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Sample records for microsporum

  1. Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L

    2001-05-01

    A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy.

  2. Extracellular enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis isolates.

    PubMed

    Papini, R; Mancianti, F

    The enzymatic activity of 70 feline and canine Microsporum canis isolates was determined by the Api-Zym test. The liquid phase of cultures, inoculated into Tryptic Soy Broth, was used to examine 19 enzymes. Considerable differences were observed among the extracellular enzymatic patterns. All the isolates produced alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase, while lipase (C14), trypsin, chymotrypsin, beta-glucuronidase, and alpha-fucosidase activity was never revealed. Esterase (C4) activity was present in 57 samples (81%), esterase lipase (C8) in 31 (44%), leucine arylamidase in 35 (50%), valine arylamidase and cystine arylamidase in 7 (10%), acid phosphatase in 64 (91%), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase in 60 (86%), alpha-galactosidase in 5 (7%), beta-galactosidase in 6 (8%), alpha-glucosidase in 25 (36%), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in 41 (58%), and alpha-mannosidase in 51 (73%). The beta-galactosidase activity of M. canis has not been reported previously. Remarkable variations of intensity for each enzymatic activity were also detected. It is believed that these results could provide basic data for further investigations on the pathogenic role of enzymes secreted by M. canis.

  3. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Developmental Mutants from Microsporum gypseum

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, T. J.; Stock, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Developmental mutants affected in either sporulation or spore germination have been isolated from Microsporum gypseum with the aid of nitrosoguanidine or as spontaneously occurring mutants. The time course levels of several proteins temporally associated with conidial development have been assayed in the wild-type and mutant strains. The spore germination characteristics of two of the mutants are described. The relationship of alkaline protease accumulation to tyrosinase accumulation and spore germination is discussed. PMID:4992372

  4. Microsporum gypseum dermatophytosis in a patient of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhagra, S; Ganju, S A; Sood, A; Guleria, R C; Kanga, A K

    2013-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum, a geophillic dermatophyte is rarely isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report tinea corporis due to Microsporum gypseum, an uncommon aetiological agent, in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from our region. The clinical presentation resembled psoriasis characterised by atypical, scaly and hyperkeratotic lesions.

  5. Tinea corporis caused by an unusual strain of Microsporum audouinii that perforates hair in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brasch, J; Hügel, R; Lipowsky, F; Gräser, Y

    2010-07-01

    We report on a dermatophyte infection acquired by a young woman from Germany who had worked in Ghana. The strain isolated from her skin lesions showed morphological and physiological features compatible with Microsporum audouinii but a clearly positive hair perforation test made its definite identification by conventional methods equivocal. A genetic analysis finally unambiguously revealed Microsporum audouinii. This is the first observation of a Microsporum audouinii strain with a positive hair perforation test. The ability to perforate hair may be related to attributes favouring an inflammatory host response.

  6. Unusual strains of Microsporum audouinii causing tinea in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brasch, J; Müller, S; Gräser, Y

    2015-10-01

    We comment on an unusual strain of Microsporum (M.) audouinii. It was isolated from tinea corporis of a boy who lived in Germany and most likely had acquired his infection during a stay on a farm with animal husbandry in Poland. The strain showed features of M. canis (plenty of markedly rough-walled macroconidia, growth on rice, positive hair perforation) as well as of M. audouinii (white thallus, long macroconidia with central constriction) and in vitro it degraded hair of various mammals. Because its ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region showed 99.9% homology to a M. audouinii reference strain it was finally identified as M. audouinii. We relate these findings with recent observations of M. audouinii causing tinea in Europe. This appraisal suggests that irrespective of an identical ribosomal ITS region distinct M. audouinii strains can display a spectrum of morphological and physiological features that is broader than currently outlined in mycological textbooks. Certain unusual characteristics like an enhanced capacity to utilise keratins may even be associated with unexpected transmission routes. Above all sporadic M. audouinii infections in Europe that bear no relation to an endemic area should be analysed from this perspective.

  7. Evaluation of Microsporum canis in different methods of storage.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, R S N; Cavalcante, C S P; Soares-Júnior, F A; Monteiro, A J; Brito, E H S; Cordeiro, R A; Sidrim, J J C; Rocha, M F G

    2004-12-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate different methods of storage for Microsporum canis based on materials and equipment that are readily available in developing countries. We tested 32 strains of M. canis at - 20 degrees C in potato dextrose agar (PDA) in its plain condition, or amended with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide or with 10% glycerol. In addition, we tested 25 degrees C storage of isolates in plain saline (0.9% NaCl) and in saline covered with a mineral-oil layer. After 9 months of storage, none of the M. canis strains frozen in PDA supplemented with glycerol survived, while only 16 and 6%, respectively, of the isolates in plain and DMSO medium lost viability. Nine month's storage in saline with or without mineral oil increased the amount of pleomorphic development of sterile hyphae; this phenomenon occurred at a significantly higher level than was seen in isolates stored at -20 degrees C. The physiological characteristics of M. canis were not affected by the different storage tests. The results suggest that, in order to ensure optimal viability, purity and pristine isolate condition, each M. canis isolate maintained should be held in at least two methods of storage, namely, PDA at -20 degrees C and saline with a mineral-oil layer at 25 degrees C.

  8. Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

    2014-08-01

    Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing.

  9. [Tinea corporis due to the rare geophilic dermatophyte Microsporum praecox].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Overbeck, C; Uhrlaß, S; Krüger, C; Gräser, Y

    2016-09-01

    A 10-year-old girl suffered from tinea corporis with erythematosquamous and centrifugal growing, sparse itching lesions of her right lower arm. Fluorescence optical Blankophor® preparation from skin scrapings revealed fungal hyphae. On Sabouraud's dextrose agar, the fast growing dermatophyte formed flat, peripheral radiating and convolved colonies with white, slightly yellowish to beige brown stained granular and powdery surface. The reverse side of the colonies was smooth with luminous yellow colour. Microscopically, an attitude of thin-walled spindle-shaped and echinulate (with small spins) and lanceolate macroconidia appeared. The small based macroconidia are raised in the middle and end part, however, pointy at the end ("spearhead"). Three to six or seven across septae are formed. The small piriform microconidia had an orthotropic arrangement. Chlamydospores were also formed. Urease activity was positive. Macromorphologically, Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale (formerly T. mentagrophytes) was suspected. Due to the shape of macroconidia, Microsporum (M.) gypseum and M. fulvum were also considered as possible species identification. Direct uniplex-PCR-EIA of the strains revealed negative results for T. rubrum, T. interdigitale, T. anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae and M. canis. Sequencing analysis of the ribosomal ITS-region (18 S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8 S rRNA, ITS2, 28 S rRNA) and of the translation elongation factor 1‑alpha (tef-1-alpha) gene revealed the dermatophyte species M. praecox. Topical treatment was done using ciclopiroxolamine cream. M. praecox represents a geophilic dermatophyte, morphologically resembling M. gypseum. Horses are often the source of infection. In humans, M. praecox causes tinea corporis and tinea capitis. For oral treatment of dermatomycosis due to M. praecox, griseofulvin and terbinafine can be used.

  10. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time.

  11. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  12. Decontamination of carpet exposed to Microsporum canis hairs and spores.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vacuuming and three carpet cleaning methods for the removal of Microsporum canis spores and hairs from experimentally contaminated carpets. Methods Sterile Berber carpeting was artificially contaminated with naturally infective M canis hairs and spores. Carpet swatches were vacuumed for 10 s, 30 s and 60 s, and then cultured. Three carpet cleaning methods were evaluated on area rugs experimentally contaminated with infective material: a beater brush carpet shampooing, beater brush carpet shampooing post-disinfectant application and hot water extraction. Home cleaning products labeled as having efficacy against Trichophyton species were used in addition to 1% potassium peroxymonosulfate. Carpets were cultured at 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after cleaning. Good efficacy was no detectable spores at post-cleaning culture. Results All pretreatment carpet samples were culture positive for M canis (>300 colony-forming units [cfu]/site). Vacuuming did not decontaminate carpets but did remove intact hairs. Spores were not detected by wipe samples after two washings with an upright beater brush carpet shampooer or pretreatment with a disinfectant prior to carpet shampooing. Carpets cleaned with one hot water extraction technique had a decrease from 300 cfu/site to a mean of 5.5 cfu/site at 24 and 48 h post-cleaning and 2 cfu/site at day 7. The use of disinfectants was associated with odor, even when dry, and permanent discoloration. Hot water extraction cleaning was associated with the fastest drying time and no discoloration. Conclusions and relevance Carpets exposed to M canis can be disinfected via carpet shampooing or hot water extraction cleaning. Vacuuming of carpets is recommended to remove infective hairs. For homes, exposed carpeting can be decontaminated by routine washing with a carpet shampooer (twice) or hot water extraction. Use of pretreatment with a disinfectant is recommended when a high level

  13. Case report: disseminated dermatophytosis by microsporum gypseum in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient

    PubMed Central

    Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Neves, Rejane Pereira; Lopes, Flávia Cadengue

    2008-01-01

    Mycosis is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and frequent exposition to an infectious source could enhance the development of dermatophytic infections. A case of disseminated dermatophytosis by Microsporum gypseum is reported in a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient. PMID:24031171

  14. Pseudomembranous-like Tinea of the Scrotum Infected by Microsporum Gypseum in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Lan, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Cun-Jian; Yang, Xi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum is a geographically widespread geophilic fungus that infects animals and humans. M. gypseum infection on the scrotum is very rare and can be easily misdiagnosed because of a lack of inflammatory reaction. Here we describe a patient with pseudomembranous-like tinea of the scrotum resulting from M. gypseum. PMID:26288444

  15. Concentric rings: an unusual presentation of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei-Lun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung

    2006-03-01

    A case of tinea corporis with the unusual presentation of concentric erythematous rings on the abdomen is reported. The pathogen was identified as Microsporum gypseum. While a number of unusual lesions have been described in M. gypseum infections, we are unaware of any reports on concentric rings.

  16. Tinea infection with scutula-like lesions caused by Microsporum gypseum in a SLE patient: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiao; Liu, Fang; Wu, Fan; De Deng, Quan; Zeng, Hua Mei; Kong, Tao Qing; Chen, Jun; Sang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Scutula are characteristic lesions of tinea favosa or favus; the most frequently identified causative organism is Trichophyton schoenleinii. Although scutula-like lesions were described in Microsporum gypseum infection, their presence on glabrous skin in a patient with SLE has not been reported previously. We report a case of tinea infection with scutula-like lesions caused by Microsporum gypseum in a SLE patient, who was treated with topical terbinafine cream, and the lesions resolved completely. In addition, we reviewed the reported cases about this rare clinical manifestation caused by Microsporum gypseum in the medical literature.

  17. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. Case report: We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics. PMID:26622092

  18. Ultraviolet-mediated antimycotic activity of alpha-terthienyl on Microsporum cookei.

    PubMed

    Mares, D; Fasulo, M P; Bruni, A

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-terthienyl (alpha-T) in the presence of UV-A irradiation reduced the growth rate of Microsporum cookei. In the dark, alpha-T accumulated in small diffuse vacuoles within the hyphae. After UV-A treatment, alpha-T caused damage to the membranes of the nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Plasmolytic and autolytic changes occurred resulting in plasma membrane breakage and cell wall aberrations. UV-A activated alpha-T would appear to target membrane proteins.

  19. Microsporum aenigmaticum sp. nov. from M. gypseum complex, isolated as a cause of tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Dobiašova, Stanislava; Dobiaš, Radim; Kolařik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    An undescribed Microsporum species was isolated from skin scales recovered from a 40-mm large, annular, scaling lesion on the wrist of a 46-year-old woman. The risk factors for dermatophyte infection in the patient were frequent work in the garden, hunting, and contact with dogs and horses. Direct microscopic examination of the scales revealed the presence of dermatophyte hyphae; when the samples were cultured, a morphologically similar fungus grew on all slants in pure culture. Both of these findings strongly suggested that the isolate was the true causal agent of infection. The possible geophilic nature of the species was based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and β-tubulin gene) that placed it in between species of the M. gypseum complex. However, its divergencies from all other Microsporum species exceeded 4% base pairs. Based on β-tubulin phylogeny, the isolated species is a sister to M. gypseum. The species produces abundant chlamydospores and clumps of hyphae similar to those of ascomatal primordia but no conidia and ascospores. The species was unable to grow at 37°C and does not grow on T6 basal medium, which is unlike other Microsporum species; hair perforation and urease tests were positive. The addition of histidine to the T6 medium resulted in rapid growth of the fungus. The phylogenetic evidence, morphology, growth parameters, and physiology justified the proposal that the isolate is a new species, M. aenigmaticum, sp. nov.

  20. Tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae: first clinical case in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyasato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Kayo, Susumu; Sano, Ayako; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2011-05-01

    We report herein a case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae in a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy Japanese man. The patient had a long working history as a breeder of fighting cocks, and he suffered from two erythematous macules after being bitten by a cock. M. gallinae was identified as the infectious agent based on the morphology of isolates cultured on slides and analysis of DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) from ribosomal DNA from cultured isolates. The patient was successfully treated with antifungal ointments. To our knowledge, this is the first case of M. gallinae infection in a human reported in Japan.

  1. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum gypseum in infants: report of four cases and review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Beatriz da Silva; Sartori, Débora Sarzi; de Andrade, Carin; Weisheimer, Edna; Kiszewski, Ana Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum gypseum is rare, especially in infants, with few published cases. Diagnosis in this age group is frequently delayed. We review the literature and report 4 new cases of tinea of glabrous skin caused by M. gypseum mimicking eczema in infants. Considering new and previously reported cases, half of patients were exposed to sand, emphasizing the importance of this transmission vehicle in this age group. In conclusion, although rare, dermatophytosis by M. gypseum should be part of the differential diagnosis of inflammatory dermatosis in infants. A clinical suspicion and the availability of culture are keys to the diagnosis. PMID:28099610

  2. Antidermatophytic Action of Resorcinol Derivatives: Ultrastructural Evidence of the Activity of Phenylethyl Resorcinol against Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2016-09-30

    In this work, we evaluated the antidermatophytic activities of three resorcinol derivatives that have a history of use in dermo-cosmetic applications to discover molecules with multiple dermatological activities (i.e., multi-target drugs), thereby reducing the cost and time necessary for new drug development. The antidermatophytic activities of the three skin lighteners were evaluated relative to the known antifungal drug fluconazole on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Arthroderma cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Nannizzia gypsea, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Among the three tested resorcinols, only two showed promising properties, with the ability to inhibit the growth of all tested dermatophytes; additionally, the IC50 values of these two resorcinols against the nine dermatophytes confirmed their good antifungal activity, particularly for phenylethyl resorcinol against M. gypseum. Ultrastructural alterations exhibited by the fungus were observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and reflected a dose-dependent response to treatment with the activation of defence and self-preservation strategies.

  3. Mycetoma of the scalp due to Microsporum canis: hystopathologic, mycologic, and immunogenetic features in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chiapello, Laura S; Dib, Moisés D; Nuncira, Carmen T; Nardelli, Luciana; Vullo, Carlos; Collino, César; Abiega, Claudio; Cortes, Paulo R; Spesso, María F; Masih, Diana T

    2011-05-01

    Dermatophytic mycetoma is an extremely rare subcutaneous mycosis. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl with clinical, histologic, and mycologic findings consistent with a mycetoma of the scalp caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the immunologic and immunogenetic features of a patient with a recalcitrant dermatophytic mycetoma.

  4. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCI, Isis Regina Grenier; da CUNHA, Michele Milano; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patricia de Souza; GHIRALDI-LOPES, Luciana Dias; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; KIOSHIMA, Erika Seki; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  5. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  6. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream.

  7. Tinea faciei by Microsporum gypseum mimicking allergic reaction following cosmetic tattooing of the eyebrows.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Sumiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Suzaki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Ninomiya, Junya; Tanaka, Masaru; Harada, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji; Uchida, Hinako

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old healthy female patient presented with well defined itchy erythematous lesions on the area of her eyebrows. Her eyebrows had been tattooed two months before her visit to us. The lesions had previously been treated by application of steroid ointment and anti-histamine and steroid tablets by mouth without success. We suspected the lesions to be contact dermatitis caused by some metal element contained in the dye used for tattooing. Treatment was continued for two weeks, but the lesions spread to her cheeks and forehead. No fungal element was found from the lesions by direct microscopy at this stage. The patch-testing to 20 metal substances on her skin showed no allergic reaction. After one more week of treatment, we reexamined the scale taken from the lesions by direct microscopy, and fungal elements were found at that time. Microsporum (M.) gypseum was isolated from the scale taken from the lesions. The lesions cleared after treatment of 11 weeks' oral intake of itraconazole 100mg daily. It was found that the patient was accustomed to sleep with her dog, a Chihuahua. On examination by a veterinarian, no skin lesions were found on the dog. We speculate that the paws of the dog might have carried soil contaminated by M. gypseum, a geophilic fungus, to the area of her eyebrows which had minor trauma after being tattooed.

  8. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.

  9. Efficacy of eight commercial formulations of lime sulphur on in vitro growth inhibition of Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Diesel, Alison; Verbrugge, Maria; Moriello, Karen A

    2011-04-01

    Lime sulphur is a common topical treatment for dermatophytosis in animals. Until recently, a single veterinary lime sulphur formulation was available. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of eight lime sulphur products for in vitro growth inhibition of Microsporum canis using the isolated infected spore model. Infective M. canis spores were isolated from hairs collected from untreated cats. Hairs were macerated in Triton-X solution and isolated according to a previously published protocol. Equal volumes of spore suspension and lime sulphur solutions were incubated for 5 min and plated onto modified BBL™ Mycosel™ agar (Becton, Dickinson and Company; Sparks, MD, USA) plates. Five plates were inoculated for each sample solution. Distilled water and bleach were used as controls. Colony forming units were counted daily for 21 days; positive control plates contained >300 colony forming units/plate. Seven of the products were supplied as concentrates and they were tested at the manufacturer's recommended dilution, twice label concentration and half label concentration. A prediluted product SulfaDip(®) (Trask Research, Inc.; Daluca, GA, USA) was tested at the label and half label concentration. All veterinary products formed recommended treatment dilutions of 3% sulphurated lime solution except one (LymDyp(®), IVX Animal Health Inc.; St Joseph, MO, USA), which formed a 2.4% sulphurated lime solution. Results of the study showed complete growth inhibition of M. canis spores by all products at all dilutions tested. These results indicate that all tested lime sulphur-containing products were equivalent. Field studies are needed to test product equivalency in vivo.

  10. Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka

    2014-09-01

    Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause.

  11. [Synergy between ajoene and ketoconazole in isolates of Microsporum canis. A preliminary study using fractional inhibitory concentration technique (FIC)].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Eliades; Maniscalchi, Maria Teresa; Espinoza, Druvic Lemus

    2008-09-30

    Fungal infections are probably the most frequent infectious diseases affecting human being. Resistance to different anti-fungal drugs, and their bioavailability in the infection site, represent a problem for treatment. Looking for effective solutions, combination of two or more antifungal drugs to obtain an additive effect or synergic effect that potent antifungal activity has been investigated. In this study, the effect (additive, antagonist or synergistic) of ajoene and ketoconazole combination was evaluated in the growth and proliferation of filamentous fungi. Interactions in vitro were investigated in three isolates of Microsporum canis through a preliminary study using micro dilution, according to recommendations of NCCLS M-38A, with several modifications. Results obtained for CIF of each isolates studied (CIF = 0.18 0.36 microM), demonstrate that exists a very potent synergistic effect, when they are combined, and it represents a hope for future clinic trials to treat resilient fungal infections caused by M. canis.

  12. Microsporum canis infection in a 5-year-old boy: transmission from the interior of a second-hand car.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Korting, H C; Strassl, W; Ruzicka, T

    1994-01-01

    Microsporum canis is one of the most common zoophilic dermatophytes. If transmitted to humans, inflammatory lesions may develop, e.g. on the scalp. M. canis was isolated from a 5-year-old boy living in a suburban area who suffered from a long-standing, mildly inflammatory lesion on the scalp that had been treated for several months with anti-eczematous regimens. There had been no contact with animals, e.g. cats or dogs, in the previous months, but the lesions had developed a few weeks after the family had bought a used car from a dog owner. Indeed, M. canis could be grown on contact plates from the car's interior. This case illustrates that attention should be paid to the often neglected diagnosis of M. canis-induced tinea capitis and to unusual routes of infection.

  13. An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Subelj, M; Marinko, J Svetičič; Učakar, V

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school.

  14. Tinea faciei due to microsporum canis in children: a survey of 46 cases in the District of Cagliari (Italy).

    PubMed

    Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention.

  15. Dermatophyte-hormone relationships: characterization of progesterone-binding specificity and growth inhibition in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Schär, G; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    We reported previously that Trichophyton mentagrophytes contains a cytoplasmic macromolecule which specifically binds progesterone. Progesterone is also an effective inhibitor of growth of the fungus. We report here studies which characterize more fully the specific binding properties and the functional responses of T. mentagrophytes and taxonomically related fungi to a series of mammalian steroid hormones. Scatchard analysis of [3H]progesterone binding in both the + and - mating types of Arthroderma benhamiae and in Microsporum canis revealed a single class of binding sites with approximately the same affinity as that in T. mentagrophytes (Kd, 1 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-7) M). Trichophyton rubrum had a protein with a higher binding affinity (Kd, 1.6 X 10(-8) M). Characterization of the [3H]progesterone-binding sites in T. mentagrophytes showed the binder to be a protein which was destroyed by trypsin and heating to 56 degrees C. Previous examination of the steroid-binding specificity in T. mentagrophytes had demonstrated that deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. Expansion of this study to include other competitors revealed that R5020 (a synthetic progestin), androstenedione, and dehydroepiandosterone possessed relative binding affinities which were 20, 11, and 9% of that of progesterone, respectively. Other ligands tested were less effective. Competition studies for the binder in M. canis resulted in similar findings: DOC and DHT were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. The growth of A. benhamiae + and -, M. canis, and T. rubrum were all inhibited by progesterone in a dose-responsive manner, with 50% inhibition achieved at concentrations of 9.8 x 10(-6), 1.2 x 10(-5), 1.5 x 10(-5), and 2.7 x 10(-6) M. respectively,. PMID:3182998

  16. The Novel Azole R126638 Is a Selective Inhibitor of Ergosterol Synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14α-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14α-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC50s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 μM for itraconazole and 3.1 μM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC50 = 3.5 μM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (IC50 > 10 μM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 μM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 μM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6β hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast infections. PMID:15328084

  17. The infected hairs of tinea capitis due to Microsporum canis: demonstration of uniqueness of the hair cuticle by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D; Burmeister, V

    1987-02-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies were done on scalp hairs of four patients infected with ectothrix Microsporum canis. Both freeze fracture and cross-sectioning of hairs revealed a thick sheath of fungal spores encircling the hair shaft beneath an intact cuticle. These spores were not visible on surface inspection but became apparent only where the cuticle had been rubbed off or broken. Daily selenium sulfide shampoos removed all of the spores from these sites. The cuticle is viewed as being an effective barrier to the penetration of fungi, so that the hair is vulnerable to fungus infection only deep within the hair follicle below the level of the mature cuticle. Once the fungus enters the hair cortex just above the hair bulb, it produces myriads of spores that remain trapped and hidden beneath the cuticle for the length of the intact hair.

  18. Isolation of Microsporum canis from the hair coat of pet dogs and cats belonging to owners diagnosed with M. canis tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Romito, Diana; Capelli, Gioia; Guillot, Jacques; Otranto, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Microsporum canis has been frequently isolated from human cases of tinea capitis and tinea corporis. The infection may be acquired from infected animals with cutaneous lesions but also from asymptomatic carriers or from the environment. As asymptomatic M. canis carriers are considered to be a critical factor in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in humans, this study investigated the relationship between the presence of dermatophytes on the hair coats of dogs and cats without cutaneous lesions and the occurrence of the disease in their respective owners. A total of 136 dogs and 248 cats were sampled from January 1999 to January 2005. Seventy-eight animals (22 dogs and 56 cats) belonged to individuals affected by tinea corporis caused by M. canis and 306 (114 dogs and 192 cats) to individuals without dermatophytosis. Age, sex, breed, habitat and season were recorded for each animal and examined as potential risk factors. Dermatophytes were isolated from 20.5% of the dogs and 28.2% of the cats. Microsporum canis was isolated from 36.4% of dogs cohabiting with owners diagnosed with tinea corporis but it was never isolated from dogs whose owners had no lesions. By contrast, M. canis was isolated from 53.6% of cats cohabiting with owners diagnosed with tinea corporis and from 14.6% of cats whose owners had no signs of the disease. These results clearly indicate that both cats and dogs should be considered as a major source of pathogenic dermatophytes for humans even when they do not present clinical signs of dermatophytosis.

  19. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araújo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo José; Gambale, Walderez

    2012-01-01

    A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system. PMID:24031904

  20. Inhibition of the keratinolytic subtilisin protease Sub3 from Microsporum canis by its propeptide (proSub3) and evaluation of the capacity of proSub3 to inhibit fungal adherence to feline epidermis.

    PubMed

    Baldo, A; Chevigné, A; Dumez, M-E; Mathy, A; Power, P; Tabart, J; Cambier, L; Galleni, M; Mignon, B

    2012-10-12

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis, mainly in cats, dogs and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have been postulated to be key factors involved in the invasion of the stratum corneum and keratinized epidermal structures. Among these proteases, the secreted subtilisin protease Sub3 was found to be required for adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to feline epidermis. This protease is synthetized as a preproenzyme consisting of a signal peptide followed by the propeptide and the protease domain. In order to assess whether the enzymatic activity of Sub3 could be responsible for the role of the protease in the adherence process, we expressed and characterized the propeptide of Sub3 and demonstrated that this propeptide is a strong inhibitor of its mature enzyme. This propeptide acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor with dissociation constants, K(I) and [Formula: see text] of 170 and 130 nM respectively. When tested for its capacity to inhibit adherence of M. canis to feline epidermis using an ex vivo adherence model made of feline epidermis, the propeptide does not prevent adherence of M. canis arthroconidia because it loses its capacity to inhibit rSub3 following a direct contact with living arthroconidia, presumably through inactivation by fungal membrane-bound proteases.

  1. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  2. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolnaftate cream. 524.2350 Section 524.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... For the treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum....

  3. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-01-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  4. [Tinea capitis in children from Goiânia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Tatiana; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Passos, Xisto Sena; Costa, Milce; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    During the period January 1999 to July 2002 a total de 164 cases of Tinea capitis were diagnosed by mycological examination in Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade Federal de Goiás. Of the 164 patients 94 (57.3%) were males, with an age of 3 months to 13 years. Laboratory studies were performed by direct examination with 20% KOH and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The following species were identified: Microsporum canis (71.3%), Trichophyton tonsurans (11%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7.9%), Trichophyton rubrum (6.7%), and Microsporum gypseum (3%). Our study showed that the most frequent rise of scalp infection was a zoophylic fungi, called Microsporum canis.

  5. [Dermatophytosis in the greater Resistencia area, Chaco Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Pons de Storni, L; Waisman, R

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological characteristics of dermatophytoses in the metropolitan area of Resistencia city are described. Hair fragments, skin, scalp or nail scrapings were collected from 3.507 persons with dermatological symptoms of probable fungal origin. The mycological studies were performed by three mycological laboratories, one from a university Institute and two from private laboratories. Direct microscopic examinations showed fungi in 39.66% of samples, while the recovering of dermatophytes from cultures was 40.66%. Microsporum canis was the most prevalent species among dermatophytes, isolated in 217 samples (41.73% of cultures) while Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were present in 38.46%, 6.35%, 5.58% and 4.81%, respectively. Microsporum and Trichophyton genus were clearly predominant over Epidermophyton. Variations in prevalences of fungal genus from different places of the world probably reflect the existence of particular environmental situations defined by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the settlement of endemic mycoses.

  6. Successfully treated dermatomycosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Lajos, Zoltán; Koroknai, Viktória; Gál, János

    2013-06-01

    We describe clinical cases caused by Microsporum gypseum in two subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Dermatomycosis is uncommonly reported in pinnipeds, including this species. In these cases, skin lesions were multifocal to coalescing, involved all flippers, and were most pronounced on the ventral surfaces of flippers. They were well-demarcated, depigmented, and covered with crusts. The definitive diagnosis was obtained through microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin scrapings. Oral terbinafine and topical enilconazole were used as treatments for 65 days, and complete recovery was subsequently achieved. California sea lion, dermatomycosis, Microsporum gypseum, terbinafine, enilconazole

  7. Incidence of dermatophytes and cyclohexamide resistant fungi on healthy children hairs and nails in nurseries.

    PubMed

    Maghazy, S M

    2002-01-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of dermatophytes and other fungi on healthy children hairs and nails, 92 hair samples and 85 nail samples (groups of 10 finger nails from each child) were collected from 5 nurseries (children aged 9 months up to 4 years) in Assiut city. From hair samples 22 species were collected, Trichophyton (2 species) and Microsporum (2 species) were the only recovered dermatophytes in addition to well known keratinophilic genus Chrysosporium (4 species). From nail samples, 18 species were identified, Trichophyton was represented by 4 species, Microsporum, 2 species and Chrysosporium, 4 species. Also, several other saprophytes and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated.

  8. Outbreak of ringworm in a traditional Iberian pig farm in Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Alfredo; Bazán, Javier; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso; Martínez, Remigio; Sánchez, Sergio; de Mendoza, Miguel Hermoso

    2011-03-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum nanum in a traditional Iberian extensive farm is described. The morbidity was 100% among lactating sows; however, suckling and weaning pigs, as well as boars never developed the lesions seen in the sows. The clinical aspects of porcine ringworm caused by this fungus are discussed and the ecology of the organism is reviewed.

  9. Mycoses and Mycotoxicoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold-related disease in avian species can be divided into two broad categories, namely mycoses and mycotoxicoses. Mycoses are typically defined as infection of tissue by a particular mold species. In general terms, Aspergillus, Dactylaria, and Microsporum are those molds most apt to be responsible f...

  10. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolnaftate cream. 524.2350 Section 524.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis...

  11. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolnaftate cream. 524.2350 Section 524.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis...

  12. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolnaftate cream. 524.2350 Section 524.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis...

  13. Microsporosis in Orangutans and Gorillas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A case of microsporia caused by Microsporum canis in an anthropoid ape stock is discussed; two young orangutans , two young gorillas, and an animal...keeper suffered from the disease. Two gorillas, a chimpanzee, and an orangutan - - all cage-mates of the infected animals -- as well as an adult chimpanzee and another animal keeper were latent carriers of M. canis.

  14. 21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cuprimyxin cream. 524.520 Section 524.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS..., dermatophytes (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp.) and yeast (Candida albicans) affecting skin, hair,...

  15. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... square inch of lesion once daily for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications of use. For the treatment of fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations. Wash hands thoroughly after use to avoid spread of infection. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  16. Studies of proteinograms in dermatophytes by disc electrophoresis. 1. Protein bands in relation to growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.

  17. Effects of temperature variations and light exposure on the time to growth of dermatophytes using six different fungal culture media inoculated with laboratory strains and samples obtained from infected cats.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Verbrugge, Maria J; Kesting, Rachel A

    2010-12-01

    In this study, 5/6 commercially available fungal culture media were comparable with respect to first growth, first colour change, and first sporulation when inoculated with three strains of Microsporum canis, one strain of Microsporum gypseum, and one strain of Trichophyton species when incubated at either 25°C or 30°C. Five of six plates showed 100% growth at both temperatures. Five of six plates showed 100% growth when inoculated with naturally infective M canis hairs and spores. One commercial product packaged as a self-sealing incubation plate showed growth in only 65.4% of times and the plates were prone to desiccation. M canis inoculated plates were incubated under four different light exposures (24h of light, 24h of dark, 12h light/12h dark, and room lighting) and no differences in growth or sporulation were noted.

  18. Rapid detection for rabbit-derived dermatophytes using microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Li, Daijun; Cai, Chunmei; Cai, Yumei

    2014-01-01

    A method exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity to detect pathogenic dermatophytes was developed using microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with a clustering method. The DNA fragments of Trichophyton mentagrophyton, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were amplified by using the primer (GACA)4 to detect the DNA polymorphism fingerprints. Twenty-one clinical strains identified as T. mentagrophyton, M. gypseum or M. canis by morphological methods were distinguished according to the differences of standard stains' bands combined with NTSYS-pc2.10 software. The results showed that there were obvious and direct differences in the bands of the three pathogenic dermatophytes, and the similarity of isolated strains and standard strains were above 90%, in line with the results of morphological identification. The method is more accurate, rapid and simple, which is meaningful for the clinical diagnosis and epidemic research of the dermatophytes.

  19. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  20. Cutaneous blastomycosis and dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in a Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Duangkaew, Lerpen; Larsuprom, Lawan; Kasondorkbua, Chaiyan; Chen, Charles; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2017-03-01

    This is a case report of concurrent of blastomycosis and pseudomycetoma in a 3 year-old Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand. Histopathology from antemortem and postmortem samples revealed blastomycosis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma. The PCR analysis of the formalin-embedded tissue of antemortem sample confirmed that blastomycosis was caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Dermatophyte infection was caused by Microsporum canis. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first case of Blastomyces dermatitidis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma in South-East Asia.

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Syzygium jambolanum seeds.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2004-03-01

    The water and methanolic extracts of Syzygium jambolanum seeds were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration. Activity against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli) and fungal strains (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum) is discussed.

  2. Pharmacological management of pediatric Kerion celsi.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, G; Muscianese, M; Grimaldi, M; Tuzi, M; Pranteda, G; Fidanza, L; Tamburi, F; Bottoni, U; Nisticò, S

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of severe tinea capitis, treated successfully with griseofulvin. In our opinion, the treatment of this severe dermatophytosis with griseofulvin is safe and effective. Other treatments, such as itraconazole pulsed therapy, failed, despite an initial improvement, leading to an aggressive recurrence of the lesion. We chose griseofulvin for its well-known large spectrum activity, also against uncommon species, like Microsporum Gypseum, which are responsible for the most severe cases.

  3. Computational analysis of conserved coil functional residues in the mitochondrial genomic sequences of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bulbul; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophyte is a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue of humans and other animals. The infection known as dermatophytosis, caused by members of the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton includes infection to the groin (tinea cruris), beard (tinea barbae), scalp (tinea capitis), feet (tinea pedis), glabrous skin (tinea corporis), nail (tinea unguium), and hand (tinea manuum). The identification of evolutionary relationship between these three genera of dermatophyte is epidemiologically important to understand their pathogenicity. Mitochondrial DNA evolves more rapidly than a nuclear DNA due to higher rate of mutation but is very less affected by genetic recombination, making it an important tool for phylogenetic studies. Thus, here we present a novel scheme to identify the conserved coil functional residues of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Protein coding sequences of the mitochondrial genome were aligned for their similar sequences and homology modelling was performed for structure and pocket identification. The results obtained from comparative analysis of the protein sequences revealed the presence of functionally active sites in all the species of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. However in Epidermophyton floccosum it was observed in three protein sequences of the five studied. The absence of these conserved coil functional residues in E. floccusum may be correlated with lesser infectivity of this organism. The functional residues identified in the present study could be responsible for the disease and thus can act as putative target sites for drug designing. PMID:28149055

  4. Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples at Sohag University Hospital in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mona Fattouh Mohamed; El-din, Asmaa Nasr; El-Hamd, Mohammed Abu

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and explore the in-vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes isolated from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis (tinea infections) attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. Methods This study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital from December 2014 to December 2015. Clinical samples (e.g., skin scrapings and hair stumps) were collected under aseptic precautions. The identification of dermatophytes was performed through microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) with 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mounts and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and on Dermasel agar base media, both supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. All dermatophytes isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the agar-based disk diffusion (ABDD) method against Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Fluconazole, and Griseofulvin. Data were analyzed via SPSS 16, using Chi square and a screening test (cross-tabulation method). Results A total of 110 patients of dermatophytosis were studied. The patients were clinically diagnosed and mycologically confirmed as having tinea capitis (49), tinea corporis (30), tinea pedis (16), tinea cruris (9), or tinea barbae (6). The dermatophytes isolates belonged to 4 species: Microsporum canis 58 (52.7%), Microsporum gypseum 23 (20.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18 (16.4%), and Microsporum audouinii 11 (10%). The most effective antifungal drugs tested were Clotrimazole, followed by Miconazole (95.5% and 84.5% of isolates were susceptible, respectively). Conclusion Every patient with a tinea infection should be properly studied for a mycological examination and should be treated accordingly. Dermasel agar is more useful as an identification medium in the isolation of dermatophytes. The ABDD method appears to be a simple, cost-effective, and promising method for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. PMID

  5. Epidemiology of dermatomycosis in the eastern Croatia--today and yesterday.

    PubMed

    Barisić-Drusko, Vladimira; Rucević, Ivana; Biljan, Darko; Jukić, Zlatica

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to compare the distribution of dermatomycosis species in Eastern Croatia between two different periods: first period from 1997-2001 year, and second period from 1986-88 year. The outpatients from Department of Dermatovenerology University Hospital "Osijek" with confirmed diagnosis infection. Tinea, were selected on the basis o age, gender, localization and dermatomycosis species. During the first period (1997-2001) among 75,691 outpatients Tinea infection was confirmed in 558 (0.73%), while in the second period among 47,832 outpatients there were 126 (0.26%) cases with Tinea, what showed significant increase of fungal infections among population this region. According the age and gender in both periods predominant population were under of the age 16(40.14%: 41.26%), and female population was predominant (58.60% and 57.14%) in comparison to males (41.39% and 42.85%). The most frequent localization of lesions in period I were cutis glabrae (47.31%), palms and soles (31.36%), capitis (17.38%) and unguis (9.31%) and isolated species were as followed: Trichophyton (39.06%), Microsporum (31.72%) and Candida (28.13%) species. In period II the most frequent localization were palms and soles (40.47%), cutis glabrae (36.50%), capitis (12.69%) and unguis (10.31%). The isolated species in this period were: Trichophyton (80.15%), Candida (12.69%) and Microsporum (4.76%) species. From the data collected during two different periods we can observe 1) increase of fungal infection generally in our region; 2) significant changes in causative species (increase of Microsporum and Candida species infection, but Trichophyton spp still remain the first causative agent); and 3) changes in the localization of lesions.

  6. Fungal flora of the hair coat of stray cats in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, A R

    1996-01-01

    The fungal flora of the hair coat of 100 stray cats in different districts of the city of Isfahan, Iran, were examined. Saprophytic fungi were isolated from all cats. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor and Cladosporium spp. were the most frequently isolated saprophytes. Microsporum canis was isolated from all kittens with clinical signs of dermatophytosis. In other cases, M. canis was isolated only from 22 of the 96 cats. No significant differences in sex, hair length, and fungal flora of the hair coat were found between the M. canis-infected and M. canis-free cats.

  7. TINEA CAPITIS DUE TO TRICHOPHYTON TONSURANS—Incidence, Diagnosis and Epidemiology in the San Francisco Bay Region

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Herbert L.; Halde, Carlyn

    1955-01-01

    Eighty-five cases of tinea capitis due to T. tonsurans were observed in the San Francisco Bay area during the five years 1950-54. This disease, unlike the common microsporum infections, sometimes affects adults and adolescents. Hairs infected with T. tonsurans do not fluoresce under the Wood's light. Diagnosis is a laboratory procedure in which the fungus is isolated from the hair. There are three clinical varieties of the disease. The course is prolonged and treatment is unsatisfactory. The disease apparently has spread from Mexico, through the Southwest and Southern California. Control is difficult. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4. PMID:13260935

  8. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Miranda, Karla Carvalho; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fatima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 masculineC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 microg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.

  9. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon.

  11. [Dermatophytes transmitted by pets and cattle].

    PubMed

    Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F

    2014-04-02

    Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation.

  12. Isolation of glycopeptides with skin test activity from dermatophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, S A; Pollack, J D

    1978-01-01

    By using ethylene glycol extraction of whole submerged cultures followed by Sephadex G-200 and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography, we isolated four distinct glycopeptides from Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Microsporum canis. Chemical analyses revealed that these glycopeptides contained mostly carbohydrate (42.5 to 81.6%) and protein (4.3 to 11.3%), with lesser amounts of phosphorus (0.4 to 6.0%) and hexosamines (0.3 to 0.6%). Based upon total carbohydrate and monosaccharide content, these dermatophyte glycopeptides could be divided into two chemical groups: glucopeptides (DSI1) and mannopeptides (DSI2, DSII1, and DSII2). The mannopeptides and glucopeptides of each species of dermatophyte were not significantly different chemically from those derived from the other two dermatophyte species studied. Skin testing of DSI1-glycopeptides or DSI2-mannopeptides in immunized guinea pigs indicated that only the DSI2-mannopeptides elicited a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Skin testing T. mentagrophytes 62-infected guinea pigs with the four purified DS-glycopeptides, as well as earlier fractions from the purification scheme, derived from T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and M. canis, again indicated that only the DSI2-mannopeptides of the two Trichophyton species elicited a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The number of infections or duration of infection had no effect on the size of the skin test response. DSI2-mannopeptides were non-cross-reactive between genera when tested in Trichophyton-immunized or -infected guinea pigs and Microsporum-immunized guinea pigs. Images PMID:640721

  13. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  14. Non-dermatophyte Dermatoses Mimicking Dermatophytoses in Animals.

    PubMed

    Pin, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytoses in animals are fungal diseases of the skin caused by dermatophyte fungi of the genus Microsporum or Trichophyton. Because the infection is generally follicular, the most common clinical sign is one or many circular areas of alopecia with variable erythema, scaling and crusting, and the primary differential diagnoses are follicular infections, such as bacterial folliculitis and demodicosis. Although dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm is the most commonly observed lesion of dermatophytoses in animals, other presentations may be observed according to the host species and the dermatophyte involved: dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm, scaling and crusting in dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor, nodule in case of kerion or mycetoma, matted hairs, seborrheic dermatosis or miliary dermatitis in cats, generalized exfoliative dermatoses in dogs, cats and horses, superficial non-follicular pustules, papules and macules in the Devon Rex cat, pruritic dermatophytoses in dogs, cats and horses, and onychomycosis in dogs, cats and horses. Since manifestations of dermatophytosis are highly variable, particularly in the cat, dermatophytosis should be considered in case of any annular, papular, nodular or pustular dermatoses, alopecic or not, sometimes pruritic, and nodular dermatoses as well.

  15. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-08-01

    To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C.

  16. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol.

  18. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  19. Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2010-11-01

    Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1).

  20. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  1. Influence of different oils on penetration of human hair by fungi.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, S; Kushwaha, R K

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis The hair perforating ability of Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii was tested in presence of seventeen oils. Clove, olive and turpentine oils were found to be fully inhibitory for hair penetration by both fungi. Hair segments smeared with cantheridine oil and keocarpin hair vitalizer failed to reveal any perforation by T. vanbreuseghemii whereas arnica and shikakai oils showed little perforation by this fungus. Résumé La capacité de pénétration du Microsporum gypseum et du Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii a été testée en présence de 17 huiles. Les huiles de clou de girofle, d'olive et de térébenthine se sont avérées complétement inhibitrices du pouvoir de pénétration des 2 levures sur les cheveux. Des cheveux frottés avec de l'huile de cantharidine et un produit vitalisant des cheveux à kéocarpine n'ont révélé aucune pénétration par le T. vanbreuseghemii alors que l'huile d'arnica et l'huile de shikakai ont favorisé une légère pénétration par cette levure.

  2. Dermatophytoses in animals.

    PubMed

    Chermette, René; Ferreiro, Laerte; Guillot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities, high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible for the majority of the cases, viz. Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton equinum and Trichophyton verrucosum, as also the geophilic species Microsporum gypseum. According to the host and the fungal species involved, the typical aspect of dermatophytic lesions may be modified. As a consequence, an accurate clinical examination, a good differential diagnosis and laboratory analyses are required for a correct identification. Few antifungal agents are available and licenced for use in veterinary practice, and the use of systemic drugs is limited in livestock due to the problems of residues in products intended for human consumption. The high resistance of the dermatophyte arthroconidia in the environment, the multiplicity of host species, and the confinement of animals in breedings are cause of an enzootic situation in many cases. Prevention is difficult, but research development on the immune response to dermatophytes and the use of vaccination, especially in cattle, have brought some interesting results.

  3. Preparation and cyclodextrin assisted dissolution rate enhancement of itraconazolium dinitrate salt.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Shishu; Bansal, Gulshan; Kumar, Sandeep; Jana, Asim Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The poor solubility of itraconazole (ITR) results in its variable oral absorption and bioavailability and has also proven to be a major setback in developing an efficient oral delivery system. To improve its solubility and dissolution profile, itraconazolium dinitrate salt (ITRDNT) was prepared and characterized using various spectral and thermal techniques. The morphology of the salt was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Broth microdilution assay demonstrated antifungal efficacy of ITRDNT similar to ITR against four different fungal strains namely, Asparagillus fumigatus, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypsum and Trichophyton rubrum. The salt exhibited better solubility profile than ITR in water and a number of pharmaceutical solvents. Dissolution studies revealed the total amount of drug released from ITRDNT in 3 h was four times greater than that of ITR. To further improve dissolution characteristics, the physical mixtures of ITR and ITRDNT with two cyclodextrins, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and HP-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) were prepared and their molar ratios were optimized. It was observed that about 75% of drug was released in 30 min from 1:3 molar ratio of ITRDNT and HP-β-CD physical mixture, which was distinctly higher than ITR commercial capsules (70%). Owing to its facile and economical preparation and substantially better in vitro release profile, the ITRDNT and its CD physical mixtures could be better and cost effective alternatives to ITR and commercial ITR capsules.

  4. Single-step PCR using (GACA)4 primer: utility for rapid identification of dermatophyte species and strains.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Atef S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Aboulatta, Hassan N; el-Akhras, Atef I; Abbadi, Said H; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-08-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from Egyptian patients to the species and strain levels. The first method employed a two-step method: PCR amplification, using ITS1 and ITS4 as primers, followed by restriction enzyme digestion using the endonuclease MvaI. The second method employed a one-step approach employing the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)(4) as a primer. Dermatophyte strains were also identified using a conventional culture method. Our results showed that the conventional culture method identified four species: Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Moreover, both PCR methods agreed with the diagnosis made using the conventional approach. Furthermore, ITS1/ITS4-based PCR provided no strain differentiation, while (GACA)(4)-based PCR identified different varieties among the T. mentagrophytes isolates. Taken together, our results suggest that (GACA)(4)-based PCR has utility as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species as well as utility for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants.

  5. An improved molecular diagnostic assay for canine and feline dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Gasser, Robin B; Figueredo, Luciana A; Weigl, Stefania; Danesi, Patrizia; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-02-01

    The few studies attempting to specifically characterize dermatophytes from hair samples of dogs and cats using PCR-based methodology relied on sequence-based analysis of selected genetic markers. The aim of the present investigation was to establish and evaluate a PCR-based approach employing genetic markers of nuclear DNA for the specific detection of dermatophytes on such specimens. Using 183 hair samples, we directly compared the test results of our one-step and nested-PCR assays with those based on conventional microscopy and in vitro culture techniques (using the latter as the reference method). The one step-PCR was highly accurate (AUC > 90) for the testing of samples from dogs, but only moderately accurate (AUC = 78.6) for cats. A nested-PCR was accurate (AUC = 93.6) for samples from cats, and achieved higher specificity (94.1 and 94.4%) and sensitivity (100 and 94.9%) for samples from dogs and cats, respectively. In addition, the nested-PCR allowed the differentiation of Microsporum canis from Trichophyton interdigitale (zoophilic) and geophilic dermatophytes (i.e., Microsporum gypseum or Trichophyton terrestre), which was not possible using the one step-assay. The PCRs evaluated here provide practical tools for diagnostic applications to support clinicians in initiating prompt and targeted chemotherapy of dermatophytoses.

  6. Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2009-09-01

    Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL).

  7. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (∼3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  8. Dermatophytosis in children and adolescents in Gdansk, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lange, M; Nowicki, R; Barańska-Rybak, W; Bykowska, B

    2004-08-01

    During a 3-year period (1999-2001) a total of 94 cases of dermatophytosis were seen in patients from 0 to 18 years of age attending the Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology of Gdańsk Medical University. Mycoses were diagnosed on the basis of clinical picture and direct microscopy and were confirmed by positive cultures. The most frequent pathogens were Microsporum canis (62%) and Trichophyton rubrum (12%). The most often forms of dermatophytosis in children were tinea cutis glabrae (42%) and tinea capitis (30%). Microsporum canis predominated in both locations. Glabrous skin lesions were the most frequent in children aged 8-15 years; the peak of scalp lesions was observed mainly in children aged 4-7 years. Tinea pedis occurred more frequently than suspected. Tinea pedis was observed mainly in adolescents (above the age of 12 years)--the majority of cases were caused by T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum. Onychomycosis was highly uncommon, caused mainly by T. rubrum. Dermatomycoses in general were most frequent in October and November.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Sônia Pereira; Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2006-01-01

    Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showed strong inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5000 µg ml−1. The MIC values to dermatophyte strains were 2500 µg ml−1 against Trichophyton rubrum (LM-09, LM-13) and Microsporum canis. This study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of skin diseases caused by dermatophytes. PMID:16786057

  10. Activity of terbinafine in experimental fungal infections of laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Petranyi, G; Meingassner, J G; Mieth, H

    1987-01-01

    The allylamine derivative terbinafine is the first antifungal agent with primary fungicidal properties against dermatophytes which acts systemically after oral application as well as locally after topical application. Comparative oral studies carried out with griseofulvin and ketoconazole in model infections such as guinea pig trichophytosis and microsporosis revealed terbinafine to be superior to the reference compounds both clinically and mycologically. An excellent antimycotic activity of terbinafine was also demonstrable after topical treatment of guinea pig dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis. Results of comparative chemotherapeutic studies carried out with econazole and tolnaftate demonstrated superior efficacy of terbinafine in the treatment of both trichophytosis and microsporosis. Skin infections of guinea pigs caused by Candida albicans and vaginal candidiasis in rats proved to be responsive to a topical application of terbinafine also. However, the reference compounds, clotrimazole and miconazole, exhibited activity superior to that of terbinafine in both models. PMID:3435103

  11. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado

    2003-12-01

    Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses.

  12. Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Allium ursinum L. and their cytostatic and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sobolewska, Danuta; Janeczko, Zbigniew; Kisiel, Wanda; Podolak, Irma; Galanty, Agnieszka; Trojanowska, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the isolation and structural elucidation of steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of ramson Allium ursinum L. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based upon chromatographic methods and 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS and IR analyses. The mixture of two steroidal saponins: (25R)-spirost-5-en-3b-ol tetrasaccharide and (25R)-spirost-5, 25(27)-dien-3b-ol tetrasaccharide, along with a 3-hydroxypregna-5,16-dien-20-one glycoside were identified. The results of in vitro cytotoxic activity of the mixture of spirostanol saponins against cell lines melanoma B16 and sarcoma XC and human fibroblasts HSF are also reported. The spirostanol saponins mixture was investigated to determine its in vitro antimicrobal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis.

  13. [Clinical problems in medical mycology: Problem number 50].

    PubMed

    Walker, Laura Guadalupe; Arechavala, Alicia; Messina, Fernando; Negroni, Ricardo; Santiso, Gabriela

    We present the case of a 34 year-old man, HIV-positive, who had suffered a disseminated histoplasmosis treated with amphotericin B one year before his admission. He was admitted at the Infectious Diseases Muñiz Hospital with a non-lithiasic chlolecystitis. During the clinical examination perigenital skin lesions compatible with tinea cruris, as well as proximal subungual onychomycoses of toenails, were observed. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from both types of lesions. Oral terbinafine led to a good clinical response. Treatment prescription was a big challenge in this patient because he was receiving HAART and itraconazole, and there was scarce experience in the treatment of nail infections due to M. gypseum.

  14. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Davison, F D; Mackenzie, D W; Owen, R J

    1980-06-01

    DNA was extracted and purified from 55 dermatophyte isolates representing 34 species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. The base compositions of the chromosomal DNA were determined by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and were found to be in the narrow range of 48.7 to 50.3 mol % G + C. A satellite DNA component assumed to be of mitochondrial origin was present in most strains, with a G + C content ranging from 14.7 to 30.8 mol % G + C. Heterogeneity in microscopic and colonial characteristics was not reflected in differences in the mean G + C content of the chromosomal DNAs. Strains varied in the G + C contents of satelite DNA, but these did not correlate with traditional species concepts.

  15. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco.

  16. [Epidemiology and etiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Milce; Passos, Xisto Sena; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Miranda, André Thiago Borges; Lemos, Janine de Aquino; Oliveira, Juldásio Galdino de; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce infections called dermatophytosis. In order to review the etiology and epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, 1955 specimens with diagnostic suspicion of dermatophytic lesions, were collected from January to December, 1999, from the Mycology Laboratory in the Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás. A total of 445 (22.8%) samples were positive for dermatophytes and Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated species (49.4%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30.8%) and Microsporum canis (12.6%). Concerning the location of the lesions, the inferior limbs, feet and nails together with tinea capitis were the most frequently found clinical pattern in the majority of patients. Correlation between sex, age, location of the lesions and etiologic agents is considered in the study.

  17. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  18. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  19. [Tinea capitis].

    PubMed

    Rebollo, N; López-Barcenas, A P; Arenas, R

    2008-03-01

    Tinea capitis is a widespread scalp infection in children caused by dermatophytes. In fact, it is the most common cutaneous mycosis in children but is uncommon in adults. The disease has been major public health concern for decades. Some factors implicated in infection include poor personal hygiene, crowded living conditions, and low socioeconomic status. It can be caused by any pathogenic dermatophyte except for Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton concentricum. Trichophyton rubrum, the most commonly isolated dermatophyte worldwide, is rarely the causative agent of this infection. Tinea capitis is a classic example of the changing geographic patterns of dermatophytosis. In developed countries, Trichophyton tonsurans is the most common causative agent, whereas in developing countries such as Mexico, the most common agent is Microsporum canis followed by Trichophyton tonsurans. The increasing incidence of tinea capitis warranted a review of the current literature and treatment strategies.

  20. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  1. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of topical chitosan-based film containing griseofulvin-loaded liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Bavarsad, Neda; Kouchak, Maryam; Mohamadipour, Pardis; Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool

    2016-01-01

    Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug and is available as oral dosage forms. Development of topical treatment could be advantageous for superficial fungal infections of the skin. In this study, films prepared from the incorporation of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes in chitosan film for topical drug delivery in superficial fungal infections. The properties of the films were characterized regarding mechanical properties, swelling, ability to transmit vapor, drug release, thermal behavior, and antifungal efficacy against Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The presence of liposomes led to decreased mechanical properties but lower swelling ratio. Higher amount of drug permeation and rate of flux were obtained by liposomes incorporated in films compared to liposomal formulations. Antifungal efficacy of formulations was confirmed against two species of dermatophytes in vitro. Therefore, two concepts of using vesicular carrier systems and biopolymeric films have been combined and this topical novel composite film has the potential for griseofulvin delivery to superficial fungal infections. PMID:27429928

  2. Relation between lipophilicity of alkyl gallates and antifungal activity against yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Leal, P C; Mascarello, A; Derita, M; Zuljan, F; Nunes, R J; Zacchino, S; Yunes, R A

    2009-03-15

    The antifungal activity of a complete series of 15 n-alkyl gallates and six analogues acting against a representative panel of opportunistic pathogenic fungi was studied in order to analyze their role in: the importance of the fungi tested, the importance of the hydroxyls, the influence of the chain length and the hydrophobicity of the compounds. It was demonstrated that dermatophytes were the most susceptible species and that hydroxyls appear to be necessary but not sufficient for the activity. When the logP of each gallate was calculated and related to the different values of MIC against Microsporum gypseum it was observed that hexyl, heptyl, octyl and nonyl gallates exhibit a significant positive deviation from the curve corresponding to a polynomial equation obtained for the other gallates. This suggests that these compounds have a further mode of action besides their hydrophobicity, possibly the inhibition of some enzyme involved in ergosterol biosynthesis.

  3. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M; Ouf, S A; Moussa, Tarek A A; Eltahlawi, S M R

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31-40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.

  4. [Dermatophytes isolated in Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid, Spain).].

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, A; Cuétara, M S; Valle, A; González, A; Almondarain, I; Ramos Castillo, M J; Moran Vasallo, A; Pereiro Miguens, M

    1999-06-01

    Over a 10 year period (January 1988 - December 1997), 3,241 dermatophyte strains were isolated from 18,465 specimens from patients in whom dermatophytosis was suspected clinically. This represents a 17.5% rate of isolation. Trichophyton rubrum (38.44%), Microsporum canis (28.75%), Epidermophyton floccosum (14.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.5%) were the dominant species, and Trichophyton tonsurans (2.09%) has emerged, whilst in the previous decade it had virtually disappeared. Our study is basically based on an out-patient selected population, and tinea corporis (30.79%), followed by tinea cruris (16.69%) and tinea unguium (16.69%) were the most prevalent clinical forms.

  5. Antifungal activity of extracts and prenylated coumarins isolated from Baccharis darwinii Hook & Arn. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurdelas, Rita R; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Gonzalez Sierra, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo D; Freile, Monica L

    2010-07-13

    The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5'-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1), aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2) and 5'-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3). The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 microg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 microg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 microg/mL) against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii.

  6. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  7. Plants from Lamiaceae family as source of antifungal molecules in humane and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Serra, Emanoele Figueiredo; Silva, Anna Luiza; Gomes, Angelita Dos Reis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed to review the main plants of Lamiaceae family with activity against pathogenic fungi of medical and veterinary interest. Published studies in the main international databases between January 2002 and June 2016 showed that 55 botanical species belonging to 27 genus presented antifungal activity in different forms of extractions, mainly essential oils. Pathogenic fungi of Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Malassezia spp., Cryptococcus spp., Sporothrix spp., Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. and Epidermophyton spp. genus were in vitro sensitive to several plants of Lamiaceae family. Chemical molecules isolated were described as promising use as antifungals in mycoses, highlighting estragole, 1,8-cineole, terpineol-4, γ-terpinene, among others. However, it should be alert to need of universal standardization in the laboratories tests with natural products.

  8. Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny and evolution of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Iatta, Roberta; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Gräser, Yvonne; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that invade and propagate in the keratinized skin of mammals, including humans, often causing contagious infections. The species of medical concern belong to the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton (in their anamorphic state) and Arthroderma (in their telomorphic state), which were traditionally identified based on their morphology and biochemical characters. Nonetheless, limitations linked to the differentiation of closely related agents at species and strains level have been recently overcome by molecular studies. Indeed, an accurate identification of dermatophytes is pivotal for the establishment of effective control and prevention programs as well as for determining the most appropriate and effective antifungal therapies to be applied. This article reviews the DNA techniques and the molecular markers used to identify and to characterize dermatophyte species, as well as aspects of their phylogeny and evolution. The applications of typing molecular strain to both basic and applied research (e.g., taxonomy, ecology, typing of infection, antifungal susceptibility) have also been discussed.

  9. Dermatophytes from urban soils in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pontes, Z B V; Oliveira, A C

    2008-01-01

    A total of 68 soil samples was collected from "favelas" (slums), schools, public squares, beaches and vacant lots in the city of João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. A search for dermatophytes in these soils was carried out by using the Vanbreuseghem technique. As a result, 48 strains and 6 dermatophytes species were isolated. Trichophyton terrestre (25.0%), Microsporum gypseum (20.8%) and Anthroderma gypsea (2.1%) were identified among the geophilic species, and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (37.5%) among the zoophilic species and T. tonsurans (4.2%), among the anthropophilic species. The growth of 75% of dermatophytes occurred in alkaline pH (7.02-9.00) and their presence in the soil should not be underestimated, since some of the identified species are aetiological agents of dermatophytoses in humans and animals.

  10. Antidermatophytic triterpenoids from Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Simplice; Wabo, Hypolyte K; Tane, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the stem bark of Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) afforded a number of known triterpenes such as friedelin, beta-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid and lupeol. Friedelin was submitted to a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, and was also reduced with LiAlH(4) to give the known friedelolactone and friedelanol, respectively. These compounds were identified by comparison of NMR spectral data with those from the literature. The EtOAc extract and the isolated compounds were tested for their antidermatophytic activity against three dermatophyte species: Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton soudanense, commonly found in Cameroon. Betulinic acid and friedelolactone were the most active compounds, and the most sensitive fungi were Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  11. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.

  12. In-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity of cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes with furanylmethyl- and thienylmethyl-dithiolenes: [1, 3-dithiole- 2-one and 1,3-dithiole-2-thione].

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Shaikh, Ali U; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2006-12-01

    Some antibacterial and antifungal furanylmethyl-and thienylmethyl dithiolenes and, their Co(II), Cu(II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri, and two Gram-positive; Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains, and for in-vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. All compounds showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The metal complexes, however, were shown to possess better activity as compared to the simple ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in-vitro cytotoxic properties.

  13. In-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of some coumarins and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Saeed U; Chohan, Zahid H; Gulnaz, Farzana; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2005-08-01

    A series of new antibacterial and antifungal coumarin-derived compounds and their transition metal complexes [cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II)] have been synthesized, characterized and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal complexes to be more antibacterial and antifungal as compared to the uncomplexed coumarins. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties.

  14. In-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of sulfonamide--derived Schiff's bases and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Khalid M; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2005-04-01

    A series of new antibacterial and antifungal Schiff's bases derived from sulfonamides, as well as their transition metal complexes incorporating cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) were synthesized, characterized and screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysentriae) and four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureous and Streptococcus pyogenes) bacterial strains and for in-vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal complexes to be more antibacterial and antifungal as compared to the uncomplexed Schiffs' bases. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study the in-vitro cytotoxic properties of these synthesized ligands and their complexes.

  15. 1998 William J. Stickel Bronze Award. Antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree) oil against various pathogenic organisms.

    PubMed

    Concha, J M; Moore, L S; Holloway, W J

    1998-10-01

    Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections.

  16. Dermatophytoses in the Gdańsk area, Poland: a 12-year survey.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey of dermatophytes and dermatophytoses was carried out among patients of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Gdańsk, in the years 1984-95. Over the 12-year period, 1195 cases of ringworm were seen: 55% in men and 45% in women. Listing the dermatophytes isolated and their frequencies as a percentage of the total are as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes 42.1%, Microsporum canis 26.0%, Trichophyton rubrum 14.7%, Epidermophyton floccosum 11.0%, Trichophyton tonsurans 4.6%, Trichophyton verrucosum 1.3%, Trichophyton violaceum 0.3%. The most common clinical variant of dermatophytosis in the Gdańsk area was tinea cutis glabrae (32.9%), followed by tinea pedis (24%), onychomycosis (16.5%), tinea capitis (11.9%)), tinea inguinalis (10.3%) and tinea manuum (4.4%). Dermatophytoses were significantly more frequent among adults (> 15 years) (71.3%).

  17. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.

  18. In vitro nail invasion by pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Baudraz-Rosselet, F; Frenk, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the literature suggest that the nutritional environment can modify major metabolic functions of fungi and possibly their aggressivity towards keratinous structures. Trichophyton rubrum (TR), Microsporum canis (MC), Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (SB), Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Penicillium spec. (P) were inoculated on media of different nutritional value, in presence of nail fragments. The activity of the fungi was evaluated at two and four weeks for intensity and depth of invasion of nail samples. Nail invasion was most pronounced by MC, especially when grown on rice agar or peptone agar. Nail invasion by the other fungi tested was less important, Sabourand glucose and rice agar were most favorable. Our results indicate that nutritional factors can, at least in some fungus species, alter their rate of nail invasion.

  19. First Total Synthesis and Biological Screening of a Proline-Rich Cyclopeptide from a Caribbean Marine Sponge

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Rajiv; Singh, Sunil; Sharma, Ajay; Chennupati, Suresh V.; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL. PMID:27983681

  20. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64 µL mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases.

  1. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes.

  2. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  3. Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, C.; Mitra, T.; Kumar, A.; Samanta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times increasing occurrence of dermatophytosis, especially among the school children in eastern India was evidenced along with increased tendency of keeping companion animals such as dogs and cats. This study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of dermatophytes with antifungal susceptibility among the companion animals. A total of 1501 healthy companion animals comprising 1209 dogs and 292 cats belonged to individual owners in and around Kolkata (West Bengal, India) were examined for the evidence of dermatophytosis during 2011-2013. The collected samples were subjected to direct examination by standard KOH mount technique. The samples were inoculated into both Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide and dermatophyte test medium (DTM). Each of the fungal isolate was identified based upon its colony characteristics and hyphal and conidial cells it produced. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution assay using fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin and amphotericin-B antifungals. Among the 1209 samples from dogs and 292 samples from cats, 253 (20.93%) and 109 (37.33%) samples were positive for dermatophytes by direct examination. Three identified species of dermatophytes with predominant occurrence were Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ketoconazole (0.06-0.5 µgm/ml), itraconazole (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) and amphotericin-B (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) showed lowest MIC values against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum, respectively. This is the first systemic report of dermatophytes in healthy companion animals with large numbers of samples in India. PMID:27656224

  4. Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Jin; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Yang, In; Choi, Won-Sil; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the potential of using plant oils derived from Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. Et Perry as natural antifungal agents. The antifungal effects of essential oils at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/ml on the dermatophytes Microsporum canis (KCTC 6591), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (KCTC 6077), Trichophyton rubrum (KCCM 60443), Epidermophyton floccosum (KCCM 11667), and Microsporum gypseum were evaluated using the agar diffusion method. The major constituents of the active fraction against the dermatophytes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The antifungal activities of S. aromaticum oil (clove oil) against the dermatophytes tested were highest at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, with an effectiveness of more than 60%. Hyphal growth was completely inhibited in T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and M. gypseum by treatment with clove oil at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml. Eugenol was the most effective antifungal constituent of clove oil against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. Morphological changes in the hyphae of T. mentagrophytes, such as damage to the cell wall and cell membrane and the expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum, after treatment with 0.11 mg/ml eugenol were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, L. petersonii oil (LPO) was more than 90% effective against all of the dermatophytes tested, with the exception of T. rubrum. Geranial was determined to be the most active antifungal constituent of L. petersonii oil. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that clove and tea tree oils exhibited significant antifungal activities against the dermatophytes tested in this study.

  5. Mycetes and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Tampieri, M P

    2006-06-01

    Mycetes are ubiquitous organisms that can cause mycoses in human and animals. The role of animals in the epidemiology of human mycoses in urban areas is multiform, but here will be discuss only two features: A) animals as vectors of mycoses and B) animal substrates as growth factor of pathogenic fungi. A) Animals as vectors of mycoses: this role is important as zoofilic dermatophytes are very important agents of zoonosis; the urban dermatophytozoonoses are prevalent caused by Microsporum canis which is prevalent in cats and dogs. Cats are often asymptomatic carriers. The pattern of human dermatomycoses has changed in Italy during the past century: at the beginning of the century anthropophilic fungi were prevalent while at present the zoophilic fungi are the most important causes. B) Animal substrata as growth factor of pathogenic fungi: soil "animalization" (i.e., the addition of such debris as hair, skin scales, dropping and other organic matters) creates an optimal substratum for the growth and the multiplication of geophilic or saprophyitic fungi, such as Microsporum gypseum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The present human lifestyle, which favours a an overpopulation of birds, wild animals, domestic mammals and sinanthropic together with man in crowded areas seems to favour the formation of environments adapted to the abundant growth of some pathogenic fungi with consequent infection for man and animals. Finally, an environment heavily populated by fungi can cause allergic pulmonary reactions as well as reactions in other organs and tissues. The control of human and animal fungi, and the efficient use of a monitoring system require ample knowledge of mycological problems both in human and veterinary medicine and of efficient laboratories capable of resolving the needs of both disciplines. Close collaboration between veterinarians, doctors and mycologists is necessary in order to resolve health problems linked to mycosis.

  6. Mycoses in Thailand: current concerns.

    PubMed

    Ungpakorn, Rataporn

    2005-01-01

    Scytalidium dimidiatum is the leading cause of fungal foot diseases in Thailand, in contrast to similar studies in which dermatophytes have been identified as the predominant pathogens. By contrast, the prevalence of Candida albicans in our study was only 2.6 approximately 3.0%. Scytalidium fungal foot infection is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by dermatophytes and should be included as a possible cause of treatment failure in tinea pedis and onychomycosis. Without proper culture identification, clinically diagnosed patients would be treated with a standard antifungal regimen leading to minimal response and be interpreted as drug resistant cases resulting in switching of drugs and more aggressive management procedures. Tinea capitis is another health problem in young children. However, for Microsporum canis and some ectothrix organisms, the effectiveness of treatment may be less than endothrix infection. Griseofulvin is still the mainstay antifungal although itraconazole and terbinafine are as effective. Pulse regimen may be another option with advantages of increased compliance and convenience. Two pulses of terbinafine may be sufficient for treating most cases of Microsporum infection, although additional treatment may be needed if clinical improvement is not evident at week 8 after initiating therapy. Chromoblastomycosis is another subcutaneous infection that requires long treatment duration with costly antifungal drugs. The most common pathogen in Thailand is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Preliminary study of pulse itraconazole 400 mg/d 1 week monthly for 9-12 consecutive months showed promising results. The prevalence of Penicillium marneffei infection is alarming in HIV infected patients living in endemic areas. Diagnosis relies on direct examination of the specimens and confirmation by culture. Treatment regimens include systemic amphotericin B or itraconazole followed by long-term prophylaxis. Treatment outcome depends on the immune status of the

  7. Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Virulence Activities of Dermatophytes on Solid Media

    PubMed Central

    Elavarashi, Elangovan; Rangarajan, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi causing superficial cutaneous infections that account 20-25% of the global population. As per literature search, there is a dearth in the study on virulence factors of dermatophytes from the Indian sub-continent and moreover the association of the virulence factors and the host tissue in vitro helps in understanding the host-pathogen interaction. Aim To analyse the enzymatic and non-enzymatic virulence activities of dermatophytes on solid media. Materials and Methods A total of 11 isolates, three standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains- Trichophyton rubrum- 28188, Trichophyton mentagrophytes- 9533, Trichophyton tonsurans- 28942, one CBS KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre strain- Arthroderma grubyi- 243.66, five clinical isolates- T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii, Trichophyton interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum, and two laboratory isolates - Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were screened for the production of virulence enzymes such as phospholipase, lipase, protease, gelatinase and non-enzyme virulence factors (haemolytic activity) of dermatophytes. The clinical isolates were identified from a tertiary care hospital, Chennai. These dermatophytes were tested upon specific substrates on solid media such as egg yolk, tween 80, bovine serum albumin, gelatin powder and sheep blood respectively. Results The virulence activity of phospholipase, lipase, protease and gelatinase was observed from all the dermatophyte species. T. rubrum, T. rubrum ATCC strain, T. rubrum var. raubitschekii, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes ATCC strain, T. interdigitale and A. grubyi CBS strain produced complete haemolysis, whereas other dermatophytes showed no haemolytic activity. Conclusion Phospholipase, lipase, protease and gelatinase act as enzymatic virulence marker and the T. rubrum complex, T. mentagrophytes complex and A. grubyi showed complete haemolysis and hence

  8. In vitro cytotoxic effects of modified zinc oxide quantum dots on breast cancer cell lines (MCF7), colon cancer cell lines (HT29) and various fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhroueian, Zahra; Dehshiri, Alireza Mozafari; Katouzian, Fatemeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Pegah

    2014-07-01

    An important ideal objective of this study was to perform surface functionalization of fine (1-3 nm) ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) in order to inhibit decomposition and agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous media. Polymers, oily herbal fatty acids, PEG (polyethylene glycol), and organosilanes are the main reagents used in these reactions, because they are completely soluble in water, and can be used as biological probes in nanomedicine. Vegetable fatty acid-capped ZnO (QD NPs) was fabricated by dissolving at a suitable pH after sol-gel method in the presence of nonionic surfactants as efficient templates with a particular HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) value (9.7 and 8.2). In the present research, we focused on the cellular toxicity of fine zinc oxide QD NPs containing particular blue fluorescence for targeted delivery of MCF7 and HT29 cancer cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 10.66 and 5.75 µg/ml for MCF7 and HT29, respectively. These findings showed that ZnO QDs have low toxicity in normal cells (MDBK) and can display potential application in cancer chemotherapy in the near future. These properties could result in the generation of a promising candidate in the field of nanobiomedicine. The robust-engineered ZnO QD NPs showed their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and also different fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, compared with the standard antibiotic agents like Gentamicin and Clotrimazol.

  9. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  10. Detection and characterization of zoonotic dermatophytes from dogs and cats in and around Kolkata

    PubMed Central

    Murmu, S.; Debnath, C.; Pramanik, A. K.; Mitra, T.; Jana, S.; Dey, S.; Banerjee, S.; Batabyal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners. Materials and Methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number), cats (202 in number), and human beings (37 in number) were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests. Results: Samples (n=285) having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5%) than in dogs (108, 37.8%) and humans (19, 6.7%), respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0%) was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8%) and Trichophyton rubrum (1.7%). Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August) and also in in-contact human beings. Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons and in

  11. Tinea capitis among primary school children in some parts of central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayanbimpe, Grace M; Taghir, Henry; Diya, Abigail; Wapwera, Samuel

    2008-07-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common superficial mycosis in children of school age. Although it is of public health importance, it is not a reportable or notifiable disease; therefore, actual prevalence figures are unknown in many endemic areas. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school children in two states in central Nigeria, highlighting the main aetiological agents of the infection and possible predisposing factors. A total of 28 505 primary school children aged between 3 and 16 years were recruited for the study, from 12 primary schools in two local government areas of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria. Of them, 796 had lesions, which were clinically suggestive of tinea capitis out of which 248 (31.2%) were confirmed positive by microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was more frequent in males, 194 (78.2%) than in females, 54 (21.8%). Children aged 10-14 years, followed by 5-9 years were predominantly infected, with 106 (42.7%) and 100 (40.3%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between age group and occurrence of tinea capitis in the study population at 95% confidence level (P = 0.004). Tinea capitis was significantly more frequent in Jos State (44.6%) than in Gboko State (23.2%) (t = .659; 95% confidence level). The prevalence of tinea capitis was influenced by social and cultural habits of the areas rather than by population density. The aetiological agent of tinea capitis in the study population was Trichophyton soudanense, 76 (30.6%), followed by Microsporum ferrugineum, 19 (7.7%) and Microsporum audouinii, 19 (7.7%). Differences in aetiology were observed for Gboko and Jos, except for T. soudanense, which predominated in both areas. The high prevalence of tinea capitis in the areas studied may be attributed to frequent interaction with soil and animals and low level of health education on personal and environmental hygiene. Aetiological agents varied from one geographical area to another.

  12. [In vitro study of the antifungal activity of two chlorine derivatives to be used in antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, P; Repetto, A; Bulletti, S; Mattiacci, P; Rossi, J; Pagiotti, R; Ribaldi, M; Schiaffella, F

    1989-01-01

    The activity of two chlorine derivates, sodium hypochlorite in water solution with NaCl (product A) and electrolytic chloroxidant (product B) has been tested in vitro against potentially human pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Sporotrix schenkii). For A. niger, the relation of the two compounds has also been considered between mycelial and sporidial forms. Dilutions used ranged from 0.15 to 10% (corresponding to 17.2-1150 ppm of active principle for product A, and to 18.3-1220 ppm of active principle for product B). These were applied for different times in order to assess the minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C.) and to evaluate the survival time of the microorganisms tested, which were strains from the collection of the Institute of Mycology, (Faculty of Agrarian Science, Perugia) and recently isolated ones from animal and vegetable tissues, cultivated on Sabouraud medium. The cell suspension to be tested was obtained on nutrient broth in shaken flasks (120 rpm) at 28 degrees C for 48 h, and was separated by centrifugation and 10000 rpm at 5 degrees C for 20 min, repeatedly washed with sterile physiologic saline and resuspended in sterile water where it was submitted to delicate pressure in order to fragment the mycelium. Activity tests were carried out on Sabouraud broth and Sabouraud agar with controls for every case without the active principle. Aliquots of the suspensions (microrganism++ + disinfectant) were transferred at regular intervals (1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes) to the two substrates in liquid and solid state, and the growth of microorganisms was followed at 28 degrees C for 48-72 h in the case of yeasts, and for up to 21 days in the case of sower growing fungi. The cell content of the different suspensions was found to range from 10(4) to 10(9) UFC/ml. The active

  13. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results.

  15. A 20-year survey of tinea faciei.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Aste; Laura, Atzori; Natalia, Aste; Monica, Pau

    2010-11-01

    Tinea faciei is an uncommon dermatophytosis affecting the glabrous skin of the face. Between 1988 and 2007 at the Dermatology Department of Cagliari University, 107 cases of tinea faciei have been diagnosed, involving 72 females and 35 males, aged 2-72 years. Incidence peaks were observed between 6 and 15 years (48.59%) and between 36 and 45 years (17.76%). Males below and females above 15 years of age were the most affected. In 61 patients (57.1%), typical forms of tinea faciei were observed, whereas in 46 (42.9%), atypical forms were observed, mainly mimicking discoid lupus erythematosus (nine cases), and polymorphous light eruption (eight cases). Typical cases were present in younger patients, aged between 2 and 15 years, while atypical forms were distributed in any of the decades, but mostly between 36 and 72 years. Of the 46 cases of atypical presentation, 33 were females. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis (63 cases), Trichophyton rubrum (24 cases) and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (20 cases). Seven males and two females aged 4-10 years were also affected by tinea capitis and eight patients (three males and five females) of various ages by tinea corporis. Eleven patients (two males and nine females) aged >35 years were affected by onychomycosis. All patients recovered after local and/or systemic antifungal therapy, without relapse or side effects.

  16. Changing in the Epidemiology of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Naglaa A.; Abd El Raheem, Talal A.; Mohammed, Basma H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tinea capitis remains a prevalent health problem among school-aged children. Objective To estimate the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school students, in Fayoum, Egypt with identification of etiological agents in both public and private primary schools. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve primary schools. The students were selected from different grades with a total number of 12,128 students. Hair and scalp were clinically examined for any lesions that may suspect tinea capitis and mycological samples were collected for direct microscopy and culture. Results The prevalence of tinea capitis in the study group was 0.4% and higher in public than private schools (73.5% versus 26.5% respectively). Boys were more affected than girls with boy to girls' ratio 5:1. Intrafamily history of infection was present in 40.8% of tested group while 51% showed low social standard profile. Mycological culture revealed that Microsporum canis was the predominant isolated organism followed by M. audouinii (52% and 36% respectively). Conclusion M. canis is replacing Trichophyton violaceum as an etiology for tinea capitis in Egypt with lower prevalence rate than reported previously. PMID:28223741

  17. Tinea capitis outbreak among paediatric refugee population, an evolving healthcare challenge.

    PubMed

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Ben Ami, Ronen; Savion, Mihal; Goldberg, Ilan; Gan Or, Tamar; Zidan, Omri; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of tinea capitis (TC) represent a major medical and economic burden. Population migrations have become a phenomenon of increasing relevance for medical conditions management. Given the recent massive arrival of immigrants, we sought to determine epidemiologic trends for TC among paediatric populations at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of all TC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in a paediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical centre, serving as a referral centre for the paediatric refugee population from the great Tel Aviv area. Epidemiologic, clinical and treatment data including effectiveness and safety were reviewed. In all, 145 children met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed increases in TC rates over the study period. Incidence rates were higher in boys than in girls. Children of African origin had the highest TC incidence rates as compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum audouinii were the predominant causative organisms. Treatment with griseofulvin was satisfactory in all cases. There was a significant increase in TC incidence rates in the Tel Aviv area over the study period. TV and MA were the predominant organisms. These trends may be a result of poor living conditions and crowded school premises.

  18. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  19. Cytobrush-culture method to diagnose tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Isa-Isa, Rafael; Araiza, Javier; Cruz, Cecilia; Hernández, Marco A; Ponce, Rosa Maria

    2007-06-01

    This is a comparative study to isolate the dermatophytes of tinea capitis using the cytobrush and comparing it versus the standard method. A prospective, observational, comparative trial of 178 probable cases of tinea capitis was conducted in two dermatological centers. Each patient underwent mycological tests that included direct exam with KOH and cultures with either of two methods: scraping the scalp to remove hair and cell debris, and the cytobrush. A total of 135 clinically and mycologically proven cases of tinea capitis were included; 119 were non-inflammatory and 16 inflammatory tinea. A total of 131 had a positive direct exam and subsequent primary isolation cultures were obtained in 135 cases. The main dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum canis (68%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (20%). A total of 115/135 (85.1%), were detected with the traditional method, with an average of 11.2 days until positive, while the number detected with the cytobrush was 132/135 (97.7%) with an average of 8.5 days until positive. The chi-square statistical method showed that the cytobrush culture was superior to the standard one with a chi-square of 5.078 (P = 0.025), with a statistically significant difference versus the standard method.

  20. Cutaneous xanthomas with concurrent demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, L J

    2001-07-01

    Multiple cutaneous xanthomas, associated with fasting hyperlipidaemia, are described in a 9-month-old domestic long-haired cat. A severely pruritic, papular, and crusting dermatitis affecting the head and neck, initially diagnosed as lesions of the eosinophilic granuloma complex, progressively developed on the head and pinnae. Pruritus was controlled with administration of prednisolone and chlorambucil. Repeat histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous xanthoma and concurrent mild demodicosis. Marked fasting hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and transient hyperglycaemia were subsequently confirmed. Treatment for hyperlipidaemia and xanthomas with a low-fat diet (Hill's Feline r/d) and the previously unreported treatment for feline demodicosis of daily oral milbemycin were commenced. Multiple pink, alopecic plaques and papules gradually regressed, however pruritus recurred if immunosuppressive treatment was reduced, and well-demarcated areas of alopecia developed on the head, limbs and trunk, despite negative skin scrapings for demodex mites. Fungal culture of hair samples yielded Microsporum canis. All cutaneous lesions resolved with the addition of griseofulvin to the treatment regimen. Concurrent corneal ulceration and keratoconjunctivitis sicca ultimately resolved with treatment, including topical cyclosporin. Diabetes mellitus developed 6 months after resolution of skin lesions. No cutaneous or ocular abnormalities were present 6 months later with continued low-fat diet and insulin administration, although transient recurrence of papules and pruritus occurred after inadvertent access to a fatty meal. An underlying primary hyperlipidaemia was suspected, causing pruritic xanthomas. This may represent the first report of concurrent cutaneous xanthomas, demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

  1. Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene.

  2. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

    1995-11-17

    Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro.

  3. Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Ricardo

    2010-03-04

    Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro activity of the protegrin IB-367 alone and in combination compared with conventional antifungal agents against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Oriana; Silvestri, Carmela; Arzeni, Daniela; Cirioni, Oscar; Kamysz, Wojciech; Conte, Irene; Staffolani, Silvia; Orsetti, Elena; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Scalise, Alessandro; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Offidani, Anna Maria; Giacometti, Andrea; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of resistance or side effects in patients receiving antifungal agents leads to failure in the treatment of mycosis. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the in vitro effects of IB-367 alone and in combination with three standard antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA) and terbinafine (TERB), against 20 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to three species. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), synergy test, time-kill curves, fungal biomass (FB) and hyphal damage using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfenylamino carbonil)-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT) were performed to study the efficacy of IB-367. In this study, we observed that TERB and ITRA had MICs lower values for all the strains compared to IB-367 and FLU. Synergy was found in 35%, 30% and 25% of IB-367/FLU, IB-367/ITRA and IB-367/TERB interactions respectively. IB-367 exerted a fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum canis at concentrations starting from 1x MIC. At a concentration of 5x MIC, IB-367 showed the highest rates of hyphae damage for M. canis 53% and T. mentagrophytes 50%; against the same isolates it caused a reduction of 1 log of the total viable count cell hyphae damage. We propose IB-367 as a promising candidate for the future design of antifungal drugs.

  5. Biodiversity of Keratinophilic Fungal Flora in University Campus, Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animals Methods: Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique. Results: Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83%) was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10%) was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%), T. simii (9.37%), C.evolceanui (8.83%) T. terrestre (4.68%) and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68%) were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur. Conclusion: Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds. PMID:23304673

  6. [Pets as permanent excretors of zoonoses pathogens].

    PubMed

    Mayr, B

    1993-02-01

    When scrutinizing zoonoses with regard to risks for human beings, the spectrum of pathogens with dogs, cats and birds leading to persistent infections and consequently to the fact that the animals become carriers and permanent excretors is relatively small. Most of the zoonoses cause clinical symptoms and will be taken care of correspondingly. With regard to dogs there is a multitude of persistent infections that are transferred from the pet to the human being and vice versa. In reality, however, the importance of the dog as permanent excretor of zoonosis pathogens endangering human health is minimal, except for some parasitoses. As far as cats are concerned, the situation is totally different. Cats are carriers and permanent excretors of pasteurella, the pathogens of the so-called cat-scratch disease, trichophyton and microsporum species, toxoplasmosis and orthopox viruses. The new zoonosis feline pox serves as an example of the necessity of a permanent observation of persistently infected pets. Healthy, but persistently infected birds form a source of infection not to be underestimated. Through the beat of their wings they constantly stir up dried infectious excrements and dust and thus favour the airborn infection of human beings. Chlamydia psittaci, the Newcastle disease virus and Mycobacterium avium are of major importance in this context. The risk of transferring zoonosis pathogens from persistently infected pets to human beings can be minimized through prophylactic diagnosis, strict measures of hygiene, observation of the schedule of vaccinations for the respective species and regular use of anthelmintica.

  7. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable.

  8. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease.

    PubMed

    Bergson, C L; Fernandes, N C

    2001-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years) with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5%) were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8%) had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  9. Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Raza; Hasnain, Sumaiya

    2015-09-01

    New metal polychelates of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) obtained by the interaction of metal acetates with polymeric Schiff base containing formaldehyde and piperazine, have been investigated. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Geometry of the chelated polymers was confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Visible spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance. The molecular weight of the polymer was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that metal polychelates were more thermally stable than their corresponding ligand. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, (bacteria) and Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi) by agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the polymeric Schiff base was found to be antimicrobial in nature but less effective as compared to the metal polychelates. On the basis of thermal and antimicrobial behavior, these polymers hold potential applications as thermally resistant antimicrobial and antifouling coating materials as well as antimicrobial packaging materials.

  10. Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: α-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation.

  11. Phytochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antioxidant Potential of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) Extracts.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Geisiany M; Politi, Flávio A S; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M; Moreira, Raquel R D; Cardoso, Cássia R P; Santos, Lourdes C; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2015-07-01

    Equisetum hyemale species is considered a medicinal plant used in the form of infusions to combat infectious or inflammation diseases and also diuretic effects, presenting several compounds related to these actions. In previous studies different species of Equisetum showed several phenolic compounds. The objective of this study was, for the first time, based on phytochemistry analysis to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The 70% ethanolic and methanolic extracts of E. hyemale were characterized by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analyses, as well as its antioxidant potential based on the scavenger activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In addition was verified the antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution technique against bacteria and fungi. The extracts showed phytochemical similarity, which demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds, the scavenging activity for free radicals was about 30% and was observed better antifungal activity against dermatophyte fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.62 mg/mL to Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The extracts exhibits great potential to therapeutic applications or product development, since both possess antifungal activity and antioxidant action associated with little difference in their phytochemical composition.

  12. Nimesulide inhibits pathogenic fungi: PGE2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Rafaelle Fonseca; Mendonça, Lúcia Carla Vasconcelos; da Silva Souza, Kaira Geiliane; Fonseca, Adriana Aparecida Durães; Costa, Elaine Mirla Souza; de Lima, Marcus Vinicius Dias; Vieira, José Maria Dos Santos; de Brito, Mioni Thielli Figueiredo Magalhães; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2017-03-01

    Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can inhibit fungal growth, fungal prostaglandin E2 production, and enzyme activation. This study aims to investigate the antifungal effect of nimesulide against pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast. The experiments detailed below were also designed to investigate whether the action is dependent on E2 fungal prostaglandins. Our data showed that nimesulide exhibited potent antifungal activity, mainly against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values of 2 and 62 μg/mL, respectively. This drug was also able to inhibit the growth of clinic isolates of filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, and dermatophytes, such as T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum, with MIC values ranging from 112 to 770 μg/mL. Our data also showed that the inhibition of fungal growth by nimesulide was mediated by a mechanism dependent on PGE2, which led to the inhibition of essential fungal enzymes. Thus, we concluded that nimesulide exerts a fungicidal effect against pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast, involving the inhibition of fungal prostaglandins and fungal enzymes important to the fungal growth and colonization.

  13. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  14. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Haruna M.; Kwanashie, Clara N.; Mshelia, Wayuta P.; Edeh, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes. PMID:27340592

  15. Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16 years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P≤0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12 years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum.

  16. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Vladimír; Soušková, Hana; Hubka, Vit; Švarcová, Michaela; Julák, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) was tested as an in vitro deactivation method on four human pathogenic dermatophytes belonging to all ecological groups including anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale, zoophilic Arthroderma benhamiae, and geophilic Microsporum gypseum. The identification of all strains was confirmed by sequencing of ITS rDNA region (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA). Dermatophyte spores were suspended in water or inoculated on agar plates and exposed to NTP generated by a positive or negative corona discharge, or cometary discharge. After 15 min of exposure to NTP a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores in water suspensions was observed in all species. Complete spore inactivation and thus decontamination was observed in anthropophilic species after 25 min of exposure. Similarly, a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores was observed after 10-15 min of exposure to NTP on the surface of agar plates with full inhibition after 25 min in all tested species except of M. gypseum. Although the sensitivity of dermatophytes to the action of NTP appears to be lower than that of bacteria and yeast, our results suggest that NTP has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment strategy for dermatophytosis and could be useful for surface decontamination in clinical practice.

  17. Isolation of dermatophytes from dogs and cats with suspected dermatophytosis in Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Seker, Esra; Dogan, Nurhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the species of dermatophytes isolated from dogs and cats and their prevalence in the two big provinces of Western Turkey. A total of 362 animals (198 dogs and 164 cats) with skin lesions (alopecia and desquamation) were examined from March 2006 to February 2008. Of the 362 samples examined, 52 (14.4%) were positive for fungal elements by direct microscopic examination, and 70 (19.3%) were culture positive for dermatophytes. The isolation rates of dermatophyte species from dogs and cats were 18.7% and 20.1%, respectively. Microsporum canis (57.1%) was the most common species isolated from dogs and cats. The prevalence of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was five-fold greater in dogs than in cats (odds ratio=5.226; CI=1.152-23.696). No association was detected between prevalence of infection and provinces, and also sex of dogs and cats. The only risk factor found to be significantly associated with infection was age. Dogs and cats younger than one year of age showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of dermatophytes than other age groups (P<0.05). The isolation rate of dermatophytes was relatively high in the spring and winter for dogs, and in the spring, summer and autumn for cats. However, the association of season and prevalence was found not to be significant.

  18. Dermatophyte species in superficial mycoses in the Kraków district, Poland in the years 1972-2007.

    PubMed

    Macura, A B; Krzyściak, P; Skóra, M; Gniadek, A

    2010-03-01

    Considerable changes in the dermatophyte spectrum have been observed in the past century. Hence, many authors point out the necessity of performing periodical overviews of the mycological flora producing mycoses in humans in a given area. Analysis of dermatophyte species was performed, which were isolated from the lesions in patients suspected of superficial mycosis and referred to the Department of Mycology. The materials were isolated from patients suspected of superficial mycosis from Kraków region from January 1, 1972 through December 31, 2007. A total of 4983 dermatophyte strains were isolated from 23 124 specimens, which amounts to 21.5%. The percentage of dermatophytes isolated in the past decade decreased to 13.1% in the year 2007. Trichophyton rubrum outnumbered Trichophyton mentagrophytes during the entire survey period: 62.4 vs. 33.5%. The participation of Microsporum canis amounted to 1.71% and that of Epidermophyton floccosum to 1.32%. The species M. canis appeared by the end of the 1980s. The remaining dermatophyte species comprised 1% of the isolates. A considerable decrease in dermatophyte isolations has been observed since 2000. Trichophyton rubrum outnumbered T. mentagrophytes during the entire period of study. The percentages of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes are decreasing while the percentages of other dermatophytes are slowly increasing.

  19. Antifungal Activity of Tioconazole (UK-20,349), a New Imidazole Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Jevons, S.; Gymer, G. E.; Brammer, K. W.; Cox, D. A.; Leeming, M. R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Tioconazole (UK-20,349), a new antifungal imidazole derivative, was compared with miconazole for activity in vitro against Candida spp., Torulopsis glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp., and dermatophyte fungi (Trichophyton spp. and Microsporum spp.). Tioconazole was more active than miconazole against all the fungal species examined except Aspergillus, against which both agents showed similar activity. Both tioconazole and miconazole inhibited the growth of all fungi examined at concentrations well below their quoted minimum inhibitory concentrations. Their activity against fungi in vivo was investigated in mice infected systemically with Candida albicans. Both agents significantly reduced the numbers of viable Candida cells recoverable from the kidneys of infected animals, with tioconazole producing a generally more marked reduction. After administration of a single oral dose (25 mg/kg) to beagle dogs or white mice, higher and more sustained circulating levels of bioactive drug were detectable of tioconazole than of miconazole. These observations suggest that tioconazole may have potential in the treatment of both superficial and systemic mycoses in humans. PMID:464592

  20. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs.

  1. Antifungal activity of some 2,2':5',2"-terthiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mares, D; Romagnoli, C; Rossi, R; Carpita, A; Ciofalo, M; Bruni, A

    1994-01-01

    The dermatophyte Microsporum cookei Ajello was treated with nine new natural and synthetic 2,2':5',2"-terthiophenes to determine their possible antifungal activity. In the dark the thiophenes were inactive, while when photoactivated with UV-A they induced a remarkable reduction in the growth rate of the fungus. The only exception was (E)-N-(2-methylpropyl)-3-(2,2':5',2"-terthien-5-yl)-propenamide , which was not fungistatic even at the highest dose tested (24 microM). The more active compounds were 3'-methoxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene and 3'-methylthio-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene, whose activity seems to be related to the presence of a substituent in the 3' position of the central ring of thiophenes. Transmission electron microscopic observations demonstrated the photoactive nature of the synthetic molecules to be similar to that of alpha-terthienyl, a natural thiophene present in some Asteraceae. The dark treatment caused only the accumulation of the compound in vacuoles, without other evident alterations. After UV-A irradiation the activated thiophene causes severe modifications to the endomembrane system, probably via oxygen-dependent mechanism.

  2. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active

  3. Prevalence of chlamydia, toxoplasma, toxocara and ringworm in farm cats in south-west England.

    PubMed

    Gethings, P M; Stephens, G L; Wills, J M; Howard, P; Balfour, A H; Wright, A I; Morgan, K L

    1987-09-05

    The prevalence of infection with Chlamydia psittaci, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara cati and Microsporum canis was examined in 51 cats on 22 sheep farms in the Bristol area. Serum antibody to C psittaci and T gondii was present in 45 per cent and 47 per cent of cats, respectively. At the time of sampling C psittaci was isolated from 6 per cent of the cats, T cati was identified in 63 per cent of faecal samples but neither T gondii nor M canis was isolated. When examined according to the farm of origin, 22.7 per cent of farms had cat populations with no evidence of infection with C psittaci or T gondii. Of the remainder, 45.5 per cent supported cat populations with evidence of both infections and 31.8 per cent had evidence of T gondii infection alone. None of the farms had cat populations with evidence of C psittaci infection alone. Two of the cats infected with C psittaci were excreting viable organisms in the faeces. The possible significance of this to the epidemiology of ovine enzootic abortion is discussed.

  4. Efficacy of topical griseofulvin in treatment of tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Esmat, Samia; Bendas, Eihab R; El-Komy, Mohamed H M

    2006-05-01

    Tinea infections are among the most common dermatological conditions throughout the world. Griseofulvin is a classical oral fungistatic antibiotic, active against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton and Microsporum species, the causative fungi of tinea corporis. To evaluate the efficacy of topical griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea circinata using three different vehicles for drug delivery. Sixteen patients with tinea circinata were instructed to apply either griseofulvin gel form in group A or a similar placebo gel for control group; a niosomal gel formulation of griseofulvin for group B or; a liposomal gel formulation of griseofulvin for group C. Patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically after 3 weeks. Marked improvement was seen for groups A, B and C both clinically and mycologically while no improvement was observed in the placebo group. Mild and transient irritation was reported in four patients. Our results show that topical griseofulvin preparations may be effective and safe in treating tinea circinata and that further large-scale studies may establish the high efficacy of the niosomal gel formulation.

  5. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.

    PubMed

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-10-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  6. Antioxidant and antidermatophytic activities of essential oil and extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Yoon, Jung In; Chul Kang, Sun

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antidermatophytic potential of the essential oil and extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The free radical scavenging activities of the oil and ethyl acetate extract were found to be superior (IC(50)=9.1 and 14.24 microg/ml, respectively) as compared to butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA), (IC(50)=18.27 microg/ml). Also the ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest phenolic contents (93.26 mg/g of dry wt) as compared to the other extracts. Further, oil (1250 microg/disc) and extracts (1750 microg/disc) revealed 35.33-67.66 and 18.0-53.3% antidermatophytic effect, respectively, along with their respective MIC values (62.5-500 and 250-4000 microg/ml) against Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, T. rubrum KCTC 6375, T. rubrum KCTC 6352, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6085, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6077, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6316, Microsporum canis KCTC 6591, M. canis KCTC 6348 and M. canis KCTC 6349. The oil also had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6591.

  7. Dermatophytoses in outpatients attending the Dermatology Center of Avicenna Hospital in Qazvin, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2008-03-01

    Dermatophytosis is still being considered as one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world. To identify the prevalence and etiological agents of dermatophytoses, a study was carried out between 2004 and 2006. Out of 1023 subjects suspected to have cutaneous mycoses, 348 (34%) patients were affected with dermatophytoses. The causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically after the clinical samples were subjected to potassium hydroxide examination and culture isolation. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most frequently isolated species representing 32.8% of isolates, followed by T. rubrum (18.1%), T. verrucosum (17.2%), T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (15.8%), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (6.6%) and T. violaceum, T. schoenleinii and Microsporum canis (0.9%). The most common type of infection was tinea cruris (31.9%) affecting in particular male patients. Some other most prevalent tinea types were tinea corporis (20.7%), tinea pedis (19%), and tinea unguium (11.2%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dermatophytoses in Qazvin and the first study that shows tinea cruris as a major type of superficial fungal infection in Iran. The frequency of tinea was higher in males and tinea cruris showed a remarkably increasing tendency and was an important public health issue in Qazvin.

  8. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of 1,2,4-triazole-containing ring system have been incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drug candidates including anti-inflammatory, central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety, and antimicrobial agents. To overcome the rapid development of drug resistance, new agents should preferably have chemical characteristics that clearly differ from those of existing agents. Thus led to the design and synthesize the new antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases based on of 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold was prepared by heating thiocarbohydrazide and substituted benzoic acid and subsequently, treating with substituted benzaldehydes. Seventeen derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of triazole showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum; and antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans fungi Aspergillus niger, nor against bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Strong antifungal effects were obtained for the synthesized compounds against M. gypseum and were superior or comparable to standard drug ketoconazole. Similarly, all of the synthesized compounds exhibit strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and were superior or comparable to standard drug streptomycin. It was found that among the triazole derivatives so synthesized, six of them, showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole while one of them, showed antibacterial activity superior to streptomycin. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26317080

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Alstonia macrophylla: a folklore of bay islands.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, D; Maiti, K; Kundu, A P; Chakraborty, M S; Bhadra, R; Mandal, S C; Mandal, A B

    2001-09-01

    The methanolic crude and methanol-aqueous extract of Alstonia macrophylla leaves and n-butanol part of the crude extract showed antimicrobial activity against various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranges from 64 to 1000 microg/ml for bacteria and 32-128 mg/ml for dermatophytes. However, the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp. and Vibrio cholerae showed resistance against in vitro treatment of the extracts up to 2000 microg/ml concentration, while the two yeast species were resistant even at 128 mg/ml concentration. The stem bark extract prepared similarly was found to be less active compared to the leaves. Phytochemical study indicates that the crude extract contains tannins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, triterpene and reducing sugars. Further fractionation and purification of n-butanol part of the extract showed the presence of beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol glucoside and a mixture of minor compounds only detected in TLC.

  10. Epidemiology and clinical features of dermatomycoses and dermatophytoses.

    PubMed

    Svejgaard, E

    1986-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, candidosis and pityriasis versicolor account for the majority of fungal skin diseases in Denmark and are seen in 8% of patients with dermato-venerological problems. In children, zoophilic species like Microsporum canis (from cats), Trichophyton (T) verrucosum (from cattle) and T. mentagrophytes granulare (from rodents) are the common causes of dermatophytosis and are seen in approximately 15% of all cases. Anthropophilic species are the main cause of dermatophytosis in adults and are isolated more often in males than in females. T. rubrum (48%), T. mentagrophytes interdigitale (14%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (10%) are the species usually involved. The feet are the site of infection in about 50% of the cases, toenails, glabrous skin and inguinal folds equally often in 42%, palms in 6% and the scalp in 2%. The prevalence of tinea pedis in 15-year-old school children and 20-year-old males was found to be 4% and 6%, respectively. A relative risk of 3.1 for contracting tinea pedis when being an atopic or having an atopic family was demonstrated in the former group. Pityriasis versicolor and candidosis of skin and mucosal membranes are both secondary dermatomycoses caused by endosaphrophytic yeasts. Local or systemic predisposing disorders are usually required for the development of symptoms.

  11. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide.

    PubMed

    Havlickova, Blanka; Czaika, Viktor A; Friedrich, Markus

    2008-09-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are a common global problem. The high prevalence of superficial mycotic infections shows that 20-25% of the world's population has skin mycoses, making these one of the most frequent forms of infection. Pathogens responsible for skin mycoses are primarily anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes from the genera Trichophyton (T.), Microsporum (M.) and Epidermophyton (E.). There appears to be considerable inter- and intra-continental variability in the global incidence of these fungal infections. Trichophyton rubrum, T. interdigitale (mentagrophytes var. interdigitale), M. canis, M. audouinii, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum are the most common, but the attack rates and incidence of specific mycoses can vary widely. Local socio-economic conditions and cultural practices can also influence the prevalence of a particular infection in a given area. For example, tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is more prevalent in developed countries than in emerging economies and is likely to be caused by the anthropophilic germ T. rubrum. In poorer countries, scalp infections (tinea capitis) caused by T. soudanense or M. audouinii are more prevalent. This review summarises current epidemiological trends for fungal infections and focuses on dermatomycosis of glabrous skin on different continents.

  12. Continuous increase of Trichophyton tonsurans as a cause of tinea capitis in the urban area of Paris, France: a 5-year-long study.

    PubMed

    Gits-Muselli, Maud; Benderdouche, Mazouz; Hamane, Samia; Mingui, Anselme; Feuilhade de Chauvin, Martine; Guigue, Nicolas; Picat, Marie-Quitterie; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Petit, Antoine; Bagot, Martine; Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-10-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33.5%), Trichophyton soudanense (38.3%), or Microsporum audouinii (28.2%)]. When considering one TC case per family, we observed a significant increase of T. tonsurans (P = .018) during these 5 years. The increase was more pronounced (P = .0047) in patients of West-African descent (n = 666), and was at the expense of M. audouinii and T. soudanense On the other hand, the Caribbean patients (n = 85) remained predominantly (72.9%) infected by T. tonsurans Our results show a better virulence of T. tonsurans over other species as already reported. Since T. tonsurans has not been reported in Africa, the infection of patients of West-African descent probably took place in the Paris area by exchanges with Caribbean patients. This increase of TC due to T. tonsurans was observed in the context of griseofulvin being the only licensed paediatric treatment for TC in France, which should deserve reappraisal because terbinafine may be more efficacious.

  13. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  14. Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Weigl, Stefania; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-27

    Little information is available on the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytoses in rabbit farms and farm workers. A total of 117 isolates belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and 21 isolates of Microsporum canis were collected from rabbits with or without skin lesions, air samples of farms known to harbour these pathogens, and from farm workers with skin lesions, and molecularly characterized. Sequencing of amplicons from the T. mentagrophytes complex and M. canis isolates revealed the presence of one sequence-type for both partial chitin synthase-1 gene (pchs-1) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS+), respectively. On the basis of comparative sequence analyses, isolated representing the T. mentagrophytes complex were molecularly identified as Trichophyton interdigitale (zoophilic) Priestley. The M. canis and T. interdigitale pchs-1 sequences herein analysed were 100% homologous to known sequences from different hosts (i.e., cats, dogs, humans and rabbits). Conversely, the ITS+ sequences of T. interdigitale from dogs, pigs and mice were identical, but displayed up to 8.6% difference with those from humans, guinea pigs and rabbits. The results of this study suggest that environmental and clinical isolates of T. interdigitale (zoophilic) and M. canis might share a common origin. Interestingly, the close phylogenetic relationship between T. interdigitale (zoophilic) strains and isolates from dogs, pigs and mice might indicate that these animals represented a reservoir of dermatophyte infection in rabbit farms. These animal species should therefore be considered when setting up control protocols to prevent infections by dermatophytes and their zoonotic transmission.

  15. Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  16. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  17. "Carry-on" dermal baggage: a nodule from a dog. Pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional fungal agents.

    PubMed

    Logan, Michael R; Raskin, Rose E; Thompson, Steven

    2006-09-01

    A 2-year-old intact female Australian Cattle Dog presented with a 1-cm diameter nonexudative dermal nodule on the medial aspect of the right thigh. Fine-needle aspiration revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation and many ovoid, 2-4 microm diameter, thin-capsulated, basophilic bodies that appeared to be fungal spores or yeast. Results of CBC, serum chemistry panel, lymph node palpation, and radiographs were unremarkable. Excisional biopsy and histopathology revealed pyogranulomatous folliculitis, furunculosis, and perifolliculitis. Rare fungal hyphae and spore forms were intimately associated with, and occasionally within, hair shafts. A morphologic diagnosis of dermatophytosis was made and Microsporum canis infection was confirmed by fungal culture. M canis is a common infectious agent found within the follicles and superficial keratin layers of canine skin. The kerion-type clinical presentation observed in the dog of this case is uncommonly observed with M canis. Additionally, the cytologic finding of multiple arthroconidia without hyphae is unusual. In the absence of hyphae, M canis arthroconidia may be confused with other fungal yeast bodies; therefore close scrutiny of a cytologic sample for arthroconidia associated with keratin, hair fragments, or hyphal structures is recommended.

  18. Dermatopharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of ethosomes of griseofulvin designed for dermal delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu

    2013-10-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of the dermal delivery potential of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes. Griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes were prepared using "Cold technique" (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The optimized formulation was characterized for vesicular shape and size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, and spreadability. Ex vivo skin permeation, dermatopharmacokinetics, and skin sensitivity studies were carried out using male Laca mice. In vivo antifungal activity was assessed against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized formulation E7 possessing 2 % phospholipid (PL) and 30 % ethanol exhibited the highest drug entrapment (72.94 ± 0.80 %) and optimum vesicle size (148.5 ± 0.48 nm). E7 illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. Pharmacodynamic studies in guinea pigs induced with M. canis revealed that the dermal fungal infection was completely cured in 8 days upon twice daily topical application of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes whereas liposomes led to complete cure in 14 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5 ± 3, 25 ± 2, and 40 ± 2 °C for a period of 1 year. Results indicated that dermal delivery of griseofulvin employing ethosomes could be a commendable alternative to reduce the bio-burden associated with conventional oral formulations.

  19. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  20. Pramiconazole, a triazole compound for the treatment of fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Geria, Aanand N; Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2008-09-01

    Pramiconazole from Barrier Therapeutics Inc is a new addition to the family of triazole antifungal agents that act by inhibiting fungal cell membrane ergosterol synthesis, thereby leading to increased cell permeability and destruction. Barrier Therapeutics was developing an oral formulation of pramiconazole for the potential treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (erythematosquamous skin disease), onychomycosis and dermatomycosis (including tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and tinea cruris/corporis). In preclinical studies, pramiconazole exhibited similar or superior antifungal activity to ketoconazole and itraconazole, and selectively inhibited ergosterol synthesis with a broad spectrum activity. Pramiconazole was absorbed rapidly and had a long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing. In phase I and II clinical trials, pramiconazole reduced the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and was generally well tolerated. At the time of publication, Barrier Therapeutics had suspended the development of pramiconazole as part of a series of cost-cutting initiatives; the company had also been acquired by Stiefel Laboratories Inc. No formal announcement had been made regarding the further development of pramiconazole. The results of studies performed to date suggest that pramiconazole may be useful in the treatment of dermatomycoses when oral treatment is mandated. Promising preclinical and early phase II clinical data warrant the further development of the drug in larger clinical trials.

  1. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  2. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis Infection Among Primary School Children in a Rural Setting in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayanlowo, Olusola; Oladele, Rita; Balogun, Mobolanle

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophyte infection is a common skin disorder. Tinea capitis, infection of the scalp and hair shaft, is the most common dermatophytosis in children aged between six months and pre-pubertal age. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, causative agents and to identify predisposing factors among primary school children in a rural community in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Following a physical examination, children with a clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis had scalp and hair scrapings for microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was confirmed in 15.4%. Trichophyton mentagrophyte (51.7%) and Microsporum aoudouinii (20.7%) were the most prevalent organisms in this study. The most common predisposing factors were carrying of objects on the scalp; sharing of hair clippers, scissors, combs, towels and fomites. Low socioeconomic status coupled with overcrowding and poor hygiene was the major determinant of tinea capitis among the children. Tinea capitis remains a common infection among Nigerian school children. Health promotion and health education interventions are recommended to promote good hygiene, better living conditions, early identification and treatment. PMID:28299118

  3. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

  4. Efficacy of Topical Therapy with Newly Developed Terbinafine and Econazole Formulations in the Treatment of Dermatophytosis in Cats.

    PubMed

    Ivaskiene, M; Matusevicius, A P; Grigonis, A; Zamokas, G; Babickaite, L

    2016-09-01

    In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20.3±0.88 days; whereas when treated with econazole nitrate 1% cream, they recovered within 28.4±1.14 days. A positive therapeutic effect was yielded by combined treatment with local application of creams and whole coat spray with enilconazole 0.2% emulsion "Imaverol". Most cats treated with econazole cream revealed redness and irritation of the skin at the site of application. This study demonstrates that terbinafine tended to have superior clinical efficacy (p<0.001) in the treatment of dermatophytosis in cats compared to the azole tested.

  5. Development of topical hydrogels of terbinafine hydrochloride and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Nevin; Ermiş, Seda; Özkan, Semiha

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare hydrogels and microemulsion (ME)-based gel formulations containing 1% terbinafine hydrochloride (TER-HCL) and to evaluate the use of these formulations for the antifungal treatment of fungal infections. Three different hydrogel formulations were prepared using chitosan, Carbopol® 974 and Natrosol® 250 polymers. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed, and starting from ME formulation, a ME gel form containing 1% Carbopol 974 was prepared. We also examined the characteristic properties of the prepared hyrogels. The physical stability of hydrogels and the ME -based gels were evaluated after storage at different temperatures for a period of 3 months. The release of TER-HCL from the gels and the commercial product (Lamisil®) was carried out by using a standard dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer (pH 5.2) at 32 °C. The results of the in vitro release study showed that the Natrosol gel released the highest amount of drug, followed by Carbopol gel, chitosan gel, commercial product, and the microoemulsion-based gel in that order. In vitro examination of antifungal activity revealed that all the prepared and commercial products were effective against Candida parapsilosis, Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum. These results indicate that the Natrosol®-based hydrogel is a good candidate for the topical delivery of TER-HCL.

  6. Successful resolution of dermatophyte mycetoma following terbinafine treatment in two cats.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J; German, A J; Holden, S L; Hopkinson, C; McEwan, N A

    2008-12-01

    Microsporum canis sensitive to itraconazole and terbinafine was isolated from two cats presented with generalized dermatophytosis and dermatophyte mycetoma. Itraconazole therapy was withdrawn through lack of efficacy in one cat (a Persian) and unacceptable adverse effects in the other (a Maine Coon). Both cats achieved clinical and mycological cure after 12-14 weeks therapy with 26-31 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h per os (PO). Clinical signs in the Maine Coon resolved completely after 7 weeks treatment. Four weeks of therapy with additional weekly washes with a 2% chlorhexidine/2% miconazole shampoo following clipping produced a 98% reduction in the Persian cat's mycetoma, which was then surgically excised. Recurrent generalized dermatophytosis in the Persian cat has been managed with pulse therapy with 26 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h PO for 1 week in every month. No underlying conditions predisposing to dermatophytosis were found in either cat despite extensive investigation. Terbinafine administration was associated with mild to moderate lethargy in the Persian cat, but no other adverse effects or changes in blood parameters were seen. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a dermatophyte mycetoma in a Maine Coon and of successful resolution of this condition in cats following terbinafine therapy.

  7. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

  8. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  9. Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of domestic cats (indoor and outdoor) and in captivity in São Paulo (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Borges, Tatiana Saleme; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Taborda, João Pelleschi; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis and is also a zoonosis (sapro- and anthropozoonosis). The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of sporotrichosis in domestic cats and in wild or exotic felines in captivity through the isolation of Sporothrix spp. from claw impressions in a culture medium. The samples included 132 felines, of which 120 (91.0 %) were domestic cats, 11 (8.3 %) were wild felines, and one (0.7 %) was an exotic felid. Twenty-one (17.5 %) were outdoor cats. Of the total, 89 (67.4 %) had contact with other animals of the same species. It was possible to isolate Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of one (0.7 %) of the felids probed; this animal exhibited generalised sporotrichosis and had infected a female veterinarian. The potential pathogenic agents Microsporum canis and Malassezia pachydermatis were isolated in 12.1 and 5.3 % of the animals, respectively. The following anemophilous fungi, which were considered to be contaminants, were also isolated: Penicillium sp. (28 or 21.2 %), Aspergillus sp. (13 or 9.8 %), Rhodotorula sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Candida sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Trichoderma sp. (1 or 0.7 %), and Acremonium sp. (1 or 0.7 %). Due to the low magnitude of occurrence (0.7 %) of Sporothrix in feline claws, the potential of the cats evaluated in this study to be sources of infection in the city of São Paulo is considerably low.

  10. The agony of choice in dermatophyte diagnostics-performance of different molecular tests and culture in the detection of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Kupsch, C; Ohst, T; Pankewitz, F; Nenoff, P; Uhrlaß, S; Winter, I; Gräser, Y

    2016-08-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum belong to the most frequent mycoses worldwide. Molecular detection methods proved to be highly sensitive and enable rapid and accurate detection of dermatophyte species from clinical specimens. For the first time, we compare the performance of different molecular methods with each other and with conventional diagnostics in the detection of dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale in clinical specimens (nail, skin and hair). The compared molecular methods comprise two already published PCR-ELISAs, a published quantitative RT-PCR as well as a newly developed PCR-ELISA targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. We investigated the sensitivity of the assays by analysing 375 clinical samples. In 148 specimens (39.5%) a positive result was gained in at least one of the four molecular tests or by culture, but the number of detected agents differed significantly between some of the assays. The most sensitive assay, a PCR-ELISA targeting a microsatellite region, detected 81 T. rubrum infections followed by an internal transcribed spacer PCR-ELISA (60), quantitative RT-PCR (52) and a topoisomerase II PCR-ELISA (51), whereas cultivation resulted in T. rubrum identification in 37 samples. The pros and cons of all four tests in routine diagnostics are discussed.

  11. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum: a source for novel bioactive lectin.

    PubMed

    U Girjal, Vinay; Neelagund, Shivayogeeswar; Krishnappa, Madappa

    2011-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is known for its high medicinal value, clinically used in treatment for various diseases. We have selected this mushroom for isolation of novel bioactive lectin. The isolation procedure comprised of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose and affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel. Purified lectin was monomer with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, determined by SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration, MALDI-ToF. It showed hemagglutinating activity against both human and animal erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was not inhibited by simple sugars but inhibited by glycoproteins. The activity was maximal at pH range 4.0-9.0 and at temperature up to 60° C. The hemagglutination activity was stable even in the presence of 10mM EDTA and other divalent metal cations such as CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, and MnCl2. Lectin was shown antifungal activity against following pathogens Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus Niger, Colletotrichum musae, Botrytis cinerea, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis.

  13. Familial keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with woolly hair.

    PubMed

    Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Rossi, Alfredo; Schwartz, Robert A; Micali, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is a rare inherited disorder of keratinization clinically characterized by diffuse follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive scarring alopecia of scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, corneal dystrophy and photophobia. Woolly hair is a hereditary condition, transmitted as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, usually seen in Caucasians at birth or shortly after, in which there are curly, thick, often heavily pigmented hairs. We report two cases, a son and his mother, in whom KFSD occurred in association with woolly hair. In addition, various dental anomalies, including agenesis, inclusions and teeth malformations, were present in the child. Interestingly, both patients simultaneously developed an inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, the association of KFSD with woolly hair has not been described. The dental anomalies found in the child are intriguing, as they have never been reported previously in patients with KFSD. Finally, the concomitant onset of inflammatory tinea capitis in both patients may be explained by the enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection in keratinizing disorders.

  14. Chemical and biological diversity in fourteen selections of four Ocimum species.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Kotharia, Sushil K; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2011-11-01

    Biomass, essential oil yield, essential oil composition diversity, and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 14 selections of 4 Ocimum species [Ocimum basilicum L. (selections: T1-T10), O. gratissimum L. (selections: T11-T12), O. tenuiflorum L.f., syn. O. sanctum L. (selection: T13) and O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex. Guerke (selection: T14)] were investigated. O. basilicum selections T9 (methyl chavicol: 87.0%) and T10 {(Z)- and (E)-methyl cinnamate: 69.1%} produced higher biomass (67.8 and 56.7 t/ha) and oil (203.4 and 141.7 kg/ha) yields relative to 8 (T1-T8) linalool (up to 58.9%), or methyl chavicol (up to 61.8%) rich selections. O. gratissimum selection T12 (eugenol: 84.1%, 254.6 kg/ha oil yield) was significantly superior to T11 (62.1% eugenol and 18.4% camphor). O. tenuiflorum (T13, methyl eugenol: 72.5%) and O. kilimandscharicum (T14, camphor: 51.7%) produced 171.7 and 96.2 kg/ha essential oil, respectively. The essential oils exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial (against 5 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal (against 10 fungi) activities. The bacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungal species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Sporothrix schenckii were more sensitive to the essential oils.

  15. Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2012-07-11

    The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC₅₀ value of 23 μg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 μg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 μg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  16. Metal based new triazoles: their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  17. In-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of metal-based furanyl derived sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Shaikh, Ali U; Naseer, Muhammad M; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2006-12-01

    A new series of antibacterial and antifungal furanyl-derived sulfonamides and their cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) metal complexes have been synthesized, characterized and screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and, for in-vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies revealed that all compounds showed significant to moderate antibacterial activity. However, the zinc (II) complexes were found to be comparatively much more active as compared to the others. For antifungal activity generally, compounds (22) and (24) showed significant activity against Escherichia coli (a), (6) against Shigella flexeneri (b), (16) and (22) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (c), (14) and (16) against Salmonella typhi (d), (9) against Staphylococcus aureus (e) and, (14) and (16) against Bacillus subtilis (f) fungal strains. The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was also carried out to study their in-vitro cytotoxic properties. Only three compounds, (6), (10) and (23) displayed potent cytotoxic activity with LD50 = 1.8535 x 10(-4), 1.8173 x 10(-4) and 1.9291 x 10(-4) respectively.

  18. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L(1)-L(3) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  19. Survey of Dermatophytes in Stray Cats with and without Skin Lesions in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Daniela; Perego, Roberta; Spada, Eva; Bagnagatti de Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without clinical lesions from different colonies in rural and urban areas of Milan and surroundings in northern Italy. Stray cats (273) were caught during a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program conducted in different colonies of northern Italy in both rural and urban areas. Each cat was examined in dark environment with a Wood's lamp prior to sample collection. Hair or scales exhibiting typical fluorescence were removed with a pair of sterile hemostats and cultured. The hair of all cats was then sampled by Mackenzie modified brush technique regardless of the presence or absence of skin lesions attributable to dermatophytosis. All the hair samples were subjected to fungal culture. 15 cats were positive (5.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated (13/15). The only other isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2/15). Our estimated prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats was much lower than other Italian studies on the same population. PMID:24955280

  20. Argentinean Andean propolis associated with the medicinal plant Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae). HPLC-MS and GC-MS characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agüero, María Belén; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Lima, Beatriz; López, María Liza; Zacchino, Susana; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    The chemical profile and botanical origin of Andean Argentinian propolis were studied by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques as well as the antifungal activity according to CLSI protocols. Dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by propolis extracts (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg/mL). The main antifungal compounds were: 3'methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MNDGA) 1, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 2 and a NDGA derivative 3, showing strong activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (MICs between 15.6 and 31.25 μg/mL). The lignans 1 and 2 showed activities against clinical isolates of Candidas spp., Cryptococcus spp., T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL). The lignan and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles from propolis matched with those of exudates of Larrea nitida providing strong evidences on its botanical origin. These results support that Argentinian Andean propolis are a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health. Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from propolis for the first time, while compounds 1 and 3-6 were reported for first time as constituents of L. nitida Cav.

  1. Metal-based ethanolamine-derived compounds: a note on their synthesis, characterization and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Muhammad; Sumrra, Sajjad H; Akram, Muhammad Safwan; Chohan, Zahid H

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based ethanolamines, (L(1))-(L(4)) coordinated with Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) metals in 1:2 (metal:ligand) molar ratio to produce new compounds have been reported. These compounds were screened for their bactericidal/fungicidal activity against a number of bacterial (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) alongside against a shrimp species known as Artemia salina. The screening results indicated that metal complexes have significantly higher activity than uncomplexed ligands against one or more bacterial/fungal species due to chelation. The ligand (L(4)) displayed good bacterial and fungal activity as compared to other ligands. The antibacterial results revealed that the Zn(II) complex (16) of (L(4)) was found to be the most active complex and Co(II) complex (14) of the same ligand (L(4)), demonstrated the highest antifungal activity.

  2. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, F D; Laino, L; Strippoli, V; Tecca, M; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G

    2001-08-01

    The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections.

  3. Investigation of chemical compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of teucrium arduini L. (lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kremer, Dario; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Kosalec, Ivan; Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Potocnik, Tanja; Cerenak, Andreja; Bezic, Nada; Srecec, Sinisa; Dunkic, Valerija

    2013-08-01

    In this paper chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the content of phenolic compounds (analysed by HPLC), quantity of total phenols and total flavonoids (analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer), antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts were investigated in endemic Teucrium arduini L. in population of Mt Biokovo (Croatia). The oil was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.4%) of which β-caryophyllene (35.2%) and germacrene D (18.7%) being the major compounds. Three phenolic compounds (quercetin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) were identified and quantified in ethanolic extract of T. arduini using HPLC. The results also showed that T. arduini is a source of polyphenolic and other antioxidants with radical-scavenging and chelating properties. The ethanol extracts prepared from the leaf of T. arduini showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which are susceptible on concentration below or equal to 4.00 mg/mL, whilst Microsporum gypseum was resistant at investigated concentrations.

  4. Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

    2005-12-01

    Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively.

  5. Seasonal 4-year investigation into the role of the alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) as a carrier of zoophilic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M G; Lanfranchi, P; Poglayen, G; Calderola, S; Menzano, A; Ferroglio, E; Peano, A

    2005-06-01

    Two hundred and six samples of alpine marmot (Mamota marmota) hair (148 from adults and 58 from young subjects), 102 soil samples from the entrances to the burrows of the above individuals and 20 control specimens (obtained from adjoining areas away from the burrow systems where the rodents are not usually present) were examined from May 1994 to September 1997. Seventy-five isolates belonging to six species of dermatophytes were found in 69 of the 206 hair samples examined (33.5%). Two species were zoophilic, Microsporum canis (7.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (11.2.%), and four geophilic, Microsporum cookei (2%), M. gypseum (5.8%), Trichophyton ajelloi (3.9%) and T. terrestre (5.8%). The prevalence of each species in the hair samples did not change significantly according to year, season (chi-squared test [limit significance: P <0.05] gives no significant values [P>0.05] both in year and in season comparison) or age/sex (adult versus juvenile: P=0.1; male versus female: P=0.8) of the marmot. Twenty-three of the 102 soil samples (22.5%) were positive for dermatophytes found in the hair of marmots from the same burrow systems. Five of the 20 control soil samples (25%) were positive for dermatophytes. One isolate of M. gypseum, three of T. terrestre and one of T. mentagrophytes were obtained. Compared with other free-ranging rodent hosts studied in Europe, this mycoflora is characterized by the presence and relatively high prevalence of M. canis, frequently reported in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats, dogs and fur animals. M. canis has not been isolated in other rodents in the wild. However, it has recently been reported in asymptomatic foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Italy. The close link between V vulpes and M. marmota, with the former representing the most important mammal predator of the latter in the Alps (only a fraction of the predator's attacks result in the death of the rodent) may have favoured the adaptation of M. canis to this rodent host. The

  6. Antidermatophytic and Protease-inhibiting Activities of Zerumbone: A Natural Sesquiterpene from the Rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex J.E; Smith

    PubMed Central

    Jyothilakshmi, Madhavankutty; Jyothis, Mathew; Narayanan, Gokulanathan Nair Hari; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2017-01-01

    Context: Due to increase in the number of patients with impaired immunity, incidence of dermatophytoses has increased considerably. Antidermatophytic agents with anti-inflammatory and protease-inhibiting activities will help in restricting inflammatory response associated with dermatophytoses. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate antidermatophytic and protease-inhibiting activities of zerumbone. Cytotoxicity was tested using Chang liver cell line as a preliminary step in toxicity study. Methods and Materials: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of zerumbone purified from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet were determined against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton rubrum. MIC was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method M38-A2. Protease-inhibiting property was tested using trypsin as the enzyme. In vitro cytotoxic effect was studied using the MTT assay. Results: MIC of zerumbone was 8 mg/L against E. floccosum and M. canis and 16 mg/L for M. gypseum and T. rubrum. MFC of zerumbone was 64 mg/L against E. floccosum and M. canis and 128 mg/L for M. gypseum and T. rubrum. Zerumbone exhibited remarkable protease-inhibiting activity. In the MTT assay, IC50 values were 150 and 0.31 µg, respectively, for zerumbone and reference drug. Statistical Analysis Used: For protease inhibition, assay and cytotoxicity assay control and tests were done in triplicate and the results are expressed as mean ± SD, where n = 3. Conclusions: Zerumbone is a novel candidate for use in dermatophytoses therapy because of the combined antifungal, anti-inflammatory (unpublished results), and protease-inhibiting properties. Cytotoxicity of zerumbone was found to be very low compared with the reference drug. KEY MESSAGES Zerumbone possesses antidermatophytic, anti-inflammatory, and protease-inhibiting activities. Hence, it is a novel candidate for

  7. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

    PubMed Central

    Whiston, Emily; Taylor, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum—four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order—both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera. PMID:26613950

  8. Evaluation of trace elements, oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M; Dar, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine zinc, copper and iron levels, erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis. A total of 23 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis by trichogram and positive fungal culture and six dogs as control were included in this study. On cultural examination 52.17% fungal isolates were found to be Microsporum canis, 30.43% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 17.39% were M. gypseum. In comparison to healthy control, the dogs with dermatophytosis had significantly lower levels of zinc (P < 0.01), copper (P < 0.05), β-carotene and vitamin C levels (P < 0.05) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05) and catalase (P < 0.01), whereas the iron (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) levels were significantly increased. On correlation analysis, SOD activity was observed to be positively correlated (P < 0.05) with zinc and copper in both healthy and dermatophytosis affected dogs. In dermatophytosis affected dogs the MDA levels were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with iron, β-carotene levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes; SOD and catalase. Our results demonstrated that dermatophytosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance and trace elements. It might be secondary consequence of dermatophytosis infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis.

  9. Tinea atypica: report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Zisova, Liliya Georgieva; Dobrev, Hristo Petrov; Tchernev, Georgi; Semkova, Kristina; Aliman, Anastasia Atanasova; Chorleva, Kristina Ivanova; Chapanova, Antonina Teneva; Vutova, Nina Ivanova; Wollina, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Fungal infections of the skin are a common condition, usually easy to diagnose and treat. When the infection is clinically mimicking another cutaneous disorder or when the clinical presentation is modified by the use of inappropriate treatment, it is referred to as tinea atypica or tinea incognito.We report a series of nine cases of patients with tinea atypica, imitating and diagnosed initially as different skin diseases. Two patients were defined as pyoderma in the facial and pubic regions (caused respectively by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis) and one as herpes zoster ophthalmicus (caused by Trichophyton rubrum). Six additional patients were initially misdiagnosed: (1) Plaque-like formation of the skin misdiagnosed as an impetiginized eczema (with isolated agent Trichophyton verrucosum). (2) A rare form of skin infection of the hand caused by T. rubrum, imitating clinically cutaneous infection with tuberculum mulgentium. (3) Rosacea-like dermatitis with an isolated agent Fusarium. (4) A patient with the typical clinical symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis of the face (and with isolated T. rubrum as a causative agent). (5) Another patient presented with a widespread folliculitis by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (6) In a patient with bullous pemphigoid and immunosuppression pemphigoid-like eruptions were caused by Malassezia pachydermatis and T. rubrum. The diagnosis in the presented cases was based on direct microscopic examination with KOH and a culture on Sabouraud agar.After the diagnosis of tinea, treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents was administrated, followed by complete clinical remissions in all cases.The clinical manifestations of tinea atypica can mimic a large number of other dermatoses, which often leads to misdiagnosing, and as a consequence--to serious difficulties in the management of clinical symptoms and in offering appropriate therapy.

  10. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  11. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  12. Production of an anti-dermatophyte monoclonal antibody and its application: immunochromatographic detection of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Noriki, Sakon; Ishida, Hisaya

    2016-01-01

    Tinea refers to superficial infection with one of three fungal genera—Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton—that are collectively known as dermatophytes. These infections are among the most common diseases worldwide and cause chronic morbidity. They are usually diagnosed by direct microscopy and fungal culture, which are burdensome to perform in the clinical setting. To supplement conventional methods, we developed a new method that employs an immunochromatography test for detection of dermatophyte infections. First, anti-Trichophyton monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced in mice using a Trichophyton allergen solution as an immunogen. The mAb specificity was assessed by immunostaining alcohol fixed slide cultures and formalin fixed paraffin-embedded microbial samples. Both alcohol- and formalin-fixed samples of all seven species of Trichophyton tested displayed positive immunostaining. Immunochromatography test strips were created using the anti-Trichophyton mAb. The efficiency of the test strip was assessed in patients diagnosed with tinea unguium and in healthy volunteers. Of the 20 patient nails tested, 19 tested positive and one tested negative, whereas of the 17 volunteer nails, only one tested positive. However, KOH microscopic examination of the volunteer nail that tested positive revealed the existence of Trichophyton hyphae. Although the number of nails assayed was small, since the assay had a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) and a specificity of 94.1% (16/17), the obtained results were considered to be promising. Thus, while further investigation with a greater number of samples is necessary, this method could potentially be employed as a new diagnostic tool for Trichophyton in the future. PMID:27250927

  13. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles mediated by atmospheric pressure air cold plasma jet against dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Ouf, Salama A; El-Adly, Amira A; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H

    2015-10-01

    In an in vitro study with five clinical isolates of dermatophytes, the MIC(50) and MIC(100) values of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ranged from 5 to 16 and from 15 to 32 μg ml(- 1), respectively. The combined treatment of AgNPs with atmospheric pressure-air cold plasma (APACP) induced a drop in the MIC(50) and MIC100 values of AgNPs reaching 3-11 and 12-23 μg ml(- 1), respectively, according to the examined species. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most sensitive fungus to AgNPs, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most tolerant. AgNPs induced significant reduction in keratinase activity and an increase in the mycelium permeability that was greater when applied combined with plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed electroporation of the cell walls and the accumulation of AgNPs on the cell wall and inside the cells, particularly when AgNPs were combined with APACP treatment. An in vivo experiment with dermatophyte-inoculated guinea pigs indicated that the application of AgNPs combined with APACP was more efficacious in healing and suppressing disease symptoms of skin as compared with the application of AgNPs alone. The recovery from the infection reached 91.7 % in the case of Microsporum canis-inoculated guinea pigs treated with 13 μg ml(- 1) AgNPs combined with APACP treatment delivered for 2  min. The emission spectra indicated that the efficacy of APACP was mainly due to generation of NO radicals and excited nitrogen molecules. These reactive species interact and block the activity of the fungal spores in vitro and in the skin lesions of the guinea pigs. The results achieved are promising compared with fluconazole as reference antifungal drug.

  14. Intraspecific variation and interspecific differences in the bacterial and fungal assemblages of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) nests.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Anne E; Stallwood, Bethan

    2010-02-01

    Although interest in the relationship between birds and microorganisms is increasing, few studies have compared nest microbial assemblages in wild passerines to determine variation within and between species. Culturing microorganisms from blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) nests from the same study site demonstrated diverse microbial communities with 32 bacterial and 13 fungal species being isolated. Dominant bacteria were Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus hyicus. Also common in the nests were the keratinolytic bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis. Dominant fungi were Cladosporium herbarum and Epicoccum purpurascens. Aspergillus flavous, Microsporum gallinae, and Candida albicans (causative agents of avian aspergillosis, favus, and candidiasis, respectively) were present in 30%, 25%, and 10% of nests, respectively. Although there were no differences in nest mass or materials, bacterial (but not fungal) loads were significantly higher in blue tit nests. Microbial species also differed interspecifically. As regards potential pathogens, the prevalence of Enterobacter cloacae was higher in blue tit nests, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa-present in 30% of blue tit nests-was absent from great tit nests. The allergenic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides was both more prevalent and abundant in great tit nests. Using discriminant function analysis (DFA), nests were classified to avian species with 100% accuracy using the complete microbial community. Partial DFA models were created using a reduced number of variables and compared using Akaike's information criterion on the basis of model fit and parsimony. The best models classified unknown nests with 72.5-95% accuracy using a small subset of microbes (n = 1-8), which always included Pseudomonas agarici. This suggests that despite substantial intraspecific variation in nest microflora, there are significant interspecific differences-both in terms of

  15. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections.

  16. Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

  17. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  18. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Mohammad Ali; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal susceptibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and specific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole), griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and proteinase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml) and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ml) respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC) results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ketoconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested. Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and further indicated the

  19. Microbiological and histopathological features of canine acral lick dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, A K; Angus, J C; Coyner, K S; Loeffler, D G; Rankin, S C; Lewis, T P

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate microbiological and histopathological features of canine acral lick dermatitis (ALD). Microbial characteristics of ALD are poorly described in current literature. If infection is recognized, antimicrobial selection is usually empirical, based on appearance, cytology or surface culture, rather than deep tissue culture. It was hypothesized that cultures obtained from deep tissue would yield different results than predicted by surface culture and cytology, and that isolates from ALD have unpredictable susceptibility patterns showing resistance to antibiotics routinely administered for canine pyoderma. Biopsies were obtained from 31 lesions and submitted for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture, and histopathological evaluation. Surface aerobic culture and susceptibility and cytology were obtained for comparison in 22 dogs. Skin scrapings and dermatophyte culture were performed. Bacteria were isolated in 30 of 31 cases. Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated in 58% of deep cultures. Twenty per cent of deep isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species. Forty-eight per cent of cases yielded organisms defined as multidrug resistant on deep culture. Only 57% and 55% of bacteria isolated from tissue culture were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin, respectively. Cytology and superficial cultures did not correlate well with deep cultures. Surface culture predicted deep tissue isolates in eight of 22 cases. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from one dog. Histopathological features included acanthosis, follicular elongation, lymphoplasmacytic dermal inflammation, folliculitis, furunculosis, perihidradenitis, hidradenitis and vertical streaking fibrosis. Lesions associated with ALD warrant tissue bacterial cultures as the majority of cases yielded positive growth of bacteria differing from superficial culture and often resistant to empirical drugs.

  20. Determining the Pathogenic Potential of Non-sporulating Molds Isolated from Cutaneous Specimens.

    PubMed

    Jeyaprakasam, Nantha Kumar; Razak, Mohd Fuat Abdul; Ahmad, Noor Azimah Binti; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-06-01

    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p < 0.05) than nonpathogenic endophytes. These results indicate that the pathogenic ability of NSM is species dependent; clinical isolates, especially more frequently isolated species, may be involved in disease etiology.

  1. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  2. NB-002, a Novel Nanoemulsion with Broad Antifungal Activity against Dermatophytes, Other Filamentous Fungi, and Candida albicans▿

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, J.; McCarthy, A.; Martin, A.; Hamouda, T.; Ciotti, S.; Fothergill, A.; Sutcliffe, J.

    2009-01-01

    NB-002 is an oil-in-water emulsion designed for use for the treatment of skin, hair, and nail infections. The activity of NB-002 was compared to the activities of the available antifungal drugs against the major dermatophytes responsible for cutaneous infections, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum spp., as well as 12 other genera of filamentous fungi. NB-002 consistently displayed fungicidal activity against all dermatophytes. The comparator compounds were either fungistatic or fungicidal, and for some strain-drug combinations, tolerance was observed. Assessment of the development of spontaneous resistance to NB-002 in different dermatophyte species yielded few stably resistant mutants. For filamentous nondermatophyte fungi, the MIC range varied from 0.06 to 0.5 μg/ml for Alternaria spp. to 2 to 8 μg/ml for Paecilomyes spp. NB-002 had activity against both azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans yeast isolates, with MIC90s of 2 μg/ml, respectively, and minimum fungicidal concentrations at which 90% of isolates are inhibited of 4 and 8 μg/ml, respectively. The kinetics of the fungicidal activity of NB-002 against T. rubrum isolates were compared to those of the other antifungal drugs. NB-002 killed both mycelia and microconidia even when the fungal forms were dormant or not actively growing. Electron micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with NB-002 showed the significant disruption of the fungal structure. The in vitro broad coverage of NB-002 against filamentous fungi, dermatophytes, and C. albicans, as well as its rapid fungicidal activity, warrants further investigations to ascertain if NB-002 would be useful for the treatment of cutaneous mycoses. PMID:19433562

  3. The dermatophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C

    1995-01-01

    The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

  4. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    PubMed

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country.

  5. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing particular doses of griseofulvin and terbinafine for the treatment of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Drummond-Main, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Two oral antifungal agents, griseofulvin and terbinafine, have regulatory approval in the United States, but it is unknown whether one has superior overall efficacy. Genus-specific differences in efficacy are believed to exist for the two agents. It is not clear at what doses and durations of treatment these differences apply. The goals of this meta-analysis were to determine whether a statistically significant difference in efficacy exists between these agents at a given dose and duration of each in tinea capitis infections overall and to determine whether a genus-specific difference in efficacy exists for these two treatments at a given dose and duration of each. We performed a literature search for clinically and methodologically similar randomized controlled trials comparing 8 weeks of griseofulvin (6.25-12.5 mg/kg/day) to 4 weeks of terbinafine (3.125-6.25 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of tinea capitis. A meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model; results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials did not show a significant difference in the overall efficacy of the two drugs at the doses specified, but specific efficacy differences were observed based on the infectious species. For tinea capitis caused by Microsporum spp., griseofulvin is superior (p = 0.04), whereas terbinafine is superior for Trichophyton spp. infection (p = 0.04). Our results support species-specific differences in treatment efficacy between griseofulvin and terbinafine and provide a clinical context in which this knowledge may be applied.

  6. Terbinafine pharmacokinetics after single dose oral administration in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mary R; May, Elizabeth R; Imerman, Paula M; Felz, Charles; Day, Timothy A; Carlson, Steve A; Noxon, James O

    2011-12-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal prescribed for the treatment of mycoses in humans. It is increasingly being used in veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine in dogs after a single oral dose. Ten healthy adult dogs were included in the study. A single dose of terbinafine (30-35 mg/kg) was administered orally, and blood samples were periodically collected over a 24 h period during which dogs were monitored for adverse effects. Two of 10 dogs developed transient ocular changes. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and used to determine plasma terbinafine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using PK Solutions(®) computer software. Area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h was 15.4 μg·h/mL (range 5-27), maximal plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 3.5 μg/mL (range 3-4.9 μg/mL) and time to C(max) (T(max) ) was 3.6 h (range 2-6 h). The time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) as well as AUC/MIC was calculated for important invasive fungal pathogens and dermatophytes. The T > MIC was 17-18 h for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), while the MIC for Sporothrix schenckii and Coccidioides immitis was exceeded for 9.5-11 h. The AUC/MIC values ranged from 9 to 13 μg h/mL for these fungi. Our results provide evidence supporting the use of terbinafine as an oral therapeutic agent for treating systemic and subcutaneous mycoses in dogs.

  7. COMPARISON OF THE ACTIVITIES OF FOUR ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF DERMATOPHYTE NAIL INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Nowrozi, Hossein; Nazeri, Golrokh; Adimi, Parvaneh; Bashashati, Mohsen; Emami, Masood

    2008-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a difficult condition to treat and cure rates are disappointing. Moreover fungicidal action of antifungal agents in NCCLS assays and their rapid accumulation in nails in vivo are not compatible with the duration of treatment. Aims: This study aimed to find the effectiveness of 4 different antifungal agents in an in vitro model with some similarities to in vivo conditions. Materials and Methods: Strains of Trichophyton rubrum I-III, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (usual form), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 73, Epidermophyton Flucosom, Microsporum Canis, and Trichophyton Schoenleini which were isolated from the nails of patients, were hired. Inocula suspensions were prepared from 7 to 14 day-old cultures of dermatophytes. Antifungal agents including fluconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin were obtained as standard powders. For each antifungal agent, initial MIC was calculated by registering the optical density for 10 two-fold serially diluted forms which was incubated with diluted fungal suspensions with RPMI 1640. Human nail powder inoculated with different strains and incubated in RPMI 1640 and different concentrations of antifungal drugs for 4 weeks. Final MIC at different steps of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks were investigated. Results: The final MIC that resulted from the incubation of dermatophytes with nail powder was much more than the initial which was concluded from conventional MIC assay. Terbinafine had the lowest rate of initial and final MICs. Conclusion: The model described here may present more similar conditions to clinical fungal infections; therefore the results such as MIC may be more helpful for hiring the most effective antifungal agent. PMID:19882010

  8. Composition, Antifungal and Antiproliferative Activities of the Hydrodistilled Oils from Leaves and Flower Heads of Pterocephalus nestorianus Nab.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Fuad O; Hussain, Faiq H S; Mannucci, Barbara; Lappano, Rosamaria; Tosi, Solveig; Maggiolini, Marcello; Vidari, Giovanni

    2017-02-19

    This paper reports the first study of the chemical composition, and antifungal and antiproliferative properties of the volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of the flower heads and leaves of the traditional Kurdish medicinal plant P. nestorianus Nab., collected in the wild. A total of fifty-five constituents, 43 of the flower heads' oil (PFO) and 46 of the leaves' oil (PLO), respectively, were identified by GC/MS, constituting 99.68% and 99.04% of the two oils, respectively. The oils were obtained in 0.15% and 0.10% yields (w/w), respectively, on air-dried vegetable material. The prevalent constituents of the PFO were α-terpineol (2.41%), α-linalool (6.42%), 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (2.59%), myristic acid (24.65 %), and lauric acid (50.44%), while the major components of PLO were (E)-hex-2-enal (2.26%), (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (2.04), myristic acid (34.03%), and lauric acid (50.35%). The two oils showed significant inhibitory and fungicidal activities against the medically important fungi Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with MIC ranging from 0.7 to 3.3 mg/ml and MFC varying from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of the two oils was assayed against one normal and six human tumor cell lines. Both oils showed selective cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 to 3.3 μg/ml. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai (India).

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K; Verekar, S A

    2014-12-01

    One hundred and twenty-five samples were collected from eight different sites in the vicinity of Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation. Seventy-three isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micro-morphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/Genbank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Thirteen species of nine genera were isolated viz. Aphanoascus durus (2.4%), Arthroderma corniculatum (1.6%), Auxarthron umbrinum (0.8%), Chrysosporium evolceanui (1.6%), Chrysosporium indicum (16.0%), Chrysosporium tropicum (2.4%), Chrysosporium zonatum (4.0%), Chrysosporium states of Arthroderma tuberculatum (0.8%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (11.2%), Gymnascella dankaliensis (3.2%), Microsporum gypseum (12.0%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (0.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.6%). Representative of all thirteen species can release the protein in the range of 152.2-322.4 μg/mL in liquid media when grown on human hair in shake flask culture and also decompose 18.4-40.2% of human hair after four weeks of incubation. This study indicates that the soils of SGNP, Mumbai may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi. The keratinolytic activity of these fungi may be playing significant role in superficial infections to man and animals and recycling of keratinic material of this environment.

  10. Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes

    2011-01-01

    Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses’ ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species. PMID:24031735

  11. Dermatophyte infections in free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, D S; Thomas, R; Helmick, K; Citino, S B; Taylor, S K; Dunbar, M R

    1999-06-01

    Three free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi) were diagnosed with clinical dermatophytosis; two were infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and one was infected with Microsporum gypseum. Two of these panthers were juvenile males that were diagnosed with focal to focally coalescing dermatophytosis; one caused by M. gypseum and the other by T. mentagrophytes. These animals were not treated, and clinical signs resolved spontaneously over 6 mo. The third panther, an adult male from southern Florida, presented with a diffuse dermatophytosis due to T. mentagrophytes infection. Initially, the panther had alopecia, excoriations, ulcerations, and multifocal pyoderma of the head, ears, neck, rear limbs, and abdominal region that progressed to lichenification of the skin and loss of nails from two digits. When topical therapy applied in the field at 45-day intervals was ineffective in clearing the infection, the animal was placed in captivity for intensive oral therapy to prevent further development of dermal mycosis, loss of additional nails, and spread of infection to other panthers. The panther was treated orally with itraconazole (9.5 mg/ kg) in the food s.i.d. for 6 wk. After treatment, nail regrowth occurred but the multifocal areas of alopecia remained. The panther was released back into the wild after two skin biopsy cultures were negative for fungal growth. Temporary removal of a free-ranging animal of an endangered species from its habitat for systemic treatment of dermatophytosis requires consideration of factors such as age, reproductive potential, holding facilities, treatment regimen, and the potential for successful reintroduction of the animal.

  12. Antifungal, antiradical and cytotoxic activities of extractives obtained from Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), a potential acaricide plant species.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; Queiroz-Fernandes, Geisiany M; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Freitas, Jolindo A; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2016-06-01

    Tagetes patula L. shows a complex chemical composition, ranging from glycosylated flavonoids and thiophenes in extracts until terpenoids in the essential oil. In the present study, due to this rich flavonoidic constitution, its antioxidant potential was determined, having shown values of antiradical percentage superior to reference compounds, mainly the extracts prepared with flowers. Previous studies performed emphasized the acaricide potential of T. patula and thus, the present study aimed to verify the action of extractives obtained from aerial parts on growth of entomopathogenic fungi related to biological control of brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the action against pathogenic fungi closely associated with pets. None of the samples inhibited the growth of strains of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, enabling feasible future studies of synergism on acaricide activity of formulations containing fungi and extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of flowers (FlEtOH70%) against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum was significant (193.3 μg/mL and 253.9 μg/mL, respectively), as well as ethanolic extract from aerial parts (APEtOH70%) against T. rubrum (312.5 μg/mL). In order to ensure the safety of a topical formulation containing the extractives of T. patula, the cytotoxic potential of these samples were tested in murine macrophages cells. At higher concentrations all extracts were quite lethal, with IC50 ranging from 210.96 μg/mL to 468.75 μg/mL for APEtOH70% and FlEtOH70%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of a product containing T. patula extractives in the control of ticks could be used, at principle, only on the environment.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Microascaceae with emphasis on synnematous fungi.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, M; Guarro, J; Cano-Lira, J F; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; de Hoog, G S; Abbott, S P; Decock, C; Sigler, L; Gené, J

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of the synnematous genera Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus, and other related genera Gamsia, Wardomyces and Wardomycopsis, has been controversial and relies mainly on morphological criteria. These are microascaceous saprobic fungi mostly found in air and soil and with a worldwide distribution. In order to clarify their taxonomy and to delineate generic boundaries within the Microascaceae, we studied 57 isolates that include clinical, environmental and all the available ex-type strains of a large set of species by means of morphological, physiological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data of four loci (the ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1α and β-tubulin). The results demonstrate that Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus are congeneric and the genus Cephalotrichum is accepted here with Echinobotryum as a further synonym. The genera Acaulium and Fairmania, typified by A. albonigrescens and F. singularis, respectively, are distinct from Microascus and Scopulariopsis, Gamsia is distinct from Wardomyces, and Wardomycopsis is confirmed as a separate genus in the Microascaceae. Two new species of Cephalotrichum are described as C. brevistipitatum and C. hinnuleum. Nine new combinations are proposed, i.e. Acaulium acremonium, A. caviariforme, Cephalotrichum asperulum, C. columnare, C. cylindricum, C. dendrocephalum, C. gorgonifer, Gamsia columbina and Wardomyces giganteus. A neotype is designed for C. stemonitis. Lectotypes and epitypes are designated for A. acremonium, A. albonigrescens, C. gorgonifer, C. nanum and W. anomalus. Cephalotrichum cylindricum, C. microsporum, F. singularis and Gamsia columbina are also epitypified with new specimens. Descriptions of the phenotypic features and dichotomous keys for identification are provided for accepted species in the different genera.

  14. Metal-Based Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes With Amino Acid-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Zahid H.; Arif, M.; Akhtar, Muhammad A.; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2006-01-01

    A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L1)−(L5) were derived by condensation of β-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc) via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II) ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M : L (1 : 1) resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L)(H2O)4]Cl (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) and of M : L (1 : 2) of type [M(L)2(H2O)2] (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II) complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II) complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II) complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3), (7), (10), (11), and (22), displayed

  15. Broad spectrum antidermatophytic drug for the control of tinea infection in human beings.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Seema; Kumar, Padma

    2012-07-01

    During antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts, free and bound flavonoids of Piper betle were found to be most effective as an antidermatophytic against human pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans. Dermatophytic fungi cause both superficial and internal mycoses. These mycoses, although normally not lethal, are unpleasant and difficult to cure and cause considerable financial losses. Earlier workers prove that allopathic drugs are still found effective against dermatomycoses, but these drugs could not be accepted as a routine treatment for every case, because they are expensive and require long treatment. It is almost unaffordable by middle and lower class people. In view of such prospects and constraints, our aim was to explore more new compounds of plant origin for controlling dermatophytic infections. Author explored water, methanolic and flavonoid extracts for screening as antidermatophytic agent. Plant extracts that showed good results in vitro were selected for clinical studies. The study may give cheaper treatment for medium and lower class patients suffering with tinea and may provide them much relief. Well-established paper disc method was used for the screening of different extracts of their antidermatophytic activity. Moreover, it did not exhibit any adverse side effect on mammalian skin. Flavonoids in the form of ointment Pi be I and Pi be II were subjected to topical testing on patients attending out patients department of S.M.S. Hospital, Jaipur, India. Patients were diagnosed as tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea manum or tinea pedis. All patients showed positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) results at the beginning of trial. Patients between the ages of 3 months to 58 years were enrolled. At the end of treatment, while 64% of patients cured completely, 24% showed significant improvement and 12% showed little improvement from the disease. Allopathic treatment took

  16. Clinical features of 80 cases of tinea faciei treated at a rural clinic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-12-01

    From March 2008 through February 2014, 80 patients aged 1-95 years (43 men and 37 women) were diagnosed with tinea faciei by a rural Japanese clinic. The affected sites were the cheek in 42 patients (52.5%), the auricles and area surrounding the auricles in 16 (20.0%), and the mandible in 12 (15.0%); 33 patients (41.2%) had concurrent ringworm in areas other than the face. Twenty-one patients (26.3%) had applied topical steroids to treat a rash. The pathogen responsible for tinea faciei was Trichophyton rubrum in 35 patients (43.7%), T. tonsurans in 19 (23.8%), T. mentagrophytes in 3 (3.8%), T. verrucosum in 2 (2.5%), T. violaceum in 2 (2.5%), Microsporum canis in 17 (21.3%), and M. gypseum in 2 (2.5%). Clinical symptoms were divided into three groups based on the severity of inflammation and the extent of lesions and scored in points. Anthropophilic dermatophytes resulted in a score of 1.82 points for the severity of inflammation and a score of 1.84 points for the extent of lesions while zoophilic dermatophytes resulted in a score of 2.14 points for the severity of inflammation and a score of 1.50 points for the extent of lesions. This indicates that anthropophilic fungi resulted in less inflammation and broader lesions, whereas zoophilic fungi resulted in more intense inflammation and smaller lesions. Patients who had applied topical steroids had a mean score of 1.90 points for the severity of inflammation and a mean score of 2.10 points for the extent of lesions. Patients who had not applied topical steroids had a mean score of 1.95 points for the severity of inflammation and a mean score of 1.59 points for the extent of lesions. The severity of inflammation did not differ significantly. However, lesions were significantly broader in patients who had applied topical steroids than in those who had not applied topical steroids (p < 0.04). The severity of tinea faciei is a useful index for the clinical diagnosis of tinea faciei.

  17. Epidemiological Aspects of Dermatophytosis in Khuzestan, southwestern Iran, an Update.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Rafiei, Abdollah; Makimura, Koichi; Gräser, Yvonne; Gharghani, Maral; Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool

    2016-08-01

    Dermatophytosis is among the most common superficial mycoses in Iran. The purpose of this report was to update the clinical and mycological features of human dermatophytosis in the Khuzestan, southwestern Iran. In the framework of a one-year survey, a total of 4120 skin, hair and nail samples obtained from the outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea were analyzed by using direct microscopy, culture and molecular identification methods. Strains isolated from cultures were subjected to amplification of the nuclear rDNA ITS regions in a PCR assay followed by an early established RFLP analysis. For confirmation of species identification, 100 isolates as representatives of all presumable species were subjected to ITS sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 1123 individuals (27.25 %) in the age range of 1-89 years by direct microscopy and/or culture including 603 males versus 520 females. Frequencies of infections were the highest and the lowest in age groups of 21-30 and 11-20 years, respectively. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation followed by tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea manuum, tinea pedis, tinea unguium, tinea faciei and tinea barbae. Trichophyton interdigitale (58.7 %) was the most dominant isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (35.4 %), Microsporum canis (3 %), T. rubrum (1.5 %), T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae (0.5 %), T. tonsurans (0.3 %) and T. violaceum (0.3 %). Other species included M. gypseum, M. fulvum and T. verrucosum (each one 0.1 %). Such a high occurrence of infection with T. interdigitale, which has not been reported from Iran, is due to the use of accurate molecular methods based on new species concept in dermatophytes. The prevalence of dermatophytoses caused by zoophilic species remarkably increased and Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae has emerged as a new agent of dermatophytosis in southwestern Iran, while infections due to anthropophilic species, except E. floccosum, took a

  18. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Callitris neocaledonica and C. sulcata Heartwood (Cupressaceae).

    PubMed

    Waikedre, Jean; Vitturo, Carmen I; Molina, Ana; Theodoro, Phellipe Norato Estrela Terra; do Rosário Rodrigues Silva, Maria; Espindola, Laila Salmen; Maciuk, Alexandre; Fournet, Alain

    2012-03-01

    Mortality due to fungal infections has increased substantially, becoming a worldwide problem in public health. As a contribution to the discovery of new antifungal agents, the properties of the heartwood essential oils of two trees growing in New Caledonia, Callitris neocaledonica and C. sulcata (Cupressaceae) were investigated. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. From C. neocaledonica oil, 31 constituents were identified, representing 97.0% of the total oil composition, which was mainly constituted by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (88%). Among them, guaiol (1; 30.2%), bulnesol (2; 12.5%), α-eudesmol (3; 10.5%), β-eudesmol (4; 10.5%), γ-eudesmol (10.2%), and elemol (4.9%) predominated. The chemical composition of C. sulcata oil, from which 39 constituents were identified (96.8% of the total oil composition), showed some similarities with that of C. neocaledonica oil. The major constituents were also oxygenated sesquiterpenes, accounting for 78.5% of the oil, amongst them, mainly compounds 1 (16.1%), 3 and 4 (9.7% each), as well as 2 (7.4%). The antifungal activity of the oils against clinical isolates of four dermatophytic fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) and six yeasts (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii) was tested by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the microdilution method. The best antifungal activities of the C. neocaledonica and C. sulcata oils were obtained against C. krusei (MICs of 3.9 and 0.975 μg/ml, resp.). These MIC values were similar to those of the reference drugs itraconazole and fluconazole (1.0 and 0.5 mg/ml, resp.). The oils were also subjected to a screening for their possible DPPH(.) (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity. C. neocaledonica essential oil was more active than C. sulcata oil (93.3 vs. 32.2% DPPH

  19. Importance of mycological confirmation of clinically suspected cases of tinea corporis, tinea pedis and tinea cruris.

    PubMed

    Omar, Abeer Aly

    2004-01-01

    Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis are of the most prevalent dermatophytoses. Several conditions that mimic dermatophytoses and atypical and steroid modified forms of the disease usually present difficulties in diagnosis. Hence, the present investigation aimed at studying these conditions on mycological basis. The study included 163 cases clinically diagnosed as having tinea corporis, tinea pedis or tinea cruris. Specimens were taken by skin scraping. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and examined microscopically. The results revealed that, only 90.8% of cases were mycologically proven (positive by one or both methods). Most of tinea corporis, tinea pedis and tinea cruris cases (68.9%, 79.1%& 83.9% respectively) were diagnosed by both methods (P>0.05). For cases of tinea corporis and tinea cruris, males were more than females (51.4%, 48.6% and 58.1%, 41.9% respectively) while females exceeded males (72.1%, 27.9% respectively) in cases with tinea pedis (P<0.05). Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) was the most common isolate in all the studied conditions, represented 64.9% in tinea corporis, 53.4 %, for tinea pedis and 64.6% for tinea cruris. T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale was mostly isolated from cases of tinea pedis (23.3%). The majority of T. violaceum was isolated from cases of tinea corporis (12.2%). The main isolation of E. floccosum was from cases of tinea cruris (16.1%) Microsporum canis (M. canis) was only isolated from one case (1.4%) of tinea corporis while Candida albicans (C. albicans) alone (9.3%) or with T. rubrum (7.0%) was isolated only from cases of interdigital tinea pedis. (P<0.05). The majority of cases of tinea corporis, tinea pedis and tinea cruris had chronic lesions (78.4%, 76.7% and 54.8% respectively) (P<0.05) and received prior therapy for the condition (79.7%, 76.7% and 58.1% respectively, (P>0.05). In conclusion, early accurate diagnosis (on mycological basis) is an important tool to control and reduce the

  20. Use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism to Rapidly Identify Dermatophyte Species Related to Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Abastabar, Mahdi; Mirhendi, Hossein; Badali, Hamid; Shadzi, Shahla; Chadeganipour, Mustafa; Pourfathi, Parinaz; Jalalizand, Niloufar; Haghani, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic fungi worldwide, which can infect the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. This genus includes several species that present different features of dermatophytosis. Although, laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytes is based on direct microscopy, biochemical tests and culture, these manners are expensive, time consuming and need skilled staff. Therefore, molecular methods like PCR-RFLP are the beneficial tools for identification, which are rapid and sensitive. Thus, dermatophyte species are able to generate characteristic band patterns on agarose gel electrophoresis using PCR-RFLP technique, which leads to successful identification at the species level within a 5-hour period. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study inter- and intraspecific genomic variations for identification of clinically important dermatophyte species obtained from clinical specimens in Isfahan, Iran using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: From March 2011 to August 2012, 135 clinical isolates were collected from infected patients at Isfahan, Iran. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA was amplified using universal fungal primers. Subsequently, amplified products were digested by the MvaI restriction enzyme. Using discriminating band profiles on agarose gel, dermatophyte species were identified. However, DNA sequencing was used for unidentifiable strains. Results: The specimens were obtained from skin scrapings (70.3%), nail (24.4%) and hair (5.1%) clippings. Most patients were between 21 - 30 years and the ratio of male to female was 93/42. Trichophyton interdigitale was the commonest isolate (52.5%) in our findings, followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (24.4%), T. rubrum (16.2%), Microsporum canis (2.2%), T. erinacei (1.4%), T. violaceum (1.4%), T. tonsurans (0.7%) and M. gypseum (0.7%) based on PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: Combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques considerably improves identification of dermatophytes in

  1. Hair and scalp mycobiota in school children in Nablus area.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Salameh, A A; Abu-Ghdeib, S I; Jamous, R M

    2001-01-01

    Hair and scalp mycobiota of 1389 clinically normal children aged 6-12 years attending 12 schools in the Nablus District, Palestinian Authority, was assessed on three occasions over 8-month period (October 1998-May 1999) using the hair brush technique. One hundred and one fungal species belonging to 33 genera were recovered: 6 dermatophytes, 16 dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi, and 79 other keratinophilic fungal species. Species varied considerably in their frequency of occurrence and abundance based on their relative importance values (RIVs). The most frequent and abundant species were: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cl. herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Aphanoascus fulvescence and Chrysosporum sulfureum were the most frequent and abundant species of all dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi recovered. The most frequent and abundant dermatophytes in different communities were M. canis in rural (RIV 0.87) and urban children (0.45), and Trichophyton violaceum (1.41) in refugee camp children. Chrysosporium species were the most frequent and abundant dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungus in children from all localities followed by Aphanoascus fulvescence. Comparable results on the frequency and abundance of human hair and scalp mycobiota component fungi were obtained based on age group and sex of children. Higher number of species was recovered in spring months (73 species) than in autumn (57) and winter (44) months. Similar occurrence pattern was also noted for dermatophyte-like keratinophilic species and dermatophytes. Higher percentages of children with moderate (11-50) and heavy (< or = 50) spore loads (7.54 and 0.73, respectively) were found in urban school children community than in rural and refugee camp school children (4.7 and 0.1, respectively). Also significantly higher light (1-10) spore load percentages were found in rural (63.67) and refugee camp (62.9) than in urban children (52.6). Of

  2. [A recurrent case of adult favus successfully treated with terbinafine].

    PubMed

    Erkan, Deniz; Kolukırık, İlkay; Acar, Alpaslan; Kandemir, Hazal; İlkit, Macit

    2015-10-01

    Favus or tinea capitis favosa, is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytosis of the scalp. The disease is particularly common in children aged 6 to 10 years, more often in boys, and it also occurs in adults. Human-to-human transmission is therefore possible. Anthropophilic Trichophyton schöenleinii is responsible for over 95% of favus cases. In addition, there are rare cases of anthropophilic T.violaceum, zoophilic (T.verrucosum, T.quinckeanum, and Microsporum canis) and geophilic M.gypseum species recorded as agents of favus. It is also reported in mice (T.quinckeanum), poultry (M.gallinae), and cats (M.incurvatum). Favus is common in Iran, Nigeria, and China, however it has been reported rarely in the last two decades in Turkey. Although Turkish records are not sufficient to indicate an accurate incidence rate, favus is still present in Turkey. In this report, a 20-year-old female with favus was presented. She had squames and areas of alopecia on the right frontoparietal area of her scalp. Scalp biopsy and hair follicle samples were taken for histopathological examination and fungal culture. According to the conventional identification by mycological methods and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analysis, the pathogen was identified as T.schöenleinii. The patient was treated with oral terbinafine (250 mg/day) for 4 weeks and topical isoconazole and ketoconazole for 6 weeks. Clinical recovery was observed after 6 weeks, however, fungal culture could not be repeated. Six months after the initial presentation, the patient's symptoms recurred due to the poor adherence and T.schöenleinii was repeatedly grown in culture. Antifungal treatment was administered with the same drugs for the same period. There was a clinical and mycological recovery 8 months after initial presentation. Favus, which is not frequently observed in adults, is an uncommon disease. Confusion arises in its diagnosis because other diseases have similar clinical appearances, and

  3. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Svetlichny, G; Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Cunha, S L; Silva, F E K; Bueno, K; Pohlmann, A R; Fuentefria, A M; Guterres, S S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing copaiba oil with and without allantoin (NCOA, NCO, respectively) and to evaluate their antifungal activity. Nanoparticle suspensions were prepared using a high homogenisation technique and characterised by dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, multiple light scattering analysis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, pH and rheology. The antifungal activities of the formulations were tested in vitro against the emergent yeasts Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, and the fungal pathogens of human skin Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The dynamic light scattering analysis showed z-average diameters (intensity) between 118.63 ± 8.89 nm for the nanoparticles with both copaiba oil and allantoin and 126.06 ± 9.84nm for the nanoparticles with just copaiba oil. The D[4,3] determined by laser diffraction showed similar results of 123 ± 1.73 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin and 130 ± 3.6 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil alone. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated that both suspensions had monomodal profiles and consequently, the nanoparticle populations were homogeneous. This analysis also corroborated the results of dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, exhibiting a smaller mean diameter for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin (143 nm) than for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil (204 nm). The physicochemical properties indicated that the dispersions were stable overtime. Rheology evidenced Newtonian behaviour for both suspensions. Antifungal susceptibility showed a MIC90 of 125 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 7.8 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against C. parapsilosis. The nanoparticles with copaiba oil and the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin presented a MIC90 of 500 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively, against C. krusei. The MIC90

  4. Sertaconazole: a review of its use in the management of superficial mycoses in dermatology and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D; Plosker, Greg L

    2009-01-01

    Sertaconazole (Dermofix, Ertaczo, Ginedermofix, Monazol, Mykosert or Zalain), an imidazole antifungal agent, inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential cell wall component of fungi. It is indicated in the EU for the treatment of superficial skin mycoses such as dermatophytosis (including tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea manus, tinea barbae and tinea pedis), cutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp, and in the US for tinea pedis only. Sertaconazole has broad-spectrum antifungal activity against dermatophytes of the Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum genera, and yeasts of the genera Candida and Cryptococcus; additionally, it is effective against opportunistic filamentous fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the antifungal activity of sertaconazole is maintained in clinical isolates of dermatophytes that show reduced susceptibility to other azoles. While the drug has good dermal penetration, this is not associated with systemic absorption. In clinical trials in patients with superficial mycoses, 2% sertaconazole cream applied twice daily was effective in the eradication of a range of dermatophytoses, and a significantly greater proportion of patients were cured compared with those receiving 2% miconazole cream twice-daily treatment. In patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, sertaconazole as a single-dose ovule or tablet was effective in the eradication of Candida spp., and achieved both a more rapid and a higher cure rate compared with a triple dose of econazole. Both as a topical cream and suppository preparation, sertaconazole was generally well tolerated. Sertaconazole is a well established antifungal agent, which is now available in a variety of formulations, and remains a useful treatment option particularly in patients with fungal infections resistant to other azoles. Like other azoles, sertaconazole inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell walls

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Terbinafine Hydrochloride 1% Cream vs. Sertaconazole Nitrate 2% Cream in Tinea Corporis and Tinea Cruris: A Comparative Therapeutic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, SV; Bisati, S; Singh, AL; Koley, S

    2013-01-01

    observed (P = 0.461 and P = 0.679 respectively). However, at the end of 2nd week, complete cure rate for terbinafine was 80% as compared to 73.35% for sertaconazole with no statistical significance. In both Group A and Group B, clinically significant local side effects like erythema, swelling, stinging sensation, or increased itching were not noticed. A majority of our patients in both the group showed Trichophyton rubrum followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes growth on culture. In Group A, 11 patients showed growth of T. rubrum, 2 patients showed growth of T. mentagrophytes, and 1 patient had only KOH test positive. In Group B, 10 patients revealed growth of T. rubrum, followed by growth of T. mentagrophytes in 3 and Microsporum canis in 2 patients. The therapeutic response is more or less same in infection with different species. Conclusions: The newer fungistatic drug sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream was as effective as terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream which is one of the fungicidal drugs, though terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream has higher rates of complete cure at the end of 2 weeks as compared to sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream. Both the drugs showed good tolerability with no adverse effects. PMID:24249898

  6. Tinea on a Tattoo.

    PubMed

    Oanţă, Alexandru; Irimie, Marius

    2016-08-01

    In the last twenty years, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos in the general population has increased in Europe (1) as well as in Australia (2) and the United States of America (3). A series of complications such as acute inflammatory reactions, allergic contact dermatitis (4,5), photoinduced, lichenoid, and granulomatous reactions (6, 7), pseudolymphoma (8), pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (9), skin infections (6), and skin cancers (10) may occur on tattoos. Infectious complications on tattoos include bacterial infections (pyoderma, leprosy, syphilis, cutaneous tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis) (11-14), viral infections (molluscum contagiosum, warts, herpes simplex, hepatitis B and C) (15-17), and fungal infections (sporotrichosis, dermatophytosis) (18,19). We present the case of a 29-year-old immunocompetent female patient who was consulted for the development of an erythematous-squamous placard that appeared on a tattoo about 18 days after tattooing. Dermatological examination revealed a circular, erythematous, scaly plaque, with centrifugal growth and central resolution, presenting an active, raised, erythematous, vesiculopustular edge, giving the appearance of tinea corporis. The lesion's starting point was on the tattoo in two colors located on the middle third of the left calf and subsequently evolved to beyond the surface of tattoo (Figure 1). No other skin, scalp, or nail lesions were observed. Mycological examination of the material obtained by scraping of the scales and the vesicles from the edges and the surface of the plaque revealed numerous hyphae on direct microscopy examination, and white, flat colonies with a cottony surface and radial grooves developed in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture (Figure 2). Spindle-shaped, thick-walled macroconidia and a few pyriform microconidia were observed on microscopic examinations of the colonies. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, Microsporum canis was identified. Gram stain and bacterial