory route. After differentiation in the spleen, CCR5+CXCL9/10+ MO-DCs traffic to the brain in a CCR2-independent, CCR5-dependent manner, where they amplify the influx of CD8+ T lymphocytes, leading to a lethal neuropathological syndrome. PMID:27808089

  13. Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor production and neurogenesis in the hippocampus following cerebral global ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Shimada, Naoko; Kaji, Miki; Morita, Mayu; Miyoshi, Kazuhiro; Minami, Sona; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Yoshida, Takashi; Watanabe, Sono; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2012-10-24

    In the present study using a transient global ischemia mouse model, we showed that (1) a citrus flavonoid 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus after ischemia; (2) HMF increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a representative neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and most BDNF-positive cells were also stained with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (one of the major intermediate filament proteins of mature astrocytes) and (3) HMF increased doublecortin positive neuronal precursor cells in the dentate gyrus subventricular zone or subgranular zone. These results suggest that HMF has the ability to induce BDNF production in astrocytes and enhance neurogenesis after brain ischemia, which may be mediated by activation of ERK1/2 and CREB.

  14. Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Carrying Opposing Gradients of Chondroitin Sulfate and Tricalcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vineet; Mohan, Neethu; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate, serve as raw materials, and thus spatial patterning of these raw materials may be leveraged to mimic the smooth transition of physical, chemical, and mechanical properties at the bone-cartilage interface. We hypothesized that encapsulation of opposing gradients of these raw materials in high molecular weight poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds would enhance differentiation of rat bone marrow–derived stromal cells. The raw material encapsulation altered the microstructure of the microspheres and also influenced the cellular morphology that depended on the type of material encapsulated. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the raw material encapsulating microsphere-based scaffolds initially relied on the composition of the scaffolds and later on were primarily governed by the degradation of the polymer phase and newly synthesized ECM by the seeded cells. Furthermore, raw materials had a mitogenic effect on the seeded cells and led to increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG), collagen, and calcium content. Interestingly, the initial effects of raw material encapsulation on a per-cell basis might have been overshadowed by medium-regulated environment that appeared to favor osteogenesis. However, it is to be noted that in vivo, differentiation of the cells would be governed by the surrounding native environment. Thus, the results of this study demonstrated the potential of the raw materials in facilitating neo-tissue synthesis in microsphere-based scaffolds and perhaps in combination with bioactive signals, these raw materials may be able to achieve intricate cell differentiation profiles required for regenerating the osteochondral interface. PMID:26191526

  15. Cerebral Palsy (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy Print A A A What's in this article? ... the first word you spoke? For kids with cerebral palsy, called CP for short, taking a first step ...

  16. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  17. Urchinlike ZnS Microspheres Decorated with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon: A Superior Anode Material for Lithium and Sodium Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Junming; Fu, Yun; Shi, Xiaodong; Xu, Zhenming; Zhang, Zhian

    2017-01-01

    Urchinlike ZnS microspheres decorated with nitrogen-doped carbon (ZnS@NC) were fabricated by a facile two-step method in which urchinlike ZnS microspheres were coated with polydopamine and then calcined in an inert gas atmosphere. When employed as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries and sodium ion batteries, ZnS@NC exhibits a reversible lithium-storage capacity of 690 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and a reversible sodium-storage capacity of 460 mAh g(-1) after 80 cycles at 200 mA g(-1) .The ZnS@NC electrode shows a high reversible lithium-storage capacity of 520 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles and a high reversible sodium-storage capacity of 380 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles even at a current density of 1 A g(-1) . The superior electrochemical performance could be ascribed to structural merits of the urchinlike ZnS microspheres and synergistic effects between ZnS and polydopamine-derived nitrogen-doped carbon. The lithium- and sodium-storage capacities of urchinlike ZnS@NC microspheres are in the top rank in comparison with those reported in other studies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2017-04-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions include microspheres with an average diameter between about 200 nanometers and about 10 micrometers and mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres. The methods of making include forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least annealing in a reducing atmosphere, doping with an aliovalent element, and coating with a coating composition.

  19. Effect of vitamin E on cerebral cortical oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression induced by hypoxia and exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, H F; Abbas, A M; El Samanoudy, A Z

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the proliferation of neurons, and its expression increases significantly with exercise. We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (swimming) and sustained hypoxia on cortical BDNF expression in both the presence and absence of vitamin E. Sixty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups; a normoxic group and a hypoxic group. Both groups were equally subdivided into four subgroups: sedentary, sedentary with vitamin E, chronic exercise either with or without vitamin E supplementation. Arterial PO(2), and the levels of cortical malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (reduced glutathione GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and vitamin E) and BDNF gene expression were investigated. Hypoxia significantly increased MDA production and BDNF gene expression and decreased the antioxidants compared to control rats. Chronic exercise in hypoxic and normoxic rats increased MDA level and BDNF gene expression and decreased the antioxidants. Providing vitamin E supplementation to the hypoxic and normoxic rats significantly reduced MDA and BDNF gene expression and increased antioxidants. We conclude that sustained hypoxia and chronic exercise increased BDNF gene expression and induced oxidative stress. Moreover, vitamin E attenuated the oxidative stress and decreased BDNF gene expression in sustained hypoxia and chronic exercise which confirms the oxidative stress-induced stimulation of BDNF gene expression.

  20. Binding and structure-activity-relation of benzo[f]isoquinoline- and norcodeinone-derivatives at mu-opioid receptors in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Freissmuth, M.; Beindl, W.; Kratzel, M.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have probed the ligand binding site of the mu-opioid receptor using a series of isoquinoline- and norcodeinone-derivatives; in these morphine- and codeine-analogues, the position of the piperidine-nitrogen as well as its mobility is altered relative to that found in morphine. 2. The mu-receptor in rat cortical membranes was labelled with [3H]-naloxone and competition experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of Gpp(NH)p and NaCl: conditions, which are associated with affinity shifts for agonists whilst antagonist affinity remains unaffected. Moving the piperidine-nitrogen closer to the phenolic ring or reducing its mobility by incorporation into an additional ring drastically decreases the affinity. 3. In contrast, we find that the piperidine-nitrogen in a distal position is well tolerated provided that additional structural criteria, in particular a phenolic hydroxyl-group and a 6 carbon ring corresponding to ring C in morphine, are met. This assumption was verified by the synthesis of WB4/PH (4aR, 10bS, 11R)-10, 11-epoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-hexahydro-9-hydroxy-3-methyl-4a,10b-butano- benzo[f]isochinolin-12-on(10). This compound is an agonist with an affinity comparable to that of morphine. 4. We therefore conclude that both the mobility of the piperidine nitrogen of the ligand and of its counterpart anionic site in the ligand binding pocket of the mu-opioid receptor (presumably aspartic acid) are important determinants for fruitful interaction. The mobility of the anionic site is restricted in one direction but is sufficient to bridge the 2A distance that exists between the position of the nitrogen in morphine and WB4/PH. PMID:8306082

  1. Binding and structure-activity-relation of benzo[f]isoquinoline- and norcodeinone-derivatives at mu-opioid receptors in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Freissmuth, M; Beindl, W; Kratzel, M

    1993-12-01

    1. We have probed the ligand binding site of the mu-opioid receptor using a series of isoquinoline- and norcodeinone-derivatives; in these morphine- and codeine-analogues, the position of the piperidine-nitrogen as well as its mobility is altered relative to that found in morphine. 2. The mu-receptor in rat cortical membranes was labelled with [3H]-naloxone and competition experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of Gpp(NH)p and NaCl: conditions, which are associated with affinity shifts for agonists whilst antagonist affinity remains unaffected. Moving the piperidine-nitrogen closer to the phenolic ring or reducing its mobility by incorporation into an additional ring drastically decreases the affinity. 3. In contrast, we find that the piperidine-nitrogen in a distal position is well tolerated provided that additional structural criteria, in particular a phenolic hydroxyl-group and a 6 carbon ring corresponding to ring C in morphine, are met. This assumption was verified by the synthesis of WB4/PH (4aR, 10bS, 11R)-10, 11-epoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-hexahydro-9-hydroxy-3-methyl-4a,10b-butano- benzo[f]isochinolin-12-on(10). This compound is an agonist with an affinity comparable to that of morphine. 4. We therefore conclude that both the mobility of the piperidine nitrogen of the ligand and of its counterpart anionic site in the ligand binding pocket of the mu-opioid receptor (presumably aspartic acid) are important determinants for fruitful interaction. The mobility of the anionic site is restricted in one direction but is sufficient to bridge the 2A distance that exists between the position of the nitrogen in morphine and WB4/PH.

  2. Human adipose-derived stem cells partially rescue the stroke syndromes by promoting spatial learning and memory in mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Gao, Shane; Wang, Lin; Sun, Chenxi; Chen, Lu; Yuan, Ping; Zhao, Haiyang; Yi, Yi; Qin, Ying; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Ren, Haiyan; Zhu, Liang; Li, Qiang; Lu, Bing; Liang, Aibin; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhu, Hongwen; Gao, Zhengliang; Ma, Jie; Xu, Jun; Chen, Xu

    2015-05-09

    Growing evidence has brought stem cell therapy to the forefront as new promising approaches towards stroke treatment. Of all candidate seeding cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered as one of the most appropriate for stroke treatment. However, previous experimental data could not reach to an agreement on the efficacy of ADSC transplantation for treating stroke in vivo as well as its mechanism which hinders their further clinical translational application. To explore their in vivo mechanism of hADSC administration on neurological injury, hADSC were labeled with Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein expressing FG12 lentivirus and injected into MCAO mouse infarct area by in situ way. Neurological function was evaluated by Rogers Scaling System and their spatial learning and memory was determined by Morris Test. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride was carried out to compare the infarct area among groups. Histoimmunostaining was used to track the injected hADSCs for their in vivo migration, transdifferentiation and integration with the endogenous neuronal circuitry. To better address the underlying rescuing mechanism, qRT-PCR was performed on neural markers of MBP, MAP2, GFAP, microglia marker of Iba1. It was found that hADSCs could promote both spatial learning and memory of MCAO mice. Co-localization of GFP and MAP2 were found in the whole cortex with significantly (P<0.01) higher percentage at the contralateral cortex compared with the ipsilateral cortex. Low percentage of GFP and GFAP co-localized cells were found at whole cortex. Meanwhile, Iba1(+) microglia and GFAP(+) astrocyte cells were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed by hADSC injection. hADSCs could transdifferentiate into neuron like cells (MAP2(+)) in vivo and probably used as seeding cells for replacement based stem cell therapy of stroke. Also, significant immunomodulation was found. Meanwhile hADSCs could significantly protect the endogenous neuron survival. This study demonstrated that

  3. Recent advances in testing of microsphere drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Andhariya, Janki V; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses advances in the field of microsphere testing. In vitro release-testing methods such as sample and separate, dialysis membrane sacs and USP apparatus IV have been used for microspheres. Based on comparisons of these methods, USP apparatus IV is currently the method of choice. Accelerated in vitro release tests have been developed to shorten the testing time for quality control purposes. In vitro-in vivo correlations using real-time and accelerated release data have been developed, to minimize the need to conduct in vivo performance evaluation. Storage stability studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of various environmental factors on microsphere quality throughout the product shelf life. New tests such as the floating test and the in vitro wash-off test have been developed along with advancement in characterization techniques for other physico-chemical parameters such as particle size, drug content, and thermal properties. Although significant developments have been made in microsphere release testing, there is still a lack of guidance in this area. Microsphere storage stability studies should be extended to include microspheres containing large molecules. An agreement needs to be reached on the use of particle sizing techniques to avoid inconsistent data. An approach needs to be developed to determine total moisture content of microspheres.

  4. Measurements of extrinsic fluorescence in Intralipid and polystyrene microspheres.

    PubMed

    Du Le, Vinh Nguyen; Nie, Zhaojun; Hayward, Joseph E; Farrell, Thomas J; Fang, Qiyin

    2014-08-01

    The fluorescence of Intralipid and polystyrene microspheres with sphere diameter of 1 µm at a representative lipid and microsphere concentration for simulation of mucosal tissue scattering has not been a subject of extensive experimental study. In order to elucidate the quantitative relationship between lipid and microsphere concentration and the respective fluorescent intensity, the extrinsic fluorescence spectra between 360 nm and 650 nm (step size of 5 nm) were measured at different lipid concentrations (from 0.25% to 5%) and different microsphere concentrations (0.00364, 0.0073, 0.0131 spheres per cubic micrometer) using laser excitation at 355 nm with pulse energy of 2.8 µJ. Current findings indicated that Intralipid has a broadband emission between 360 and 650 nm with a primary peak at 500 nm and a secondary peak at 450 nm while polystyrene microspheres have a single peak at 500 nm. In addition, for similar scattering properties the fluorescence of Intralipid solutions is approximately three-fold stronger than that of the microsphere solutions. Furthermore, Intralipid phantoms with lipid concentrations ~2% (simulating the bottom layer of mucosa) produce up to seven times stronger fluorescent emission than phantoms with lipid concentration ~0.25% (simulating the top layer of mucosa). The fluoresence decays of Intralipid and microsphere solutions were also recorded for estimation of fluorescence lifetime.

  5. Bioavailability enhancement of verapamil HCl via intranasal chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Abdel Mouez, Mamdouh; Zaki, Noha M; Mansour, Samar; Geneidi, Ahmed S

    2014-01-23

    Chitosan microspheres are potential drug carriers for maximizing nasal residence time, circumventing rapid mucociliary clearance and enhancing nasal absorption. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) for intranasal delivery as an alternative to oral VRP which suffers low bioavailability (20%) due to extensive first pass effect. The microspheres were produced using a spray-drying and precipitation techniques and characterized for morphology (scanning electron microscopy), particle size (laser diffraction method), drug entrapment efficiency, thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry) and crystallinity (X-ray diffractometric studies) as well as in vitro drug release. Bioavailability of nasal VRP microspheres was studied in rabbits and the results were compared to those obtained after nasal, oral and intravenous administration of VRP solution. Results demonstrated that the microspheres were spherical with size 21-53 μm suitable for nasal deposition. The spray-drying technique was superior over precipitation technique in providing higher VRP entrapment efficiency and smaller burst release followed by a more sustained one over 6h. The bioavailability study demonstrated that the nasal microspheres exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (58.6%) than nasal solution of VRP (47.8%) and oral VRP solution (13%). In conclusion, the chitosan-based nasal VRP microspheres are promising for enhancing VRP bioavailability by increasing the nasal residence time and avoiding the first-pass metabolism of the drug substance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Current knowledge on biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.

  7. Removal of chloroform from biodegradable therapeutic microspheres by radiolysis.

    PubMed

    Zielhuis, S W; Nijsen, J F W; Dorland, L; Krijger, G C; van Het Schip, A D; Hennink, W E

    2006-06-06

    Radioactive holmium-166 loaded poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres are promising systems for the treatment of liver malignancies. These microspheres are loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) and prepared by a solvent evaporation method using chloroform. After preparation the microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS) are activated by neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. It was observed that relatively large amounts of residual chloroform (1000-6000 ppm) remained in the microspheres before neutron irradiation. Since it is known that chloroform is susceptible for high-energy radiation, we investigated whether neutron and gamma irradiation could result in the removal of residual chloroform in HoAcAc-loaded and placebo PLLA-MS by radiolysis. To investigate this, microspheres with relatively high and low amounts of residual chloroform were subjected to irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the residual chloroform levels as well as other microsphere characteristics (morphology, size, crystallinity, molecular weight of PLLA and degradation products) were evaluated. No chloroform in the microspheres could be detected after neutron irradiation. This was also seen for gamma irradiation at a dose of 200 kGy phosgene, which can be formed as the result of radiolysis of chloroform, was not detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A precipitation titration showed that radiolysis of chloroform resulted in the formation of chloride. Gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry showed a decrease in molecular weight of PLLA and crystallinity, respectively. However, no differences were observed between irradiated microsphere samples with high and low initial amounts of chloroform. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that neutron and gamma irradiation results in the removal of residual chloroform in PLLA-microspheres.

  8. Cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil entrapped in gelatin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Muvaffak, A; Gürhan, I; Hasirci, N

    2004-05-01

    Gelatin microspheres were prepared by water/oil emulsion polymerization and by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. For the microsphere preparation procedure, two different gelatin (5 or 10% w/v) and three different glutaraldehyde (5, 0.5 or 0.1% v/v) concentrations were used. The influence of preparation compositions on microsphere recovery, particle size and morphology, swelling and degradation, 5-fluorouracil loading and release, and cytotoxicity were investigated. The concentrations of gelatin and glutaraldehyde influenced the size and surface properties of microspheres. The decrease in gelatin concentration and the increase in glutaraldehyde concentration resulted in the formation of smaller (140.82-71.47 microm for gelatin microspheres with a 5% gelatin content; 297.67-97.44 microm for gelatin microspheres with a 10% gelatin content) microspheres with smoother surface properties. Swelling values were decreased as the amount of glutaraldehyde was increased. In particular, for microspheres with a high glutaraldehyde content (5% v/v), only about 15% were degraded in 12 days, whereas for those with 0.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde, almost 97% degradation occurred in the same period. The most rapid 5-fluorouracil release was observed from uncross-linked microspheres (about 88% in 4 h), whereas a particular slower release (about 36% in 4 h) profile was obtained for the highly cross-linked ones. Cytotoxicity tests of free and entrapped 5-fluorouracil were carried out with MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Free 5-fluorouracil produced an immediate effect, whereas entrapped 5-fluorouracil showed a prolonged cytotoxic effect.

  9. The affinity of magnetic microspheres for Schistosoma eggs.

    PubMed

    Candido, Renata R F; Favero, Vivian; Duke, Mary; Karl, Stephan; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Woodward, Robert C; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Jones, Malcolm K; St Pierre, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease of humans, with two species primarily causing the intestinal infection: Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Traditionally, diagnosis of schistosomiasis is achieved through direct visualisation of eggs in faeces using techniques that lack the sensitivity required to detect all infections, especially in areas of low endemicity. A recently developed method termed Helmintex™ is a very sensitive technique for detection of Schistosoma eggs and exhibits 100% sensitivity at 1.3 eggs per gram of faeces, enough to detect even low-level infections. The Helminthex™ method is based on the interaction of magnetic microspheres and schistosome eggs. Further understanding the underlying egg-microsphere interactions would enable a targeted optimisation of egg-particle binding and may thus enable a significant improvement of the Helmintex™ method and diagnostic sensitivity in areas with low infection rates. We investigated the magnetic properties of S. mansoni and S. japonicum eggs and their interactions with microspheres with different magnetic properties and surface functionalization. Eggs of both species exhibited higher binding affinity to the magnetic microspheres than the non-magnetic microspheres. Binding efficiency was further enhanced if the particles were coated with streptavidin. Schistosoma japonicum eggs bound more microspheres compared with S. mansoni. However, distinct differences within eggs of each species were also observed when the distribution of the number of microspheres bound per egg was modelled with double Poisson distributions. Using this approach, both S. japonicum and S. mansoni eggs fell into two groups, one having greater affinity for magnetic microspheres than the other, indicating that not all eggs of a species exhibit the same binding affinity. Our observations suggest that interaction between the microspheres and eggs is more likely to be related to surface charge-based electrostatic

  10. Protocell-like Microspheres from Thermal Polyaspartic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahn, Peter R.; Pappelis, Aristotel; Bozzola, John

    2006-12-01

    One of the most prominent amino acids to appear in monomer-generating origin-of-life experiments is aspartic acid. Hugo Schiff found in 1897 that aspartic acid polymerizes when heated to form polyaspartylimide which hydrolyzes in basic aqueous solution to form thermal polyaspartic acid which is a branched polypeptide. We recently reported at the ISSOL 2005 Conference that commercially made thermal polyaspartic acid forms microspheres when heated in boiling water and allowed to cool. In a new experiment we heated aspartic acid at 180°C for up to 100 h to form thermal polyaspartylimide which when heated in boiling water without addition of base hydrolyzed to form thermal polyaspartic acid which upon cooling formed microspheres. Thermal polyaspartic acid microspheres appear protocell-like in the sense of being prebiotically plausible lattices or containers that could eventually have been filled with just the right additions of primordial proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and metabolites so as to constitute protocells capable of undergoing further chemical and biological evolution. Thermal polyaspartic acid microspheres are extremely simple models of protocells that are more amenable to precise quantitative experimental investigation than the proteinoid microspheres of Sidney W. Fox. We present here scanning electron microscope images of such thermal polyaspartic acid microspheres. Figure 1 shows thermal polyaspartic acid microspheres from l-aspartic acid heated at 180°C for 50 h, at a magnification of 3,500×. Figure 2 shows thermal polyaspartic acid microspheres from the same sample at a magnification of 7,000×. The thermal polyaspartic acid microspheres have a diameter of approximately 1 μm These images were viewed with a Hitachi S2460N scanning electron microscope at 20 kV acceleration voltage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.][Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Mucoadhesivity Characterization of Isabgol Husk Mucilage Microspheres Crosslinked by Glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vipin Kumar; Sharma, Prince Prashant; Mazumder, Bhasker; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Singh, Thakuri

    2015-01-01

    The microspheres of Isabgol husk were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking technique and the gastrointestinal transition behavior of the formulation was studied by gamma scintigraphy. The impact of different process variables such as amount of glutaraldehyde, concentration of Isabgol husk and temperature was studied on surface morphology and mucoadhesion. In vitro mucoadhesive testing of formulations was performed by determination of zeta potential, mucus glycoprotein assay and mucus adsorption isotherms. The effect of feeding on retention of microspheres in the gastrointestinal track (GIT) was studied in albino rabbits by gamma scintigraphy study. The results indicated the formation of microspheres as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The smooth and round surfaces of microspheres were obtained on increasing Isabgol husk and glutaraldehyde amount. The positive zeta potential of all formulations indicated the electrostatic interaction as a mechanism of mucoadhesion between the mucus of GIT membranes and the microspheres surfaces. The influence of electrostatic interaction on mucoadhesion of microspheres was again ascertained when the mucin equilibrium adsorption on preparations indicated well fitness in Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. During gamma scintigraphy, the stability of (99m)Tc-sodium pertechnetate was found 98.82% at pH 6.8 and 96.78% at pH 7.2, respectively. It indicated the minimal leaching of bound radionuclide from microspheres during gastrointestinal transition as observed in gamma scintigraphic images of the rabbits. The microspheres retained in GIT even after 24 hrs of oral administration. The results indicated the applicability of Isabgol husk mucilage in the development of mucoadhesive microspheres.

  12. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation during intracranial hypertension in hypoxic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.O.; Backofen, J.E.; Koehler, R.C.; Jones, M.D. Jr.; Traystman, R.J. )

    1987-12-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that hypoxic hypoxia interferes with cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation when intracranial pressure (ICP) is elevated in pentobarbital-anesthetized lambs (3 to 9 days old). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was lowered stepwise from 73 to 23 mmHg in eight normoxic lambs and from 65 to 31 mmHg in eight other hypoxic lambs by ventricular infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. In normoxic lambs, CBF measured by microspheres labeled with six different radioisotopes was not significantly changed over this range of CPP. In animals made hypoxic, base-line CBF was twice that of normoxic lambs. CBF was unchanged as CPP was reduced to 31 mmHg. Lower levels of CPP were not attained because a pressor response occurred with further elevations of ICP. No regional decrements in blood flow to cortical arterial watershed areas or to more caudal regions, such as cerebellum, brain stem, or thalamus, were detected with elevated ICP. Cerebral O{sub 2} uptake was similar in both groups and did not decrease when CPP was reduced. These results demonstrate that normoxic lambs have a considerable capacity for effective autoregulation of CBF when ICP is elevated. Moreover, cerebral vasodilation in response to a level of hypoxia approximating that normally seen prenatally does not abolish CBF autoregulation when ICP is elevated during the first postnatal week.

  13. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  14. Adsorption and preconcentration of divalent metal ions in fossil fuels and biofuels: gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, diesel-like and ethanol by using chitosan microspheres and thermodynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Prado, Alexandre G S; Pescara, Igor C; Evangelista, Sheila M; Holanda, Matheus S; Andrade, Romulo D; Suarez, Paulo A Z; Zara, Luiz F

    2011-05-15

    Biodiesel and diesel-like have been obtained from soybean oil by transesterification and thermal cracking process, respectively. These biofuels were characterized as according to ANP standards by using specific ASTM methods. Ethanol, gasoline, and diesel were purchased from a gas station. Deacetylation degree of chitosan was determined by three distinct methods (conductimetry, FTIR and NMR), and the average degree was 78.95%. The chitosan microspheres were prepared from chitosan by split-coating and these spheres were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde. The surface area of microspheres was determined by BET method, and the surface area of crosslinked microspheres was 9.2m(2)g(-1). The adsorption isotherms of cooper, nickel and zinc on microspheres of chitosan were determined in petroleum derivatives (gasoline and diesel oil), as well as in biofuels (alcohol, biodiesel and diesel-like). The adsorption order in all fuels was: Cu>Ni>Zn. The elution tests presented the following preconcentration degrees: >4.5 to ethanol, >4.4 to gasoline, >4.0 to diesel, >3.8 to biodiesel and >3.6 to diesel-like. The application of chitosan microspheres in the metal ions preconcentration showed the potential of this biopolymer to enrich fuel sample in order to be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow estimates in newborn lamb using amplitude-mode color Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G A

    1996-01-01

    To establish the feasibility of determining changes in regional cerebral blood flow using amplitude-mode color Doppler ultrasound in the newborn lamb. Regional cerebral blood flow was modified by intrastriatal injection of N -methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in two newborn lambs and compared with that in a control animal receiving only intrastriatal saline. Serial color Doppler ultrasound energy images were obtained in coronal projection at the level of the foramen of Monro, before and at 20, 40, and 60 min after NMDA or saline injection using a 7.0-MHz linear transducer. Real-time images were obtained and transferred onto a computer workstation. Regions of interest were drawn over each striatum and cerebral hemisphere and were analyzed for mean pixel intensity (MPI) at each interval. Paired regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) determinations (radiolabeled microsphere technique) were also obtained in every animal. MPI and r-CBF for each anatomic region were compared using linear regression. Mean color pixel intensities increased significantly in the ipsilateral basal ganglia and cerebral hemisphere (p < 0.0001) in both animals injected with NMDA, but not in the animal injected with normal saline (p < 0.63). A strong and significant linear correlation was found between MPI and r-CBF for striatum (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001) and cerebral hemisphere (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). Amplitude-mode color Doppler ultrasound shows potential for technically simple determination of serial changes in regional cerebral blood flow in infants.

  16. Observation of whispering gallery modes in microtube-microspheres system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanyang; Hao, Sue; Qiang, Liangsheng; Li, Jin; Zhang, Yundong

    2013-06-01

    We proposed that a fluorescent microsphere with diameter of 6 μm was manipulated into a microtube with inner diameter of 6.2 μm. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of fluorescence resonance were observed by 532 nm laser pumping the microspheres-mircotube system. Another microsphere with the same diameter was manipulated into the microtube and mode splitting in the system of two spheres in contact in the mircotube was demonstrated. We also discussed relationship between WGMs peak intensity and the excitation power. The scheme will bring more insight into the applications of WGMs for biomedical diagnostics and microfluidics.

  17. Effect of size of silica microspheres on photonic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Dhiman, N. Sharma, A. Gathania, A. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2014-04-24

    In present work photonic crystals of different size of silica microspheres have been fabricated. The optical properties of these developed photonic crystals have been studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. UV-visible spectroscopy shows that they have photonic band gap that can be tuned in visible and infrared regime by changing the size of silica microspheres. The photonic band gap structures of these photonic crystals have been calculated using MIT photonic band gap package. It also reveals that with the increase in size of silica microspheres the photonic band gap shifts to lower energy region.

  18. Protein specific fluorescent microspheres for labelling a protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Highly fluorescent, stable and biocompatible microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing an acrylic monomer containing a covalent bonding group such as hydroxyl, amine or carboxyl, for example, hydroxyethylmethacrylate, with an addition polymerizable fluorescent comonomer such as dansyl allyl amine. A lectin or antibody is bound to the covalent site to provide cell specificity. When the microspheres are added to a cell suspension the marked microspheres will specifically label a cell membrane by binding to a specific receptor site thereon. The labeled membrane can then be detected by fluorescence of the fluorescent monomer.

  19. Polymer assisted hydroxyapatite microspheres suitable for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Mishra, T; Ravishankar, N

    2008-05-01

    Hollow Microspheres of hydroxyapatite-polymer composite can be used as carriers in drug delivery and fillers in tissue engineering. Based on the concept of soft chemistry, a battery of technique is available in the literature to synthesize hollow microspheres, however, an economically viable synthesis route, having good control over the microarchitect and easy to be scaled up, is yet to be developed. Polymer matrix mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles is known to synthesize nanoparticles with controlled morphology and dimensions. It is termed as biomimetic synthesis. Integrating the biomimetic synthesis of nano-particles and spray drying techniques, a novel process of producing hydroxyapatite-polymer composite hollow microspheres is briefly discussed here.

  20. T2-Shortening of 3He Gas by Magnetic Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Minard, Kevin R; Timchalk, Chuck; Corley, Rick A

    2005-03-01

    In the interconnected pores of a material like the lung the transverse relaxation time (T2) for 3He gas is shortened by the deposition of magnetic microspheres and rapid molecular diffusion through induced field distortions. Here, this unique relaxation process is described theoretically and predicted T2-shortening is validated using pressurized 3He gas in a foam model of lung tissue. Results demonstrate that – 1) significant T2-shortening is induced by microsphere deposition, 2) shortened T2’s are accurately predicted, and 3) measured relaxation times are exploitable for quantifying the local volume fraction of magnetic microspheres deposited in gas-filled spaces.

  1. Development of nuclear fuel microsphere handling techniques and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.; Suchomel, R.R.; Angelini, P.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of microsphere handling techniques and equipment for nuclear applications. Work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with microspherical fuel forms dates back to the early sixties with the development of the sol-gel process. Since that time a number of equipment items and systems specifically related to microsphere handling and characterization have been identified and developed for eventual application in a remote recycle facility. These include positive and negative pressure transfer systems, samplers, weighers, a blender-dispenser, and automated devices for particle size distribution and crushing strength analysis. The current status of these and other components and systems is discussed.

  2. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.; Ives, B.H.

    1986-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres, having a size range of approx.150- to 250-..mu..m diameter with 1- to 5-..mu..m wall thickness, have been fabricated using a solution droplet technique. The spheres were developed for possible use on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. PVA, a polymer chosen based on earlier survey work carried out at KMS Fusion, Inc., has good strength, low hydrogen permeability, is optically transparent, and water soluble. The latter property makes it safe and easy to use in our droplet generator system. A unique dual-orifice droplet generator was used to prepare the spheres. The droplet generator operating conditions and the column processing parameters were chosen using results from our 1-D model calculations as a guide. The polymer microsphere model is an extension of the model we developed to support the glass sphere production. After preparation, the spheres were physically characterized for surface quality, sphericity, wall thickness (and uniformity), and size. We also determined the buckling pressure for both uncoated and CH-coated spheres. Radiation stability to beta decay (from tritium) was evaluated by exposing the spheres to a 7-keV electron beam. The results from these and other physical property measurements are presented in this report.

  3. Improved bioavailability through floating microspheres of lovastatin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Nagpal, K; Singh, SK.; Mishra, DN.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Lovastatin is an antihyperlipidemic agent which has low bioavailability due to the extensive first pass metabolism. It was sought to increase gastric retention of lovastatin by development of a sustained release gastroretentive drug delivery system leading to reduced fluctuation in the plasma concentration and improved bioavailability. Mehods Floating microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique, using various polymers and their blends. The in vitro performance was evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, percent yield, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro onset and duration of floatation, in vitro drug release as well as in vivo determination of serum cholesterol level. Results The mean particle size of microspheres was observed to be between 6.9 to 9.5 µm and the maximum particle size was around 50 µm. In vivo studies of the selected batches indicated lower level of serum cholesterol compared to the marketed tablet at the same dose but was not significant. Major conclusion The data obtained in this study suggested that a microparticulate floating dosage form of lovastatin can be successfully designed to yield controlled delivery with improved therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22615640

  4. Alcohol, the cerebral circulation and strokes.

    PubMed

    Altura, B M; Altura, B T

    1984-01-01

    Inasmuch as ethanol is thought to exert its major effects on the CNS, it is important to determine whether this abused substance can exert any direct action on cerebral blood vessels. Since chronic ingestion of alcohol: (1) can produce a loss (and degeneration) of neurons and glial cells in the brain, and (2) is associated, often, with hallucinations in human subjects particularly those undergoing withdrawal, it is possible that ethanol could produce hypoxia in select regions of the brain. The available indirect evidence in man and animals, albeit equivocal, does indicate that ethanol in certain concentrations might produce deficits in cerebral blood flow in select regions of the brain. Direct in-situ observations on the rat brain, using high-resolution, quantitative TV image-intensification microscopy, indicates that administration of ethanol, irrespective of the route of administration (e.g., perivascularly, intraarterially or systemically), produces graded concentration-dependent spasms of arterioles and venules. Concentrations of ethanol approximately greater than 250 mg/dl produce intense spasms resulting in rupture of these vessels. Recent in-situ studies in conscious dogs, using radiolabelled microspheres, also indicate that ethanol can produce deficits in regional brain blood flow. Studies with isolated canine middle cerebral and basilar arteries clearly demonstrate that low concentrations of ethanol (e.g., (less than 10 mM) can produce concentration-dependent spasms by a direct vascular action. Collectively, these new findings could be used to support the concept that heavy use of alcohol or binge-drinking can produce stroke-like effects. Specific calcium antagonists prevented or reversed the alcohol-induced cerebrovasospasms in rats and may prove valuable in treating the hypertension and strokes observed in heavy users of alcohol.

  5. Preparation and characterization of enteric microspheres containing bovine insulin by a w/o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Nagareya, N; Uchida, T; Matsuyama, K

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to produce enteric microspheres containing bovine insulin as a model drug using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the preparative conditions were optimized. When hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (AS-HG type; high content of succinyl group) was employed as an enteric wall material, optimized microspheres showed almost 90% of the loading efficiency of insulin and 30.8 microns of mean volume diameter. The mixture of methylene chloride and acetone (4:1) as an oleaginous phase, 400 microliters of bovine insulin solution (dissolved in 30% of acetic acid) as an internal aqueous phase, and 1.0% of polyvinylalcohol dissolved in pH 3.0 citrate buffer as an external aqueous phase, were employed in the experiment. In relation to other enteric cellulose derivatives (AS-MG type, AS-LG type; medium and low content of succinyl group, respectively), the microencapsulation using a simultaneous preparation method also resulted in quite high loading efficiencies, whereas the choice of poly(methyl methacrylate) as a wall material caused aggregation or flocculation in the preparative process of every batch. The AS-HG microspheres showed very fast release profile in pH 6.8 buffer, but no released fraction was observed in pH 1.2 buffer. This phenomenon suggested enteric characteristics of prepared microspheres. Finally AS-HG microspheres containing 4% lauric acid and 9% insulin were prepared, suspended in 0.1% of carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and administered to the rat rectum (corresponding to 50 I.U./kg insulin). The plasma glucose level reached minimum level at 0.5 h after administration then gradually rose to normal.

  6. Synthesis of Microspherical LiFePO4-Carbon Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linghui; Cai, Dandan; Wang, Haihui; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an “all in one” procedure to produce mesoporous, micro-spherical LiFePO4 composed of agglomerated crystalline nanoparticles. Each nanoparticle is individually coated with a thin glucose-derived carbon layer. The main advantage of the as-synthesized materials is their good performance at high charge-discharge rates. The nanoparticles and the mesoporosity guarantee a short bulk diffusion distance for both lithium ions and electrons, as well as additional active sites for the charge transfer reactions. At the same time, the thin interconnected carbon coating provides a conductive framework capable of delivering electrons to the nanostructured LiFePO4. PMID:28348343

  7. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hai; Bu, Shoushan; Hua, Lei; Darabi, Mohammad A; Cao, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide®). The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4) of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%), and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5), the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG) groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres (GM + CT) group were similar to AG group (P>0.05). Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable

  9. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hai; Bu, Shoushan; Hua, Lei; Darabi, Mohammad A; Cao, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide(®)). The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4) of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%), and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5), the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG) groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres (GM + CT) group were similar to AG group (P>0.05). Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable

  10. Synthesis and spectral characterization of Zn(II) microsphere series for antimicrobial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Pandey, Sarvesh K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    Microsphere series have been synthesized by reacting zinc(II) acetate dihydrate with Schiff bases derived from 2-hydrazino-5-[substituted phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole/oxadiazole/triazole with salicylaldehyde. Elemental analysis suggests that the complexes have 1:2 and 1:1 stoichiometry of the type [Zn(L)2(H2O)2] and [Zn(L‧)(H2O)2]; LH = Schiff bases derived from 2-hydrazino-5-[substituted phenyl]-1,3,4-thia/oxadiazole with salicylaldehyde; L‧H2 = Schiff bases derived from 3-(substituted phenyl)-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole and salicylaldehyde and were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that synthesized materials have microsphere like structure and there EDX analysis comparably matches with elemental analysis. For the antimicrobial application Schiff bases and their zinc(II) complexes were screened for four bacteria e.g. Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes and four fungi e.g. Cyrtomium falcatum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Curvularia pallescence by the reported method. Schiff base and Zn(II) compounds showed significant antimicrobial activities. However, activities increase upon chelation. Thermal analysis (TGA) data of compound (10) showed its stability up to 300 °C.

  11. Role of hypotension in decreasing cerebral blood flow in porcine endotoxemia

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.F.; Breslow, M.J.; Shapiro, R.M.; Traystman, R.J. )

    1987-10-01

    The role of reduced arterial blood pressure (MAP) in decreasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) during endotoxemia was studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. Microspheres were used to measure regional CBF changes during MAP manipulations in animals with and without endotoxin. Endotoxin decreased MAP to 50 mmHg and decreased blood flow to the cortex and cerebellum without affecting cerebral cortical oxygen consumption (CMRo{sub 2}). Elevating MAP from 50 to 70 mmHg during endotoxemia with norepinephrine did not change cortical blood flow or CMRo{sub 2} but increased cerebellar blood flow. Brain stem blood flow was not affected by endotoxin or norepinephrine. When MAP was decreased to 50 mmHg by hemorrhage without endotoxin, no change in blood flow to cortex, cerebellum, or brain stem was observed from base-line levels. These results suggest that decreased MAP below a lower limit for cerebral autoregulation does not account for the decreased CBF observed after endotoxin.

  12. Super-focusing of center-covered engineered microsphere

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengxue; Chen, Rui; Soh, Jiahao; Shen, Yue; Jiao, Lishi; Wu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xudong; Ji, Rong; Hong, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Engineered microsphere possesses the advantage of strong light manipulation at sub-wavelength scale and emerges as a promising candidate to shrink the focal spot size. Here we demonstrated a center-covered engineered microsphere which can adjust the transverse component of the incident beam and achieve a sharp photonic nanojet. Modification of the beam width and working distance of the photonic nanojet were achieved by tuning the cover ratio of the engineered microsphere, leading to a sharp spot size which exceeded the optical diffraction limit. At a wavelength of 633 nm, a focal spot of 245 nm (0.387 λ) was achieved experimentally under plane wave illumination. Strong localized field with Bessel-like distribution was demonstrated by employing the linearly polarized beam and a center-covered mask being engineered on the microsphere. PMID:27528093

  13. Super-focusing of center-covered engineered microsphere.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengxue; Chen, Rui; Soh, Jiahao; Shen, Yue; Jiao, Lishi; Wu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xudong; Ji, Rong; Hong, Minghui

    2016-08-16

    Engineered microsphere possesses the advantage of strong light manipulation at sub-wavelength scale and emerges as a promising candidate to shrink the focal spot size. Here we demonstrated a center-covered engineered microsphere which can adjust the transverse component of the incident beam and achieve a sharp photonic nanojet. Modification of the beam width and working distance of the photonic nanojet were achieved by tuning the cover ratio of the engineered microsphere, leading to a sharp spot size which exceeded the optical diffraction limit. At a wavelength of 633 nm, a focal spot of 245 nm (0.387 λ) was achieved experimentally under plane wave illumination. Strong localized field with Bessel-like distribution was demonstrated by employing the linearly polarized beam and a center-covered mask being engineered on the microsphere.

  14. Super-focusing of center-covered engineered microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengxue; Chen, Rui; Soh, Jiahao; Shen, Yue; Jiao, Lishi; Wu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xudong; Ji, Rong; Hong, Minghui

    2016-08-01

    Engineered microsphere possesses the advantage of strong light manipulation at sub-wavelength scale and emerges as a promising candidate to shrink the focal spot size. Here we demonstrated a center-covered engineered microsphere which can adjust the transverse component of the incident beam and achieve a sharp photonic nanojet. Modification of the beam width and working distance of the photonic nanojet were achieved by tuning the cover ratio of the engineered microsphere, leading to a sharp spot size which exceeded the optical diffraction limit. At a wavelength of 633 nm, a focal spot of 245 nm (0.387 λ) was achieved experimentally under plane wave illumination. Strong localized field with Bessel-like distribution was demonstrated by employing the linearly polarized beam and a center-covered mask being engineered on the microsphere.

  15. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  16. Amorphous and nanostructured silica and aluminosilicate spray-dried microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, M.; Turcu, R. V. F.; Frentiu, B.; Tamasan, M.; Mocuta, H.; Ponta, O.; Simon, S.

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous silica and aluminosilicate microspheres with diameters in the 0.1-20 μm range were produced by spray drying method. SEM, TEM and AFM images showed the spherical shape of the obtained particles. Based on thermal analysis data, several heat treatments have been applied on the as-prepared samples in order to check the amorphous state stability of the microspheres and to develop nanosized crystalline phases. As-prepared microspheres remain amorphous up to 1400 °C. By calcination at 1400 °C, cristobalite type nanocrystals are developed on silica sample, while in aluminosilicate sample first are developed mullite type nanocrystals and only after prolonged treatment are developed also cristobalite type nanocrystals. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR results show that the local order around aluminum and silicon atoms strongly depend on the thermal history of the microspheres.

  17. Detection of microspheres in vivo using multispectral optoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Bhutiani, N; Kimbrough, C W; Burton, N C; Morscher, S; Egger, M; McMasters, K; Woloszynska-Read, A; El-Baz, A; McNally, L R

    2017-02-06

    We introduce a new approach to detect individual microparticles that contain NIR fluorescent dye by multispectral optoacoustic tomography in the context of the hemoglobin-rich environment within murine liver. We encapsulated a near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye within polystyrene microspheres, then injected them into the ileocolic vein, which drains to the liver. NIR absorption was determined using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. To quantitate the minimum diameter of microspheres, we used both colorimetric and spatial information to segment the regions in which the microspheres appear. Regional diameter was estimated by doubling the maximum regional distance. We found that the minimum microsphere size threshold for detection by multispectral optoacoustic tomography images is 78.9 µm.

  18. Super-Resolution Real Imaging in Microsphere-Assisted Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feifei; Li, Yi; Jia, Boliang; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-01-01

    Microsphere-assisted microscopy has received a lot of attention recently due to its simplicity and its capability to surpass the diffraction limit. However, to date, sub-diffraction-limit features have only been observed in virtual images formed through the microspheres. We show that it is possible to form real, super-resolution images using high-refractive index microspheres. Also, we report on how changes to a microsphere’s refractive index and size affect image formation and planes. The relationship between the focus position and the additional magnification factor is also investigated using experimental and theoretical methods. We demonstrate that such a real imaging mode, combined with the use of larger microspheres, can enlarge sub-diffraction-limit features up to 10 times that of wide-field microscopy’s magnification with a field-of-view diameter of up to 9 μm. PMID:27768774

  19. Locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Herzer, K; Müller, S; Antoch, G; Hilgard, P

    2011-09-01

    Compared with other malignant tumours, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibits particular characteristics regarding its supplying vessels and tumour biology. If a potentially curative surgical approach, such as resection or liver transplantation, is due to technical or prognostical reasons no option, these characteristics are a fundamental prerequisite for the possibility to effectively treat this tumour by local ablation methods. Microsphere and particle technology with selective transport of tumoricidal substances or radiation represents a new generation of therapeutics in interventional oncology. With the intrahepatic application of radioactive microspheres via the hepatic artery (radioembolization) local ablation can be performed even of diffuse and multifocal liver tumours, which hitherto, could only be approached with systemic therapy. The present standard for radioembolization, is the use of yttrium-90 glass or resin microspheres. The indications, technique and current results of radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of HCC are discussed in this review.

  20. Preparation of mesoporous zirconia microspheres as inert matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting; Wang, Chen; Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous zirconia microspheres, with a diameter of 900 μm, were prepared as an inert accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation element matrix by the sol-gel method. The purpose of mesopores is to improve the adsorption capacity of inert matrix fuel (IMF) for minor actinides. The study indicated that the mesoporous zirconia performance was improved after the microspheres were hydrothermally treated at 150 °C, the specific surface area increased from 28.29 m2/g to 61.28 m2/g, and hydrothermal treatment avoided the cracking of the microspheres. Pre-decomposition of the organics during the hydrothermal process stabilized the mesoporous structure. The average pore diameter of mesoporous microsphere was 14.3 nm.

  1. [Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Laakso, Elina; Pekkola, Johanna; Soinne, Lauri; Putaala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is increasingly recognized. The condition is characterized by multifocal vasoconstriction lesions in cerebral arteries. Headache is the central symptom, with an acute onset and paroxysmal occurrence. Some of the patients develop intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic disturbance of the cerebral circulation, hypertensive encephalopathy (PRES) or epileptic seizures as complications. The disease is most common in middle-aged women. Most patients have an underlying predisposing factor, most commonly vasoactive medications, drugs or puerperium. There is no evidence-based practice.

  2. X- And y-axis driver for rotating microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, Berthold W.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for precise control of the motion and position of microspheres for examination of their interior and/or exterior. The apparatus includes an x- and y-axis driver mechanism controlled, for example, by a minicomputer for selectively rotating microspheres retained between a pair of manipulator arms having flat, smooth end surfaces. The driver mechanism includes an apertured plate and ball arrangement which provided for coupled equal and opposite movement of the manipulator arms in two perpendicular directions.

  3. A novel method for producing microspheres with semipermeable polymer membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. C.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1992-01-01

    A new and systematic approach for producing polymer microspheres has been demonstrated. The membrane of the microsphere is formed by immersing the polyanionic droplet into a collapsing annular sheet, which is made of another polycation polymer solution. This method minimizes the impact force during the time when the chemical reaction takes place, hence eliminating the shortcomings of the current encapsulation techniques. The results of this study show the feasibility of this method for mass production of microcapsules.

  4. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  5. Development of a novel 3-month drug releasing risperidone microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Yerragunta, Bhanusree; Jogala, Satheesh; Chinnala, Krishna Mohan; Aukunuru, Jithan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop an ideal microsphere formulation of risperidone that would prolong the drug release for 3 months in vivo and avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Materials and Methods: Polycaprolactones (PCL) were used as polymers to prepare microspheres. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of variable molecular weights: PCL-14000, PCL-45000, PCL-80000 or the blends of these polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order drug-releasing properties without the lag phase. In the present study, the sustained release risperidone microspheres were prepared by o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique and the yield was determined. Microspheres were evaluated for their drug content and in vitro drug release. Microspheres prepared using a blend of PCL-45000 and PCL-80000 at a ratio of 1:1 resulted in the release of the drug in a time frame of 90 days, demonstrated zero-order drug release without lag time and burst release. This formulation was considered optimized formulation. Optimized formulation was characterized for solid state of the drug using differential scanning calorimetry, surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy and in vivo drug release in rats. Results: The surface of the optimized formulation was smooth, and the drug changed its physical form in the presence of blends of polymers and upon fabrication of microspheres. The optimized formulation also released the drug in vivo for a period of 90 days. Conclusions: From our study, it was concluded that these optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™ and, therefore, could further improve patient compliance. PMID:25709335

  6. Two new plate nozzles for the production of alginate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Kang; He, Zhimin

    2005-07-14

    Combining the Rayleigh-type jet break-up and two new plate nozzles, the alginate microsphere was produced. Spray generators made of syringe needle and laser-drilling nozzle plate and synthetic red stone nozzle plate were fabricated and contrasted. The above two plate nozzles provided lower liquid resistance and yield well. Furthermore, the more uniform microsphere was produced within a wider range of frequency by plate nozzles. Experiments using multiple-nozzle synthetic red stone plate was easy to feasible.

  7. Investigation of Expandable Polymeric Microspheres for Packaging Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-06

    printing inks, internally pressurized tennis balls , and foaming cable compounds. Microspheres were compounded into high density polyethylene...microspheres), printing  inks  (60‐80%), and  tennis   balls   and foaming cable filling compounds (over 99%) [2].  According to a literature search, polymer

  8. Statins and cerebral hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438

  9. Drug encapsulated aerosolized microspheres as a biodegradable, intelligent glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Floyd, J Alaina; Galperin, Anna; Ratner, Buddy D

    2016-02-01

    The grim prognosis for patients diagnosed with malignant gliomas necessitates the development of new therapeutic strategies for localized and sustained drug delivery to combat tumor drug resistance and regrowth. Here we introduce drug encapsulated aerosolized microspheres as a biodegradable, intelligent glioma therapy (DREAM BIG therapy). DREAM BIG therapy is envisioned to deliver three chemotherapeutics, temporally staged over one year, via a bioadhesive, biodegradable spray directly to the brain surgical site after tumor excision. In this proof-of-principle article exploring key components of the DREAM BIG therapy prototype, rhodamine B (RB) encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) encapsulated poly(lactic acid) microspheres were formulated and characterized. The encapsulation efficiency of RB and IgG and the release kinetics of the model drugs from the microspheres were elucidated in addition to the release kinetics of RB from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres formulated in a degradable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) solution. The successful aerosolized application onto brain tissue ex-vivo demonstrated the conformal adhesion of the RB encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres to the convoluted brain surface mediated by the thermoresponsive carrier, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). These preliminary results suggest the potential of the DREAM BIG therapy for future use with multiple chemotherapeutics and microsphere types to combat gliomas at a localized site.

  10. Mucoadhesive microspheres prepared by interpolymer complexation and solvent diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Chun, Myung-Kwan; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Hoo-Kyun

    2005-01-20

    Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared to increase gastric residence time using an interpolymer complexation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and a solvent diffusion method. The complexation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as a result of hydrogen bonding was confirmed by the shift in the carbonyl absorption bands of poly(acrylic acid) using FT-IR. A mixture of ethanol/water was used as the internal phase, corn oil was used as the external phase of emulsion, and span 80 was used as the surfactant. Spherical microspheres were prepared and the inside of the microspheres was completely filled. The optimum solvent ratio of the internal phase (ethanol/water) was 8/2 and 7/3, and the particle size increased as the content of water was increased. The mean particle size increased with the increase in polymer concentration. The adhesive force of microspheres was equivalent to that of Carbopol. The release rate of acetaminophen from the complex microspheres was slower than the PVP microspheres at pH 2.0 and 6.8.

  11. Abiogenic Photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP Sensitized by Flavoproteinoid Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Michael P.; Telegina, Taisiya A.; Lyudnikova, Tamara A.; Kritsky, Mikhail S.

    2008-06-01

    A model for abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP by orthophosphate to yield ATP was studied. The model is based on the photochemical activity of flavoproteinoid microspheres that are formed by aggregation in an aqueous medium of products of thermal condensation of a glutamic acid, glycine and lysine mixture (8:3:1) and contain, along with amino acid polymers (proteinoids), abiogenic isoalloxazine (flavin) pigments. Irradiation of aqueous suspensions of microspheres with blue visible light or ultraviolet in the presence of ADP and orthophosphate resulted in ATP formation. The yield of ATP in aerated suspensions was 10 20% per one mol of starting ADP. Deaeration reduced the photophosphorylating activity of microspheres five to 10 times. Treatment of aerated microsphere suspensions with superoxide dismutase during irradiation partially suppressed ATP formation. Deaerated microspheres restored completely their photophosphorylating activity after addition of hydrogen peroxide to the suspension. The photophosphorylating activity of deaerated suspensions of flavoproteinoid microspheres was also recovered by introduction of Fe3+-cytochrome c, an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen. On the basis of the results obtained, a chemical mechanism of phosphorylation is proposed in which the free radical form of reduced flavin sensitizer left( {{text{FlH}}^ bullet } right) and ADP are involved.

  12. Fractionating Polymer Microspheres as Highly Accurate Density Standards.

    PubMed

    Bloxham, William H; Hennek, Jonathan W; Kumar, Ashok A; Whitesides, George M

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes a method of isolating small, highly accurate density-standard beads and characterizing their densities using accurate and experimentally traceable techniques. Density standards have a variety of applications, including the characterization of density gradients, which are used to separate objects in a variety of fields. Glass density-standard beads can be very accurate (±0.0001 g cm(-3)) but are too large (3-7 mm in diameter) for many applications. When smaller density standards are needed, commercial polymer microspheres are often used. These microspheres have standard deviations in density ranging from 0.006 to 0.021 g cm(-3); these distributions in density make these microspheres impractical for applications demanding small steps in density. In this paper, commercial microspheres are fractionated using aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS), aqueous mixture of polymers and salts that spontaneously separate into phases having molecularly sharp steps in density, to isolate microspheres having much narrower distributions in density (standard deviations from 0.0003 to 0.0008 g cm(-3)) than the original microspheres. By reducing the heterogeneity in densities, this method reduces the uncertainty in the density of any specific bead and, therefore, improves the accuracy within the limits of the calibration standards used to characterize the distributions in density.

  13. Development and characterization of fast responding pressure sensitive microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Fletcher; Rodriguez, Miguel; McCann, Jesse; Carlson, Brenden; Dabiri, Dana; Khalil, Gamal E; Callis, James B; Xia, Younan; Gouterman, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The response times of pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and pressure sensitive microspheres to passing shockwaves were measured to investigate their ability to accurately determine pressure changes in unsteady flows. The PSPs tested used platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP), platinum octaethylporphine (PtOEP), and a novel set of osmium-based organometallic complexes as pressure sensitive luminophors incorporated into polymer matrices of dimethylsiloxane bisphenol A-polycarbonate block copolymer or polystyrene. Two types of pressure sensitive microspheres were used, the first being PtOEP-doped polystyrene microspheres (PSBeads) and the second being porous silicon dioxide microspheres containing the novel, pressure sensitive osmium complexes. Response times for the platinum-based PSPs ranged from 47.2 to 53.0 micros, while the osmium-based PSPs ranged between 37.6 and 58.9 micros. For the microspheres, 2.5 microm diameter PSBeads showed a response time of 3.15 ms, while the osmium-based silicon dioxide microspheres showed a response time ranging between 13.6 and 18.9 micros.

  14. Development and characterization of fast responding pressure sensitive microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Fletcher; Rodriguez, Miguel; McCann, Jesse; Carlson, Brenden; Dabiri, Dana; Khalil, Gamal E.; Callis, James B.; Xia, Younan; Gouterman, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The response times of pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and pressure sensitive microspheres to passing shockwaves were measured to investigate their ability to accurately determine pressure changes in unsteady flows. The PSPs tested used platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP), platinum octaethylporphine (PtOEP), and a novel set of osmium-based organometallic complexes as pressure sensitive luminophors incorporated into polymer matrices of dimethylsiloxane bisphenol A-polycarbonate block copolymer or polystyrene. Two types of pressure sensitive microspheres were used, the first being PtOEP-doped polystyrene microspheres (PSBeads) and the second being porous silicon dioxide microspheres containing the novel, pressure sensitive osmium complexes. Response times for the platinum-based PSPs ranged from 47.2to53.0μs, while the osmium-based PSPs ranged between 37.6 and 58.9μs. For the microspheres, 2.5μm diameter PSBeads showed a response time of 3.15ms, while the osmium-based silicon dioxide microspheres showed a response time ranging between 13.6 and 18.9μs.

  15. Formulation and characterization of catalase in albumin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Siwale, Rodney C; Oettinger, Carl W; Pai, S Balakrishna; Addo, Richard; Uddin, Nasir; Siddig, Aladin; D'Souza, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Catalase in albumin microspheres were formulated for intravenous administration to antagonize the effects of over-production of reactive oxygenated species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in septic shock. The aim was to increase effective half-life of catalase and take advantage of the phagocytic uptake of the encapsulated catalase by the vascular endothelium. Catalase microspheres were prepared by spray-drying. The microspheres were evaluated for particle size, particle shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, chemical stability, thermal stability and in vitro drug release characteristics. The microspheres had a mean particle size of 4.7 +/- 2 microm, optimal for phagocytic uptake, as demonstrated by Makino et al. SEM revealed that microspheres were spherical with smooth surface morphology. An encapsulation efficiency of 91.5 +/- 3% was achieved and the encapsulated catalase was chemically and thermally stable. Application of in vitro drug release data to the Higuchi kinetic equation indicated matrix diffusion-controlled catalase release from albumin microspheres.

  16. Inherently fluorescent polystyrene microspheres for coating, sensing and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Bo; Xu, Yu-Liang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanan; Sui, Yuanhong; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2017-04-01

    Commercially available polystyrene (PS) fluorescent microspheres are widely used in biological field for tracing, in vivo imaging and calibration of flow cytometry, among other applications. However, these particles do suffer from some drawbacks such as the leakage and photobleaching of organic dyes within them. In the present study, inherently fluorescent properties of PS based microspheres have been explored for the first time. Here we find that a simple chloromethylation reaction endows the polystyrene particles with inherent fluorescence without any subsequent conjugation of an external fluorophore. A possible mechanism for fluorescence is elucidated by synthesizing and investigating p-ethylbenzyl chloride, a compound with similar structure. Significantly, no photobleaching or leaking issues were observed owing to the stable structure of the microspheres. Chloromethylated PS (CMPS) microspheres can keep their perpetual blue fluorescence even in dry powder state making them attractive as a potential coating material. Furthermore, the chloromethyl groups on CMPS microspheres make them very convenient for further functionalization. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted microspheres showed good biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity, and could be used to image intracellular Fe(3+) due to the selective fluorescence quenching effect of aqueous Fe(3+) in cytoplasm.

  17. Validity of microsphere depositions for regional myocardial flows

    SciTech Connect

    Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Malone, M.A.; Moffett, T.C.; King, R.B.; Little, S.E.; Link, J.M.; Krohn, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    Due to the particulate nature of microspheres, their deposition in small-tissue regions may not be strictly flow dependent. To evaluate the importance of rheological and geometric factors and random error, their deposition densities in small regions of rabbit hearts were examined in comparison with those of a new molecular microsphere, 2-iododesmethylimipramine (IDMI), whose high lipid solubility allows it to be delivered into tissue in proportion to flow, and whose binding in tissue prevents rapid washout. /sup 141/Ce- and /sup 103/Ru-labeled 16.5-..mu..m spheres in one syringe and (/sup 125/I)- and (/sup 131/I)DMI in another syringe were injected simultaneously into the left atrium of open-chest rabbits, while obtaining reference blood samples from the femoral artery. Hearts were removed 1 min after injection, cut into /approximately/ 100 pieces averaging 54 mg, and the regional deposition densities calculated for each tracer from the isotopic counts. Scatter plots of sphere densities vs. IDMI densities showed that differences between microspheres and IDMI had substantial scatter and were not random. Microsphere depositions tended to be lower that IDMI deposition at low flows and higher at high flows. The authors conclude that microspheres are generally adequate for estimating regional flows but suffer systematic error when the regions of interest are supplied via arteries of diameters only a few times those of microspheres.

  18. Thermal analysis of SYNROC gel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Knipschild, K.E.; Lee, D.A.

    1981-11-01

    Thermoanalytical methods were used to characterize SYNROC microspheres at three stages of the internal gelation process: unwashed spheres, washed spheres, and washed-and-dried spheres. Linear-programmed heating experiments were performed using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, and mass spectrometry for producing the thermograms. The data were used to elucidate thermal reactions occurring between ambient and 800/sup 0/C. The principal reactions were the release of waters from various sources, the decomposition and combustion of gelation additives (hexamethylenetetramine and urea), and the decomposition of carbonates. Data also demonstrated the efficiency of the washing process. Kinetic studies were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis to determine activation energies for certain pyrolysis reactions. 8 figures.

  19. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye.

  20. Permeability of Hollow Microspherical Membranes to Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, V. N.; Kazanin, I. V.; Pak, A. Yu.; Vereshchagin, A. S.; Lebiga, V. A.; Fomin, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the sorption characteristics of various hollow microspherical membranes to reveal particles most suitable for application in the membrane-sorption technologies of helium extraction from a natural gas. The permeability of the investigated sorbents to helium and their impermeability to air and methane are shown experimentally. The sorption-desorption dependences of the studied sorbents have been obtained, from which the parameters of their specific permeability to helium are calculated. It has been established that the physicochemical modification of the original particles exerts a great influence on the coefficient of the permeability of a sorbent to helium. Specially treated cenospheres have displayed high efficiency as membranes for selective extraction of helium.

  1. Gelatin-methotrexate conjugate microspheres as a potential drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pica, Karen; Tchao, Ruy; Ofner, Clyde M

    2006-09-01

    Gelatin-methotrexate microspheres for intra-tumor administration have possibilities for minimizing systemic toxicities of methotrexate (MTX) and overcoming its resistance. Gelatin-MTX conjugates prepared by a carbodiimide reaction were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde to form microspheres (MTX:gelatin molar ratios of 2:1, 15:1, and 21:1). Microspheres were evaluated under in vitro tumor conditions at pH 6.5 and 37 degrees C with and without Cathepsin B (Cat B). Some microspheres were capped with an ethanolamine/cyanoborohydride procedure. SEM of broken microspheres revealed a hollow shell structure. Superficial Cat B degradation influenced some free MTX release but produced no conjugate fragment release. HPLC measured release of fragments (<10 kDa) was very little and release of free MTX was small. However, higher drug load microspheres released less free MTX than lower drug load, a substantial lag phase of free MTX release from capped microspheres changed to an initial rapid release in uncapped microspheres, and fragments were only released from uncapped microspheres. Opened unstable Schiff base crosslinks in uncapped microspheres may allow enzyme to produce conjugate fragments not observed in capped microspheres. Free MTX release may occur from dissolved uncrosslinked conjugate within the hollow microspheres. Important relationships and observations are described that will be useful for gelatin and perhaps other proteinaceous microspheres. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Chitosan Microspheres in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-01-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:22707817

  3. Cerebral Asymmetries and Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are historical developments regarding the concepts of cerebral localization, and analyzed are implications of current research on the role of the cerebral hemispheres in reading disorders. (CL)

  4. Cephalexin microspheres for dairy mastitis: effect of preparation method and surfactant type on physicochemical properties of the microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chaisri, Wasana; Hennink, Wim E; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of preparation method and the type of surfactant on the properties of cephalexin (CPX) microspheres in order to obtain delivery systems suitable for the treatment of dairy mastitis. Microspheres were obtained using various preparation conditions and their physicochemical characteristics such as size, loading efficiency, morphology, and drug crystallinity were investigated. Antibacterial activity of microspheres from the optimum preparation condition was also studied. CPX microspheres were prepared by two different W/O/W emulsion solvent evaporation methods using PLGA as a matrix forming polymer. Several types of surfactants including nonionic, cationic, and anionic at different concentrations were used for preparation of the particles. The type and concentration of surfactant did neither affect the size nor morphology of the microspheres but showed a pronounced effect on the CPX encapsulation efficiency. It was found that Tween 80 showed the highest drug encapsulation efficiency (66.5%). Results from X-ray diffraction diffractograms and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicated that CPX entrapped in these microparticles was amorphous. Assessment of antibacterial activity showed that the obtained CPX microspheres exhibited good inhibition with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 128 microg/mL and 2,048 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 512 microg/mL and 4,096 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, respectively.

  5. A Modular, Plasmin-Sensitive, Clickable Poly(ethylene glycol)-Heparin-Laminin Microsphere System for Establishing Growth Factor Gradients in Nerve Guidance Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Roam, Jacob L.; Yan, Ying; Nguyen, Peter K.; Kinstlinger, Ian S.; Leuchter, Michael K; Hunter, Daniel A.; Wood, Matthew D.; Elbert, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a complex problem that, despite many advancements and innovations, still has sub-optimal outcomes. Compared to biologically derived acelluar nerve grafts and autografts, completely synthetic nerve guidance conduits (NGC), which allow for precise engineering of their properties, are promising but still far from optimal. We have developed an almost entirely synthetic NGC that allows control of soluble growth factor delivery kinetics, cell-initiated degradability and cell attachment. We have focused on the spatial patterning of glial-cell derived human neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which promotes motor axon extension. The base scaffolds consisted of heparin-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microspheres. The modular microsphere format greatly simplifies the formation of concentration gradients of reversibly bound GDNF. To facilitate axon extension, we engineered the microspheres with tunable plasmin degradability. ‘Click’ cross-linking chemistries were also added to allow scaffold formation without risk of covalently coupling the growth factor to the scaffold. Cell adhesion was promoted by covalently bound laminin. GDNF that was released from these microspheres was confirmed to retain its activity. Graded scaffolds were formed inside silicone conduits using 3D-printed holders. The fully formed NGC’s contained plasmin-degradable PEG/heparin scaffolds that developed linear gradients in reversibly bound GDNF. The NGC’s were implanted into rats with severed sciatic nerves to confirm in vivo degradability and lack of a major foreign body response. The NGC’s also promoted robust axonal regeneration into the conduit. PMID:26352518

  6. Fe3O4/PANI/P(MAA-co-NVP) multilayer composite microspheres with electric and magnetic features: assembly and characterization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Ling; Fan, Li-Hua; Gao, Gai-Ling; Chen, Ya-Shao; Shao, Xiao-Hua

    2009-11-01

    A core-shell multilayered composite microsphere with electric and magnetic features was designed and prepared on the basis of mutilayered fabrication. This kind of microspheres was obtained by introducing a rod-like conductive polyanilline (PANI) or its derivatives onto the surface of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate as a anchor molecule. Subsequently, the Fe3O4/PANI or Fe3O4/aniline oligomers microspheres, as a secondary core, were covered with a cross-linked shell layer which was constructed by a dispersion polymerization process of methacrylic acid and vinyl pyrrolidone. The structure and morphologies were characterized by using a FTIR, XRD, UV-vis, SEM, TEM and TGA. The average diameter of Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared is about 10.7 nm, and the PANI nanobars hold the size in the range of about 20.4-25.6 nm. The PANI nanobars are covalently assembled on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles mainly in a mode of extended or horizontal arrangements through XRD and TEM results. The electromagnetic properties were examined based on different polymerization degrees and component ratios of PANI or its derivatives, showing characteristics of soft magnetic materials and controllable conductivity. The multilayer microspheres can be readily used to perform separation and magnetism guide, even electric and pH-modulated drug release in the light of swelling determination and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, and are potentially of interest for drug targeting purpose.

  7. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    DOEpatents

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  8. The template-assisted synthesis of polypyrrole hollow microspheres with a double-shelled structure.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chunyu; Zou, Bingfang; Wang, Yongqiang; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Haihong; Zhou, Shaomin

    2015-03-25

    Double-shelled polypyrrole hollow microspheres were synthesized via a novel template-assisted concept, using iron oxide hollow microspheres as both the sacrificial template and initiator in acidic solution.

  9. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  10. Preparation of polysulfone hollow microspheres encapsulating DNA and their functional utilization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Liu, X D; Nomizu, M; Nishi, N

    2004-05-01

    Polysulfone hollow microspheres encapsulating DNA were prepared using a liquid-liquid phase separation technique. The microspheres were then used to absorb a DNA-binding intercalating material--ethidium bromide. The amount of DNA encapsulated in the microspheres depended on the concentration of the DNA solution used to prepare the microspheres, and the microsphere morphology depended on both the polymer concentration and the preparation conditions. The amount of ethidium bromide in the microspheres depended mainly on the amount of encapsulated DNA, and the microsphere morphology also affected the removal of the ethidium bromide. The new method of DNA encapsulation is proposed, and the microspheres encapsulating the DNA have the potential to be used in environmental applications.

  11. Biodegradable polymer-silica xerogel composite microspheres for controlled release of gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Xue, J M; Tan, C H; Lukito, D

    2006-08-01

    Single and double layered composite microspheres were prepared by encapsulating gentamicin-loaded silica xerogels with biodegradable PLGA polymers (poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)). The in vitro drug release properties of both the composite microspheres were investigated. The single layered composite microspheres showed a high initial burst, followed by two sustained release stages lasting for approximately 6 weeks. The two sustained release stages of the single layered composite microspheres could be attributed to the swelling and bulk erosion of the polymer encapsulations, respectively. In comparison with the single layered composite microspheres, the double layered composite microspheres realized a much reduced initial burst together with three sustained release stages. The whole release period of the double layered composite microspheres could last more than 9 weeks. These distinct behaviors make the double layered composite microspheres promising as a new drug release material for localized drug delivery applications.

  12. STUDIES IN CEREBRAL METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Gilbert S.; Adams, John E.; Bentinck, Richard C.; Eisenberg, Eugene; Harper, Harold; Hobson, Quentin J. G.

    1953-01-01

    In numerous clinical observations, it has been noted that steroid hormones have effects upon the central nervous system. Earlier interpretations of this relationship were largely speculative until newer methods permitted quantitation of actions of hormones and hormonal deficiencies on cerebral metabolism. The present studies indicate that certain steroids which affect behavior also influence cerebral metabolism. PMID:13019600

  13. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Ramadan, H; Bamford, J

    2013-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an underdiagnosed condition which usually presents as severe headache with or without neurological deficit. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with headache and multifocal intracerebral haemorrhage. We review the literature regarding the presentation, pathophysiology and management of RCVS and discuss how to differentiate it from cerebral vasculitis.

  14. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... SSI file Error processing SSI file Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  15. Cerebral vasospasm pharmacological treatment: an update.

    PubMed

    Siasios, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z; Fountas, Kostas N

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage- (aSAH-) associated vasospasm constitutes a clinicopathological entity, in which reversible vasculopathy, impaired autoregulatory function, and hypovolemia take place, and lead to the reduction of cerebral perfusion and finally ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm begins most often on the third day after the ictal event and reaches the maximum on the 5th-7th postictal days. Several therapeutic modalities have been employed for preventing or reversing cerebral vasospasm. Triple "H" therapy, balloon and chemical angioplasty with superselective intra-arterial injection of vasodilators, administration of substances like magnesium sulfate, statins, fasudil hydrochloride, erythropoietin, endothelin-1 antagonists, nitric oxide progenitors, and sildenafil, are some of the therapeutic protocols, which are currently employed for managing patients with aSAH. Intense pathophysiological mechanism research has led to the identification of various mediators of cerebral vasospasm, such as endothelium-derived, vascular smooth muscle-derived, proinflammatory mediators, cytokines and adhesion molecules, stress-induced gene activation, and platelet-derived growth factors. Oral, intravenous, or intra-arterial administration of antagonists of these mediators has been suggested for treating patients suffering a-SAH vasospam. In our current study, we attempt to summate all the available pharmacological treatment modalities for managing vasospasm.

  16. Cerebral Vasospasm Pharmacological Treatment: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Siasios, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z.; Fountas, Kostas N.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage- (aSAH-) associated vasospasm constitutes a clinicopathological entity, in which reversible vasculopathy, impaired autoregulatory function, and hypovolemia take place, and lead to the reduction of cerebral perfusion and finally ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm begins most often on the third day after the ictal event and reaches the maximum on the 5th–7th postictal days. Several therapeutic modalities have been employed for preventing or reversing cerebral vasospasm. Triple “H” therapy, balloon and chemical angioplasty with superselective intra-arterial injection of vasodilators, administration of substances like magnesium sulfate, statins, fasudil hydrochloride, erythropoietin, endothelin-1 antagonists, nitric oxide progenitors, and sildenafil, are some of the therapeutic protocols, which are currently employed for managing patients with aSAH. Intense pathophysiological mechanism research has led to the identification of various mediators of cerebral vasospasm, such as endothelium-derived, vascular smooth muscle-derived, proinflammatory mediators, cytokines and adhesion molecules, stress-induced gene activation, and platelet-derived growth factors. Oral, intravenous, or intra-arterial administration of antagonists of these mediators has been suggested for treating patients suffering a-SAH vasospam. In our current study, we attempt to summate all the available pharmacological treatment modalities for managing vasospasm. PMID:23431440

  17. EFFECTS OF THE GRAM STAIN ON MICROSPHERES FROM THERMAL POLYAMINO ACIDS1

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Sidney W.; Yuyama, Shuhei

    1963-01-01

    Fox, Sidney W. (The Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Shuhei Yuyama. Effects of the Gram stain on microspheres from thermal polyamino acids. J. Bacteriol. 85:279–283. 1963.—Microspheres produced from acid proteinoid accept the Gram stain. The stain is negative, but microspheres produced from mixtures containing a sufficient proportion of lysine proteinoid stain positive. Microspheres produced from mixtures containing the appropriate proportions contain individuals which stain positive and others which stain negative. Images PMID:13959050

  18. Preparation of antibacterial silver-doped silica glass microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Toda, Shogo; Kim, Hyun-Min; Kokubo, Tadashi; Masuda, Noriaki

    2003-08-01

    Various types of inorganic substances doped with silver ions have been developed as antibacterial materials, and some have already been commercialized. Colorless and chemically durable materials that slowly release silver ions are, however, still need to be developed. The present authors have previously shown that when a silica glass doped with silver and aluminium ions is prepared using the sol-gel method, the resultant product is colorless, chemically durable, and slowly releases silver ions into water over a long period. The doped silica glass takes a form of microspheres <1 microm in diameter, it is easily mixed with organic polymers, and the mixture can be formed into a thin film or fine fibers, etc. We report on the preparation of silver doped silica glass microspheres having a diameter =1 microm, using the sol-gel method. Initially, tetraethoxysilane was partially prehydrolyzed by water in ethanol, and then aluminium triisopropoxide was added to the solution to form Si-O-Al bonds. Finally, an ammonia solution containing silver nitrate was added to form silica microspheres doped with silver ion together with aluminium ions. The results show monodispersed microspheres 0.4-0.6 microm in diameter were obtained with nominal compositions of Si/Al/Ag = 1/0.01-0.03/0.003-0.03, with a molar ratio of Al/Ag = 1-3.3. The microspheres were colorless, showed a high chemical durability, and slowly released silver ions into water at 37 degrees C. Microspheres with the composition Si/Al/Ag = 1/0.01/0.01 showed excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the microspheres was 400, which is less than the MIC value (800) of commercial antibacterial materials.

  19. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Porous Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Satish Balakrishna; More, Avinash Bhanudas; Malayandi, Rajkumar

    2010-01-01

    Rifampicin (RIF) is a major component in fixed dose combination therapy for the treatment of tuberculosis. RIF has low solubility and high permeability with high dose and hence it is classified as class II drug in Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). RIF has poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility, acid decomposition and, drug and food interaction. The present investigation was aimed to develop RIF loaded porous microspheres as a controlled release dosage form. Eudragit based porous microspheres of RIF were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Prepared porous microspheres were evaluated for its entrapment efficacy, morphology, thermal behavior, crystalline nature, in-vitro drug release and stability in simulated gastric fluid. The entrapment efficacy of drug loaded microspheres was found to be in the range of 19.04–74.57%. Surface morphology revealed the porous and spherical structure of microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetric studies confirmed that formulation process altered the crystalline nature of RIF. In vitro drug release studies indicated that drug to polymer ratio of 2:1 showed more than 85% drug release over the period of 3 h. Stability studies in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated that low relative decomposition of 18.5% was achieved with high drug to low polymer ratio of 1:4. The results obtained from the present investigation concluded that RIF loaded porous microspheres are suitable for developing oral controlled release dosage form of RIF that can prevent acid decomposition and provide better biopharmaceutical properties. Further more the microspheres can be evaluated for preventing the interaction with isoniazid, other drugs and foodstuffs. PMID:21179348

  20. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnSe microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Huaqiang; Xiao, Yujiang; Zhang, Sichun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of semiconductor ZnSe microspheres composed of nanoparticles via a solvothermal route between the organic molecule selenophene (C4H4 Se) and ZnCl2 without adding any surfactant. The ZnSe microspheres were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), specific surface area measurement, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. A strong and broad blue PL emission at 443 nm in wavelength (~2.79 eV in photon energy) is attributed to the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnSe, while the 530 nm peak is a defect-related (DL) emission. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnSe microspheres was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation. The degradations of MO reach 94% or 95.1%, close to 100%, in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 7 or 10 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Meanwhile the degradations of MO reach 94.3% or 60.6% in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 12 h, respectively. The degradation rate of ZnSe microspheres is twice that of ZnSe commercial powder under UV light irradiation, and three times under visible light irradiation. The degradation process of MO dye on ZnSe microspheres under UV or visible light is also discussed.

  1. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnSe microspheres.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huaqiang; Xiao, Yujiang; Zhang, Sichun

    2011-01-07

    This paper reports the synthesis of semiconductor ZnSe microspheres composed of nanoparticles via a solvothermal route between the organic molecule selenophene (C(4)H(4) Se) and ZnCl(2) without adding any surfactant. The ZnSe microspheres were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), specific surface area measurement, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. A strong and broad blue PL emission at 443 nm in wavelength (∼2.79 eV in photon energy) is attributed to the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnSe, while the 530 nm peak is a defect-related (DL) emission. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnSe microspheres was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation. The degradations of MO reach 94% or 95.1%, close to 100%, in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 7 or 10 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Meanwhile the degradations of MO reach 94.3% or 60.6% in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 12 h, respectively. The degradation rate of ZnSe microspheres is twice that of ZnSe commercial powder under UV light irradiation, and three times under visible light irradiation. The degradation process of MO dye on ZnSe microspheres under UV or visible light is also discussed.

  2. Effects of Polysaccharide of Gastrodia Elata Blume and Electro-Acupuncture on Expressions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Stem Cell Factor Protein in Caudate Putamen of Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huai-bin; Wu, Feng; Miao, Hua-chun; Xiong, Ke-ren

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the neural protective effect of polysaccharide of Gastrodia elata Blume (PGB) and electro-acupuncture (EA) on focal cerebral ischemia rats. Material/Methods A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal group, model group, PGB group, EA group and PGB+EA group). The model was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two week after modeling, rats were given PGB, EA, or a combination of the 2 in continuous treatment for 2 successive weeks. 14 days after modeling, expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Positive expression of BDNF and SCF protein was found in the right caudate putamen of each group of rats. Expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the model group were higher than normal group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the PGB group, the EA group, and the PGB plus EA group increased significantly (P<0.05). The expressions of BDNF and SCF obviously increased in the PGB plus EA group compared to those of the EA group and the PGB group (P<0.05). Conclusions PGB and EA up-regulated the expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the CPu of focal cerebral ischemia rats, and the combination of PGB+EA has a synergistic effect on the recovery from cerebral ischemia. PMID:28033308

  3. Effects of Polysaccharide of Gastrodia Elata Blume and Electro-Acupuncture on Expressions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Stem Cell Factor Protein in Caudate Putamen of Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Bin; Wu, Feng; Miao, Hua-Chun; Xiong, Ke-Ren

    2016-12-23

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the neural protective effect of polysaccharide of Gastrodia elata Blume (PGB) and electro-acupuncture (EA) on focal cerebral ischemia rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal group, model group, PGB group, EA group and PGB+EA group). The model was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two week after modeling, rats were given PGB, EA, or a combination of the 2 in continuous treatment for 2 successive weeks. 14 days after modeling, expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Positive expression of BDNF and SCF protein was found in the right caudate putamen of each group of rats. Expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the model group were higher than normal group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the PGB group, the EA group, and the PGB plus EA group increased significantly (P<0.05). The expressions of BDNF and SCF obviously increased in the PGB plus EA group compared to those of the EA group and the PGB group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS PGB and EA up-regulated the expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the CPu of focal cerebral ischemia rats, and the combination of PGB+EA has a synergistic effect on the recovery from cerebral ischemia.

  4. Mixed uranium dicarbide and uranium dioxide microspheres and process of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel microspheres are made by sintering microspheres containing uranium dioxide and uncombined carbon in a 1 mole percent carbon monoxide/99 mole percent argon atmosphere at 1550.degree. C. and then sintering the microspheres in a 3 mole percent carbon monoxide/97 mole percent argon atmosphere at the same temperature.

  5. A reproducible accelerated in vitro release testing method for PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Lee, Kyulim; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-02-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated in vitro release method for long-acting PLGA microspheres with inner structure/porosity differences. Risperidone was chosen as a model drug. Qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent PLGA microspheres with different inner structure/porosity were obtained using different manufacturing processes. Physicochemical properties as well as degradation profiles of the prepared microspheres were investigated. Furthermore, in vitro release testing of the prepared risperidone microspheres was performed using the most common in vitro release methods (i.e., sample-and-separate and flow through) for this type of product. The obtained compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres had similar drug loading but different inner structure/porosity. When microsphere particle size appeared similar, porous risperidone microspheres showed faster microsphere degradation and drug release compared with less porous microspheres. Both in vitro release methods investigated were able to differentiate risperidone microsphere formulations with differences in porosity under real-time (37 °C) and accelerated (45 °C) testing conditions. Notably, only the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method showed good reproducibility for highly porous risperidone microspheres. These results indicated that the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method is an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting PLGA microspheres (even with porous structures).

  6. A novel strategy for the preparation of porous microspheres and its application in peptide drug loading.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Wang, Yuxia; Zhang, Huixia; Zhou, Weiqing; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-09-15

    A new strategy is developed to prepare porous microspheres with narrow size distribution for peptides controlled release, involving a fabrication of porous microspheres without any porogens followed by a pore closing process. Amphiphilic polymers with different hydrophobic segments (poly(monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-co-d,l-lactide) (mPEG-PLA), poly(monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-co-d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA)) are employed as microspheres matrix to prepare porous microspheres based on a double emulsion-premix membrane emulsification technique combined with a solvent evaporation method. Both microspheres possess narrow size distribution and porous surface, which are mainly caused by (a) hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) segments absorbing water molecules followed by a water evaporation process and (b) local explosion of microspheres due to fast evaporation of dichloromethane (MC). Importantly, mPEG-PLGA microspheres have a honeycomb like structure while mPEG-PLA microspheres have a solid structure internally, illustrating that the different hydrophobic segments could modulate the affinity between solvent and matrix polymer and influence the phase separation rate of microspheres matrix. Long term release patterns are demonstrated with pore-closed microspheres, which are prepared from mPEG-PLGA microspheres loading salmon calcitonin (SCT). These results suggest that it is potential to construct porous microspheres for drug sustained release using permanent geometric templates as new porogens.

  7. Double-walled microspheres loaded with meglumine antimoniate: preparation, characterization and in vitro release study.

    PubMed

    Navaei, Ali; Rasoolian, Morteza; Momeni, Arash; Emami, Shahriar; Rafienia, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate double-walled poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to increase encapsulation efficiency and avoid rapid release of hydrophilic drugs such as meglumine antimoniate. In this study, double-walled and one-layered microspheres of PLGA were prepared using the emulsion solvent evaporation technique to better control the release of a hydrophilic drug, meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®), which is the first choice treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The effect of hydrophobic coating on microspheres' size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and drug release characteristics was evaluated. Furthermore, the presence of antimony in meglumine antimoniate made it possible to observe the drug distribution within the microspheres' cross section by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Drug distribution images confirmed accumulation of the drug within the inner core of double-walled microspheres. In addition, these microspheres encapsulated the drug more efficiently up to 87% and demonstrated reduced initial burst and prolonged release compared to one-layered microspheres. These superiorities make double-walled microspheres an optimum candidate for sustained delivery of hydrophilic drugs. Double-walled microspheres provide some advantages over traditional microspheres overcoming most of their limitations. Double-walled microspheres were found to be more efficient than their corresponding one-layered microspheres in terms of encapsulation efficiencies and release characteristics.

  8. Facile synthesis and optical properties of colloidal silica microspheres encapsulating a quantum dot layer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungje; Lim, Kipil; Woo, Kyoungja

    2010-08-14

    We present colloidal silica microspheres encapsulating a homogeneous quantum dot layer at radial equidistance from the centre by utilizing electrostatic interaction between surface-engineered silica microspheres and QDs. The microspheres show dramatically enhanced optical absorption and emission with an appropriate silica shell thickness.

  9. In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbonaceous microspheres with electrochemical glucose sensing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoliang; Yan, Zhengguang Han, Xiaodong

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of copper nanoparticles from hydrothermal copper-containing carbonaceous microspheres was induced by annealing or electron beam irradiation. Obtained micro-nano carbon/copper composite microspheres show electrochemical glucose sensing properties. - Highlights: • We synthesized carbonaceous microspheres containing non-nanoparicle copper species through a hydrothermal route. • By annealing or electron beam irradiation, copper nanoparticles would form from the carbonaceous microspheres in situ. • By controlling the annealing temperature, particle size of copper could be controlled in the range of 50–500 nm. • The annealed carbon/copper hierarchical composite microspheres were used to fabricate an electrochemical glucose sensor. - Abstract: In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbon/copper microspheres was observed in a well-controlled annealing or an electron beam irradiation process. Carbonaceous microspheres containing copper species with a smooth appearance were yielded by a hydrothermal synthesis using copper nitrate and ascorbic acid as reactants. When annealing the carbonaceous microspheres under inert atmosphere, copper nanoparticles were formed on carbon microspheres and the copper particle sizes can be increased to a range of 50–500 nm by altering the heating temperature. Similarly, in situ formation of copper nanocrystals from these carbonaceous microspheres was observed on the hydrothermal product carbonaceous microspheres with electron beam irradiation in a vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber. The carbon/copper composite microspheres obtained through annealing were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode and tested as an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  10. Cerebral Blood Flow Heterogeneity in Preterm Sheep: Lack of Physiological Support for Vascular Boundary Zones in Fetal Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Melissa; Riddle, Art; Manese, Mario; Luo, Ning Ling; Rorvik, Dawn A.; Kelly, Katherine A.; Barlow, Clyde H.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Vinecore, Kevin; Roberts, Colin; Hohimer, A. Roger; Back, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Periventricular white matter (PVWM) injury is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability in survivors of prematurity. To address the role of cerebral ischemia in the pathogenesis of this injury, we tested the hypothesis that immaturity of spatially distal vascular “end” or “border” zones predisposes the PVWM to be more susceptible to falls in cerebral blood flow (CBF) than more proximal regions, such as the cerebral cortex. We used fluorescently-labeled microspheres to quantify regional CBF in situ in the 0.65 gestation fetal sheep in histopathologically-defined 3-dimensional regions by means of post hoc digital dissection and co-registration algorithms. Basal flow in PVWM was significantly lower than gyral white matter and cerebral cortex, but was equivalent in superficial, middle and deep PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF (expressed as percentage of basal) CBF did not differ during ischemia or reperfusion between the PVWM and more superficial gyral white matter or cortex. Moreover, CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was equivalent at three distinct levels of the PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was not predictive of the severity of PVWM injury, as defined by TUNEL staining. However, the magnitude of ischemia to the cerebral cortex directly correlated with lesion severity (r= −0.48, p<.05). Hence, the PVWM did not display unique CBF disturbances that accounted for the distribution of injury. These results suggest that previously-defined cellular-maturational factors have a greater influence on the vulnerability of PVWM to ischemic injury than the presence of immature vascular-boundary zones. PMID:18091757

  11. Postischemic cerebral blood flow and neuroeffector mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, R; Moskowitz, M A; Tasdemiroglu, E; Wei, E P; Kontos, H A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of neuroeffector mechanisms in the regulation of postischemic cerebral blood flow was investigated by microsphere determination in 8 cats after chronic unilateral vascular deafferentation by trigeminal ganglionectomy. The animals were subjected to 90 min of reperfusion following 10 min of global ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion and systemic hypotension. Cortical hyperemia 30 min after reperfusion was attenuated by up to 48% in cortical gray matter ipsilateral to the side of trigeminal ganglionectomy (p less than 0.01). Axon reflex mechanisms involving the release of neuropeptides from peripheral sensory nerve fibers, such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neurokinin A (NKA), mediate this response. SP and NKA cause vasodilation by endothelium-dependent mechanisms (endothelium-dependent relaxing factor), whereas CGRP relaxes vascular smooth muscle by direct receptor interactions. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine the extent to which endothelium-dependent mechanisms mediate the hyperemia following global cerebral ischemia. In 7 intact cats, the postischemic response of pial arterioles to the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-7) M), an endothelial-dependent vasodilator, was measured using a closed cranial window technique. Although ACh increased pial arteriolar caliber by 17% under resting conditions, the same dose elicited a vasoconstrictor response (87% of pre-ACh diameter 30 min after reperfusion) for the first 60 min of reperfusion after 10 min of ischemia. ACh-induced vasodilation was restored by 75 min (105%), but was less than control even at 120 min (109 vs. 117%; p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of colchicine released from biodegradable microspheres.

    PubMed

    Muvaffak, Asli; Gurhan, Ismet; Hasirci, Nesrin

    2004-11-15

    One the main problems of cancer chemotherapy is the unwanted damage to normal cells caused by the high toxicities of anticancer drugs. Any system of controlled drug delivery that would reduce the total amount of drug required, and thus reduce the side effects, would potentially help to improve chemotherapy. In this respect, biodegradable gelatin microspheres were prepared by water/oil emulsion polymerization and by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GTA) as the drug-carrier system. Microspheres were loaded with colchicine, a model antimitotic drug, which was frequently used as an antimitotic agent in cancer research involving cell cultures. Microsphere sizes, swelling and degradation properties, drug-release kinetics, and cytotoxities were studied. Swelling characteristics of microspheres changed upon changing GTA concentration. A decrease in swelling values was recorded as GTA crosslink density was increased. In vitro drug release in PBS (0.01M, pH 7.4) showed rapid colchicine release up to approximately 83% (at t = 92 h) for microspheres with low GTA (0.05% v/v), whereas a slower release profile (only approximately 39%) was obtained for microspheres with high GTA (0.50% v/v) content, for the same period. Cytotoxicity tests with MCF-7, HeLa and H-82 cancer cell lines showed that free colchicine was very toxic, showing an approximately 100% lethal effect in both HeLa and H-82 cell lines and more than 50% decrease in viability in MCF-7 cells in 4 days. Indeed, entrapped colchicine indicated similar initial high toxic effect on cell viability in MCF-7 cell line and this effect became more dominant as colchicine continued to be released from microspheres in the same period. In conclusion, the control of the release rate of colchicine from gelatin microspheres was achieved under in vitro conditions by gelatin through the alteration of crosslinking conditions. Indeed, the results suggested the potential application of gelatin microspheres crosslinked with GTA as a

  13. Effects of desflurane on cerebral autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Bedforth, N M; Girling, K J; Skinner, H J; Mahajan, R P

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desflurane, at 1 and 1.5 MAC, on cerebral autoregulation. Data were analysed from eight patients undergoing non-neurosurgical procedure. The blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound and cerebral autoregulation was assessed by the transient hyperaemic response test. Partial pressure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide (PE'(CO(2))) and mean arterial pressure were measured throughout the study. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and was maintained with desflurane at end-tidal concentrations of 7.4% (1 MAC) or 10.8% (1.5 MAC). The order of administration of the desflurane concentrations was determined randomly and a period of 15 min was allowed for equilibration at each concentration. The transient hyperaemic response tests were performed before induction of anaesthesia and after equilibration with each concentration of desflurane. An infusion of phenylephrine was used to maintain pre-induction mean arterial pressure and ventilation was adjusted to maintain the pre-induction value of PE'(CO(2)) throughout the study. Two indices derived from the transient hyperaemic response test (the transient hyperaemic response ratio and the strength of autoregulation) were used to assess cerebral autoregulation. Desflurane resulted in a marked and significant impairment in cerebral autoregulation; at concentrations of 1.5 MAC, autoregulation was almost abolished.

  14. [Blood gas analytical study on cerebral circulation under the influence of dihydroergotoxin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Liesegang, J; Bock, W J; Seibert, H; Schumacher, W

    1976-01-01

    The demand for sufficient blood supply and oxygenation of cerebral tissue after brain surgery or severe head injuries requires the clinical investigation of drugs which are supposed to improve cerebral blood flow and metabolism. We have therefore used the hydrogenated derivatives of the ergotoxin components of the secale alcaloids in the post-operative and posttraumatic period of neurosurgical patients, respectively, and studied their effect on cerebral metabolism by successive analysis of blood gases in the arterial and venous blood. A significant increase of cerebral venous CO2-concentration following the administration of dihydroergotoxin in these patients in all probability is attributable to an improved O2-utilisation in the cerebral tissue.

  15. Real-space observation of photonic nanojet in dielectric microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Wang, Yung-Hsun

    2014-07-01

    The three-dimensional real-space observation of photonic nanojet in different microspheres illuminated by a laser is reported. The finite-difference time-domain technique is used to perform the three-dimensional numerical simulation for the dielectric microspheres. The key parameters of photonic nanojet are measured by using a scanning optical microscope system. We reconstruct the three-dimensional real-space photonic nanojets from the collected stack of scanning images for polystyrene microspheres of 3 μm, 5 μm, and 8 μm diameters deposited on a glass substrate. Experimental results are compared to calculations and are found in good agreement with simulation results. The full width at half-maximum of the nanojet is 331 nm for a 3 μm microsphere at an incident wavelength of 633 nm. Our investigations show that photonic nanojets can be efficiently imaged by a microsphere and straightforwardly extended to rapidly distinguish the nano-objects in the far-field optical system.

  16. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  17. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-05-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K2HPO4-KH2PO4). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength>0.7 M and pH>7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications.

  18. Iron Nanoparticles-Encapsulating Silica Microspheres for Arterial Embolization Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Kawashita, M.

    2011-10-01

    We attempted to prepare α-Fe-encapsulating silica (αFeSi) microspheres by a sol-gel process using tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in water-in-oil emulsion. The effect of preparation conditions on the structure, magnetic and heating properties of resultant products were investigated. Oil phase consisted of kerosene with 32 wt% of surfactants (sorbitan monooleate / sorbitan monostearate in 3:1 weight ratio). Water phase consisted of TMOS, ethanol (CH2CH3OH), water and iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) with TMOS / CH2CH3OH/H2O/Fe3+ in 1:7.4:16.2:0.4~1.2 molar ratio. Fe3+-containing silica gel (FeSiG) microspheres 5 to 30 μm in size were successfully obtained by adding the water phase into the oil phase at 60 °C under stirring of 1500 rpm for 100 min. αFeSi microspheres was obtained by heating the FeSiG microspheres at 850°C in argon atmosphere. The obtained αFeSi microspheres have a saturation magnetization (Ms) up to 21 emu g-1 and a coercive force (Hc) of 133 Oe. The in vitro heating generation was evaluated under an alternating current (AC) magnetic field of 300 Oe and 100 kHz.

  19. Antibiotic microspheres: preliminary testing for potential treatment of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Catherine G; Gogola, Gloria R; Clyburn, Terry A; Raymond, A Kevin; Peng, Angela S; Mikos, Antonios G

    2003-10-01

    Osteomyelitis is a difficult problem for orthopaedic surgeons. The current standard of treatment requires high doses of antibiotic to be administered parenterally, which can damage vital organs. A local drug delivery system, which targets only the infected tissues, would eliminate some of the complications associated with extended courses of parenteral antibiotic treatment. In the current study, biodegradable microspheres were manufactured from a high molecular weight copolymer of 50% lactic and 50% glycolic acid and the antibiotic tobramycin. Various formulations of microspheres were tested for in vitro elution characteristics to determine the optimum formulation for linear release of antibiotic for at least 4 weeks. The optimal formulation then was implanted into a pouch created in the quadriceps muscle of mice to evaluate the in vivo elution of the antibiotic and the inflammatory response elicited by the microspheres. Results indicate that a sustained linear release of antibiotic from the microspheres is possible for a period of at least 4 weeks and that the inflammatory response was within levels required for the microspheres to be considered biocompatible.

  20. Sonochemical fabrication of fluorinated mesoporous titanium dioxide microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Changlin; Yu, Jimmy C.; Chan Mui

    2009-05-15

    A sonochemical-hydrothermal method for preparing fluorinated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} microspheres was developed. Formation of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and doping of fluorine was achieved by sonication and then hydrothermal treatment of a solution containing titanium isopropoxide, template, and sodium fluoride. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier translation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and BET surface areas. The P123 template was removed completely during the hydrothermal and washing steps, which was different from the conventional calcination treatment. The as- synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres had good crystallinity and high stability. Results from the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) showed that fluorination could remarkably improve the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide. - Graphical abstract: A novel method for preparing fluorinated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} microspheres was developed by a combined ultrasonic and hydrothermal treatment. The fluorinated TiO{sub 2} microspheres show high crystallinity, stability and enhanced photocatalytic activity.