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Sample records for microstrip ring resonator

  1. Microstrip Ring Resonator for Soil Moisture Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarabandi, Kamal; Li, Eric S.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate determination of spatial soil moisture distribution and monitoring its temporal variation have a significant impact on the outcomes of hydrologic, ecologic, and climatic models. Development of a successful remote sensing instrument for soil moisture relies on the accurate knowledge of the soil dielectric constant (epsilon(sub soil)) to its moisture content. Two existing methods for measurement of dielectric constant of soil at low and high frequencies are, respectively, the time domain reflectometry and the reflection coefficient measurement using an open-ended coaxial probe. The major shortcoming of these methods is the lack of accurate determination of the imaginary part of epsilon(sub soil). In this paper a microstrip ring resonator is proposed for the accurate measurement of soil dielectric constant. In this technique the microstrip ring resonator is placed in contact with soil medium and the real and imaginary parts of epsilon(sub soil) are determined from the changes in the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the resonator respectively. The solution of the electromagnetic problem is obtained using a hybrid approach based on the method of moments solution of the quasi-static formulation in conjunction with experimental data obtained from reference dielectric samples. Also a simple inversion algorithm for epsilon(sub soil) = epsilon'(sub r) + j(epsilon"(sub r)) based on regression analysis is obtained. It is shown that the wide dynamic range of the measured quantities provides excellent accuracy in the dielectric constant measurement. A prototype microstrip ring resonator at L-band is designed and measurements of soil with different moisture contents are presented and compared with other approaches.

  2. Microstrip ring resonator technique for measuring microwave attenuation in high-Tc superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, June H.; Oshita, Floyd K.; Fetterman, Harold R.; Kobrin, Paul; Sovero, Emilio

    1989-10-01

    Microwave attenuation of high-Tc superconducting (HTS) films sputtered on MgO and ZrO2 were measured using a microstrip ring resonator circuit. The results for Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O resonators were compared to those for gold-plated resonators of identical design. The losses of superconducting and gold-plated films were determined from unloaded Q-factor measurements. The attenuation of Y-Ba-Cu-O film on an MgO substrate is approximately 31 percent lower than that of gold films at 6.6 GHz and 33 percent lower at 19.2 GHz for temperatures below 50 K. The approach of using microstrips to characterize microwave losses shows the usefulness of HTS films in integrated circuit technology.

  3. TlCaBaCuO high Tc superconducting microstrip ring resonators designed for 12 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanyam, G.; Kapoor, V. J.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave properties of sputtered Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films were investigated by designing, fabricating, and testing microstrip ring resonators. Ring resonators designed for 12 GHz fundamental resonance frequency, were fabricated and tested. From the unloaded Q values for the resonators, the surface resistance was calculated by separating the conductor losses from the total losses. The penetration depth was obtained from the temperature dependence of resonance frequency, assuming that the shift in resonance frequency is mainly due to the temperature dependence of penetration depth. The effective surface resistance at 12 GHz and 77 K was determined to be between 1.5 and 2.75 mOmega, almost an order lower than Cu at the same temperature and frequency. The effective penetration depth at 0 K is approximately 7000 A.

  4. Compact Ultra Wide Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Multiple-Mode Resonator and Modified Complementary Split Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Marcotegui, J. Antonio; Illescas, Jesús Miguel; Estevez, Aritz

    2013-01-01

    A new class of broadband microstrip filters for Ultra Wide Band (UWB) applications is proposed. In the design, different stages of parallel-coupled microstrip line and other stages with a Modified Complementary Split Ring Resonator (MCSRR)—a concept proposed here for the first time—are adjusted to obtain the desired response with broadband, sharp rejection, low insertion loss, and low return loss. Full wave simulation results as well as measurement results from fabricated prototypes are presented, showing good agreement. The proposed technique offers a new alternative to implement low-cost high-performance filter devices, applicable to a wide range of communication systems. PMID:24319366

  5. Triple-band high-temperature superconducting microstrip filter based on multimode split ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Wen; Wang, Yan; Fan, Yi-Chao; Guan, Xue-Hui; He, Yusheng

    2013-09-01

    A compact triple-band high-temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa2Cu3Oy microstrip bandpass filter using multimode split ring resonator (SRR) is presented in this letter. Also, its properties and equivalent circuit models are investigated by even- and odd-mode analysis. Moreover, design method of the proposed triple-band HTS filter for the applications of global positioning system at 1.57 GHz, worldwide interoperability for microwave access at 3.5 GHz, and wireless local area networks at 5.8 GHz is discussed. The centre frequencies and the bandwidths of the three passbands can be allocated properly choosing the dimension parameters of the multimode SRR. In addition, four transmission zeros are produced to improve the selectivity of this filter.

  6. A Novel Symmetrical Split Ring Resonator Based on Microstrip for Microwave Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahnomi, Rammah A.; Zakaria, Z.; Ruslan, E.; Bahar, Amyrul Azuan Mohd

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, novel symmetrical split ring resonator (SSRR) is proposed as a suitable component for performance enhancement of microwave sensors. SSRR has been employed for enhancing the insertion loss of the microwave sensors. Using the same device area, we can achieve a high Q-factor of 141.54 from the periphery enhancement using Quasi-linear coupling SSRR, whereas loose coupling SSRR can achieve a Q-factor of 33.98 only. Using Quasi-linear coupling SSRR, the Q-factor is enhanced 4.16 times the loose coupling SSRR using the same device area. After the optimization was made, the SSRR sensor with loose coupling scheme has achieved a very high Qfactor value around 407.34 while quasi-linear scheme has achieved high Q-factor value of 278.78 at the same operating frequency with smaller insertion loss. Spurious passbands at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th harmonics have been completely suppressed well above -20 dB rejection level without visible changes in the passband filter characteristics. The most significant of using SSRR is to be used for various industrial applications such as food industry, quality control, bio-sensing medicine and pharmacy. The simulation result that Quasi-linear coupling SSRR is a viable candidate for the performance enhancement of microwave sensors has been verified.

  7. Systematical analysis for the mixed couplings of two adjacent modified split ring resonators and the application to compact microstrip bandpass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjun; Wen, Guangjun; Li, Jian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we synthesize a new kind of modified split ring resonator (SRR) and characterize its mixed couplings between two adjacent such SRRs with all the possible arrangements on one side of a conventional dielectric substrate. Based on the analysis of the mixed couplings, the compact microstrip bandpass filters composed of the proposed modified SRRs are systematically analyzed. We found that two designs out of all the cases have quite well bandpass filter characteristics, e.g., low insert loss within the wide passband, sharp reductions and transmission zeros out of the passband, and harmonic suppression characteristics for a wide frequency range. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations are performed to verify the designed filters and the results agree well with each other. Such kind of filter design can be flexibly integrated in the miniaturized radio frequency/microwave circuits.

  8. Composite arrays of superconducting microstrip line resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Mohebbi, H. R. Miao, G. X.; Benningshof, O. W. B.; Taminiau, I. A. J.; Cory, D. G.

    2014-03-07

    A novel design of an array of half-wave superconductive microstrip resonators is described. The resonator is intended to be useful for electron spin resonance studies of thin film samples at cryogenic temperatures. It achieves a high quality factor, has a small mode-volume, and creates a uniform magnetic field in a plane above the resonator. The device is made of thin film Niobium on sapphire wafer and is tested with a static magnetic field. Variation of Q-factor versus the magnetic field's strength at different temperatures is reported and is in a good agreement with simulation when the loss due to the vortices is included. Also, the power-dependence response of the resonator is shown in experiments and is verified by capturing the nonlinearity associated with the surface impedance of the superconducting film into the circuit model of the device.

  9. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels. PMID:23012510

  10. A compact annular ring microstrip antenna for WSN applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and -2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  11. A compact annular ring microstrip antenna for WSN applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and -2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels. PMID:23012510

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of microstrip rhombic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Charchafchi, S. H.; Boulkos, J.

    1990-06-01

    The resonant behavior of a novel microstrip rhombic resonator is investigated by analyzing an equivalent circuit based on transmission line modeling. Design curves showing the dependence of resonator performance on its parameters, as well as the substrate parameters, are presented. Experiments carried out showed a significant reduction in insertion loss when the rhombic resonator is dielectrically shielded. The resonator could be used as a microwave bandpass filter or a stabilization circuit for microwave oscillators in both hybrid and monolithic integrated circuits.

  13. Microstrip circuit applications of high-Q open microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.; Young, Song-Lin; Wong, Sai-Chu

    1988-09-01

    An open microwave resonator can be formed above a planar microstrip substrate by suspending a spherical reflector above it. A theory is developed to account for the coupling between such an open resonator mode and a microstrip line. The open resonator is shown to have useful circuit properties similar to a dielectric resonator, but with the potential of efficient operation well into the millimeter-wave range. Experimental confirmation of the theory is demonstrated by a scale model of a microstrip-based single-pole bandpass filter, which shows a loaded Q of 860 and a minimum loss of 0.8 dB +/- 0.4 dB at 10 GHz.

  14. A bounds on the resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of currents induced by a transverse electric plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer a lower bound on the resonant frequency (or resonant-E-plane dimension) for rectangular microstrip antennas. An upper bound is provided by the frequency for which the E-plane dimension is a half-wavelength.

  15. Superconducting microstrip resonator for pulsed ESR of thin films.

    PubMed

    Benningshof, O W B; Mohebbi, H R; Taminiau, I A J; Miao, G X; Cory, D G

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a superconducting microstrip resonator operating at 9.5 GHz (X-band) that is specially designed for pulsed ESR on thin films. A novel configuration consisting of an array of half-wave length microstrip transmission lines generates a uniform magnetic field over a 2-D region of 100×1000 μm(2) with field homogeneity better than 5×10(-2). Using the device, we demonstrate strong coupling of the resonator to an electron spin ensemble and pulsed ESR on Si:P.

  16. Resonance in cylindrical-rectangular and wraparound microstrip structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Sami M.; Kong, Jin AU; Habashy, Tarek M.; Kiang, Jean-Fu

    1989-01-01

    A rigorous analysis of the resonance frequency problem of both the cylindrical-rectangular and the wraparound microstrip structure is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of a set of vector integral equations. Using Galerkin's method to solve the integral equations, the complex resonance frequencies are studied with sinusoidal basis functions which incorporate the edge singularity. The complex resonance frequencies are computed using a perturbation approach. Modes suitable for resonator or antenna applications are investigated. The edge singularity of the patch current is shown to have no significant effect on the accuracy of the results. It is shown that the HE10 modes of the cylindrical-rectangular and wraparound patches are more appropriate for resonator applications. The HE01 and TE01 modes of the cylindrical-rectangular and wraparound patches, respectively, are efficient radiating modes.

  17. Spoof localized surface plasmons on ultrathin textured MIM ring resonator with enhanced resonances

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Xiao, Qian Xun; Jia Yang, Bao

    2015-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) resonant modes can be enhanced based on ultrathin corrugated metal-insulator-metal (MIM) ring resonator. Further enhancement of the LSPs modes has been achieved by incorporating an efficient and ease-of-integration exciting method. Quality factors of resonance peaks have become much larger and multipolar resonances modes can be easily observed on the textured MIM ring resonator excited by a microstrip line. Experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and resonance enhancements of spoof LSPs modes on the MIM ring resonator in the microwave frequencies. We have shown that the fabricated resonator is sensitive to the variation of both the dielectric constant and the thickness of surrounding materials under test. The spoof plasmonic resonator can be used as key elements to provide many important device functionalities such as optical communications, signal processing, and spectral engineering in the plasmonic integration platform. PMID:26420668

  18. Sub-terahertz and terahertz microstrip resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Feiginov, Michael

    2015-09-21

    We present a theoretical analysis of traveling-wave microstrip resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillators. Such oscillators are similar to terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) with a metal-metal waveguide and with just the active part of a single QCL period (an RTD) as their active core. Assuming realistic parameters of RTDs, we show that the microstrip RTD oscillators should be working at sub-THz and THz frequencies. Contrary to the contemporary THz QCLs, RTD microstrips are room-temperature oscillators. The major loss- and gain-enhancement mechanisms in RTD microstrips are identified.

  19. Sub-terahertz and terahertz microstrip resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiginov, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of traveling-wave microstrip resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillators. Such oscillators are similar to terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) with a metal-metal waveguide and with just the active part of a single QCL period (an RTD) as their active core. Assuming realistic parameters of RTDs, we show that the microstrip RTD oscillators should be working at sub-THz and THz frequencies. Contrary to the contemporary THz QCLs, RTD microstrips are room-temperature oscillators. The major loss- and gain-enhancement mechanisms in RTD microstrips are identified.

  20. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  2. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  3. Compound fiber ring resonator: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lit, J.W.Y.

    1994-06-01

    A compound fiber ring resonator is made with a Fabry-Perot etalon built inside a fiber ring that is fed through a 2 x 2 directional single-mode fiber coupler. It is theoretically analyzed by an unfolded equivalent model and a transfer-matrix method. The output intensities are presented, and four cases are discussed. The results may be useful in applications such as fiber spectrum analyzers, sensors, and lasers. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Apex-angle-dependent resonances in triangular split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Max A.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2016-02-01

    Along with other frequency selective structures (Pendry et al. in IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 47(11):2075-2084, 1999) (circles and squares), triangular split-ring resonators (TSRRs) only allow frequencies near the center resonant frequency to propagate. Further, TSRRs are attractive due to their small surface area (Vidhyalakshmi et al. in Stopband characteristics of complementary triangular split ring resonator loaded microstrip line, 2011), comparatively, and large quality factors ( Q) as previously investigated by Gay-Balmaz et al. (J Appl Phys 92(5):2929-2936, 2002). In this work, we examine the effects of varying the apex angle on the resonant frequency, the Q factor, and the phase shift imparted by the TSRR element within the GHz frequency regime.

  5. Performance and modeling of superconducting ring resonators at millimeter-wave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Chorey, C. M.; Warner, J. D.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.; Kong, K. S.; Lee, H. Y.; Itoh, T.

    1990-01-01

    Microstrip ring resonators operating at 35 GHz were fabricated from laser ablated YBCO thin films deposited on lanthanum aluminate substrates. They were measured over a range of temperatures and their performance compared to identical resonators made of evaporated gold. Below 60 Kelvin the superconducting strip performed better than the gold, reaching an unloaded Q approximately 1.5 times that of gold at 25 K. A shift in the resonant frequency follows the form predicted by the London equations. The Phenomenological Loss Equivalence Method is applied to the ring resonator and the theoretically calculated Q values are compared to the experimental results.

  6. Nondestructive microwave permittivity characterization of ferroelectric thin film using microstrip dual resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. Y.; Chen, Linfeng; Chong, K. B.; Ong, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the use of a microstrip dual resonator for nondestructive permittivity characterization of a ferroelectric thin film at microwave frequencies. The dual-resonator measurement fixture consists mainly of two capacitively coupled microstrip resonators, with the ferroelectric thin film covering the gap between the two resonators. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of the ferroelectric thin film are derived from the resonant frequencies and quality factors of the dual-resonator structure. To study the electric field dependence of the ferroelectric thin film, direct current bias voltage is applied through two electrode pads on the microstrip circuit. The temperature dependence of a ferroelectric thin film was also studied using the hermetic test fixture. The measurement uncertainty of this method comes mainly from the air gap between the microstrip circuit and the ferroelectric thin film. Calibration with a sample of known dielectric constant can be used to compensate for such an error. We demonstrated the use of this method on a piece of the Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin film deposited on a LaAlO3 substrate.

  7. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.; Trotter, Douglas C.; Young, Ralph W.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2009-11-10

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  8. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.; Trotter, Douglas C.; Young, Ralph W.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2011-07-19

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  9. The role of resonances in planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borderies, N.

    1987-01-01

    The new observations of planetary rings, including those acquired during the encounters of Voyager with Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and the discovery of incomplete rings around Neptune, reveal the great importance of resonances in determining the dynamics and the shape of planetary rings. Several types of resonances play a part in planetary rings. Current questions of interest are related to the nonlinear theory of density waves, the confinement of the Uranian rings, and the arcs of rings around Neptune.

  10. Microstrip resonators and filters using high-T sub c superconducting thin films on LaAlO sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, J.I.; Jackson, C.M.; Hu, R.; Burch, J.F.; Daly, K.P.; Simon, R.W. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on very low microwave losses in YBa {sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} linear resonators, ring resonators, and bandpass filters. We deposited the 1-2-3 on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates, patterned microwave circuits, and overcoated with a passivating LaAlO{sub 3} layer. HTS linear microstrip resonators demonstrated Q's greater than 1200 at 10 GHz, corresponding to surface resistances less than 300 {mu}{omega}. Identical silver resonators showed Q's of 60 and surface resistance of 15 m{omega}. The high frequency transition temperature for these HTS films was greater than 83 K. The authors measured Q's of 240 in ring resonators at 15 GHz. Finally, the authors designed, fabricated, and tested a 2-pole, Chebyshev narrow-bandwidth bandpass filter. The HTS filter was designed to be a 1 percent bandwidth with 0.1 dB ripple. Insertion loss was 2 dB at 4 K, rising to 3 dB at 77 K. The authors observed temperature dependence in the filter center frequency, which we attribute to kinetic inductance effects. The authors' HTS filters outperform similar cryogenic silver filters, indicating that practical levels of HTS performance have been achieved.

  11. Complementary split ring resonator arrays for electromagnetic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavikia, Babak; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2015-07-01

    This work demonstrates the viability of Ground-backed Complementary Split-Ring Resonator (G-CSRR) arrays with significant power conversion efficiency and bandwidth enhancement in comparison to the technology used in current electromagnetic energy harvesting systems. Through numerical full-wave analysis, we demonstrated correlation between either the resonance frequency or the input impedance of G-CSRR cells with the periodicity of the array. A comparative study of power harvesting efficiency through numerical analysis and laboratory measurement was presented where an array of G-CSRRs is compared to an array of microstrip patch antennas. We demonstrated that a G-CSRR array yields power conversion efficiency of 92%, which represents a significant improvement in comparison to the single G-CSRR reported in our earlier work.

  12. Nanofiber-segment ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. E.; Hickman, G. T.; Franson, J. D.; Pittman, T. B.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a fiber ring resonator comprised of a relatively long loop of standard single-mode fiber with a short nanofiber segment. The evanescent mode of the nanofiber segment allows the cavity-enhanced field to interact with atoms in close proximity to the nanofiber surface. We report on an experiment using a warm atomic vapor and low-finesse cavity, and briefly discuss the potential for reaching the strong coupling regime of cavity QED by using trapped atoms and a high-finesse cavity of this kind.

  13. Resonant frequencies of irregularly shaped microstrip antennas using method of moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Shively, David G.; Cockrell, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the method of moments to determine resonant frequencies of irregularly shaped microstrip patches embedded in a grounded dielectric slab. For analysis, the microstrip patch is assumed to be excited by a linearly polarized plane wave that is normal to the patch. The surface-current density that is induced on the patch because of the incident field is expressed in terms of subdomain functions by dividing the patch into identical rectangular subdomains. The amplitudes of the subdomain functions, as a function of frequency, are determined using the electric-field integral equation (EFIE) approach in conjunction with the method of moments. The resonant frequencies of the patch are then obtained by selecting the frequency at which the amplitude of the surface-current density is real. The resonant frequencies of the equilateral triangular and other nonrectangular patches are computed using the present technique, and these frequencies are compared with measurements and other independent calculations.

  14. Effective side length formula for resonant frequency of equilateral triangular microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Kerim; Kurt, Erhan

    2016-02-01

    A novel and accurate expression is obtained by employing the differential evolution algorithm for the effective side length (ESL) of the equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (ETMA). This useful formula allows the antenna engineers to accurately calculate the ESL of the ETMA. The computed resonant frequencies (RFs) show very good agreement with the experimental RFs when this accurate ESL formula is utilised for the computation of the RFs for the first five modes.

  15. Microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator structures

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Kee; Fan, Xudong; Zellers, Edward. T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and preliminary optical characterization of rugged, Si-micromachined optofluidic ring resonator (μOFRR) structures consisting of thin-walled SiOx cylinders with expanded midsections designed to enhance the three-dimensional confinement of whispering gallery modes (WGMs). These μOFRR structures were grown thermally at wafer scale on the interior of Si molds defined by deep-reactive-ion etching and pre-treated to reduce surface roughness. Devices 85-μm tall with 2-μm thick walls and inner diameters ranging from 50 to 200 μm supported pure-mode WGMs with Q-factors >104 near 985 nm. Advantages for eventual vapor detection in gas chromatographic microsystems are highlighted. PMID:22053110

  16. Tilted microstrip phased arrays with improved electromagnetic decoupling for ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-12-01

    One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-type microstrip elements was designed, capable for human imaging at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. In this volume transceiver array, its electromagnetic decoupling behavior among resonant elements, RF field penetration to biological samples, and parallel imaging performance were studied through bench tests and in vivo MR imaging experiments. In this specific tilted element array design, decoupling among array elements changes with the tilted angle of the elements and the best decoupling can be achieved at certain tilted angle. In vivo human knee MR images were acquired using the tilted volume array at 7 Tesla for method validation. Results of this study demonstrated that the electromagnetic decoupling between array elements and the B1 field strength can be improved by using the tilted element method in microstrip RF coil array designs at the ultrahigh field of 7T.

  17. Photoelastic Effect in Silicon Ring Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Tanushi, Yuichiro; Tokunaga, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Shin

    2008-04-01

    The photoelastic effect of Si was measured in a real optical device, a racetrack ring resonator. The sample holder that can induce strain mechanically was fabricated and the strain dependence of resonance wavelength was investigated. The holder can induce a 10-4 order strain and a 0.1 nm order shift of resonance wavelength induced by this strain was observed. By subtracting the contribution of change in the circumference of the racetrack ring resonator from the resonance wavelength shift, the photoelastic effect was estimated. As a result, the obtained photoelastic coefficient was consistent with that of bulk Si.

  18. Three port optical circulators with ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander Y.; Eich, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    We present a concept for a circulator that has the same bandwidth efficiency as a photonic crystal circulator but which relies on a ring resonator and thereby is experimentally much easier to realize. We achieve this by side coupling three waveguides to the ring resonator. The desired standing wave pattern which recreates the photonic crystal type circulator spectrum is realized by exciting both the clockwise and counter-clockwise traveling wave through a Bragg reflector.

  19. Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.

  20. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    PubMed

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S; Eyyuboglu, Halil T

    2016-01-01

    A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d). Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered. PMID:27054755

  1. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot

    PubMed Central

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S.; Eyyuboglu, Halil T.

    2016-01-01

    A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d). Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered. PMID:27054755

  2. Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot.

    PubMed

    Mezaal, Yaqeen S; Eyyuboglu, Halil T

    2016-01-01

    A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d). Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

  3. Increased quality factor in superconducting microstrip resonators by selective removal of the gold contact layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Geerk, J.; Linker, G.; Ratzel, F.; Smithey, R.

    2002-02-01

    We present measurements of the unloaded quality factor of superconducting microstrip resonators at 77 K and 3.86 GHz. The resonators were made of 0.3 μm thick YBa2Cu3O7 films with a transition temperature of 90 K on both sides of ceria-buffered 3 inch sapphire wafers. In particular, we investigated the effect of a 0.3 μm thick gold contact layer on the resonator performance. It was found that the gold layer decreases the quality factor by a factor of almost 5. This result is due to an additional microwave loss in the gold film which can be quantitatively described by the impedance transformation rules for transmission lines. On the basis of the quantitative analysis, we suggest a selective removal of the contact layer by appropriate patterning in order to eliminate the extra loss without deterioration of the low-ohmic galvanic contact to the microwave housing. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. Their comparison with the calculated surface current density in the ground plane shows that the contact layer has to be in an area where the current is zero. Furthermore, the results reveal that the surface current density distribution in the ground plane and microstrip depends on the microwave power.

  4. Resonant frequency of microstrip antennas calculated from TE-excitation of an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation of currents induced by a plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer the resonant width (or frequency) of rectangular microstrip antennas. By placing the strip inside the dielectric, the effect of a dielectric cover of the same material as the substrate can be included in the calculation of resonant frequency. A comparison with measured results indicated agreement of 1 percent or better for rectangular microstrip antennas constructed on Teflon-fiberglass substrate.

  5. Unstable resonator misalignment in ring and linear toroidal resonators.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, A D

    1983-01-15

    Optical axis motion in a ring resonator is investigated as a function of resonator mirror misalignment by constructing an equivalent paraxial model and applying the ray matrix formalism. Analytical expressions are derived for the optical axis motion. The paraxial model of the ring is shown to imply a linear resonator as a specific case, and the ring resonator expressions collapse to the familiar Krupke-Sooy results for that case. Using this method, new misalignment expressions are determined for more complex linear resonators. Uncorrectable misalignment conditions caused by toroidal mirror parameter errors are studied analytically and with a geometric optics code, and resulting phase front errors are given for a special case. These results are also examined as a basis for toroidal mirror quality specifications. PMID:18195782

  6. Computing resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas by using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdagli, Ali; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Develi, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas (CCMAs) operating at UHF band is computed by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). For this purpose, 144 CCMAs with various relative dielectric constants and different physical dimensions were simulated by the XFDTD software package based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. One hundred and twenty-nine CCMAs were employed for training, while the remaining 15 CCMAs were used for testing of the ANFIS model. Average percentage error (APE) values were obtained as 0.8413% and 1.259% for training and testing, respectively. In order to demonstrate its validity and accuracy, the proposed ANFIS model was also tested over the simulation data given in the literature, and APE was obtained as 0.916%. These results show that ANFIS can be successfully used to compute the resonant frequency of CCMAs.

  7. Clutter sensitivity test under controlled field conditions Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-27

    Theoretical research, controlled laboratory tests, and these field test results show that nonmetallic (and metallic) shallowly buried objects can be detected and imaged with the Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) sensor. The sensor can be modeled as a high Q cavity which capitalizes on its resonant condition sensitivity to scattered waves from buried objects. When the RMPA sensor is swept over a shallowly buried object, the RMPA fed-point impedance (resistance), measured with a Maxwell bridge, changes by tens of percent. The significant change in unprocessed impedance data can be presented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical displays over the survey area. This forms silhouette images of the objects without the application of computationally intensive data processing algorithms. Because RMPA employed electromagnetic waves to illuminate the shallowly buried object, a number of questions and issues arise in the decision to fund or deny funding of the reconfiguration of the RMPA technology into a nonmetallic (metallic) land mine detector.

  8. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  9. Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Manfreda, Allison; Mansour, Kamjou; Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong

  10. Dual-band bandpass terahertz wave filter based on microstrip resonant structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-hang; Li, Jiu-sheng

    2012-03-01

    The terahertz (THz) band, which refers to the spectral region between 0.1 and 10THz, covers the fingerprints of many chemical and biological materials. Within the past few years, there are increasing demands for experiments in terahertz frequencies, in different areas such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, space science, security, chemical and biological sensing, terahertz wave communications, and medical diagnostics. For potential applications, the functional devices, such as beam polarizers, switchs and filters, are crucial components for a terahertz system. Terahertz wave filter based on two kinds of microstrip resonant structures, has been characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the region from 0.1 to 3THz. The experimental results for the frequency dependence of the transmittance of the terahertz wave filter show that the terahertz wave transmittance peak is of 79.5% at 0.5THz and 82.5% at 0.81THz.

  11. Nanoporous polymer ring resonators for biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Matthew; Goddard, Julie M.; Erickson, David

    2011-01-01

    Optically resonant devices are promising as label-free biomolecular sensors due to their ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into small mode volumes and their capacity for multiplexed detection. A fundamental limitation of current optical biosensor technology is that the biomolecular interactions are limited to the surface of the resonant device, while the highest intensity of electromagnetic energy is trapped within the core. In this paper, we present nanoporous polymer optofluidic devices consisting of ring resonators coupled to bus waveguides. We report a 40% increase in polymer device sensitivity attributed to the addition of core energy- bioanalyte interactions. PMID:22274347

  12. Microstrip resonators using two-sided metalorganic chemical vapor deposited Er-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, J.H.; Jackson, C.M.; Manasevit, H.M.; St. John, D.C.; Burch, J.F.; Daly, K.P.; Simon, R.W. )

    1991-03-11

    We have measured very low microwave losses in microstrip resonators produced in a newly developed process which deposits high-temperature Er-Ba-Cu-O superconducting films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on both sides of a LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. These {ital in} {ital situ} films have critical temperatures of 92 K. High {ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductor (HTS) linear microstrip resonators demonstrated {ital Q}'s of 3500 at 10 GHz and 4.2 K, corresponding to surface resistances less than 330 {mu}{Omega}, which is 45 times better than measured silver resoantors. HTS meanderline resonators with a fundamental frequency of 1.3 GHz have {ital Q}'s of 9600 at 4.2 K. Identical silver meanderline circuits have 300 times more surface resistance than HTS circuits.

  13. Tesseral resonances in the rings of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Burns, Joseph A.; French, Richard G.

    2016-05-01

    We will present a study of the behavior of the A, B, C and D rings using images and occultation data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft over a period of 8 years from 2006 to 2015. We have identified a variety of free and forced normal modes at the edge of the A ring, with values of ''m'' ranging from 3 to 18 and appropriate pattern speeds (El Moutamid et al, 2016). These modes may represent waves trapped in resonant cavities at the edge (Spitale and Porco 2010, Nicholson et al 2014). Moreover, Hedman et al. (2009) have identified structures in the D ring and the Roche division which appear to rotate with Saturn. These may represent Tesseral resonances associated with inhomogeneities in Saturn's interior.We are now searching for wave-like signatures in the main rings which are not associated with edges but also related to the rotation period of Saturn. We have identified several signatures consistent with other Tesseral resonances. These signatures may provide information about differential rotation in Saturn's interior.

  14. Comparisons of ring resonator relative permittivity measurements to ground penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishel, Marie; Koehn, Phillip; Rosen, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Field experience has shown that soil conditions can have large effects on the ability of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect buried targets of interest. The relative permittivity of the soil determines the attenuation of the radar signal. The contrast between the relative permittivity of the soil and the target is critical to determining the strength of the reflection from the target. In this paper, to measure the relative permittivity of the soil and various target fill materials, a microstrip ring resonator is placed in contact with a material medium. The real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity are determined from (1) changes in resonant frequencies (between 600 MHz and 2 GHz) and (2) the quality factor of the resonator, respectively. Measurement results are compared to data collected by a GPR.

  15. Mechanically tolerant fluidic split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Robiatun A.; Baum, Thomas; Nasabi, Mahyar; Sriram, Sharath; Rowe, Wayne S. T.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible resonators are crucial elements for non-planar, conformal and curved or movable surfaces in flexible high frequency electronic environments. Here, we demonstrate a stretchable, bendable, twistable and reversibly deformable split ring resonator (SRR) operating at ∼3 GHz. The mechanical and electrical performance of the SRR was achieved by encapsulating liquid metal (galinstan) in a microfluidic channel of highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane. Applying mechanical deformation (bending, stretching and twisting) to the SRR results in minimal deviation of the transmission response. This offers a stable and predictable response for flexible electronic applications where mechanical deformation or conformity is inherent.

  16. Performance Enhancement of Space-Time Adaptive Processing for GPS and Microstrip Antenna Design Using Ferrite Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Albino, Alix

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system widely used in civilian and military application, but its accuracy is highly impacted with consequential fading, and possible loss of communication due to multipath propagation and high power interferences. This dissertation proposes alternatives to improve the performance of the GPS receivers to obtain a system that can be reliable in critical situations. The basic performance of the GPS receiver consists of receiving the signal with an antenna array, delaying the signal at each antenna element, weighting the delayed replicas, and finally, combining the weighted replicas to estimate the desired signal. Based on these, three modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the system. The first proposed modification is the use of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm with two variations to decrease the convergence time of the classic LMS while achieving good system stability. The results obtained by the proposed LMS demonstrate that the algorithm can achieve the same stability as the classic LMS using a small step size, and its convergence rate is better than the classic LMS using a large step size. The second proposed modification is to replace the uniform distribution of the time delays (or taps) by an exponential distribution that decreases the bit-error rate (BER) of the system without impacting the computational efficiency of the uniform taps. The results show that, for a BER of 0.001, the system can operate with a 1 to 2 dB lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when an exponential distribution is used rather than a uniform distribution. Finally, the third modification is implemented in the design of the antenna array. In this case, the gain of each microstrip element is enhanced by embedding ferrite rings in the substrate, creating a hybrid substrate. The ferrite rings generates constructive interference between the incident and reflected fields; consequently, the gain of a single microstrip element

  17. Resilience in optical ring-resonant switches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kevin A; Rohit, Abhinav; Glick, Madeleine

    2011-08-29

    Phase-modulated ring resonant switches are receiving increasing attention for monolithic Silicon photonic networks. Resilience to fabrication variations and operational tolerances are however required to create networks with sufficient connectivity and bandwidth. In this work we use the combination of vectorial optical-mode propagation and transfer matrix calculation to map fabrication-level feature size variation to the optical switch performance metrics for extinction ratio, bandwidth and power penalty. Fabrication tolerances may be relaxed considerably through the combination of moderate size directional couplers of up to 30 µm, moderate 400 GHz free spectral range resonator design and the use of fifth order resonance. High speed 10 Gb/s, wavelength-multiplex-compliant, optical signal routing is predicted with on-state power penalties of 0.2 dB - 0.7 dB and off-state signal extinctions of - 62 dB.

  18. Resilience in optical ring-resonant switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kevin A.; Rohit, Abhinav; Glick, Madeleine

    2011-08-01

    Phase-modulated ring resonant switches are receiving increasing attention for monolithic Silicon photonic networks. Resilience to fabrication variations and operational tolerances are however required to create networks with sufficient connectivity and bandwidth. In this work we use the combination of vectorial optical-mode propagation and transfer matrix calculation to map fabrication-level feature size variation to the optical switch performance metrics for extinction ratio, bandwidth and power penalty. Fabrication tolerances may be relaxed considerably through the combination of moderate size directional couplers of up to 30 μm, moderate 400 GHz free spectral range resonator design and the use of fifth order resonance. High speed 10Gb/s, wavelength-multiplex-compliant, optical signal routing is predicted with on-state power penalties of 0.2 dB -- 0.7 dB and off-state signal extinctions of -- 62dB.

  19. Tunable ultracompact electro-optical photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2013-09-01

    A tunable ultracompact electro-optical photonic crystal ring resonator with high transmission is reported. The photonic crystal ring resonator is obtained by removing a ring shape of cylinders from a square lattice of dielectric cylinders in air. The transmission spectra of this ring resonator have been investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain technique. The general characteristics of the ring elements to achieve resonant tunneling are determined. By modulating the conductibility of the inner cylinders in the ring resonator, the electrical tunability of the resonant modes is observed in the transmission spectrum. The research results should open opportunities for this ring resonator as ultracompact filters, optical add-drop multiplexers, electro-optical N × N switches, and modulators.

  20. Protein Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Prototype transducers based on integrated optical ring resonators have been demonstrated to be useful for detecting the protein avidin in extremely dilute solutions. In an experiment, one of the transducers proved to be capable of indicating the presence of avidin at a concentration of as little as 300 pM in a buffer solution a detection sensitivity comparable to that achievable by previously reported protein-detection techniques. These transducers are serving as models for the further development of integrated-optics sensors for detecting small quantities of other proteins and protein-like substances. The basic principle of these transducers was described in Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators (NPO-40601), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 10 (October 2005), page 32. The differences between the present transducers and the ones described in the cited prior article lie in details of implementation of the basic principle. As before, the resonator in a transducer of the present type is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, consists of a layer comprising sublayers having indices of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core. The outermost sublayer absorbs the chemical of interest (in this case, avidin). The index of refraction of the outermost sublayer changes with the concentration of absorbed avidin. The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer sublayer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in the index of refraction of the outermost sublayer causes a measurable change in the spectrum of the resonator output.

  1. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  2. Microbead-assisted high resolution microwave planar ring resonator for organic-vapor sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Mohammad H.; Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Goldthorp, Jordan; Abdolrazzaghi, Mohammad; Hashisho, Zaher; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2015-02-01

    A microbead-assisted planar microwave resonator for organic vapor sensing applications is presented. The core of this sensor is a planar microstrip split-ring resonator, integrated with an active feedback loop to enhance the initial quality factor from 200 to ˜1 M at an operational resonance frequency of 1.42 GHz. Two different types of microbeads, beaded activated carbon (BAC) and polymer based (V503) beads, are investigated in non-contact mode for use as gas adsorbents in the gas sensing device. 2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is used in various concentrations as the target gas, and the transmitted power (S21) of the two port resonator is measured. The two main microwave parameters of resonance frequency and quality factor are extracted from S21 since these parameters are less susceptible to environmental and instrumental noise than the amplitude. Measured results demonstrate a minimum resonance frequency shift of 10 kHz for a 35 ppm concentration of BE exposure to carbon beads and 160 kHz for the polymer based adsorbent at the same concentration. The quality factor of the resonator also changed for different concentrations, but a distinguishable variation is observed for the BAC adsorbents. The high quality factor of the sensor provides the opportunity of real time monitoring of the adsorbent behaviors in remote sensing mode with very high resolution.

  3. Swept frequency technique for dispersion measurement of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Microstrip lines used in microwave integrated circuits are dispersive. Because a microstrip line is an open structure, the dispersion can not be derived with pure TEM, TE, or TM mode analysis. Dispersion analysis has commonly been done using a spectral domain approach, and dispersion measurement has been made with high Q microstrip ring resonators. Since the dispersion of a microstrip line is fully characterized by the frequency dependent phase velocity of the line, dispersion measurement of microstrip lines requires the measurement of the line wavelength as a function of frequency. In this paper, a swept frequency technique for dispersion measurement is described. The measurement was made using an automatic network analyzer with the microstrip line terminated in a short circuit. Experimental data for two microstrip lines on 10 and 30 mil Cuflon substrates were recorded over a frequency range of 2 to 20 GHz. Agreement with theoretical results computed by the spectral domain approach is good. Possible sources of error for the discrepancy are discussed.

  4. Semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity laser and gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, M.P.

    1993-08-31

    A ring laser is described comprising: a semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity having a plurality of reflecting surfaces defined by the planes of the crystal and establishing a closed optical path; and a discrete laser medium disposed in said semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity for generating coherent light in said cavity, wherein said resonator cavity is decoupled from the laser medium.

  5. An Archetype Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the generation of a novel resonator, termed Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP), that exhibits unique features, such as, its use of one plane mirror, allowing the SRFP to be easily fabricated as a symmetrical device. In addition to its unique features, it exhibits advantages of ring and Fabry-Perot resonators: 1) compared to a ring resonator that only allows a transmitted intensity, the Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) supports standing waves, allowing both a reflected and transmitted intensity; 2) the reflected light spectrum of the SRFP resonator is much narrower than similar Fabry-Perot, implying higher finesse.

  6. Revenge of tiny Miranda. [resonance model for Uranus ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.; Nicholson, P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the resonance model for the rings of Uranus proposed by Dermott and Gold (1977). Dermott and Gold had dismissed resonances involving Miranda as insignificant. The reported investigation shows, however, that the strongest resonances are all associated with Miranda. It is also found that the hypothesis that the rings are made up of librating particles is incorrect. If the ring positions are determined by resonances, the control is more subtle than previously suggested. One possibility is that the rings are the crests of nonlinear density waves in an optically thin disk of particles.

  7. Injection laser with a ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, A. P.; Eliseev, P. G.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Rakhvalskii, M. P.; Khairetdinov, K. A.

    1984-04-01

    The generation of oppositely directed waves (ODWs) in a ring resonator with a nonreciprocal phase element (NPE) is investigated experimentally. The apparatus is similar to that described by Bogatov et al. (1982) and comprises a CW AlGaAs planar-heterostructure active element with its stripe contact at 13 deg from the normal to the output face, collimating lenses, mirrors and a diffraction grating to form the resonator, a Fabry-Perot etalon to narrow the spectrum, and a Faraday cell (with a flint-glass core, solenoid windings, and two quarter-wave plates) as the NPE. The optical arrangement, the ODW interference patterns, and the variation of wave intensity with pump current and magnetic-field strength are presented graphically and discussed. The interference pattern is found to be unaffected by switching on the NPE, regardless of the magnetic field and over the entire frequency-splitting range (0-25 MHz), indicating that the frequencies of the ODWs are equal and do not follow the frequency of the resonator. The intensities of the ODWs are anticorrelated at a given input power.

  8. Oscillations and resonances in electrostatically supported dust rings

    SciTech Connect

    Melandsoe, F.; Havnes, O. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors show that planetary dust rings which are electrostatically supported, i.e., the ring thickness is determined by a balance between the component of gravity toward the central plane and the expanding electrostatic force on the dust, will oscillate if the ambient plasma conditions are changed. The oscillation frequency of tenuous clouds is found analytically to be {radical}3 times the local Kepler frequency. This is confirmed by numerical results which also show that the oscillation frequency decreases for denser rings. While a tenuous ring has one oscillation frequency throughout, the different parts of a dense ring, e.g., the central density and ring edge position, oscillate with different frequencies. The oscillations become increasingly complex for denser rings. They have concentrated on tenuous rings and looked for resonances between the oscillation frequency {radical}3 {Omega}{sub K} and other naturally occurring frequencies in a ring system. They have investigated the consequences if magnetospheric corotating plasma is not symmetric in azimuth. This can lead to resonances with the vertical dust profile oscillaitons of orbiting dust rings. They determine the major resonance distances around Jupiter and Saturn and find striking coincidences with features in both ring systems which indicate that such resonances may have effects beyond that of simply uncreasing the thickness of a ring at a resonance distance.

  9. Passive ring resonator micro-optical gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venediktov, V. Yu; Filatov, Yu V.; Shalymov, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in passive micro-optical gyroscopes. In the last decade, most research effort in the area of micro-optical gyros has been concentrated on a configuration that takes advantage of a single-mode passive ring resonator, which is usually fabricated using integrated optical technologies. The dimensions of such micro-optical gyros are comparable to those of micromechanical gyroscopes (area of 10 to 100 mm2) and their sensitivity is considerably better than the sensitivity of the latter, approaching that of fibre-optic and laser gyros. Moreover, microoptical gyros can be made as a single integrated circuit, like the micromechanical gyros, but they have no movable parts, in contrast to their micromechanical counterparts. We also describe the development and investigation of micro-optical gyros produced in our studies.

  10. Differential Resonant Ring YIG Tuned Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    A differential SiGe oscillator circuit uses a resonant ring-oscillator topology in order to electronically tune the oscillator over multi-octave bandwidths. The oscillator s tuning is extremely linear, because the oscillator s frequency depends on the magnetic tuning of a YIG sphere, whose resonant frequency is equal to a fundamental constant times the DC magnetic field. This extremely simple circuit topology uses two coupling loops connecting a differential pair of SiGe bipolar transistors into a feedback configuration using a YIG tuned filter creating a closed-loop ring oscillator. SiGe device technology is used for this oscillator in order to keep the transistor s 1/f noise to an absolute minimum in order to achieve minimum RF phase noise. The single-end resonant ring oscillator currently has an advantage in fewer parts, but when the oscillation frequency is greater than 16 GHz, the package s parasitic behavior couples energy to the sphere and causes holes and poor phase noise performance. This is because the coupling to the YIG is extremely low, so that the oscillator operates at near the unloaded Q. With the differential resonant ring oscillator, the oscillation currents are just in the YIG coupling mechanisms. The phase noise is even better, and the physical size can be reduced to permit monolithic microwave integrated circuit oscillators. This invention is a YIG tuned oscillator circuit making use of a differential topology to simultaneously achieve an extremely broadband electronic tuning range and ultra-low phase noise. As a natural result of its differential circuit topology, all reactive elements, such as tuning stubs, which limit tuning bandwidth by contributing excessive open loop phase shift, have been eliminated. The differential oscillator s open-loop phase shift is associated with completely non-dispersive circuit elements such as the physical angle of the coupling loops, a differential loop crossover, and the high-frequency phase shift of the n

  11. Mode Orientation Control For Sapphire Dielectric Ring Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, David G.; Dick, G. John; Prata, Aluizio

    1996-01-01

    Small sapphire tuning wedge used in technique for solving mode-purity problem associated with sapphire dielectric-ring resonator part of cryogenic microwave frequency discriminator. Breaks quasi-degeneracy of two modes and allows selective coupling to just one mode. Wedge mounted on axle entering resonator cavity and rotated while resonator cryogenically operating in vacuum. Furthermore, axle moved vertically to tune resonant frequency.

  12. A Compact 5.5 GHz Band-Rejected UWB Antenna Using Complementary Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. M.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm2, and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  13. A compact 5.5 GHz band-rejected UWB antenna using complementary split ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Faruque, M R I; Islam, M T

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm(2), and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  14. Tunable optical delay line based on micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yundong; Wu, Yongfeng; Yu, Changqiu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Tuo; Yuan, Ping

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the series-coupled double micro-ring resonator as tunable optical delay line. Tunable optical delay line can be achieved by tunable self-coupling coefficient and attenuation factor of micro-ring waveguide. Through choosing suitable parameters of structure, the series-coupled double micro-ring resonator can obtain flat delay line that mitigates the deleterious effects of group delay dispersion.

  15. Analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of microstrip antennas covered by a dielectric substrate is formulated in terms of coupled integro-differential equations with the current distribution on the conducting patch as an unknown quantity. The Galerkin method is used to solve for the unknown patch current. Using the present formulation, the radiation pattern, the resonant frequency, and the bandwidth of a rectangular microstrip antenna are computed. Design data for a rectangular microstrip antenna are also presented.

  16. 225-255-GHz InP DHBT Frequency Tripler MMIC Using Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yong; Li, Oupeng; Sun, Yan; Lu, Haiyan; Cheng, Wei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a novel design of frequency tripler monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) using complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) is proposed based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT process. The CSRR-loaded microstrip structure is integrated in the tripler as a part of impedance matching network to suppress the fundamental harmonic, and another frequency tripler based on conventional band-pass filter is presented for comparison. The frequency tripler based on CSRR-loaded microstrip generates an output power between -8 and -4 dBm from 228 to 255 GHz when the input power is 6 dBm. The suppression of fundamental harmonic is better than 20 dBc at 77-82 GHz input frequency within only 0.15 × 0.15 mm2 chip area of the CSRR structure on the ground layer. Compared with the frequency tripler based on band-pass filter, the tripler using CSRR-loaded microstrip obtains a similar suppression level of unwanted harmonics and higher conversion gain within a much smaller chip area. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that CSRR is used for harmonic suppression of frequency multiplier at such high frequency band.

  17. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 μm. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  18. Optical three-port circulators made with ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Eich, Manfred

    2014-03-15

    We propose a circulator consisting of a ring resonator coupled to three waveguides with Bragg reflectors at one end of each waveguide. A magneto-optically active material placed inside the ring resonator causes the two counter-propagating modes to split in resonance frequency, which can be exploited for perfect circulation by properly adjusting the coupling between the three waveguides and the ring. Such a device features a transmission spectrum that is similar to three-port photonic crystal circulators but is much simpler to build as it only contains elements that have already been experimentally realized. PMID:24690804

  19. Ring resonator based narrow-linewidth semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for using ring resonators to produce narrow linewidth hybrid semiconductor lasers. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the narrow linewidths are produced by combining the semiconductor gain chip with a narrow pass band external feedback element. The semi conductor laser is produced using a ring resonator which, combined with a Bragg grating, acts as the external feedback element. According to another embodiment of the present invention, the proposed integrated optics ring resonator is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO.sub.2 /SiON/SiO.sub.2 waveguide technology.

  20. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chenguang; Fan, Jiahua; Zhu, Lin

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple "shark fins" and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  1. Ultraviolet single-frequency coupled optofluidic ring resonator dye laser.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xin; Wu, Xiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

    2012-08-27

    Ultraviolet single-frequency lasing is realized in a coupled optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR) dye laser that consists of a thin-walled capillary microfluidic ring resonator and a cylindrical resonator. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in each resonator couple to each other and generate single-frequency laser emission. Single-frequency lasing occurs at 386.75 nm with a pump threshold of 5.9 μJ/mm. The side-mode-suppression ratio (SMSR) is about 20 dB. Moreover, the laser emits mainly in two directions, and each of them has a divergence of only 10.5°.

  2. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  3. MEMS tunable optical filter based on multi-ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dessalegn, Hailu E-mail: tsrinu@ece.iisc.ernet.in; Srinivas, T. E-mail: tsrinu@ece.iisc.ernet.in

    2014-10-15

    We propose a novel MEMS tunable optical filter with a flat-top pass band based on multi-ring resonator in an electrostatically actuated microcantilever for communication application. The filter is basically structured on a microcantilever beam and built in optical integrated ring resonator which is placed in one end of the beam to gain maximum stress on the resonator. Thus, when a DC voltage is applied, the beam will bend, that induces a stress and strain in the ring, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift, providing the tenability as high as 0.68nm/μN and it is capable of tuning up to 1.7nm.

  4. Rings of Uranus as resonances with unseen satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Gorkavyi, N.N.; Fridman, A.M.

    1985-10-01

    The pattern of rings in the Uranus system is described, and previous hypothesis seeking to explain that pattern are reviewed. It is proposed that the ring pattern is produced by resonances from five undiscovered satellites located beyond the outer boundary of the rings. The satellite orbit radii would be 66,450, 62,470, 58,600, 55,380, and 51,580 km. This hypothesis is supported by the clearly nonrandom placement of the rings, enabling an accurate determination of the presumed satellite orbits. 12 references.

  5. Differential Si ring resonators for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomoya; Yokoyama, Shuhei; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio; Yokoyama, Shin

    2016-04-01

    Differential Si ring optical resonator sensors have been fabricated. Their detection sensitivity was 10-3-10-2% for sucrose solution, which corresponds to a sensitivity of ˜1.0 ng/ml for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is satisfactory for practical use. In the differential sensing the input light is incident to two rings, and one of the outputs is connected to a π phase shifter then the two outputs are merged again. For the differential detection, not only is the common-mode noise canceled, resulting in high sensitivity, but also the temperature stability is much improved. A fluid channel is fabricated so that the detecting liquid flows to the detection ring and the reference liquid flows to the reference ring. We have proposed a method of obtaining a constant sensitivity for the integrated sensors even though the resonance wavelengths of the two rings of the differential sensor are slightly different. It was found that a region exists with a linear relationship between the differential output and the difference in the resonance wavelengths of the two rings. By intentionally differentiating the resonance wavelengths in this linear region, the sensors have a constant sensitivity. Many differential sensors with different ring spaces have been fabricated and the output scattering characteristics were statistically evaluated. As a result, a standard deviation of resonance wavelength σ = 8 × 10-3 nm was obtained for a ring space of 31 µm. From the width of the linear region and the standard deviation, it was estimated from the Gaussian distribution of the resonance wavelength that 93.8% of the devices have the same sensitivity.

  6. Investigation of refractive index sensing based on Fano resonance in fiber Bragg grating ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Mastronardi, Lorenzo; Malara, Pietro; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate a ring resonant cavity obtained by closing on itself a π-shifted fiber Bragg grating, to be used for refractive index sensing applications. Differently from a conventional π-shifted fiber Bragg grating, the spectral structure of this cavity is characterized by an asymmetric splitting doublet composed by a right side resonance having an asymmetric Fano profile and a left side resonance having a symmetric Lorentzian profile. The right side resonance shows a narrower and sharper peak than all the other kinds of resonance achievable with both conventional ring resonators and π-shifted fiber Bragg gratings. A reduction of the resonant linewidth with respect to a conventional π-shifted Fiber Bragg grating and a fiber ring resonator, having the same physical parameters, is theoretically proved, achieving up to five orders of magnitude improvement with respect to the usual ring resonator. Due to these resonance features, the π-shifted Bragg grating ring resonator results suitable for RI sensing applications requiring extremely narrow resonances for high resolution measurements. In particular, by assuming a refractive index sensing to detect the presence of sugar in water, the sensor can show a theoretical resolution better than 10-9 RIU. PMID:26072795

  7. High performance patch antenna using circular split ring resonators and thin wires employing electromagnetic coupling improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrehim, Adel A. A.; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, three dimensional periodic structure composed of circular split ring resonators and thin wires is used to improve the performance of a microstrip patch antenna. The three dimensional periodic structure is placed at the top of the patch within a specific separation distance to construct the proposed antenna. The radiated electromagnetic waves intensity of the proposed antenna is improved compared with the conventional patch antenna due to the electric and magnetic coupling enhancements. These enhancements occur between the patch and the periodic structure resonators and between the different resonator pairs of the periodic structure. As a result, the electric and the magnetic fields at the top of the patch are improved, the radiated electromagnetic beam size reduces which results in a highly focused beam and hence the antenna directivity and gain are improved, while the beam are is reduced. The proposed antenna has been designed and simulated using CST microwave studio at 10 GHz. An infinite two dimensional periodicity unit cell of circular split ring resonator and thin wire is designed to resonate at a 10 GHz and simulated in CST software, the scattering parameters are extracted, the results showed that the infinite periodicity two dimensional structure has a pass band frequency response of good transmission and reflection characteristics around 10 GHz. The infinite periodicity of the two dimensional periodic structure is then truncated and multi layers of such truncated structure is used to construct a three dimensional periodic structure. A parametric analysis has been performed on the proposed antenna incorporated with the three dimensional periodic structure. The impacts of the separation distance between the patch and three dimensional periodic structures and the size of the three dimensional periodic structure on the radiation and impedance matching parameters of the proposed antenna are studied. For experimental verification, the proposed

  8. Nonlinear ring resonator: spatial pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir Y.; Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Irochnikov, Nikita G.

    2000-03-01

    We consider theoretically spatial pattern formation processes in a unidirectional ring cavity with thin layer of Kerr-type nonlinear medium. Our method is based on studying of two coupled equations. The first is a partial differential equation for temporal dynamics of phase modulation of light wave in the medium. It describes nonlinear interaction in the Kerr-type lice. The second is a free propagation equation for the intracavity field complex amplitude. It involves diffraction effects of light wave in the cavity.

  9. 50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takeshi; Akiyama, Suguru; Imai, Masahiko; Hirayama, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Yoshiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Usuki, Tatsuya

    2013-05-20

    We achieved 50-Gb/s operation of a ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for the first time. The pin-diode phase shifter, which consists of a side-wall-grating waveguide, was loaded into the ring resonator. The forward-biased operation mode was applied, which exhibited a V(π)L as small as 0.28 V · cm at 25 GHz. The driving voltage and optical insertion loss at 50-Gb/s were 1.96 V(pp) and 5.2 dB, respectively. PMID:23736409

  10. Analysis of the optical force in the Micro Ring Resonator.

    PubMed

    Einat, Avigdor; Levy, Uriel

    2011-10-10

    We study the optical force in a micro ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide, using the coupled mode theory and a numerical Finite Element Method. We show that the resonance enhancement of the force is diminished by the opposing contributions of the attractive and the repulsive forces related to the symmetric and the anti symmetric modes in the coupling region. We show that this limiting factor can be removed by adding asymmetry to the system, e.g. by modifying one of the waveguides. Furthermore, we study for the first time a combined system in which the micro ring resonator is coupled to a one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. This modified geometry allows further enhancement of the optical force via the combination of optical resonances and slow light effect.

  11. Analysis of the optical force in the Micro Ring Resonator.

    PubMed

    Einat, Avigdor; Levy, Uriel

    2011-10-10

    We study the optical force in a micro ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide, using the coupled mode theory and a numerical Finite Element Method. We show that the resonance enhancement of the force is diminished by the opposing contributions of the attractive and the repulsive forces related to the symmetric and the anti symmetric modes in the coupling region. We show that this limiting factor can be removed by adding asymmetry to the system, e.g. by modifying one of the waveguides. Furthermore, we study for the first time a combined system in which the micro ring resonator is coupled to a one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. This modified geometry allows further enhancement of the optical force via the combination of optical resonances and slow light effect. PMID:21997050

  12. Antiferromagnetic resonance excitation by terahertz magnetic field resonantly enhanced with split ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Y.; Hirori, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kageyama, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-07-14

    Excitation of antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) in a HoFeO{sub 3} crystal combined with a split ring resonator (SRR) is studied using terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulses. The magnetic field in the vicinity of the SRR is induced by the incident THz electric field component and excites spin oscillations that correspond to the AFMR, which are directly probed by the Faraday rotation of the polarization of a near-infrared probe pulse. The good agreement of the temperature-dependent magnetization dynamics with the calculation using the two-lattice Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation confirms that the AFMR is excited by the THz magnetic field, which is enhanced at the SRR resonance frequency by a factor of 20 compared to the incident magnetic field.

  13. Fano resonances in a multimode waveguide coupled to a high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dapeng; de Dood, Michiel J A; Bauters, Jared F; Heck, Martijn J R; Bowers, John E; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2014-03-24

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) optical ring resonators provide exceptional opportunities for low-loss integrated optics. Here we study the transmission through a multimode waveguide coupled to a Si3N4 ring resonator. By coupling single-mode fibers to both input and output ports of the waveguide we selectively excite and probe combinations of modes in the waveguide. Strong asymmetric Fano resonances are observed and the degree of asymmetry can be tuned through the positions of the input and output fibers. The Fano resonance results from the interference between modes of the waveguide and light that couples resonantly to the ring resonator. We develop a theoretical model based on the coupled mode theory to describe the experimental results. The large extension of the optical modes out of the Si3N4 core makes this system promising for sensing applications.

  14. Label-Free Optical Ring Resonator Bio/Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    Optical micro-ring resonator sensors are an emerging category of label-free optical sensors for bio/chemical sensing that have recently been under intensive investigation. Researchers of this technology have been motivated by a tremendous breadth of different applications, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, homeland security, and food quality control, which require sensitive analytical tools. Ring resonator sensors use total internal reflection to support circulating optical resonances called whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGMs have an evanescent field of several hundred nanometers into the surrounding medium, and can therefore detect the refractive index change induced when the analyte binds to the resonator surface. Despite the small physical size of a resonator, the circulating nature of the WGM creates extremely long effective lengths, greatly increasing light-matter interaction and improving its sensing performance. Moreover, only small sample volume is needed for detection because the sensors can be fabricated in sizes well below 100 μm. The small footprint allows integration of those ring resonator sensors onto lab-on-a-chip types of devices for multiplexed detection.

  15. High spectral purity silicon ring resonator photon-pair source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Fanto, Michael L.; Tison, Christopher C.; Wang, Zihao; Preble, Stefan F.; Alsing, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Here we present the experimental demonstration of a Silicon ring resonator photon-pair source. The crystalline Silicon ring resonator (radius of 18.5μm) was designed to realize low dispersion across multiple resonances, which allows for operation with a high quality factor of Q~50k. In turn, the source exhibits very high brightness of >3x105 photons/s/mW2/GHz since the produced photon pairs have a very narrow bandwidth. Furthermore, the waveguidefiber coupling loss was minimized to <1.5dB using an inverse tapered waveguide (tip width of ~150nm over a 300μm length) that is butt-coupled to a high-NA fiber (Nufern UHNA-7). This ensured minimal loss of photon pairs to the detectors, which enabled very high purity photon pairs with minimal noise, as exhibited by a very high Coincidental-Accidental Ratio of >1900. The low coupling loss (3dB fiber-fiber) also allowed for operation with very low off-chip pump power of <200μW. In addition, the zero dispersion of the ring resonator resulted in the production of a photon-pair comb across multiple resonances symmetric about the pump resonance (every ~5nm spanning >20nm), which could be used in future wavelength division multiplexed quantum networks.

  16. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rings for Flywheel Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The system employs a swept frequency approach and performs a fast Fourier transform on the frequency spectrum of the response signal. In addition. the system allows for equalization of the frequency spectrum, providing all frequencies with equal amounts of energy to excite higher order resonant harmonics. Interpretation of the second fast Fourier transform, along with equalization of the frequency spectrum, offers greater assurance in acquiring and analyzing the fundamental frequency, or spectrum resonance spacing. The range of frequencies swept in a pitch-catch mode was varied up to 8 MHz, depending on the material and geometry of the component. Single and multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were evaluated to determine how the constituents of a composite material system affect the resonant frequency. Amplitude and frequency changes in the spectrum and spectrum resonance spacing domains were examined from ultrasonic responses of a flat composite coupon, thin composite rings, and thick composite rings. Also, the ultrasonic spectroscopy responses from areas with an intentional delamination and a foreign material insert, similar to defects that may occur during manufacturing malfunctions, were compared with those from defect-free areas in thin composite rings. A thick composite ring with varying thickness was tested to investigate the full-thickness resonant frequency and any possible bulk interfacial bond issues. Finally, the effect on the frequency response of naturally occurring single and clustered voids in a composite ring was established.

  17. Detection of Surface and Subsurface Cracks in Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials Using a Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Albishi, Ali; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs). A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented. PMID:25325340

  18. Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleeva, N.; Fistul, M. V.; Karpov, A.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Averkin, A.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f1:f2:f3:f4… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.

  19. Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Maleeva, N.; Karpov, A.; Averkin, A.; Fistul, M. V.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-02-14

    We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f{sub 1}:f{sub 2}:f{sub 3}:f{sub 4}… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.

  20. Thomson’s ring experiment with resonant LC circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidar, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Thomson’s jumping ring experiment is conducted using a low voltage (24 V) electronic circuit. A coil (L) is connected with a capacitor (C) in parallel and is driven at its resonant frequency to obtain a high current in the coil. A circuit sends current pulses to the LC tank circuit at around its resonant frequency. The oscillating current in the coil induces a voltage in a copper-loop on top of it. The induced current interacts with the radial part of the coil-magnetic field; the resulting force levitates the loop. In a separate coil, a ferrite core and a copper ring are used to demonstrate the jumping-ring effect. The levitation and the jumping effect can be controlled by changing the duty cycle and frequency. In this report simple formulae and approximations are used to calculate the levitating force on the loop.

  1. Characterization of transceive surface element designs for 7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate: radiative antenna and microstrip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipek, Ö.; Raaijmakers, A. J. E.; Klomp, D. W. J.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Luijten, P. R.; van den Berg, C. A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance (⩾7 tesla) imaging (MRI) faces challenges with respect to efficient spin excitation and signal reception from deeply situated organs. Traditional radio frequency surface coil designs relying on near-field coupling are suboptimal at high field strengths. Better signal penetration can be obtained by designing a radiative antenna in which the energy flux is directed to the target location. In this paper, two different radiative antenna designs are investigated to be used as transceive elements, which employ different dielectric permittivities for the antenna substrate. Their transmit and receive performances in terms of B+1, local SAR (specific absorption rate) and SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) were compared using extensive electromagnetic simulations and MRI measurements with traditional surface microstrip coils. Both simulations and measurements demonstrated that the radiative element shows twofold gain in B+1 and SNR at 10 cm depth, and additionally a comparable SAR peak value. In terms of transmit performance, the radiative antenna with a dielectric permittivity of 37 showed a 24% more favorable local SAR10g avg/(B+1)2 ratio than the radiative antenna with a dielectric permittivity of 90. In receive, the radiative element with a dielectric permittivity of 90 resulted in a 20% higher SNR for shallow depths, but for larger depths this difference diminished compared to the radiative element with a dielectric permittivity of 37. Therefore, to image deep anatomical regions effectively, the radiative antenna with a dielectric permittivity of 37 is favorable.

  2. Characterization of transceive surface element designs for 7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate: radiative antenna and microstrip.

    PubMed

    Ipek, O; Raaijmakers, A J E; Klomp, D W J; Lagendijk, J J W; Luijten, P R; van den Berg, C A T

    2012-01-21

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance (≥7 tesla) imaging (MRI) faces challenges with respect to efficient spin excitation and signal reception from deeply situated organs. Traditional radio frequency surface coil designs relying on near-field coupling are suboptimal at high field strengths. Better signal penetration can be obtained by designing a radiative antenna in which the energy flux is directed to the target location. In this paper, two different radiative antenna designs are investigated to be used as transceive elements, which employ different dielectric permittivities for the antenna substrate. Their transmit and receive performances in terms of B(+)(1), local SAR (specific absorption rate) and SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) were compared using extensive electromagnetic simulations and MRI measurements with traditional surface microstrip coils. Both simulations and measurements demonstrated that the radiative element shows twofold gain in B(+)(1) and SNR at 10 cm depth, and additionally a comparable SAR peak value. In terms of transmit performance, the radiative antenna with a dielectric permittivity of 37 showed a 24% more favorable local SAR(10g avg)/(B(+)(1))(2) ratio than the radiative antenna with a dielectric permittivity of 90. In receive, the radiative element with a dielectric permittivity of 90 resulted in a 20% higher SNR for shallow depths, but for larger depths this difference diminished compared to the radiative element with a dielectric permittivity of 37. Therefore, to image deep anatomical regions effectively, the radiative antenna with a dielectric permittivity of 37 is favorable. PMID:22170777

  3. Time delay in double micro-ring resonator with grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiliang; Chen, Xin; Song, Junfeng; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Miao; Li, Shuqin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, using the transfer matrix which is obtained by coupled mode theory, we have studied the transmission and time delay characteristics of the micro-ring resonator with the grating. We find that fast- and slow-light can occur in double ring resonator which contains the grating. We also study the effect of coupling coefficient on transmission characteristics. The results reveal that the increase of the coupling coefficient can lead to the change of the time delay at various ports at the resonant point. Thus by adjusting the frequency of the incident light and selecting the device with different coupling coefficient, we can realize the output of the fast and slow light.

  4. A scheme to alter the resonant frequency of the microstrip patch antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.; Jin, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Simple schemes are presented for altering the resonant frequency of a rectangular patch antenna without the need to change its size. In particular, by placing a perturbance below the patch it is shown that as much as 20 percent increase and 30 percent decrease from the resonant frequency of the unperturbed patch can be achieved. The specific configurations considered in this letter include a cavity-backed, aperture-backed, and protrusion-backed patch, and for each case design curves are presented.

  5. Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    We address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings.Already by Goldreich and Tremaine (1978) it has been argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring's viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper (Schmidt et al. 2016) we have pointed out that when - within a fluid description of the ring dynamics - the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping.We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model.This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts linear instability of density waves in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. In this case, sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. In general the model wave damping lengths depend on a set of input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability and the ground state surface mass density.Our new model compares reasonably well with the streamline model for nonlinear density waves of Borderies et al. 1986.Deviations become substantial in the highly nonlinear regime, corresponding to strong satellite forcing.Nevertheless, we generally observe good or at least qualitative agreement between the wave amplitude profiles of both models. The streamline approach is superior at matching the total wave profile of waves observed in Saturn's rings, while our new damping relation is a comparably handy tool to gain insight in the evolution of the wave amplitude with distance from resonance, and the different regimes of

  6. Influence of the Biasing Scheme on the Performance of Au/SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Thin Film Conductor/Ferroelectric Tunable Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanKeuls, F. W.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Bohman, D. Y.; Miranda, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of gold/SrTio3 /LaAlO3 conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric side-coupled, tunable ring resonators at K-band frequencies is presented. The tunability of these rings arises from the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant (Er) of SrTiO 3 to changes in temperature and dc electric fields (E). We observed that the change in F-, which takes place by biasing the ring up to 450 V alters the effective dielectric constant (e-eff) of the circuit resulting in a 3k resonant frequency shift of nearly 12 % at 77 K. By applying a separate dc bias between the microstrip line and the ring, one can optimize their coupling to obtain bandstop resonators with unloaded quality factors (Q(sub o)) as high as 12,000. The 31 resonance was tuned from 15.75 to 17.41 GHz while keeping Q. above 768 over this range. The relevance of these results for practical microwave components will be discussed.

  7. An antenna-coupled split-ring resonator for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, H.; Cagri Top, F.; Dundar, G.; Yalcinkaya, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    An antenna-coupled split-ring resonator-based microwave sensor is introduced for biosensing applications. The sensor comprises a metallic ring with a slit and integrated monopole antennas on top of a dielectric substrate. The backside of the substrate is attached to a metallic plate. Integrated antennas are used to excite the device and measure its electromagnetic characteristics. The resonant frequency of the device is measured as 2.12 GHz. The characteristics of the device with dielectric loading at different locations across its surface are obtained experimentally. The results indicate that dielectric loading reduces the resonant frequency of the device, which is in good agreement with simulations. The shift in resonant frequency is employed as the sensor output for biomolecular experiments. The device is demonstrated as a resonant biomolecular sensor where the interactions between heparin and fibroblast growth factor 2 are probed. The sensitivity of the device is obtained as 3.7 MHz/(μg/ml) with respect to changes in concentration of heparin.

  8. High-quality-factor photonic crystal ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Cheng; Li, Danping; Gao, Ge; Huang, Zengzhi; Yu, Jinzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2014-03-01

    A design for enhancing the quality (Q) factor of a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) is introduced. The highest Q factor based on simulations is 121,000. The analysis of momentum space distributions of the electric field profile for PCRR resonance shows that a high Q factor of a PCRR is attributed to the reduction of tangential k-vector component inside the leaky region. A high Q factor of 75,200 is experimentally demonstrated for a modified PCRR on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The high-Q-factor PCRR demonstrated here will be beneficial for channel drop filters, lasers, sensors, and other applications. PMID:24690727

  9. High-Power Ka-Band Window and Resonant Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2006-11-29

    A stand-alone 200 MW rf test station is needed for carrying out development of accelerator structures and components for a future high-gradient multi-TeV collider, such as CLIC. A high-power rf window is needed to isolate the test station from a structure element under test. This project aimed to develop such a window for use at a frequency in the range 30-35 GHz, and to also develop a high-power resonant ring for testing the window. During Phase I, successful conceptual designs were completed for the window and the resonant ring, and cold tests of each were carried out that confirmed the designs.

  10. Potential applications of ring resonators for astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Crouzier, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Lawrence, J. S.; Kepple, J.

    2012-09-01

    Ring resonators are a looped waveguide coupled to an input and an output waveguide. They can be used to filter, and drop, a series of wavelengths at the resonant frequencies of the ring. Both these properties are useful for astronomical applications. The dropped signal provides a frequency comb that can be used to provide accurate wavelength calibration. The free spectral range of such a device is larger than that from a laser comb, removing the requirement to perform subsequent filtering. The filtered signal could be used to suppress specific wavelengths, e.g. corresponding to atmospheric emission lines. We present the expected performance of devices designed for both applications and discuss their advantages and limitations.

  11. Efficiently heralded silicon ring resonator photon-pair source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, Jeffrey A.; Fanto, Michael L.; Tison, Christopher C.; Wang, Zihao; Alsing, Paul M.; Preble, Stefan F.

    2016-05-01

    Presented here are results on a silicon ring resonator photon pair source with a high heralding efficiency. Previous ring resonator sources suffered from an effective 50% loss because, in order to generate the photons, the pump must be able to couple into the resonator which is an effective loss channel. However, in practice the optical loss of the pump can be traded off for a dramatic increase in heralding efficiency. This research found theoretically that the heralding efficiency should increase by a factor of ~ 3:75 with a factor of 10 increase in the required pump power. This was demonstrated experimentally by varying the separation (gap) between the input waveguide and the ring while maintaining a constant drop port gap. The ring (R = 18:5μm, W = 500nm, and H = 220nm) was pumped by a tunable laser (λ ≍ 1550nm). The non-degenerate photons, produced via spontaneous four wave mixing, exited the ring and were coupled to fiber upon which they were filtered symmetrically about the pump. Coincidence counts were collected for all possible photon path combinations (through and drop port) and the ratio of the drop port coincidences to the sum of the drop port and cross term coincidences (one photon from the drop port and one from the through port) was calculated. With a 350nm pump waveguide gap (2:33 times larger than the drop port gap) we confirmed our theoretical predictions, with an observed improvement in heralding efficiency by a factor of ~ 2:61 (96:7% of correlated photons coupled out of the drop port). These results will enable increased photon flux integrated photon sources which can be utilized for high performance quantum computing and communication systems.

  12. Stripline split-ring resonator with integrated optogalvanic sample cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Anders; Berglund, Martin; Thornell, Greger; Possnert, Göran; Salehpour, Mehran

    2014-04-01

    Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS) has been proposed as a method for unambiguous detection of rare isotopes. Of particular interest is 14C, where detection of extremely low concentrations in the 1:1015 range (14C: 12C), is of interest in, e.g., radiocarbon dating and pharmaceutical sciences. However, recent reports show that ICOGS suffers from substantial problems with reproducibility. To qualify ICOGS as an analytical method, more stable and reliable plasma generation and signal detection are needed. In our proposed setup, critical parameters have been improved. We have utilized a stripline split-ring resonator microwave-induced microplasma source to excite and sustain the plasma. Such a microplasma source offers several advantages over conventional ICOGS plasma sources. For example, the stripline split-ring resonator concept employs separated plasma generation and signal detection, which enables sensitive detection at stable plasma conditions. The concept also permits in situ observation of the discharge conditions, which was found to improve reproducibility. Unique to the stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source in this study, is that the optogalvanic sample cell has been embedded in the device itself. This integration enables improved temperature control and more stable and accurate signal detection. Significant improvements are demonstrated, including reproducibility, signal-to-noise ratio, and precision.

  13. F Ring Core Stability: Corotation Resonance Plus Antiresonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Marouf, Essam; French, Richard; Jacobson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The decades-or-longer stability of the narrow F Ring core in a sea of orbital chaos appears to be due to an unusual combination of traditional corotation resonance and a novel kind of "antiresonance". At a series of specific locations in the F Ring region, apse precession between synodic encounters with Prometheus allows semimajor axis perturbations to promptly cancel before significant orbital period changes can occur. This cancellation fails for particles that encounter Prometheus when it is near its apoapse, especially during periods of antialignment of its apse with that of the F Ring. At these times, the strength of the semimajor axis perturbation is large (tens of km) and highly nonsinusoidal in encounter longitude, making it impossible to cancel promptly on a subsequent encounter and leading to chaotic orbital diffusion. Only particles that consistently encounter Prometheus away from its apoapse can use antiresonance to maintain stable orbits, implying that the true mean motion nF of the stable core must be defined by a corotational resonance of the form nF = nP(-kappa)P/m, where (nP, kappaP) are Prometheus' mean motion and epicycle frequency. To test this hypothesis we used the fact that Cassini RSS occultations only sporadically detect a "massive" F Ring core, composed of several-cm-and-larger particles. We regressed the inertial longitudes of 24 Cassini RSS (and VGR) detections and 43 nondetections to a common epoch, using a comb of candidate nP, and then folded them modulo the anticipated m-number of the corotational resonance (Prometheus m = 110 outer CER), to see if clustering appears. We find the "true F Ring core" is actually arranged in a series of short longitudinal arcs separated by nearly empty longitudes, orbiting at a well determined semimajor axis of 140222.4 km (from 2005-2012 at least). Small particles seen by imaging and stellar occultations spread quickly in azimuth and obscure this clumpy structure. Small chaotic variations in the mean

  14. F Ring Core Stability: Corotation Resonance Plus Antiresonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Marouf, Essam; French, Richard; Jacobson, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The decades-or-longer stability of the narrow F Ring core in a sea of orbital chaos appears to be due to an unusual combination of traditional corotation resonance and a novel kind of “antiresonance”. At a series of specific locations in the F Ring region, apse precession between synodic encounters with Prometheus allows semimajor axis perturbations to promptly cancel before significant orbital period changes can occur (Cuzzi et al. 2014, Icarus 232, 157-175). This cancellation fails for particles that encounter Prometheus when it is near its apoapse, especially during periods of antialignment of its apse with that of the F Ring. At these times, the strength of the semimajor axis perturbation is large (tens of km) and highly nonsinusoidal in encounter longitude, making it impossible to cancel promptly on a subsequent encounter and leading to chaotic orbital diffusion. Only particles that consistently encounter Prometheus away from its apoapse can use antiresonance to maintain stable orbits, implying that the true mean motion nF of the stable core must be defined by a corotational resonance of the form nF = nP-κP/m, where (nP, κP) are Prometheus’ mean motion and epicycle frequency. To test this hypothesis we used the fact that Cassini RSS occultations only sporadically detect a “massive” F Ring core, composed of several-cm-and-larger particles. We regressed the inertial longitudes of 24 Cassini RSS (and VGR) detections and 43 nondetections to a common epoch, using a comb of candidate nP, and then folded them modulo the anticipated m-number of the corotational resonance (Prometheus m=110 outer CER), to see if clustering appears. We find the “true F Ring core” is actually arranged in a series of short longitudinal arcs separated by nearly empty longitudes, orbiting at a well determined semimajor axis of 140222.4km (from 2005-2012 at least). Small particles seen by imaging and stellar occultations spread quickly in azimuth and obscure this clumpy

  15. Ultra-compact terahertz switch with graphene ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Le; Gao, Fei

    2016-10-01

    We propose and numerically demonstrate a compact terahertz wave switch which is composed of two graphene waveguides and three graphene ring resonators. Changing the bias voltage of the Fermi level in the center graphene ring, the resonant mode can be tuned when the plasmon waves in the waveguides and rings are coupled. We theoretically explain their mechanisms as being due to bias voltage change induced carrier density of graphene modification and the coupling coefficients of graphene plasmon effect after carrier density change, respectively. The mechanism of such a terahertz wave switch is further theoretically analyzed and numerically investigated with the aid of the finite element method. With an appropriate design, the proposed device offers the opportunity to ‘tune’ the terahertz wave ON-OFF with an ultra-fast, high extinction ratio and compact size. This structure has the potential applications in terahertz wave integrated circuits. Project supported by the Public Technology Research Project of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2015C31116).

  16. In-situ permittivity measurements using ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.

    2012-06-01

    Proper development of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology requires a unique understanding of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of targets and background media. Thus, electromagnetic characterization of targets and backgrounds is fundamental to the success or failure of UWB GPR as a threat detection technique. In many cases, threats are buried in soil. Soil properties directly affect the radar signature of targets and determine the depth at which they can be detected by radar. One such property is permittivity. A portable system recently developed at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory measures permittivity in-situ with minimal disturbance of the dielectric sample. The measurement technique uses ring resonators. Design equations and physical dimensions are presented for fabricating resonators at frequencies between 600 MHz and 2 GHz. Only a handheld vector network analyzer, coaxial cabling, and the ring resonators are necessary for each measurement. Lookup curves generated in simulation are referenced to calculate the complex permittivity of the sample. The permittivity measurement is explained step-by-step, and data is presented for samples of soils from Ft. Irwin, California and Yuma, Arizona.

  17. Tunable split-ring resonators using germanium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, C. H.; Coutu, R. A.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate terahertz (THz) split-ring resonator (SRR) designs with incorporated germanium telluride (GeTe) thin films. GeTe is a chalcogenide that undergoes a nonvolatile phase change from the amorphous to crystalline state at approximately 200 °C, depending on the film thickness and stoichiometry. The phase change also causes a drop in the material's resistivity by six orders of magnitude. In this study, two GeTe-incorporated SRR designs were investigated. The first was an SRR made entirely out of GeTe and the second was a gold SRR structure with a GeTe film incorporated into the gap region of the split ring. These devices were characterized using THz time-domain spectroscopy and were heated in-situ to determine the change in the design operation with varying temperatures.

  18. Chariklo's ring system 3. Exploration of possible Chariklo spin/ring orbit resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, Bruno; El Moutamid, Maryame; Leiva, Rodrigo; Berard, Diane; Renner, Stéfan

    2016-10-01

    Two dense and narrow rings orbit the Centaur object Chariklo at respective radii of 391±3 and 405±3 km (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 508, 72, 2014).With a rotation period of PC = 7.004 ± 0.036 h (Fornasier et al. A.&A. 568, L11, 2014), Chariklo may adopt either a MacLaurin spheroid or a Jacobi ellipsoid shape, depending on density (and assuming hydrostatic equilibrium). Moreover, being a small icy body, Chariklo is prone to topographic features at several-kilometer scales.Meanwhile, scarce information on Chariklo's size and shape is presently available from occultation works, as only five chords have been obtained during three occultations that have been observed in 2013 and 2014. Those data are consistent with a MacLaurin shape with axes a, b, c ~ 133x133x110 km and mass MC ~ (1-2)x1019 kg, or with a Jacobi shape with a, b, c ~ 167x133x124 km and MC ~ 0.6-0.7x1019 kg, see the companion paper by Leiva et al.Those values imply a corotation radius between 190 and 280 km, depending on the adopted value of MC. This is well inside the ring radii, ruling out the corotation resonance as the main driver for the ring orbital dynamics.The ring orbital period could lie between Pr ~12 and 22 h, depending on MC, thus allowing possible resonances with Chariklo's spin rate ΩC. Two models will be explored. One model assumes a MacLaurin shape with a topographic feature of mass m that acts as perturbing satellites with orbital radius and period a and PC, respectively. This creates 1st order Linblad-type resonances of the kind Pr/PC = m+1/m (m integer) whose possible effects on the ring structure will be evaluated.The other model assumes a Jacobi shape that creates a perturbing potential GMc/r3 [(A+B-2C)2 + (3/2)(A-B).cos(2θ)] with θ= λ-ΩC.t in Chariklo's equatorial plane, where A, B, C are the moments of inertia around a, b, c, respectively, and λ is the mean longitude. This creates qth order Linblad-type resonances of the kind Pr/PC = q+2/q (q integer) that will also be

  19. Super defect inside photonic crystal ring resonator to enhance Q factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasulu, Tupakula; Kolli, Venkateswara Rao; Tarimala, Badrinarayana; Hegde, Gopalkrishna; Sangineni, Mohan; Talabattula, Srinivas

    2016-03-01

    A design is proposed to enhance the quality factor of a photonic crystal ring resonator. A super defect is employed inside the ring resonator, which consists of variation of hole dimensions inside the ring resonator in such a way that the radiation field components of the resonant nanocavity are forced to get cancelled in order to reduce radiation loss. After this forced cancellation, the improved Q factor is calculated as 18,000. This photonic crystal ring resonator can be used for sensing applications like force sensing, pressure sensing, biochemical sensing, and communication applications like demultiplexing.

  20. Gas breakdown and plasma impedance in split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2016-02-01

    The appearance of resonant structures in metamaterials coupled to plasmas motivates the systematic investigation of gas breakdown and plasma impedance in split-ring resonators over a frequency range of 0.5-9 GHz. In co-planar electrode gaps of 100 μm, the breakdown voltage amplitude decreases from 280 V to 225 V over this frequency range in atmospheric argon. At the highest frequency, a microplasma can be sustained using only 2 mW of power. At 20 mW, we measure a central electron density of 2 × 1020 m-3. The plasma-electrode overlap plays a key role in the microplasma impedance and causes the sheath impedance to dominate the plasma resistance at very low power levels. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  1. Spin Motion and Resonances in Accelerators and Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Courant,E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the basic aspects of the spin dynamics of accelerators and storage rings are reviewed. Since the components of spin parallel and perpendicular to the particle velocity behave differently it is desirable to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a frame of reference that exhibits this difference explicitly. The conventional treatment employs a coordinate system derived from a reference orbit. An alternate coordinate system, based on the actual trajectory of the particle, leads to simplified equations of spin motion but, contrary to a conjecture presented in a previous note, resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical, as pointed out by Kondratenko. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  2. Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity. PMID:26043931

  3. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs.

    PubMed

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Whittaker, John; Schedin, Fredrik; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Jiaguang

    2016-02-01

    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  4. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Whittaker, John; Schedin, Fredrik; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Jiaguang

    2016-02-01

    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  5. Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazbayev, B.; Mohammadi Estakhri, N.; Beruete, M.; Alù, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we present the concept and design of an ultrathin (λ/22) terahertz (THz) unidirectional carpet cloak based on the local phase compensation approach enabled by gradient metasurfaces. A triangular surface bump with center height of 4.1 mm (1.1λ) and tilt angle of 20° is covered with a metasurface composed of an array of suitably designed closed ring resonators with a transverse gradient of surface impedance. The ring resonators provide a wide range of control for the reflection phase with small absorption losses, enabling efficient phase manipulation along the edge of the bump. Our numerical results demonstrate a good performance of the designed cloak in both near field and far field, and the cloaked object mimics a flat ground plane within a broad range of incidence angles, over 35° angular spectrum centered at 45°. The presented cloak design can be applied in radar and antenna systems as a thin, lightweight, and easy to fabricate solution for radio and THz frequencies.

  6. New ring resonator configuration using hybrid photonic crystal and conventional waveguide structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seunghyun; Cai, Jingbo; Jiang, Jianhua; Nordin, Gregory

    2004-05-31

    We propose a new method of realizing ring resonators based on hybrid photonic crystal and conventional waveguide structures. The proposed ring resonator configuration is advantageous compared with general ring resonator structures for its controllability of the quality (Q) factor, free spectral range (FSR), and full width at half maximum (FWHM) over a wide range. We show ring resonator structures based on a single mode waveguide with core and clad refractive indices of 1.5 and 1.465, respectively. A 35mum x 50mum ring resonator has a free spectral range (FSR) of 14.1nm and a quality (Q) factor of 595 with high optical efficiency (92.7%). By decreasing the size of the ring resonator to 35mum x 35mum, the FSR is increased to 19.8nm. Modifying the splitting ratio of the beam splitters permits the Q factor to be increased to 1600. PMID:19475071

  7. Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Smirnova, Evgenya; O'Hara, John F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the experimental characterization of planar terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular electric split-ring resonator designs. Comparisons to square-ring designs reveal that rectangular shapes greatly affect the overall metamaterial response by altering the spectral separation and coupling between multiple ring resonances. A simple model is used to help us understand this coupling behavior and the extent of its effects. Advantages and disadvantages of these unconventional ring designs are discussed in terms of possible applications.

  8. Tunable polarization beam splitter based on optofluidic ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song; Liu, Yang; Shi, Lei; Xu, Xinbiao; Yuan, Shixing; Liu, Ningyu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-07-25

    An efficient polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The PBS relies on the large effective refractive index difference between transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization states, since the silica-microcapillary-based OFRR possesses a slab-like geometry configuration in the cross section through which the circulating light travels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first OFRR-based PBS. In our work, the maximum polarization splitting ratio of up to 30 dB is achieved. Besides, water and ethanol are pumped into the core of the silica microcapillary respectively, and the maximum wavelength tuning range of 7.02 nm is realized when ethanol flows through the core, verifing the tuning principle of the PBS effectively. With such a good performance and simple scheme, this OFRR-based PBS is promising for applications such as tunable optical filters, demultiplexers, and routers. PMID:27464197

  9. COBE-DIRBE observations of the Earth's resonant ring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, S.; Dermott, S. F.

    The marked trailing/leading asymmetry of the zodiacal cloud, first detected in the IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) data by Dermott et al. (1988), has since been confirmed by DIRBE (Reach et al., 1995). The authors' analysis of the DIRBE data shows that the asymmetry exists in a range of wavebands from 4.5 to 60 μm as well as at different solar elongations. The authors proposed (Dermott et al., 1994) that this asymmetry is caused by a trailing cloud of asteroidal dust particles that corotates with the Earth in a circumsolar ring of particles trapped in mean motion resonances. Here, the authors compare predictions derived from this model with the DIRBE observations and discuss the implications of the results for the sizes of the particles near the Earth, and their origin, and for the overall structure of the zodiacal cloud.

  10. Microwave memristive behavior in split-ring resonator metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. Y.; Shi, S. K.; Wang, C. H.; Jiang, X. J.; Yu, G.; Qin, G. Q.; Fu, H.; Zhou, J.

    2016-07-01

    Photonic memristors, which behave as memristors operating with electromagnetic fields, present an effective means to achieve all-optical networking, and can promote the development of optical communications and computer technology. In this paper, we report a microwave memristive phenomenon at room temperature in metamaterials consisting of negative temperature coefficient thermistor ceramic disk and split-ring resonator (SRR). Hysteretic transmission-incident field power loops, the area of which varies with the scan rate of power, (similar to the fingerprint of memristors) were observed in the metamaterials. These effects are attributed to the increasing conductivity of the ceramic disk with increasing temperature generated by the interaction between electromagnetic waves and metamaterials. This work offers new opportunities for the development of photonic memristors.

  11. Experimental demonstration of coupled-resonator-induced-transparency in silicon-on-insulator based ring-bus-ring geometry.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, S; Tobing, L Y M; Zhang, D H

    2011-08-29

    We experimentally demonstrate coupled-resonator-induced-transparency (CRIT) phenomenon in ring-bus-ring (RBR) geometry synergistically integrated with Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The RBR consists of two detuned resonators indirectly coupled through a center bus waveguide. The transparency is obtained by increasing the light intercavity interaction through tailoring the RBR phase response while ensuring balanced MZI operation. In this work, a CRIT resonance with a quality factor of ~18,000 is demonstrated with cavity size detuning of ~0.035% and power coupling of ~60%, which are in good agreement with the theory.

  12. Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.

  13. Multiple magnetic mode-based Fano resonance in split-ring resonator/disk nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Guangyuan; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Jianfang; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-12-23

    Plasmonic Fano resonance, enabled by the weak interaction between a bright super-radiant and a subradiant resonance mode, not only is fundamentally interesting, but also exhibits potential applications ranging from extraordinary optical transmission to biosensing. Here, we demonstrate strong Fano resonances in split-ring resonators/disk (SRR/D) nanocavities. The high-order magnetic modes are observed in SRRs by polarization-resolved transmission spectroscopy. When a disk is centered within the SRRs, multiple high-order magnetic modes are coupled to a broad electric dipole mode of SRR/D, leading to significant Fano resonance spectral features in near-IR regime. The strength and line shape of the Fano resonances are tuned through varying the SRR split-angle and interparticle distance between SRR and disk. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations are conducted to understand the coupling mechanism, and the results show good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the coupled structure gives a sensitivity of ∼282 nm/RIU with a figure of merit ∼4. PMID:24215162

  14. Multiple magnetic mode-based Fano resonance in split-ring resonator/disk nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Guangyuan; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Jianfang; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-12-23

    Plasmonic Fano resonance, enabled by the weak interaction between a bright super-radiant and a subradiant resonance mode, not only is fundamentally interesting, but also exhibits potential applications ranging from extraordinary optical transmission to biosensing. Here, we demonstrate strong Fano resonances in split-ring resonators/disk (SRR/D) nanocavities. The high-order magnetic modes are observed in SRRs by polarization-resolved transmission spectroscopy. When a disk is centered within the SRRs, multiple high-order magnetic modes are coupled to a broad electric dipole mode of SRR/D, leading to significant Fano resonance spectral features in near-IR regime. The strength and line shape of the Fano resonances are tuned through varying the SRR split-angle and interparticle distance between SRR and disk. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations are conducted to understand the coupling mechanism, and the results show good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the coupled structure gives a sensitivity of ∼282 nm/RIU with a figure of merit ∼4.

  15. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin

    2011-09-01

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  16. A dual frequency microstrip antenna for Ka band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Baddour, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    For fixed satellite communication systems at Ka band with downlink at 17.7 to 20.2 GHz and uplink at 27.5 to 30.0 GHz, the focused optics and the unfocused optics configurations with monolithic phased array feeds have often been used to provide multiple fixed and multiple scanning spot beam coverages. It appears that a dual frequency microstrip antenna capable of transmitting and receiving simultaneously is highly desirable as an array feed element. This paper describes some early efforts on the development and experimental testing of a dual frequency annular microstrip antenna. The antenna has potential application for use in conjunction with a monolithic microwave integrated circuit device as an active radiating element in a phased array of phased array feeds. The antenna is designed to resonate at TM sub 12 and TM sub 13 modes and tuned with a circumferential microstrip ring to vary the frequency ratio. Radiation characteristics at both the high and low frequencies are examined. Experimental results including radiating patterns and swept frequency measurements are presented.

  17. Thin film dielectric microstrip kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Sank, Daniel; McHugh, Sean; Lucero, Erik A.; Merrill, Andrew; Gao, Jiansong; Pappas, David; Moore, David; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-03-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors, or MKIDs, are a type of low temperature detector that exhibit intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing at microwave frequencies. We present the first theory and measurements on a MKID based on a microstrip transmission line resonator. A complete characterization of the dielectric loss and noise properties of these resonators is performed, and agrees well with the derived theory. A competitive noise equivalent power of 5×10-17 W Hz-1/2 at 10 Hz has been demonstrated. The resonators exhibit the highest quality factors known in a microstrip resonator with a deposited thin film dielectric.

  18. Terahertz wave spectrum analysis of microstrip structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

    2011-11-01

    Terahertz wave is a kind of electromagnetic wave ranging from 0.1~10THz, between microwave and infrared, which occupies a special place in the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz radiation has a strong penetration for many media materials and nonpolar substance, for example, dielectric material, plastic, paper carton and cloth. In recent years, researchers around the world have paid great attention on terahertz technology, such as safety inspection, chemical biology, medical diagnosis and terahertz wave imaging, etc. Transmission properties of two-dimensional metal microstrip structures in the terahertz regime are presented and tested. Resonant terahertz transmission was demonstrated in four different arrays of subwavelength microstrip structure patterned on semiconductor. The effects of microstrip microstrip structure shape were investigated by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The resonant terahertz transmission has center frequency of 2.05 THz, transmission of 70%.

  19. Terahertz wave spectrum analysis of microstrip structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Terahertz wave is a kind of electromagnetic wave ranging from 0.1~10THz, between microwave and infrared, which occupies a special place in the electromagnetic spectrum. Terahertz radiation has a strong penetration for many media materials and nonpolar substance, for example, dielectric material, plastic, paper carton and cloth. In recent years, researchers around the world have paid great attention on terahertz technology, such as safety inspection, chemical biology, medical diagnosis and terahertz wave imaging, etc. Transmission properties of two-dimensional metal microstrip structures in the terahertz regime are presented and tested. Resonant terahertz transmission was demonstrated in four different arrays of subwavelength microstrip structure patterned on semiconductor. The effects of microstrip microstrip structure shape were investigated by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The resonant terahertz transmission has center frequency of 2.05 THz, transmission of 70%.

  20. Opto-fluidic ring resonator lasers based on highly efficient resonant energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Shopova, Siyka I; Cupps, Jay M; Zhang, Po; Henderson, Edward P; Lacey, Scott; Fan, Xudong

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate an opto-fluidic ring resonator dye laser using highly efficient energy transfer. The active lasing material consists of a donor and acceptor mixture and flows in a fused silica capillary whose circular cross section forms a ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of high Q-factors (>107). The excited states are created in the donor and transferred to the acceptor through the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET), whose emission is coupled into the WGM. Due to the high energy transfer efficiency and high Q-factors, the acceptor exhibits a lasing threshold as low as 0.3 muJ/mm2. We further analyze the energy transfer mechanisms and find that non-radiative Förster transfer is the dominant effect to support the acceptor lasing. FRET lasers using cascade energy transfer and using quantum dots (QDs) as the donor are also presented. Our study will not only lead to development of novel microfluidic lasers with low lasing thresholds and excitation/emission flexibility, but also open an avenue for future laser intra-cavity bio/chemical sensing.

  1. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function. PMID:27420523

  2. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function.

  3. A band-pass plasmonic filter with dual-square ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Gaoyan; Lang, Peilin; Wang, Lulu; Yu, Li; Xiao, Jinghua

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we show the simulation of a plasmonic band-pass filter which consists of two surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) waveguides and a resonator in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure. The resonator is formed by two square rings and a patch between them. The patch is a tiny rectangle cavity in order to transfer the SPPs from one ring to the other. The finite element method (FEM) method is employed in simulation. The results show that the dual-ring resonator performs better than a single ring does. The 3 dB bandwidth near the peak wavelength λ = 1054 nm is merely 31.7 nm. The resonant wavelength can be shifted by changing the side length of the square ring. This narrow band-pass filter is easy to fabricate and has potential applications in future integrated optical circuits.

  4. Multidimensional Purcell effect in an ytterbium-doped ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dapeng; Pereira, Lino M. C.; Bauters, Jared F.; Heck, Martijn J. R.; Welker, Gesa; Vantomme, André; Bowers, John E.; de Dood, Michiel J. A.; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    Rare-earth ions in solids are of particular interest for quantum information storage and processing because of the long coherence times of the 4f states. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made by using ensembles of ions and single ions. However, the weak optical transitions within the 4f manifold pose a great challenge to the optical interaction with a single rare-earth ion on a single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate a ninefold enhanced ion–light interaction (Purcell effect) in an integrated-optics-based, fibre-coupled silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonator with implanted ytterbium ions (Yb3+). We unveil the one-, two- and three-dimensional contributions to the Purcell factor as well as the temperature-dependent decoherence and depolarization of the ions. The results indicate that this cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system has the potential of interfacing single rare-earth ions with single photons on a chip.

  5. Multidimensional Purcell effect in an ytterbium-doped ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dapeng; Pereira, Lino M. C.; Bauters, Jared F.; Heck, Martijn J. R.; Welker, Gesa; Vantomme, André; Bowers, John E.; de Dood, Michiel J. A.; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    Rare-earth ions in solids are of particular interest for quantum information storage and processing because of the long coherence times of the 4f states. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made by using ensembles of ions and single ions. However, the weak optical transitions within the 4f manifold pose a great challenge to the optical interaction with a single rare-earth ion on a single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate a ninefold enhanced ion-light interaction (Purcell effect) in an integrated-optics-based, fibre-coupled silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonator with implanted ytterbium ions (Yb3+). We unveil the one-, two- and three-dimensional contributions to the Purcell factor as well as the temperature-dependent decoherence and depolarization of the ions. The results indicate that this cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system has the potential of interfacing single rare-earth ions with single photons on a chip.

  6. Contactless ultrasound detection using an optical ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu Hyun; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, L. Jay; Fan, Xudong

    2016-03-01

    We develop an air-couple ultrasound detector based on an optical fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) suspended on a Ushaped holder. The OFRR is a glass capillary with an outer diameter of approximately 130 μm and a wall thickness in the order of 1~10 μm. The circular cross section of the OFRR supports the high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) that circulates along the circumference. Incoming ultrasound pressure results in a small refractive index change in the glass wall and geometrical change in the OFRR shape, both of which in turn lead to a spectral shift in the WGM that can be sensitively detected owing to WGM with high optical Q-factors (>107). Due to the suspension nature of the OFRR, the ultrasound detection can be carried out in air, which is advantageous in comparison with other ultrasound detections that require acoustic coupling media such water, gel or solid. The sensitivity can be tuned and optimized by changing the diameter and wall thickness. Besides the optical detection, we also demonstrate optomechanical ultrasound mixing, in which optomechanical vibration is first excited within the OFRR that subsequently modulates the ultrasound wave. Our work will lead to the development of a new type of air-coupled ultrasound detector that can be used for photo-acoustic imaging, non-invasive ultrasound detection of external objects, and ultrasound detection/characterization of internal objects (such as particles and liquids) flowing inside the capillary.

  7. All-Optical NAND Gate Based on Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Ring Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serajmohammadi, Somaye

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we proposed a new design for all-optical NAND gate. By combining nonlinear Kerr effect with photonic crystal ring resonators first we designed a structure, whose optical behavior can be controlled via input power intensity. The switching power threshold obtained for this structure equal to 1 kW/μm2. For designing the proposed optical logic gate we employed two resonant rings with the same structures, both rings at the logic gates were designed such that their resonant wavelength be at λ=1,550 nm. Every proposed logic gate has one bias and two logic input ports.

  8. A photonic crystal ring resonator formed by SOI nano-rods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wei-Yu; Huang, Tai-Wei; Wu, Yen-Hsiang; Chan, Yi-Jen; Hou, Chia-Hunag; Chien, Huang Ta; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2007-11-12

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonator are demonstrated in this study. The structure of the photonic crystal is comprised of silicon nano-rods arranged in a hexagonal lattice on an SOI wafer. The photonic crystal ring resonator allows for the simultaneous separation of light at wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55mum. The device is fabricated by e-beam lithography. The measurement results confirm that a 1.31mum/1.55mum wavelength ring resonator filter with a nano-rod photonic crystal structure can be realized. PMID:19550835

  9. Dual wavelength demultiplexer based on metal-insulator-metal plasmonic circular ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhshani, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigated a plasmonic demultiplexer structure based on Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguides and circular ring resonators. In order to achieve the structure of demultiplexer, two improved ring resonators have been used, which input and outputs MIM waveguides coupled by the ring resonators. To improve the transmission efficiency, a reflector was introduced at the right end of the input and output waveguides. By substituting the ring core with dielectric, the possibility of tuning the resonance wavelength of the proposed structure is illustrated, and the effect of various parameters such as radius and refractive index in transmission efficiency is studied in detail. This is useful for the design of integrated circuits in which it is not possible to extend the dimension of the ring resonator to attain a longer resonance wavelength. Transmission efficiency and quality factor of the single ring are 84% and 110, respectively. The simulation results using finite difference time domain method shows that in the proposed demultiplexer, which is composed of two rings with different core refractive indexes, the average power efficiency, bandwidth for each output channel, and the mean value of crosstalk are estimated 80%, 17 nm, and -26.95 dB, respectively. It is revealed that the significant features of the device are high transmission efficiency, low crosstalk, high-quality factor, and tunability for desired wavelengths. Therefore, the proposed structure has the potential to be applied in plasmonic integrated circuits.

  10. Handbook of microstrip antennas. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Jim R.; Hall, Peter S.

    The design and operation of microstrip antennas (MAs) are discussed in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include the analysis of circular MAs, improving the frequency agility and bandwidth of patch MAs, circular polarization and bandwidth, microstrip dipoles, multilayer and parasitic MAs, wideband flat dipole and short-circuit MA patch elements and arrays, numerical analysis methods for MAs, multiport-network and transmission-line models of MAs, the design of low-cost printed MAs, printed phase-array antennas, and circularly polarized arrays. Consideration is given to MA feeds, substrate technology, measurement techniques for printed antennas, CAD of microstrip and triplate circuits, resonant MA elements and arrays for aerospace applications, MAs for mobile and satellite systems, a conical conformal microstrip tracking antenna, MA field diagnostics, MAs on a cylindrical surface, and extensions and variations of the MA concept.

  11. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    An integrated optics chemical sensor based on a ring resonator with an ethyl cellulose polymer coating has been demonstrated. The measured sensitivity to isopropanol in air is 50 ppm-the level immediately useful for health-related air quality monitoring. The resonator was fabricated using SiO2 and SixNy materials. The signal readout is based on tracking the wavelength of a resonance peak. The resonator layout optimisation for sensing applications is discussed.

  12. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manfreda, A. M.; Homer, M. L.; Ksendzov, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  13. Intregrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; Homer, Margie L.; Manfreda, Allison M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  14. A fast and sensitive resonant Schottky pick-up for heavy ion storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolden, F.; Hülsmann, P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Moritz, P.; Peschke, C.; Petri, P.; Sanjari, M. S.; Steck, M.; Weick, H.; Wu, J. X.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhao, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    A resonant pick-up for the detection of heavy ion Schottky noise was built into the ESR storage ring at GSI. A similar device will be installed at the cooler storage ring CSRe at IMP. Its purpose is a significant enhancement of the signal to noise ratio of Schottky spectra. A particular application of the new system is the measurement of circulating single ions. The resonator is based on a pillbox design. It is operated at air pressure, and is electromagnetically coupled to the vacuum tube of the storage ring via a cylinder-shaped ceramic gap. The resonant frequency can be changed by inserting plunger pistons. The resonator can easily be decoupled from the storage ring, if high beam impedances become a problem. The article describes the construction, electromagnetic properties of the pick-up as well as first experiments with heavy ion beams.

  15. RESONANCE METHOD OF ELECTRIC-DIPOLE-MOMENT MEASUREMENTS IN STORAGE RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    ORLOV, Y.F.; MORSE, W.M.; SEMERTZIDIS, Y.K.

    2006-05-10

    A ''resonance method'' of measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of nuclei in storage rings is described, based on two new ideas: (1) Oscillating particles velocities in resonance with spin precession, and (2) alternately producing two sub-beams with different betatron tunes--one sub-beam to amplify and thus make it easier to correct ring imperfections that produce false signals imitating EDM signals, and the other to make the EDM measurement.

  16. Resonance Method of Electric-Dipole-Moment Measurements in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Yuri F.; Morse, William M.; Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2006-06-02

    A 'resonance method' of measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of nuclei in storage rings is described, based on two new ideas: (1) Oscillating particles' velocities in resonance with spin precession, and (2) alternately producing two sub-beams with different betatron tunes--one sub-beam to amplify and thus make it easier to correct ring imperfections that produce false signals imitating EDM signals, and the other to make the EDM measurement.

  17. Optical diode using nonlinear polystyrene ring resonators in two-dimensional photonic crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pankaj K; Joseph, Joby

    2013-12-01

    An optical diode that uses nonlinear ring resonators in 2D photonic crystal is numerically simulated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Nonlinear polystyrene is used as the Kerr medium forming ring resonators. The operating wavelength of the optical diode is considered to be the coupling wavelength at which light couples efficiently from waveguide to ring resonator, which is also equal to the average of the resonant wavelengths of the two resonators considered in the proposed structure. For both forward and backward propagation, the characteristics of the proposed optical diode are similar to those of an electronic diode. FDTD simulation is done using the MEEP package, which exhibits the desired results. PMID:24513826

  18. Magnetic forces and localized resonances in electron transfer through quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poniedziałek, M. R.; Szafran, B.

    2010-11-01

    We study the current flow through semiconductor quantum rings. In high magnetic fields the current is usually injected into the arm of the ring preferred by classical magnetic forces. However, for narrow magnetic field intervals that appear periodically on the magnetic field scale the current is injected into the other arm of the ring. We indicate that the appearance of the anomalous—non-classical—current circulation results from Fano interference involving localized resonant states. The identification of the Fano interference is based on the comparison of the solution of the scattering problem with the results of the stabilization method. The latter employs the bound-state type calculations and allows us to extract both the energy of metastable states localized within the ring and the width of resonances by analysis of the energy spectrum of a finite size system as a function of its length. The Fano resonances involving states of anomalous current circulation become extremely narrow on both the magnetic field and energy scales. This is consistent with the orientation of the Lorentz force that tends to keep the electron within the ring and thus increases the lifetime of the electron localization within the ring. Absence of periodic Fano resonances in electron transfer probability through a quantum ring containing an elastic scatterer is also explained.

  19. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N. Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C.; Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q.

    2015-05-07

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.

  20. Investigations of high order plasmonic resonance features of the nano hyper ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Li, C. X.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, Z. J.; Han, Q. Y.; Zheng, H. R.; Dong, J.

    2016-09-01

    A novel silver hyper ring and its complex nanostructures are designed and its plasmonic properties are investigated numerically. It is found that these hyper ring structures have relative stable optical features. The absorption cross section of the structure changes slightly when the direction and polarization of incident light is adjusting. For the complex structure, the position of each resonance peak does not present obvious change when the relative position of the inner hyper ring and outside larger ring changes. The result of the investigation has great significance for the production of practical nanostructures and the improvement of possible applications.

  1. Highly dispersive micro-ring resonator based on one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Damian; Levy, Uriel; Mendlovic, David

    2007-03-19

    We propose and analyze a novel design of a hybrid micro-ring resonator and photonic crystal device. The proposed device is based on a micro-ring resonator with the addition of a series of periodic defects that are introduced to the microring. When the wavelength of operation approaches the band-gap of the periodic structure, the modal dispersion is significantly increased. The huge dispersion leads to narrowing of the spectral linewidth of the resonator. We predict an order of magnitude linewidth narrowing for a microring radius of the order of 10mum. The proposed hybrid device is analyzed theoretically and numerically using finite-elements calculations and finite-difference-time-domain calculations. We also present as well as the design and analysis of add-drop and notch filters based on the highly dispersive ring resonator. PMID:19532554

  2. Resonance Raman enhancement of phenyl ring vibrational modes in phenyl iron complex of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Lin, S H; Yu, N T

    1990-04-01

    Resonance Raman spectra are reported for the organometallic phenyl-FeIII complexes of horse heart myoglobin. We observed the resonance enhancement of the ring vibrational modes of the bound phenyl group. They were identified at 642, 996, 1,009, and 1,048 cm-1, which shift to 619, 961, 972, and 1,030 cm-1, respectively, upon phenyl 13C substitution. The lines at 642 and 996 cm-1 are assigned, respectively, as in-plane phenyl ring deformation mode (derived from benzene vibration No. 6a at 606 cm-1) and out-of-plane CH deformation (derived from benzene vibration No. 5 at 995 cm-1). The frequencies of the ring "breathing" modes at 1,009 and 1,048 cm-1 are higher than the corresponding ones in phenylalanine (at 1,004 and 1,033 cm-1) and benzene (at 992 and 1,010 cm-1), indicating that the ring C--C bonds are strengthened (or shortened) when coordinated to the heme iron. The excitation profiles of these phenyl ring modes and a porphyrin ring vibrational mode at 674 cm-1 exhibit peaks near its Soret absorption maximum at 431 nm. This appears to indicate that these phenyl ring modes may be enhanced via resonance with the Soret pi-pi transition. The FeIII--C bond stretching vibration has not been detected with excitation wavelengths in the 406.7-457.9-nm region.

  3. Design and analysis of coupled-resonator reconfigurable antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. I.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.; Ali, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a coupled resonator with the microstrip patch antenna is proposed as a frequency reconfigurable antenna. The ground plane of the proposed microstrip patch antenna is modified with the proposed resonator structure to obtain reconfigurable characteristics. The resonator structure consists of two square split rings. The incorporation of proposed resonator structure with antenna makes it single-band antenna. The characteristics of proposed resonator structure can effectively deactivate by closing the splits of rings using switches, and hence, the dual-band characteristics of the antenna are recovered. The finite integration technique of computer simulation technology microwave studio is used throughout the investigation. The measurement of antenna performances is taken in an anechoic chamber. The measured and simulated performances of proposed reconfigurable antenna show very good agreement.

  4. Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.

  5. Resonant condition for storage ring short wavelength FEL with power exceeding Renieri limit

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.; Wu, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of operating a storage ring FEL with resonant conditions providing for preservation of electron beam structure on an optical wave scale. We suggest tuning the storage ring betatron and synchrotron tunes on one of the high (N-th) order resonances to compensate dynamic diffusion of optical phase. This mode of operation does not require isochronicity of the ring lattice. In these conditions optical phase will be restored after N turns around the ring and stochastic conditions used in the derivation of Renieri limit are no longer applicable. We discuss the influence of high order terms in electron motion, RF frequency stability, and synchrotron radiation effects on preservation of optical phase.

  6. Strong diamagnetic response in split-ring-resonator metamaterials: Numerical study and two-loop model

    SciTech Connect

    Economou, E.; Koschny, T.; Souloulis, C.

    2008-03-03

    We demonstrate that there is a strong diamagnetic response of metamaterials, consisting of open or closed split-ring resonators (SRRs). Detailed numerical work shows that for densely packed SRRs, the magnetic permeability {mu}({omega}) does not approach unity, as expected for frequencies lower and higher than the resonance frequency {omega}{sub 0}. Below {omega}{sub 0}, {mu}({omega}) gives values ranging from 0.9 to 0.6 depending of the width of the metallic ring, while above {omega}{sub 0}, {mu}({omega}) is close to 0.5. Closed rings have {mu} {approx} 0.5 over a wide frequency range independently of the width of the ring. A simple model that uses the inner and outer current loops of the SRRs can easily explain theoretically this strong diamagnetic response, which can be used in magnetic levitation.

  7. Analysis of microstrip lines with alternative implementation of conductors and superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, K.-S.; Lee, H.-Y.; Itoh, T.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of microstrip line structures in which either the strip or the ground plane or both are made of a high Tc superconductor is presented. The effect of implementation of a superconductor to the strip and the ground plane is explained with the calculation of a conductor loss of the structure by the Phenomenological Loss Equivalence Method (PEM). The theoretical values are compared with the experimental results from a ring resonator which is made of a gold ground plane and a high Tc superconductor, YBa2Cu3O(7-x), strip.

  8. Triband phase shifter design using split-ring resonator and complementary split-ring resonator-loaded ground plane for wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulandhaisamy, Indhumathi; Shrivastav, Arun Kumar; Kanagasabai, Malathi; Kizhekke Pakkathillam, Jayaram

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel linear analog planar phase shifter deploying split-ring resonator (SRR) and complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structures. Based on the advantages of these structures, a triband phase shifter is designed for multiple target systems to operate at 0.85, 1.69, and 2.46 GHz bands finding applications for European RFIDs, Satellite Radio Broadcast System, Mobile Services, and ISM Band, respectively. The effect of SRR and CSRR coupling with host transmission line is also analyzed on the basis of Bloch mode theory and the modes are validated through Eigen mode analysis. The proposed phase shifter design shows a good agreement between simulated and measured results. A 90° ± 8° shift in phase is observed at lower and upper bands, and a 135° ± 8° shift is observed in center band with reasonable group delay components.

  9. Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Sher-Yi; Singh, Ranjan; Gu, Jianqiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    2009-02-01

    The resonance of split ring resonators (SRRs) is known to shift upon the addition of a dielectric overlayer, a feature useful for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that the frequency shift is enlarged by increasing the SRR height, thereby potentially enhancing sensitivity and tunability. We fabricated SRRs resonating at terahertz frequencies using a focused proton beam. This resulted in SRRs nearly 10 μm high, with smooth and vertical sidewalls. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy was used for characterization. Upon applying a dielectric overlayer (ɛ =2.7), a resonance located at 640 GHz shifted by nearly 120 GHz. Simulations also indicate a widening frequency shift as SRR height increases.

  10. Design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobowski, J. S.; Nakahara, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    The design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator (SRR) are described in detail. In conventional cylindrical SRRs, there is a large magnetic flux within the bore of the resonator. However, there also exists a non-negligible magnetic flux in the free space surrounding the resonator. The energy losses associated with this radiated power diminish the resonator's quality factor. In the toroidal SRR, on the other hand, the magnetic field lines are strongly confined within the bore of the resonator resulting in high intrinsic quality factors and stable resonance frequencies without requiring additional electromagnetic shielding. This paper describes the design and construction of a toroidal SRR as well as an experimental investigation of its cw response in the frequency-domain and its time-domain response to a rf pulse. Additionally, the dependence of the toroidal SRR's resonant frequency and quality factor on the strength of inductive coupling to external circuits is investigated both theoretically and experimentally.

  11. The design of large separating angle ultracompact wavelength division demultiplexer based on photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Hua, Liao; Hong-Ming, Fan; Shu-Wen, Chen; Tong-Biao, Wang; Tian-Bao, Yu; Yong-Zhen, Huang

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the design and simulation of a new and large separating angle ultracompact wavelength division demultiplexer based on the coupling characteristics between the waveguide and ring resonators in two dimensional photonic crystals. The transmission properties of the wavelength division demultiplexers, which ring resonators are both located on the same or different sides of input waveguide, have been numerically studied using the finite difference time domain method. It is shown that a good wavelength selection performance, a high transmittance, a large separating angle and high efficiency of the output channels may be obtained in this flexible structure.

  12. Sensing nitrous oxide with QCL-coupled silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clinton J; Shankar, Raji; Laderer, Matthew; Frish, Michael B; Loncar, Marko; Allen, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    We report the initial evaluation of a mid-infrared QCL-coupled silicon-on-sapphire ring resonator gas sensor. The device probes the N(2)O 2241.79 cm(-1) optical transition (R23 line) in the ν(3) vibrational band. N(2)O concentration is deduced using a non-linear least squares fit, based on coupled-mode theory, of the change in ring resonator Q due to gas absorption losses in the evanescent portion of the waveguide optical mode. These early experiments demonstrated response to 5000 ppmv N(2)O.

  13. INEX modeling of the Boeing ring optical resonator free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.C.; Tokar, R.L.; McVey, B.D.; Elliott, C.J. ); Dowell, D.H.; Laucks, M.L.; Lowrey, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    We present new results from the integrated numerical model of the accelerator/beam transport system and ring optical resonator of the Boeing free-electron laser experiment. Modifications of the electron-beam transport have been included in a previously developed PARMELA model and are shown to reduce dramatically emittance growth in the 180{degree} bend. The new numerically generated electron beam is used in the 3-D FEL simulation code FELEX to calculate expected laser characteristics with the ring optical resonator and the 5-m untapered THUNDER wiggler. Gain, extraction efficiency, and optical power are compared with experimental data. Performance sensitivity to optical cavity misalignments is studied.

  14. Maximizing slow-light enhancement in one-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators.

    PubMed

    McGarvey-Lechable, Kathleen; Bianucci, Pablo

    2014-10-20

    Photonic crystal ring resonators (PhCRR) combine the features of ring resonators with the slow-light effects present in photonic crystal waveguides, resulting in better mode confinement and increased light-matter interaction. When the resonator modes are near the photonic band edge, this enhancement is maximized. However, for this to be useful it is necessary to design the resonator so that these modes are at a desired wavelength. We introduce a design prescription, based on a theoretical analysis of the mode spectrum of PhCRRs, that maximizes these effects at a given wavelength. We test the procedure using numerical simulations, finding a good agreement between the design objectives and the simulated mode structures. We also consider the effects of disorder on the device. PMID:25401637

  15. Rotation sensing with Er3+-doped active ring resonator slow light structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2016-10-01

    An optical gyroscope, which is constituted by Er3+-doped active ring resonator (EDARR) slow light structure, is presented for the first time. The principle of improving the sensitivity of the detection of angular velocity is analysed in detail. The expression of the rotation phase difference of EDARR between the counter-propagating waves is derived and discussed. At the resonant frequency, the phase shift difference has the maximum value when the light power in the cavity is far greater than the input light power. We designed an experimental scheme of Er3+-doped active ring resonator slow light system. Two additional bias phases ϕb = ±π/2 were introduced in the optical path, by recording the light intensity difference ? and I0 at the resonant frequency ?, the input angular velocity can be obtained. The slow light structure based on EDARR can enhance the sensitivity of the detection of the angular velocity by three orders of magnitude.

  16. High-order micro-ring resonator with perfect transmission using symmetrical Fibonacci structures.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C W; Cheng, Y H; Hsueh, W J

    2015-09-15

    A symmetrical Fibonacci micro-ring resonator (SFMR) has been presented to avoid the coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) bottle, which is a bottle-shaped distribution for high orders in transmission spectra. The SFMR features three advantages that improve filtering quality compared to that provided by traditional periodic micro-ring resonators. First, sharper resonances are obtained by eliminating the CROW bottle from the mini gaps that appear in the major-band region. Second, peaks with perfect transmission are always obtained without a radius and coupling modulation in the mini-band regions and major-band regions. Third, the full width at half-maximum of the band-edge peak decreases with the increasing generation order. PMID:26371905

  17. Observation of Magnetic Resonances in Electron Clouds in a Positron Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Kuekan, B.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Wang, L.F.; /SLAC

    2011-08-24

    The first experimental observation of magnetic resonances in electron clouds is reported. The resonance was observed as a modulation in cloud intensity for uncoated as well as TiN-coated aluminum surfaces in the positron storage ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. Electron clouds frequently arise in accelerators of positively charged particles, and severely impact the machines performance. The TiN coating was found to be an effective remedy, reducing the cloud intensity by three orders of magnitude.

  18. High-Q active ring microwave resonators based on ferrite-ferroelectric layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.; Kalinikos, Boris A.

    2008-05-01

    An electric and magnetic field tunable (dual-tunable) microwave active ring resonator is designed and characterized. The device structure is implemented with a microwave amplifier and a ferrite-ferroelectric delay line in the feedback loop. At 8GHz, an effective Q factor of 50 000 and tuning by 5MHz with an electric field are achieved. The performance characteristics of the resonator are presented and discussed.

  19. ARRAKIS: atlas of resonance rings as known in the S4G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Knapen, J. H.; Buta, R. J.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.; Laine, J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Sheth, K.; Regan, M. W.; Hinz, J. L.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.; Kim, T.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Gadotti, D. A.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Ho, L. C.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Resonance rings and pseudorings (here collectively called rings) are thought to be related to the gathering of material near dynamical resonances caused by non-axisymmetries in galaxy discs. This means that they are the result of secular evolution processes that redistribute material and angular momentum in discs. Studying them may give clues on the formation and growth of bars and other disc non-axisymmetries. Aims: Our aims are to produce a catalogue and an atlas of the rings detected in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) and to conduct a statistical study of the data in the catalogue. Methods: We traced the contours of rings previously identified and fitted them with ellipses. We found the orientation of bars by studying the galaxy ellipse fits from the S4G pipeline 4. We used the galaxy orientation data obtained by the S4G pipeline 4 to obtain intrinsic ellipticities and orientations of rings and the bars. Results: ARRAKIS contains data on 724 ringed galaxies in the S4G. The frequency of resonance rings in the S4G is of 16 ± 1% and 35 ± 1% for outer and inner features, respectively. Outer rings are mostly found in Hubble stages - 1 ≤ T ≤ 4. Inner rings are found in a broad distribution that covers the range - 1 ≤ T ≤ 7. We confirm that outer rings have two preferred orientations, namely parallel and perpendicular to the bar. We confirm a tendency for inner rings to be oriented parallel to the bar, but we report the existence of a significant fraction (maybe as large as 50%) of inner features that have random orientations with respect to the bar. These misaligned inner rings are mostly found in late-type galaxies (T ≥ 4). We find that the fraction of barred galaxies hosting outer (inner) rings is ~1.7 times (~1.3 times) that in unbarred galaxies. Conclusions: We confirm several results from previous surveys as well as predictions from simulations of resonant rings and/or from manifold flux tube theory. We report that a

  20. Achieving a multi-band metamaterial perfect absorber via a hexagonal ring dielectric resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Yang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Fu; Qu, Shao-Bo

    2015-06-01

    A multi-band absorber composed of high-permittivity hexagonal ring dielectric resonators and a metallic ground plate is designed in the microwave band. Near-unity absorptions around 9.785 GHz, 11.525 GHz, and 12.37 GHz are observed for this metamaterial absorber. The dielectric hexagonal ring resonator is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. The mechanism for the near-unity absorption is investigated via the dielectric resonator theory. It is found that the absorption results from electric and magnetic resonances where enhanced electromagnetic fields are excited inside the dielectric resonator. In addition, the resonance modes of the hexagonal resonator are similar to those of standard rectangle resonators and can be used for analyzing hexagonal absorbers. Our work provides a new research method as well as a solid foundation for designing and analyzing dielectric metamaterial absorbers with complex shapes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331005, 11204378, 11274389, 11304393, and 61302023), the Aviation Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20132796018 and 20123196015), the Natural Science Foundation for Post-Doctoral Scientists of China (Grant Nos. 2013M532131 and 2013M532221), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JM6005), and the Special Funds for Authors of Annual Excellent Doctoral Degree Dissertations of China (Grant No. 201242).

  1. Fusion of Renewable Ring Resonator Lasers and Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Photonic Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Rand, Stephen C.; Fan, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of reusable and wavelength reconfigurable ring resonator lasers and waveguides of arbitrary shapes to out-couple and guide laser emission on the same fused-silica chip. The ring resonator hosts were patterned by a single-mask standard lithography, whereas the waveguides were inscribed in the proximity of the ring resonator by using 3-dimensional femtosecond laser inscription technology. Reusability of the integrated ring resonator – waveguide system was examined by depositing, removing, and re-depositing dye-doped SU-8 solid polymer, SU-8 liquid polymer, and liquid solvent (toluene). The wavelength reconfigurability was validated by employing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 3,3′-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3) as exemplary gain media. In all above cases, the waveguide was able to couple out and guide the laser emission. This work opens a door to reconfigurable active and passive photonic devices for on-chip coherent light sources, optical signal processing, and the investigation of new optical phenomena. PMID:27600872

  2. Design of 1×3 power splitter based on photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Foozieh; Mahinroosta, Tayebeh; Hamidi, Seyedeh Mehri

    2014-11-01

    Ring resonators based on photonic crystals have attracted worldwide attention due to their wide applications attributed to their significant properties. By comparing different inner rod configurations reported for photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs), we propose a configuration for inner rods similar to diamond, which is called the "diamond inner rod configuration." In comparison with previous proposed configurations for inner rods, the diamond inner rod configuration increases the vertical waveguide output with respect to the horizontal waveguide. With this configuration a 50-50 output can be gained for two outputs, horizontal and vertical waveguides, at 1.829 and 1.6777 μm. Additionally, at 1.8438 μm there is a considerable drop toward a vertical waveguide. In order to have a comparison among the PCRRs with various inner rod configurations, the maximum power of outputs and also the quality factors have been shown schematically. To generalize our proposed configuration, in addition to a channel drop filter (CDF) based on a single-ring resonator, we designed a double-ring resonator in which the same powers can also be successively gained from three outputs at 1.876 μm by engineering the parameters of the structure.

  3. Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Rongkuo; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Alici, Kamil Boratay; Colak, Evrim; Caglayan, Humeyra; Ozbay, Ekmel; Soukoulis, C.M.

    2010-08-23

    A uniaxial chiral metamaterial is constructed by double-layered four 'U' split ring resonators mutually twisted by 90{sup o}. It shows a giant optical activity and circular dichroism. The retrieval results reveal that a negative refractive index is realized for circularly polarized waves due to the large chirality. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  4. Fusion of Renewable Ring Resonator Lasers and Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Photonic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Rand, Stephen C.; Fan, Xudong

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of reusable and wavelength reconfigurable ring resonator lasers and waveguides of arbitrary shapes to out-couple and guide laser emission on the same fused-silica chip. The ring resonator hosts were patterned by a single-mask standard lithography, whereas the waveguides were inscribed in the proximity of the ring resonator by using 3-dimensional femtosecond laser inscription technology. Reusability of the integrated ring resonator – waveguide system was examined by depositing, removing, and re-depositing dye-doped SU-8 solid polymer, SU-8 liquid polymer, and liquid solvent (toluene). The wavelength reconfigurability was validated by employing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 3,3‧-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3) as exemplary gain media. In all above cases, the waveguide was able to couple out and guide the laser emission. This work opens a door to reconfigurable active and passive photonic devices for on-chip coherent light sources, optical signal processing, and the investigation of new optical phenomena.

  5. Reconfigurable Solid-state Dye-doped Polymer Ring Resonator Lasers.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Fan, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents wavelength configurable on-chip solid-state ring lasers fabricated by a single-mask standard lithography. The single- and coupled-ring resonator hosts were fabricated on a fused-silica wafer and filled with 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and 3,3'-Diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide (CY5)-doped polymer as the reconfigurable gain media. The recorded lasing threshold was ~220 nJ/mm(2) per pulse for the single-ring resonator laser with R6G, marking the lowest threshold shown by solid-state dye-doped polymer lasers fabricated with a standard lithography process on a chip. A single-mode lasing from a coupled-ring resonator system with the lasing threshold of ~360 nJ/mm(2) per pulse was also demonstrated through the Vernier effect. The renewability of the dye-doped polymer was examined by removing and redepositing the dye-doped polymer on the same resonator hosts for multiple cycles. We recorded consistent emissions from the devices for all trials, suggesting the feasibility of employing this technology for numerous photonic and biochemical sensing applications that entail for sustainable, reconfigurable, and low lasing threshold coherent light sources on a chip. PMID:26674508

  6. Fusion of Renewable Ring Resonator Lasers and Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Photonic Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Rand, Stephen C; Fan, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of reusable and wavelength reconfigurable ring resonator lasers and waveguides of arbitrary shapes to out-couple and guide laser emission on the same fused-silica chip. The ring resonator hosts were patterned by a single-mask standard lithography, whereas the waveguides were inscribed in the proximity of the ring resonator by using 3-dimensional femtosecond laser inscription technology. Reusability of the integrated ring resonator - waveguide system was examined by depositing, removing, and re-depositing dye-doped SU-8 solid polymer, SU-8 liquid polymer, and liquid solvent (toluene). The wavelength reconfigurability was validated by employing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3) as exemplary gain media. In all above cases, the waveguide was able to couple out and guide the laser emission. This work opens a door to reconfigurable active and passive photonic devices for on-chip coherent light sources, optical signal processing, and the investigation of new optical phenomena. PMID:27600872

  7. Demonstration of polarization mode selection and coupling efficiency of optofluidic ring resonator lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanxian; Meng, Weidong; Yang, Hongyue; Chu, Yufei; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the polarization mode selection and the dependence of coupling efficiency on polarization state of pump light for an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) laser. An optical fiber is chosen to serve as the ring resonator and surrounded by rhodamine 6G dye solution of lower refractive index as the fluidic gain medium. When the ring resonator is pumped by a linearly s-polarized laser, the emitted whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing is of parallel polarization (TM mode), while p-polarized laser excitation generates a vertically polarized lasing emission (TE mode), both TM and TE mode lasing emission coexist simultaneously if the ring resonator is pumped by the s- and p-mixed polarized light. Further investigation reveals that the lasing intensity of the TM mode is approximately twice that of the TE mode for the same pump energy density, meaning an obvious difference of coupling efficiency on the polarization state of pump light; the experimental results of coupling efficiency are well explained by an induced dipole model. PMID:26512529

  8. Fusion of Renewable Ring Resonator Lasers and Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Photonic Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Rand, Stephen C; Fan, Xudong

    2016-09-07

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of reusable and wavelength reconfigurable ring resonator lasers and waveguides of arbitrary shapes to out-couple and guide laser emission on the same fused-silica chip. The ring resonator hosts were patterned by a single-mask standard lithography, whereas the waveguides were inscribed in the proximity of the ring resonator by using 3-dimensional femtosecond laser inscription technology. Reusability of the integrated ring resonator - waveguide system was examined by depositing, removing, and re-depositing dye-doped SU-8 solid polymer, SU-8 liquid polymer, and liquid solvent (toluene). The wavelength reconfigurability was validated by employing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3) as exemplary gain media. In all above cases, the waveguide was able to couple out and guide the laser emission. This work opens a door to reconfigurable active and passive photonic devices for on-chip coherent light sources, optical signal processing, and the investigation of new optical phenomena.

  9. Reconfigurable Solid-state Dye-doped Polymer Ring Resonator Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Fan, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents wavelength configurable on-chip solid-state ring lasers fabricated by a single-mask standard lithography. The single- and coupled-ring resonator hosts were fabricated on a fused-silica wafer and filled with 3,3′-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and 3,3′-Diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide (CY5)-doped polymer as the reconfigurable gain media. The recorded lasing threshold was ~220 nJ/mm2 per pulse for the single-ring resonator laser with R6G, marking the lowest threshold shown by solid-state dye-doped polymer lasers fabricated with a standard lithography process on a chip. A single-mode lasing from a coupled-ring resonator system with the lasing threshold of ~360 nJ/mm2 per pulse was also demonstrated through the Vernier effect. The renewability of the dye-doped polymer was examined by removing and redepositing the dye-doped polymer on the same resonator hosts for multiple cycles. We recorded consistent emissions from the devices for all trials, suggesting the feasibility of employing this technology for numerous photonic and biochemical sensing applications that entail for sustainable, reconfigurable, and low lasing threshold coherent light sources on a chip. PMID:26674508

  10. System analysis and design for the resonant inductive nearfield generation system (RINGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinger, Dustin James

    The Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System (RINGS) is a technology demonstrator experiment which will allow for the first ever testing of electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) algorithms in a full six degree of freedom environment on board the International Space Station (ISS). RINGS is a hybrid design, which, in addition to providing EMFF capabilities, also allows for wireless power transfer (WPT) via resonant inductive coupling. This thesis presents an overview of the mechanical and electrical design of the RINGS experiment, as well as simulation techniques used to model various system parameters in both EMFF and WPT operational modes. Also presented is an analytical and experimental investigation of the influence of the proximity effect on a multi-layer flat spiral coil made from ribbon wire.

  11. Ultra-sensitive silicon photonic current sensor using a ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bing; Zhao, Changyun; Wang, Gencheng; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Yang, Jianyi; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a compact and ultra-sensitive integrated photonic current sensor based on a silicon ring resonator in this paper. The current flowing through the integrated resistive TiN heater produces the Joule’s heat and changes the temperature, which results in the change of refractive index and physical dimensions of the ring. An optical spectrum analyzer is used to monitor the resonant wavelength shift of the ring. The experiment results show that the sensor achieves an ultra-high sensitivity of 6.8 × 104 nm A-2 and good linearity between real-time current and wavelength shift in the test range of 0-10 mA.

  12. Ultra-sensitive silicon photonic current sensor using a ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bing; Zhao, Changyun; Wang, Gencheng; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Yang, Jianyi; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a compact and ultra-sensitive integrated photonic current sensor based on a silicon ring resonator in this paper. The current flowing through the integrated resistive TiN heater produces the Joule’s heat and changes the temperature, which results in the change of refractive index and physical dimensions of the ring. An optical spectrum analyzer is used to monitor the resonant wavelength shift of the ring. The experiment results show that the sensor achieves an ultra-high sensitivity of 6.8 × 104 nm A‑2 and good linearity between real-time current and wavelength shift in the test range of 0–10 mA.

  13. Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through semiconductor split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yun-hong, He; Jiu-sheng, Li

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, two novel planar terahertz semiconductor split-ring resonators are successfully constructed and measured using the commercial software CST Microwave Studio. They exhibit a duel-band and a triple-band transmission property within the frequencies ranging from 0.1THz to 3THz. We have simulated the dual-band planar metamaterial with two distinct electric resonances at 0.81THz and 1.818THz, and triple-band planar metamaterial with three distinct electric resonances at 0.543THz, 1.044THz, and 1.506THz. These developments are further steps towards the development of broadband terahertz devices.

  14. Thermo-optical tuning of cascaded double micro-ring resonators for dynamic range enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Prashanth R.; Selvaraja, Shankar K.; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a silicon-photonic cascaded microring sensor with thermo-optic tuning for extension of detection range. Cascaded microring resonators have been used to realize refractive index sensors with high sensitivity in the intensity detection mode. In this configuration, one ring is used to probe analyte while the other ring (called filter) is used for spectrum overlap measurement. A significant drawback of this configuration is decreased range of detection. We overcome this problem by thermo-optically tuning the spectrum the filter ring to track the position of maximum overlap, as the spectrum of the probing ring undergoes shift. Using this peak tracking method, we have experimentally demonstrated range enhancement by a factor of 7.8, compared to the intensity detection scheme. This method can use a broadband source for operation, and has a potential for development of low cost, point of care biomedical applications.

  15. A new model for broadband waveguide to microstrip transition design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Downey, Alan N.

    1986-01-01

    A new model is presented which permits the prediction of the resonant frequencies created by antipodal finline waveguide to microstrip transitions. The transition is modeled as a tapered transmission line in series with an infinite set of coupled resonant circuits. The resonant circuits are modeled as simple microwave resonant cavities of which the resonant frequencies are easily determined. The model is developed and the resonant frequencies determined for several different transitions. Experimental results are given to confirm the models.

  16. Tunable multi-band chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou; Meng, Qingxin; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-07-01

    We have numerically demonstrated chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric Au film with hollow out design of split ring resonators on either side of the polyimide. Multiple electric dipoles and magnetic dipoles resulted from parallel and antiparallel currents between the eight split ring resonators. Multi-band circular dichroism is found in the visible frequency regime by studying the transmission properties. Huge optical activity and the induced multi-band negative refractive index are obtained at resonance by calculating the optical activity and ellipticity of the transmitted E-fields. Chirality parameter and effective refractive index are retrieved to illustrate the tunable optical properties of the metamaterials. The underlying mechanisms for the observed circular dichroism are analyzed. These metamaterials would offer flexible electromagnetic applications in the infrared and visible regime.

  17. Flexible printed chipless RFID tag using metamaterial-split ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, M. E.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Dewan, R.

    2016-04-01

    An 8-bit passive chipless RFID using metamaterial structure with dimension of 25 × 50 mm which operates between 3.4 and 7.4 GHz is proposed. The chipless RFID is designed using complementary split ring resonator (SRR) with a transmission line feeding network of 50 Ω. The modified complementary split ring resonator (MCSRR) is located at the backside of the substrate. The MCSRR has narrow bandwidth which can maximize the amount of bit capacity. To enhance the bit capacity, the frequency shifting is introduced by the allocation of bit conditions (00, 01, 10 and 11) at the specific resonance frequency. The polyethylene terephthalate material with ɛ r = 3.0 and tan δ = 0.002 is a suitable candidate for body identification due to the flexibility and the robustness of the material.

  18. Three-frequency parametric amplification in magneto-inductive ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Solymar, L.; Young, I. R.

    2008-09-01

    Parametric amplification of magneto-inductive (MI) waves propagating in magnetically coupled chains of nonlinear L- C resonators is studied. Analysis is first presented for a three-frequency travelling wave scheme in which the signal, idler and pump all propagate as MI waves. The effect of de-coupling the idlers is then considered and it is shown that this configuration relaxes the standard phase matching condition. Confirmation of the theory is provided using low-frequency PCB unit cells containing varactor diodes. The cells are characterised individually and then arranged as a 16-element ring resonator. Frequency matching and selective amplification of the primary resonance is demonstrated. The primary resonance can be excited using the field of a rotating magnetic dipole, and an application in magnetic resonance imaging is described.

  19. In-resonator variation of waveguide cross-sections for dispersion control of aluminum nitride micro-rings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hojoong; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2015-11-30

    We propose and demonstrate a dispersion control technique by combination of different waveguide cross sections in an aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator. Narrow and wide waveguides with normal and anomalous dispersion, respectively, are linked with tapering waveguides and enclosed in a ring resonator to produce a total dispersion near zero. The mode-coupling in multimoded waveguides is also effectively suppressed. This technique provides new degrees of freedom and enhanced flexibility in engineering the dispersion of microcomb resonators.

  20. Planar Microstrip Yagi Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1990-01-01

    Developmental class of antennas based on combination of microstrip-patch and Yagi-array concepts. Mutual coupling between microstrip elements, ordinarily considered nuisance, used to advantage. Applicable to both linearly and circularly polarized antennas. Use of fewer driven elements results in less complexity and reduced loss of power in associated transmission lines and other coupling and power-distributing circuitry. Applications include antennas on land vehicles, television receiving antennas, and conformal antennas on aircraft.

  1. Resonant excitation of black holes by massive bosonic fields and giant ringings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Décanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine; Ould El Hadj, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    We consider the massive scalar field, the Proca field, and the Fierz-Pauli field in the Schwarzschild spacetime and we focus more particularly on their long-lived quasinormal modes. We show numerically that the associated excitation factors have a strong resonant behavior and we confirm this result analytically from semiclassical considerations based on the properties of the unstable circular geodesics on which a massive particle can orbit the black hole. The conspiracy of (i) the long-lived behavior of the quasinormal modes and (ii) the resonant behavior of their excitation factors induces intrinsic giant ringings, i.e., ringings of a huge amplitude. Such ringings, which are moreover slowly decaying, are directly constructed from the retarded Green function. If we describe the source of the black hole perturbation by an initial value problem with Gaussian initial data, i.e., if we consider the excitation of the black hole from an extrinsic point of view, we can show that these extraordinary ringings are still present. This suggests that physically realistic sources of perturbations should generate giant and slowly decaying ringings and that their existence could be used to constrain ultralight bosonic field theory interacting with black holes.

  2. Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, C; Campanella, C E; Dell'Olio, F; Armenise, M N

    2010-02-01

    Speed manipulation of optical pulses is a very attractive research challenge enabling next-generation high-capacity all-optical communication networks. Pulses can be effectively slowed by using different integrated optical structures such as coupled-resonator waveguiding structures or photonic crystal cavities. Fast light generation by means of integrated photonic devices is currently a quite unexplored research field in spite of its crucial importance for all-optical pulse processing. In this paper, we report on the first theoretical demonstration of fast light generation in an ultra-compact double vertical stacked ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide. Periodic coupling between the two rings leads to splitting and recombining of symmetric and anti-symmetric resonant modes. Re-established degenerate modes can form when a symmetric and an anti-symmetric mode having different resonance order exhibit the same resonance wavelength. Under degenerate mode conditions, wide wavelength ranges where the group velocity is negative or larger than the speed of light in vacuum are generated. The paper proves how this physical effect can be exploited to design fast light resonant devices. Moreover, conditions are also derived to obtain slow light operation regime. PMID:20174126

  3. Vertical split-ring resonators for plasmon coupling, sensing and metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-09-01

    Split-ring resonator (SRR), one kind of building block of metamaterials, attracts wide attentions due to the resonance excitation of electric and magnetic dipolar response. The fundamental plasmonic properties and potential applications in novel three dimensional vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) are designed and investigated. The resonant properties arose from the electric and magnetic interactions between the VSRR and light are theoretically and experimentally studied. Tuning the configuration of VSRR unit cells is able to generate various novel coupling phenomena in VSRRs, such as plasmon hybridization and Fano resonance. The magnetic resonance plays a key role in plasmon coupling in VSRRs. The VSRR-based refractive-index sensor is demonstrated. Due to the unique structural configuration, the enhanced plasmon fields localized in VSRR gaps can be lifted off from the dielectric substrate, allowing for the increase of sensing volume and enhancing the sensitivity. We perform a VSRR based metasurface for light manipulation in optical communication frequency. By changing the prong heights, the 2π phase modulation can be achieved in VSRR for the design of metasurface which can be used for high areal density integration of metal nanostructures and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Coupling of semiconductor carbon nanotubes emission with silicon photonic micro ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Francesco; Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Biccari, Francesco; Torrini, Ughetta; Intonti, Francesca; Vinattieri, Anna; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Zhang, Weiwei; Noury, Adrien; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Hoang, ThiHong Cam; Serna, Samuel; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric; Izard, Nicolas; Yang, Hongliu; Bezugly, Viktor; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Filoramo, Arianna; Vivien, Laurent; Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid structures are needed to fully exploit the great advantages of Si photonics and several approaches have been addressed where Si devices are bonded to different materials and nanostructures. Here we study the use of semiconductor carbon nanotubes for emission in the 1300 nm wavelength range to functionalize Si photonic structures in view of optoelectronic applications. The Si micro-rings are fully characterized by near field forward resonant scattering with 100 nm resolution. We show that both TE and TM modes can be addressed on the top of the micro-rings in a vectorial imaging of the in-plane polarization components. We coupled the Si micro-resonators with selected carbon nanotubes for high photoluminescence emission. Coupling nanotubes with the evanescent tails in air of the electric field localized in the photonic modes of the micro-resonators is demonstrated by sharp resonances over imposed to the nanotube emission bands. By mapping the Si and the nanotube emission we demonstrate that strong enhancement of the nanotube photoluminescence can be achieved both in the photonic modes of micro-disks and slot micro-rings, whenever the spatial overlap between nano-emitters and photonic modes is fulfilled.

  5. Real-time label-free biosensing with integrated planar waveguide ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohlström, Hans; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Hill, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    We review the use of planar integrated optical waveguide ring resonators for label free bio-sensing and present recent results from two European biosensor collaborations: SABIO and InTopSens. Planar waveguide ring resonators are attractive for label-free biosensing due to their small footprint, high Q-factors, and compatibility with on-chip optics and microfluidics. This enables integrated sensor arrays for compact labs-on-chip. One application of label-free sensor arrays is for point-of-care medical diagnostics. Bringing such powerful tools to the single medical practitioner is an important step towards personalized medicine, but requires addressing a number of issues: improving limit of detection, managing the influence of temperature, parallelization of the measurement for higher throughput and on-chip referencing, efficient light-coupling strategies to simplify alignment, and packaging of the optical chip and integration with microfluidics. From the SABIO project we report refractive index measurement and label-free biosensing in an 8-channel slotwaveguide ring resonator sensor array, within a compact cartridge with integrated microfluidics. The sensors show a volume sensing detection limit of 5 x 10-6 RIU and a surface sensing detection limit of 0.9 pg/mm2. From the InTopSens project we report early results on silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators.

  6. A universal label-free biosensing platform based on opto-fluidic ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Gohring, John; Fan, Xudong

    2009-02-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of biomolecules is important for medical diagnosis, pharmaceuticals, homeland security, food quality control, and environmental protection. A simple, low cost and highly sensitive label-free optical biosensor based on opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) has been developed that naturally integrates microfluidics with ring resonators. The OFRR employs a piece of fused silica capillary with a diameter around 100 micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the ring resonator and light repeatedly travels along the resonator circumference in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) through total internal reflection. When the capillary wall is as thin as a couple of micrometers (< 4 μm), an evanescent field of the WGMs exists at the OFRR inner surface and interacts with the sample when it flows through the OFRR. In order to detect the target molecules with high specificity, the OFRR inner surface is functionalized with receptors, such as antibodies, peptide-displayed bacteriophage or oligonucleotide DNA probes. The WGM spectral position shifts when biomolecules bind to the OFRR inner surface and change the local refractive index, which provides quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction near the OFRR inner surface. The OFRR has been successfully demonstrated for detection of various types of biomoelcuels. Here, we will first introduce the basic operation principle of the OFRR as a sensor and then application examples of the OFRR in the detection of proteins, disease biomarkers, virus, DNA molecules, and cells with high sensitivities will be presented.

  7. Crosstalk analysis of ring resonator switches for all-optical routing.

    PubMed

    Ashkan Seyedi, M; Descos, Antoine; Chen, Chin-Hui; Fiorentino, Marco; Penkler, David; Vincent, François; Szelag, Bertrand; Beausoleil, Raymond G

    2016-05-30

    Optical switches based on ring resonator cavities were fabricated by a silicon photonics foundry process and analyzed for optical crosstalk at various data rates and channel spacings. These devices were compared to commercial bandpass filters and at 20Gb/s, 0.5dB power penalty is observed due to spectral filtering for bit error ratio threshold of 1 × 10-9. Concurrent modulation at 20Gb/s with a channel spacing as narrow as 40GHz shows error-free transmission with 1dB power penalty as compared to wider channel spacing for the ring-based switch. PMID:27410092

  8. Gold asymmetric split ring resonators (A-SRRs) for nano sensing of estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbomson, Ifeoma G.; McMeekin, Scott; Lahiri, Basudev; De La Rue, Richard; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances have seen asymmetric split ring resonators (A-SRRs) developed as sensing elements to record a shift in their peaks when there is a corresponding change in the surrounding environment. These studies have led to the investigation of Fano resonances associated with the coupling of the resonances of the A-SRRs with the molecular resonances of the analyte. The hormone estradiol (E2) was dissolved in ethanol and evaporated, leaving thickness of a few hundreds of nanometres on top of gold A-SRRs on a silica substrate. The reflectance was measured and a red shift is recorded from the resonators plasmonic peaks. The geometric sizes of the ASRRs are calculated to tune the plasmonic resonances near the molecular resonance of the C-H stretch at nominally 3.33 microns. Corresponding Lumerical modelling of the experimental data is performed using only the intensity and wavelength to match the Fano resonance at modified wavelengths of 3.42 and 3.49 microns.

  9. Mode-splitting cloning in birefringent fiber Bragg grating ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Campanella, C E; Malara, P; Campanella, C M; Giove, F; Dunai, M; Passaro, V M N; Gagliardi, G

    2016-06-15

    In this Letter, we report the theoretical model and the experimental evidence of a mode-splitting cloning effect due to the resonant coupling between modes having different polarizations in weakly birefringent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) ring resonators. This modal coupling depends on the fiber birefringence and the FBG reflectivity. In the ideal case of the absence of birefringence, a single split-mode resonant structure can be observed in the resonator transmission spectrum due to the degeneracy removal of the two counter-propagating modes. In the presence of FBG birefringence, a secondary split doublet resulting in a clone of the initial one is generated. The described effect can be exploited for spectroscopic-sensing applications based on more complex split-mode dynamics. PMID:27304260

  10. Transmission performance of one waveguide and double micro-ring resonator using 3×3 optical fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao Ying; Tan, Wei Han

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates theoretically the transmission characteristics of one waveguide and double micro-ring resonator using 3 × 3 optical fibre coupler. Our analytical solution of transmittance is suitable for either linearly distributed coupler or circularly symmetric distributed coupler. The all-optical analogue to electromagnetic inducted transparency spectrum of one waveguide and double micro-ring resonators can be controlled by changing the coupling strength between waveguide and micro-rings, the absorption coefficient around micro-rings, as well as the asymmetric coupling coefficients between non-adjacent waveguides. The curves show that the transitions of transmission spectra sensitively depend on asymmetric coupling coefficients.

  11. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  12. Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene-split ring resonator terahertz metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotto, Simone; Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Pitanti, Alessandro; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Huber, Rupert; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.

  13. Enhanced light emission from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Cheng; Li, Danping; Zhao, Xiangjie; Gao, Ge; Yu, Jinzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2014-05-19

    Light emitter based on Ge quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal ring resonator is designed and fabricated. Six sharp resonant peaks dominate the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum ranging from 1500 to 1600 nm at room temperature. The light emission enhancement is due to Purcell effect and high collection efficiency of the PCRR verified by calculated far-field patterns. The Purcell factor of the PCRR is estimated from enhancement factor and increased collection efficiency. The linewidth of the emission of a single Ge quantum dot is estimated from the Purcell factor. PMID:24921343

  14. Time-bin entangled photon pair generation from Si micro-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ryota; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yoshino, Ken-Ichiro; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Aoki, Takao

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate time-bin entanglement generation in telecom wavelength using a 7 μm radius Si micro-ring resonator pumped by a continuous wave laser. The resonator structure can enhance spontaneous four wave mixing, leading to a photon pair generation rate of about 90-100 Hz with a laser pump power of as low as -3.92 dBm (0.41 mW). We succeed in observing time-bin entanglement with the visibility over 92%. Moreover, wavelength-tunability of the entangled photon pair is demonstrated by changing the operation temperature.

  15. Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene–split ring resonator terahertz metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Zanotto, Simone; Pitanti, Alessandro; Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Huber, Rupert; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.

  16. High-quality-factor filter based on a photonic crystal ring resonator for wavelength division multiplexing applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaw-Dong; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Lee, Jian-Jang

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the properties of ring resonators that are supported by a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. The proposed structure composed of a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) with four scatters can really function as a wavelength division multiplexer. The significance of the design is that the output waveguide is perpendicular to the ring resonator. We numerically demonstrate that the proposed four-channel PCRR device with 3 x 3 inner dielectric rods can provide a transmission efficiency larger than 92%, a quality factor higher than 3800, and crosstalk of less than -32 dB. PMID:19724309

  17. Observation of the Sagnac effect in a ring resonant interferometer with a low-coherence light source

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V V; Novikov, M A; Gelikonov, V M

    2000-02-28

    A fibre-optic resonant ring interferometer with a low-coherent light source was investigated experimentally. The feasibility of measuring the parameters of ring cavities characterised by very narrow lines (of the order of tens of kilohertz) was demonstrated by using a broad-band light source and a retroreflecting Doppler mirror. The Sagnac effect was first observed in a ring resonant interferometer with a low-coherence light source. Modulation and compensation of the phase nonrecriprocity in a low-coherence resonant interferometer with the aid of an optical frequency shifter located outside a sensing fibre loop were observed experimentally. (laser gyroscopes)

  18. Design of Novel Composite Beam Splitter with Directional Couplers and Ring Resonators Using Photonic Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qinghua; Guo, Hao; Yu, Tianbao; Huang, Yongzhen

    2013-01-01

    We propose and analyze a novel multiway high efficiency composite beam splitter based on propagation properties of the light waves in directional coupler (DC) and ring resonator. The spectral transmittance and splitting properties of the beam splitter have been numerically simulated and analyzed using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method and finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. By simply adjusting the symmetrical coupling rods in the ring resonators, inducing the redistribution of the power of the optical field, equipartition or free distribution of the light field energy can be achieved. It was shown that the novel composite beam splitter has a large separating angle, a high beam transmittance, and high flexibility. Furthermore, this beam splitter can be easily extended to the structure with more light output channels. These features of the proposed composite beam splitter make it a promising candidate in optical communication applications.

  19. Topological phononic states of underwater sound based on coupled ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Cheng; Li, Zheng; Ni, Xu; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We report a design of topological phononic states for underwater sound using arrays of acoustic coupled ring resonators. In each individual ring resonator, two degenerate acoustic modes, corresponding to clockwise and counter-clockwise propagation, are treated as opposite pseudospins. The gapless edge states arise in the bandgap resulting in protected pseudospin-dependent sound transportation, which is a phononic analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. We also investigate the robustness of the topological sound state, suggesting that the observed pseudospin-dependent sound transportation remains unless the introduced defects facilitate coupling between the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes (in other words, the original mode degeneracy is broken). The topological engineering of sound transportation will certainly promise unique design for next generation of acoustic devices in sound guiding and switching, especially for underwater acoustic devices.

  20. Tissue culture system using a PANDA ring resonator and wavelength router for hydroponic plant.

    PubMed

    Kamoldilok, Surachart; Suwanpayak, Nathaporn; Suttirak, Saisudawan; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2012-06-01

    A novel system of nanofluidics trapping and delivery, which is known as a tissue culture system is proposed. By using the intense optical pulse(i.e., a soliton pulse) and a system constructed by a liquid core waveguide, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated, where the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers in the PANDA ring resonator can be formed. By controlling the suitable parameters, the intense optical vortices can be generated within the PANDA ring resonator, in which the nanofluidics can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the Tissue culture system(a wavelength router), which can be used for tissue culture and delivery in the hydroponic plant system.

  1. Self-generation of dissipative solitons in magnonic quasicrystal active ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, S. V. Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2014-02-07

    Self-generation of dissipative solitons in the magnonic quasicrystal (MQC) active ring resonator is studied theoretically and experimentally. The developed magnonic crystal has quasiperiodic Fibonacci type structure. Frequency selectivity of the MQC together with the parametric three-wave decay of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) leads to the dissipative soliton self-generation. The transfer matrix method is used to describe MQC transmission responses. Besides, the model of MQC active ring resonator is suggested. The model includes three coupled differential equations describing the parametric decay of MSSW and two differential equations of linear oscillators describing the frequency selectivity of MQC. Numerical simulation results of dissipative soliton self-generation are in a fair agreement with experimental data.

  2. Molecular buffer using a PANDA ring resonator for drug delivery use.

    PubMed

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, M A; Aziz, M S; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of molecular buffer for molecule storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The optical vortices can be generated and controlled to form the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers. In theory, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which is reviewed. By using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator, the required molecules can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the wavelength router or network, ie, a molecular buffer. This can be performed within the wavelength router before reaching the required destination. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is available for molecule storage and transportation.

  3. Total broadband transmission of microwaves through a subwavelength aperture by localized E-field coupling of split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunsheng; Zhou, Ji

    2014-11-01

    Resonance coupling of two resonators with the same resonant frequency is a highly efficient energy transfer approach in physics. Here we report total broadband transmission of microwaves through a metallic subwavelength aperture using the coupled resonances of the strongly localized electric fields at the gaps of two split-ring resonators (SRRs) placed on either side of the aperture. At the center frequency of the broad band, the phase difference between the two localized time-varying electric fields is 90°, which is consistent with the critical coupling state that is a sufficient condition for the two-resonator system to realize total transmission if the resonators are assumed to be lossless.

  4. A 2*4 all optical decoder switch based on photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Serajmohammadi, Somaye; Hassangholizadeh-Kashtiban, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Based on photonic crystal ring resonators and nonlinear Kerr effect in this paper, we proposed a 2*4 all optical decoder switch. Our proposed structure has two logic input ports and one bias input port. This decoder switch has four output ports. Via these two logic input ports, we control the bias signal to transfer toward which output port. We employed numerical methods such as plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods for analyzing the proposed structure.

  5. Calculation of the optimal polarisation anisotropy of interference mirrors of a ring laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Vol'pyan, O D; Kuryatov, V N; Sokolov, A L

    2009-10-31

    The influence of the amplitude-phase polarisation anisotropy of the interference mirrors on the polarisation characteristics of a ring laser (ellipticity, frequency shifts, and losses) is analysed. The combination of the mirror parameters, at which the maximum sensitivity of the polarisation characteristics of radiation to the nonplanar deformation of the axial contour is observed, is determined. It is shown that there exists a range of optimal phase anisotropies of the mirrors. (resonators)

  6. Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Riemensberger, Johann; Hartinger, Klaus; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition. Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. The results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  7. Reconfigurable silicon thermo-optical ring resonator switch based on Vernier effect control.

    PubMed

    Fegadolli, William S; Vargas, German; Wang, Xuan; Valini, Felipe; Barea, Luis A M; Oliveira, José E B; Frateschi, Newton; Scherer, Axel; Almeida, Vilson R; Panepucci, Roberto R

    2012-06-18

    A proof-of-concept for a new and entirely CMOS compatible thermo-optic reconfigurable switch based on a coupled ring resonator structure is experimentally demonstrated in this paper. Preliminary results show that a single optical device is capable of combining several functionalities, such as tunable filtering, non-blocking switching and reconfigurability, in a single device with compact footprint (~50 μm x 30 μm).

  8. Square-Spiral Microstrip Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.

    1994-01-01

    Square-spiral microstrip antennas for wideband reception at frequencies of several gigahertz proposed. These could be made to conform to surfaces of aircraft and other vehicles. Offers advantage of thinness. Square shapes of spirals in these spiral microstrip antennas offers advantage over curved shapes of spirals of other spiral microstrip antennas in that square shapes simplifies fabrication.

  9. Analysis of a single ring resonator with 2×2 90-degree multimode waveguide turning couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, C. L.; Liao, Yen-Hsun

    2016-02-01

    A novel design of a single ring resonator with two low-loss 2×2 90-degree multimode waveguide turning mirror couplers based on a InP structure. The coupling factor of the 2×2 90-degree multimode waveguide turning mirror coupler is inversed for K=0.85 to K=0.15 when one folding is achieved. The 2×2 90-degree turning mirror coupler for K=0.15 is (3/4)Lπ in length. Its length is reduced 3 times than the conventional straight 2×2 multimode waveguide interference coupler (9/4)Lπ in length for K=0.15. The cavity length of the curve waveguide (90-degree arc length) in this ring resonator with two 2×2 90-degree multimode waveguide turning couplers is decreased 1/2 times than with two 2×2 MMI couplers (180-degree arc length). The free spectral range (FSR) is increased 2 times. The output spectral response gets a FSR of 82 GHz for the device and a contrast of 4 dB and FWHM of 0.24 nm for the drop port. The results of numerical analysis calculated by the transfer functions in a single ring resonator are agreement with the experimental results.

  10. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.

  11. Broadening the frequency band of microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenko, V. Iu.; Efremov, Iu. G.

    1989-07-01

    Three techniques for broadening the band of microstrip antennas are examined: (1) the introduction of additional resonators; (2) the use of an additional stub galvanically connected to the main resonator; and (3) the use of an electrically variable diode capacitor. It is shown that the third method (i.e., the electrical tuning of the resonant frequencies) has the greatest potential for multichannel systems; an antenna is proposed which can operate with a tuning speed of 4 microsec at an output power of 1 kW.

  12. Dual-band reactively loaded microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. F.; Long, S. A.; Davidson, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A previously derived theory is applied to a microstrip antenna with a reactive load to produce a dual-band radiator. A model consisting of a rectangular patch radiator loaded with a variable length short-circuited coaxial stub was investigated experimentally. Comparisons of theoretical predictions and experimental data are made for the impedance and resonant frequencies as a function of the position of the load, the length of the stub, and the characteristic impedance of the stub.

  13. Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using microstrip-line waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, M. B.; Cunningham, J.; Tych, K.; Burnett, A. D.; Stringer, M. R.; Wood, C. D.; Dazhang, L.; Lachab, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate that terahertz microstrip-line waveguides can be used to measure absorption spectra of polycrystalline materials with a high frequency resolution (˜2 GHz) and with a spatial resolution that is determined by the microstrip-line dimensions, rather than the free-space wavelength. The evanescent terahertz-bandwidth electric field extending above the microstrip line interacts with, and is modified by, overlaid dielectric samples, thus enabling the characteristic vibrational absorption resonances in the sample to be probed. As an example, the terahertz absorption spectrum of polycrystalline lactose monohydrate was investigated; the lowest lying mode was observed at 534(±2) GHz, in excellent agreement with free-space measurements. This microstrip technique offers both a higher spatial and frequency resolution than free-space terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and requires no contact between the waveguide and sample.

  14. Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ge; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, He; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we propose and demonstrate an air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator (PhCRR) on silicon-on-insulator platform. Air mode is utilized to confine the optical field into photonic crystal (PhC) air holes, which is confirmed by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. PhCRR structure is employed to enhance the light-matter interaction through combining the whispering-gallery mode resonance of ring resonator with the slow-light effect in PhC waveguide. In the simulated and measured transmission spectra of air-mode PhCRR, nonuniform free spectral ranges are observed near the Brillouin zone edge of PhC, indicating the presence of the slow-light effect. A maximum group index of 27.3 and a highest quality factor of 14600 are experimentally obtained near the band edge. Benefiting from the strong optical confinement in the PhC holes and enhanced light-matter interaction in the resonator, the demonstrated air-mode PhCRR is expected to have potential applications in refractive index sensing, on-chip light emitting and nonlinear optics by integration with functional materials. PMID:26818430

  15. Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ge; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, He; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we propose and demonstrate an air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator (PhCRR) on silicon-on-insulator platform. Air mode is utilized to confine the optical field into photonic crystal (PhC) air holes, which is confirmed by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. PhCRR structure is employed to enhance the light-matter interaction through combining the whispering-gallery mode resonance of ring resonator with the slow-light effect in PhC waveguide. In the simulated and measured transmission spectra of air-mode PhCRR, nonuniform free spectral ranges are observed near the Brillouin zone edge of PhC, indicating the presence of the slow-light effect. A maximum group index of 27.3 and a highest quality factor of 14600 are experimentally obtained near the band edge. Benefiting from the strong optical confinement in the PhC holes and enhanced light-matter interaction in the resonator, the demonstrated air-mode PhCRR is expected to have potential applications in refractive index sensing, on-chip light emitting and nonlinear optics by integration with functional materials.

  16. Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ge; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, He; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-01-28

    In this report, we propose and demonstrate an air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator (PhCRR) on silicon-on-insulator platform. Air mode is utilized to confine the optical field into photonic crystal (PhC) air holes, which is confirmed by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. PhCRR structure is employed to enhance the light-matter interaction through combining the whispering-gallery mode resonance of ring resonator with the slow-light effect in PhC waveguide. In the simulated and measured transmission spectra of air-mode PhCRR, nonuniform free spectral ranges are observed near the Brillouin zone edge of PhC, indicating the presence of the slow-light effect. A maximum group index of 27.3 and a highest quality factor of 14600 are experimentally obtained near the band edge. Benefiting from the strong optical confinement in the PhC holes and enhanced light-matter interaction in the resonator, the demonstrated air-mode PhCRR is expected to have potential applications in refractive index sensing, on-chip light emitting and nonlinear optics by integration with functional materials.

  17. Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, He; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we propose and demonstrate an air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator (PhCRR) on silicon-on-insulator platform. Air mode is utilized to confine the optical field into photonic crystal (PhC) air holes, which is confirmed by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. PhCRR structure is employed to enhance the light-matter interaction through combining the whispering-gallery mode resonance of ring resonator with the slow-light effect in PhC waveguide. In the simulated and measured transmission spectra of air-mode PhCRR, nonuniform free spectral ranges are observed near the Brillouin zone edge of PhC, indicating the presence of the slow-light effect. A maximum group index of 27.3 and a highest quality factor of 14600 are experimentally obtained near the band edge. Benefiting from the strong optical confinement in the PhC holes and enhanced light-matter interaction in the resonator, the demonstrated air-mode PhCRR is expected to have potential applications in refractive index sensing, on-chip light emitting and nonlinear optics by integration with functional materials. PMID:26818430

  18. Generalized model for beam-path variation in ring resonator and its applications in backscattering coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meixiong; Yuan, Jie; Long, Xingwu; Kang, Zhenglong; Li, Yingying

    2012-02-01

    A generalized model for beam-path variation analyzed with vector method in square ring resonators is established. The model can be applied to analyze beam-path variation in various ring resonators induced by all the possible perturbation sources. The generalized model is useful for the cavity design, cavity improvement, alignment of planar ring resonators and research on backscattering coupling effect. Backscattering coupling effect in square ring resonator has been chosen as examples to show its application. Backscattering coupling coefficient r is obtained as a function of mirror's axial displacements. Some novel results of backscattering coupling effect have been acquired. The results indicate that r can not be reduced to zero because of the initial machining errors of surfaces of plane mirrors. However, r can be reduced to zero almost when stabilizing frequency of laser gyro by take the suitable values of axial displacements of plane mirrors. These results are important for high precision laser gyro.

  19. Microstrip antenna developments at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1991-01-01

    The in-house development of microstrip antennas, initiated in 1981, when a spaceborne lightweight and low-profile planar array was needed for a satellite communication system, is described. The work described covers the prediction of finite-ground-plane effects by the geometric theory of diffraction, higher-order-mode circularly polarized circular patch antennas, circularly polarized microstrip arrays with linearly polarized elements, an impedance-matching teardrop-shaped probe feed, a dual-polarized microstrip array with high isolation and low cross-polarization, a planar microstrip Yagi array, a microstrip reflectarray, a Ka-band MMIC array, and a series-fed linear arrays.

  20. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties. PMID:26857034

  1. Mapping the sensitivity of split ring resonators using a localized analyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Vilhena, Henrique; Lahiri, Basudev; McMeekin, Scott. G.; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2016-06-01

    Split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterials have frequently been demonstrated for use as optical sensors of organic materials. This is made possible by matching the wavelength of the SRR plasmonic resonance with a molecular resonance of a specific analyte, which is usually placed on top of the metal structure. However, systematic studies of SRRs that identify the regions that exhibit a high electric field strength are commonly performed using simulations. In this paper we demonstrate that areas of high electric field strength, termed "hot-spots," can be found by localizing a small quantity of organic analyte at various positions on or near the structure. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the SRR to the localized analyte can be quantified to determine, experimentally, suitable regions for optical sensing.

  2. Narrow band wavelength selective filter using grating assisted single ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhathan, P. Murukeshan, V. M.

    2014-09-15

    This paper illustrates a filter configuration which uses a single ring resonator of larger radius connected to a grating resonator at its drop port to achieve single wavelength selectivity and switching property with spectral features suitable for on-chip wavelength selection applications. The proposed configuration is expected to find applications in silicon photonics devices such as, on-chip external cavity lasers and multi analytic label-free biosensors. The grating resonator has been designed for a high Q-factor, high transmittivity, and minimum loss so that the wavelength selectivity of the device is improved. The proof-of-concept device has been demonstrated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform through electron beam lithography and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) process. The transmission spectrum shows narrow band single wavelength selection and switching property with a high Free Spectral Range (FSR) ∼60 nm and side band rejection ratio >15 dB.

  3. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties.

  4. A quasi-optical resonant ring for high power millimeter-wave testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1997-08-01

    Gyrotrons of > 1-MW cw power in the 110- to 160-GHz frequency range with HE{sub 11} output beams are being developed for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of plasmas. Windows are required for gyrotrons and for waveguide transmission systems at the plasma device to provide vacuum isolation and containment. Windows ar difficult to build for these systems because the window dielectric losses increase with frequency and the centrally peaked output power beam concentrates the power deposition near the center. Development and testing of a window independent of gyrotron development is desirable since window failure on a cw gyrotron usually means an expensive reprocessing of the entire tube or possibly even total loss. A quasi-optical resonant ring is being developed for testing of millimeter wave components, windows and low-loss materials at very high power levels using medium power level sources. The resonant ring generates a traveling wave resonance of uniform amplitude along the waveguide that is ideal for testing components and materials. Both smooth-wall TE{sub 01} mode and a corrugated-wall HE{sub 11} mode versions have been constructed. These units use highly oversized waveguide and four miter bends to form a quasi-optical resonant ring. A perforated plate miter bend serves as the input directional coupler. A water-cooled tube array is being designed for a coupler capable high-power cw operation. A theoretical power gain of > 10 is possible using the 63.5 mm HE{sub 11} version at 53 GHz. Low power measurements have been performed to confirm the operation and > 1.5 MW high power tests using a 200 kW gyrotron are expected in the near future.

  5. Barrier transmission map of one-dimensional nonlinear split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials: Bright, dark, and gray soliton resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurn, Arthur R.

    2013-10-01

    The barrier transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional chain of optically linear split-ring resonators (SRRs) containing a barrier composed of optically nonlinear split-ring resonators are studied. (This is an analogy to the quantum mechanical problem of the resonant transmission of a particle through a finite barrier potential.) The SRRs are idealized as inductor-resistor-capacitor-equivalent resonator circuits where the capacitance is either from a linear dielectric medium (optically linear SRRs) or from a Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric medium (optically nonlinear SRRs). The SRRs are arrayed in a one-dimensional chain and interact with one another through weak nearest-neighbor mutually inductive couplings. The transmission maxima of the SRR barrier problem are studied as they are located in a two-dimensional parameter space characterizing the linear mutually inductive coupling and the nonlinear Kerr dielectric of the SRRs of the barrier. The result is a two-dimensional map giving the conditions for the existence of the resonant-barrier modes that are excited in the transmission process. The various lines of transmission maxima in the two-dimensional plot are associated with different types of resonant excitations in the barrier. The map is similar to one recently made in McGurn [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.77.115105 77, 115105 (2008)] for the resonant-transmission modes of a nonlinear barrier in a photonic crystal waveguide. The SRR problem, however, is quite different from the photonic crystal problem as the nonlinear difference equations of the two systems are different in the nature of their nonlinear interactions. Consequently, the results for the two systems are briefly compared. The transmission maxima of the SRR system occur along lines in the two-dimensional plot, which are associated with modes resonantly excited in the barrier. These lines of resonant modes either originate as a simple evolution from the resonant modes of the

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of optical gyroscopes based on fiber ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-ying; Xue, Chen-yang; Cui, Xiao-wen; Cui, Dan-feng; Wei, Li-ping; Wang, Yong-hua; Li, Yan-na

    2014-12-01

    The research on gyroscopes has lasted for a long time, but there is not a thorough analysis of them. In this paper, a detailed theoretical analysis of fiber ring gyroscope and its gyroscope effect were presented, the performance characteristics of optical resonator gyroscope ranging from transmission function Tfrr, Finesse, Q-factor, the gyro sensitivity, signal noise ratio, random walk to dynamic range are all deduced in detail. In addition, a large number of experiments have been done to verify the deduced theoretical results. Simulating the relevance of dQ and turn number of fiber ring, analyzing the frequency difference of two counter transmitted waves (CW and CCW) of the rotated system, make the conclusion that with the increase of turn number of ring, the resonance depth increased while the dQ value decreased, obtain a high sensitivity of 0.210/h, random walk of 0.00350/√h, and Q factor of 8×106. Moreover, in the digital frequency locked dual rotation gyro experiments, obvious step effect was observed. And the experimental line of frequency difference is very agreement with the theoretical line. The research provides a good theoretical and experimental basis for the study of gyroscopes.

  7. Partially slotted silicon ring resonator covered with electro-optical polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Patrick; Mai, Christian; Stolarek, David; Lischke, Stefan; Kupijai, Sebastian; Villringer, Claus; Pulwer, Silvio; Heinrich, Friedhelm; Bauer, Joachim; Meister, Stefan; Knoll, Dieter; Casalboni, Mauro; Schrader, Sigurd

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present for the first time a partially slotted silicon ring resonator (PSRR) covered with an electro-optical polymer (Poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(Disperse Red 1 acrylate)]). The PSRR takes advantage of both a highly efficient vertical slot waveguide based phase shifter and a low loss strip waveguide in a single ring. The device is realized on 200 mm silicon-on-insulator wafers using 248 nm DUV lithography and covered with the electro-optic polymer in a post process. This silicon-organic hybrid ring resonator has a small footprint, high optical quality factor, and high DC device tunability. A quality factor of up to 105 and a DC device tunability of about 700 pm/V is experimentally demonstrated in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1590 nm. Further, we compare our results with state-of-the-art silicon-organic hybrid devices by determining the poling efficiency. It is demonstrated that the active PSRR is a promising candidate for efficient optical switches and tunable filters.

  8. Multiplexed infrared photodetection using resonant radio-frequency circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Lu, R.; Roberts, C.; Gong, S.; Allen, J. W.; Allen, M. S.; Wenner, B. R.; Wasserman, D.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a room-temperature semiconductor-based photodetector where readout is achieved using a resonant radio-frequency (RF) circuit consisting of a microstrip split-ring resonator coupled to a microstrip busline, fabricated on a semiconductor substrate. The RF resonant circuits are characterized at RF frequencies as function of resonator geometry, as well as for their response to incident IR radiation. The detectors are modeled analytically and using commercial simulation software, with good agreement to our experimental results. Though the detector sensitivity is weak, the detector architecture offers the potential for multiplexing arrays of detectors on a single read-out line, in addition to high speed response for either direct coupling of optical signals to RF circuitry, or alternatively, carrier dynamics characterization of semiconductor, or other, material systems.

  9. NGC 7217: A Spheroid-dominated, Early-Type Resonance Ring Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, R.; van Driel, W.; Braine, J.; Combes, F.; Wakamatsu, K.; Sofue, Y.; Tomita, A.

    1995-09-01

    . The ring is also where we find the H I gas to be concentrated. The galaxy is very gas poor (MH I/L0B = 0.024 Msun/Lsun, B for its morphological type. The H I rotational velocities agree well with published and our new Hα-values. Fourier analysis reveals a very weak possible oval distortion in the stellar mass distribution. Using the I-band light distribution to define the potential, we carried out simulations of gas streaming with no self- gravity. A model with a bulge-to-disk mass ratio of 2.4 reproduces the observed optical ring morphology very well. This suggests to us that in spite of the extreme weakness of the observed nonaxisymmetry of this galaxy, this nonaxisymmetry is still sufficient to torque the gas into the usual resonance rings identified in other, more obviously barred galaxies. An additional noteworthy feature that we have identified in a B - I color index map is a symmetric, nuclear dust ring 17" in angular diameter. Other dust lanes are seen mainly on the near side of the galaxy.

  10. Tunable plasmon resonance in the nanobars and split ring resonator(SRR) composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiqing; Li, Hongjian; Xiao, Gang; Chen, Qiao

    2016-10-01

    We have proposed a multi-band metamaterials composed of bars and planer SRR. There are three sharp peaks in the transmission spectra in the visible and near-infrared region, we find that the transmission spectra are highly tunable as the coupling and geometric parameters modifying, especially the third peak in the near-infrared region. When the gap distance between the two nanobar g1<14 nm, the original first peak will split, a new dip and peak will exist, which is results from the high-order plasmon resonance. When introducing asymmetry to the planer SRR, a new sharp peak accompany with a new sharp dip exists in the original second peak, which is originated from the strong electric field resonance. We also find that the proposed structures with sensing sensitivity of ~467 nm/RIU, which can be used for plasmonic sensor.

  11. Application of RF-MEMS-based split ring resonators (SRRs) to the implementation of reconfigurable stopband filters: a review.

    PubMed

    Martín, Ferran; Bonache, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, several strategies for the implementation of reconfigurable split ring resonators (SRRs) based on RF-MEMS switches are presented. Essentially three types of RF-MEMS combined with split rings are considered: (i) bridge-type RF-MEMS on top of complementary split ring resonators CSRRs; (ii) cantilever-type RF-MEMS on top of SRRs; and (iii) cantilever-type RF-MEMS integrated with SRRs (or RF-MEMS SRRs). Advantages and limitations of these different configurations from the point of view of their potential applications for reconfigurable stopband filter design are discussed, and several prototype devices are presented.

  12. Application of RF-MEMS-Based Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) to the Implementation of Reconfigurable Stopband Filters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Ferran; Bonache, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, several strategies for the implementation of reconfigurable split ring resonators (SRRs) based on RF-MEMS switches are presented. Essentially three types of RF-MEMS combined with split rings are considered: (i) bridge-type RF-MEMS on top of complementary split ring resonators CSRRs; (ii) cantilever-type RF-MEMS on top of SRRs; and (iii) cantilever-type RF-MEMS integrated with SRRs (or RF-MEMS SRRs). Advantages and limitations of these different configurations from the point of view of their potential applications for reconfigurable stopband filter design are discussed, and several prototype devices are presented. PMID:25474378

  13. All-optical tuning of a magnetic-fluid-filled optofluidic ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Shi, Lei; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Zheqi; Pu, Shengli; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-08-21

    An all-optical tunable optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The all-optical control of a silica microresonator is highly attractive, but it is difficult to realize because of the relatively weak Kerr effect and the absence of a plasma dispersion effect of silica. Here, we infuse a silica microcapillary-based optofluidic ring resonator with a magnetic fluid, into which pump light is injected by a fiber taper. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed in the magnetic fluid produce a strong pump light absorption, and this leads to a resonance shift of the silica microresonator due to the photothermal effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scheme for all-optical tuning of an OFRR. A tuning sensitivity of up to 0.15 nm mW(-1) and a tuning range of 3.3 nm are achieved. With such excellent performance, the magnetic-fluid-filled OFRR has great potential in filtering, sensing, and signal processing applications. PMID:24941312

  14. Plasmon-Induced Transparency by Hybridizing Concentric-Twisted Double Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Parvinnezhad Hokmabadi, Mohammad; Philip, Elizabath; Rivera, Elmer; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2015-01-01

    As a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency, plasmon induced transparency (PIT) has attracted great attention by mitigating otherwise cumbersome experimental implementation constraints. Here, through theoretical design, simulation and experimental validation, we present a novel approach to achieve and control PIT by hybridizing two double split ring resonators (DSRRs) on flexible polyimide substrates. In the design, the large rings in the DSRRs are stationary and mirror images of each other, while the small SRRs rotate about their center axes. Counter-directional rotation (twisting) of the small SRRs is shown to lead to resonance shifts, while co-directional rotation results in splitting of the lower frequency resonance and emergence of a PIT window. We develop an equivalent circuit model and introduce a mutual inductance parameter M whose sign is shown to characterize the existence or absence of PIT response from the structure. This model attempts to provide a quantitative measure of the physical mechanisms underlying the observed PIT phenomenon. As such, our findings can support the design of several applications such as optical buffers, delay lines, and ultra-sensitive sensors. PMID:26507006

  15. Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin

    2016-01-01

    We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.

  16. Symmetric and Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators for Biosensing at Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Guillermo; Peralta, Xomalin

    2015-03-01

    Food allergies have become a major health concern around the world. Peanut allergies are particularly important because they affect over 5 million people in the United States. We are proposing to develop a metamaterial-based sensor for peanut allergens. The detection mechanism we will tap into is the change in a metamaterial's resonant response due to the presence of a biomolecule in the gap region. Using a commercial-grade simulator based on the finite-difference time-domain method, we have simulated the terahertz transmission and reflection spectra of three different split-ring resonator designs with and without a biomolecule present. By modifying the overall symmetry of the resonator and the geometry of the gap region, we have modified the resonant response and increased its sensitivity. The increased sensitivity is demonstrated by repeating the simulations with a layer of peroxidase conjugated immunoglobulin G (PX-IgG) in the gap region and quantifying the resulting resonant shift. These results are the basis for the proposed allergen sensors. UTSA MBRS-RISE Research Training Program.

  17. Graphene-Gold Nano-ring antenna for Dual-resonance optical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabi, Ferdows B.; Mohaghegh, Mojtaba; Bazgir, Maryam; Arezoomand, Afsaneh Saee

    2016-01-01

    To achieve dual resonance qualification, we are suggested a sub-wavelength dual-ring Nano-antenna based on combination of Graphene and gold where Nano-Antenna with dual-resonance is attractive for spectroscopy and bio-sensing applications. The result shows that with these structures, we could be achieved dual-resonance characteristic of Infra red (IR) and optical regime. In addition, by biasing of the Graphene, we are attained a reconfigurable characteristic for our second resonance. Therefore, in this current research, the extinction, reflection and absorption cross section are studied for every structure and formation. For modeling the prototype Nano-antenna, SiN Substrate is selected with refractive index of 1.98 and silver with Palik optical characteristic for metal layer is modified. Simulation has been done with FDTD method. Of course, because of symmetry of the structure, the prototype Nano-antenna has similar manner for vertical or horizontal polarization. As a result, proposed Nano-antenna is useful for THz medical spectroscopy with simple method of designing and second frequency controlling only with graphene biasing. Here, we are debated about graphene placement and biasing interaction on the bonding and anti-bonding mode where we show that the gold and graphene interaction will affect on E-field distribution by making dipole or quad resonance.

  18. Optical waveguide biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator with Vernier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xianxin; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been extensively investigated owing to its various advantages and many potential applications. In this article, we demonstrate a novel highly sensitive biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and ring resonator with the Vernier effect using wavelength interrogation. The experimental results show that the sensitivity reached 1,960 nm/RIU and 19,100 nm/RIU for sensors based on MZI alone and cascaded MZI-ring with Vernier effect, respectively. A biosensing application was also demonstrated by monitoring the interaction between goat and antigoat immunoglobulin G (IgG) pairs. This integrated high sensitivity biosensor has great potential for medical diagnostic applications.

  19. Optical-biased modulator employing a single silicon micro-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Yu, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical-biased modulator employing a single silicon micro-ring resonator. By adjusting optical bias, the micro-ring modulator is capable of generating several modulation formats, namely, on-off keying, binary phase shift keying and reversed on-off keying, at the speed of 0.4 Gbit/s with extinction ratio higher than 5 dB. Compared to the previous reported bias control approaches, the optical bias proposed in this study is a novel mechanism, which can be easily conducted without complicated integrated structures or redundant electrical devices. Meanwhile, optical bias can also effectively protect the vulnerable integrated silicon devices from possible damage induced by high direct current voltage.

  20. A proposal for optical WDM using embedded photonic crystal ring resonator with distributed coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasian, Mohammad Reza; Abedi, Kambiz

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an ultra-narrow band channel drop filter (CDF) based on embedded photonic crystal ring resonator with distributed coupling for optical wavelength division multiplexing is proposed and designed in which silicon rods arranged as square lattice. For this purpose, the influences of variation of the central ring radius, on the operating wavelength have been investigated. Calculation results show that the efficiency of 88% with quality factor of 5740, 98% with quality factor of 4889 and 98% with quality factor of 4798 at operating wavelength of 1550 nm can be achieved. Consequently the channel band width and channel spacing are reduced to 270 pm and 600 pm respectively, which will be suitable for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical network systems with 600 pm channel spacing. Simulations have been performed using 2-D finite difference time-domain (2D FDTD) calculations.

  1. Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact photonic crystal ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jibo; Wang, Junqin; Jiang, Junzhen; Chen, Xiyao; Li, Hui; Qiu, Yishen; Qiang, Zexuan

    2009-12-20

    New all-optical NOT and NOR logic gates based on a single ultracompact photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) have been proposed. The PCRR was formed by removing the line defect along the GammaM direction instead of the conventional GammaX direction in a square-pattern cylindrical silicon-rod photonic crystal structure. The behavior of the proposed logic gates is qualitatively analyzed with the theory of beam interference and then numerically investigated by use of the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. No nonlinear material is required with less than a 2.2 microm effective ring radius. The wavelengths of the input signal and the probe signal are the same. This new device can potentially be used in on-chip photonic logic-integrated circuits. PMID:20029593

  2. Optical vortices generated by a PANDA ring resonator for drug trapping and delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Suwanpayak, Nathaporn; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Teeka, Chat; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel drug delivery system (DDS) by using a PANDA ring resonator to form, transmit and receive the microscopic volume by controlling some suitable ring parameters. The optical vortices (gradient optical field/well) can be generated and used to form the trapping tool in the same way as the optical tweezers. The microscopic volume (drug) can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the wavelength router or network. In principle, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which has been reviewed. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is called transceiver, in which the use of such a system for microscopic volume (drug volume) trapping and transportation (delivery) can be realized. PMID:21326646

  3. Rotation and conversion of transmission mode based on a rotatable elliptical core ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Shu-Jing; He, Xing-Dao

    2016-06-01

    A compact plasmonic waveguide system consisting of a rotating elliptical core ring (ECR) coupled two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides is proposed. Influences of the eccentricity and rotation angle of the elliptical core on the transmission characteristics are studied in detail, by using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. Compared with circular core in ring resonator, the elliptical core will lead to the asymmetric field distributions of intrinsic mode. Based on this, a 1×2 splitter is designed, in which the beam-splitting ratio can be adjusted by changing the eccentricity of the elliptical core. In addition, we find that the intrinsic mode of ECR rotate with elliptical core and gradually convert to its orthogonal mode. Separation of the pair orthogonal modes increases with growth of the eccentricity of the elliptical core. And, the higher order intrinsic mode corresponds to the shorter rotation angle of mode conversion.

  4. Efficient second-harmonic generation using a semiconductor tapered amplifier in a coupled ring-resonator geometry.

    PubMed

    Skoczowsky, Danilo; Jechow, Andreas; Menzel, Ralf; Paschke, Katrin; Erbert, Götz

    2010-01-15

    A new approach for efficient second-harmonic generation using diode lasers is presented. The experimental setup is based on a tapered amplifier operated in a ring resonator that is coupled to a miniaturized enhancement ring resonator containing a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Frequency locking of the diode laser emission to the resonance frequency of the enhancement cavity is realized purely optically, resulting in stable, single-frequency operation. Blue light at 488 nm with an output power of 310 mW is generated with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 18%. PMID:20081978

  5. Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on thermally tunable micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eight-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on micro-ring resonators (MRRs). The effective footprint of the device is about 1000×760 μm2. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18 nm. The adjacent channel crosstalk ranges from -19.02 dB to -8.29 dB. With the help of the multi-wire structure heaters, compact footprint and high tuning efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Therefore, the minimum average tuning efficiency is 2.723 mW/nm.

  6. Linear Coupling Resonance Correction of the J-PARC Main Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Junpei; Igarashi, Susumu; Molodozhentsev, Alexander; Someya, Hirohiko

    We have constructed skew quadrupole magnets (SQ) for the correction of linear coupling resonances (LCR) at the main ring (MR) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The LCR at Qx + Qy = 43 will cause a significant beam loss at the design beam power of 750 kW. In order to correct the LCR, parameters of the SQs are searched through beam based studies with low intensity by setting the MR operating tune at the LCR. The LCR was successfully corrected and a significant improvement of the beam survival ratio was achieved. A detail design specification and field measurements of the SQs including beam study results are presented.

  7. Fine golden rings: Tunable surface plasmon resonance from assembled nanorods in topological defects of liquid crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Elaine; Xia, Yu; Ferrier, Jr., Robert C.; Kim, Hye -Na; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Kamien, Randall D.; Composto, Russell J.; Yang, Shu

    2016-02-08

    Unprecedented, reversible, and dynamic control over an assembly of gold nanorods dispersed in liquid crystals (LC) is demonstrated. The LC director field is dynamically tuned at the nanoscale using microscale ring confinement through the interplay of elastic energy at different temperatures, thus fine-tuning its core replacement energy to reversibly sequester nanoscale inclusions at the microscale. As a result, this leads to shifts of 100 nm or more in the surface plasmon resonance peak, an order of magnitude greater than any previous work with AuNR composites.

  8. Fine Golden Rings: Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonance from Assembled Nanorods in Topological Defects of Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elaine; Xia, Yu; Ferrier, Robert C; Kim, Hye-Na; Gharbi, Mohamed A; Stebe, Kathleen J; Kamien, Randall D; Composto, Russell J; Yang, Shu

    2016-04-13

    Unprecedented, reversible, and dynamic control over an assembly of gold nanorods dispersed in liquid crystals (LC) is demonstrated. The LC director field is dynamically tuned at the nanoscale using microscale ring confinement through the interplay of elastic energy at different temperatures, thus fine-tuning its core replacement energy to reversibly sequester nanoscale inclusions at the microscale. This leads to shifts of 100 nm or more in the surface plasmon resonance peak, an order of magnitude greater than any previous work with AuNR composites.

  9. Tunable filter and optical buffer based on dual plasmonic ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boxun; Li, Hongjian; Zeng, Lili; Zhan, Shiping; Cao, Guangtao; He, Zhihui; Yang, Hui

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the realization of on chip plasmon-induced transparency using dual ring resonators coupling to metal-dielectric-metal bus waveguide. The theoretical results agree well with the finite-difference time-domain simulative ones. Moreover, by adjusting the radius, width, as well as the coupling distance can efficiently operate the wavelengths and bandwidths of our filter. In theory, we propose a feasible method to improve the trade-off between transmission and quality factor. Finally, the ultra-compact structure possesses slow light effect and manifests a low group velocity, which provides a guideline to control the light and has potential application in optical filter and optical buffer.

  10. A Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide-Coupled Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shu-Bin; Luo, Liang; Xue, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    A refractive index sensor composed of two straight metal-insulator-metal waveguides and a ring resonator is presented. One end of each straight waveguide is sealed and the other end acts as port. The transmission spectrum and magnetic field distribution of this sensor structure are simulated using finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). The results show that an asymmetric line shape is observed in the transmission spectrum, and that the transmission spectrum shows a filter-like behavior. The quality factor and sensitivity are taken to characterize its sensing performance and filter properties. How structural parameters affect the sensing performance and filter properties is also studied. PMID:26610491

  11. An efficient optical biochemical sensor based on a polyatomic photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daobin; Liu, Yanjun; Yuan, Lihua; Lei, Jingli; Li, Xiaoxiao; wu, Gang; Hou, Shanglin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce and investigate a design concept for a polyatomic photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). In contrast to conventional sensors, this PCRR comprises two different branching waveguides (WG), which are all oriented in the same lattice direction, but with different optical propagation properties due to the binary nature of the diatomic square lattice. Based on this new scheme, an on-chip biochemical sensor is proposed. Electromagnetic analysis, PWE and FDTD numerical techniques, were used to investigate the sensing performance. Our results show that such a sensor can efficiently detect small changes in the refractive index within the sensing area.

  12. Chaotic parametric soliton-like pulses in ferromagnetic-film active ring resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, S. V. Golova, T. M.; Morozova, M. A.; Romanenko, D. V.; Seleznev, E. P.; Sysoev, I. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.

    2015-10-15

    The generation of quasi-periodic sequences of parametric soliton-like pulses in an active ring resonator with a ferromagnetic film via the three-wave parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave is studied theoretically and experimentally. These dissipative structures form in time due to the competition between the cubic nonlinearity caused by parametric coupling between spin waves and the time dispersion caused by the resonant cavity that is present in a self-oscillatory system. The development of dynamic chaos due to the parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave results in irregular behavior of a phase. However, this behavior does not break a quasi-periodic pulse sequence when the gain changes over a wide range. The generated soliton-like pulses have a chaotic nature, which is supported by the maximum Lyapunov exponent estimated from experimental time series.

  13. Damping spurious harmonic resonances in the APS storage ring beam chamber.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.

    1999-04-20

    The APS storage ring beam chamber has been storing the beam up to 100 mA successfully. However, in some beam chambers, spurious signals corrupted the BPM outputs. The cause of the unwanted signals was investigated, and it was found that transverse electric (TE) longitudinal harmonic resonances of the beam chamber were responsible. The beam chambers have small height in the area between the ovid beam chamber and the antechamber. The structure behaves like a ridge waveguide so that the cut-off frequency of the waveguide mode becomes lower. The pass-band then includes the frequency around 350 MHz that is important to the beam position monitors (BPMs). The spurious harmonic resonances are damped with two types of dampers to restore the useful signals of the BPMs; coaxial loop dampers and lossy ceramic slab loading are used.

  14. Optical Analog to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Cascaded Ring-Resonator Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Hua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical methods has shown great potential in slow light and sensing applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a coupled resonator induced transparency system with three cascaded ring coupled resonators in a silicon chip. The structure was modeled by using the transfer matrix method. Influences of various parameters including coupling ratio of couplers, waveguide loss and additional loss of couplers on transmission characteristic and group index have been investigated theoretically and numerically in detail. The transmission character of the system was measured by the vertical grating coupling method. The enhanced quality factor reached 1.22 × 105. In addition, we further test the temperature performance of the device. The results provide a new method for the manipulation of light in highly integrated optical circuits and sensing applications. PMID:27463720

  15. Data mining with unsupervised clustering using photonic micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2013-09-01

    Data is commonly moved through optical fiber in modern data centers and may be stored optically. We propose an optical method of data mining for future data centers to enhance performance. For example, in clustering, a form of unsupervised learning, we propose that parameters corresponding to information in a database are converted from analog values to frequencies, as in the brain's neurons, where similar data will have close frequencies. We describe the Wilson-Cowan model for oscillating neurons. In optics we implement the frequencies with micro ring resonators. Due to the influence of weak coupling, a group of resonators will form clusters of similar frequencies that will indicate the desired parameters having close relations. Fewer clusters are formed as clustering proceeds, which allows the creation of a tree showing topics of importance and their relationships in the database. The tree can be used for instance to target advertising and for planning.

  16. Reconfigurable electro-optical directed-logic circuit using carrier-depletion micro-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ciyuan; Gao, Weilu; Soref, Richard; Robinson, Jacob T; Xu, Qianfan

    2014-12-15

    Here we demonstrate a reconfigurable electro-optical directed-logic circuit based on a regular array of integrated optical switches. Each 1×1 optical switch consists of a micro-ring resonator with an embedded lateral p-n junction and a micro-heater. We achieve high-speed on-off switching by applying electrical logic signals to the p-n junction. We can configure the operation mode of each switch by thermal tuning the resonance wavelength. The result is an integrated optical circuit that can be reconfigured to perform any combinational logic operation. As a proof-of-principle, we fabricated a multi-spectral directed-logic circuit based on a fourfold array of switches and showed that this circuit can be reconfigured to perform arbitrary two-input logic functions with speeds up to 3  GB/s.

  17. Investigation of a Fiberoptic Device Based on a Long Period Grating in a Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Corcione, Cinzia; Troia, Benedetto; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-01-01

    A fiberoptic architecture based on a ring resonator (RR) including a typical long period grating (LPG) was investigated. The interactions between the fundamental core mode (LP01 or HE11) coupled to the RR and the cladding mode (LP08), excited into the cavity by means of the LPG, allow a peculiar spectral response characterized by two splitting resonances to be achieved. The new LPGRR architecture is investigated theoretically and a mathematical modelling based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) is proposed. The theoretical results are compared with the experiments measured by an open-loop LPG, while the performance of the relative LPGRR was estimated by a theoretical parametric analysis. Finally, an overview of the possible LPGRR sensing applications is provided by investigating the features of a strain sensor operating in different environmental conditions. PMID:27563910

  18. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Gneiding, N.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U.; Shamonina, E.

    2014-10-28

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  19. Thermal analysis of multifacet-mirror ring resonator for XUV free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, B.D.; Goldstein, J.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    XUV (10 nm {le} {lambda} {le} 100 nm) free-electron lasers (FELs) are potentially important light sources for advanced lithography and materials applications. The average power of an XUV FEL oscillator may be limited by thermal loading of the resonator mirrors. We analyze the requirements for the thermal performance of the mirrors of a metal, multifacet-mirror ring resonator for use at 12 nm. We use analytical methods and numerical approaches which include simulations with the 3-D FEL code FELEX. Thermal distortion of mirror surfaces leads to optical wavefront aberrations which reduce the focusability of the light beam in the gain medium (wiggler/electron beam) and limit the laser performance. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Novel Sensors Based on the Symmetry Properties of Split Ring Resonators (SRRs)

    PubMed Central

    Naqui, Jordi; Durán-Sindreu, Miguel; Martín, Ferran

    2011-01-01

    The symmetry properties of split ring resonators (SRRs) are exploited for the implementation of novel sensing devices. The proposed structure consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with movable SRRs on the back substrate side. It is shown that if the SRRs are placed with the slits aligned with the symmetry plane of the CPW, the structure is transparent to signal propagation. However, if the symmetry is broken, a net axial magnetic field can be induced in the inner region of the SRRs, and signal propagation is inhibited at resonance. The proposed structures can be useful as alignment sensors, position sensors and angle sensors. This novel sensing principle is validated through experiment. PMID:22164031

  1. Insect-inspired wing actuation structures based on ring-type resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsman, Caspar T.; Goosen, Johannes F. L.; van Keulen, Fred

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we illustrate and study the opportunities of resonant ring type structures as wing actuation mechanisms for a flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). Various design alternatives are presented and studied based on computational and physical models. Insects provide an excellent source of inspiration for the development of the wing actuation mechanisms for flapping wing MAVs. The insect thorax is a structure which in essence provides a mechanism to couple the wing muscles to the wings while offering weight reduction through application of resonance, using tailored elasticity. The resonant properties of the thorax are a very effective way to reducing the power expenditure of wing movement. The wing movement itself is fairly complex and is guided by a set of control muscles and thoracic structures which are present in proximity of the wing root. The development of flapping wing MAVs requires a move away from classical structures and actuators. The use of gears and rotational electric motors is hard to justify at the small scale. Resonant structures provide a large design freedom whilst also providing various options for actuation. The move away from deterministic mechanisms offers possibilities for mass reduction.

  2. Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Carolin; Puentes, Margarita; Maasch, Matthias; Hübner, Frank; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J.; Damm, Christian; Jakoby, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W. PMID:27618050

  3. Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Carolin; Puentes, Margarita; Maasch, Matthias; Hübner, Frank; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J; Damm, Christian; Jakoby, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W. PMID:27618050

  4. Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Carolin; Puentes, Margarita; Maasch, Matthias; Hübner, Frank; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J; Damm, Christian; Jakoby, Rolf

    2016-09-08

    Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W.

  5. Performance of SOI Bragg Grating Ring Resonator for Nonlinear Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; Troia, Benedetto; Perri, Anna Gina; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a spectroscopic sensor formed by a silicon-on-insulator waveguiding Bragg grating ring resonator working in linear and non-linear regime is proposed. In linear regime, the device shows a spectral response characterized by a photonic band gap (PBG). Very close to the band gap edges, the resonant structure exhibits split modes having a splitting magnitude equal to the PBG spectral extension, whose characteristics can be exploited to obtain a RI optical sensor almost insensitive to the fabrication tolerances and environmental perturbations. When the device operates in nonlinear regime, exactly in the spectral region showing the split resonant modes, the RI sensing performance is strongly improved with respect to the linear regime. This improvement, demonstrated by taking into account all the non-linear effects excited in the integrated silicon structure (i.e., Two Photon Absorption (TPA), TPA-induced Free Carrier Absorption, plasma dispersion, Self-Phase-Modulation and Cross-Phase-Modulation effects as induced by Kerr nonlinearity) as well as the deleterious thermal and stress effects, allows enhancing the performance of the RI split mode resonant sensors, while achieving good immunity to the fabrication tolerances and environmental perturbations. The improvement in terms of sensor resolution can be at least one order of magnitude, still without using optimal parameters. PMID:25171123

  6. Resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled plasmonic ring dimer-rod nanosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2015-09-01

    Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.

  7. Resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled plasmonic ring dimer-rod nanosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2015-09-21

    Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.

  8. Design and fabrication of a 20 MHz pn-diode silicon ring resonator with in-plane vibration mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Nishino, Tomoki; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report a new microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator based on the pn-diode principle. The pn-diode-based resonator can eliminate the narrow gap that conventional electrostatic MEMS resonators need between driving electrodes. This is expected to solve several serious problems related to fabrication, packaging, and lifetime. However, the resonators previously reported had pn-diodes formed in the vertical direction. Because the resonant frequency is determined by the thickness of the resonator plate, the resonant frequency in formed resonators cannot be changed in the same chip. To solve this problem, we newly design a pn-diode resonator with a lateral vibration. Because the resonant frequency is determined by plate width, this new resonator can provide various resonators with different frequencies in a chip, which is most suitable for the integration of MEMS resonators with electronic circuits. Our research objective at present is related to design and fabrication. By using a simulator, we design a ring resonator of 20 MHz. In the fabrication, we develop a technique of using ion implantation to form a 3-µm-thick pn-diode. The results shown here are very useful for improving the MEMS resonators.

  9. Input impedance of microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Using Richmond's reaction integral equation, an expression is derived for the input impedance of microstrip patch antennas excited by either a microstrip line or a coaxial probe. The effects of the finite substrate thickness, a dielectric protective cover, and associated surface waves are properly included by the use of the exact dyadic Green's function. Using the present formulation the input impedance of a rectangular microstrip antenna is determined and compared with experimental and earlier calculated results.

  10. Self-oscillation of standing spin wave in ring resonator with proportional-integral-derivative control

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, B.; Urazuka, Y.; Chen, H.; Oyabu, S.; Otsuki, H.; Tanaka, T. Matsuyama, K.

    2014-05-07

    We report on numerical analysis on self-oscillation of standing spin wave excited in a nanostructured active ring resonator, consists of a ferromagnetic nanowire with perpendicular anisotropy. The confined resonant modes are along the nanowire length. A positive feedback with proportional-integral-derivative gain control was adopted in the active ring. Stable excitation of the 1st order standing spin wave has been demonstrated with micromagnetic simulations, taking into account the thermal effect with a random field model. The stationary standing spin wave with a pre-determined set variable of precession amplitude was attained within 20 ns by optimizing the proportional-integral-derivative gain control parameters. The result indicates that a monochromatic oscillation frequency f{sub osc} is extracted from the initial thermal fluctuation state and selectively amplified with the positive feedback loop. The obtained f{sub osc} value of 5.22 GHz practically agrees with the theoretical prediction from dispersion relation of the magneto static forward volume wave. It was also confirmed that the f{sub osc} change due to the temperature rise can be compensated with an external perpendicular bias field H{sub b}. The observed quick compensation time with an order of nano second suggests the fast operation speed in the practical device application.

  11. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR)-based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  12. Selective and reversible ammonia gas detection with nanoporous film functionalized silicon photonic micro-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Yebo, Nebiyu A; Sree, Sreeprasanth Pulinthanathu; Levrau, Elisabeth; Detavernier, Christophe; Hens, Zeger; Martens, Johan A; Baets, Roel

    2012-05-21

    Portable, low cost and real-time gas sensors have a considerable potential in various biomedical and industrial applications. For such applications, nano-photonic gas sensors based on standard silicon fabrication technology offer attractive opportunities. Deposition of high surface area nano-porous coatings on silicon photonic sensors is a means to achieve selective, highly sensitive and multiplexed gas detection on an optical chip. Here we demonstrate selective and reversible ammonia gas detection with functionalized silicon-on-insulator optical micro-ring resonators. The micro-ring resonators are coated with acidic nano-porous aluminosilicate films for specific ammonia sensing, which results in a reversible response to NH(3)with selectivity relative to CO(2). The ammonia detection limit is estimated at about 5 ppm. The detectors reach a steady response to NH(3) within 30 and return to their base level within 60 to 90 seconds. The work opens perspectives on development of nano-photonic sensors for real-time, non-invasive, low cost and light weight biomedical and industrial sensing applications.

  13. Fully Programmable Ring-Resonator-Based Integrated Photonic Circuit for Phase Coherent Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Anjali; Toliver, Paul; Menendez, Ronald; Etemad, Shahab; Jackel, Janet; Young, Jeffrey; Banwell, Thomas; Little, B. E.; Chu, S. T.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wenlu; Hryniewicz, J.; Johnson, F.; Gill, D.; King, O.; Davidson, R.; Donovan, K.; Delfyett, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    A novel ring-resonator-based integrated photonic chip with ultrafine frequency resolution, providing programmable, stable, and accurate optical-phase control is demonstrated. The ability to manipulate the optical phase of the individual frequency components of a signal is a powerful tool for optical communications, signal processing, and RF photonics applications. As a demonstration of the power of these components, we report their use as programmable spectral-phase encoders (SPEs) and decoders for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-compatible optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA). Most important for the application here, the high resolution of these ring-resonator circuits makes possible the independent control of the optical phase of the individual tightly spaced frequency lines of a mode-locked laser (MLL). This unique approach allows us to limit the coded signal's spectral bandwidth, thereby allowing for high spectral efficiency (compared to other OCDMA systems) and compatibility with existing WDM systems with a rapidly reconfigurable set of codes. A four-user OCDMA system using polarization multiplexing is shown to operate at data rates of 2.5 Gb/s within a 40-GHz transparent optical window with a bit error rate (BER) better than 10-9 and a spectral efficiency of 25%.

  14. Design and optimization of polymer ring resonator modulators for analog microwave photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Efficient modulation of electrical signals onto an optical carrier remains the main challenge in full implementation of microwave photonic links (MPLs) for applications such as antenna remoting and wireless access networks. Current MPLs utilize Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) with sinusoidal transfer function as electro-optic modulators causing nonlinear distortions in the link. Recently ring resonator modulators (RRM) consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a base waveguide attracted interest to enhance linearity, reduce the size and power consumption in MPLs. Fabrication of a RRM is more challenging than the MZI not only in fabrication process but also in designing and optimization steps. Although RRM can be analyzed theoretically for MPLs, physical structures need to be designed and optimized utilizing simulation techniques in both optical and microwave regimes with consideration of specific material properties. Designing and optimization steps are conducted utilizing full-wave simulation software package and RRM function analyzed in both passive and active forms and confirmed through theoretical analysis. It is shown that RRM can be completely designed and analyzed utilizing full-wave simulation techniques and as a result linearity effect of the modulator on MPLs can be studied and optimized. The material nonlinearity response can be determined computationally and included in modulator design and readily adaptable for analyzing other materials such as silicon or structures where theoretical analysis is not easily achieved.

  15. DNA-assembled nanoparticle rings exhibit electric and magnetic resonances at visible frequencies.

    PubMed

    Roller, Eva-Maria; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Fedoruk, Michael; Schreiber, Robert; Govorov, Alexander O; Liedl, Tim

    2015-02-11

    Metallic nanostructures can be used to manipulate light on the subwavelength scale to create tailored optical material properties. Next to electric responses, artificial optical magnetism is of particular interest but difficult to achieve at visible wavelengths. DNA-self-assembly has proved to serve as a viable method to template plasmonic materials with nanometer precision and to produce large quantities of metallic objects with high yields. We present here the fabrication of self-assembled ring-shaped plasmonic metamolecules that are composed of four to eight single metal nanoparticles with full stoichiometric and geometric control. Scattering spectra of single rings as well as absorption spectra of solutions containing the metamolecules are used to examine the unique plasmonic features, which are compared to computational simulations. We demonstrate that the electric and magnetic plasmon resonance modes strongly correlate with the exact shape of the structures. In particular, our computations reveal the magnetic plasmons only for particle rings of broken symmetries, which is consistent with our experimental data. We stress the feasibility of DNA self-assembly as a method to create bulk plasmonic materials and metamolecules that may be applied as building blocks in plasmonic devices.

  16. High temperature spin dynamics in linear magnetic chains, molecular rings, and segments by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Mariani, Manuel; Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Corti, Maurizio; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Borsa, Ferdinando

    2015-05-01

    We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac)3NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac)3NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr8 closed ring and in Cr7Cd and Cr8Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.

  17. DNA-Assembled Nanoparticle Rings Exhibit Electric and Magnetic Resonances at Visible Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanostructures can be used to manipulate light on the subwavelength scale to create tailored optical material properties. Next to electric responses, artificial optical magnetism is of particular interest but difficult to achieve at visible wavelengths. DNA-self-assembly has proved to serve as a viable method to template plasmonic materials with nanometer precision and to produce large quantities of metallic objects with high yields. We present here the fabrication of self-assembled ring-shaped plasmonic metamolecules that are composed of four to eight single metal nanoparticles with full stoichiometric and geometric control. Scattering spectra of single rings as well as absorption spectra of solutions containing the metamolecules are used to examine the unique plasmonic features, which are compared to computational simulations. We demonstrate that the electric and magnetic plasmon resonance modes strongly correlate with the exact shape of the structures. In particular, our computations reveal the magnetic plasmons only for particle rings of broken symmetries, which is consistent with our experimental data. We stress the feasibility of DNA self-assembly as a method to create bulk plasmonic materials and metamolecules that may be applied as building blocks in plasmonic devices. PMID:25611357

  18. High temperature spin dynamics in linear magnetic chains, molecular rings, and segments by nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Mariani, Manuel; Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Corti, Maurizio Borsa, Ferdinando

    2015-05-07

    We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac){sub 3}NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr{sub 8} closed ring and in Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 8}Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.

  19. Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2012-11-19

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonator allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The performance analysis in both frequency and time domain validates that the proposed implementation provides a good approximation to an ideal fractional Hilbert transformer. This is also experimentally verified by an electrical S21 response characterization performed on a waveguide realization of a ring resonator. The waveguide-based structure allows the proposed Hilbert transformer to be integrated together with other building blocks on a photonic integrated circuit to create various system-level functionalities for on-chip microwave photonic signal processors. As an example, a circuit consisting of a splitter and a ring resonator has been realized which can perform on-chip phase control of microwave signals generated by means of optical heterodyning, and simultaneous generation of in-phase and quadrature microwave signals for a wide frequency range. For these functionalities, this simple and on-chip solution is considered to be practical, particularly when operating together with a dual-frequency laser. To our best knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration where ring resonators are employed to perform phase control functionalities for optical generation of microwave signals by means of optical heterodyning.

  20. Microstrip Patch Antenna And Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a microstrip feeder structure for supplying properly phased signals to each radiator element in a microstrip antenna array that may be utilized for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves. In one disclosed embodiment. the microstrip feeder structure includes a plurality of microstrip sections many or all of which preferably have an electrical length substantially equal to one-quarter wavelength at the antenna operating frequency. The feeder structure provides a low loss feed structure that may be duplicated multiple times through a set of rotations and translations to provide a radiating array of the desired size.

  1. Two-channel method for measuring losses in a ring optical resonator at a wavelength of 632.8 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarova, V. V.; Bessonov, A. S.; Bondarev, A. L.; Makeev, A. P.; Petrukhin, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    A two-channel method is proposed for measuring losses in an optical ring resonator (RR), in which eigenmodes (counterpropagating waves) are excited by means of a Zeeman ring He – Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The measured frequency splitting of the laser counterpropgating waves is used to determine the absolute value of losses in an exemplary RR. The value of losses in the measured RR is determined by comparing the resonance width of the output radiation intensity with the resonance width of the radiation intensity for an exemplary resonator. The algorithm of intensity resonance processing takes into account the distortions caused by the dynamic effect, which allows a significant increase in the accuracy (up to 1% – 2%) and sensitivity of the proposed method. The measured losses in the RR with a perimeter of 28 cm constitute 80 – 5000 ppm.

  2. Two-channel method for measuring losses in a ring optical resonator at a wavelength of 632.8 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarova, V. V.; Bessonov, A. S.; Bondarev, A. L.; Makeev, A. P.; Petrukhin, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    A two-channel method is proposed for measuring losses in an optical ring resonator (RR), in which eigenmodes (counterpropagating waves) are excited by means of a Zeeman ring He - Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The measured frequency splitting of the laser counterpropgating waves is used to determine the absolute value of losses in an exemplary RR. The value of losses in the measured RR is determined by comparing the resonance width of the output radiation intensity with the resonance width of the radiation intensity for an exemplary resonator. The algorithm of intensity resonance processing takes into account the distortions caused by the dynamic effect, which allows a significant increase in the accuracy (up to 1% - 2%) and sensitivity of the proposed method. The measured losses in the RR with a perimeter of 28 cm constitute 80 - 5000 ppm.

  3. First test of cold edgeless silicon microstrip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avati, V.; Boccone, V.; Borer, K.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Morelli, A.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Perea-Solano, B.; Tapprogge, S.

    2004-02-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors will provide the forward tracking in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. To allow efficient tracking closest to the beam (≈1 mm) these detectors should be sensitive up to their physical edge (i.e. edgeless). Edgeless (without guard rings) microstrip planar detectors can be operated at cryogenic temperatures (about 130° K) where leakage currents due to the active edge are drastically reduced. A silicon microstrip prototype, cut perpendicular to the strips, has been tested with a pion beam at CERN to study its efficiency close to the edge by using reference tracks from a simple silicon telescope. Results indicate that the detector measures tracks with good efficiency up to the physical edge of the silicon.

  4. Microstrip superconducting quantum interference device radio-frequency amplifier: Scattering parameters and input coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Kinion, D; Clarke, J

    2008-01-24

    The scattering parameters of an amplifier based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) are directly measured at 4.2 K. The results can be described using an equivalent circuit model of the fundamental resonance of the microstrip resonator which forms the input of the amplifier. The circuit model is used to determine the series capacitance required for critical coupling of the microstrip to the input circuit.

  5. Suppression of Nonlinear Interactions in Resonant Macroscopic Quantum Devices: The Example of the Solid-State Ring Laser Gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Gutty, Francois; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-05-09

    We report fine-tuning of nonlinear interactions in a solid-state ring laser gyroscope by vibrating the gain medium along the cavity axis. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that nonlinear interactions vanish for some values of the vibration parameters, leading to quasi-ideal rotation sensing. We eventually point out that our conclusions can be mapped onto other subfields of physics such as ring-shaped superfluid configurations, where nonlinear interactions could be tuned by using Feshbach resonance.

  6. Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter Q; Luxmoore, Isaac J; Mikhailov, Sergey A; Savostianova, Nadja A; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R

    2015-11-20

    Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light-matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ∼60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light-matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation.

  7. Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peter Q.; Luxmoore, Isaac J.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Savostianova, Nadja A.; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light–matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ∼60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light–matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation. PMID:26584781

  8. Formation of Janus and Epimetheus from Saturn's rings as coorbitals, thanks to Mimas' 2:3 inner Mean Motion Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurelien; El Moutamid, Maryame

    2016-10-01

    Janus and Epimetheus orbit Saturn at 151461 km on average, on mutual horseshoe orbits with orbital separation 50 km, exchanging position every 4 years. This configuration is unique and intriguing : Lissauer et al. (1985) have shown that their orbital separation should converge to zero in about 20 Myrs only, and no satisfactory model for the origin of this co-orbital resonance exists yet.Charnoz et al. (2010) have shown that Janus and Epimetheus probably formed from the spreading of the rings beyond the Roche radius. Here, we show that this happened when Mimas' 2:3 Lindblad Resonance, which used to confine the rings, receded past the Roche radius. This first explains the gap in mass and distance between Janus and Mimas, which is unexpected in the pyramidal regime of the ring spreading model (Crida & Charnoz 2012). Furthermore, at this time, the two capture sites of Mimas's 2:3 Corotation Resonance were full of ring material. We suggest that as the two capture sites were brought beyond the Roche radius, the captured material agglomerated into two bodies of ~1015 kg on the exact same orbit. These bodies then migrated outwards together due to their interaction with the rings, in mutual horseshoe orbits. The rings then spawn new small satellites, eventually accreted by the proto-Janus and the proto-Epimetheus. This excites their orbital separation, leading to today's configuration.

  9. Real-time and label-free ring-resonator monitoring of solid-phase recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Sabaté del Río, Jonathan; Steylaerts, Tim; Henry, Olivier Y F; Bienstman, Peter; Stakenborg, Tim; Van Roy, Wim; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2015-11-15

    In this work we present the use of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip featuring an array of 64 optical ring resonators used as refractive index sensors for real-time and label-free DNA detection. Single ring functionalisation was achieved using a click reaction after precise nanolitre spotting of specific hexynyl-terminated DNA capture probes to link to an azido-silanised chip surface. To demonstrate detectability using the ring resonators and to optimise conditions for solid-phase amplification, hybridisation between short 25-mer single stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments and a complementary capture probe immobilised on the surface of the ring resonators was carried out and detected through the shift in the resonant wavelength. Using the optimised conditions demonstrated via the solid-phase hybridisation, a 144-bp double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was then detected directly using recombinase and polymerase proteins through on-chip target amplification and solid-phase elongation of immobilised forward primers on specific rings, at a constant temperature of 37°C and in less than 60min, achieving a limit of detection of 7.8·10(-13)M (6·10(5) copies in 50µL). The use of an automatic liquid handler injection instrument connected to an integrated resealable chip interface (RCI) allowed programmable multiple injection protocols. Air plugs between different solutions were introduced to prevent intermixing and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) temperature controller minimised temperature based drifts.

  10. Real-time and label-free ring-resonator monitoring of solid-phase recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Sabaté del Río, Jonathan; Steylaerts, Tim; Henry, Olivier Y F; Bienstman, Peter; Stakenborg, Tim; Van Roy, Wim; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2015-11-15

    In this work we present the use of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip featuring an array of 64 optical ring resonators used as refractive index sensors for real-time and label-free DNA detection. Single ring functionalisation was achieved using a click reaction after precise nanolitre spotting of specific hexynyl-terminated DNA capture probes to link to an azido-silanised chip surface. To demonstrate detectability using the ring resonators and to optimise conditions for solid-phase amplification, hybridisation between short 25-mer single stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments and a complementary capture probe immobilised on the surface of the ring resonators was carried out and detected through the shift in the resonant wavelength. Using the optimised conditions demonstrated via the solid-phase hybridisation, a 144-bp double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was then detected directly using recombinase and polymerase proteins through on-chip target amplification and solid-phase elongation of immobilised forward primers on specific rings, at a constant temperature of 37°C and in less than 60min, achieving a limit of detection of 7.8·10(-13)M (6·10(5) copies in 50µL). The use of an automatic liquid handler injection instrument connected to an integrated resealable chip interface (RCI) allowed programmable multiple injection protocols. Air plugs between different solutions were introduced to prevent intermixing and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) temperature controller minimised temperature based drifts. PMID:26056956

  11. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  12. Utilizing a silicon-photonic micro-ring-resonator and multi-ring scheme for wavelength-switchable erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a stable and wavelength-switchable silicon-photonic erbium-doped fiber (EDF) triple-ring laser is proposed and demonstrated. In the experiment, the integration of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based grating coupler and silicon-micro-ring-resonator (SMRR) are coupled and connected to the proposed EDF triple-ring laser for generating wavelength. Here, the output wavelength can be adjusted in a wavelength range of 1529.8 –1561.8 nm with a 2.0 nm tuning step according to the free spectrum range (FSR) of the SMRR. Moreover, the stability performance of the output power and wavelength are also discussed and analyzed.

  13. Tunable Room Temperature THz Sources Based on Nonlinear Mixing in a Hybrid Optical and THz Micro-Ring Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Al-Amin, Chowdhury; Vabbina, Phani K.; Güney, Durdu Ö.; Pala, Nezih

    2015-01-01

    We propose and systematically investigate a novel tunable, compact room temperature terahertz (THz) source based on difference frequency generation in a hybrid optical and THz micro-ring resonator. We describe detailed design steps of the source capable of generating THz wave in 0.5–10 THz with a tunability resolution of 0.05 THz by using high second order optical susceptibility (χ(2)) in crystals and polymers. In order to enhance THz generation compared to bulk nonlinear material, we employ a nonlinear optical micro-ring resonator with high-Q resonant modes for infrared input waves. Another ring oscillator with the same outer radius underneath the nonlinear ring with an insulation of SiO2 layer supports the generated THz with resonant modes and out-couples them into a THz waveguide. The phase matching condition is satisfied by engineering both the optical and THz resonators with appropriate effective indices. We analytically estimate THz output power of the device by using practical values of susceptibility in available crystals and polymers. The proposed source can enable tunable, compact THz emitters, on-chip integrated spectrometers, inspire a broader use of THz sources and motivate many important potential THz applications in different fields. PMID:25800287

  14. Polarization-independent drop filters based on photonic crystal self-collimation ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiyao; Qiang, Zexuan; Zhao, Deyin; Li, Hui; Qiu, Yishen; Yang, Weiquan; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-10-26

    We report here a polarization-independent drop filter (PIDF) based on a photonic crystal self-collimation ring resonator (SCRR). Despite of the large birefringence associated with the polarization-dependent dispersion properties, we demonstrate a PIDF based on multiple-beam interference theory and polarization peak matching (PPM) technique. The PIDF performance was also investigated based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, with excellent agreement between the theory and the simulation. For the designed drop wavelength of 1550 nm, the polarization-independent free spectral range is about 36.1 nm, which covers the whole optical communication C-band window. The proposed PIDFs are highly desirable for applications in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). PMID:19997202

  15. Photonic drop splitters based on silicon photonic crystal cascaded self-collimation ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xi-Yao; Jiang, Jun-Zhen; Fu, Ping; Chen, Biao; Yang, Li-Hui; Liu, Jing-Ping; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the 1×5 optical splitters (OSs) based on 2D rod-type silicon photonic crystal embed cascaded self-collimation (SC) ring resonators (CSCRR) was proposed. The 1×5 OSs consist of eight beam splitters, which are formed by varying the radii of the rod. With self-collimation effect, we can manipulate the light's propagation in the OSs. Here we consider TM modes. Utilizing multiple-beam interference theory, the theoretical transmission spectra at different outputs were analysed. These transmission spectra can help us to set the radii of eight slitters properly, for we can control the light coming out from five ports with the light-intensity ratio we need. Meanwhile these outputs' transmission spectra were investigated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulative results have an agreement with the theoretical prediction. The 1×5 OSs will have practical applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  16. All-optical NOR and NAND gates based on photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Junjie; Xiao, Jun; Fan, Lin; Li, Xiaoxu; Hai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Chunbo

    2014-10-01

    We report a new configuration of all-optical logic gates based on two-dimensional (2D) square lattice photonic crystals (PCs) composed of silicon (Si) rods in Silica (SiO2). The proposed device is composed of cross-shaped waveguide and two photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs) without nonlinear materials and optical amplifiers. The gate has been simulated and analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) and plane wave expansion (PWE) methods. The simulation results show that the proposed all-optical logic gates could really function as NOR and NAND logic gates. This new device can potentially be used in large-scale optical integration and on-chip photonic logic integrated circuits.

  17. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits.

  18. A high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shi-liang; Wang, Wen-juan; Hu, Chun-hai

    2014-12-01

    A novel high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points (MRRTCP) is reported. Since the dielectric constant of Polyimide is highly sensible to the relative humidity of the environment, we choose the Polyimide (PI) as the moisture material. The effective refractive index of the sensing part of the sensor changes as the relative humidity of the environment changes, this leading to an obvious shift of the output spectrum. The sensing range of the relative humidity sensor is 0~100%RH, and the sensitivity is 0.0017μm/%RH, and the structure is relatively simple and could be used in micro-scale humidity sensing.

  19. Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galili, Michael; Yu, Xianbin

    2016-08-01

    A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required in the CS is realized in a photonic way by using a frequency comb and a dispersive element. The frequency comb is realized by shaping an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with an on-chip micro-ring resonator, which is beneficial to the integration of photonic CS. A proof-of-concept experiment for a two-tone signal acquisition with frequencies of 350 MHz and 1.25 GHz is experimentally demonstrated with a compression factor up to 16.

  20. Four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we report on a four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators in submicron SOI rib waveguides. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18.6 nm. The device can add/drop four optical channels in half C-band. When the device acts as an optical drop multiplexer, the channel spacing is about 1.5 nm, maximum extinction ratio is 23.75 dB, the minimum insertion loss 9.94 dB and the maximum adjacent channels crosstalk is -12.12 dB. When the device acts as an optical add multiplexer, the maximum extinction ratio is 28.72 dB and the minimum insertion loss 7.35 dB. The fabricated device has effectively and perfectly realized the signals upload and download.

  1. Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Bo Han; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces created artificially with metal nanostructures that are patterned on surfaces of different media have shown to possess “unusual” abilities to manipulate light. Limited by nanofabrication difficulties, so far most reported works have been based on 2D metal structures. We have recently developed an advanced e-beam process that allowed for the deposition of 3D nanostructures, namely vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs), which opens up another degree of freedom in the metasurface design. Here we explore the functionality of beam steering with phase modulation by tuning only the vertical dimension of the VSRRs and show that anomalous steering reflection of a wide range of angles can be accomplished with high extinction ratio using the finite-difference-time-domain simulation. We also demonstrate that metasurfaces made of 3D VSRRs can be made with roughly half of the footprint compared to that of 2D nano-rods, enabling high density integration of metal nanostructures. PMID:26054048

  2. Multi-channel silicon photonic receiver based on ring-resonators.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qing; Phang, Yu Ting; Tan, Chee Wei; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Ming Bin; Lo, Guo Qiang; Kwong, Dim Lee

    2010-06-21

    We demonstrated a high performance monolithically integrated multi-channel receiver fabricated on the SOI platform. This receiver is composed of a 1 x 8 Si-based ring-resonators filter and an array of high speed waveguided Ge-on-Si photodetectors. The optical channel spacing is about 1.5 nm. The responsivity of Ge-on-Si photodetector is about 1.0 A/W at the wavelength range of 1554 nm to 1564 nm. Each channel is capable of operating at a data rate of 20 Gbps, resulting in an aggregate data rate of 160 Gbps. At a BER of 1 x 10(-11), the receiver showed an optical input sensitivity of between -20 dBm and -21 dBm for each channel at 10 Gbps data rate. PMID:20588481

  3. Engineered second-harmonic diffraction from highly transmissive metasurfaces composed of complementary split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Chi; Wan, Mingjie; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigated the optical second-harmonic (SH) diffraction from metasurfaces based on gold complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs). We have demonstrated that the generated SH currents are mostly parallel to the incident polarization and are asymmetric with respect to the base of a CSRR, thus allowing us to impose the phase change of π on the SH radiation by reversing the CSRR's orientation. We verified this concept of geometry-induced nonlinear phase by designing and fabricating a nonlinear metasurface consisting of supercells of CSRRs with opposite orientations that can function as a SH beam splitter. The ability to control the phase of the local nonlinearity coupled with the high transmittance at both fundamental and SHG wavelengths makes the CSRRs good candidates for the construction of highly efficient three-dimensional nonlinear metamaterials and suitable for applications in nonlinear beam shaping. PMID:27367070

  4. Transmission enhancement through deep subwavelength apertures using connected split ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Ates, Damla; Cakmak, Atilla Ozgur; Colak, Evrim; Zhao, Rongkuo; Soukoulis, C M; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2010-02-15

    We report astonishingly high transmission enhancement factors through a subwavelength aperture at microwave frequencies by placing connected split ring resonators in the vicinity of the aperture. We carried out numerical simulations that are consistent with our experimental conclusions. We experimentally show higher than 70,000-fold extraordinary transmission through a deep subwavelength aperture with an electrical size of lambda/31 x lambda/12 (width x length), in terms of the operational wavelength. We discuss the physical origins of the phenomenon. Our numerical results predict that even more improvements of the enhancement factors are attainable. Theoretically, the approach opens up the possibility for achieving very large enhancement factors by overcoming the physical limitations and thereby minimizes the dependence on the aperture geometries.

  5. Overcoming the losses of a split ring resonator array with gain.

    PubMed

    Fang, Anan; Huang, Zhixiang; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2011-06-20

    We present a computational approach, allowing for a self-consistent treatment of a split ring resonator (SRR) array with a gain layer underneath. We apply three different pumping schemes on the gain layer: (1) homogeneously pumped isotropic gain, (2) homogeneously pumped isotropic gain with a shadow cast by the SRR and (3) anisotropic gain pumped in a selected direction only. We show numerically the magnetic losses of the SRR can be compensated by the gain. The difference on loss compensations among the three pumping schemes is analyzed by the electric field distribution. Studies also show the dielectric background of gain does not affect the loss compensation much for the gain only pumped in the direction parallel to the SRR plane.

  6. Overcoming the losses of a split ring resonator array with gain

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Anan; Huang Zhixiang; Koschny Thomas; Soukoulis Costas M

    2011-06-16

    We present a computational approach, allowing for a self-consistent treatment of a split ring resonator (SRR) array with a gain layer underneath. We apply three different pumping schemes on the gain layer: (1) homogeneously pumped isotropic gain, (2) homogeneously pumped isotropic gain with a shadow cast by the SRR and (3) anisotropic gain pumped in a selected direction only. We show numerically the magnetic losses of the SRR can be compensated by the gain. The difference on loss compensations among the three pumping schemes is analyzed by the electric field distribution. Studies also show the dielectric background of gain does not affect the loss compensation much for the gain only pumped in the direction parallel to the SRR plane.

  7. A 2-dimensional optical architecture for solving Hamiltonian path problem based on micro ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Nadim; Jalili, Saeed; Ahmadi, Vahid; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Goliaei, Sama

    2015-01-01

    The problem of finding the Hamiltonian path in a graph, or deciding whether a graph has a Hamiltonian path or not, is an NP-complete problem. No exact solution has been found yet, to solve this problem using polynomial amount of time and space. In this paper, we propose a two dimensional (2-D) optical architecture based on optical electronic devices such as micro ring resonators, optical circulators and MEMS based mirror (MEMS-M) to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, for undirected graphs in linear time. It uses a heuristic algorithm and employs n+1 different wavelengths of a light ray, to check whether a Hamiltonian path exists or not on a graph with n vertices. Then if a Hamiltonian path exists, it reports the path. The device complexity of the proposed architecture is O(n2).

  8. Asymmetric split-ring resonator-based biosensor for detection of label-free stress biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Suji; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an asymmetric split-ring resonator, metamaterial element, is presented as a biosensing transducer for detection of highly sensitive and label-free stress biomarkers. In particular, the two biomarkers, cortisol and α-amylase, are used for evaluating the sensitivity of the proposed biosensor. In case of cortisol detection, the competitive reaction between cortisol-bovine serum albumin and free cortisol is employed, while alpha-amylase is directly detected by its antigen-antibody reaction. From the experimental results, we find that the limit of detection and sensitivity of the proposed sensing device are about 1 ng/ml and 1.155 MHz/ng ml-1, respectively.

  9. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Normal-incidence left-handed metamaterials based on symmetrically connected split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Ma, Hua; Xia, Song; Yang, Yiming; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Qian; Chen, Chunhui

    2010-03-01

    Normal-incidence left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) based on symmetrically connected split-ring resonators (SC-SRRs) were proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The SC-SRR, which can be easily fabricated by conventional printed circuit board technology, is composed of metallic patterns connected by metalized vias through the dielectric substrate. Under normal incidence, SC-SRR exhibits strong magnetic response, leading to negative permeability. By combing SC-SRRs with metallic wires, a normal-incidence LHM was realized. Both the simulation and experiment results demonstrated left-handed properties of the SC-SRR/wire LHM. The design method paved new ways of realizing magnetic and even electric metamaterials.

  11. Electroinductive waves role in left-handed stacked complementary split rings resonators.

    PubMed

    Beruete, M; Aznabet, M; Navarro-Cía, M; El Mrabet, O; Falcone, F; Aknin, N; Essaaidi, M; Sorolla, M

    2009-02-01

    In this letter it is presented a Left-Handed Metamaterial design route based upon stacked arrays of screens made of complementary split rings resonators under normal incidence in the microwave regime. Computation of the dispersion diagram highlights the possibility to obtain backward waves provided the longitudinal lattice is small enough. The experimental results are in good agreement with the computed ones. The physics underlying the Left-Handed behavior is found to rely on electroinductive waves, playing the mutual capacitive coupling the major role to explain the phenomenon. Our route to Left-Handed metamaterial introduced in this paper based on stacking CSRRs screens can be scaled to millimeter and terahertz for future applications.

  12. Quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a split-ring-resonator-based left-handed coplanar waveguide.

    PubMed

    Veldes, G P; Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2011-04-01

    We study the propagation of quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a nonlinear left-handed coplanar waveguide coupled with split-ring resonators. By considering the relevant transmission line analog, we derive a nonlinear lattice model which is studied analytically by means of a quasidiscrete approximation. We derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and find that the system supports bright envelope soliton solutions in a relatively wide subinterval of the left-handed frequency band. We perform systematic numerical simulations, in the framework of the nonlinear lattice model, to study the propagation properties of the quasidiscrete microwave solitons. Our numerical findings are in good agreement with the analytical predictions, and suggest that the predicted structures are quite robust and may be observed in experiments.

  13. On-chip modulation for rotating sensing of gyroscope based on ring resonator coupled with Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jiayang; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-01-22

    An improving structure for resonance optical gyro inserting a Mach-Zehnder Interferomete (MZI) into coupler region between ring resonator and straight waveguide was proposed. The different reference phase shift parameters in the MZI arms are tunable by thermo-optic effect and can be optimized at every rotation angular rate point without additional phase bias. Four optimum paths are formed to make the gyroscope to work always at the highest sensitivity.

  14. On-chip modulation for rotating sensing of gyroscope based on ring resonator coupled with Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jiayang; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    An improving structure for resonance optical gyro inserting a Mach-Zehnder Interferomete (MZI) into coupler region between ring resonator and straight waveguide was proposed. The different reference phase shift parameters in the MZI arms are tunable by thermo-optic effect and can be optimized at every rotation angular rate point without additional phase bias. Four optimum paths are formed to make the gyroscope to work always at the highest sensitivity. PMID:26796334

  15. On-chip modulation for rotating sensing of gyroscope based on ring resonator coupled with Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jiayang; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    An improving structure for resonance optical gyro inserting a Mach-Zehnder Interferomete (MZI) into coupler region between ring resonator and straight waveguide was proposed. The different reference phase shift parameters in the MZI arms are tunable by thermo-optic effect and can be optimized at every rotation angular rate point without additional phase bias. Four optimum paths are formed to make the gyroscope to work always at the highest sensitivity. PMID:26796334

  16. How to remove the spurious resonances from ring polymer molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E

    2014-06-21

    Two of the most successful methods that are presently available for simulating the quantum dynamics of condensed phase systems are centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). Despite their conceptual differences, practical implementations of these methods differ in just two respects: the choice of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix and whether or not a thermostat is applied to the internal modes of the ring polymer during the dynamics. Here, we explore a method which is halfway between the two approximations: we keep the path integral bead masses equal to the physical particle masses but attach a Langevin thermostat to the internal modes of the ring polymer during the dynamics. We justify this by showing analytically that the inclusion of an internal mode thermostat does not affect any of the established features of RPMD: thermostatted RPMD is equally valid with respect to everything that has actually been proven about the method as RPMD itself. In particular, because of the choice of bead masses, the resulting method is still optimum in the short-time limit, and the transition state approximation to its reaction rate theory remains closely related to the semiclassical instanton approximation in the deep quantum tunneling regime. In effect, there is a continuous family of methods with these properties, parameterised by the strength of the Langevin friction. Here, we explore numerically how the approximation to quantum dynamics depends on this friction, with a particular emphasis on vibrational spectroscopy. We find that a broad range of frictions approaching optimal damping give similar results, and that these results are immune to both the resonance problem of RPMD and the curvature problem of CMD. PMID:24952532

  17. How to remove the spurious resonances from ring polymer molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Mariana; Manolopoulos, David E.; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-06-21

    Two of the most successful methods that are presently available for simulating the quantum dynamics of condensed phase systems are centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). Despite their conceptual differences, practical implementations of these methods differ in just two respects: the choice of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix and whether or not a thermostat is applied to the internal modes of the ring polymer during the dynamics. Here, we explore a method which is halfway between the two approximations: we keep the path integral bead masses equal to the physical particle masses but attach a Langevin thermostat to the internal modes of the ring polymer during the dynamics. We justify this by showing analytically that the inclusion of an internal mode thermostat does not affect any of the established features of RPMD: thermostatted RPMD is equally valid with respect to everything that has actually been proven about the method as RPMD itself. In particular, because of the choice of bead masses, the resulting method is still optimum in the short-time limit, and the transition state approximation to its reaction rate theory remains closely related to the semiclassical instanton approximation in the deep quantum tunneling regime. In effect, there is a continuous family of methods with these properties, parameterised by the strength of the Langevin friction. Here, we explore numerically how the approximation to quantum dynamics depends on this friction, with a particular emphasis on vibrational spectroscopy. We find that a broad range of frictions approaching optimal damping give similar results, and that these results are immune to both the resonance problem of RPMD and the curvature problem of CMD.

  18. How to remove the spurious resonances from ring polymer molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2014-06-01

    Two of the most successful methods that are presently available for simulating the quantum dynamics of condensed phase systems are centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). Despite their conceptual differences, practical implementations of these methods differ in just two respects: the choice of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix and whether or not a thermostat is applied to the internal modes of the ring polymer during the dynamics. Here, we explore a method which is halfway between the two approximations: we keep the path integral bead masses equal to the physical particle masses but attach a Langevin thermostat to the internal modes of the ring polymer during the dynamics. We justify this by showing analytically that the inclusion of an internal mode thermostat does not affect any of the established features of RPMD: thermostatted RPMD is equally valid with respect to everything that has actually been proven about the method as RPMD itself. In particular, because of the choice of bead masses, the resulting method is still optimum in the short-time limit, and the transition state approximation to its reaction rate theory remains closely related to the semiclassical instanton approximation in the deep quantum tunneling regime. In effect, there is a continuous family of methods with these properties, parameterised by the strength of the Langevin friction. Here, we explore numerically how the approximation to quantum dynamics depends on this friction, with a particular emphasis on vibrational spectroscopy. We find that a broad range of frictions approaching optimal damping give similar results, and that these results are immune to both the resonance problem of RPMD and the curvature problem of CMD.

  19. Small-Scale Gaps Near Resonance Locations in Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Zarah; Rehnberg, Morgan; Esposito, Larry W.; Albers, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution Cassini stellar occultation data has allowed for the direct investigation of self-gravity wakes and other disturbances in ring-particle density that cause an observed azimuthal brightness asymmetry. Using Cassini UVIS occultation data collected between May 19 2005 and June 2 2013 (Cassini revolutions 8 - 191), we investigate small-scale gaps in Saturn's A ring, which may form between adjacent self-gravity wakes. Factors that affect the radial width and observation frequency of tenuous gap regions are investigated, including a discussion of how various occultation parameters alter gap detection. Here we show that gaps are wider within the wave trains than in surrounding unperturbed regions of the following inner Lindblad resonances (ILR): Janus 4:3, Janus 5:4, Janus 6:5 and Mimas 5:3. These trends are compared to those found at the Mimas 5:3 bending wave. Radial gap width and number density are compared in the peak and trough regions of the ILR wave trains.

  20. Microstrip-antenna design for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors.

    PubMed

    Montecchia, F

    1992-06-01

    Microstrip antennas have many different advantages over other RF/MW radiative applicators employed for superficial hyperthermia treatment. This is mainly due to their compact and body-conformable structure as well as to printed circuit board techniques, both of which allow a wide design flexibility for superficial tumor heating. Among the wide variety of radiator configurations, three microstrip antennas of increasing complexity with electromagnetic and heating characteristics potentially suitable as applicators for superficial hyperthermia have been designed, developed, and tested in different radiative conditions: a microstrip disk, a microstrip annular-slot, and a microstrip spiral. Electromagnetic design criteria are presented together with the determinations of the applicator return loss versus frequency and thermograms of the near-field heating pattern in muscle-like phantom. The results are in good agreement with theory and indicate that: i) the operating frequency is either single or multiple according to the applicator-mode, "resonant" or "traveling-wave," and can be chosen in the useful frequency range for hyperthermia (200-1000 MHz) according to the tumor cross-section and depth; ii) the heating pattern flexibility increases going from the simple geometry disk to the annular-slot and spiral applicators; iii) a distilled-water bolus is required; iv) the annular-slot applicator exhibits the highest efficiency, while the spiral applicator provides the best performance. PMID:1601439

  1. Microstrip-antenna design for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors.

    PubMed

    Montecchia, F

    1992-06-01

    Microstrip antennas have many different advantages over other RF/MW radiative applicators employed for superficial hyperthermia treatment. This is mainly due to their compact and body-conformable structure as well as to printed circuit board techniques, both of which allow a wide design flexibility for superficial tumor heating. Among the wide variety of radiator configurations, three microstrip antennas of increasing complexity with electromagnetic and heating characteristics potentially suitable as applicators for superficial hyperthermia have been designed, developed, and tested in different radiative conditions: a microstrip disk, a microstrip annular-slot, and a microstrip spiral. Electromagnetic design criteria are presented together with the determinations of the applicator return loss versus frequency and thermograms of the near-field heating pattern in muscle-like phantom. The results are in good agreement with theory and indicate that: i) the operating frequency is either single or multiple according to the applicator-mode, "resonant" or "traveling-wave," and can be chosen in the useful frequency range for hyperthermia (200-1000 MHz) according to the tumor cross-section and depth; ii) the heating pattern flexibility increases going from the simple geometry disk to the annular-slot and spiral applicators; iii) a distilled-water bolus is required; iv) the annular-slot applicator exhibits the highest efficiency, while the spiral applicator provides the best performance.

  2. Microstrip-antenna design for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Montecchia, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip antennas have many different advantages over other RF/MW radiative applicators employed for superficial hyperthermia treatment. This is mainly due to their compact and body-conformable structure as well as to printed circuit board techniques, both of which allow a wide design flexibility for superficial tumor heating. Among the wide variety of radiator configurations, three microstrip antennas of increasing complexity with electromagnetic and heating characteristics potentially suitable as applicators for superficial hyperthermia have been designed, developed, and tested in different radiative condition: a microstrip disk, a microstrip annular-slot, and a microstrip spiral. Electromagnetic design criteria are presented together with the determinations of the applicator return loss versus frequency and thermograms of the near-field heating pattern in muscle-like phantom. The results are in good agreement with theory and indicated that: the operating frequency is either single or multiple according to the applicator-mode, 'resonant' or 'traveling-wave', and can be chosen in the useful frequency range for hyperthermia according to the tumor cross-section and depth; the heating pattern flexibility increases going form the simple geometry disk to the annular-slot and spiral applicators; a distilled-water bolus is required; the annular-slot applicator exhibits the highest efficiency, while the spiral applicator provides the best performance.

  3. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging.

    PubMed

    Jilnai, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. PMID:26805828

  4. Detection of HER2 breast cancer biomarker using the optofluidic ring resonator biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohring, John T.; Dale, Paul S.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we describe a novel approach for detecting the HER2/neu extra-cellular domain (ECD) protein in human serum samples using the opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR). OFRR sensing technology that incorporates microfluidics and optical sensing methods to achieve rapid label free detection in a small and low cost platform. In this study, HER2 proteins were spiked in PBS running buffer and serum at varying concentrations. Concentrations of the HER2 protein were adjusted in serum to levels typical of breast cancer patients that show over-expression of this particular beast cancer biomarker. The OFRR was modified with a biologically functional layer to efficiently capture the HER2 biomarker and produce a sensing signal through interaction with the evanescent field of the optical resonator. Results show effective capture of HER2 at medically relevant concentrations in serum and was achieved for concentrations as low as 13 ng/mL and ranged to above 100 ng/mL. This work will lead to a device that can be used as a tool for monitoring disease progression in a low cost sensing setup.

  5. Efficient Radiation by Electrically Small Antennas made of Coupled Split-ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liang; Chen, Peiwei; Wu, Aiting; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) are used to construct the electrically small antennas. We show that through strong magnetic coupling, the coupled SRRs composite can oscillate at a wavelength much larger than its total size. Due to its magnetic dipole feature, the coupled SRRs composite allows the electromagnetic (EM) power to radiate and hence forms the electrically small antenna (ESA). Because of the high-Q resonance, the ESA could be easily matched to the driving circuit in the microwave region, through mutual induction approach. We also demonstrate that the radiation efficiency of such ESAs can be drastically improved if the current distribution on individual SRRs is similar, which is achievable by carefully designing the ESAs. From our simulations and experimental measurements, the ESAs’ radiation efficiency can reach up to 41%, with relative footprint of 0.05λ0 × 0.05λ0. Our approach would be an effective way to realize ESAs with high efficiency, which can be implemented on chip through the standard planar lithography. PMID:27630076

  6. Polycrystalline silicon ring resonator photodiodes in a bulk complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Karan K; Orcutt, Jason S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Meade, Roy; Popović, Miloš A; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-02-15

    We present measurements on resonant photodetectors utilizing sub-bandgap absorption in polycrystalline silicon ring resonators, in which light is localized in the intrinsic region of a p+/p/i/n/n+ diode. The devices, operating both at λ=1280 and λ=1550  nm and fabricated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) dynamic random-access memory emulation process, exhibit detection quantum efficiencies around 20% and few-gigahertz response bandwidths. We observe this performance at low reverse biases in the range of a few volts and in devices with dark currents below 50 pA at 10 V. These results demonstrate that such photodetector behavior, previously reported by Preston et al. [Opt. Lett. 36, 52 (2011)], is achievable in bulk CMOS processes, with significant improvements with respect to the previous work in quantum efficiency, dark current, linearity, bandwidth, and operating bias due to additional midlevel doping implants and different material deposition. The present work thus offers a robust realization of a fully CMOS-fabricated all-silicon photodetector functional across a wide wavelength range. PMID:24562278

  7. Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, J W; Santagati, R; Bonneau, D; Strain, M J; Sorel, M; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G

    2015-08-06

    Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale.

  8. Coplanar waveguides loaded with a split ring resonator-based microwave sensor for aqueous sucrose solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnsoongnoen, Supakorn; Wanthong, Anuwat

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with a split ring resonator (SRR) based microwave sensor was developed for the detection of aqueous sucrose solutions. The fabrication and testing enabled the identification of the sucrose concentration. The CPW loaded with a SRR structure design was produced using electromagnetic models to improve its sensitivity by increasing the magnitude of transmission coefficient (S 21). The resonance behavior, based on S 21 characteristics of the microwave sensor, was analyzed in the range from 2-3 GHz with air and deionized water containing different sucrose concentrations in the range from 0-1 g ml-1. The experimental results showed that the proposed system has great potential to determine the sucrose concentration. It was shown that the proposed sensor has a high dynamic range and linearity for sucrose concentration sensing. The feature characteristic based on the CPW loaded with SRR sensing was excellent as defined by a T-circuit model as an inductor, capacitor, and resistor. It also provides an opportunity for the development of a low-cost sucrose meter system as an electronic tongue.

  9. Gold asymmetric-split ring resonators (A-SRRs) for proteins sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jharna; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, gold asymmetric-split ring resonators (A-SRRs) are used for proteins sensing in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral region. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecanethiol (ODT) in ethanolic solution were deposited on the resonator surfaces to immobilise protein molecules for their detection. Different diameters ASRRs were fabricated on zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrates using electron-beam lithography technique. Their plasmonic responses appear in the mid-IR spectral region and match with the vibrational responses of many organic molecules. After the formation of SAMs layer, one sample was immersed in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution for proteins adsorption while other sample was immersed in hydroxyl terminated hexa-ethylene glycol (EG6-OH) solution to modify SAMs surfaces to resist immobilisation of proteins. The vibrational responses of these organic molecules, all samples were excited using an incident broadband mid-IR light source and their reflectance spectra were measured at normal incidence using a microscope coupled Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. This study highlights the capability of plasmonic structures (A-SRRs) fabricated on transparent and high refractive index ZnSe substrates allows the detection of BSA proteins with enhanced detection in the mid-IR spectral range, demonstrating their potential for a wide range of sensing applications, e.g. in biomedical engineering and food industries.

  10. Efficient Radiation by Electrically Small Antennas made of Coupled Split-ring Resonators.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Chen, Peiwei; Wu, Aiting; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) are used to construct the electrically small antennas. We show that through strong magnetic coupling, the coupled SRRs composite can oscillate at a wavelength much larger than its total size. Due to its magnetic dipole feature, the coupled SRRs composite allows the electromagnetic (EM) power to radiate and hence forms the electrically small antenna (ESA). Because of the high-Q resonance, the ESA could be easily matched to the driving circuit in the microwave region, through mutual induction approach. We also demonstrate that the radiation efficiency of such ESAs can be drastically improved if the current distribution on individual SRRs is similar, which is achievable by carefully designing the ESAs. From our simulations and experimental measurements, the ESAs' radiation efficiency can reach up to 41%, with relative footprint of 0.05λ0 × 0.05λ0. Our approach would be an effective way to realize ESAs with high efficiency, which can be implemented on chip through the standard planar lithography. PMID:27630076

  11. Study of photon–magnon coupling in a YIG-film split-ring resonant system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoi, B.; Aiyar, R.; Cliff, T.; Maksymov, I. S.; Kostylev, M.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, S.; Stamps, R. L.

    2014-12-28

    By using the stripline Microwave Vector–Network Analyser Ferromagnetic Resonance and Time Domain spectroscopy techniques, we study a strong coupling regime of magnons to microwave photons in the planar geometry of a lithographically formed split-ring resonator (SRR) loaded by a single-crystal epitaxial yttrium–iron–garnet (YIG) film. Strong anti-crossing of the photon modes of SRR and of the magnon modes of the YIG film is observed in the applied-magnetic-field resolved measurements. The coupling strength extracted from the experimental data reaches 9% at 3 GHz. Theoretically, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SRR loaded by a magnetic film. This model follows from the results of our numerical simulations of the microwave field structure of the SRR and of the magnetisation dynamics in the YIG film driven by the microwave currents in the SRR. The results obtained with the equivalent-circuit model are in good agreement with the experiment. This model provides a simple physical explanation of the process of mode anti-crossing. Our findings are important for future applications in microwave quantum photonic devices as well as in nonlinear and magnetically tuneable metamaterials exploiting the strong coupling of magnons to microwave photons.

  12. Study of photon-magnon coupling in a YIG-film split-ring resonant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, B.; Cliff, T.; Maksymov, I. S.; Kostylev, M.; Aiyar, R.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, S.; Stamps, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    By using the stripline Microwave Vector-Network Analyser Ferromagnetic Resonance and Time Domain spectroscopy techniques, we study a strong coupling regime of magnons to microwave photons in the planar geometry of a lithographically formed split-ring resonator (SRR) loaded by a single-crystal epitaxial yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film. Strong anti-crossing of the photon modes of SRR and of the magnon modes of the YIG film is observed in the applied-magnetic-field resolved measurements. The coupling strength extracted from the experimental data reaches 9% at 3 GHz. Theoretically, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SRR loaded by a magnetic film. This model follows from the results of our numerical simulations of the microwave field structure of the SRR and of the magnetisation dynamics in the YIG film driven by the microwave currents in the SRR. The results obtained with the equivalent-circuit model are in good agreement with the experiment. This model provides a simple physical explanation of the process of mode anti-crossing. Our findings are important for future applications in microwave quantum photonic devices as well as in nonlinear and magnetically tuneable metamaterials exploiting the strong coupling of magnons to microwave photons.

  13. Efficient Radiation by Electrically Small Antennas made of Coupled Split-ring Resonators.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Chen, Peiwei; Wu, Aiting; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) are used to construct the electrically small antennas. We show that through strong magnetic coupling, the coupled SRRs composite can oscillate at a wavelength much larger than its total size. Due to its magnetic dipole feature, the coupled SRRs composite allows the electromagnetic (EM) power to radiate and hence forms the electrically small antenna (ESA). Because of the high-Q resonance, the ESA could be easily matched to the driving circuit in the microwave region, through mutual induction approach. We also demonstrate that the radiation efficiency of such ESAs can be drastically improved if the current distribution on individual SRRs is similar, which is achievable by carefully designing the ESAs. From our simulations and experimental measurements, the ESAs' radiation efficiency can reach up to 41%, with relative footprint of 0.05λ0 × 0.05λ0. Our approach would be an effective way to realize ESAs with high efficiency, which can be implemented on chip through the standard planar lithography.

  14. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  15. Vertical optical ring resonators fully integrated with nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates.

    PubMed

    Madani, Abbas; Kleinert, Moritz; Stolarek, David; Zimmermann, Lars; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate full integration of vertical optical ring resonators with silicon nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates to accomplish a significant step toward 3D photonic integration. The on-chip integration is realized by rolling up 2D differentially strained TiO(2) nanomembranes into 3D microtube cavities on a nanophotonic microchip. The integration configuration allows for out-of-plane optical coupling between the in-plane nanowaveguides and the vertical microtube cavities as a compact and mechanically stable optical unit, which could enable refined vertical light transfer in 3D stacks of multiple photonic layers. In this vertical transmission scheme, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is demonstrated based on subwavelength thick-walled microcavities. Moreover, an array of microtube cavities is prepared, and each microtube cavity is integrated with multiple waveguides, which opens up interesting perspectives toward parallel and multi-routing through a single-cavity device as well as high-throughput optofluidic sensing schemes.

  16. Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, J W; Santagati, R; Bonneau, D; Strain, M J; Sorel, M; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale. PMID:26245267

  17. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging.

    PubMed

    Jilnai, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka

    2016-01-20

    The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement.

  18. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. PMID:26805828

  19. Efficient Radiation by Electrically Small Antennas made of Coupled Split-ring Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang; Chen, Peiwei; Wu, Aiting; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) are used to construct the electrically small antennas. We show that through strong magnetic coupling, the coupled SRRs composite can oscillate at a wavelength much larger than its total size. Due to its magnetic dipole feature, the coupled SRRs composite allows the electromagnetic (EM) power to radiate and hence forms the electrically small antenna (ESA). Because of the high-Q resonance, the ESA could be easily matched to the driving circuit in the microwave region, through mutual induction approach. We also demonstrate that the radiation efficiency of such ESAs can be drastically improved if the current distribution on individual SRRs is similar, which is achievable by carefully designing the ESAs. From our simulations and experimental measurements, the ESAs’ radiation efficiency can reach up to 41%, with relative footprint of 0.05λ0 × 0.05λ0. Our approach would be an effective way to realize ESAs with high efficiency, which can be implemented on chip through the standard planar lithography.

  20. Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, J. W.; Santagati, R.; Bonneau, D.; Strain, M. J.; Sorel, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement—one of the most delicate phenomena in nature—is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale. PMID:26245267

  1. Design of a loop resonator with a split-ring-resonator (SRR) for a human-body coil in 3 T MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hyeok Woo; Cho, Young Ki; Kim, Byung Mun; Back, Hyun Man; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2016-04-01

    A new radio-frequency (RF) resonator for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging at clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is proposed in this paper. An approach based on the effects of the properties of metamaterials in split-ring resonators (SRRs) is used to design a new loop resonator with a SRR for NMR imaging. This loop resonator with a SRR is designed for NMR imaging at 3 T MRI systems. The 3D electromagnetic simulation was used to optimize the design of the proposed RF resonator and analyze it's performance at 3 T MRI systems. The proposed RF resonator provides strong penetrating magnetic fields at the center of the human phantom model, approximately 10%, as compared to the traditional loop-type RF resonator used for NMR imaging at clinical MRI systems. We also designed an 8-channel body coil for human-body NMR imaging by using the proposed loop resonator with a SRR. This body coil also produces more homogeneous and highly penetrating magnetic fields into the human phantom model.

  2. Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Yang, B; Sang, F; Zhou, D; Duo, L; Zhuang, Q

    1999-05-20

    We report the experimental results of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a kilowatt class chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL). The distributions of near-field phase and far-field intensity were measured. A beam quality of 1.6 was achieved when the COIL average output power was approximately 5 kW. PMID:18319916

  3. Multiplicity of transmission coefficients in photonic crystal and split ring resonator waveguides with Kerr nonlinear impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Buddhi; McGurn, Arthur R.

    2015-02-01

    Photonic crystal and split ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial waveguides with Kerr nonlinear dielectric impurities are studied. The transmission coefficients for two guided modes of different frequencies scattering from the Kerr impurities are computed. The systems are shown to exhibit multiple transmission coefficient solutions arising from the Kerr nonlinearity. Multiple transmission coefficients occur when different input intensities into a waveguide result in the same transmitted output intensities past its nonlinear impurities. (In the case of a single incident guided mode the multiplicity of transmission coefficients is known as optical bistability.) The analytical conditions under which the transmission coefficients are single and multiple valued are determined, and specific examples of both single and multiple valued transmission coefficient scattering are presented. Both photonic crystal and split ring resonator systems are studied as the Kerr nonlinearity enters the photonic crystal and SRR systems in different ways. This allows for an interesting comparison of the differences in behaviors of these two types of system which are described by distinctly different mathematical structures. Both the photonic crystal and SRR models used in the calculations are based on a difference equation approach to the system dynamics. The difference equation approach has been extensively employed in previous papers to model the basic properties of these systems. The paper is a continuation of work on the optical bistability of single guided modes interacting with Kerr impurities in photonic crystals originally considered by McGurn [Chaos 13, 754 (2003), 10.1063/1.1568691] and work on the resonant scattering from Kerr impurities in photonic crystal waveguides considered by McGurn [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S5243 (2004), 10.1088/0953-8984/16/44/021]. It generalizes this work making the extension to the more complex interaction of two guided modes at different frequencies

  4. The simulation & improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6μm2; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ɛr-0.4, ɛr and ɛr+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  5. The simulation and improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6μm{sup 2}; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ε{sub r}−0.4, ε{sub r} and ε{sub r}+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  6. Demonstration of sub-femtomole sensitivity for small molecules with microsphere ring resonator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ian M.; Oveys, Hesam; Fan, Xudong

    2006-02-01

    Optical microsphere resonators can function as highly sensitive bio/chemical sensors due to the large Q-factor, which leads to high light-matter interaction. The whispering gallery modes (WGM) arise at the surface of the microsphere, creating a highly enhanced optical field that interacts with matter on or near the microsphere surface. As a result, the spectral position of the WGM is extremely sensitive to refractive index changes near the surface, such as when bio/chemical molecules bind to the sphere. We show the potential feasibility of a microsphere ring resonator as a sensor for small molecules by demonstrating detection of sub-femtomole changes in SiO II molecules at the surface of the microsphere. In this experiment, the silica molecules act as an excellent model for small molecule analytes because of their 60 Dalton molecular weight, and because we know nearly the exact quantity of molecules at the surface, which enables a sensitivity characterization. We measure the spectral shifts in the WGMs when low concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) are added to a solution that is being probed by the microsphere. As the HF molecules break apart the SiO II molecules at the sphere surface, the WGMs shift due to the sub-nano-scale decrease in the size of the microsphere. These calculations show that the sensitivity of this microsphere resonator is on the order of 500 attomoles. Our results will lead to the utilization of optical microspheres for detection of trace quantities of small molecules for such applications as drug discovery, environmental monitoring, and enzyme detection using peptide cleavage.

  7. Using split-ring resonators to measure the electromagnetic properties of materials: An experiment for senior physics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobowski, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A spilt-ring resonator experiment suitable for senior physics undergraduates is described and demonstrated in detail. The apparatus consists of a conducting hollow cylinder with a narrow slit along its length and can be accurately modelled as a series LRC circuit. The resonance frequency and quality factor of the split-ring resonator are measured when the apparatus is suspended in air, submerged in water, and submerged in an aqueous solution of various concentrations of NaCl. The experimental results are used to extract the dielectric constant of water and to investigate the dependence of the resonator quality factor on the conductivity of the NaCl solution. The apparatus provides opportunities to experimentally examine radiative losses, complex permittivity, the electromagnetic skin depth, and cutoff frequencies of rf propagation in cylindrical waveguides, which are all concepts introduced in an undergraduate course in electrodynamics. To connect with current research, the use of split-ring resonators as a tool to precisely measure the electromagnetic properties of materials is emphasized.

  8. Electro-optic switching based on a waveguide-ring resonator made of dielectric-loaded graphene plasmon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhe; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jian Fa; Cai Guo, Chu; Liu, Ken; Yuan, Xiao Dong; Qiao Qin, Shi

    2016-09-01

    We numerically demonstrate that electro-optic switching in the mid-infrared range can be realized using a waveguide-ring resonator made of dielectric-loaded graphene plasmon waveguides (DLGPWs). The numerical results are in good agreement with the results of physical analysis. The switching mechanism is based on dynamic modification of the resonant wavelengths of the ring resonator, achieved by varying the Fermi energy of a graphene sheet. The results reveal that a switching ratio of ∼24 dB can be achieved with only a 0.01 eV change in the Fermi energy. Such electrically controlled switching operation may find use in actively tunable integrated photonic circuits.

  9. Planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.; Brahic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are the development history of planetary ring research, the view of planetary rings in astronomy and cosmology over the period 1600-1900, the characteristics of the ring systems of Saturn and Uranus, the ethereal rings of Jupiter and Saturn, dust-magnetosphere interactions, the effects of radiation forces on dust particles, the collisional interactions and physical nature of ring particles, transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms, and collision-induced transport processes in planetary rings. Also discussed are planetary ring waves, ring particle dynamics in resonances, the dynamics of narrow rings, the origin and evolution of planetary rings, the solar nebula and planetary disk, future studies of the planetary rings by space probes, ground-based observatories and earth-orbiting satellites, and unsolved problems in planetary ring dynamics.

  10. Design of Chebyshev microstrip low-pass filter using defected ground structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Narendar S.; Chouhan, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    A method to design microstrip low pass filter having defected ground structure (DGS) is proposed. The difference between standard asymmetric microstrip technique and DGS is in using the structures etched in the microwave substrate ground plane. The DGS resonant characteristics are then used in filter design. The equivalent circuit for the proposed defected ground unit structure is derived by means of three-dimensional field analysis methods. The equivalent-circuit parameters are extracted by using a simple circuit analysis method. Filters of various orders and resonator configurations are designed and simulated. A combination of the DGS and five order low pass Chebyshev microstrip filter is designed as well realized and measurement results are compared with simulations. The experimental results show excellent agreements with theoretical results and the validity of the modeling method for the proposed defected ground unit structure. Finally, enhanced cut off frequency 2.715GHz of microstrip low pass chebyshev filter using DGS is observed.

  11. Optimization of figure of merit in label-free biochemical sensors by designing a ring defect coupled resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lijun; Tian, Huiping; Yang, Daquan; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Pan; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-12-01

    We propose a high figure of merit (FOM) biochemical sensor by designing a ring defect coupled resonator (RDCR) based on photonic crystal (PhC) slab. The design consists of ring resonant cavity which is coupled in and out with ring and line defect PhC structure. By a three dimensional finite-different time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, we demonstrate that the quality (Q) factor is greatly enhanced by altering the radius of air holes inner the ring resonant cavity and adjusting the width of line defect waveguide. In this paper, we obtain a highest Q up to 107 through numerical calculations. Even though water absorption at telecom wavelength range and random roughness of fabrication is considered, a Q of ~33,517 can be achieved. Simultaneously the proposed sensor possesses sensitivity (S) of 330 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), resulting in FOM of ~8000. Moreover, a minimal detection limit (DL) is obtained as good as 1.24×10-5. Therefore, these suggest that this design is a promising candidate for label-free biochemical sensing in medical diagnosis, life science and environmental monitoring.

  12. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karhu, J; Nauta, J; Vainio, M; Metsälä, M; Hoekstra, S; Halonen, L

    2016-06-28

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν1+ν2+ν3+ν4 (1)+ν5 (-1) in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm(-1), the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm(-1), and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10(-6) cm(-1), where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits. PMID:27369508

  13. A microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator for sensitive, high-speed detection of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Kee; Fan, Xudong; Zellers, Edward T

    2014-10-01

    Advances in microanalytical systems for multi-vapor determinations to date have been impeded by limitations associated with the microsensor technologies employed. Here we introduce a microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator (μOFRR) sensor that addresses many of these limitations. The μOFRR combines vapor sensing and fluidic transport functions in a monolithic microstructure comprising a hollow, vertical SiOx cylinder (250 μm i.d., 1.2 μm wall thickness; 85 μm height) with a central quasi-toroidal mode-confinement section, grown and partially released from a Si substrate. The device also integrates on-chip fluidic-interconnection and fiber-optic probe alignment features. High-Q whispering gallery modes generated with a tunable 1550 nm laser exhibit rapid, reversible shifts in resonant wavelength arising from polymer swelling and refractive index changes as vapors partition into the ~300 nm PDMS film lining the cylinder. Steady-state sensor responses varied in proportion to concentration over a 50-fold range for the five organic vapors tested, providing calculated detection limits as low as 0.5 ppm (v/v) (for m-xylene and ethylbenzene). In dynamic exposure tests, responses to 5 μL injected m-xylene vapor pulses were 710 ms wide and were only 18% broader than those from a reference flame-ionization detector and also varied linearly with injected mass; 180 pg was measured and the calculated detection limit was 49 pg without use of preconcentration or split injection, at a flow rate compatible with efficient chromatographic separations. Coupling of this μOFRR with a micromachined gas chromatographic separation column is demonstrated. PMID:25131718

  14. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karhu, J; Nauta, J; Vainio, M; Metsälä, M; Hoekstra, S; Halonen, L

    2016-06-28

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν1+ν2+ν3+ν4 (1)+ν5 (-1) in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm(-1), the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm(-1), and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10(-6) cm(-1), where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  15. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsälä, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.

    2016-06-01

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν 1 + ν 2 + ν 3 + ν4 1 + ν5 - 1 in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm-1, the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm-1, and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10-6 cm-1, where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  16. Circularly polarized microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Y. T.; Engst, B.; Lee, R. Q. H.

    1985-01-01

    A simple microstrip antenna can be made to radiate EM waves of any polarization, in particular, the circular polarization (CP) without any phasing network and power divider. A simple and accurate theory for this family of antennas was developed. However, the CP bandwidth, (CPBW) the bandwidth in which the axial ratio (AR) is less than a certain specified value, is very small. Most of the experimental designs were made for a feed placed along the diagonal of the patch. It is shown that there are practically infinitely many possible designs with different feed location. The speculation that other designs might give a wider bandwidth is clarified and an effective method for broadening the bandwidth is shown.

  17. Silicon photonics WDM interconnects based on resonant ring modulators and semiconductor mode locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; Hauck, J.; Shen, B.; Romero-García, S.; Islamova, E.; Sharif Azadeh, S.; Joshi, S.; Chimot, N.; Moscoso-Mártir, A.; Merget, F.; Lelarge, F.; Witzens, J.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate wavelength domain multiplexed (WDM) data transmission with a data rate of 14 Gbps based on optical carrier generation with a single-section semiconductor mode-locked laser (SS-MLL) and modulation with a Silicon Photonics (SiP) resonant ring modulator (RRM). 18 channels are sequentially measured, whereas the best recorded eye diagrams feature signal quality factors (Q-factors) above 7. While optical re-amplification was necessary to maintain the link budgets and therefore system measurements were performed with an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), preliminary characterization done with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) indicates compatibility with the latter pending the integration of an additional optical filter to select a subset of carriers and prevent SOA saturation. A systematic analysis of the relative intensity noise (RIN) of isolated comb lines and of signal Q-factors indicates that the link is primarily limited by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from the EDFA rather than laser RIN. Measured RIN for single comb components is below -120 dBc/Hz in the range from 7 MHz to 4 GHz and drops to the shot noise level at higher frequencies.

  18. Design of photonic crystal based ring resonator for detection of different blood constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poonam; Sharan, Preeta

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a photonic crystal based ring resonator structure (PCRR) which can sense different bio-constituents in blood in the wavelength range of 1530-1565 nm for biomedical applications has been successfully demonstrated. Simulation and analysis has been done for Biotin-Streptavidin, Bovine Serum Albumin, Cytop (polymer), Ethanol, Glucose solution (40gm/100 ml), Hemoglobin, Blood Plasma, Polyacrylamide and Sylgard184. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method has been used for the analysis. MEEP (MIT Electromagnetic Equation Propagation) and MPB (MIT Photonic Bands) simulation tools have been used for modeling and designing of PCRR and IPKISS software framework has been used for generation of mask design which can be used for the fabrication of the PCRR sensor. The optical properties of different bio-constituents are studied and the normalized transmitted output power, transmission wavelength and Q factor have been observed for different blood-constituents which can be used for blood analysis.It has been observed that for little change in dielectric constant (ɛ) according to the blood-constituent taken there will be a moderate shift in the transmitted output power, transmission wavelength and quality factor and hence it acts as a sensor. This indicates that it is highly sensitive even for little change in refractive index. Our designed sensor has achieved sensitivity of 343 nm/RIU.

  19. Polarization beam splitter based on honeycomb-lattice photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaofu; Gu, Haifeng; Zheng, Yanmin; Wei, Maojin; Zheng, Dongmei; Xiao, Ronghui; Qiang, Zexuan

    2014-03-01

    A new polarization beam splitter is proposed based on a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) composed of honeycomb-lattice cylindrical silicon rods in air. By shrinking the width of the bus waveguide and adjusting the radii of two nearest-neighbor center rods of the PCRR, an unpolarized beam can be separated well into TE and TM polarization states, respectively, at the backward and forward output ports. Simulation results obtained by the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique show that the insertion losses are 3.58 dB and 3.08 dB, and the polarization extinction ratios are 21.42 dB and 28.53 dB for TE and TM polarization, respectively, at a 1566.7 nm center wavelength. The excess loss is less than 0.34 dB and its dimensions are roughly 43.2 μm × 27.52 μm. These findings offer potential practical applications in high-density photonic integrated circuits.

  20. Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-10-20

    Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.

  1. Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.

  2. A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Dong, Biqin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hao F.; Sun, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) does not rely on contrast agent to image the optical absorption contrast in biological tissue. It is uniquely suited for measuring several tissue physiological parameters, such as hemoglobin oxygen saturation, that would otherwise remain challenging. Researchers are designing new clinical diagnostic tools and multimodal microscopic systems around PAM to fully unleash its potential. However, the sizeable and opaque piezoelectric ultrasonic detectors commonly used in PAM impose a serious constraint. Our solution is a coverslip-style optically transparent ultrasound detector based on a polymeric optical micro-ring resonator (MRR) with a total thickness of 250 μm. It enables highly-sensitive ultrasound detection over a wide receiving angle with a bandwidth of 140 MHz, which corresponds to a photoacoustic saturation limit of 287 cm−1, at an estimated noise-equivalent pressure (NEP) of 6.8 Pa. We also established a theoretical framework for designing and optimizing the MRR for PAM. PMID:24675547

  3. Analysis of ringing due to magnetic core materials used in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, Neelam; Nlebedim, Cajetan; Hadimani, Ravi; Bulu, Irfan; Song, Yi-Qiao; Mina, Mani; Jiles, David

    Oil-field well logging instruments employ pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and use inductive sensors to detect and evaluate the presence of particular fluids in geological formations. Acting as both signal transmitters and receivers most inductive sensors employ magnetic cores to enhance the quality and amplitude of signals recorded during field measurements. It is observed that the magnetic core also responds to the applied input signal thereby generating a signal (`ringing') that interferes with the measurement of the signals from the target formations. This causes significant noise and receiver dead time and it is beneficial to eliminate/suppress the signals received from the magnetic core. In this work a detailed analysis of the magnetic core response and in particular loading of the sensor due to the presence of the magnetic core is presented. Pulsed NMR measurements over a frequency band of 100 kHz to 1MHz are used to determine the amplitude and linewidth of the signals acquired from different magnetic core materials. A lower signal amplitude and a higher linewidth are vital since these would correspond to minimal contributions from the magnetic core to the inductive sensor response and thus leading to minimized receiver dead time.

  4. All-optical digital 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniem, Tamer A.

    2016-04-01

    The photonic crystals draw significant attention to build all-optical logic devices and are considered one of the solutions for the opto-electronic bottleneck via speed and size. The paper presents a novel optical 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods. The main realization of optical encoder is based on the photonic crystal ring resonator NOR gates. The proposed structure has four logic input ports, two output ports, and two bias input port. The photonic crystal structure has a square lattice of silicon rods with a refractive index of 3.39 in air. The structure has lattice constant 'a' equal to 630 nm and bandgap range from 0.32 to 044. The total size of the proposed 4 × 2 encoder is equal to 35 μm × 35 μm. The simulation results using the dimensional finite difference time domain and Plane Wave Expansion methods confirm the operation and the feasibility of the proposed optical encoder for ultrafast optical digital circuits.

  5. Terahertz Response of a Microfabricated Rod Split-Ring-Resonator Electromagnetic Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, H. O.; Casse, B. D.; Wilhelmi, O.; Saw, B. T.

    2005-02-01

    The first electromagnetic metamaterials (EM3) produced by microfabrication are reported. They are based on the rod split-ring-resonator design as proposed by Pendry et al. [

    IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010.1109/22.798002
    ] and experimentally confirmed by Smith et al. [
    Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 84, 4184 (2000)10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4184
    ] in the GHz frequency range. Numerical simulation and experimental results from far infrared (FIR) transmission spectroscopy support the conclusion that the microfabricated composite material is EM3 in the range 1 2.7 THz. This extends the frequency range in which EM3 are available by about 3 orders of magnitude well into the FIR, thereby widely opening up opportunities to verify the unusual physical implications on electromagnetic theory as well as to build novel electromagnetic and optical devices.

  6. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  7. Analytical description of a Gaussian beam in a ring resonator with a nonplanar axial contour and an odd number of mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Plachenov, A B; Radin, A M

    2011-01-31

    Stability conditions for a ring resonator with an odd number of mirrors and a nonplanar axial contour are studied analytically. New explicit expressions are derived to describe the transverse field distribution of the Gaussian mode with general astigmatism produced in this resonator. Field characteristics for a resonator with the specified parameters are calculated. (laser beams)

  8. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  9. Experimental demonstration of ultracompact air hole photonic crystal ring resonator fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoyuan; Feng, Lishuang; Lin, Zhili; Feng, Junbo

    2013-05-01

    A photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) of air hole arrays is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer by using electron-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The designed PCRR is modeled and its performance is simulated by the two-dimensional finite difference time domain method. The simulation results show that the PCRR has two resonant wavelengths, 1598 and 1606 nm, and their corresponding quality factors are 3994 and 4015, respectively. A sample of the PCRR structure is fabricated and tested by the established experimental setup. Compared with the simulation results, the experimental resonant wavelengths drift to some extent and the quality factors are reduced by about one order of magnitude. The fabrication error and irregularity are the main reasons for the above results, which can be further reduced by improving the process technology. In addition, one more resonant wavelength emerged for the PCRR sample, which can be attributed to the change of the coupling strength. PMID:23632503

  10. Design of a compact polarizing beam splitter based on a photonic crystal ring resonator with a triangular lattice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianbao; Huang, Jiehui; Liu, Nianhua; Yang, Jianyi; Liao, Qinghua; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2010-04-10

    We propose and simulate a new kind of compact polarizing beam splitter (PBS) based on a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) with complete photonic bandgaps. The two polarized states are separated far enough by resonant and nonresonant coupling between the waveguide modes and the microring modes. Some defect holes are utilized to control the beam propagation. The simulated results obtained by the finite-difference time-domain method show that high transmission (over 95%) is obtained and the polarization separation is realized with a length as short as 3.1 microm. The design of the proposed PBS can be flexible, thanks to the advantages of PCRRs. PMID:20390019

  11. Zero-conductance resonances and spin polarizations in three-terminal rings in the presence of spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Li-Xue; Wang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-11-28

    Spin dependent transport in one-dimensional (1D) three-terminal rings is investigated in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We focus on zero-conductance resonances and spin polarizations. For these purposes, the transmission functions are derived analytically. The total conductances are analyzed in the complex energy plane with a focus on the zero-pole structure characteristic of transmission (anti)resonances. The spin polarizations in symmetrically and asymmetrically coupled three-terminal rings are studied as a function of the incident electron energy. It is found that in the absence of the RSOC there are three kinds of conductance zeros. In the presence of the RSOC, the zeros of the first and the third kinds are lifted, while some of the second kind persist. The lifting of the conductance zeros is related to the breaking of the spin-reversal symmetry, and the lifted conductance zeros evolve into spin polarization zeros.

  12. An optic fiber sensor for multiple gases based on fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy and microring resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Jian, Jia-wen; Zheng, Yan-gong; Jin, Han; Zou, Jie

    2016-07-01

    A high-sensitivity sensor for multiple gases based on microring array filter and fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy system is proposed and demonstrated. The parameters of the resonators are designed so that the filtered signal from a broadband light source can be tuned with an absorption spectral line of gas. Therefore, through adding microring resonators horizontally and vertically, the number of target gases and filter range are increased. In this research, in the broad spectral range of about 0.9 μm, only the absorption spectral lines of target gases are filtered. The simulation results show that three target gases, CH4, CO2 and HF, can be simultaneously detected by the sensing system. Owing to the fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy, the whole system is optimized in mini-size and sensitivity, and we can choose different sensing methods to enhance the measurement accuracy for high and low concentration conditions.

  13. Kondo Resonance in a Mesoscopic Ring Coupled to a Quantum Dot: Exact Results for the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Eckle, H.-P.; Johannesson, H.; Stafford, C. A.

    2001-07-02

    We study the persistent currents induced by both the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects in a one-dimensional mesoscopic ring coupled to a sidebranch quantum dot at Kondo resonance. For privileged values of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher fluxes, the problem can be mapped onto an integrable model, exactly solvable by a Bethe ansatz. In the case of a pure magnetic Aharonov-Bohm flux, we find that the presence of the quantum dot has no effect on the persistent current. In contrast, the Kondo resonance interferes with the spin-dependent Aharonov-Casher effect to induce a current which, in the strong-coupling limit, is independent of the number of electrons in the ring.

  14. The Singer's Formant and Speaker's Ring Resonance: A Long-Term Average Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Kwon, Hee-Jun; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Nam-Hun; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We previously showed that a trained tenor's voice has the conventional singer's formant at the region of 3 kHz and another energy peak at 8-9 kHz. Singers in other operatic voice ranges are assumed to have the same peak in their singing and speaking voice. However, to date, no specific measurement of this has been made. Methods Tenors, baritones, sopranos and mezzo sopranos were chosen to participate in this study of the singer's formant and the speaker's ring resonance. Untrained males (n=15) and females (n=15) were included in the control group. Each subject was asked to produce successive /a/ vowel sounds in their singing and speaking voice. For singing, the low pitch was produced in the chest register and the high notes in the head register. We collected the data on the long-term average spectra of the speaking and singing voices of the trained singers and the control groups. Results For the sounds produced from the head register, a significant energy concentration was seen in both 2.2-3.4 kHz and 7.5-8.4 kHz regions (except for the voices of the mezzo sopranos) in the trained singer group when compared to the control groups. Also, the chest register had a significant energy concentration in the 4 trained singer groups at the 2.2-3.1 kHz and 7.8-8.4 kHz. For speaking sound, all trained singers had a significant energy concentration at 2.2-5.3 kHz and sopranos had another energy concentration at 9-10 kHz. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that opera singers have more energy concentration in the singer's formant/speaker's ring region, in both singing and speaking voices. Furthermore, another region of energy concentration was identified in opera singer's singing sound and in sopranos' speaking sound at 8-9 kHz. The authors believe that these energy concentrations may contribute to the rich voice of trained singers. PMID:19434279

  15. Strong orbital expansion of Saturn’s inner ice-rich moons through ring torques and mutual resonances during their accretion from a massive ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M.

    2015-11-01

    Saturn has a diversity of moons with possibly diverse origins. Titan likely formed in Saturn’s sub-nebula (e.g., Canup & Ward 2006). The small moons interior to Mimas are likely recent aggregates of ring’s material spreading through the Roche limit (Charnoz et al. 2010). The origin of the mid-size moons, Mimas through Rhea, is debated. Charnoz et al. (2011) considered a massive ice-rock ring and strong tidal dissipation in Saturn (Q ~ 103), and found that moons out to Rhea could be spawned from such a ring. However such a small value for Q for Saturn is debated. In addition, capture into mutual Mean Motion Resonances (MMR) and resulting eccentricity growth (not included in the Charnoz et al. (2011) model) could lead to orbital destabilization as the moons tidally expand over such large distances (Peale & Canup 2015).Here we consider weak planetary tides (Q ≥ 104) and investigate whether Mimas, Enceladus and Tethys could have been spawned from a massive ice ring (Canup 2010). In this scenario, the rock in these moons would be delivered by material from outside the rings, e.g. by heliocentric impactors during the LHB (Canup 2013). We have expanded a numerical model developed to study the Moon’s accretion (Salmon and Canup 2012, 2014), which couples an analytic Roche-interior disk model to the N-body code SyMBA (Duncan et al. 1998) for satellites, so that we can directly track their accretion and mutual interactions (including MMRs), as well as their tidal interaction with the planet. We consider an initially large Saturn (Fortney et al. 2007) and its progressive contraction, which impacts the strength of tides and the location of the corotation resonance. We perform simulations with and without Dione and Rhea, and study the influence of tidal dissipation into the moons.We find that recoil of the moons due to ring torques, together with capture of moons into MMRs, can produce a distribution similar to that observed. If tidal dissipation in the moons was weak

  16. Magic-T Junction using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence

    2008-01-01

    among all four ports, and to strong parasitic couplings at the microstrip/slotline T junction, where four microstrip lines and a slotline are combined. The present improved broadband magic-T junction (see figure) includes a microstrip ring structure and two microstrip- to-slotline transitions. One of the microstrip/slotline transitions is a small T junction between the ring and a slotline; the other microstrip/slotline transition effects coupling between the slotline and port E. The smallness of the T junction and the use of minimum-size slotline terminations help to minimize radiation loss. An impedance-transformation network that includes multiple quarter-wavelength sections is used to increase the operating bandwidth and minimize the parasitic coupling around the microstrip/slotline T junction. As a result, the improved junction has greater bandwidth and lower phase imbalance at the sum and difference ports than did the prior junction.

  17. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  18. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Eom, Seok Chan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-02-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements. By controlling both lateral and vertical confinement via a metal edge, the mode volume is successfully reduced down to 1.3 × 10‑5 λ03. The advantage of such mode confinement is demonstrated by applying the resonators biosensing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, a dramatic enhancement of surface sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers.

  19. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Eom, Seok Chan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements. By controlling both lateral and vertical confinement via a metal edge, the mode volume is successfully reduced down to 1.3 × 10−5 λ03. The advantage of such mode confinement is demonstrated by applying the resonators biosensing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, a dramatic enhancement of surface sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers. PMID:26923610

  20. Highly adaptive RF excitation scheme based on conformal resonant CRLH metamaterial ring antennas for 7-Tesla traveling-wave magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Erni, Daniel; Liebig, Thorsten; Rennings, Andreas; Koster, Norbert H L; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    We propose an adaptive RF antenna system for the excitation (and manipulation) of the fundamental circular waveguide mode (TE(11)) in the context of high-field (7T) traveling-wave magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The system consists of composite right-/left-handed (CRLH) meta-material ring antennas that fully conforms to the inner surface of the MRI bore. The specific use of CRLH metamaterials is motivated by its inherent dispersion engineering capabilities, which is needed when designing resonant ring structures for virtually any predefined diameter operating at the given Larmor frequency (i.e. 298 MHz). Each functional group of the RF antenna system consists of a pair of subsequently spaced and correspondingly fed CRLH ring antennas, allowing for the unidirectional excitation of propagating, circularly polarized B(1) mode fields. The same functional group is also capable to simultaneously mold an incoming, counter-propagating mode. Given these functionalities we are proposing now a compound scheme (i.e. periodically arranged multiple antenna pairs)--termed as "MetaBore"--that is apt to provide a tailored RF power distribution as well as full wave reflection compensation virtually at any desired location along the bore.

  1. Excitation of ultrasharp trapped-mode resonances in mirror-symmetric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengyan; Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; E, Yiwen; Tang, Chengchun; Wang, Yujin; Li, Junjie; Wang, Li; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a metamaterial structure composed of two mirror-symmetric joint split ring resonators (JSRRs) that support extremely sharp trapped-mode resonance with a large modulation depth in the terahertz region. Contrary to the regular mirror-arranged SRR arrays in which both the subradiant inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance and quadrupole-mode resonance can be excited, our designed structure features a metallic microstrip bridging the adjacent SRRs, which leads to the emergence of an otherwise inaccessible ultrahigh-quality-factor resonance. The ultrasharp resonance occurs near the Wood-Rayleigh anomaly frequency, and the underlying mechanism can be attributed to the strong coupling between the in-plane propagating collective lattice surface mode originating from the array periodicity and localized surface plasmon resonance in mirror-symmetric coupled JSRRs, which dramatically reduces radiative damping. The ultrasharp resonance shows great potential for multifunctional applications such as plasmonic switching, low-power nonlinear processing, and chemical and biological sensing.

  2. Dielectric covered microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lisa M.

    1988-11-01

    Microstrip antennas have many properties that make them suitable for airborne and satellite communications systems. These antennas are low in cost and lightweight. For these reasons, Rome Air Development Center is interested in verifying and augmenting existing design models for these antennas. The theory and results are presented for modeling microstrip antennas that are covered with a sheet of dielectric material. There are several reasons for designing a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric material. This configuration would allow the modeling of antennas with an integrated radome. A cover layer could possibly be used to support a polarizer; to mount additional antenna elements on top of the cover layer to provide bandwidth enhancements; or to be used as a dual frequency antenna.

  3. Mode jumping of split-ring resonator metamaterials controlled by high-permittivity BST and incident electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Cui, Tie Jun; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resonant modes of split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterials that contain high-permittivity BST block numerically and experimentally. We observe interesting mode-jumping phenomena from the BST-included SRR absorber structure as the excitation wave is incident perpendicularly to the SRR plane. Specifically, when the electric field is parallel to the SRR gap, the BST block in the gap will induce a mode jumping from the LC resonance to plasmonic resonance (horizontal electric-dipole mode), because the displacement current excited by the Mie resonance in the dielectric block acts as a current channel in the gap. When the electric field is perpendicular to the gap side, the plasmonic resonance mode (vertical electric-dipole mode) in SRR changes to two joint modes contributed simultaneously by the back layer, SRR and BST block, as a result of connected back layer and SRR layer by the displacement current in the BST dielectric block. Based on the mode jumping effect as well as temperature and electric-field dependent dielectric constant, the BST-included SRR metamaterials may have great potentials for the applications in electromagnetic switches and widely tunable metamaterial devices. PMID:27502844

  4. Mode jumping of split-ring resonator metamaterials controlled by high-permittivity BST and incident electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Cui, Tie Jun; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the resonant modes of split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterials that contain high-permittivity BST block numerically and experimentally. We observe interesting mode-jumping phenomena from the BST-included SRR absorber structure as the excitation wave is incident perpendicularly to the SRR plane. Specifically, when the electric field is parallel to the SRR gap, the BST block in the gap will induce a mode jumping from the LC resonance to plasmonic resonance (horizontal electric-dipole mode), because the displacement current excited by the Mie resonance in the dielectric block acts as a current channel in the gap. When the electric field is perpendicular to the gap side, the plasmonic resonance mode (vertical electric-dipole mode) in SRR changes to two joint modes contributed simultaneously by the back layer, SRR and BST block, as a result of connected back layer and SRR layer by the displacement current in the BST dielectric block. Based on the mode jumping effect as well as temperature and electric-field dependent dielectric constant, the BST-included SRR metamaterials may have great potentials for the applications in electromagnetic switches and widely tunable metamaterial devices.

  5. Mode jumping of split-ring resonator metamaterials controlled by high-permittivity BST and incident electric fields.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Cui, Tie Jun; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resonant modes of split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterials that contain high-permittivity BST block numerically and experimentally. We observe interesting mode-jumping phenomena from the BST-included SRR absorber structure as the excitation wave is incident perpendicularly to the SRR plane. Specifically, when the electric field is parallel to the SRR gap, the BST block in the gap will induce a mode jumping from the LC resonance to plasmonic resonance (horizontal electric-dipole mode), because the displacement current excited by the Mie resonance in the dielectric block acts as a current channel in the gap. When the electric field is perpendicular to the gap side, the plasmonic resonance mode (vertical electric-dipole mode) in SRR changes to two joint modes contributed simultaneously by the back layer, SRR and BST block, as a result of connected back layer and SRR layer by the displacement current in the BST dielectric block. Based on the mode jumping effect as well as temperature and electric-field dependent dielectric constant, the BST-included SRR metamaterials may have great potentials for the applications in electromagnetic switches and widely tunable metamaterial devices. PMID:27502844

  6. Mode jumping of split-ring resonator metamaterials controlled by high-permittivity BST and incident electric fields.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Cui, Tie Jun; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian

    2016-08-09

    We investigate the resonant modes of split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterials that contain high-permittivity BST block numerically and experimentally. We observe interesting mode-jumping phenomena from the BST-included SRR absorber structure as the excitation wave is incident perpendicularly to the SRR plane. Specifically, when the electric field is parallel to the SRR gap, the BST block in the gap will induce a mode jumping from the LC resonance to plasmonic resonance (horizontal electric-dipole mode), because the displacement current excited by the Mie resonance in the dielectric block acts as a current channel in the gap. When the electric field is perpendicular to the gap side, the plasmonic resonance mode (vertical electric-dipole mode) in SRR changes to two joint modes contributed simultaneously by the back layer, SRR and BST block, as a result of connected back layer and SRR layer by the displacement current in the BST dielectric block. Based on the mode jumping effect as well as temperature and electric-field dependent dielectric constant, the BST-included SRR metamaterials may have great potentials for the applications in electromagnetic switches and widely tunable metamaterial devices.

  7. Designing Rectangular RHCP Microstrip Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Shayla E.

    1987-01-01

    RHCP, Right-Handed, Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna program, aids in design of rectangular microstrip-antenna element, given desired frequency of operation and characteristics of substrate. Begins design calculations on basis of square element with linear polarization. Effective dielectric constant and changes in electrical length due to fringing at edges of radiating element taken into account. Coaxial feed inset with 50 ohms input impedance. Placement of feed such that two orthonormal modes produced in antenna cavity, right- or left-handed circular polarization obtained. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Resonant scattering of radiation belt electrons and ring current protons by EMIC waves in a hot plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Ni, B.; Xiang, Z.; Zou, Z.; Gu, X.; Fu, S.; Zhou, C.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The full kinetic linear dispersion relation in a warm, multi-ion plasma with hot ring current protons is used to calculate the linear growth rate of parallel propagating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Significant wave growth at relatively small wave numbers occurs for both H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves at the magnetic equator. We find that the growth of H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves remains strong when they propagate to higher latitudes (< 30 degrees). The full hot plasma dispersion relation and cold plasma dispersion relation are used individually to quantify the quasi-linear bounce-averaged pitch angle diffusion rates for radiation belt electrons and ring current protons due to H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves. The results demonstrate considerable differences in the rates of pitch angle scattering caused by He+-band EMIC waves between the use of hot and cold plasma dispersion relation. He+-band EMIC waves can also resonate with lower energies particles (electrons and protons) when the impact of hot plasma is included. In contrast, much smaller differences are seen in the resonant scattering rates for H+-band EMIC waves. Our study strongly suggests that the effect of hot plasmas should be carefully taken into account to approach improved understanding of the exact role that EMIC waves plays in driving the dynamical evolution of radiation belt electrons and ring current protons.

  9. Narrow line-width single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser using silicon-on-insulator based micro-ring-resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Hsu, Yung; Hsu, Chin-Wei; Yang, Ling-Gang; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lai, Yin-Chieh; Tsang, Hon-Ki

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) fiber laser with narrow line-width by using an integrated silicon-on-insulator micro-ring resonator (SOI MRR) and two subsidiary fiber rings for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The laser is tunable over the wavelength range from 1546 to 1570 nm, with only step tuning of 2 nm steps. A maximum 49 dB side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) can be achieved. The compact SOI MRR provides a large free-spectral-range (FSR), while the subsidiary rings provide Vernier effect producing a single lasing mode. The FSR of the SOI MRR can be very large and controllable (since it is easy to fabricate small SOI MRR when compared with making small fiber-rings) using the complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compactable SOI fabrication processes. In our proposed laser, the measured single sideband (SSB) spectrum shows that the densely spaced longitudinal modes can be significantly suppressed to achieve SLM. The laser linewidth is only 3.5 kHz measured by using the self-heterodyne method. 30 min stability evaluation in terms of lasing wavelength and optical power is performed; showing the optical wavelength and power are both very stable, with fluctuations of only 0.02 nm and 0.8 dB, respectively.

  10. SiGe BiCMOS balanced transmission line based on coplanar waveguide and split ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Enrique; Borja, Alejandro L.; Boccia, Luigi; Cascon, Joaquin; Ibrahim, Safwat; Calzona, D.; Amendola, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the design of a right-/left-handed composite transmission line implementation with passband characteristics is demonstrated on 0.13 µm silicon-germanium bipolar CMOS (SiGe BiCMOS) technology. The proposed structure is formed by a shorted coplanar waveguide transmission line loaded with split ring resonators (SRRs). As it will be shown, by controlling the geometry of the SRRs as well as their electric coupling with the host line, it is possible to achieve a balanced passband response with widespread bandwidth at millimeter wave frequencies. Besides, this paper introduces a configuration that allows to significantly lower the resonant frequency of the SRRs by loading the rings with Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors. It will be illustrated how this approach allows to reduce the center band frequency of about 40% preserving the balanced behavior and without increasing the resonator size. Finally, the proposed design was experimentally validated with a prototype exhibiting an extended passband with a fractional bandwidth of 19.3% and -3.2 dB of insertion loss around the central frequency of 60 GHz. The use of these transmission lines can be foreseeing in high-capacity millimeter wave communication systems which require compact passband blocks integrated on chip.

  11. Graphene plasmonics for tuning photon decay rate near metallic split-ring resonator in a multilayered substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongpin P; Sha, Wei E I; Jiang, Lijun; Hu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Study of photon decay rate is essential to various optical devices, where graphene is an emerging building block due to its electrical tunability. In this paper, we study photon decay rate of a quantum emitter near a metallic split-ring resonator, which is embedded in a multilayered substrate incorporating a graphene layer. Analyzing photon decay rate in such a complex multilayered system is not only computationally challenging but also highly important to experimentally realizable devices. First, the dispersion relation of graphene plasmonics supported at a dieletric/graphene/dielectric structure is investigated systematically. Meanwhile, the dispersion relation of metallic plasmonics supported at a dielectric/metal structure is studied comparatively. According to our investigation, graphene offers several flexible tuning routes for manipulating photon decay rate, including tunable chemical potential and the emitter's position and polarization. Next, considering plasmonic waves in a graphene sheet occur in the infrared regime, we carefully design a metallic split ring resonating around the same frequency range. Consequently, this design enables a mutual interaction between graphene plasmonics and metallic plasmonics. The boundary element method with a multilayered medium Green's function is adopted in the numerical simulation. Blue-shifted and splitting resonance peaks are theoretically observed, which suggests a strong mode coupling. Moreover, the mode coupling has a switch on-off feature via electrostatically doping the graphene sheet. This work is helpful to dynamically manipulate photon decay rate in complex optical devices.

  12. Wavelength-selective switching using double-ring resonators coupled by a three-waveguide directional coupler.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linjie; Soref, Richard; Chen, Jianping

    2015-05-18

    A novel design of a two-bus coupled-rings 2 × 2 switch with inter-ring coupling enabled by a three-waveguide (3w) directional coupler is proposed. The device is analyzed using a theoretical model based on coupled mode theory and optical transfer formulae. We show that injected free-carriers tuning of the central waveguide in the 3w coupler affects only the bonding resonance mode while the other anti-bonding mode is transparent. This feature can be used to perform selective optical switching, and a numerical design example is given on the silicon photonics platform. The selective switch can be employed in a two-color duplex bidirectional communication system which conveniently separates the simultaneous transmitted and received signals in a single fiber-optic waveguide.

  13. Engineered SOI slot waveguide ring resonator V-shape resonance combs for refraction index sensing up to 1300nm/RIU (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Serna, Samuel; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Bio-detection based on CMOS technology boosts the miniaturization of detection systems and the success on highly efficient, robust, accurate, and low coast Lab-on-Chip detection schemes. Such on chip detection technologies have covered healthy related harmful gases, bio-chemical analytes, genetic micro RNA, etc. Their monitoring accuracy is mainly qualified in terms of sensitivity and limit of the detection (LOD) of the detection system. In this context, recently developed silicon on insulator (SOI) optical devices have displayed highly performant detection abilities that LOD could go beyond 10-8RIU and sensitivity could exceeds 103nm/RIU. The SOI integrated optical sensing devices include strip/slotted waveguide consisting in structures like Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), ring resonators (RR), nano cavities, etc. Typically, hollow core RR and nano-cavities could exhibit higher sensitivity due to their optical mode confinement properties with a partial localization of the electric field in low index sensing regions than devices based on evanescent field tails outside of the optical cores. Furthermore, they also provide larger sensing areas for surface functionalization to reach higher sensitivities and lower LODs. The state of art of hollow core devices, either based on Bragg gratings formed from a slot waveguide cavity or photonic crystal slot cavities, show sensitivities (S) up to 400nm/RIU and Figure of Merit (FOM) around 3,000 in water environment, FOM being defined as the inverse of LOD and precisely as FOM=SQ/λ, with λ the resonance wavelength and Q the quality factor of the considered resonator. Such high achieved FOMs in nano cavities are mainly due to their large Q factors around 15,000. While for mostly used RR, which do not require particular design strategies, relatively low Q factors around 1800 in water are met and moderate sensitivities about 300nm/RIU are found. In this work, we present here a novel slot ring resonator design to make

  14. Analytical and experimental procedures for determining propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave gallium arsenide microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, a thorough analytical procedure is developed for evaluating the frequency-dependent loss characteristics and effective permittivity of microstrip lines. The technique is based on the measured reflection coefficient of microstrip resonator pairs. Experimental data, including quality factor Q, effective relative permittivity, and fringing for 50-omega lines on gallium arsenide (GaAs) from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz are presented. The effects of an imperfect open circuit, coupling losses, and loading of the resonant frequency are considered. A cosine-tapered ridge-guide text fixture is described. It was found to be well suited to the device characterization.

  15. Left-handed-media simulation and transmission of EM waves in subwavelength split-ring-resonator-loaded metallic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Marqués, R; Martel, J; Mesa, F; Medina, F

    2002-10-28

    At microwave frequencies, hollow metallic waveguides behave in certain aspects as a "one-dimensional plasma." This feature will be advantageously used for simulating the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in left-handed metamaterials provided the hollow waveguide is periodically loaded with split ring resonators. It will be shown that EM transmission in this structure is feasible within a certain frequency band even if the transverse dimensions of the waveguide are much smaller than the associated free-space wavelength. This effect can be qualitatively and quantitatively explained by the left-handed metamaterial theory, thus providing a new experimental validation for such a theory.

  16. A high-sensitivity 135 GHz millimeter-wave imager by compact split-ring-resonator in 65-nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Chang; Shang, Yang; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    A high-sensitivity 135 GHz millimeter-wave imager is demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS by on-chip metamaterial resonator: a differential transmission-line (T-line) loaded with split-ring-resonator (DTL-SRR). Due to sharp stop-band introduced by the metamaterial load, high-Q oscillatory amplification can be achieved with high sensitivity when utilizing DTL-SRR as quench-controlled oscillator to provide regenerative detection. The developed 135 GHz mm-wave imager pixel has a compact core chip area of 0.0085 mm2 with measured power consumption of 6.2 mW, sensitivity of -76.8 dBm, noise figure of 9.7 dB, and noise equivalent power of 0.9 fW/√{HZ } Hz. Millimeter-wave images has been demonstrated with millimeter-wave imager integrated with antenna array.

  17. Development of Analog Nonlinear Materials Using Varactor Loaded Split-ring Resonator Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Da

    As research in electromagnetics has expanded, it has given rise to the examination of metamaterials, which possess nontrivial electromagnetic material properties such as engineered permittivity and permeability. Aside from their application in the microwave industry, metamaterials have been associated with novel phenomena since their invention, including sub-wavelength focusing in negative refractive index slabs, evanescent wave amplification in negative index media, and invisibility cloaking and its demonstration at microwave frequency with controlled material properties in space. Effective medium theory plays a key role in the development and application of metamaterials, simplifying the electromagnetic analysis of complex engineered metamaterial composites. Any metamaterial composite can be treated as a homogeneous or inhomogeneous medium, while every unit structure in the composite is represented by its permittivity and permeability tensor. Hence, studying an electromagnetic wave's interaction with complex composites is equivalent to studying the interaction between the wave and an artificial material. This dissertation first examines the application of a magnetic metamaterial lens in wireless power transfer (WPT) technology, which is proposed to enhance the mutual coupling between two magnetic dipoles in the system. I examine and investigate the boundary effect in the finite sized magnetic metamaterial lens using a numerical simulator. I propose to implement an anisotropic and indefinite lens in a WPT system to simplify the lens design and relax the lens dimension requirements. The numerical results agree with the analytical model proposed by Smith et al. in 2011, where lenses are assumed to be infinitely large. By manipulating the microwave properties of a magnetic metamaterial, the nonlinear properties come into the scope of this research. I chose split-ring resonators (SRR) loaded with varactors to develop nonlinear metamaterials. Analogous to linear

  18. Nanoparticle-coated micro-optofluidic ring resonator as a detector for microscale gas chromatographic vapor analysis.

    PubMed

    Scholten, K; Collin, W R; Fan, X; Zellers, E T

    2015-05-28

    A vapor sensor comprising a nanoparticle-coated microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator (μOFRR) is introduced. A multilayer film of polyether functionalized, thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (MPN) was solvent cast on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical SiOxμOFRR resonator structure, and whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances were generated with a 1550 nm tunable laser via an optical fiber taper. Reversible shifts in the WGM resonant wavelength upon vapor exposure were detected with a photodetector. The μOFRR chip was connected to a pair of upstream etched-Si chips containing PDMS-coated separation μcolumns and calibration curves were generated from the peak-area responses to five volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration curves were linear, and the sensitivities reflected the influence of analyte volatility and analyte-MPN functional group affinity. Sorption-induced changes in film thickness apparently dominate over changes in the refractive index of the film as the determinant of responses for all VOCs. Peaks from the MPN-coated μOFRR were just 20-50% wider than those from a flame ionization detector for similar μcolumn separation conditions, reflecting the rapid response of the sensor for VOCs. The five VOCs were baseline separated in <1.67 min, with detection limits as low as 38 ng. PMID:25939851

  19. A low-cost dielectric spectroscopic system using metamaterial open horn-ring resonator-inspired BSF and detection circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Ratnesh; Patel, Piyush N.

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity in a lower microwave band dielectric spectroscopic system is relatively less compared to that of millimeter wave and terahertz system. This work reports modeling and development of an epsilon-negative metamaterial resonator-inspired microwave band-stop filter as a prototype device and its detection circuitry for the spectroscopic analysis of dielectric samples in S-band. The device structure consists of a diamond-shaped patch with a complementary open split horn-ring resonator, fabricated on a Neltech substrate of relative permittivity ( ɛ r = 3.2). The measured transmission coefficient at 2.2 GHz and simulated result at 2.24 GHz demonstrate an excellent accuracy in the device fabrication. A low-cost connector-type microwave signal detection system was assembled for the real-time transduction of device signal into an equivalent DC voltage. Further, a single channel cavity developed using polydimethylsiloxane was placed over the resonator gap for analyzing the perturbation effect of electric field intensity on the resonance and circuit output DC level for different dielectric samples under test. The performed calibrations show linearity up to 82.5 % in the device response.

  20. Nanoparticle-coated micro-optofluidic ring resonator as a detector for microscale gas chromatographic vapor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, K.; Collin, W. R.; Fan, X.; Zellers, E. T.

    2015-05-01

    A vapor sensor comprising a nanoparticle-coated microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator (μOFRR) is introduced. A multilayer film of polyether functionalized, thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (MPN) was solvent cast on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical SiOx μOFRR resonator structure, and whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances were generated with a 1550 nm tunable laser via an optical fiber taper. Reversible shifts in the WGM resonant wavelength upon vapor exposure were detected with a photodetector. The μOFRR chip was connected to a pair of upstream etched-Si chips containing PDMS-coated separation μcolumns and calibration curves were generated from the peak-area responses to five volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration curves were linear, and the sensitivities reflected the influence of analyte volatility and analyte-MPN functional group affinity. Sorption-induced changes in film thickness apparently dominate over changes in the refractive index of the film as the determinant of responses for all VOCs. Peaks from the MPN-coated μOFRR were just 20-50% wider than those from a flame ionization detector for similar μcolumn separation conditions, reflecting the rapid response of the sensor for VOCs. The five VOCs were baseline separated in <1.67 min, with detection limits as low as 38 ng.

  1. Homometallic and Heterometallic Antiferromagnetic Rings: Magnetic Properties Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the local magnetic properties of homometallic Cr8 antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring and the changes occurring by replacing one Cr3+ ion with diamagnetic Cd2+ (Cr7Cd) and with Ni2+ (Cr7Ni). In the heterometallic ring a redistribution of the local magnetic moment is expected in the low temperature ground state. We have investigated those changes by both 53Cr-NMR and 19F-NMR. We have determined the order of magnitude of the transferred hyperfine coupling constant 19F - M+ where M+ = Cr3+, Ni2+ in the different rings. This latter result gives useful information about the overlapping of the electronic wavefunctions involved in the coordinative bond.

  2. Improved Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1993-01-01

    Dual-polarized microstrip antenna features microstrip transmission-line feeds arranged in such configuration that cross-polarized components of radiation relatively low and degree of isolation between feed ports relatively high. V and H feed ports offset from midpoints of feed lines to obtain required opposite phases at feed-point connections to microstrip patches. Two independent beams of same frequency with electric fields polarized orthogonally to each other transmitted or received via antenna. Improved design saves space.

  3. Wideband Microstrip Antenna-Feeding Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1990-01-01

    Special impedance-matching probes help reduce feed complexity. Lightweight array of microstrip antenna elements designed to transmit and illuminate reflector antenna with circularly polarized radiation at 1,545 to 1,550 MHz and to receive circularly polarized radiation at 1,646 to 1,660 MHz. Microstrip array is cluster of 7 subarrays containing total of 28 microstrip patches. Produces cicularly polarized beam with suitable edge taper to illuminate reflector antenna. Teardrop-shaped feed probe provides gradual change of field from coaxial transmission line into microstrip substrate. Intended to be part of larger overlapping-cluster array generating multiple contiguous beams.

  4. Hybrid whispering gallery mode/plasmonic chain ring resonators for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arnold, Stephen; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the physics of hybrid whispering gallery mode resonators formed by arranging a periodic array of epitopes (i.e., gold nano-shells covering silica nano-spheres) around the equator of a silica microsphere. When the epitopes are located at the antinodes of the field of the whispering gallery mode, we find that the field localization properties near the epitopes change drastically as the radius of the epitopes is varied due to the existence of distinct coupling regions of the hybrid resonator. We investigated the application of such resonators for biosensing by calculating the resonance wavelength shift caused by a binding event of a single Thyroglobulin cancer marker protein to the surface of an epitope in the chain.

  5. Planar microstrip YAGI antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A directional microstrip antenna includes a driven patch surrounded by an isolated reflector and one or more coplanar directors, all separated from a ground plane on the order of 0.1 wavelength or less to provide end fire beam directivity without requiring power dividers or phase shifters. The antenna may be driven at a feed point a distance from the center of the driven patch in accordance with conventional microstrip antenna design practices for H-plane coupled or horizontally polarized signals. The feed point for E-plane coupled or vertically polarized signals is at a greater distance from the center than the first distance. This feed point is also used for one of the feed signals for circularly polarized signals. The phase shift between signals applied to feed points for circularly polarized signals must be greater than the conventionally required 90 degrees and depends upon the antenna configuration.

  6. The local surface plasmon resonance property and refractive index sensitivity of metal elliptical nano-ring arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Weihua Wang, Qian; Dong, Anhua; Li, Qiuze

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the optical property and refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of metal elliptical nano-ring (MENR) arranged in rectangle lattice by finite-difference time-domain method. Eight kinds of considered MENRs are divided into three classes, namely fixed at the same outer size, at the same inner size, and at the same middle size. All MENR arrays show a bonding mode local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak in the near-infrared region under longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and lattice diffraction enhanced LSPR peaks emerge, when the LSPR peak wavelength (LSPRPW) matches the effective lattice constant of the array. The LSPRPW is determined by the charge moving path length, the parallel and cross interactions induced by the stable distributed charges, and the moving charges inter-attraction. High RIS can be achieved by small particle distance arrays composed of MENRs with big inner size and small ring-width. On the other hand, for a MENR array, the comprehensive RIS (including RIS and figure of merit) under transverse polarization is superior to that under longitudinal polarization. Furthermore, on condition that compared arrays are fixed at the same lattice constant, the phenomenon that the RIS of big ring-width MENR arrays may be higher than that of small ring-width MENR arrays only appears in the case of compared arrays with relatively small lattice constant and composed of MENRs fixed at the same inner size simultaneously. Meanwhile, the LSPRPW of the former MENR arrays is also larger than that of the latter MENR arrays. Our systematic results may help experimentalists work with this type of systems.

  7. New configuration of photonic logic gates based on single hexagonal-lattice photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, JunZhen; Wang, Junqin; Xu, Xiaofu; Li, Junjun; Chen, Xiyao; Qiu, Yishen; Qiang, Zexuan

    2010-10-01

    We report a new configuration of logic gates based on single hexagonal-lattice PCRR composed of cylindrical silicon rods in air. Two types of inner ring including regular hexagonal and circular are numerically discussed by using 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The impact of surrounding periods and scatterers like size and relative phase at each input port was investigated. The logic '0' and '1' of hexagonal ring can be defined as less than 17% and greater than 85%, respectively, much better than early reported square-lattice results. The simulation results also proved that photonic logic gates based on this new single PCRR can really function as NOT and NOR gates, respectively. These findings make PCRRs potential applications for all-optical logic circuits and ultra-compact high density photonic integration.

  8. Thermoelastic damping effect of the micro-ring resonator with irregular mass and stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Fundamentally, vibration characteristic is a main factor for the stability of structures. In this regard, the irregularity of mass and stiffness distributions for the structure have been an interesting issue for many years. Recently, the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are developed for various applications such as gyro sensors. In the present work, in-plane vibration of micro-ring structure with multiple finite-sized imperfections is investigated. Then, the unbalance of the structure is represented using Heaviside Step Function for the inextensional modeling of the ring. Also, thermoelastic damping (TED) due to internal friction is studied based on Fourier's one-dimensional heat conduction equation using Laplace Transform. To obtain the quality-factors (Q-factors) for imperfect micro-ring, analytical solutions are calculated from governing equations of motion with TED. And then, the natural frequencies and the Q-factors are observed to separate into lower and higher modes. Additionally, the vibration mode shapes are presented, and the frequency trimming concept due to attached imperfections is investigated.

  9. Design of microstrip disk antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Parks, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    The radio frequency characteristics and design parameters for microstrip disk antenna elements and planar arrays are presented. Two C-band model arrays (an 8 element linear and an 8 by 8 planar) were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the technique of using microstrip elements for array applications. These arrays were designed with a cosine amplitude distribution.

  10. Optical-vortex pair creation and annihilation and helical astigmatism of a nonplanar ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Heckenberg, N.R.; Vaupel, M.; Malos, J.T.; Weiss, C.O.

    1996-09-01

    The creation and annihilation of pairs of optical vortices have been studied in transitions between patterns produced in a photorefractive oscillator. Smooth metamorphosis between stable patterns occurs through pair creation or annihilation but can be modeled using superposition of modes taking into account lifting of degeneracy of helical modes by helical astigmatism of the resonator. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. A 1 × 4 optical splitter for TE modes based on a silicon photonic crystal self-collimation ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yuangang; Chen, Xiyao; Qiang, Zexuan; Lin, Guimin; Jiang, Junzhen; Qiu, Yishen; Li, Hui

    2013-09-01

    A 1 × 4 optical splitter (OS) is proposed for TE modes based on a self-collimation (SC) effect ring resonator (SCRR) in an air-hole type silicon photonic crystal. A 1 × 4 OS consists of four beam splitters formed by varying the radii of the air holes. Utilizing multiple-beam interference theory, the theoretical transmission spectra at each port in the OS were analyzed. By forming four splitters in a SCRR properly, self-collimation light can come out from four ports with the light-intensity ratio we set. OSs were investigated using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation technique. The simulation results have good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Because of its small dimensions, whole silicon material, and air-hole type, this structure may have an important role in photonic integrated circuits.

  12. All-optical photonic crystal AND, XOR, and OR logic gates using nonlinear Kerr effect and ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmanpour, Aryan; Mohammadnejad, Shahram; Bahrami, Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this article, two structures are proposed for all-optical AND, XOR, and OR logic gates based on nonlinear photonic crystals. The proposed structures include a Y-junction and ring resonator-based limiters. Two different structures are designed as the limiter in order to produce AND-XOR and AND-OR logic gates. Nonlinear rods of proposed structure have been used in order to create the frequency shift for different values of input power. Finite difference time domain method has been utilized to simulate the performance of proposed logic gates. Simulation results show that the smallest ON-OFF logic-level contrast ratio for the structures proposed for AND-XOR and AND-OR logic gates are 20.29 dB and 16.7 dB, respectively.

  13. Lab-in-a-tube: on-chip integration of glass optofluidic ring resonators for label-free sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Harazim, Stefan M; Bolaños Quiñones, Vladimir A; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2012-08-01

    The fabrication of tubular rolled-up optofluidic ring resonators (RU-OFRRs) based on glass (SiO(2)) material with high quality factors is reported. A novel methodology combining lab-on-a-chip fabrication methods and rolled-up nanotech is presented for the fabrication of fully integrated tubular optofluidic sensors. The microfluidic integration of several RU-OFRRs on one chip is solved by enclosing the microtubes with a patterned robust SU-8 polymeric matrix. A viewport on each microtube enables exact excitation and monitoring of whispering gallery modes with a photoluminescence spectroscopy system under constant ambient conditions, while exchanging the content of the RU-OFRR with liquids of different refractive indices. The refractrometric sensor capabilities are investigated regarding signal stability, sensitivity and reliability. The sensitivity of the integrated RU-OFRR, which is the response of the modes to the change in refractive index of the liquid, is up to 880 nm/refractive index units (RIU).

  14. Detection of CD4+ and CD8 + T-lymphocytes with the optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohring, John T.; Fan, Xudong

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Opto-Fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) to achieve the label-free detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes. The OFRR sensing technology combines microfluidics and optical sensing in a small platform that achieves rapid detection. In this work, white blood cells were obtained from healthy blood and the concentration altered to reflect CD4 and CD8 concentrations of HIV infected individuals. The OFRR was modified to effectively capture these receptors located on T-Lymphocytes and obtain a sensing signal through interaction with an evanescent field. Results show isolation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes at medically significant levels. This work will lead to a device that can provide a CD4 and CD8 count to measure HIV progression in a low cost sensing setup.

  15. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point. PMID:17767325

  16. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point.

  17. Verilog-A behavioral model for resonance-modulated silicon micro-ring modulator.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jinsoo; Ban, Yoojin; Yu, Byung-Min; Lee, Jeong-Min; Choi, Woo-Young

    2015-04-01

    We present an accurate behavior model for Si micro-ring modulators (MRM) based on Verilog-A, a standard simulation tool for electronic system design. Our model describes the electrical characteristics of the Si MRM using an equivalent circuit and the optical characteristics based on the couple-mode theory. The accuracy of our model is confirmed by comparing simulation results of our behavior model with the measurement results of a fabricated Si MRM. With this behavior model, co-simulation of Si MRM and electronic driving circuits in the standard electronic design environment can be easily performed.

  18. Resonant neutral-particle emission in collisions of electrons with peptide ions in a storage ring.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, T; Noda, K; Saito, M; Lee, S; Ito, Y; Takagi, H

    2003-05-16

    Electron-biomolecular ion collisions were studied using an electrostatic storage ring with a merging beam technique for singly protonated peptides (angiotensin I, II, and III). A strong neutral-particle emission at around 6.5 eV was found in addition to neutrals from recombination at low energies. The rates of the high-energy peak greatly decreased with a slight decrease in the number of amino-acid residues from angiotensin I to III. These results suggest that some peptide bonds were selectively cleaved.

  19. Hot Electron Generation and Cathodoluminescence Nanoscopy of Chiral Split Ring Resonators.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Verre, Ruggero; Shao, Lei; Nordlander, Peter; Käll, Mikael

    2016-08-10

    Three-dimensional chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been shown to be able to dramatically boost photon-spin selective light-matter interactions, potentially leading to novel photonics, molecular spectroscopy, and light-harvesting applications based on circularly polarized light. Here, we show that chiral split-ring gold nanoresonators interfaced to a wide band gap semiconductor exhibit a contrast in hot-electron transfer rate between left-handed and right-handed visible light that essentially mimics the far-field circular dichroism of the structures. We trace down the origin of this effect to the differential excitation of the thinnest part of the split-ring structures using dichroic-sensitive cathodoluminescence imaging with nanometer spatial resolution. The results highlight the intricate interplay between the near-field and far-field chiral response of a nanostructure and establishes a clear link to the emerging field of hot carrier plasmonics with numerous potential applications in photocatalysis and solar light harvesting. PMID:27464003

  20. High gain selective amplification in whispering gallery mode resonators: analysis by cavity ring down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féron, P.; Rasoloniaina, A.; Huet, V.; Le Cren, E.; Trebaol, S.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Serier-Brault, H.; Mortier, M.; Dumeige, Y.

    2013-03-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the dispersive properties of single whispering gallery mode resonators. We present a simple experimental protocol which allows us to obtain in detail its coupling regime and thus their dispersive properties. We demonstrate a compact optical amplifier with a gain up to 20dB in an Erbium doped fluoride microsphere of 135μm in diameter coupled via a tapered fiber. The model is also applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the modal coupling between two degenerate resonances of the same cavity. In particular, this can be used to describe the coupling of counterpropagating whispering gallery modes (WGM) by Rayleigh scattering. The theory is successfully compared to experiments carried out in silica microspheres

  1. Towards broad-bandwidth polarization-independent nanostrip waveguide ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Erdmanis, M; Karvonen, L; Säynätjoki, A; Tu, X; Liow, T Y; Lo, Q G; Vänskä, O; Honkanen, S; Tittonen, I

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate a new method for accessing the broad-bandwidth polarization-independent operation of a microring resonator based on the standard photonic nanostrip waveguides. The method employs the selective application of atomic layer deposition to form highly uniform TiO(2) overlayers with the specific dispersion properties. The wide operation window is achieved by matching the wavelength dependencies of the free spectral ranges of the two orthogonal polarizations. PMID:23609703

  2. W-band, 20 W microstrip integrated circuit combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y. E.; Hayashibara, G.; Yen, P.; Ngan, Y. C.; Yen, H. C.

    1987-04-01

    A W-band, 20 W, short-pulse microstrip integrated circuit (MIC) power combiner was developed, adopting an integrated circuit design approach in conjunction with a versatile modulator to achieve small size, low cost, and high performance. The combiner consists of two high power IMPATT oscillators and a low-loss ratrace ring hybrid circuit. Using a high power diode in a well-matched circuit, an individual MIC IMPATT oscillator delivered 12.5 W with less than 1.5 dB degradation from rated waveguide power. The insertion loss of the ratrace ring circuit is 0.75 dB. A circulator is not required. Furthermore, well balanced amplitude and phase relationships ensure that the combined power emerges only at the output port. The combiner efficiency exceeds 80 percent. The DC-to-RF conversion efficiency is about 3 percent. The pulsewidth and pulse repetition rate are 40 ns and 80 kHz, respectively.

  3. Measurement and analysis of a microwave oscillator stabilized by a sapphire dielectric ring resonator for ultra-low noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Phase-noise measurements are presented for a microwave oscillator whose frequency is stabilized by a whispering-gallery sapphire ring resonator with Q of 200,000. This mode involves little metallic conduction and allows nearly full use of the very low dielectric loss in sapphire. Several mode families have been identified, in good agreement with frequency calculations. For a 5-cm wheel resonator in a 7.6-cm container, Q values above 100,000 were found at room temperature for all of the modes in this sequence. Coupling Q-values for these same modes ranged from 10,000 (n = 5) to 100,000 (n = 10) for a WR112 waveguide port at the center of the cylinder wall of the containing can. Phase noise measurements for a transistor oscillator locked to the n = 10 (7.84-GHz) mode showed a 1/f cubed dependence for low offset frequencies, and a value of L(f) = -55 dB/Hz at an offset of 10 Hz from the carrier.

  4. Measurement and analysis of a microwave oscillator stabilized by a sapphire dielectric ring resonator for ultra-low noise.

    PubMed

    Dick, G J; Saunders, J

    1990-01-01

    Phase-noise measurements are presented for a microwave oscillator whose frequency is stabilized by a whispering gallery mode sapphire ring resonator with Q of 2x10(5). The nature of the mode, which involves little metallic conduction, allows nearly full use of the very low dielectric loss in sapphire. Several mode families have been identified with good agreement with calculated frequency predictions. Waveguide coupling parameters have been characterized for the principal (lowest frequency) mode family, for n=5 to n =10 full waves around the perimeter. For a 5-cm wheel resonator in a 7.6-cm container, Q-values of above 10(5) were found at room temperature for all of the modes in this sequence. Coupling Q-values for the same modes ranged from 10(4) (n =5) to 10(5) (n=10) for a WR112 waveguide port at the center of the cylinder wall of the containing can. Phase noise measurements for a transistor oscillator locked to the n=10 (7.84-GHz) mode showed a 1/f(3) dependence for low offset frequencies, and a value of L(f)=-55 dB/Hz at an offset of 10 Hz from the carrier. The oscillator shows phase noise below the previously reported for any X-band source. PMID:18285050

  5. Measurement and analysis of a microwave oscillator stabilized by a sapphire dielectric ring resonator for ultra-low noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon

    1990-09-01

    Phase-noise measurements are presented for a microwave oscillator whose frequency is stabilized by a whispering-gallery sapphire ring resonator with Q of 200,000. This mode involves little metallic conduction and allows nearly full use of the very low dielectric loss in sapphire. Several mode families have been identified, in good agreement with frequency calculations. For a 5-cm wheel resonator in a 7.6-cm container, Q values above 100,000 were found at room temperature for all of the modes in this sequence. Coupling Q-values for these same modes ranged from 10,000 (n = 5) to 100,000 (n = 10) for a WR112 waveguide port at the center of the cylinder wall of the containing can. Phase noise measurements for a transistor oscillator locked to the n = 10 (7.84-GHz) mode showed a 1/f cubed dependence for low offset frequencies, and a value of L(f) = -55 dB/Hz at an offset of 10 Hz from the carrier.

  6. Spiral Microstrip Antenna with Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spiral microstrip antenna having resistor elements embedded in each of the spiral arms is provided. The antenna is constructed using a conductive back plane as a base. The back plane supports a dielectric slab having a thickness between one-sixteenth and one-quarter of an inch. A square spiral, having either two or four arms, is attached to the dielectric slab. Each arm of the spiral has resistor elements thereby dissipating an excess energy not already emitted through radiation. The entire configuration provides a thin, flat, high gain, wide bandwidth antenna which requires no underlying cavity. The configuration allows the antenna to be mounted conformably on an aircraft surface.

  7. COMPONENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OCCURRING IN THEM: Natural amplitude fluctuations in a ring He-Ne laser under phase resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danileĭko, M. V.; Kravchuk, A. L.; Tselinko, A. M.; Yatsenko, L. P.

    1988-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the spectra of natural amplitude fluctuations of counterpropagating (opposite) waves in a ring He-Ne laser under phase resonance conditions. The form of the spectrum was then qualitatively different from the spectrum obtained in the standing-wave regime. A theoretical analysis provided a satisfactory explanation of the characteristics of the observed spectra.

  8. Josephson Junctions Help Measure Resonance And Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid H. S.; Mcgrath, William R.; Bumble, Bruce; Leduc, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of superconducting microstrip transmission lines measured at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Submicron Josephson (super-conductor/insulator/superconductor) junctions used as both voltage-controlled oscillators and detectors to measure frequencies (in range of hundreds of gigahertz) of high-order resonant electromagnetic modes of superconducting microstrip transmission-line resonators. This oscillator/detector approach similar to vacuum-tube grid dip meters and transistor dip meters used to probe resonances at much lower frequencies.

  9. Public key suppression and recovery using a PANDA ring resonator for high security communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juleang, Pakorn; Phongsanam, Prapas; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2011-03-01

    An interesting security technique that uses the dark-bright soliton conversion control within the microring resonator is proposed. The obtained outputs for a dark-bright soliton dynamic state can be controlled and used to form the public key suppression for communication security application. However, a good design should be possible to be fabricated; therefore, by using the parameters based on the practical device parameters, the simulation results obtained have shown that the proposed system can indeed be achieved. The public key suppression and public key recovery can be used in a highly secure communication system and has potential applications in optical cryptography.

  10. Hybrid graphene-molybdenum disulphide based ring resonator for label-free sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Safian, Reza

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a novel graphene-MoS2 hybrid structure based surface plasmon resonance sensor is presented for label-free analysis. The structure consists of a silicon nitride (Si3N4) dielectric layer vertically coupled to a thin layer of metallic strip made of silver (Ag) on top. A hybrid graphene-MoS2 layer is added on top of the metallic strip to enhance the sensitivity and the quality factor of the sensor. The cladding layer is assumed to be porous alumina (p-Al2O3) increasing the interaction of the surface plasmon mode and the target molecules. Finite difference time domain analysis (FDTD) has been used to design and to analyze the performance of the sensor. It is shown that by addition of hybrid graphene-MoS2 layer to the structure of a surface plasmon resonance based sensor, the refractive index sensitivity and the intrinsic quality factor of the sensor are enhanced simultaneously. It is also shown that addition of the hybrid graphene-MoS2 layer leads to higher values of figure of merit (FOM) for the sensor, and consequently better performance of the sensor. Moreover, the effect of increasing the number of graphene and MoS2 layers is investigated. The proposed sensor is very compact and can be used for lab-on-a-chip sensing applications.

  11. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  12. Microstrip antennas for SAR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Current and future microstrip antenna technology development for Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) are summarized. Some of the electrical and mechanical characteristics of previously and presently developed microstrip SAR antennas are shown. The SEASAT, the SIR-A and presently the SIR-B antennas are all designed for operation at L-band with approximately 22 MHz of bandwidth. The antennas have linear polarization with minimum of 20 dB of polarization purity. Both the SEASAT and SIR-A antennas were designed for a fixed pointing angle of 20.5 deg and 47 deg, respectively. However, the SIR-B has the added feature of mechanical beam steering in elevation (range). With the exception of different mechanical characteristics, it is concluded that present spaceborne SAR antennas have only single frequency and single polarization performance. The lack of large spaceborne antennas operating at the higher degree of fabrication tolerance required for a given performance; and larger feed and radiating element losses.

  13. Combined Brillouin light scattering and microwave absorption study of magnon-photon coupling in a split-ring resonator/YIG film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, S.; Maier-Flaig, H.; Gross, R.; Hu, C.-M.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Weiler, M.

    2016-08-01

    Microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and microwave absorption (MA) are used to study magnon-photon coupling in a system consisting of a split-ring microwave resonator and an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. The split-ring resonator is defined by optical lithography and loaded with a 1 μm-thick YIG film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. BLS and MA spectra of the hybrid system are simultaneously recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field magnitude and microwave excitation frequency. Strong coupling of the magnon and microwave resonator modes is found with a coupling strength of geff /2π = 63 MHz. The combined BLS and MA data allow us to study the continuous transition of the hybridized modes from a purely magnonic to a purely photonic mode by varying the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. Furthermore, the BLS data represent an up-conversion of the microwave frequency coupling to optical frequencies.

  14. Design and fabrication of microstrip antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A microstrip array project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of designing and fabricating simple, low cost, low sidelobe phased arrays with circular disk microstrip radiating elements. Design data were presented for microstrip elements and arrays including the effects of the protective covers, the mutual interaction between elements, and stripline feed network design. Low cost multilayer laminate fabrication techniques were also investigated. Utilizing this design data two C-band low sidelobe arrays were fabricated and tested: an eight-element linear and a sixty-four element planar array. These arrays incorporated stripline Butler matrix feed networks to produce a low sidelobe broadside beam.

  15. Electro-optic directed XOR logic circuits based on parallel-cascaded micro-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yonghui; Zhao, Yongpeng; Chen, Wenjie; Guo, Anqi; Li, Dezhao; Zhao, Guolin; Liu, Zilong; Xiao, Huifu; Liu, Guipeng; Yang, Jianhong

    2015-10-01

    We report an electro-optic photonic integrated circuit which can perform the exclusive (XOR) logic operation based on two silicon parallel-cascaded microring resonators (MRRs) fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. PIN diodes embedded around MRRs are employed to achieve the carrier injection modulation. Two electrical pulse sequences regarded as two operands of operations are applied to PIN diodes to modulate two MRRs through the free carrier dispersion effect. The final operation result of two operands is output at the Output port in the form of light. The scattering matrix method is employed to establish numerical model of the device, and numerical simulator SG-framework is used to simulate the electrical characteristics of the PIN diodes. XOR operation with the speed of 100Mbps is demonstrated successfully.

  16. Giant Electric Field Enhancement in Split Ring Resonators Featuring Nanometer-Sized Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Bagiante, S.; Enderli, F.; Fabiańska, J.; Sigg, H.; Feurer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Today's pulsed THz sources enable us to excite, probe, and coherently control the vibrational or rotational dynamics of organic and inorganic materials on ultrafast time scales. Driven by standard laser sources THz electric field strengths of up to several MVm−1 have been reported and in order to reach even higher electric field strengths the use of dedicated electric field enhancement structures has been proposed. Here, we demonstrate resonant electric field enhancement structures, which concentrate the incident electric field in sub-diffraction size volumes and show an electric field enhancement as high as ~14,000 at 50 GHz. These values have been confirmed through a combination of near-field imaging experiments and electromagnetic simulations. PMID:25623373

  17. Analysis of Stub Loaded Microstrip Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna fed by a coaxial probe and reactively loaded by a open circuited microstrip line has been used previously to produce circular polarization[ l] and also as a building block for a series fed microstrip patch array [2]. Rectangular and circular patch antennas loaded with a microstrip stub were previously analyzed using the generalized Thevenin theorem [2,3]. In the Thevenin theorem approach, the mutual coupling between the patch current and the surface current on the stub was not taken into account. Also, the Thevenin theorem approach neglects continuity of current at the patch-stub junction. The approach in this present paper includes the coupling between the patch and stub currents as well as continuity at the patch-stub junction.

  18. Surface wave effects on microstrip antenna radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudot, Bertrand; Mosig, Juan; Gardiol, Fred

    1988-03-01

    Surface waves play a significant role in phased arrays of microstrip antennas, and cannot be neglected, as has been habitually done in the use of approximate models. Attention is presently given to sophisticated integral equation techniques furnishing accurate design data for the analysis and synthesis of microstrip patch antennas, taking into account surface waves and losses within the structure. Secondary radiation produced by scattering of the surface waves on the border of a finite dielectric substrate is determined by these means.

  19. An analysis technique for microstrip antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Bailey, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a combined numerical and empirical approach to the analysis of microstrip antennas over a wide range of frequencies. The method involves representing the antenna by a fine wire grid immersed in a dielectric medium and then using Richmond's reaction formulation (1974) to evaluate the piecewise sinusoidal currents on the grid segments. The calculated results are then modified to account for the finite dielectric discontinuity. The method is applied to round and square microstrip antennas.

  20. Microstrip monopulse antenna for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Q.; Martin, C.; Delvalle, J. C.; Jongejans, A.; Rinous, P.; Travers, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Low cost is one of the main requirements in a communication system suitable for mass production, as it is the case for satellite land mobile communications. Microstrip technology fulfills this requirement which must be supported by a low cost tracking system design. The tradeoff led us to a prototype antenna composed of microstrip patches based on electromechanical closed-loop principle; the design and the results obtained are described.

  1. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar; Dusad, Lalit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm2.

  2. Dissipative soliton resonance in a full polarization-maintaining fiber ring laser at different values of dispersion.

    PubMed

    Armas-Rivera, I; Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Carrascosa, A; Kuzin, E A; Beltrán-Pérez, G; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the dissipative solitons resonance in an ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser in which all the elements are polarization maintaining (PM). A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror was used as a mode-locker. The cavity included a normal dispersion single-mode fiber (SMF) and an anomalous dispersion photonic crystal fiber. The change of the length of the PM SMF allows the variation of the net-normal dispersion of the cavity in the range from 0.022 ps2 to 0.262 ps2. As the absolute value of the net-normal dispersion increases from 0.022 ps2 to 0.21 ps2, a square-shaped single pulse transformed to a single right-angle trapezoid-shaped pulse, and, at the dispersion of 0.262 ps2, to multiple right-angle trapezoid-shaped pulses, per round-trip. PMID:27137606

  3. Hybrid perturbation scheme for wide beamwidth circularly polarized stacked patch microstrip antenna for satellite communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shakawat

    Circularly polarized microstrip antennas are popular for satellite communications due to their circularly polarized orientation. They are used frequently in modern day satellite communication. In order to achieve wide angular coverage in satellite communication, a wide beamwidth is required from the antenna. Traditional single layer microstrip antenna inherently demonstrates low angular beamwidth of approximately 600 to 800and thereby lacks wide angular coverage when used for satellite communication. The objective of this thesis is to design a single-fed stacked microstrip antenna using different perturbation techniques in order to achieve a wide angular beamwidth. This thesis presents a new design for a circularly polarized antenna based on the hybrid perturbation scheme. First, a method of stacked patch-ring with negative perturbation was used to generate a significantly larger beamwidth of 1060. The axial ratio (AR) bandwidth obtained is also significantly larger compared to the case when square rings are used as parasitic and driven rings with a single feed. A simulated impedance bandwidth (S11< - 10 dB) of 16%, 3 dB AR bandwidth of 8% and a peak gain of 8.65 dBic are obtained from this design. Next, a new design of stacked hybrid antenna is presented, which uses hybrid perturbations to generate circular polarization radiation. An enhanced beamwidth of 1260 was obtained. The simulation results are confirmed by the measured results.

  4. A highly-sensitive NaCl concentration sensor based on a compact silicon-on-insulator micro-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Yiqun; Feng, Junbo; Guo, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Silicon photonics circuit has been widely investigated in recent years, due to its advantage in the small footprint, high density integration and compatible with CMOS pilot line. In this paper, a compact, highly-sensitivity NaCl concentration sensor is experimentally demonstrated, based on the micro-ring resonators. The sensor circuit is composed of grating couplers, bus waveguide and micro-ring resonators. The width of optical waveguides is 450nm, with a thickness of 220nm. The chip was fabricated in imec through the ePIXfab multi-project wafer service supported by our group, which is compatible with the CMOS process line. The chip shows high sensitivity, as high as of more than 80nm/RIU, which corresponding to a detection limit of 1.6e-4 by using optical spectrum analyzer.

  5. Analysis of Stub Loaded Microstrip Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna fed by a coaxial probe and reactively loaded by a open circuited microstrip line has been used previously to produce circular polarization and also as a building block for a series fed microstrip patch array. Rectangular and circular patch antennas loaded with a microstrip stub were previously analyzed using the generalized Thevenin theorem. In the Thevenin theorem approach, the mutual coupling between the patch current and the surface current on the stub was not taken into account. Also, the Thevenin theorem approach neglects continuity of current at the patch-stub junction. The approach in this present paper includes the coupling between the patch and stub currents as well as continuity at the patch-stub junction. The input impedance for a stub loaded microstrip patch is calculated by the general planar dielectric dyadic Green's function approach in the spectral domain, as was initiated much earlier and has been extensively expanded upon and utilized successfully throughout the literature for microstrip antenna configurations. Using the spectral domain dyadic Green s function derived earlier with the electric field integral equation (EFIE), the problem is formulated by using entire domain basis functions to represent the surface current densities on the patch, the loading stub and the attachment mode at the junction. Galerkin's procedure is used to reduce the EFIE to a matrix equation, which is then solved to obtain the amplitudes of the surface currents. These surface currents are then used for calculating the input impedance of stub loaded rectangular and circular microstrip patches. Numerical results are compared with measured results and with previous results calculated by the Thevenin's theorem approach.

  6. Electrically Small Microstrip Quarter-Wave Monopole Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. Robert

    2004-01-01

    with the patch above one-third of the radial distance from the center. The modified feed configuration of the innovative approach is an inductive-short-circuit configuration that provides impedance matching and that has been used for many years on other antennas but not on microstrip-style monopole antennas. In this configuration, the pin is connected to both the conductive patch and the ground plane. As before, the shield of the coaxial cable is connected to the ground plane, but now the central conductor is connected to a point on the pin between the ground plane and the conductive plate (see figure). The location of the connection point on the pin is chosen so that together, the inductive short circuit and the conductive plate or patch act as components of a lumped-element resonant circuit that radiates efficiently at the resonance frequency and, at the resonance frequency, has an impedance that matches that of the coaxial cable. It should be noted that the innovative design entails two significant disadvantages. One disadvantage is that the frequency bandwidth for efficient operation is only about 1/20 to 1/15 that of a whip antenna designed for the same nominal frequency. The other disadvantage is that the estimated gain is between 3-1/2 and 4-1/2 dB below that of the whip antenna. However, if an affected radio-communication system used only a few adjacent frequency channels and the design of the components of the system other than the antenna provided adequate power or gain margin, then these disadvantages could be overcome.

  7. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  8. Dual-band microstrip antennas with monolithic reactive loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, S. E.; Long, S. A.; Richards, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The design and experimental measurement of a dual-band, monolithic microstrip antenna is presented. The structure utilises a short-circuited length of microstrip transmission line to provide reactive loading and, thereby, retains the low-profile characteristic of a normal microstrip patch radiator.

  9. Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna With Reactive Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Shayla E.

    1988-01-01

    Effective but bulky coaxial stub replaced. Short-circuited microstrip transmission line serves as reactive loading element for microstrip antenna. Constructed integrally with stripline radiating element, shorted line preserves low microstrip profile and enables tuning of antenna for two-band operation.

  10. A Microstrip Reflect Array Using Crossed Dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozar, David M.; Targonski, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Microstrip reflect arrays offer a flat profile and light weight, combined with many of the electrical characteristics of reflector antennas. Previous work [1]-[7] has demonstrated a variety of microstrip reflect arrays, using different elements at a range of frequencies. In this paper we describe the use of crossed dipoles as reflecting elements in a microstrip reflectarray. Theory of the solution will be described, with experimental results for a 6" square reflectarray operating at 28 GHz. The performance of crossed dipoles will be directly compared with microstrip patches, in terms of bandwidth and loss. We also comment on the principle of operation of reflectarray elements, including crossed dipoles, patches of variable length, and patch elements with tuning stubs. This research was prompted by the proposed concept of overlaying a flat printed reflectarray on the surface of a spacecraft solar panel. Combining solar panel and antenna apertures in this way would lead to a reduction in weight and simpler deployment, with some loss of flexibility in independently pointing the solar panel and the antenna. Using crossed dipoles as reflectarray elements will minimize the aperture blockage of the solar cells, in contrast to the use of elements such as microstrip patches.

  11. High-Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch covered with a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedra, Sami; Fortaki, Tarek

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a full-wave method to calculate the resonant characteristics of rectangular microstrip antenna with and without dielectric cover, to explain the difference of performance with temperature between superconducting and normal conducting antenna. Especially the characteristics of high temperature superconducting (HTS) antenna were almost ideal around the critical temperature (Tc). The dyadic Green's functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The computed results are found to be in good agreement with results obtained using other methods. Also, the effects of the superstrate on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of rectangular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. This type of configuration can be used for wider bandwidth by proper selection of superstrate thickness and its dielectric constants.

  12. The 'partial resonance' of the ring in the NLO crystal melaminium formate: study using vibrational spectra, DFT, HOMO-LUMO and MESP mapping.

    PubMed

    Binoy, J; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S

    2013-03-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N(3)C(1)N(1) moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO(2) group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal.

  13. Improved tunable microstrip SQUID amplifier for the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelley, Sean; Hansen, Jorn; Mol, Jan-Michael; Hilton, Gene; Clarke, John

    2015-03-01

    We present a series of tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSAs) for use in ADMX. The axion dark matter candidate is detected via Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q (~ 105) tunable microwave cavity, cooled to 1.6 K or lower, in the presence of a 7-tesla magnetic field. The microwave photon frequency is a function of the unknown axion mass, so that the cavity and amplifier must be scanned over a broad frequency range. An MSA is constructed by flux-coupling a resonant microstrip to a resistively-shunted SQUID biased into the voltage state. We demonstrate gains exceeding 20 dB, at frequencies above 900 MHz. Tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip with a low inductance GaAs varactor diode that operates at cryogenic temperatures. By varying the voltage bias of the varactor we vary its capacitance, allowing a reflected phase varying from nearly 0 to π at the end of the microstrip, and thus a standing wave tunable from nearly λ/2 to λ/4. With proper design of the microwave environment, a noise temperature of 1/2 to 1/4 of the physical temperature is demonstrated.

  14. Influence of dielectric substrate on the responsivity of microstrip dipole-antenna-coupled infrared microbolometers.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, Iulian; Boreman, Glenn D

    2002-04-01

    We report on the influence of the dielectric substrate on the performance of microstrip dipole-antenna-coupled microbolometers. The location, the width, and the magnitude of the resonance of a printed dipole are altered when the dielectric substrate is backed by a ground plane. A thicker dielectric substrate shifts the antenna resonance toward shorter dipole lengths and leads to a stronger and slower detector response. The incorporation of an air layer into the antenna substrate further increases thermal impedance, leading to an even stronger response and shifting the antenna resonance toward longer dipole lengths. PMID:11936778

  15. Tailoring the negative-refractive-index metamaterials composed of semiconductor-metal-semiconductor gold ring/disk cavity heptamers to support strong Fano resonances in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Pala, Nezih

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated numerically the plasmon response of a planar negative-index metamaterial composed of symmetric molecular orientations of Au ring/disk nanocavities in a heptamer cluster. Using the plasmon hybridization theory and considering the optical response of an individual nanocluster, we determined the accurate geometrical sizes for a ring/disk nanocavity heptamer. It is shown that the proposed well-organized nanocluster can be tailored to support strong and sharp Fano resonances in the visible spectrum. Surrounding and filling the heptamer clusters by various metasurfaces with different chemical characteristics, and illuminating the structure with an incident light source, we proved that this configuration reflects low losses and isotropic features, including a pronounced Fano dip in the visible spectrum. Technically, employing numerical methods and tuning the geometrical sizes of the structure, we tuned and induced the Fano dip in the visible range, while the dark and bright plasmon resonance extremes are blueshifted to shorter wavelengths dramatically. Considering the calculated transmission window, we quantified the effective refractive index for the structure, while the substance of the substrate material was varied. Using Si, GaP, and InP semiconductors as substrate materials, we calculated and compared the corresponding figure of merit (FOM) for different regimes. The highest possible FOM was obtained for the GaP-Au-GaP negative-refractive-index metamaterial composed of ring/disk nanocavity heptamers as 62.4 at λ∼690  nm (arounnd the position of the Fano dip). Despite the outstanding symmetric nature of the suggested heptamer array, we provided sharp Fano dips by the appropriate tuning of the geometrical and chemical parameters. This study yields a method to employ ring/disk nanocavity heptamers as a negative-refractive-index metamaterial in designing highly accurate localization of surface plasmon resonance sensing devices and

  16. A microwave resonator integrated on a polymer microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, S. Z.; Rostas, A. M.; Heidinger, L.; Spengler, N.; Meissner, M. V.; MacKinnon, N.; Schleicher, E.; Weber, S.; Korvink, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel stacked split-ring type microwave (MW) resonator that is integrated into a 10 mm by 10 mm sized microfluidic chip. A straightforward and scalable batch fabrication process renders the chip suitable for single-use applications. The resonator volume can be conveniently loaded with liquid sample via microfluidic channels patterned into the mid layer of the chip. The proposed MW resonator offers an alternative solution for compact in-field measurements, such as low-field magnetic resonance (MR) experiments requiring convenient sample exchange. A microstrip line was used to inductively couple MWs into the resonator. We characterised the proposed resonator topology by electromagnetic (EM) field simulations, a field perturbation method, as well as by return loss measurements. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at X-band frequencies were recorded, revealing an electron-spin sensitivity of 3.7 ·1011spins ·Hz - 1 / 2G-1 for a single EPR transition. Preliminary time-resolved EPR experiments on light-induced triplet states in pentacene were performed to estimate the MW conversion efficiency of the resonator.

  17. A microwave resonator integrated on a polymer microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Kiss, S Z; Rostas, A M; Heidinger, L; Spengler, N; Meissner, M V; MacKinnon, N; Schleicher, E; Weber, S; Korvink, J G

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel stacked split-ring type microwave (MW) resonator that is integrated into a 10mm by 10mm sized microfluidic chip. A straightforward and scalable batch fabrication process renders the chip suitable for single-use applications. The resonator volume can be conveniently loaded with liquid sample via microfluidic channels patterned into the mid layer of the chip. The proposed MW resonator offers an alternative solution for compact in-field measurements, such as low-field magnetic resonance (MR) experiments requiring convenient sample exchange. A microstrip line was used to inductively couple MWs into the resonator. We characterised the proposed resonator topology by electromagnetic (EM) field simulations, a field perturbation method, as well as by return loss measurements. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at X-band frequencies were recorded, revealing an electron-spin sensitivity of 3.7·10(11)spins·Hz(-1/2)G(-1) for a single EPR transition. Preliminary time-resolved EPR experiments on light-induced triplet states in pentacene were performed to estimate the MW conversion efficiency of the resonator. PMID:27497077

  18. Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.

  19. Impedance properties of circular microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A moment method solution to the input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna excited by either a microstrip feed or a coaxial probe is presented. Using the exact dyadic Green's function and the Fourier transform the problem is formulated in terms of Richmond's reaction integral equation from which the unknown patch current can be solved for. The patch current is expanded in terms of regular surface patch modes and an attachment mode (for probe excited case) which insures continuity of the current at probe/patch junction, proper polarization and p-dependance of patch current in the vicinity of the probe. The input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna is computed and compared with earlier results. Effect of attachment mode on the input impedance is also discussed.

  20. IRAS observations show that the Earth is embedded in a solar ring of asteroidal dust particles in resonant lock with the planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.; Jayaraman, S.; Xu, Y.-L.; Liou, J.-C.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed all the infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud obtained in 1983 by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and shown that when viewed at a constant elongation angle of 90 degrees, the elliptic brightness of the cloud is systematically greater by approx. 3 percent in the trailing direction than in the leading direction. This asymmetry is observed at all times of the year and in all three of the IRAS wavebands in which the zodiacal cloud is clearly observed. The orbits of cometary particles are highly eccentric and these particles are unlikely to be trapped in corotational resonances. Thus, the IRAS observations are evidence that the Earth is embedded in a ring of asteroidal particles. Similar rings are expected to be associated with Mars and Venus. The existence of asteroidal families and their associated dust bands (also discovered by IRAS) are evidence that the asteroid belt is a significant and maybe the dominant source of dust in the zodiacal cloud. These new observations give quantitative information both on the rate of transport of asteroidal dust to the Earth and on the rate of grinding down of the asteroid belt. Without resonant trapping most dust particles spiral past the Earth without striking the planet. However, most particles trapped in resonances are released from these resonances due to close encounter with the Earth. Thus, the ring may act as a funnel through which asteroidal particles are deposited in the Earth's atmosphere. This could have implications for the efficiency of the transport of carbonaceous material from the asteroid belt to the Earth and for the origin of life on the planet.

  1. Design and fabrication of microstrip circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiol, Fred

    1988-06-01

    This article provides an up-to-date survey of microstrip circuits. It defines the main features of microwave integrated circuits (MICs), their particular characteristics in terms of electromagnetic fields and measurements, the materials most commonly used, the techniques developed to realize and connect circuits, and the available computer software for their analysis, synthesis, optimization and for the drafting and cutting of the masks required to carry out the photolithographic process. The most accurate relations presently available to characterize microstrip lines are given, and the major models introduced to characterize discontinuities are briefly described.

  2. Propagation characteristics of superconducting microstrip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S.G.; Ke, J.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The modified spectral-domain approach is applied to study the propagation characteristics of high temperature superconducting microstrip lines whose signal strip and ground plane are of arbitrary thickness. In this study, numerical results for effective dielectric constant, attenuation constant, and strip current distribution are presented to discuss the effects due to frequency, temperature, strip thickness, and substrate loss tangent. In particular, the conductor and dielectric attenuation constants of superconducting microstrip line are depicted separately to discuss the mechanism of the line losses. A comparison with published theoretical and experimental results is also included to check the accuracy of the new approach`s results.

  3. Measurement of loss in superconducting microstrip at millimeter-wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiansong; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Noroozian, Omid; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Day, Peter K.; Leduc, Henry G.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a new technique for accurate measurement of the loss of superconducting microstrips at mm-wave frequencies. In this technique, we optically couple power to slot antenna, which is connected to one port of a hybrid coupler. One of the output ports of the hybrid delivers power to a series of mm-wave microstrip resonators which are capacitively coupled to a feedline followed by an MKID (microwave kinetic inductance detector) that measures the transmitted power. Two other MKIDs are connected to the remaining ports of the hybrid to measure the total incident optical power and the power reflected from the mm-wave resonators, allowing |S21|2 and |S11|2 to be accurately determined and resonance frequency fr and quality factor Q to be retrieved. We have fabricated such a Nb/SiO2/Nb microstrip loss test device which contains several mm- wave resonators with fr˜100 GHz and measured it at 30 mK. All the resonators have shown internal quality factor Qi˜500-2000, suggesting a loss tangent of ˜5×10-4-2×10-3 for the SiO2 in use. For comparison, we have also fabricated a 5 GHz microstrip resonator on the same chip and measured it with a network analyzer. The loss tangent at 5 GHz derived from fitting the f0 and Q data to the two-level system (TLS) model is 6×10-4, about the same as from the mm-wave measurement. This suggests that the loss at both microwave and mm-wave frequencies is probably dominated by the TLS in SiO2. Our results are of direct interest to mm/submm direct detection applications which use microstrip transmission lines (such as antenna-coupled MKIDs and transition-edge sensors), and other applications (such as on-chip filters). Our measurement technique is applicable up to approximately 1 THz and can be used to investigate a range of dielectrics.

  4. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  5. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  6. Mutual coupling between rectangular microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Tan; Lee, Kai-Fong; Chebolu, Siva R.; Lee, R. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive study of the mutual coupling between two rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The cavity model is employed to give numerical results for both mutual impedance and mutual coupling parameters for the E-plane, H-plane, diagonal, and perpendicular orientations. The effects of substrate thickness, substrate permittivity, and feed positions are discussed.

  7. Microstrip antenna arrays with parasitic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kai-Fong

    1996-01-01

    This research was concerned with using parasitic elements to improve the bandwidth, gain and axial ratio characteristics of microstrip antennas and arrays. Significant improvements in these characteristics were obtained using stacked and coplanar parasitic elements. Details of the results are described in a total of 16 journal and 17 conference papers. These are listed in Section four of this report.

  8. Dualband microstrip antennas for cellular telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Marian

    2004-04-01

    Intensive development of cellular personal communications system has been observed lately. Thus, protection of a man, and especially protection of his head against non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation generated by cellular telephones is becoming one of the most important problems. The results of elaborated microstrip antennas which have minimized radiation towards the user's head are presented in this paper.

  9. Microstrip antenna array with parasitic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kai F.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed is the design of a large microstrip antenna array in terms of subarrays consisting of one fed patch and several parasitic patches. The potential advantages of this design are discussed. Theoretical radiation patterns of a subarray in the configuration of a cross are presented.

  10. Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.

    1986-01-01

    Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.

  11. Slotline fed microstrip antenna array modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Y. T.; Oberhart, M. L.; Brenneman, J. S.; Aoyagi, P.; Moore, J.; Lee, R. Q. H.

    1988-01-01

    A feed network comprised of a combination of coplanar waveguide and slot transmission line is described for use in an array module of four microstrip elements. Examples of the module incorporating such networks are presented as well as experimentally obtained impedance and radiation characteristics.

  12. Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR)

    PubMed Central

    Naqui, Jordi; Coromina, Jan; Karami-Horestani, Ali; Fumeaux, Christophe; Martín, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range. PMID:25915590

  13. Electromagnetic wave energy flow control with a tunable and reconfigurable coupled plasma split-ring resonator metamaterial: A study of basic conditions and configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtzanidis, Konstantinos; Pederson, Dylan M.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-05-01

    We propose and study numerically a tunable and reconfigurable metamaterial based on coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) and plasma discharges. The metamaterial couples the magnetic-electric response of the SRR structure with the electric response of a controllable plasma slab discharge that occupies a volume of the metamaterial. Because the electric response of a plasma depends on its constitutive parameters (electron density and collision frequency), the plasma-based metamaterial is tunable and active. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations, we analyze the coupled plasma-SRR metamaterial in terms of transmittance, performing parametric studies on the effects of electron density, collisional frequency, and the position of the plasma slab with respect to the SRR array. We find that the resonance frequency can be controlled by the plasma position or the plasma-to-collision frequency ratio, while transmittance is highly dependent on the latter.

  14. Effect of Weaving Direction of Conductive Yarns on Electromagnetic Performance of 3D Integrated Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fujun; Yao, Lan; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yipping

    2013-10-01

    A three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antenna (3DIMA) is a microstrip antenna woven into the three-dimensional woven composite for load bearing while functioning as an antenna. In this study, the effect of weaving direction of conductive yarns on electromagnetic performance of 3DIMAs are investigated by designing, simulating and experimental testing of two microstrip antennas with different weaving directions of conductive yarns: one has the conductive yarns along the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp1) and the other has the conductive yarns perpendicular the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp2). The measured voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 3DIMA-Exp1 was 1.4 at the resonant frequencies of 1.39 GHz; while that of 3DIMA-Exp2 was 1.2 at the resonant frequencies of 1.35 GHz. In addition, the measured radiation pattern of the 3DIMA-Exp1 has smaller back lobe and higher gain value than those of the 3DIMA-Exp2. This result indicates that the waving direction of conductive yarns may have a significant impact on electromagnetic performance of textile structural antennas.

  15. Optimizing Thomson's jumping ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjossem, Paul J. H.; Brost, Elizabeth C.

    2011-04-01

    The height to which rings will jump in a Thomson jumping ring apparatus is the central question posed by this popular lecture demonstration. We develop a simple time-averaged inductive-phase-lag model for the dependence of the jump height on the ring material, its mass, and temperature and apply it to measurements of the jump height for a set of rings made by slicing copper and aluminum alloy pipe into varying lengths. The data confirm a peak jump height that grows, narrows, and shifts to smaller optimal mass when the rings are cooled to 77 K. The model explains the ratio of the cooled/warm jump heights for a given ring, the reduction in optimal mass as the ring is cooled, and the shape of the mass resonance. The ring that jumps the highest is found to have a characteristic resistance equal to the inductive reactance of the set of rings.

  16. Tunable Microstrip Filters Using Selectively Etched Ferroelectric Thin-Film Varactors for Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Frederick W.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Subramanyam, Guru; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the use of patterned ferroelectric films to fabricate proof of concept tunable one-pole microstrip filters with excellent transmission and mismatch/reflection properties at frequencies up to 24 GHz. By controlling the electric field distribution within the coupling region between the resonator and input/output lines, sufficiently high loaded and unloaded Q values are maintained so as to be useful for microstrip filter design, with low mismatch loss. In the 23 - 24 GHz region, the filter was tunable over a 100 MHz range, the loaded and unloaded Q values were 29 and 68, respectively, and the reflection losses were below -16 dB, which demonstrates the suitability of these films for practical microwave applications.

  17. Improved tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers for the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelley, Sean; Hansen, Jørn; Hilton, Gene; Mol, Jan-Michael; Clarke, John; ADMX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We describe a series of tunable microstrip SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) amplifiers (MSAs) used as the photon detector in the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX). Cooled to 100mK or lower, an optimized MSA approaches the quantum limit of detection. The axion dark matter candidate would be detected via Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q (~ 105) tunable microwave cavity, cooled to 1.6 K or lower, in the presence of a 7-tesla magnetic field. The MSA consists of a square loop of thin Nb film, incorporating two resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions biased to the voltage state, flux-coupled to a resonant microstrip. The photon frequency is determined by the unknown axion mass, so the cavity and amplifier must be tunable over a broad frequency range. MSA tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip with a GaAs varactor diode that operates at cryogenic temperatures. This voltage-controlled capacitance enables us to vary the resonant microstrip mode from nearly λ/2 to λ/4. We demonstrate gains exceeding 20 dB, at frequencies above 900 MHz. With proper design of the microwave environment, a noise temperature of 1/2 to 1/4 of the physical temperature is demonstrated. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, NSF Grant 1067242, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  18. Generalized model for beam-path variation induced by spherical mirrors' radial displacements in square ring resonator and its applications in backscattering coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meixiong; Yuan, Jie; Kang, Zhenglong; Long, Xingwu; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Xudong

    2012-06-01

    Based on augmented ray matrix approach, a generalized model for beam-path variation induced by spherical mirrors' radial displacements has been established. The model can be applied to analyze beam-path variation induced by all the possible perturbation sources in various ring resonators. Backscattering coupling coefficient r is obtained as a function of mirrors' radial displacements. Some novel results of backscattering coupling effect have been obtained. The results indicate that radial displacements cause bigger beam-path variation than the same value of axial displacements. r can not be reduced to zero because of the initial machining errors of terminal surfaces of plane mirrors. However, r can be reduced to almost zero when stabilizing frequency of laser gyro by adjusting the radial displacements of spherical mirrors. This generalized model is useful for the cavity design, cavity improvement, and alignment of planar ring resonators. The model is also useful for controlling the shape of laser beams and researching backscattering coupling effect in high precision laser gyroscopes.

  19. GaInAsP/silicon-on-insulator hybrid laser with ring-resonator-type reflector fabricated by N2 plasma-activated bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Junichi; Inoue, Satoshi; Tanvir Hasan, Shovon Muhammad; Kuno, Yuki; Itoh, Kazuto; Amemiya, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa

    2016-08-01

    III-V/Si hybrid integration with direct bonding is an attractive method of realizing an electrophotonic convergence router with a small size and a low power consumption. Plasma-activated bonding (PAB) is an effective approach for reducing thermal stress during the bonding process because PAB achieves a high bonding strength with low-temperature annealing. This time, the fabrication of a GaInAsP/silicon-on-insulator (SOI) hybrid laser with Si ring-resonator-type reflectors was demonstrated by N2 PAB. By measuring the lasing spectra, we confirmed the reflective characteristics resulting from the cascaded Si ring resonators. We also investigated kink characteristics, which occur around the threshold current, of the current-light output (I-L) characteristics, and successfully approximated the kink characteristics by considering saturable absorption occurring at the III-V/Si taper tip. The taper structure was investigated in terms of a passive device as well as an active device, and a structure for eliminating saturable absorption was proposed.

  20. GaInAsP/silicon-on-insulator hybrid laser with ring-resonator-type reflector fabricated by N2 plasma-activated bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Junichi; Inoue, Satoshi; Tanvir Hasan, Shovon Muhammad; Kuno, Yuki; Itoh, Kazuto; Amemiya, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa

    2016-08-01

    III–V/Si hybrid integration with direct bonding is an attractive method of realizing an electrophotonic convergence router with a small size and a low power consumption. Plasma-activated bonding (PAB) is an effective approach for reducing thermal stress during the bonding process because PAB achieves a high bonding strength with low-temperature annealing. This time, the fabrication of a GaInAsP/silicon-on-insulator (SOI) hybrid laser with Si ring-resonator-type reflectors was demonstrated by N2 PAB. By measuring the lasing spectra, we confirmed the reflective characteristics resulting from the cascaded Si ring resonators. We also investigated kink characteristics, which occur around the threshold current, of the current–light output (I–L) characteristics, and successfully approximated the kink characteristics by considering saturable absorption occurring at the III–V/Si taper tip. The taper structure was investigated in terms of a passive device as well as an active device, and a structure for eliminating saturable absorption was proposed.