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Sample records for microstructural evolution based

  1. Microstructural Evolution Based on Fundamental Interfacial Properties

    SciTech Connect

    A. D. Rollett; D. J. Srolovitz; A. Karma

    2003-07-11

    This first CMSN project has been operating since the summer of 1999. The main achievement of the project was to bring together a community of materials scientists, physicists and mathematicians who share a common interest in the properties of interfaces and the impact of those properties on microstructural evolution. Six full workshops were held at Carnegie Mellon (CMU), Northwestern (NWU), Santa Fe, Northeastern University (NEU), National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), Ames Laboratory, and at the University of California in San Diego (UCSD) respectively. Substantial scientific results were obtained through the sustained contact between the members of the project. A recent issue of Interface Science (volume 10, issue 2/3, July 2002) was dedicated to the output of the project. The results include: the development of methods for extracting anisotropic boundary energy and mobility from molecular dynamics simulations of solid/liquid interfaces in nickel; the extraction of anisotropic energies and mobilities in aluminum from similar MD simulations; the application of parallel computation to the calculation of interfacial properties; the development of a method to extract interfacial properties from the fluctuations in interface position through consideration of interfacial stiffness; the use of anisotropic interface properties in studies of abnormal grain growth; the discovery of abnormal grain growth from random distributions of orientation in subgrain networks; the direct comparison at the scale of individual grains between experimentally observed grain growth and simulations, which confirmed the importance of including anisotropic interfacial properties in the simulations; the classification of a rich variety of dendritic morphologies based on slight variations in the anisotropy of the solid-liquid interface; development of phase field methods that permit both solidification and grain growth to be simulated within the same framework.

  2. Microstructure Evolution of Gas Atomized Iron Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, J.R.; Anderson, I.E.; Kramer, M.J.; Anderegg, J.W.; Shechtman, D.

    2009-12-01

    In a simplified process to produce precursor powders for oxide dispersion-strength- ened (ODS) alloys, gas-atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was used to induce a surface oxide layer on molten droplets of three differing erritic stainless steel alloys during break-up and rapid solidification. The chemistry of the surface oxide was identified using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The precursor iron-base powders were consolidated at 850 C and 1,300 C using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Consolidation at the lower temperature resulted in a fully dense microstructure, while preventing substantial prior particle-boundary-oxide dissociation. Microstructural analysis of the alloys consolidated at the higher temperature confirmed a significant reduction in prior-particle-boundary-oxide volume fraction, in comparison with the lower-temperature-consolidated sample. This provided evidence that a high-temperature internal oxygen-exchange reaction occurred between the metastable prior particle-boundary-oxide phase (chromium oxide) and the yttrium contained within each prior particle. This internal oxygen-exchange reaction is shown to result in the formation of yttrium-enriched oxide dispersoids throughout the alloy microstructure. The evolving microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD).

  3. Microstructure Evolution of Gas Atomized Iron Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, J.R.; Anderson, I.E.; Kramer, M.J.

    2011-08-09

    In a simplified process to produce precursor powders for oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, gas-atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was used to induce a surface oxide layer on molten droplets of three differing erritic stainless steel alloys during break-up and rapid solidification. The chemistry of the surface oxide was identified using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The precursor iron-base powders were consolidated at 850 C and 1,300 C using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Consolidation at the lower temperature resulted in a fully dense microstructure, while preventing substantial prior particle-boundary-oxide dissociation. Microstructural analysis of the alloys consolidated at the higher temperature confirmed a significant reduction in prior-particle-boundary-oxide volume fraction, in comparison with the lower-temperature-consolidated sample. This provided evidence that a high-temperature internal oxygen-exchange reaction occurred between the metastable prior particle-boundary-oxide phase (chromium oxide) and the yttrium contained within each prior particle. This internal oxygen-exchange reaction is shown to result in the formation of yttrium-enriched oxide dispersoids throughout the alloy microstructure. The evolving microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD).

  4. Mesoscale modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization of a Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Cui, Zhenshan; Ou, Hengan; Long, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Microstructural evolution and plastic flow characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were investigated using a simulative model that couples the basic metallurgical principle of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) with the two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton (CA). Variation of dislocation density with local strain of deformation is considered for accurate determination of the microstructural evolution during DRX. The grain topography, the grain size and the recrystallized fraction can be well predicted by using the developed CA model, which enables to the establishment of the relationship between the flow stress, dislocation density, recrystallized fraction volume, recrystallized grain size and the thermomechanical parameters.

  5. In-Situ Resistivity Monitoring of Microstructure Evolution in IN718 Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2009-03-01

    This work is aimed at characterizing the irreversible changes in electrical resistivity caused by microstructure evolution in IN718 nickel-base superalloy. Of course, the electric resistivity also exhibits a strong reversible change that is a function of the instantaneous temperature, therefore realtime assessment of microstructure evolution also requires accurate monitoring of temperature. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) technique. Using thermocouple wires for connections, measurement of the DC potential difference between the connecting electrodes without current injection allows parallel monitoring of the local temperature. It was found that this method can be readily used both to record the thermal history experienced by the material and to assess the resulting irreversible microstructural changes.

  6. Microstructural Evolution During Friction Stir Welding of Mild Steel and Ni-Based Alloy 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Johnnatan Rodriguez; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2017-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during friction stir welding (FSW) of mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 was studied. Regarding the Ni-based alloy, the welding process led to grain refinement caused by discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallization, where bulging of the pre-existing grains and subgrain rotation were the primary mechanisms of recrystallization. In the steel, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was identified as the recovery process experienced by the austenite. Simple shear textures were observed in the regions affected by the deformation of both materials. Although the allotropic transformation obscured the deformation history, the thermo-mechanically affected zone was identified in the steel by simple shear texture components. A new methodology for the study of texture evolution based on rotations of the slip systems using pole figures is presented as an approximation to describe the texture evolution in FSW.

  7. Microstructural Evolution During Friction Stir Welding of Mild Steel and Ni-Based Alloy 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Johnnatan Rodriguez; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2017-03-01

    Microstructure evolution during friction stir welding (FSW) of mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 was studied. Regarding the Ni-based alloy, the welding process led to grain refinement caused by discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallization, where bulging of the pre-existing grains and subgrain rotation were the primary mechanisms of recrystallization. In the steel, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was identified as the recovery process experienced by the austenite. Simple shear textures were observed in the regions affected by the deformation of both materials. Although the allotropic transformation obscured the deformation history, the thermo-mechanically affected zone was identified in the steel by simple shear texture components. A new methodology for the study of texture evolution based on rotations of the slip systems using pole figures is presented as an approximation to describe the texture evolution in FSW.

  8. Microstructure evolution and mechanical property of pulsed laser welded Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guangyi; Wu, Dongjiang; Niu, Fangyong; Zou, Helin

    2015-09-01

    For evaluating the microstructure evolution and mechanical property of Ni-based Hastelloy C-276 weld joint by the pulsed laser welding, the influence of pulsed laser welding on the microstructure and mechanical property of the weld joint is investigated by the analysis of the microstructure morphology, microhardness, phase structure and tensile property. The results indicate that, in the fusion zone three sections are divided on the basis of the patterns of grain structures. In the weld joint, the element segregation is found, but the trend of brittle phase's formation is weakened. The weld microhardness presents just a little higher than that of base metal, and there is no obvious the softened heat affected zone. Meanwhile in the weld joint, the phase structure is still the face-center cubic with the tiny shift of peak positions and widened Full Width at Half-Maximum. The yield strength of weld joint is the same as that of base metal, and the tensile strength is nearly 90% of that of base metal. The decreased tensile strength is mainly attributed to the dislocation piling-up.

  9. An incremental-iterative method for modeling damage evolution in voxel-based microstructure models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-Zhi; Yvonnet, Julien

    2015-02-01

    Numerical methods motivated by rapid advances in image processing techniques have been intensively developed during recent years and increasingly applied to simulate heterogeneous materials with complex microstructure. The present work aims at elaborating an incremental-iterative numerical method for voxel-based modeling of damage evolution in quasi-brittle microstructures. The iterative scheme based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the real space domain (Yvonnet, in Int J Numer Methods Eng 92:178-205, 2012) is first cast into an incremental form so as to implement nonlinear material models efficiently. In the proposed scheme, local strain increments at material grid points are computed iteratively by a mapping operation through a transformation array, while local stresses are determined using a constitutive model that accounts for material degradation by damage. For validation, benchmark studies and numerical simulations using microtomographic data of concrete are performed. For each test, numerical predictions by the incremental-iterative scheme and the finite element method, respectively, are presented and compared for both global responses and local damage distributions. It is emphasized that the proposed incremental-iterative formulation can be straightforwardly applied in the framework of other Lippmann-Schwinger equation-based schemes, like the fast Fourier transform method.

  10. Microstructure Evolution during Supersolvus Heat Treatment of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; McClary, K. E.; Rollett, A. D.; Roberts, C. G.; Payton, E. J.; Zhang, F.; Gabb, T. P.

    2012-05-01

    Microstructure evolution during the supersolvus heat treatment of a powder-metallurgy, low-solvus, high-refractory (LSHR) superalloy was established. For this purpose, three lots of LSHR with varying initial carbon/boron composition and thermomechanical history were subjected to a series of short-time (induction) and long-time (furnace) heat treatments followed by scanning electron microscopy/electron backscatter diffraction and quantitative metallography. The size of the (pinned) gamma grains exhibited a limited dependence on heating rate and soak time at peak temperature, and it was generally smaller than the predictions based on the classic Smith-Zener model. The differences were rationalized in terms of stereological and pinning-particle location effects. Observations of limited coarsening of the carbide/boride pinning particles were interpreted in the context of prior experimental observations and a modified Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner model applied previously for the coarsening of compound phases in steels.

  11. Evolution of microstructure and defect structure in manganese-aluminum-based permanent magnet alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanar, Cagatay

    In this study, the transformation behavior of MnAl-based ferromagnetic alloys was investigated. The low-cost and availability of the Mn-Al base metals along with their high mechanical strength, machineability and high magnetic energy product (BH) per unit weight make these materials attractive candidates for permanent magnet applications. These alloys derive their magnetic properties from the metastable L10 tau-phase, which generally appears towards the Mn-rich side of the near equiatomic composition. The magnetic properties of these materials are strongly influenced by the microstructure and characteristic defect structure of the tau-phase. The tau-phase exhibits a unique defect structure, which includes twins, stacking faults, anti-phase domain boundaries and dislocations. Understanding the true nature of defect generation is necessary in order to be able to develop processing techniques to enhance and optimize the properties of these materials. The tau-phase derives from a phase mixture of ε(hcp) and ε '(B19) phases through various heat treatment processes. Controversial mechanisms are reported in the literature regarding the nature of the ε + ε' → tau transformation. Phase transformation mechanisms that are displacive and those involving a massive transformation have been reported. In this study, the true nature of the tau-phase formation was investigated experimentally by utilizing techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and in-situ TEM heating experiments. It was shown that both of the transformation modes, i.e. massive and displacive mechanisms, can operate and result in tau-phase formation. The atomic nature of the displacive transformation was studied in detail to elucidate the viability of transformation of a two-phase mixture into a single phase through a shear transformation. In the absence of stress, the massive mode was shown to dominate microstructural evolution in bulk materials

  12. Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During Alloy Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingfang; Pan, Shiyan; Sun, Dongke

    In recent years, considerable advances have been achieved in the numerical modeling of microstructure evolution during solidification. This paper presents the models based on the cellular automaton (CA) technique and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which can reproduce a wide variety of solidification microstructure features observed experimentally with an acceptable computational efficiency. The capabilities of the models are addressed by presenting representative examples encompassing a broad variety of issues, such as the evolution of dendritic structure and microsegregation in two and three dimensions, dendritic growth in the presence of convection, divorced eutectic solidification of spheroidal graphite irons, and gas porosity formation. The simulations offer insights into the underlying physics of microstructure formation during alloy solidification.

  13. Prediction of microstructure evolution during high temperature blade forging of a Ni-Fe based superalloy, Alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young-Sang; Yeom, Jong-Taek; Park, Nho-Kwang; Lee, Jai-Young

    2003-02-01

    The mechanical properties of the Ni-Fe-based Alloy 718 depend very much on grain size, as well as the strengthening phases, γ' and γ. The grain structure of the superalloy components is mainly controlled during thermo-mechanical processes by the dynamic, meta-dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. In this investigation, the evolution of the grain structure in the process of two-step blade forging was experimentally and numerically dealt with. The evolution of the grain structure in Alloy 718 during blade forging was predicted using a 2-DFE simulator with implemented constitutive models on dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. The comparison of the simulated microstructure with the actual grain structure of the forged parts validated the prediction of the grain structure evolution. The effect of dynamic recrystallization on the evolution of grain structure is highlighted in this article.

  14. Plastic Flow and Microstructure Evolution during Thermomechanical Processing of a PM Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; McClary, K. E.; Rollett, A. D.; Roberts, C. G.; Payton, E. J.; Zhang, F.; Gabb, T. P.

    2013-06-01

    Plastic flow and microstructure evolution during sub- and supersolvus forging and subsequent supersolvus heat treatment of the powder-metallurgy superalloy LSHR (low-solvus, high-refractory) were investigated to develop an understanding of methods that can be used to obtain a moderately coarse gamma grain size under well-controlled conditions. To this end, isothermal, hot compression tests were conducted over broad ranges of temperature [(1144 K to 1450 K) 871 °C to 1177 °C] and constant true strain rate (0.0005 to 10 s-1). At low temperatures, deformation was generally characterized by flow softening and dynamic recrystallization that led to a decrease in grain size. At high subsolvus temperatures and low strain rates, steady-state flow or flow hardening was observed. These latter behaviors were ascribed to superplastic deformation and microstructure evolution characterized by a constant grain size or concomitant dynamic grain growth, respectively. During supersolvus heat treatment following subsolvus deformation, increases in grain size whose magnitude was a function of the prior deformation conditions were noted. A transition in flow behavior from superplastic to nonsuperplastic and the development during forging at a high subsolvus temperature of a wide (possibly bi- or multimodal) gamma-grain-size distribution having some large grains led to a substantially coarser grain size during supersolvus annealing in comparison to that produced under all other forging conditions.

  15. Microstructural evolution with various Ti contents in Fe-based hardfacing alloys using a GTAW technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Liu, Yi-Chia; Wang, Jia-Siang; Wu, Weite

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the effect of microstructural development with different Ti contents in Fe-based hardfacing alloys. A series of Fe-Cr-C-Si-Mn-xTi alloy fillers was deposited on SS400 low carbon steel substrate using oscillating gas tungsten arc welding. The microstructure in the Fe-based hardfacing alloy without Ti content addition included: the primary γ, eutectic γ+(Fe,Cr)3C, eutectic γ+(Fe,Cr)2C and martensite. With increasing Ti contents, the microstructures showed the primary TiC carbide, γ phase and eutectic γ+(Fe,Cr,Ti)3C. The amount and size of TiC carbide in the hardfacing layers increased as the Ti content increased. However, the eutectic γ+(Fe,Cr,Ti)3C content decreased as the Ti content increased. According to the results of the hardness test, the lowest hardness value (HRC 54.93) was found with 0% wt% Ti and the highest hardness (HRC 60.29) was observed with 4.87 wt% Ti.

  16. Microstructure evolution process of Ferro-Aluminum based sandwich composite for electromagnetic shielding.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhichao; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiangyu; Wu, Gaohui

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, sandwich composite (SWC) with Fe-Al soft magnetic alloy sandwiched between pure iron substrates was proposed and fabricated by hot pressing and diffusion treatment. The microstructure evolution process of the composite was investigated. Fe/Fe2Al5/Fe diffusion couple was obtained at 700 °C and subsequently kept at 900 °C for further isothermal diffusion. During the diffusion reactive process, we confirmed that major FeAl2 and minor Fe4Al13 were produced when Fe2Al5 dissolved. After 10h of diffusion treatment, FeAl and α-Fe(Al) were the only two intermetallic phases left. Except FeAl2, the thickness of each intermetallic layer held good parabolic relationship with the diffusion annealing time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Creep property and microstructure evolution of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy in [011] orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, G.M. Yu, J.J.; Hu, Z.Q.; Sun, X.F.

    2013-12-15

    The creep property and microstructure evolution of a single crystal superalloy with [011] orientation were investigated at the temperatures of 700 °C, 900 °C and 1040 °C. It is shown that there exist stages of primary, steady-state, and tertiary creep under the lower temperature 700 °C. As the temperature increases to high temperatures of 900 °C and 1040 °C, steady-state creep stage is reduced or disappears and the shape of creep curves is dominated by an extensive tertiary stage. The minimum creep strain rate exhibits power law dependence on the applied stress; the stress exponents at 700 °C, 900 °C and 1040 °C are 28, 13 and 6.5, respectively. Microstructure observation shows that the morphologies of γ′ phase almost keep original shape at the lower temperature 700 °C and high applied stress. With the increasing creep temperature, γ′ precipitates tend to link together and form lamellar structure at an angle of 45° inclined to the applied stress. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal that multiple < 110 > (111) slip systems gliding in the matrix channels and shearing γ′ precipitates by stacking faults or bending dislocation pairs are the main deformation mechanism at the lower temperature of 700 °C. At the high temperatures of 900 °C and 1040 °C, dislocation networks are formed at γ/γ′ interfaces and the γ′ rafts are sheared by dislocation pairs. - Highlights: • Creep properties of < 011 >-oriented single crystal superalloys were investigated. • γ′ phases become rafting at an angle of 45° inclined to the applied stress. • Creep deformation mechanisms depend on temperature and stress.

  18. The Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Metallic Glass under Different Strain Rate Compressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao-Hsing; Tsai, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the high strain rate deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under various strain rates were investigated. The influence of strain and strain rate on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior, as well as microstructural properties was also investigated. Before mechanical testing, the structure and thermal stability of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter. The mechanical property experiments and microstructural observations of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under different strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 5.1 × 103 s−1 and at temperatures of 25 °C were investigated using compressive split-Hopkinson bar (SHPB) and an MTS tester. An in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindenter was used to carry out compression tests and investigate the deformation behavior arising at nanopillars of the Zr-based metallic glass. The formation and interaction of shear band during the plastic deformation were investigated. Moreover, it was clearly apparent that the mechanical strength and ductility could be enhanced by impeding the penetration of shear bands with reinforced particles. PMID:28788034

  19. The Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Based Metallic Glass under Different Strain Rate Compressions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao-Hsing; Tsai, Chih-Kai

    2015-04-16

    In this study, the high strain rate deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under various strain rates were investigated. The influence of strain and strain rate on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior, as well as microstructural properties was also investigated. Before mechanical testing, the structure and thermal stability of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter. The mechanical property experiments and microstructural observations of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni metallic glasses under different strain rates ranging from 10(-3) to 5.1 × 10³ s(-1) and at temperatures of 25 °C were investigated using compressive split-Hopkinson bar (SHPB) and an MTS tester. An in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindenter was used to carry out compression tests and investigate the deformation behavior arising at nanopillars of the Zr-based metallic glass. The formation and interaction of shear band during the plastic deformation were investigated. Moreover, it was clearly apparent that the mechanical strength and ductility could be enhanced by impeding the penetration of shear bands with reinforced particles.

  20. Microstructural evolution and castability prediction in newly designed modern third-generation nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naffakh-Moosavy, Homam

    2016-05-01

    The present research aims to establish a quantitative relation between microstructure and chemical composition (i.e., Ti, Al, and Nb) of newly designed nickel-based superalloys. This research attempts to identify an optimum microstructure at which the minimum quantities of γ/γ' and γ/γ″ compounds are achieved and the best castability is predicted. The results demonstrate that the highest quantity of intermetallic eutectics (i.e., 41.5wt%) is formed at 9.8wt% (Ti + Al). A significant quantity of intermetallics formed in superalloy 1 (with a composition of γ - 9.8wt% (Ti + Al)), which can deteriorate its castability. The type and morphology of the eutectics changed and the amount considerably decreased with decreasing Ti + Al content in superalloy 2 (with a composition of γ - 7.6wt% (Ti + Al), 1.5wt% Nb). Thus, it is predicted that the castability would improve for superalloy 2. The same trend was observed for superalloy 4 (with a composition of γ - 3.7wt% (Ti + Al), 4.4wt% Nb). This means that the amount of Laves increases with increasing Nb (to 4.4wt%) and decreasing Ti + Al (to 3.7wt%) in superalloy 4. The best castability was predicted for superalloy 3 (with a composition of γ - 5.7wt% (Ti + Al), 2.8wt% Nb).

  1. Microstructural and continuum evolution modeling of sintering.

    SciTech Connect

    Braginsky, Michael V.; Olevsky, Eugene A.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Tikare, Veena; Garino, Terry J.; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2003-12-01

    deformation during. The continuum portion is based on a finite element formulation that allows 3D components to be modeled using SNL's nonlinear large-deformation finite element code, JAS3D. This tool provides a capability to model sintering of complex three-dimensional components. The model was verified by comparing to simulations results published in the literature. The model was validated using experimental results from various laboratory experiments performed by Garino. In addition, the mesoscale simulations were used to study anisotropic shrinkage in aligned, elongated powder compacts. Anisotropic shrinkage occurred in all compacts with aligned, elongated particles. However, the direction of higher shrinkage was in some cases along the direction of elongation and in other cases in the perpendicular direction depending on the details of the powder compact. In compacts of simple-packed, mono-sized, elongated particles, shrinkage was higher in the direction of elongation. In compacts of close-packed, mono-sized, elongated particles and of elongated particles with a size and shape distribution, the shrinkage was lower in the direction of elongation. We also explored the concept of a sintering stress tensor rather than the traditional sintering stress scalar concept for the case of anisotropic shrinkage. A thermodynamic treatment of this is presented. A method to calculate the sintering stress tensor is also presented. A user-friendly code that can simulate microstructural evolution during sintering in 2D and in 3D was developed. This code can run on most UNIX platforms and has a motif-based GUI. The microstructural evolution is shown as the code is running and many of the microstructural features, such as grain size, pore size, the average grain boundary length (in 2D) and area (in 3D), etc. are measured and recorded as a function of time. The overall density as the function of time is also recorded.

  2. Oxidation and microstructure evolution of Al-Si coated Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Xiaolu; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Qi, Wenyan; He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Gong, Shengkai

    2015-01-01

    A Si modified aluminide (Al-Si) coating was prepared on a Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content by high-activity pack cementation. Cyclic oxidation test at 1150 °C was carried out and the microstructure evolution of the coating was investigated. The results show that the oxidation resistance of the substrate was greatly increased by applying an Al-Si coating. During oxidation, outward diffusion of Mo was effectively blocked due to its high affinity with Si. Besides, a layered structure was formed as a result of the elements inter-diffusion. An obvious degradation of the Al-Si coating was observed after 100 h oxidation. Possible mechanisms related to the oxidation and elements inter-diffusion behaviours were also discussed.

  3. Microstructure evolution characteristics induced by oxygen vacancy generation in anatase TiO2 based resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Gao, Bin; Huang, Peng; Kang, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, first principle calculations are employed to study the microstructure characteristics of the anatase TiO2 resistive switching material associated with the generation of oxygen vacancy (V o) based nanofilaments during the switching process. The calculations indicate that both the magnéli phase Ti4O7 and V o-defect phase of anatase TiO2 may be formed with the generation of oxygen vacancies during the forming and SET processes. Based on the calculations, a new physical insight is proposed to clarify the microstructure evolution characteristics of the anatase TiO2 resistive switching material and the correlation with resistive switching behaviors. During the forming or SET process, the anatase TiO2 is first excited to a transition state with the generation of oxygen vacancies, then fully relaxes to a stable V o-defect state. This V o-defect state may either recover to the original state with the recombination of the oxygen vacancies, which causes the reversible resistive switching behavior, or further transform to a much more stable state—the magnéli phase Ti4O7, through a phase transition process with the generation of many more oxygen vacancies. The phase transition from V o- defective anatase phase to magnéli phase Ti4O7 causes the failure of the resistive switching due to the significantly reduced possibility of the reversible phase transition from the magnéli phase to the anatase phase, compared with the possibility of the recombination from the V o-defective anatase.

  4. Microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloy 625 made by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Adams, Paul; Albright, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of Selective Laser Melted (SLM) alloy 625 procured from different suppliers were compared. The post-SLM process of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) led to a relatively coarse recrystallized gamma matrix phase that was similar in all the suppliers' materials, resulting in nearly identical tensile properties. These similarities obscure significant differences between them with respect to the population of second phase particles, which consisted of carbides or Laves phase. During solidification, the final liquid phase is concentrated in Nb, Mo, Si and C, and leads to L --> γ + carbide/Laves eutectic reactions. Secondary particles are very small prior to HIP and their composition has not been analyzed yet, but are limited to the fine-grained eutectic regions of the material prior to HIP. During HIP the gamma phase recrystallizes to remove the original as-solidified SLM microstructure, but secondary particles nucleate and grow where their elemental constituents first solidified, leading to a non-homogeneous distribution. Quasi-static tensile properties do not appear to be sensitive to these differences, but it is likely that other mechanical properties will be affected, especially fatigue and fracture behavior. Surface roughness, large grain size, and pores and voids left unhealed by the HIP cycle will also influence fatigue and fracture. Surface roughness and porosity in particular are features that could be improved by implementing novel approaches to laser processing in SLM.

  5. Micro-structure evolution of wall based crystals after casting of model suspensions as obtained from Bragg microscopy.

    PubMed

    Palberg, Thomas; Maaroufi, Martin R; Stipp, Andreas; Schöpe, Hans Joachim

    2012-09-07

    Growth of heterogeneously nucleated, wall based crystals plays a major role in determining the micro-structure during melt casting. This issue is here addressed using a model system of charged colloidal spheres in deionized aqueous suspension observed by Bragg microscopy which is a combination of light scattering and microscopy. We examine the evolution of the three-dimensional size, shape, and orientation of twin domains in monolithic crystals growing from two opposing planar walls into a meta-stable (shear-) melt. At each wall crystal orientation and twinning emerges during nucleation with small domains. During growth these widen and merge. From image analysis we observe the lateral coarsening velocities to follow a power law behaviour L(XY) ∝ t(1/2) as long as the vertical growth continues at constant speed. Lateral coarsening terminates upon intersection of the two solids and hardly any further ripening is seen. Initial lateral coarsening velocities show a Wilson Frenkel type dependence on the melt meta-stability.

  6. Understanding the solidification and microstructure evolution during CSC-MIG welding of Fe–Cr–B-based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorour, A.A. Chromik, R.R. Gauvin, R. Jung, I.-H. Brochu, M.

    2013-12-15

    The present is a study of the solidification and microstructure of Fe–28.2%Cr–3.8%B–1.5%Si–1.5%Mn (wt.%) alloy deposited onto a 1020 plain carbon steel substrate using the controlled short-circuit metal inert gas welding process. The as-solidified alloy was a metal matrix composite with a hypereutectic microstructure. Thermodynamic calculation based on the Scheil–Gulliver model showed that a primary (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase formed first during solidification, followed by an eutectic formation of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase and a body-centered cubic Fe-based solid solution matrix, which contained Cr, Mn and Si. Microstructure analysis confirmed the formation of these phases and showed that the shape of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase was irregular plate. As the welding heat input increased, the weld dilution increased and thus the volume fraction of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B plates decreased while other microstructural characteristics were similar. - Highlights: • We deposit Fe–Cr–B-based alloy onto plain carbon steel using the CSC-MIG process. • We model the solidification behavior using thermodynamic calculation. • As deposited alloy consists of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B plates embedded in Fe-based matrix. • We study the effect of the welding heat input on the microstructure.

  7. Microstructure evolution in irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M

    1999-11-30

    Study the interaction of defects produced during irradiation or deformation of a metal with the microstructure of that particular material, such as dislocations and grain boundaries. In particular we will study the interaction of dislocation with interstitial loops and stacking fault tetrahedral, and the production of displacement cascades close to dislocations and grain boundaries. The data obtained from these simulations will be used as input to diffusion models and dislocation dynamics models.

  8. The evolution of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunny H

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in both extinct and extant mammalian groups has been extensively documented, but is poorly known in reptiles, including dinosaurs. Previous intensive sampling of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure revealed that: (1) the three-dimensional arrangement of enamel types and features within a tooth-the schmelzmuster-is most useful in diagnosing dinosaur clades at or around the family level; (2) enamel microstructure complexity is correlated with tooth morphology complexity and not necessarily with phylogenetic position; and (3) there is a large amount of homoplasy within Theropoda but much less within Ornithischia. In this study, the examination of the enamel microstructure of 28 additional dinosaur taxa fills in taxonomic gaps of previous studies and reinforces the aforementioned conclusions. Additionally, these new specimens reveal that within clades such as Sauropodomorpha, Neotheropoda, and Euornithopoda, the more basal taxa have simpler enamel that is a precursor to the more complex enamel of more derived taxa and that schmelzmusters evolve in a stepwise fashion. In the particularly well-sampled clade of Euornithopoda, correlations between the evolution of dental and enamel characters could be drawn. The ancestral schmelzmuster for Genasauria remains ambiguous due to the dearth of basal ornithischian teeth available for study. These new specimens provide new insights into the evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in dinosaurs, emphasizing the importance of thorough sampling within broadly inclusive clades, especially among their more basal members.

  9. Plastic Flow and Microstructure Evolution During Thermomechanical Processing of a PM Nickel-Base Superalloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Research Center July 2012 Interim Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions described on inside pages...STINFO COPY AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR...Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7750 Air Force Materiel Command, United States Air

  10. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in this issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.

  11. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.

  12. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in thismore » issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.« less

  13. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution aremore » highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.« less

  14. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of an Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al base alloy during aging at 950°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Man; Sun, Yong-duo; Feng, Jing-kai; Zhang, Rui-qian; Tang, Rui; Zhou, Zhang-jian

    2016-03-01

    The development of Gen-IV nuclear systems and ultra-supercritical power plants proposes greater demands on structural materials used for key components. An Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al (316-base) alumina-forming austenitic steel was developed in our laboratory. Its microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during aging at 950°C were investigated subsequently. Micro-structural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Needle-shaped NiAl particles begin to precipitate in austenite after ageing for 10 h, whereas round NiAl particles in ferrite are coarsened during aging. Precipitates of NiAl with different shapes in different matrices result from differences in lattice misfits. The tensile plasticity increases by 32.4% after aging because of the improvement in the percentage of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries, whereas the tensile strength remains relatively high at approximately 790 MPa.

  15. Stress Rupture Fracture Model and Microstructure Evolution for Waspaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhihao; Zhang, Maicang; Dong, Jianxin

    2013-07-01

    Stress rupture behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloy Waspaloy specimens from tenon teeth of an as-received 60,000-hour service-exposed gas turbine disk were studied between 923 K and 1088 K (650 °C and 815 °C) under initial applied stresses varying from 150 to 840 MPa. Good microstructure stability and performance were verified for this turbine disk prior to stress rupture testing. Microstructure instability, such as the coarsening and dissolution of γ' precipitates at the varying test conditions, was observed to be increased with temperature and reduced stress. Little microstructure variation was observed at 923 K (650 °C). Only secondary γ' instability occurred at 973 K (700 °C). Four fracture mechanisms were obtained. Transgranular creep fracture was exhibited up to 923 K (650 °C) and at high stress. A mixed mode of transgranular and intergranular creep fracture occurred with reduced stress as a transition to intergranular creep fracture (ICF) at low stress. ICF was dominated by grain boundary sliding at low temperature and by the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities due to microstructure instability at high temperature. The fracture mechanism map and microstructure-related fracture model were constructed. Residual lifetime was also evaluated by the Larson-Miller parameter method.

  16. Microstructural Evolution and Bonding Behavior during Transient Liquid-Phase Bonding of a Duplex Stainless Steel using two Different Ni-B-Based Filler Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xinjian; Kim, Myung Bok; Kang, Chung Yun

    2011-05-01

    Microstructural evolution and bonding behavior of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonded joint for a duplex stainless steel using MBF-30 (Ni -4.5Si -3.2B [wt pct]) and MBF-50 (Ni -7.5Si -1.4B -18.5Cr [wt pct]) were investigated. Using MBF-30, the microstructure of the athermally solidified zone was dependent on B diffusion at 1333.15 K (1060 °C). Ni3B and a supersaturated γ-Ni phase were observed in this zone. BN appeared in the bonding-affected zone. However, using MBF-50, the influences of base metal alloying elements, particularly N and Cr as well as Si in the filler material, on the bond microstructure development were more pronounced at 1448.15 K (1175 °C). BN and (Cr, Ni)3Si phase were present in the bond centerline. The formation of BN precipitates in the bonding-affected zone was suppressed. A significant deviation in the isothermal solidification rate from the conventional TLP bonding diffusion models was observed in the joints prepared at 1448.15 K (1175 °C) using MBF-50.

  17. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Divya, V.D.; Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S.; Baker, S.; Illston, T.; Stone, H.J.

    2016-04-15

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  18. The evolution of deformation microstructures and local orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    A brief overview of the evolution of microstructures during deformation is presented within the framework of grain subdivision. Three aspects of the evolving microstructure that are related to recrystallization are emphasized. These include the formation of high angle dislocation boundaries during deformation, the local environment of crystallographic orientations and a new scaling method for modeling detailed microstructural data.

  19. A Markov random field approach for modeling spatio-temporal evolution of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Pinar; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-10-01

    The following problem is addressed: ‘Can one synthesize microstructure evolution over a large area given experimental movies measured over smaller regions?’ Our input is a movie of microstructure evolution over a small sample window. A Markov random field (MRF) algorithm is developed that uses this data to estimate the evolution of microstructure over a larger region. Unlike the standard microstructure reconstruction problem based on stationary images, the present algorithm is also able to reconstruct time-evolving phenomena such as grain growth. Such an algorithm would decrease the cost of full-scale microstructure measurements by coupling mathematical estimation with targeted small-scale spatiotemporal measurements. The grain size, shape and orientation distribution statistics of synthesized polycrystalline microstructures at different times are compared with the original movie to verify the method.

  20. Compositional and Microstructural Evolution of Olivine During Pulsed Laser Irradiation: Insights Based on a FIB/Field-Emission TEM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Field-emission TEM shows multi-layer vapor and melt deposits produced on olivine by pulsed laser irradiation contain abundant nanophase metallic Fe and have some microstructural similarities to melt deposits in micrometeorite impact craters.

  1. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al-TiB₂/TiC In Situ Aluminum-Based Composites during Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) Process.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jinfeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Yusheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiangfa; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian

    2017-01-25

    In this study, a kind of Al-TiB₂/TiC in situ composite was successfully prepared using the melt reaction method and the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The microstructure evolution of the composites with different deformation treatments was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mechanical properties of the Al-TiB₂/TiC in situ composite were also studied with tensile and microhardness tests. It was found that the distribution of reinforcement particles becomes more homogenous with an increasing ARB cycle. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties showed great improvement during the ARB process. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and microhardness of the composites were increased to 173.1 MPa and 63.3 Hv after two ARB cycles, respectively. Furthermore, the strengthening mechanism of the composite was analyzed based on its fracture morphologies.

  2. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al-TiB2/TiC In Situ Aluminum-Based Composites during Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) Process

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jinfeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Yusheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiangfa; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a kind of Al-TiB2/TiC in situ composite was successfully prepared using the melt reaction method and the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The microstructure evolution of the composites with different deformation treatments was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mechanical properties of the Al-TiB2/TiC in situ composite were also studied with tensile and microhardness tests. It was found that the distribution of reinforcement particles becomes more homogenous with an increasing ARB cycle. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties showed great improvement during the ARB process. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and microhardness of the composites were increased to 173.1 MPa and 63.3 Hv after two ARB cycles, respectively. Furthermore, the strengthening mechanism of the composite was analyzed based on its fracture morphologies. PMID:28772467

  3. Microstructural Evolution of Hypoeutectic, Near-Eutectic, and Hypereutectic High-Carbon Cr-Based Hard-Facing Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Ming; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Jie-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Wu, Weite

    2009-05-01

    A series of high-carbon Cr-based hard-facing alloys were successfully fabricated on a substrate of 0.45 pct C carbon steel by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process using various alloy fillers with chromium and chromium carbide, CrC (Cr:C = 4:1) powders. These claddings were designed to observe hypoeutectic, near-eutectic, and hypereutectic structures with various (Cr,Fe)23C6 and (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides at room temperature. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and optical microscopy (OM), in 3.8 pct C cladding, the microstructure consisted of the primary carbides with outer shells (Cr,Fe)23C6 surrounding (Cr,Fe)7C3 cores and [ α + (Cr,Fe)23C6] eutectic structures. In 5.9 pct C cladding, the composite comprised primary (Cr,Fe)7C3 as the reinforcing phase and [α + (Cr,Fe)7C3] eutectic structures as matrix. Various morphologies of carbides were found in primary and eutectic (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides, which included bladelike and rodlike (with a hexagonal cross section). The 5.9C cladding with great amounts of primary (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides had the highest hardness (approximately HRC 63.9) of the all conditions.

  4. Dynamic reconstruction of heterogeneous materials and microstructure evolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Li, Hechao; Jiao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Reconstructing heterogeneous materials from limited structural information has been a topic that attracts extensive research efforts and still poses many challenges. The Yeong-Torquato procedure is one of the most popular reconstruction techniques, in which the material reconstruction problem based on a set of spatial correlation functions is formulated as a constrained energy minimization (optimization) problem and solved using simulated annealing [Yeong and Torquato, Phys. Rev. E 57, 495 (1998)]. The standard two-point correlation function S2 has been widely used in reconstructions, but can also lead to large structural degeneracy for certain nearly percolating systems. To improve reconstruction accuracy and reduce structural degeneracy, one can successively incorporate additional morphological information (e.g., nonconventional or higher-order correlation functions), which amounts to reshaping the energy landscape to create a deep (local) energy minimum. In this paper, we present a dynamic reconstruction procedure that allows one to use a series of auxiliary S2 to achieve the same level of accuracy as those incorporating additional nonconventional correlation functions. In particular, instead of randomly sampling the microstructure space as in the simulated annealing scheme, our procedure utilizes a series of auxiliary microstructures that mimic a physical structural evolution process (e.g., grain growth). This amounts to constructing a series auxiliary energy landscapes that bias the convergence of the reconstruction to a favored (local) energy minimum. Moreover, our dynamic procedure can be naturally applied to reconstruct an actual microstructure evolution process. In contrast to commonly used evolution reconstruction approaches that separately generate individual static configurations, our procedure continuously evolves a single microstructure according to a time-dependent correlation function. The utility of our procedure is illustrated by successfully

  5. Relationship between Microstructural Evolution and Electrical Properties in Ba(Ti, Zr)O3-Based Materials for Ni-MLCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Youichi; Morita, Koichiro; Hagiwara, Tomoya; Kishi, Hiroshi; Ohnuma, Kenji; Ohsato, Hitoshi

    2004-09-01

    The influence of the microstructural evolution induced by increasing firing temperature on the change in dielectric properties induced by re-oxidation treatment in the Ba(Ti, Zr)O3(BTZ)-Ho-Mn system was investigated. The microstructural observation of as-fired disk samples revealed gradual grain growth with firing temperature. From the temperature characteristic (TC) measurement, the shift to higher temperatures of dielectric maximum (Tmax) due to re-oxidation treatment became larger with grain growth although the chemical compositions were quite the same. It was found that grain growth accelerated the valence change of Mn by re-oxidation treatment and the substitution of dopants in a grain in this system. Microstructural evolutions, such as compositional distribution and the concentration of additives in a grain, had an influence on the changes in dielectric properties induced by re-oxidation treatment.

  6. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-05-01

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  7. Microstructure and Texture Evolution During Hot Pack Rolling of Nickel-Base Superalloys to Thin Sheet and Foil (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    distribution has revealed the presence of a cube texture following deformation which tends to increase in intensity with further straining and during...alloy composition and rolling temperature [Sokolov 2005]. The mechanism controlling the formation of the cube texture has been the subject of a long... cube texture upon recrystallization. While there have been numerous observations of banded microstructures in pure and moderately-alloyed aluminum

  8. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  9. Microstructure and texture evolution of Cu–Nb composite wires

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liping; Yang, Xiaofang; Han, Ke; Lu, Yafeng; Liang, Ming; Liu, Qing

    2013-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture in Cu–Nb composite wires fabricated by an accumulative drawing and bundling process was investigated by backscattered electron (BSE), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate the onset of severe curling and shape changing occurred at the size of Nb ∼ 400 nm with a surface increase of about 6.91 μm{sup 2}/μm{sup 3} (the area per unit volume). Two kinds of grain boundaries in Nb are suggested: one is 20°–50° boundary with a rotate/tilt axis around <110> parallel to drawing direction (DD), and another is > 50° boundary with the axis perpendicular to DD. The curling phenomenon occurred at the Cu–Nb interface and is related not only to the deformation mechanism of Nb but also to the presence of interface. This result is distinct from reported works showing that curling takes place when BCC metals are heavily drawn (Area reduction > 73%). The variation in microstructure and texture evolution between Cu and Nb filaments was discussed based on the differences in deformation mechanisms of these two metals. - Highlights: • Microstructure and texture evolution were studied systematically by EBSD. • In Nb, grain boundaries of 20°–50° have a rotate/tile axis around <110>//DD. • The rotation axes of above 50° boundaries are concentrated around <111> ⊥ DD in Nb. • Curling is related to not only deformation mode of BCC but also Cu–Nb interface.

  10. Monitoring microstructural evolution in irradiated steel with second harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Wall, James J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-03-31

    Material damage in structural components is driven by microstructural evolution that occurs at low length scales and begins early in component life. In metals, these microstructural features are known to cause measurable changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Physically, the interaction of a monochromatic ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and vacancies, generates a second harmonic wave that is proportional to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques thus have the capability to evaluate initial material damage, particularly before crack initiation and propagation occur. This paper discusses how the nonlinear ultrasonic technique of second harmonic generation can be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool to monitor microstructural changes in steel, focusing on characterizing neutron radiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. Current experimental evidence and analytical models linking microstructural evolution with changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are summarized.

  11. Investigation of mechanical properties based on grain growth and microstructure evolution of alumina ceramics during two step sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, U. A.; Hussain, A.; Shah, M.; Shuaib, M.; Qayyum, F.

    2016-08-01

    Alumina ceramics having small grain size and high density yield good mechanical properties, which are required in most mechanical applications. Two Step Sintering (TSS) is used to develop dense alumina ceramics. In this research work the effect of sintering temperatures on microstructure and density of the alumina specimens developed by using TSS has been investigated. It has been observed that TSS is more efficient in controlling grain growth and increasing the density as compared to One Step Sintering (OSS) of alumina. Scanning electron micrographs of sintered alumina specimens have been compared. It has been observed that TSS proves to be a better technique for increasing density and controlling grain growth of alumina ceramics than OSS. More relative density, hardness, fracture toughness and small grain size was achieved by using TSS over OSS technique.

  12. Compositional and Microstructural Evolution of Olivine During Pulsed Laser Irradiation: Insights Based on a FIB/Field-Emission TEM Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of pulsed laser irradiation to simulate the short duration, high-energy conditions characteristic of micrometeorite impacts is now an established approach in experimental space weathering studies. The laser generates both melt and vapor deposits that contain nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) grains with size distributions and optical properties similar to those in natural impact-generated melt and vapor deposits. There remains uncertainty, however, about how well lasers simulate the mechanical work and internal (thermal) energy partitioning that occurs in actual impacts. We are currently engaged in making a direct comparison between the products of laser irradiation and experimental/natural hypervelocity impacts. An initial step reported here is to use analytical TEM is to attain a better understanding of how the microstructure and composition of laser deposits evolve over multiple cycles of pulsed laser irradiation. Experimental Methods: We irradiated pressed-powder pellets of San Carlos olivine (Fo(sub 90)) with up to 99 rastered pulses of a GAM ArF excimer laser. The irradiated surface of the sample were characterized by SEM imaging and areas were selected for FIB cross sectioning for TEM study using an FEI Quanta dual-beam electron/focused ion beam instrument. FIB sections were characterized using a JEOL2500SE analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) optimized for quantitative element mapping at less than 10 nm spatial resolutions. Results: In the SEM the 99 pulse pressed pellet sample shows a complex, inhomogeneous, distribution of laser-generated material, largely concentrated in narrow gaps and larger depressions between grains. Local concentrations of npFe0 spherules 0.1 to 1 micrometers in size are visible within these deposits in SEM back-scatter images. Fig. 1 shows bright-field STEM images of a FIB cross-section of a one of these deposits that continuously covers the top and sloping side of an

  13. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  14. Horizontal evolution of tidally modulated buoyant plumes and the subsequent genesis of non linear internal waves as observed with an AUV based microstructure profiler.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    toberman, matthew; Inall, Mark; Boyd, Tim

    2013-04-01

    The tidally modulated outflow of brackish water from a sea loch forms a thin stable surface layer that propagates into the coastal ocean as a buoyant gravity current, transporting nutrients and sediments, as well as fresh water, heat and momentum. The fresh intrusion propagates as an undular bore, and the introduced stratification supports trains of non-linear internal waves (NLIWs). In February 2011 an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was used on repeated reciprocal transects to make simultaneous CTD, ADCP and shear microstructure measurements of the evolution of these phenomena in conjunction with conventional mooring measurements. AUV-based temperature and salinity signals of NLIWs of depression were observed together with increased turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates of over two orders of magnitude within and in the wake of the NLIWs. Repeated measurements over several tidal cycles allow a unique opportunity to investigate the horizontal structure of these phenomena, the interaction of each tidally driven pulse with ambient stratification and the remnants of previous plumes, as well as the genesis of and subsequent mixing induced by the NLIWs.

  15. Crystallization evolution, microstructure and properties of sewage sludge-based glass-ceramics prepared by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Chen, Dongdong

    2011-11-30

    A Microwave Melting Reactor (MMR) was designed in this study which improved the microwave adsorption of sewage sludge to prepare glass-ceramics. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the study of crystallization behavior and microstructure of the developed glass-ceramics. DSC and XRD analysis revealed that crystallization of the nucleated specimen in the region of 900-1000°C resulted in the formation of two crystalline phases: anorthite and wollastonite. When the crystallization temperature increased from 900 to 1000°C, the tetragonal wollastonite grains were subjected to tensile microstresses, causing the cracking of crystal. Al ions substituted partially Si ions and occupied tetrahedral sites, giving rise to the formation of anorthite. The relationship between microwave irradiation and crystal growth was studied and the result indicated that the microwave selective heating suppressed the crystal growth, giving apparent improvements in the properties of the glass-ceramics. The glass-ceramics products exhibited bending strength of 86.5-93.4 MPa, Vickers microhardness of 6.12-6.54 GPa and thermal expansion coefficient of 5.29-5.75 × 10(-6)/°C. The best chemical durability in acid and alkali solutions was 1.32-1.61 and 0.41-0.58 mg/cm(2), respectively, showing excellent durability in alkali solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Welded Eglin Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leister, Brett M.

    Eglin steel is a new ultra-high strength steel that has been developed at Eglin Air Force Base in the early 2000s. This steel could be subjected to a variety of processing steps during fabrication, each with its own thermal history. This article presents a continuous cooling transformation diagram developed for Eglin steel to be used as a guideline during processing. Dilatometry techniques performed on a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator were combined with microhardness results and microstructural characterization to develop the diagram. The results show that four distinct microstructures form within Eglin steel depending on the cooling rate. At cooling rates above about 1 °C/s, a predominately martensitic microstructure is formed with hardness of ˜520 HV. Intermediate cooling rates of 1 °C/s to 0.2 °C/s produce a mixed martensitic/bainitic microstructure with a hardness that ranges from 520 - 420 HV. Slower cooling rates of 0.1 °C/s to 0.03 °C/s lead to the formation of a bainitic microstructure with a hardness of ˜420 HV. The slowest cooling rate of 0.01 °C/s formed a bainitic microstructure with pearlite at the prior austenite grain boundaries. A comprehensive study was performed to correlate the mechanical properties and the microstructural evolution in the heat affected zone of thermally simulated Eglin steel. A Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator was used to resistively heat samples of wrought Eglin steel according to calculated thermal cycles with different peak temperatures at a heat input of 1500 J/mm. These samples underwent mechanical testing to determine strength and toughness, in both the `as-simulated' condition and also following post-weld heat treatments. Mechanical testing has shown that the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) has the lowest strength following thermal simulation, and the fine-grain and coarse-grain heat affected zone having an increased strength when compared to the inter-critical HAZ. The toughness of the heat

  17. General introduction to microstructural evolution under cascade damage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedersich, H.

    1993-06-01

    A short overview of the processes that affect the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation is given. The processes include defect production with an emphasis on the effects of the dynamic cascade events, defect clustering, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation, phase decompositions and phase transformations. A simple model for the description of the development of the defect microstructure in a pure metal during cascade producing irradiation is also outlined which can provide, in principle, defect fluxes required for the description of the microstructural processes such as phase decomposition and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  18. Effect of Initial Microstructure on the Microstructural Evolution and Joint Efficiency of a WE43 Alloy During Friction Stir Welding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    0.5% Zr –bal Mg (all in wt%). The alloy was subjected to ageing at 210 0Cfor 48h to maximize the base strength. The samples were longitudinally...mechanical properties of Mg –Gd–Y– Zr casting via friction stir processing,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 509 (2011), 2879–2884. 12. T.A. Freeney... Effect of Initial Microstructure on the Microstructural Evolution and Joint Efficiency of a WE43 Alloy During Friction Stir Welding by S

  19. Microstructural Evolution in the 2219 Aluminum Alloy During Severe Plastic Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaibyshev, R.O.; Safarov, I.M.; Lesuen, D.R.

    2000-03-29

    Numerous investigations have demonstrated that intense plastic deformation is an attractive procedure for producing an ultrafine grain size in metallic materials. Torsional deformation under high pressure and equal-channel angular extrusion are two techniques that can produce microstructures with grain sizes in the submicrometer and nanometer range. Materials with these microstructures have many attractive properties. The microstructures formed by these two processing techniques are essentially the same and thus the processes occurring during deformation should be the same. Most previous studies have examined the final microstructures produced as a result of severe plastic deformation and the resulting properties. Only a limited number of studies have examined the evolution of microstructure. As a result, some important aspects of ultra-fine grain formation during severe plastic deformation remain unknown. There is also limited data on the influence of the initial state of the material on the microstructural evolution and mechanisms of ultra-fine grain formation. This limited knowledge base makes optimization of processing routes difficult and retards commercial application of these techniques. The objective of the present work is to examine the microstructure evolution during severe plastic deformation of a 2219 aluminum alloy. Specific attention is given to the mechanism of ultrafine grain formation as a result of severe plastic deformation.

  20. Microstructural evolution and grain morphology of ZrN pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungho; Han, Ilsu; Lee, Hyunjun; Huh, Sunchul; Park, Wonjo

    2009-04-01

    Improvements in the mechanical integrity of zirconium nitride (ZrN) inert matrixes in advanced nuclear fuels were addressed in this work. This was done by first better understanding and then controlling texture and microstructural evolution of the former. Several samples were examined via orientation imaging microscopy: several monolithic specimens were hot isostatically pressed (HIP), and two sintered specimens with 80 % and 85 % density Grain size and crystallographic orientation studies revealed sample microstructure and their evolution during sintering. A correlation between larger grains and orientations near to <111> parallel to the compression axis during cold pressing was present for the 85 % density sample.

  1. Microstructural evolution of neutron irradiated 3C-SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Sprouster, David J.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Dooryhee, Eric; ...

    2017-03-18

    The microstructural response of neutron irradiated 3C-SiC have been investigated over a wide irradiation temperature and fluence range via qualitative and quantitative synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction characterization. Here, we identify several neutron fluence- and irradiation temperature-dependent changes in the microstructure, and directly highlight the specific defects introduced through the course of irradiation. By quantifying the microstructure, we aim to develop a more detailed understanding of the radiation response of SiC. Such studies are important to build mechanistic models of material performance and to understand the susceptibility of various microstructures to radiation damage for advanced energy applications.

  2. Microstructural Evolution of Alloy Powder for Electronic Materials with Liquid Miscibility Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, I.; Saegusa, T.; Takaku, Y.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of powders that are applicable for electronic materials were studied for some systems in which there is a liquid miscibility gap. The characteristic morphologies of an egg-like core type and a uniform second-phase dispersion are shown in relation to the phase diagram, where thermodynamic calculations are a powerful tool for alloy design and the prediction of microstructure. Typical examples of microstructural evolution and properties of Pb-free solders and Ag-based micropowders with high electrical conductivity produced by a gas-atomizing method are presented.

  3. FEM simulation of hot forging process to predict microstructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2013-05-01

    Two phase titanium alloy-TC11 alloy and Superalloy-IN718 alloy are being considered for high-temperature structural applications in aero-engine because of their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of their forgings are sensitive to the microstructure. Therefore, it is crucial to obtain a corresponding microstructure by controlling the hot working process. For the forging of TC11 alloy, the ingot break down in the subtransus region is an important process which acted as the primary role in the transformation of lamellar structure to equiaxed one as well as its poor formability because of lower deformation temperature. In this paper, the lamellar globularization kinetics and fracture behavior during forging are studied and modeled. For the hot forging of IN718 alloy. the grain size evolution is an important process. As the δ phase in the alloy can control grain growth through the strong pinning effect, the effect of δ phase on the microstructure evolution during hot working has been considered in this paper, and the microstructure evolution model has been established. As a applications, The lamellar globularization and fracture during the subtransus cogging process of large size TC11 alloy billet, and the microstructure development during the hot forging process of IN718 alloy turbine disk have been investigated commercial FE Software with user subroutines. The prediction results showed good agreement with the actual ones.

  4. Microstructural evolution and surface properties of nanostructured Cu-based alloy by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Cho, In-Sik; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-12-01

    A nanostructured surface layer with a thickness of about 180 μm was successfully produced in Cu-based alloy using an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique. Cu-based alloy was sintered onto low carbon steel using a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization revealed that the severe plastic deformation introduced by UNSM technique resulted in nano-sized grains in the topmost surface layer and deformation twins. It was also found by atomic force microscope (AFM) observations that the UNSM technique provides a significant reduction in number of interconnected pores. The effectiveness of nanostructured surface layer on the tribological and micro-scratch properties of Cu-based alloy specimens was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribometer and micro-scratch tester, respectively. Results exhibited that the UNSM-treated specimen led to an improvement in tribological and micro-scratch properties compared to that of the sintered specimen, which may be attributed to the presence of nanostructured surface layer having an increase in surface hardness and reduction in surface roughness. The findings from this study are expected to be implemented to the automotive industry, in particular connected rod bearings and bushings in order to increase the efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  5. Macrosegregation and Microstructural Evolution in a Pressure-Vessel Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, E. J.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-06-01

    This work assesses the consequences of macrosegregation on microstructural evolution during solid-state transformations in a continuously cooled pressure-vessel steel (SA508 Grade 3). Stark spatial variations in microstructure are observed following a simulated quench from the austenitization temperature, which are found to deliver significant variations in hardness. Partial-transformation experiments are used to show the development of microstructure in segregated material. Evidence is presented which indicates the bulk microstructure is not one of upper bainite, as it has been described in the past, but one comprised of Widmanstätten ferrite and pockets of lower bainite. Segregation is observed on three different length scales, and the origins of each type are proposed. Suggestions are put forward for how the segregation might be minimized, and its detrimental effects suppressed by heat treatments.

  6. Numerical Study of Microstructural Evolution During Homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee; Johnson, David R.; Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Microstructural evolution during homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn alloys occurs in two stages at different length scales: while holding at the homogenization temperature (diffusion on the scale of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in micrometers) and during quenching to room temperature (dispersoid precipitation at the nanometer to submicron scale). Here a numerical study estimates microstructural changes during both stages. A diffusion-based model developed to simulate evolution at the SDAS length scale predicts homogenization times and microstructures matching experiments. That model is coupled with a Kampmann Wagner Neumann-based precipitate nucleation and growth model to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during posthomogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. A homogenization schedule of 853 K (580 °C) for 8 hours, followed by cooling at 250 K/h, is suggested to optimize microstructures for easier extrusion, consisting of minimal α-Al(FeMn)Si, no β-AlFeSi, and Mg2Si dispersoids <1 μm size.

  7. Microstructural evolution of eutectic gold-tin solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ho Geon

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead (Pb)-free solders in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability. The study particularly concentrated on the effects that the joint size and the type of substrate metallization have on both the bulk and interface microstructures of the joints. The systems studied were eutectic Au-Sn on Cu and Cu/electroless Ni/Au and for each system, two sets of sample geometries were used. Eutectic Au-Sn solder joints on Cu have microstructures that are very coarse on the scale of the joint, where the microstructure is strongly affected by the amount of Cu dissolution during reflow process. During aging, steady diffusion of Cu leads to the growth of Cu-rich interfacial intermetallic layers, significant consumption of substrate Cu, and formation of Kirkendall pores along the interface. Thermal cycling of the joints caused decomposition of the thick zeta(Cu)-phase into a fine-grained multiphase microstructure. The microstructures of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints on Cu/electroless Ni/Au are also very coarse due to the dissolution of Au used as a protective layer during soldering. Electroless Ni is shown to effectively act as a diffusion barrier for Cu. The electroless Ni near the interface evolves into a complicated structure due to the interfacial reaction. The solubility characteristics and diffusional behavior of substrate metals into eutectic Au-Sn solder determines the detailed microstructure and microstructural evolution of the ultrafine eutectic Au-Sn joints. Two important things to be noted from the results are as follows: First, the overall microstructures of these joints are very coarse with respect to the size of joint, and hence the properties of the

  8. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds and Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper Based Multi-Component Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey David

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently utilized materials, a comprehensive welding strategy must be developed under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. The following dissertation is presented as a series of four chapters. Chapter one is a review of the relevant literature on the iron-copper system including the precipitation of copper in steel, the development of the NUCu family of alloys, and the formation of acicular ferrite in steel weldments. Chapter two is a detailed study of the precipitate, microstructural, and mechanical property evolution of NUCu-140 fusion welds. Microhardness testing, tensile testing, local-electrode atom probe (LEAP) tomography, MatCalc kinetic simulations, and Russell-Brown strengthening results for gas-tungsten and gas-metal arc welds are presented. Chapter three is a thorough study of the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs in the four critical regions of the HAZ. Simulated HAZ specimens were produced and evaluated using microhardness, tensile testing, and charpy impact testing. MatCalc simulations and R-B strengthening calculations were also performed in an effort to model the experimentally observed mechanical property trends. Chapter 4 is a brief investigation into the capabilities of MatCalc and the R-B model to determine if the two techniques could be used as predictive tools for a series of binary iron-copper alloys without the aid of experimentally measured precipitate data. The mechanical property results show that local softening occurs in the heat

  9. Evolution of microstructural disorder in annealed bismuth telluride nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Erickson, Kristopher J.; Limmer, Steven J.; Yelton, W. Graham; ...

    2017-03-01

    Controlling the distribution of structural defects in nanostructures is important since such defects can strongly affect critical properties, including thermal and electronic transport. However, characterizing the defect arrangements in individual nanostructures is difficult because of the small length scales involved. Here, we investigate the evolution of microstructural disorder with annealing in electrochemically deposited Bi2Te3 nanowires, which are of interest for thermoelectrics. We combine Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) to provide the necessary spatial and orientational resolution. We find that despite their large initial grain sizes and strong Formula crystallographic texturing, the as-deposited nanowires stillmore » exhibit significant intragranular orientational disorder. Annealing drives both grain growth and a significant reduction in the intragranular disorder. The results are discussed in the context of the existing understanding of the initial microstructure of electrodeposited materials and the understanding of annealing microstructures in both electrochemically deposited and bulk-deformed materials. Finally, this analysis highlights the importance of assessing both the grain size and intragranular disorder in understanding the microstructural evolution of individual nanostructures.« less

  10. The effect of microstructural evolution on superplasticity in Ni{sub 3}Si(V,Mo)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, S.L.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1992-10-01

    To further the understanding of superplasticity in intermetallics, this paper presents results of experimental investigations on an intermetallic alloy based on nickel silicide. Specifically, the evolution of the microstructure and its influence on superplastic performance is discussed. In the duplex microstructure, one phase showed grain growth, and the other, grain refinement. Cavitation occurred at interphase boundaries and final failure was by interlinkage of these cavities. Annealing the material improved the homogeneity of the microstructure. The annealed material showed improved strain rate sensitivity values and enhanced superplasticity. Microstructural features and ductility were also influenced by changing the orientation of the tensile axis. Though a transverse orientation showed more cavitation than longitudinal, it yielded greater elongation. An increased resistance to cavity coalescence in the transverse direction played a role in the enhanced ductility.

  11. Microstructure Evolution of Superalloy for Large Exhaust Valve during Hot Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. S.; Cho, J. R.; Park, H. C.

    2004-06-01

    The nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A possesses strength, and corrosion, creep and oxidation resistance at high temperature. These products are used for aerospace, marine engineering and power generation, etc. The control of forging parameters such as strain, strain rate, temperature and holding time is important because the microstructure change in hot working affects the mechanical properties. It is necessary to understand the microstructure variation evolution. The microstructure change evolution occurs by recovery, recrystallization and grain growth phenomena. The dynamic recrystallization evolution has been studied in the temperature range 950-1250°C and strain rate range 0.05-5s-1 using hot compression tests. The metadynamic recrystallization and grain growth evolution has been studied in the temperature range 950-1250°C and strain rate range 0.05, 5s-1, holding time range 5, 10, 100, 600 sec using hot compression tests. Modeling equations are developed to represent the flow curve, recrystallized grain size, recrystallized fraction and grain growth phenomena by various tests. Parameters of modeling equation are expressed as a function of the Zener-Hollomon parameter. The modeling equation for grain growth is expressed as a function of initial grain size and holding time. The developed modeling equation was combined with thermo-viscoplastic finite element modeling to predict various microstructure change evolution during thermo mechanical processing. The predicted grain size in developed FE simulation results is compared with results obtained in various tests. In order to obtain a final microstructure and good mechanical properties in forging, the FEM would become a useful tool in the simulation of the microstructure development.

  12. Microstructure evolution during impact on granular matter.

    PubMed

    Kondic, L; Fang, X; Losert, W; O'Hern, C S; Behringer, R P

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of an intruder on a dense granular material. The process of impact and interaction between the intruder and the granular particles is modeled using discrete element simulations in two spatial dimensions. In the first part of the paper we discuss how the intruder's dynamics depends on (1) the intruder's properties, including its size, shape and composition, (2) the properties of the grains, including friction, polydispersity, structural order, and elasticity, and (3) the properties of the system, including its size and gravitational field. It is found that polydispersity and related structural order, and frictional properties of the granular particles, play a crucial role in determining impact dynamics. In the second part of the paper we consider the response of the granular system itself. We discuss the force networks that develop, including their topological evolution. The influence of friction and structural order on force propagation, including the transition from hyperbolic-like to elastic-like behavior is discussed, as well as the affine and nonaffine components of the grain dynamics. Several broad observations include the following: tangential forces between granular particles are found to play a crucial role in determining impact dynamics; both force networks and particle dynamics are correlated with the dynamics of the intruder itself. © 2012 American Physical Society

  13. Microstructural evolution in fast-neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    The present work has focused on the specific problem of fast-neutron-induced radiation damage to austenitic stainless steels. These steels are used as structural materials in current fast fission reactors and are proposed for use in future fusion reactors. Two primary components of the radiation damage are atomic displacements (in units of displacements per atom, or dpa) and the generation of helium by nuclear transmutation reactions. The radiation environment can be characterized by the ratio of helium to displacement production, the so-called He/dpa ratio. Radiation damage is evidenced microscopically by a complex microstructural evolution and macroscopically by density changes and altered mechanical properties. The purpose of this work was to provide additional understanding about mechanisms that determine microstructural evolution in current fast reactor environments and to identify the sensitivity of this evolution to changes in the He/dpa ratio. This latter sensitivity is of interest because the He/dpa ratio in a fusion reactor first wall will be about 30 times that in fast reactor fuel cladding. The approach followed in the present work was to use a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis. The experimental component of the work primarily involved the examination by transmission electron microscopy of specimens of a model austenitic alloy that had been irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. A major aspect of the theoretical work was the development of a comprehensive model of microstructural evolution. This included explicit models for the evolution of the major extended defects observed in neutron irradiated steels: cavities, Frank faulted loops and the dislocation network. 340 refs., 95 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Evolution of aluminide coating microstructure on nickel-base cast superalloy CM-247 in a single-step high-activity aluminizing process

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D.K.; Joshi, S.V.; Singh, V.

    1998-08-01

    This study deals with the aluminizing of a directionally cast Ni-base superalloy, namely CM-247, by a single-step process using a high-activity pack. It is observed that significant incorporation of Al into the substrate surface during aluminizing continues over a period of about 1 hour and is not restricted merely to the first few minutes, as reported in the literature. Based on the microstructural details of the coatings formed at various stages of aluminizing, it is concluded that the coating growth in the above process takes place primarily by inward Al diffusion initially, followed by an intermediate stage when the growth involves both inward Al and outward Ni diffusion. In the final stages, the outward diffusion of Ni dominates the coating formation process. The above mechanism of coating formation is different from the one that prevails in the conventional two-step high-activity coating process in that the reaction front for the formation of NiAl remains spatially stationary despite the outward diffusion of nickel during the intermediate stage. It is also shown in the present study that the content of the Al source in the pack affects the coating structure significantly. It is further demonstrated that the microstructure of the aluminide coatings depends not only on the amount of Al incorporated in the sample during aluminizing but also on the time over which the uptake of this Al takes place.

  15. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of VVER-1000 RPV steels under re-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurovich, B.; Kuleshova, E.; Shtrombakh, Ya.; Fedotova, S.; Erak, D.; Zhurko, D.

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of microstructure and mechanical properties evolution at re-irradiation after recovery annealing of VVER-1000 RPV weld and base metals as well as the effect of annealing on the microstructure and properties of base metal in the zone of the temperature gradient that is implemented during annealing using special heating device. It is shown that the level of radiation-induced microstructural changes under accelerated re-irradiation of weld and base metal is not higher than for the primary irradiation. Thus, we can predict that re-embrittlement of VVER-1000 RPV materials considering the flux effect will not exceed the typical embrittlement rate for the primary irradiation.

  16. The strength and dislocation microstructure evolution in superalloy microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ahmed M.; Rao, Satish I.; Uchic, Michael D.; Parthasarathay, Triplicane A.; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the evolution of the dislocations microstructure in single crystal two-phase superalloy microcrystals under monotonic loading has been studied using the three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) method. The DDD framework has been extended to properly handle the collective behavior of dislocations and their interactions with large collections of arbitrary shaped precipitates. Few constraints are imposed on the initial distribution of the dislocations or the precipitates, and the extended DDD framework can support experimentally-obtained precipitate geometries. Full tracking of the creation and destruction of anti-phase boundaries (APB) is accounted for. The effects of the precipitate volume fraction, APB energy, precipitate size, and crystal size on the deformation of superalloy microcrystals have been quantified. Correlations between the precipitate microstructure and the dominant deformation features, such as dislocation looping versus precipitate shearing, are also discussed. It is shown that the mechanical strength is independent of the crystal size, increases linearly with increasing the volume fraction, follows a near square-root relationship with the APB energy and an inverse square-root relationship with the precipitate size. Finally, the flow strength in simulations having initial dislocation pair sources show a flow strength that is about one half of that predicted from simulations starting with single dislocation sources. The method developed can be used, with minimal extensions, to simulate dislocation microstructure evolution in general multiphase materials.

  17. Modeling of Microstructural Evolution in an MCrAlY Overlay Coating on Different Superalloy Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, M. S. A.; di Martino, I.; Ogden, S. L.; Oates, D. L.; Thomson, R. C.

    2012-02-01

    A multicomponent, one-dimensional diffusion model that was developed for simulating microstructure evolution in coated gas turbine blade systems has been used to compare the phase structures of three MCrAlY coated superalloy systems. The model is based on finite differences and incorporates oxidation and equilibrium thermodynamic computations. The superalloy substrates considered were the nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4, a high-Cr single-crystal superalloy, and a cobalt-based MAR-M509, and these were all coated with an MCrAlY bond coat of similar composition. The results predicted by the model have been compared with similar experimental systems. The model can predict many features observed experimentally and therefore can be expected to be a useful tool in lifetime prediction and microstructural assessment of turbine blade systems based on superalloys. The work also highlighted the fact that for a given coating, the phase evolution within system is dependent on the substrate material.

  18. Microstructural evolution of diamond growth during HFCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to study the nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process. A novel technique has shown a direct evidence for the formation of the diamond-like carbon layer 8-14 nm thick in which small diamond micro-crystallites were embedded. These diamond micro-crystallites were formed as a result of transformation of diamond-like carbon into diamond. The diamond micro-crystallites present in the amorphous diamond-like carbon layer provided nucleation sites for diamond growth. Large diamond crystallites were observed to grow from these micro-crystallites. The mechanism of diamond growth will be presented based on experimental findings.

  19. Nonlinear acoustics experimental characterization of microstructure evolution in Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaochu; Liu, Yang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2014-02-18

    Inconel 617 is a candidate material for the intermediate heat exchanger in a very high temperature reactor for the next generation nuclear power plant. This application will require the material to withstand fatigue-ratcheting interaction at temperatures up to 950°C. Therefore nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring are important capabilities. Acoustic nonlinearity (which is quantified in terms of a material parameter, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β) has been proven to be sensitive to microstructural changes in material. This research develops a robust experimental procedure to track the evolution of damage precursors in laboratory tested Inconel 617 specimens using ultrasonic bulk waves. The results from the acoustic non-linear tests are compared with stereoscope surface damage results. Therefore, the relationship between acoustic nonlinearity and microstructural evaluation can be clearly demonstrated for the specimens tested.

  20. Nonlinear acoustics experimental characterization of microstructure evolution in Inconel 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaochu; Liu, Yang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2014-02-01

    Inconel 617 is a candidate material for the intermediate heat exchanger in a very high temperature reactor for the next generation nuclear power plant. This application will require the material to withstand fatigue-ratcheting interaction at temperatures up to 950°C. Therefore nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring are important capabilities. Acoustic nonlinearity (which is quantified in terms of a material parameter, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β) has been proven to be sensitive to microstructural changes in material. This research develops a robust experimental procedure to track the evolution of damage precursors in laboratory tested Inconel 617 specimens using ultrasonic bulk waves. The results from the acoustic non-linear tests are compared with stereoscope surface damage results. Therefore, the relationship between acoustic nonlinearity and microstructural evaluation can be clearly demonstrated for the specimens tested.

  1. Microstructure evolution of CLAM steel during creep at 923K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.; Zhao, F.; Huang, F.; He, J.; Wang, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    The microstructure change of CLAM steel during creep testing process was investigated at the temperature of 923K with different stress. The results show that the fragmentation and polygonization of martensite lath, as well as the degeneration of dislocation structure are the main factors to deteriorate the creep performance. The stability of MX precipitates in CLAM steel during high temperature creep is good, but the amount and size of M23C6 precipitates are increased. The Laves phase was not found in all samples, which may be due to the experimental temperature is close to the dissolution temperature of Laves phase. The higher temperature accelerates the microstructure evolution of CLAM steel, which results in the degradation of creep properties.

  2. Microstructural evolution of NARloy-Z at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B. N.; Poorman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructural evolution was studied in samples of wrought and vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) NARloy-Z exposed to temperatures up to 970 C (1,780 F) for up to 60 h. Samples were heated in a vacuum furnace, followed by rapid quenching in helium (He) gas at a cooling rate of 166 C (300 F) per second. Microstructural analyses were conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). In both the wrought and VPS conditions, precipitates rich in silver (Ag) and zirconium (Zr) were present in the matrix and at the grain boundaries even after long exposure to elevated temperatures. Islands rich in oxygen (O2) and Zr were also observed, as well as incipient melting at the grain boundary triple points. Results indicated that the alloy cannot be homogenized by heat treatment at elevated temperatures.

  3. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The Balkan Peninsula was formed during the Mesozoic collision of Gondwana and Eurasia, associated with the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. As a result, two ophiolitic belts were formed: Dinaride-Hellenide ophiolitic belt in the southwest and the Vardar ophiolitic belt in the northeast. The bulk of Balkan ophiolites originated in the Jurassic (Robertson & Karamata, 1994), and only recently the Late Cretaceous Sava-zone ophiolites are discovered. Ophiolit-like outcrops of Mount Klepa in the Central Macedonia represents a part of Late Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere within the Sava Zone, comprising of pillow lavas, sheet flows, columns, hyaloclastites, dikes as well as cumulates. In this study we investigate the geodynamic setting and evolution of the Late Cretaceous Klepa Massif. Our working hypotheses we want to test is that Klepa Massif represents a new ocean opened through rifting after the closure of Tethyan ocean(s) and collision of Europe and Gondwana already in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This hypothesis contradicts the accepted model suggesting that Sava ophiolites represent a relic of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed in the Late Cretaceous. During detailed structural geology field studies, the ophiolitic rock sequence of Klepa Mountain area was mapped in several profiles and about 60 rock samples were taken. These field data in addition to the north-south trending outcrops of the Klepa ophiolite and the north-south trending shear zones which bound the Klepa basalt, lead to the assumption of the existence of a pull apart basin. With the help of microstructural analyses we will determine the deformation history and temperatures which also will be confirmed by the analyses of calcite twins (Ferril et al., 2004). Quartz grain size analysis of quartz bearing rocks, were used for stress piezometry. Furthermore, quartz crystal geometry and crystallographic orientations, which were measured with the Fabric Analyser G60 (Peternell et al., 2010), reveal

  4. Microstructural evolution during dynamic deformation of cubic metals: copper

    SciTech Connect

    Cerreta, Ellen K; Koller, Darcie D; Bronkhorst, Curt A; Excobedo, Juan P; Hansen, Benjamin L; Patterson, Brian M; Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Livescu, Veronica; Tonks, Davis; Mourad, Hashem M; Germann, Timothy C; Perez - Bergquist, Alex; Gray Ill, George T

    2010-12-22

    Shockwave shape can influence dynamic damage evolution. Features such as rise time, pulse duration, peak shock pressure, pull back, and release rate are influenced as wave shape changes. However, their individual influence on dynamic damage evolution is not well understood. Specifically, changing from a square to triangular or Taylor wave loading profile can alter the release kinetics from peak shock pressure and the volume of material sampled during release. This creates a spatial influence. In high purity metals, because damage is often linked to boundaries within the microstructure (grain or twin), changing the volume of material sampled during release, can have a drastic influence on dynamic damage evolution as the number of boundaries or defects sampled is altered. In this study, model-driven dynamic experiments have been conducted on eu with four different grain sizes to examine, for a given shockwave shape, how the spatial effect of boundary distribution influences dynamic damage evolution. Both two and three dimensional damage characterization techniques have been utilized. This study shows the critical influence of spatial effects, in this case boundary density, on dynamic damage evolution. As the boundary density decreases, the damage evolution transitions from nucleation controlled to growth controlled. It also shows that specific boundaries, those with high Schmid factor orientations on either side, maybe a necessary condition for void formation.

  5. Mesoscale evolution of voids and microstructural changes in HMX-based explosives during heating through the β-δ phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Trevor M.; Lauderbach, Lisa; Gagliardi, Franco; van Buuren, Tony; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Springer, H. Keo; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-08-01

    HMX-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501 were heated through the β-δ phase transition. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and molecular diffraction were simultaneously recorded as the HMX was heated. Mesoscale voids and structure dramatically change promptly with the β-δ phase transition, rather than with other thermal effects. Also, x-ray induced damage, observed in the USAXS, occurs more readily at elevated temperatures; as such, the dose was reduced to mitigate this effect. Optical microscopy performed during a similar heating cycle gives an indication of changes on longer length scales, while x-ray microtomography, performed before and after heating, shows the character of extensive microstructural damage resulting from the temperature cycle and solid-state phase transition.

  6. Mesoscale evolution of voids and microstructural changes in HMX-based explosives during heating through the β-δ phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, Trevor M. Lauderbach, Lisa; Gagliardi, Franco; Buuren, Tony van; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Springer, H. Keo; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-08-07

    HMX-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501 were heated through the β-δ phase transition. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and molecular diffraction were simultaneously recorded as the HMX was heated. Mesoscale voids and structure dramatically change promptly with the β-δ phase transition, rather than with other thermal effects. Also, x-ray induced damage, observed in the USAXS, occurs more readily at elevated temperatures; as such, the dose was reduced to mitigate this effect. Optical microscopy performed during a similar heating cycle gives an indication of changes on longer length scales, while x-ray microtomography, performed before and after heating, shows the character of extensive microstructural damage resulting from the temperature cycle and solid-state phase transition.

  7. Microstructural evolution of syntaxial veins formed by advective flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgers, Christoph; Dilg-Gruschinski, Karin; Urai, Janos L.

    2004-03-01

    Veins are common in Earth's crust, and are formed by a wide range of processes, which lead to crystal growth in dilation sites. The first-order processes in vein formation have been identified, but it is much less clear how these can be diagnosed from field studies. In order to better understand the microstructural evolution during vein growth, we grew veins of analogue material [alum, KAl(SO4)2·12H2O] in a transmitted-light cell from an advecting supersaturated fluid. Real-time observation shows the effects of flow rate and supersaturation on the evolving microstructure: (1) along-vein trends in growth rate caused by decreasing supersaturation, and (2) growth competition between clear crystals in the absence of nucleation and primary fluid inclusions. Although the overall trends in growth rate are in agreement with previous work, the local effects at the scale of individual grains reported here are less well understood; these new data form a basis for better interpretation of natural microstructures. To explore the possible effects of experimentally observed processes during vein growth, we simulate the growth kinetics of a quartz vein at various conditions of advective flow in Earth's crust. Results show that in general the along-vein changes in growth rate occur at length scales much larger than a typical outcrop.

  8. Epitaxy and Microstructure Evolution in Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Amrita; Das, Suman

    2016-07-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) works on the principle of incremental layer-by-layer material consolidation, facilitating the fabrication of objects of arbitrary complexity through the controlled melting and resolidification of feedstock materials by using high-power energy sources. The focus of metal AM is to produce complex-shaped components made of metals and alloys to meet demands from various industrial sectors such as defense, aerospace, automotive, and biomedicine. Metal AM involves a complex interplay between multiple modes of energy and mass transfer, fluid flow, phase change, and microstructural evolution. Understanding the fundamental physics of these phenomena is a key requirement for metal AM process development and optimization. The effects of material characteristics and processing conditions on the resulting epitaxy and microstructure are of critical interest in metal AM. This article reviews various metal AM processes in the context of fabricating metal and alloy parts through epitaxial solidification, with material systems ranging from pure-metal and prealloyed to multicomponent materials. The aim is to cover the relationships between various AM processes and the resulting microstructures in these material systems.

  9. The Microstructural Evolution of Quartzite During Gradually Increasing Stress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleymani, H.; Kidder, S. B.; Hirth, G.

    2016-12-01

    In settings where rocks are exhumed along shear zones, mylonites are thought to experience a gradual increase in stress and localization as they approach the brittle-ductile transition (Figure 1. left panel). Our aim is to investigate the microstructural characteristics of experimental samples that have experienced such a stress path and make comparisons to natural samples. A common characteristic of recrystallized grains in shear zones is what appears, at least qualitatively, to be a bimodal distribution of grain size (Figure 1. right panel). We hypothesize that such distributions might form as a natural consequence of a gradual stress increase in rocks approaching the brittle-ductile transition. We carried out several general-shear, Griggs rig experiments on Arkansas novaculite ( 10 micron grain size) and Black Hills quartzite synthesized powder (10-20 micron) annealed at 915°C and confining pressure of 1.5 GPa. To simulate exhumation, stress was increased by gradually decreasing the temperature at various constant rates. Experimental design and mechanical data are presented along with a discussion on grain growth and evolution. Initial results show that the technique is able to successfully simulate the exhumation stre­­­­ss path. The experiments also show that novaculite is roughly twice as strong (at similar water concentrations) as Black Hills quartzite powder ( 10-20 microns). We anticipate that detailed, quantitative study of the microstructure and grain statistics of experiments of this type can lead to improved interpretation of the microstructural development of natural samples.

  10. Microstructure evolution of polycrystalline silicon by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Ding, Jianning; Jiang, Cunhua; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi

    2017-06-01

    Polycrystalline silicon is the dominant material in solar cells and plays an important role in photovoltaic industry. It is important for not only the conventional production of silicon ingots but also the direct growth of silicon wafers to control crystallization for obtaining the desired polycrystalline silicon. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have systematically reported about the effects of crystalline planes on the solidification behavior of liquid silicon and the analysis of the microstructural features of the polysilicon structure. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the solidification and microstructure evolution of polysilicon, with focus on the effects of the seed distribution and cooling rate on the growth of polycrystalline silicon. The (110), (111), and (112) planes were extruded by the (100) plane and formed the inclusion shape. The crystallization of silicon consisted of diamond-type structures is relatively high at a low cooling rate. The simulations provide substantial information regarding microstructures and serve as guidance for the growth of polycrystalline silicon.

  11. Microstructural and textural evolution during hot deformation of dilute Zr-Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. K.; Keskar, N.; Vishnu Narayan, K. I.; Mani Krishna, K. V.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.; Saibaba, N.

    2016-12-01

    A dilute Zr alloy containing 0.3% Sn (a potential material for liner applications of composite fuel claddings of thermal nuclear power reactors) was subjected to controlled uniaxial compression over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures in a thermo-mechanical simulator. The evolved microstructures were characterized using SEM based EBSD technique and the texture evolution was analysed by bulk X-ray diffraction method. The study had brought out the systematic changes brought out in microstructure and texture as a function of temperature and strain rate. The results indicate that a temperature of 750 °C is the optimum temperature for hot deformation of this alloy in terms of achieving a homogenous and well recrystallized microstructure.

  12. Effects of transmutation elements on the microstructural evolution and electrical resistivity of neutron-irradiated tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, T.; Hasegawa, A.; He, J. C.; Fujiwara, M.; Satou, M.; Nogami, S.; Abe, K.; Shishido, T.

    2009-04-01

    During fusion reactor operation, transmutation elements such as rhenium (Re) and osmium (Os) are produced from tungsten (W) upon neutron irradiation. Thus, the pure W becomes W-Re or W-Re-Os alloys and its physical properties gradually change. The irradiation hardening, microstructural changes, and physical properties of these transmutation elements of W are here investigated. Tungsten-based model alloys are fabricated and neutron irradiation is performed in the JOYO fast test reactor. The irradiation dose and temperature are 0.17-1.54 dpa and 400-750 °C, respectively. Vickers hardness measurements, microstructural observations, and electrical resistivity measurements are subsequently performed. The effects of the microstructural evolution on the irradiation hardening and electrical resistivity are discussed.

  13. Microstructural evolution of carbon nanotube fibers: deformation and strength mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Lu, Weibang; Ayala, Orlando M; Wang, Lian-Ping; Karlsson, Anette M; Yang, Qingsheng; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2013-03-07

    A comprehensive investigation of the mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of carbon nanotube (CNT) continuous fibers under twisting and tension is conducted using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The tensile strength of CNT fibers with random CNT stacking is found to be higher than that of fibers with regular CNT stacking. The factor dominating the mechanical response of CNT fibers is identified as individual CNT stretching. A simplified twisted CNT fiber model is studied to illustrate the structural evolution mechanisms of CNT fibers under tension. Moreover, it is demonstrated that CNT fibers can be reinforced by enhancing intertube interactions. This study would be helpful not only in the general understanding of the nano- and micro-scale factors affecting CNT fibers' mechanical behavior, but also in the optimal design of CNT fibers' architecture and performance.

  14. Microstructural evolution in an austenitic stainless steel fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.; Odette, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed rate-theory-based model of microstructural evolution under fast neutron irradiation has been developed. The prominent new aspect of this model is a treatment of dislocation evolution in which Frank faulted loops nucleate, grow and unfault to provide a source for network dislocations while the dislocation network can be simultaneously annihilated by a climb/glide process. The predictions of this model compare very favorably with the observed dose and temperature dependence of these key microstructural features over a broad range. This new description of dislocation evolution has been coupled with a previously developed model of cavity evolution and good agreement has been obtained between the predictions of the composite model and fast reactor swelling data as well. The results from the composite model also reveal that the various components of the irradiation-induced microstructure evolve in a highly coupled manner. The predictions of the composite model are more sensitive to parametric variations than more simple models. Hence, its value as a tool in data analysis and extrapolation is enhanced.

  15. Microstructural evolution during thermal annealing of ice-Ih

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidas, Károly; Tommasi, Andréa; Mainprice, David; Chauve, Thomas; Barou, Fabrice; Montagnat, Maurine

    2017-06-01

    We studied the evolution of the microstructure of ice-Ih during static recrystallization by stepwise annealing experiments. We alternated thermal annealing and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses on polycrystalline columnar ice pre-deformed in uniaxial compression at temperature of -7 °C to macroscopic strains of 3.0-5.2. Annealing experiments were carried out at -5 °C and -2 °C up to a maximum of 3.25 days, typically in 5-6 steps. EBSD crystal orientation maps obtained after each annealing step permit the description of microstructural changes. Decrease in average intragranular misorientation at the sample scale and modification of the misorientation across subgrain boundaries provide evidence for recovery from the earliest stages of annealing. This initial evolution is similar for all studied samples irrespective of their initial strain or annealing temperature. After an incubation period ≥1.5 h, recovery is accompanied by recrystallization (nucleation and grain boundary migration). Grain growth proceeds at the expense of domains with high intragranular misorientations, consuming first the most misorientated parts of primary grains. Grain growth kinetics fits the parabolic growth law with grain growth exponents in the range of 2.4-4.0. Deformation-induced tilt boundaries and kink bands may slow down grain boundary migration. They are stable features during early stages of static recrystallization, only erased by normal growth, which starts after >24 h of annealing.

  16. Micro-structure evolution in sheared granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Hori, T.; Yoshioka, N.; Kaneda, Y.

    2005-12-01

    In order to study the relationship between microstructure evolutions and shear resisting mechanisms in granular materials, computer simulations of a gouge layer under shearing condition were performed using the three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). The details of the simulation conditions follow the laboratory experiment presented by Yoshioka and Sakaguchi in this meeting. Monitoring inter particles forces for all contacts indicates that there is a significant increase in heterogeneity in contact force distribution_@with increase in shear loading. Large compression forces make contacts more rigid, and rigid contacts can resist to larger forces. As a result, rigid column-like microstructures are formed in the direction of the major principal stress which is the direction of superimpose of the normal force and the shear force on the upper block. Those columnar structures resist to shearing locally. However, we found that there is a life-time limitation in such columnar structures formed in sheared granular materials. When a rigid columnar structure rotates or deflects due to couple stress induced from shear load, it loses the resistant strength to shearing, because its direction is no longer equal to the direction of the major principal stress. Consequently, the columnar structure starts to collapse. The rigid columnar structure rotation is accompanied by two cases. One is the case when a larger number of particles are involved in one columnar structure. In this case, larger moment acts on a constant couple force due to shearing. The other case is that a purely larger couple force acts on a columnar structure. From this microstructural analysis, we can conclude that the behavior of sheared granular materials is profoundly controlled by the evolution in forming and collapsing of the columnar structures. In addition, the thickness of shearing layer is also controlled by the length of the columnar structures which have a certain upper limit.

  17. Microstructural evolution during the thermomechanical fatigue of solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D R

    1991-01-01

    Solder joints in electronic packages are electrical interconnections that also function as mechanical bonds. The solder often constrains materials of different coefficients of thermal expansion that, when thermal fluctuations are encountered, causes the solder joint to experience cyclical deformation. Due to the catastrophic consequences of electrical or mechanical failure of solder joints, a great deal of work has been performed to develop a better understanding of the metallurgical response of solder joints subjected to thermomechanical fatigue. This work reviews the microstructural and mechanical evolution that occurs in solder joints during thermomechanical fatigue. The eutectic Sn-Pb solder alloy is highlighted. Unlike most materials that experience thermomechanical fatigue, solder is commonly used at temperatures of up to nine-tenths of its melting point. Therefore extensive creep, solid state diffusion, recrystallization and grain growth occur in this alloy resulting in the evolution of a heterogeneous coarsened band through which failure eventually takes place. Two other solder alloys are compared with the Sn-Pb eutectic, a Pb-rich Sn-Pb alloy and a ternary near eutectic (40In-40Sn-20Pb, all alloys are given in wt. %). The Pb-rich alloy is a precipitated single phase matrix that does not evolve during thermomechanical fatigue and subsequently has a shorter lifetime. Conversely, the 40In-40Sn-20Pb solder is a two phase eutectic in which the microstructures refines during thermomechanical fatigue giving it a longer lifetime than the eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The microstructural processes that occur during thermomechanical fatigue and final fracture behavior are discussed for the three solder alloys. 47 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Study of the Microstructure Evolution of Low-pH Cements Based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by Mid- and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and Their Influence on Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement.

    PubMed

    García Calvo, José Luis; Sánchez Moreno, Mercedes; Alonso Alonso, María Cruz; Hidalgo López, Ana; García Olmo, Juan

    2013-06-18

    Low-pH cements are designed to be used in underground repositories for high level waste. When they are based on Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC), high mineral admixture contents must be used which significantly modify their microstructure properties and performance. This paper evaluates the microstructure evolution of low-pH cement pastes based on OPC plus silica fume and/or fly ashes, using Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared spectroscopy to detect cement pastes mainly composed of high polymerized C-A-S-H gels with low C/S ratios. In addition, the lower pore solution pH of these special cementitious materials have been monitored with embedded metallic sensors. Besides, as the use of reinforced concrete can be required in underground repositories, the influence of low-pH cementitious materials on steel reinforcement corrosion was analysed. Due to their lower pore solution pH and their different pore solution chemical composition a clear influence on steel reinforcement corrosion was detected.

  19. Microstructure evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junfeng; Zou, Linchi; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yulong

    2015-04-15

    The microstructure evolution of the 7050 Al alloy treated by age-forming was studied using a designed device which can simulate the age-forming process. The grain shape, grain boundary misorientation and grain orientation evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming have been quantitatively characterized by electron backscattering diffraction technique. The results show that age-forming produced abundant low-angle boundaries and elongated grains, which attributed to stress induced dislocation movement and grain boundary migration during the age-forming process. On the other side, the stress along rolling direction caused some unstable orientation grains to rotate towards the Brass and S orientations during the age-forming process. Hence, the intensity of the rolling texture orientation in age-formed samples is enhanced. But this effect decays gradually with increasing aging time, since stress decreases and precipitation hardening occurs during the age-forming process. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of grain evolution of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming • Stress induces some grain rotation of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Creep leads to elongate grain of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Obtains a trend on texture evolution during age-forming applied stress.

  20. Microstructure and micro-texture evolution during large strain deformation of Inconel alloy IN718

    SciTech Connect

    Nayan, Niraj; Gurao, N.P.; Narayana Murty, S.V.S.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M.

    2015-12-15

    The hot deformation behaviour of Inconel alloy IN718 was studied in the temperature range of 950–1100 °C and at strain rates of 0.01 and 1 s{sup −1} with a view to understand the microstructural evolution as a function of strain rate and temperature. For this purpose, a single hit, hot isothermal plane strain compression (PSC) technique was used. The flow curves obtained during PSC exhibited weak flow softening at higher temperatures. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis (EBSD) of the PSC tested samples at the location of maximum strain revealed dynamic recrystallisation occurring at higher temperatures. Based on detailed microstructure and microtexture analyses, it was concluded that single step, large strain deformation has a distinct advantage in the thermo-mechanical processing of Inconel alloy IN718. - Highlights: • Plane strain compression (PSC) on IN718 was conducted. • Evolution of microstructure during large strain deformation was studied. • Flow curves exhibited weak softening at higher temperatures and dipping of the flow curve at a strain rate of 1 s{sup −1}. • Optimization of microstructure and process parameter for hot rolling possible by plane strain compression testing • Dynamic recrystallisation occurs in specimens deformed at higher temperatures and lower strain rates.

  1. Microstructural evolution in the HAZ of Inconel 718 and correlation with the hot ductility test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Genculu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The nickel-base alloy 718 was evaluated to study the role of preweld heat treatment in reducing or eliminating heat-affected zone hot cracking. Three heat treatments were studied using the Gleeble hot ductility test. A modified hot ductility test was also used to follow the evolution of microstructure during simulated welding thermal cycles. The microstructural evolution was correlated with the hot ductility data in order to evaluate the mechanism of hot cracking in alloy 718. The correlation of hot ductility with microstructure showed that recrystallization, grain growth, and dissolution of precipitates did not in themselves cause any loss of ductility during cooling. Ductility loss during cooling was not initiated until the constitutional liquation of NbC particles was observed in the microstructure. Laves-type phases were found precipitated in the solidified grain boundaries but were not found to correlate with any ductility loss parameter. Mechanisms are reviewed which help to explain how heat treatment controls the hot crack susceptibility of alloy 718 as measured in the hot ductility test.

  2. Microstructural evolution in the HAZ of Inconel 718 and correlation with the hot ductility test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Genculu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The nickel-base alloy 718 was evaluated to study the role of preweld heat treatment in reducing or eliminating heat-affected zone hot cracking. Three heat treatments were studied using the Gleeble hot ductility test. A modified hot ductility test was also used to follow the evolution of microstructure during simulated welding thermal cycles. The microstructural evolution was correlated with the hot ductility data in order to evaluate the mechanism of hot cracking in alloy 718. The correlation of hot ductility with microstructure showed that recrystallization, grain growth, and dissolution of precipitates did not in themselves cause any loss of ductility during cooling. Ductility loss during cooling was not initiated until the constitutional liquation of NbC particles was observed in the microstructure. Laves-type phases were found precipitated in the solidified grain boundaries but were not found to correlate with any ductility loss parameter. Mechanisms are reviewed which help to explain how heat treatment controls the hot crack susceptibility of alloy 718 as measured in the hot ductility test.

  3. Microstructural evolution in joining of TiAl with a liquid Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Blue, R.A.; Lin, R.Y. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the reaction between titanium aluminide and a liquid titanium alloy, 70Ti-15Cu-15Ni in wt%, was investigated in order to reveal the behavior of TiAl during joining. The microstructural evolution of the reacted melt during solidification was also studied. Issues of concern in this study include: (1) the solidification process of the melt upon termination of heating, and (2) the diffusion of Cu and Ni into the substrate during processing. To accurately control the extent of reaction, an innovative infrared processing technique was used. Infrared processing can produce heating rates exceeding 100 C/s up to the processing temperature and cooling to below 500 C in a few seconds. Such rapid rates of processing decreases or eliminates the adverse effects associated with prolonged heating. In this study, experiments were conducted at various heating times in order to investigate the solidified zone microstructure, melt affected zone thickness, and base material microstructure. The system investigated in this study is directly related to joining of titanium aluminide with a titanium brazing alloy. Meanwhile, the evolution of the microstructure may be applied to other solid-liquid reactions of titanium alloys.

  4. Effect of stress evolution on microstructural behavior in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel [Effect of stress on microstructural evolution in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, Yeon Soo; Jamison, L. M.; ...

    2017-02-20

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel irradiated to high burnup at high power (high fission rate) exhibited microstructural changes such as deformation of the fuel particles, pore growth, and rupture of the Al matrix. The driving force for these microstructural changes was meat swelling caused by a combination of fuel particle swelling and interaction layer growth. Five miniplates with well-recorded fabrication data and irradiation conditions were selected, and their PIE data was analyzed. ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to simulate the microstructural evolution of the plates. Using the simulation results shear stress, effective stress and hydrostatic stress exerted on both themore » fuel particles and the Al matrix were determined. The effects of fabrication and irradiation variables on stress-induced microstructural evolutions, such as pore growth in the interaction layers and Al matrix rupture, were investigated. The observed microstructural changes were consistent with the calculated stress distribution in the meat.« less

  5. Microstructural Evolution and Interfacial Motion in Systems with Diffusion Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Johnson

    2007-06-30

    The initial goal of this research program was to model and to simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included the development and testing of code to describe mass flow, the kinetics of phase formation, elastic deformation, and subsequent microstructural evolution occurring during interdiffusion. The primary simulation tools to be used were a class of diffuse interface methods described by the Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations for the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other relevant phase variables. One-dimensional analytical solutions were also to be developed both to test the numerical methods and to establish connections to physical systems. During the early stages of the research program, two new areas of research related to systems with diffusion barriers were identified. The first area concerned phase formation and diffusional phase transformations in reacting systems subject to high electric current densities. Such high-current environments are common in lead-free solders, for example, and have important technological applications. The second area was an offshoot of the present work, and concerned theoretical modeling of phase evolution and cyclical amorphization of metallic alloys during ball milling.

  6. Texture and Microstructural Evolution in Pearlitic Steel During Triaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Gurao, Nilesh P.; Haldar, Arunansu; Suwas, Satyam

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the deformation behavior of high-strength pearlitic steel deformed by triaxial compression to achieve ultra-fine ferrite grain size with fragmented cementite. The consequent evolution of microstructure and texture has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The synergistic effect of diffusion and deformation leads to the uniform dissolution of cementite at higher temperature. At lower temperature, significant grain refinement of ferrite phase occurs by deformation and exhibits a characteristic deformation texture. In contrast, the high-temperature deformed sample shows a weaker texture with cube component for the ferrite phase, indicating the occurrence of recrystallization. The different mechanisms responsible for the refinement of ferrite as well as the fragmentation of cementite and their interaction with each other have been analyzed. Viscoplastic self-consistent simulation was employed to understand deformation texture in the ferrite phase during triaxial compression.

  7. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  8. Microstructure evolution of compressible granular systems under large deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M.

    2016-08-01

    We report three-dimensional particle mechanics static calculations that predict the microstructure evolution during die-compaction of elastic spherical particles up to relative densities close to one. We employ a nonlocal contact formulation that remains predictive at high levels of confinement by removing the classical assumption that contacts between particles are formulated locally as independent pair-interactions. The approach demonstrates that the coordination number depends on the level of compressibility, i.e., on Poisson's ratio, of the particles. Results also reveal that distributions of contact forces between particles and between particles and walls, although similar at jamming onset, are very different at full compaction. Particle-wall forces are in remarkable agreement with experimental measurements reported in the literature, providing a unifying framework for bridging experimental boundary observations with bulk behavior.

  9. Microstructure Evolution in a New Refractory High-Entropy Alloy W-Mo-Cr-Ti-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorr, Bronislava; Azim, Maria; Christ, Hans-Juergen; Chen, Hans; Szabo, Dorothee Vinga; Kauffmann, Alexander; Heilmaier, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The microstructure of a body-centered cubic 20W-20Mo-20Cr-20Ti-20Al alloy in the as-cast condition as well as its microstructural evolution during heat treatment was investigated. Different characterization techniques, such as focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope, were applied. Experimental observations were supported by thermodynamic calculations. The alloy exhibits a pronounced dendritic microstructure in the as-cast condition with the respective dendritic and interdendritic regions showing significant fluctuations of the element concentrations. Using thermodynamic calculations, it was possible to rationalize the measured element distribution in the dendritic and the interdendritic regions. Observations of the microstructure evolution reveal that during heat treatment, substantial homogenization takes place leading to the formation of a single-phase microstructure. Driving forces for the microstructural evolution were discussed from a thermodynamic point of view.

  10. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.

    1999-01-01

    dynamics at various volume fractions. Preliminary results of numerical and experimental investigations, focused on the growth of finite particle clusters, provide important insight into the nature of the transition between the two scaling regimes. The companion microgravity experiment centers on the growth within finite particle clusters, and follows the temporal dynamics driving microstructural evolution, using holography.

  11. Processing, microstructure evolution and properties of nanoscale aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jixiong

    In this project, phase transformations and precipitation behavior in age-hardenable nanoscale materials systems, using Al-Cu alloys as model materials, were first studied. The Al-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by a Plasma Ablation process and found to contain a 2˜5 nm thick adherent aluminum oxide scale, which prevented further oxidation. On aging of the particles, a precipitation sequence consisting of, nearly pure Cu precipitates to the metastable theta' to equilibrium theta was observed, with all three forming along the oxide-particle interface. The structure of theta' and its interface with the Al matrix has been characterized in detail. Ultrafine Al-Cu nanoparticles (5˜25 nm) were also synthesized by inert gas condensation (IGC) and their aging behavior was studied. These particles were found to be quite stable against precipitation. Secondly, pure Al nanoparticles were prepared by the Exploding Wire process and their sintering and consolidation behavior were studied. It was found that nanopowders of Al could be processed to bulk structures with high hardness and density. Sintering temperature was found to have a dominant effect on density, hardness and microstructure. Sintering at temperatures >600°C led to breakup of the oxide scale, leading to an interesting nanocomposite composed of 100˜200 nm Al oxide dispersed in a bimodal nanometer-micrometer size Al matrix grains. Although there was some grain growth, the randomly dispersed oxide fragments were quite effective in pinning the Al grain boundaries, preventing excessive grain growth and retaining high hardness. Cold rolling and hot rolling were effective methods for attaining full densification and high hardness. Thirdly, the microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of Al-Al 2O3 nanocomposites were studied. The composites can retain high strength at elevated temperature and thermal soaking has practically no detrimental effect on strength. Although the ductility of the composite remains

  12. Conventional and Multiscale Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During Laminar Cooling of DP Steel Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kusiak, Jan; Kuziak, Roman; Madej, Łukasz; Szeliga, Danuta; Gołąb, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Physical and numerical simulations of the hot rolling and laminar cooling of DP steel strips are presented in the paper. The objectives of the paper were twofold. Physical simulations of hot plastic deformation were used to identify and validate numerical models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Conventional flow stress model and microstructure evolution model were used in the hot deformation part. The approach to the complex systems analysis based on global thermodynamic characterization and detailed microstructure characterization was applied to determine equilibrium state at various temperatures. Finally, two numerical models were used to simulate kinetics of austenite decomposition at varying temperatures: the first, conventional model based on the Avrami equation, and the second, the discrete Cellular Automata approach. Plastometric tests and stress relaxation tests were used for identification of the hot rolling model for the DP steel. Dilatometric tests were performed to identify the phase transformation models. Verification confirmed good accuracy of all models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Influence of technological parameters ( e.g., strip thickness and velocity, active sections in the laminar cooling, and water flux in the sections) on the DP microstructure was analyzed. The cooling schedules, which give required microstructures were proposed. The numerical tool, which simulates manufacturing chain for DP steel strips is the main output of the paper.

  13. Microstructure evolution and densification of alumina in liquid phase sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weimin

    The microstructure evolution and densification of alumina during liquid phase sintering were quantified. Quantification included the evolution of pore-size distribution, the redistribution of liquid phase, the densification kinetics, and the fraction of closed and open pores. The results revealed that the small and large pores were filled simultaneously. This is inconsistent with Shaw's model in which liquid fills preferentially the smaller low-coordination-number pores in order to reach a low-energy configuration. The results also recommended that the pressure build-up of the trapped gases in pores due to the closure of open pores might have a significantly negative contribution to the driving force, and consequently cause the termination of the densification of alumina. To demonstrate whether the trapped gases played an important role in the microstructure evolution and the densification of alumina during liquid phase sintering, the following two experiments have been conducted. First, alumina preforms containing artificial pores were penetrated by glass. The results indicated that the trapped gases in pores had a considerable influence on the pore filling process, and ultimately caused the termination of the densification of the alumina preforms. Second, alumina compacts containing different amount of glass were sintered in vacuum. The alumina compact containing 20 vol. % reached full density during vacuum sintering, indicating that the pressure build-up of the trapped gases in pores was the main factor causing the termination of the densification of alumina in the final stage of liquid phase sintering. The limiting relative densities of compacts were calculated theoretically on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the variation of the capillary pressure and gas pressure in pores with pore size and pore number. The capillary pressure and gas pressure in alumina compact during liquid phase sintering were analyzed on the basis of the above theoretical models

  14. Subtask 12F2: Microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti during neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Gazda, J.; Loomis, B.A.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy during irradiation by fast neutrons, and thereby to provide a better understanding of long-term performance of the alloy under fusion conditions. Microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti, an alloy recently shown to exhibit excellent tensile and creep properties, virtual immunity to irradiation embrittlement, and good resistance to swelling, was characterized after irradiation in a lithium environment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) (a sodium-cooled fast reactor located in Richland, Washington) at 420, 520, and 600{degrees}C to 24-34 dpa. The primary feature of microstructural evolution during irradiation at 520 and 600{degrees}C was high-density formation of ultrafine Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} precipitates and short dislocations. For irradiation at 420{degrees}C, precipitation of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was negligible, and {open_quotes}black-dot{close_quotes} defects and dislocations were observed in significantly higher densities. In spite of their extremely high densities, neither the {open_quotes}black-dot{close_quotes} defects nor Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} precipitates are overly detrimental to ductility and toughness of the alloy, yet they very effectively suppress irradiation-induced swelling. Therefore, these features, normally observed in V-base alloys containing Ti and Si, are considered stable. Unstable microstructural modifications that are likely to degrade mechanical properties significantly were not observed, e.g., irradiation-induced formation of fine oxides, carbides, nitrides, or Cr-rich clusters. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Application of morphological synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a function of applied charge/discharge cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.

    2016-10-01

    Morphological synthesis operations were employed for understanding electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art morphological algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with reasonable accuracy. The developed techniques could be considered supplementary to a phase-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in phase field, the governing equations for the morphological approach are geometry, not physics, based. A similar non-physics-based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that morphological synthesis will represent a useful supplementary tool to phase field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to the morphological study.

  16. Application of morphological synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a function of applied charge/discharge cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.

    2016-09-15

    Morphological analysis and synthesis operations were employed for analysis of electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art morphological algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with sufficient accuracy. Algorithms for image analyses (segmentation, feature extraction, and 3D-reconstructions using 2D-images) were also developed. Altogether, these techniques could be considered supplementary to phase-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in phase-field, the governing equations for morphological approach are geometry-, not physics-based. Similar non-physics based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that morphological synthesis and analysis will represent a useful supplementary tool to phase-field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to morphological study.

  17. Application of morphological synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a function of applied charge/discharge cycles

    DOE PAGES

    Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.

    2016-09-15

    Morphological analysis and synthesis operations were employed for analysis of electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art morphological algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with sufficient accuracy. Algorithms for image analyses (segmentation, feature extraction, and 3D-reconstructions using 2D-images) were also developed. Altogether, these techniques could be considered supplementary to phase-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in phase-field, the governing equations for morphological approach are geometry-,more » not physics-based. Similar non-physics based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that morphological synthesis and analysis will represent a useful supplementary tool to phase-field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to morphological study.« less

  18. Microstructural evolution of Ti-added interstitial free steel in high strain deformation by hot torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, R.; Shibata, A.; Terada, D.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamically evolved microstructure under high strain deformation condition does still have many debatable aspects, particularly in the case of easy-recovery metals like bcc-iron. In this research, microstructural evolution in high strain deformation by hot torsion of Ti-added interstitial free (IF) steel was systematically investigated. Torsion specimens were deformed up to an equivalent strain of ∼ 7 at different temperatures (650 °C - 850 °C) and strain rates (0.01 s-1 - 1.0 s-1), i.e., under various values of the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. Immediately after the deformation, samples were water-quenched and microstructures were investigated by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements and electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). Flow stress-strain curves of the IF steel under various deformation conditions showed typical flow curves of high stacking fault energy metals at low Z values, i.e., a peak stress followed by slight softening. On the other hand, under the high-Z deformation conditions, the specimens showed a larger stress drop after a certain amount of deformation. EBSD-based quantitative analysis was used to study the microstructural transition between high and low Z values. At low Z values, the occurrence of strain induced boundary migration (SIBM) as an initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was clearly observed. On the other hand, at high Z values, grain subdivision phenomena led to very fine and elongated structures.

  19. Surface Plastic Deformation Regularity and Microstructural Evolution in the Compound Rolling of Q235 Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Tao Lin; Shan, De Bin; Lu, Yan

    In order to meet the double demands on the high temperature creep and the fatigue property, compound rolling is put forward in this study. This technique obtains dual microstructures of billet, fine microstructure on the surface and original state microstructure in the center, through localizing the plastic deformation on the surface layer and leaving little plastic deformation in the center. Based on the local load theory, a set of equipment for the compound rolling has been produced. In order to study the deformation regularity of the compound rolling, Q235 billets have been used and the flow net method for strain measurement has been employed. The deformation regularity difference between the compound rolling and the flat rolling has been investigated. In addition, the microstructural evolution after the compound rolling on the surface and in the center of the Q235 billet has been observed. The results indicate that the compound rolling technique will localize the plastic deformation on the surface of the billet but leave little plastic deformation in the center.

  20. Microstructural Evolution During Multi-Pass Friction Stir Processing of a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, A.; Tewari, A.; Kanjarla, A. K.; Srinivasan, N.; Reddy, G. M.; Zhu, S. M.; Nie, J. F.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2016-05-01

    A commercial magnesium alloy was processed through multi-pass and multi-directional (unidirectional, reverse, and transverse tool movements) friction stir processing (FSP). Based on the FSP location, the dominant prior-deformation basal texture was shifted along the arc of a hypothetical ellipse. The patterns of deformation texture developments were captured by viscoplastic self-consistent modeling with appropriate velocity gradients. The simulated textures, however, had two clear deficiencies. The simulations involved shear strains of 0.8 to 1.0, significantly lower than those expected in the FSP. Even at such low shear, the simulated textures were significantly stronger. Microstructural observations also revealed the presence of ultra-fine grains with relatively weak crystallographic texture. Combinations of ultra-fine grain superplasticity followed by grain coarsening were proposed as the possible mechanism for the microstructural evolution during FSP.

  1. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang Hu, Ping Shen, Guozhe

    2013-12-16

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part.

  2. Microstructure evolution of electron beam welded Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb joint

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jicai; Wu Huiqiang . E-mail: huiqiang_wu@hit.edu.cn; He Jingshan; Zhang Bingang

    2005-02-15

    The microstructure evolution characterization in high containing Nb, low Al titanium aluminide alloy of electron beam welded joints was investigated by means of OM, SEM, XRD, TEM and microhardness analysis. The results indicated that the microstructure of the weld metal made with electron beam under the welding conditions employed in this work was predominantly metastable, retaining ordered {beta} phase (namely B2 phase), and was independent of the welding parameters but independent of the size and the orientation of the weld solidification structures. As the heat input is decreased, the cellular structure zone is significantly reduced, and then the crystallizing morphology of fusion zone presented dendritically columnar structure. There existed grain growth coarsening in heat affected zone (HAZ) for insufficient polygonization. Both fusion zone (FZ) and the HAZ had higher microhardness than the base metal.

  3. Microstructural effects on damage evolution in shocked copper polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Evan J.; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Menasche, David B.; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional crystal orientation fields of a copper sample, characterized before and after shock loading using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy, are used for input and validation of direct numerical simulations using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based micromechanical model. The locations of the voids determined by X-ray tomography in the incipiently-spalled sample, predominantly found near grain boundaries, were traced back and registered to the pre-shocked microstructural image. Using FFT-based simulations with direct input from the initial microstructure, micromechanical fields at the shock peak stress were obtained. Statistical distributions of micromechanical fields restricted to grain boundaries that developed voids after the shock are compared with corresponding distributions for all grain boundaries. Distributions of conventional measures of stress and strain (deviatoric and mean components) do not show correlation with the locations of voids in the post-shocked image. Neither does stress triaxiality, surface traction or grain boundary inclination angle, in a significant way. On the other hand, differences in Taylor factor and accumulated plastic work across grain boundaries do correlate with the occurrence of damage. As a result, damage was observed to take place preferentially at grain boundaries adjacent to grains having very different plastic response.

  4. Microstructural effects on damage evolution in shocked copper polycrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Lieberman, Evan J.; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Menasche, David B.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional crystal orientation fields of a copper sample, characterized before and after shock loading using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy, are used for input and validation of direct numerical simulations using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based micromechanical model. The locations of the voids determined by X-ray tomography in the incipiently-spalled sample, predominantly found near grain boundaries, were traced back and registered to the pre-shocked microstructural image. Using FFT-based simulations with direct input from the initial microstructure, micromechanical fields at the shock peak stress were obtained. Statistical distributions of micromechanical fields restricted to grain boundaries that developed voids after the shock aremore » compared with corresponding distributions for all grain boundaries. Distributions of conventional measures of stress and strain (deviatoric and mean components) do not show correlation with the locations of voids in the post-shocked image. Neither does stress triaxiality, surface traction or grain boundary inclination angle, in a significant way. On the other hand, differences in Taylor factor and accumulated plastic work across grain boundaries do correlate with the occurrence of damage. As a result, damage was observed to take place preferentially at grain boundaries adjacent to grains having very different plastic response.« less

  5. Microstructural effects on damage evolution in shocked copper polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Evan J.; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Menasche, David B.; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional crystal orientation fields of a copper sample, characterized before and after shock loading using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy, are used for input and validation of direct numerical simulations using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based micromechanical model. The locations of the voids determined by X-ray tomography in the incipiently-spalled sample, predominantly found near grain boundaries, were traced back and registered to the pre-shocked microstructural image. Using FFT-based simulations with direct input from the initial microstructure, micromechanical fields at the shock peak stress were obtained. Statistical distributions of micromechanical fields restricted to grain boundaries that developed voids after the shock are compared with corresponding distributions for all grain boundaries. Distributions of conventional measures of stress and strain (deviatoric and mean components) do not show correlation with the locations of voids in the post-shocked image. Neither does stress triaxiality, surface traction or grain boundary inclination angle, in a significant way. On the other hand, differences in Taylor factor and accumulated plastic work across grain boundaries do correlate with the occurrence of damage. As a result, damage was observed to take place preferentially at grain boundaries adjacent to grains having very different plastic response.

  6. Phase-Field Modeling of Microstructure Evolution in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xibing; Chou, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the microstructure evolution in the powder-bed electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) process is studied using phase-field modeling. In essence, EBAM involves a rapid solidification process and the properties of a build partly depend on the solidification behavior as well as the microstructure of the build material. Thus, the prediction of microstructure evolution in EBAM is of importance for its process optimization. Phase-field modeling was applied to study the microstructure evolution and solute concentration of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the EBAM process. The effect of undercooling was investigated through the simulations; the greater the undercooling, the faster the dendrite grows. The microstructure simulations show multiple columnar-grain growths, comparable with experimental results for the tested range.

  7. Effect of solidification rate on microstructure evolution in dual phase microalloyed steel.

    PubMed

    Kostryzhev, A G; Slater, C D; Marenych, O O; Davis, C L

    2016-10-19

    In steels the dependence of ambient temperature microstructure and mechanical properties on solidification rate is not well reported. In this work we investigate the microstructure and hardness evolution for a low C low Mn NbTi-microalloyed steel solidified in the cooling rate range of 1-50 Cs(-1). The maximum strength was obtained at the intermediate solidification rate of 30 Cs(-1). This result has been correlated to the microstructure variation with solidification rate.

  8. Effect of solidification rate on microstructure evolution in dual phase microalloyed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostryzhev, A. G.; Slater, C. D.; Marenych, O. O.; Davis, C. L.

    2016-10-01

    In steels the dependence of ambient temperature microstructure and mechanical properties on solidification rate is not well reported. In this work we investigate the microstructure and hardness evolution for a low C low Mn NbTi-microalloyed steel solidified in the cooling rate range of 1-50 Cs-1. The maximum strength was obtained at the intermediate solidification rate of 30 Cs-1. This result has been correlated to the microstructure variation with solidification rate.

  9. Effect of solidification rate on microstructure evolution in dual phase microalloyed steel

    PubMed Central

    Kostryzhev, A. G.; Slater, C. D.; Marenych, O. O.; Davis, C. L.

    2016-01-01

    In steels the dependence of ambient temperature microstructure and mechanical properties on solidification rate is not well reported. In this work we investigate the microstructure and hardness evolution for a low C low Mn NbTi-microalloyed steel solidified in the cooling rate range of 1–50 Cs−1. The maximum strength was obtained at the intermediate solidification rate of 30 Cs−1. This result has been correlated to the microstructure variation with solidification rate. PMID:27759109

  10. Effects of the primary recoil spectrum on microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedersich, H.

    1989-11-01

    For quantitative predictions and comparisons of microstructures that evolve during exposure to different radiation environments at elevated temperature one needs to develop methods that go beyond those based on the number of displacements per atom. The number of freely migrating defects that contribute to the microstructural development is far less than the total number of defects produced, as has been recognized for some time from measurements of radiation-induced segregation and of radiation-enhanced diffusion. One major reason for the small amount of defects available for long range migration is the high concentration and close spatial correlation of vacancies and, to a somewhat lesser degree, of interstitials in cascades produced by high energy knock-ons. As a consequence, many defects either recombine or form immobile defect clusters during the defect formation and cooling phases of the cascades. After doses exceeding a few tenths of a displacement per atom, the residue of small clusters and dislocation loops of vacancy type remaining in the central portions of energetic cascades and subscascades, is the second major reason for the reduction of the mean free path of defects between creation and annihilation. Defect production in various neutron and ion irradiation environments is discussed in light of these facts. A method to calculate the fraction of freely migrating defects from the cluster size distribution of defects produced in cascades is suggested. The results are in good agreement with available data. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Irradiation Induced Microstructure Evolution in Nanostructured Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbo; Ji, Yanzhou; Tan, Pengkang; Zang, Hang; He, Chaohui; Yun, Di; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured (NS) materials may have different irradiation resistance from their coarse-grained (CG) counterparts. In this review, we focus on the effect of grain boundaries (GBs)/interfaces on irradiation induced microstructure evolution and the irradiation tolerance of NS materials under irradiation. The features of void denuded zones (VDZs) and the unusual behavior of void formation near GBs/interfaces in metals due to the interactions between GBs/interfaces and irradiation-produced point defects are systematically reviewed. Some experimental results and calculation results show that NS materials have enhanced irradiation resistance, due to their extremely small grain sizes and large volume fractions of GBs/interfaces, which could absorb and annihilate the mobile defects produced during irradiation. However, there is also literature reporting reduced irradiation resistance or even amorphization of NS materials at a lower irradiation dose compared with their bulk counterparts, since the GBs are also characterized by excess energy (compared to that of single crystal materials) which could provide a shift in the total free energy that will lead to the amorphization process. The competition of these two effects leads to the different irradiation tolerance of NS materials. The irradiation-induced grain growth is dominated by irradiation temperature, dose, ion flux, character of GBs/interface and nanoprecipitates, although the decrease of grain sizes under irradiation is also observed in some experiments. PMID:28787902

  12. Irradiation Induced Microstructure Evolution in Nanostructured Materials: A Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Ji, Yanzhou; Tan, Pengkang; Zang, Hang; He, Chaohui; Yun, Di; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-02-06

    Nanostructured (NS) materials may have different irradiation resistance from their coarse-grained (CG) counterparts. In this review, we focus on the effect of grain boundaries (GBs)/interfaces on irradiation induced microstructure evolution and the irradiation tolerance of NS materials under irradiation. The features of void denuded zones (VDZs) and the unusual behavior of void formation near GBs/interfaces in metals due to the interactions between GBs/interfaces and irradiation-produced point defects are systematically reviewed. Some experimental results and calculation results show that NS materials have enhanced irradiation resistance, due to their extremely small grain sizes and large volume fractions of GBs/interfaces, which could absorb and annihilate the mobile defects produced during irradiation. However, there is also literature reporting reduced irradiation resistance or even amorphization of NS materials at a lower irradiation dose compared with their bulk counterparts, since the GBs are also characterized by excess energy (compared to that of single crystal materials) which could provide a shift in the total free energy that will lead to the amorphization process. The competition of these two effects leads to the different irradiation tolerance of NS materials. The irradiation-induced grain growth is dominated by irradiation temperature, dose, ion flux, character of GBs/interface and nanoprecipitates, although the decrease of grain sizes under irradiation is also observed in some experiments.

  13. Microstructure evolution in grey cast iron during directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xian-fei; Li, Xiao-zheng; Feng, Qiang; Matthias, Warkentin; Huang, Shi-yao

    2017-08-01

    The solidification characteristics and microstructure evolution in grey cast iron were investigated through Jmat-Pro simulations and quenching performed during directional solidification. The phase transition sequence of grey cast iron was determined as L → L + γ → L + γ + G → γ + G → P (α + Fe3C) + α + G. The graphite can be formed in three ways: directly nucleated from liquid through the eutectic reaction (L → γ + G), independently precipitated from the oversaturated γ phase (γ → γ + G), and produced via the eutectoid transformation (γ → G + α). The area fraction and length of graphite as well as the primary dendrite spacing decrease with increasing cooling rate. Type-A graphite is formed at a low cooling rate, whereas a high cooling rate results in the precipitation of type-D graphite. After analyzing the graphite precipitation in the as-cast and transition regions separately solidified with and without inoculation, we concluded that, induced by the inoculant addition, the location of graphite precipitation changes from mainly the γ interdendritic region to the entire γ matrix. It suggests that inoculation mainly acts on graphite precipitation in the γ matrix, not in the liquid or at the solid-liquid front.

  14. Microstructure Evolution during Solvent Evaporation from Thin Film Polymer Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Nigel; Souche, Mireille; Buxton, Gavin

    2009-03-01

    We present simulations of the phase separation dynamics in a thin film polymer blend solution subject to solvent evaporation [1]. If the upper and lower surfaces are neutral with respect to the different components, we find that as the solvent diffuses through the film, and evaporates from the surface, phase separation becomes energetically favourable progressively throughout the film. This produces an ordering front which propagates through the film and leaves an ordered lateral morphology in its wake. In order to understand microstructure evolution if the surface interactions are strong enough that the film initially separates into a two layers, we have perfomed a linear analysis of the Marangoni instability of a deformable interface between two fluid layers of finite depths, submitted to a gradient of solvent concentration induced by the evaporation [2]. Qualitative comparison with experimental observations of spin-coating processes of solution of two immiscible polymers are then performed, yielding satisfactory agreement.[0pt] [1] G. A. Buxton and N.Clarke, Europhysics Letters, 78, 56006, 2007.[0pt] [2] M. Souche and N. Clarke, European Physical Journal E, in press.

  15. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  16. Study on the microstructural evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy in a vertical twin-roll casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Hu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Bing; Deng, Xiao-Hu; Ju, Dong-Ying

    2016-02-01

    Finite element method was employed to calculate the macroflow velocity and temperature distribution of the pool domain's biting zone in twin-roll casting. Macroanalysis results were inducted as boundary conditions into microanalysis. Phase field method (PFM) was adopted to investigate the microstructure evolution. Based on the Kim-Kim-Suzuki model, the effect of metal flow velocity was coupled on the solute gradient item, and the real physical parameters of AZ31 were inducted into the numerical calculation. We used the marker and cell method in the discrete element solution of microstructural pattern prediction of AZ31 magnesium alloys. The different flow velocity values that predicted the columnar dendrite evolution were discussed in detail. Numerical simulation results were also compared with the experiment analysis. The microstructure obtained by PFM agrees with the actual pattern observed via optical microscopy.

  17. Mechanical modeling of battery separator based on microstructure image analysis and stochastic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongyi; Zhu, Min; Marcicki, James; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-03-01

    A microstructure-based modeling method is developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of lithium-ion battery separators. Existing battery separator modeling methods cannot capture the structural features on the microscale. To overcome this issue, we propose an image-based microstructure Representative Volume Element (RVE) modeling method, which facilitates the understanding of the separators' complex macro mechanical behaviors from the perspective of microstructural features. A generic image processing workflow is developed to identify different phases in the microscopic image. The processed RVE image supplies microstructural information to the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Both mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution are obtained from the simulation. The evolution of microstructure features is quantified using the stochastic microstructure characterization methods. The proposed method successfully captures the anisotropic behavior of the separator under tensile test, and provides insights into the microstructure deformation, such as the growth of voids. We apply the proposed method to a commercially available separator as the demonstration. The analysis results are validated using experimental testing results that are reported in literature.

  18. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  19. Microstructural Evolution and Compressive Properties of Two-Phase Nb-Fe Alloys Containing the C14 Laves Phase NbFe2 Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. W.; Wang, X. B.; Wang, W. X.; Li, S. M.; Gong, D. Q.; Fu, H. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and compressive properties of two-phase Nb-Fe binary alloys based on the C14 Laves phase NbFe2 were characterized at both the hypo- and hypereutectic compositions. The experimental results indicated that the microstructures of the two alloys consisted of fully eutectics containing Fe and NbFe2 phases at the bottom of the ingots corresponding to the largest solidification rates. With the decrease of solidification rate, the microstructures developed into primary Fe (NbFe2) dendrites plus eutectics in the middle and top parts of the ingots. The microstructural evolutions along the axis of the ingots were analyzed by considering the competitive growth between the primary phase and eutectic as well as using microstructure selection models based on the maximum interface temperature criterion. Furthermore, the compressive properties of the two alloys were measured and the enhancements were explained in terms of the second Fe phase and halo toughening mechanisms.

  20. A Monte Carlo Potts Investigation of Microstructural Evolution: Particle Assisted Abnormal Grain Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guebels, Corentin Alain Pierre Nicolas

    The microstructural changes that occur in metals and alloys due to deformation and heat treatment are often characterized according to the macroscale deformation process (i.e. cold or hot working). The general problem of this type of characterization is that it only distinguishes the general microstructural trends. For many decades, these microstructural phenomena have been described empirically or with limited experimental verification. This shortcoming is apparent for recrystallization and abnormal grain growth processes. Understanding and characterizing the thermal and mechanical processes that compete to control grain boundary kinetics and the subsequent microstructural evolution is critical. These include but are not limited to: the input and recovery of deformation energy, the influence of deformation energy on grain boundary migration, the mechanisms controlling the nucleation of new grains, and the effect of second-phase particles. The present work introduces a new temporal scaling method and investigates the conditions in which some grain boundaries may become unpinned in an otherwise stable, pinned microstructure and extends work done by E. Holm. The temporal scaling method contributes to resolving some of the limitations of Monte Carlo Potts (MCP) simulations in the investigation of the conditions and mechanisms that distinguish recrystallization from dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG). Grain boundary unpinning is then investigated for the case of an idealized spherical grain and for a polycrystalline microstructure. The mechanisms of grain boundary pinning and grain growth inhibition by second-phase particles are well known. The influence of simulation temperature on grain boundary unpinning is investigated numerically using a 3D Monte Carlo Potts approach. MCP based models are commonly implemented to simulate microstructural evolution. However, the numerical implementations of recrystallization and other deformation-induced phenomena often elude

  1. Cow-eye microstructure evolution of laser pulse processed for ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Fahai; Gan, Cuihua; Yu, Gang

    2003-04-01

    Pulsed laser beam with lattice distribution was used to modify surface processing for ductile iron. The microstructures around the graphite were observed using OM, and Nanoindentation and micro-hardness of that measured from surface to inner of sample. The result shows that the graphite ball has an important effect on cow-eye microstructure evolution either in light molten area or in phase change hardened are. It is not true that assuming the material is uniform during laser rapid heating and fast cooling for the graphite ball as a dependant composition phase. The microstructures of cow-eye is made up of fine remnant austenite in light molten area, and consisted of martensite and bainite in laser modified are. The cow-eye microstructure has a transformation from martensite and bainite to pearlite with the distance increasing from surfce. At last, the microstructure evolution of cow-eye has been discussed.

  2. Sequence of Stages in the Microstructure Evolution in Copper under Mild Reciprocating Tribological Loading.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Christian; Liu, Zhilong; Strassberger, Luis; Gumbsch, Peter

    2016-06-22

    Tailoring the surface properties of a material for low friction and little wear has long been a goal of tribological research. Since the microstructure of the material under the contact strongly influences tribological performance, the ability to control this microstructure is thereby of key importance. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about the elementary mechanisms of microstructure evolution under tribological load. To cover different stages of this microstructure evolution, high-purity copper was investigated after increasing numbers of sliding cycles of a sapphire sphere in reciprocating motion. Scanning electron and focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy were applied to monitor the microstructure changes. A thin tribologically deformed layer which grew from tens of nanometers to several micrometers with increasing number of cycles was observed in cross-sections. By analyzing dislocation structures and local orientation changes in the cross-sectional areas, dislocation activity, the occurrence of a distinct dislocation trace line, and the emergence of new subgrain boundaries could be observed at different depths. These results strongly suggest that dislocation self-organization is a key elementary mechanism for the microstructure evolution under a tribological load. The distinct elementary processes at different stages of sliding identified here will be essential for the future modeling of the microstructure evolution in tribological contacts.

  3. Final Report: A Transport Phenomena Based Approach to Probe Evolution of Weld Macro and Microstructures and A Smart Bi-directional Model of Fusion Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Tarasankar DebRoy

    2009-12-11

    In recent years, applications of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models of fusion welding have resulted in improved understanding of both the welding processes and welded materials. They have been used to accurately calculate thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in many cases. Here we report the following three major advancements from this project. First, we show how microstructures, grain size distribution and topology of welds of several important engineering alloys can be computed starting from better understanding of the fusion welding process through numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations. Second, we provide a conclusive proof that the reliability of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations can be significantly improved by optimizing several uncertain model parameters. Third, we demonstrate how the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models can be combined with a suitable global optimization program such as a genetic algorithm for the tailoring of weld attributes such as attaining a specified weld geometry or a weld thermal cycle. The results of the project have been published in many papers and a listing of these are included together with a list of the graduate thesis that resulted from this project. The work supported by the DOE award has resulted in several important national and international awards. A listing of these awards and the status of the graduate students are also presented in this report.

  4. Evolution of the microstructure during the process of consolidation and bonding in soft granular solids.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, B; Gonzalez, M; Abebe, A; Sprockel, O; Nikfar, F; Kiang, S; Cuitiño, A M

    2016-04-30

    The evolution of microstructure during powder compaction process was investigated using a discrete particle modeling, which accounts for particle size distribution and material properties, such as plasticity, elasticity, and inter-particle bonding. The material properties were calibrated based on powder compaction experiments and validated based on tensile strength test experiments for lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose, which are commonly used excipient in pharmaceutical industry. The probability distribution function and the orientation of contact forces were used to study the evolution of the microstructure during the application of compaction pressure, unloading, and ejection of the compact from the die. The probability distribution function reveals that the compression contact forces increase as the compaction force increases (or the relative density increases), while the maximum value of the tensile contact forces remains the same. During unloading of the compaction pressure, the distribution approaches a normal distribution with a mean value of zero. As the contact forces evolve, the anisotropy of the powder bed also changes. Particularly, during loading, the compression contact forces are aligned along the direction of the compaction pressure, whereas the tensile contact forces are oriented perpendicular to direction of the compaction pressure. After ejection, the contact forces become isotropic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The layered evolution of fabric and microstructure of snow at Point Barnola, Central East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calonne, Neige; Montagnat, Maurine; Matzl, Margret; Schneebeli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Snow fabric, defined as the distribution of the c-axis orientations of the ice crystals in snow, is poorly known. So far, only one study exits that measured snow fabric based on a statistically representative technique. This recent study has revealed the impact of temperature gradient metamorphism on the evolution of fabric in natural snow, based on cold laboratory experiments. On polar ice sheets, snow properties are currently investigated regarding their strong variability in time and space, notably because of their potential influence on firn processes and consequently on ice core analysis. Here, we present measurements of fabric and microstructure of snow from Point Barnola, East Antarctica (close to Dome C). We analyzed a snow profile from 0 to 3 m depth, where temperature gradients occur. The main contributions of the paper are (1) a detailed characterization of snow in the upper meters of the ice sheet, especially by providing data on snow fabric, and (2) the study of a fundamental snow process, never observed up to now in a natural snowpack, namely the role of temperature gradient metamorphism on the evolution of the snow fabric. Snow samples were scanned by micro-tomography to measure continuous profiles of microstructural properties (density, specific surface area and pore thickness). Fabric analysis was performed using an automatic ice texture analyzer on 77 representative thin sections cut out from the samples. Different types of snow fabric could be identified and persist at depth. Snow fabric is significantly correlated with snow microstructure, pointing to the simultaneous influence of temperature gradient metamorphism on both properties. We propose a mechanism based on preferential grain growth to explain the fabric evolution under temperature gradients. Our work opens the question of how such a layered profile of fabric and microstructure evolves at depth and further influences the physical and mechanical properties of snow and firn. More generally

  6. Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics and Microstructural Evolution for LZ50 Steel During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shiwen; Chen, Shuangmei; Song, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of LZ50 steel was investigated using hot compression tests at a deformation temperature of 870-1170 °C and a strain rate of 0.05-3 s-1. The effects of deformation temperature, strain, strain rate, and initial austenite grain size on the microstructural evolution during DRX were studied in detail. The austenite grain size of DRX was refined with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature, whereas the initial grain size had no influence on DRX grain size. A model based on the Avrami equation was proposed to estimate the kinetics of the DRX under different deformation conditions. A DRX map, which was derived from the DRX kinetics, the recrystallized microstructure, and the flow stress analysis, can be used to identify optimal deformation conditions. The initiation of DRX was lower than Z c (critical Zener-Hollomon parameter) and higher than ɛc (critical strain). The relationship between the DRX microstructure and the Z parameter was analyzed. Fine DRX grain sizes can be achieved with a moderate Z value, which can be used to identify suitable deformation parameters.

  7. Microstructure evolution during tensile loading histories of a polyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, R.G.; Boyce, M.C.; Weigand, S.J.; Londono, D.J.; Guise, M.W.

    2012-02-07

    The evolution in the hard/soft domain microstructure of an elastomeric-like polyurea during different tensile loading histories was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The nonlinear stress-strain behavior is initially stiff with a rollover yield to a more compliant response; unloading is highly nonlinear showing substantial hysteresis while also exhibiting significant recovery. Reloading reveals a substantially more compliant 'softened' behavior and dramatically reduced hysteresis. WAXS peaks monitor characteristic dimensions of regular features within the hard domains; the peak location remains unchanged with tensile deformation indicating no separation of the internal structure within a domain, but the peak intensity becomes anisotropic with deformation evolving in a reversible manner consistent with orientation due to stretch. The SAXS profiles provide information between major hard domains. SAXS peaks are found to shift with tensile loading in a relatively affine manner up to a tensile true strain of {approx}0.4, which, using a Bragg reduction to aid interpretation, reveals an axial increase and a transverse decrease in interdomain spacings; this evolution is reversible for strains less than {approx}0.4. Increasing axial strain beyond a true strain of {approx}0.4 is accompanied by a dramatic, progressive, and irreversible reduction in axial Bragg spacing, indicating a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure. A four-point pattern is seen to develop during stretching. The breakdown in networked structure during a first load cycle gives a new structure for subsequent load cycles, which is seen to evolve in a reversible manner for strains less than or equal to the prior maximum strain. However, for strains exceeding the prior maximum strain excursion, additional breakdown is found. These SAXS results show that a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure is a governing mechanism for the large

  8. Assessment of the microstructure evolution of an austempered ductile iron during austempering process through strain hardening analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnini, Riccardo; Fabrizi, Alberto; Bonollo, Franco; Zanardi, Franco; Angella, Giuliano

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine a procedure based on tensile testing to assess the critical range of austempering times for having the best ausferrite produced through austempering. The austempered ductile iron (ADI) 1050 was quenched at different times during austempering and the quenched samples were tested in tension. The dislocation-density-related constitutive equation proposed by Estrin for materials having high density of geometrical obstacles to dislocation motion, was used to model the flow curves of the tensile tested samples. On the basis of strain hardening theory, the equation parameters were related to the microstructure of the quenched samples and were used to assess the ADI microstructure evolution during austempering. The microstructure evolution was also analysed through conventional optical microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction technique and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure observations resulted to be consistent with the assessment based on tensile testing, so the dislocation-density-related constitutive equation was found to be a powerful tool to characterise the evolution of the solid state transformations of austempering.

  9. Microstructural and Chemical Rejuvenation of a Ni-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiqi; Degnan, Craig C.; Jepson, Mark A. E.; Thomson, Rachel C.

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural evolution of the Ni-based superalloy CMSX-4 including the change in gamma prime morphology, size, and distribution after high-temperature degradation and subsequent rejuvenation heat treatments has been examined using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In this paper, it is shown that there are significant differences in the size of the `channels' between gamma prime particles, the degree of rafting, and the size of tertiary gamma prime particles in each of the different microstructural conditions studied. Chemical analysis has been carried out to compare rejuvenated and pre-service samples after the same subsequent degradation procedure. The results indicate that although the microstructures of pre-service and rejuvenated samples are similar, chemical differences are more pronounced in the rejuvenated samples, suggesting that chemical segregation from partitioning of the elements was not completely eliminated through the applied rejuvenation heat treatment. A number of modified rejuvenation heat treatment trials were carried out to reduce the chemical segregation prior to creep testing. The creep test results suggest that chemical segregation has an immeasurable influence on the short-term mechanical properties under the test conditions used here, indicating that further work is required to fully understand the suitability of specific rejuvenation heat treatments and their role in the extension of component life in power plant applications.

  10. Evolution of the microstructure of a VT6 alloy during friction stir welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the microstructure of a VT6 alloy during friction stir welding (FSW) is studied. The β-α phase transformation that takes place after FSW is found to obey the Burgers orientation relationship. The granular structure and the crystallographic texture of the high-temperature β phase are reconstructed. The mechanisms of structural evolution during FSW are discussed.

  11. Microstructural evolution of René N4 during high temperature creep and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, Alessandro; Monti, Cosimo; Tognarelli, Leonardo; Mastromatteo, Francesco

    The main scope of this work is to describe the microstructure evolution of single-crystal (SX) superalloy René N4 during creep and static aging at high temperatures, in function of time, stress and temperature. During creep at high temperatures, SX microstructure evolves from a dense and ordered distribution of cuboidal γ‧ particles to a configuration characterized by alternate rafts of γ‧ phase and γ matrix, through a process known as rafting. The microstructural evolution of superalloys is very important to derive models able to predict service conditions of a component through microstructural analysis. In this work two microstructural parameters were identified and analyzed for René N4: matrix channels width w along the [0 0 1] lattice direction and periodicity width λ, given by the sum of w and the width of the γ‧ precipitates along [0 0 1]. Both parameters were measured on some creep-damaged and some statically aged specimens, as well as on the virgin material to analyze their trends in function of time, temperature and stress. In particular, the parameter Δλ looks independent of both the stress level and the microstructural morphology and could be used in future works to develop microstructural evolution model of René N4 in function of service time and temperature.

  12. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-08-12

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers.

  13. Microstructural Evolution and Residual Stresses of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jae-Young; Kim, Jae-Hyoun; Lee, Sang-Yeop; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Cho, Hyun; Yi, Dong-Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    Microstructural evolution and fracture behavior of zirconia (ZrO2)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were investigated under thermal exposure. New ZrO2 granule with 8 wt.% yttria (Y2O3) with a deformed hollow morphology was developed through a spray drying process and employed to prepare TBCs. The thermal exposure tests were conducted at 1210°C with a dwell time of 100 h till 800 h. The residual stress at the interface between top coat and thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer was measured using a nanoindentation technique before and after thermal exposure. Vertical cracks on the top coat were newly formed and interlamellar cracks at the interface were enhanced after the thermal exposure of 800 h. Especially, partial delamination was observed at the interface after the thermal exposure of 800 h in TBC samples tested. The microstructural evolution in the top coat could be defined through load-displacement curves, showing a higher load or a less displacement after the thermal exposure of 800 h. The stress state was strongly dependent on the TGO geometry, resulting in the compressive stresses at the "valleys" or the "troughs," and the tensile stresses at the "crests" or peak areas, in the ranges of -500 to -75 MPa and of +168 to + 24 MPa, respectively. These stress terms incorporated with resintering during thermal exposure affected the mechanical properties such as hardness and elastic modulus of the top coat.

  14. Spatially dependent cluster dynamics modeling of microstructure evolution in low energy helium irradiated tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faney, T.; Wirth, B. D.

    2014-09-01

    In fusion reactors, plasma facing components (PFC) and in particular the divertor will be irradiated with high fluxes of low energy (˜100 eV) helium and hydrogen ions. Tungsten is one of the leading candidate divertor materials for ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. However, the behavior of tungsten under high dose, coupled helium/hydrogen exposure remains to be fully understood. The PFC response and performance changes are intimately related to microstructural changes, such as the formation of point defect clusters, helium and hydrogen bubbles or dislocation loops. Computational materials modeling has been used to investigate the mechanisms controlling microstructural evolution in tungsten following high dose, high temperature helium exposure. The aim of this study is to understand and predict helium implantation, primary defect production and defect diffusion, helium-defect clustering and interactions below a tungsten surface exposed to low energy helium irradiation. The important defects include interstitial clusters, vacancy clusters, helium interstitials and helium-vacancy clusters. We report results from a one-dimensional, spatially dependent cluster dynamics model based on the continuum reaction-diffusion rate theory to describe the evolution in space and time of all these defects. The key parameter inputs to the model (diffusion coefficients, migration and binding energies, initial defect production) are determined from a combination of atomistic materials modeling and available experimental data.

  15. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers. PMID:27515586

  16. Chemical and microstructural evolution on ODS Fe-14CrWTi steel during manufacturing stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olier, P.; Malaplate, J.; Mathon, M. H.; Nunes, D.; Hamon, D.; Toualbi, L.; de Carlan, Y.; Chaffron, L.

    2012-09-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising candidate materials for fission and fusion applications thanks to their improved properties related to both their fine grained microstructure and high density of Y-Ti-O nanoscale clusters (NCs). The Fe-14Cr-1 W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 ODS ferritic steel was produced by powder metallurgy: Iron-base gas atomized powders were mechanically alloyed with 0.3% Y2O3 particles in an attritor. Then, the ODS powders were encapsulated in a soft steel can, consolidated by hot extrusion and cold rolled under the shape of tube cladding. The present work investigates the evolution of the chemical composition and the microstructure after each stage of the fabrication route (i.e. mechanical alloying, extrusion and cold rolling). Chemical analysis indicates a significant increase of the carbon content and a moderate increase of oxygen and nitrogen after mechanical alloying compared to initial atomized powders. After extrusion, the measured oxygen content corresponds mainly to the oxygen coming from yttria addition during MA process. In addition, electron microprobe analyses are performed after hot extrusion to determine the concentration and the distribution of the constitutive elements (Cr, Ti, W, Y, O). The microstructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) in order to characterize the size distribution of Y-Ti-O particles. TEM results reveal a fine microstructure (average grain size of 600 nm in the transverse direction) including Y-Ti-O NCs with a mean diameter close to 3 nm after extrusion. A slight coarsening of Y-Ti-O NCs is evidenced by SANS after cold rolling and heat treatments.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of Type 304 and 316 Stainless Steels Under Neutron Irradiation at LWR Relevant Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Stoller, R. E.; Field, K. G.; Yang, Y.; Nam, H.; Morgan, D.; Wirth, B. D.; Gussev, M. N.; Busby, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    Life extension of light water reactors will expose austenitic internal core components to irradiation damage levels beyond 100 displacements per atom (dpa), leading to profound microstructural evolution and consequent degradation of macroscopic properties. Microstructural evolution, including Frank loops, cavities, precipitates, and segregation at boundaries and the resultant radiation hardening in type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) variants were studied in this work via experimental characterization and multiple simulation methods. Experimental data for up to 40 heats of type 304SS and 316SS variants irradiated in different reactors to 0.6-120 dpa at 275-375°C were generated from this work or collected from literature reports. These experimental data were then combined with models of Frank loop and cavity evolution, computational thermodynamics and precipitation, and ab initio and rate theory integrated radiation-induced segregation models to provide insights into microstructural evolution and degradation at higher doses.

  18. Microstructural evolution of type 304 and 316 stainless steels under neutron irradiation at LWR relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Stoller, Roger E.; Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Morgan, Dane; Wirth, Brian D.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Nam, H.

    2015-12-11

    Extension of light water reactors' useful life will expose austenitic internal core components to irradiation damage levels beyond 100 displacements per atom (dpa), which will lead to profound microstructural evolution and consequent degradation of macroscopic properties. Microstructural evolution, including Frank loops, cavities, precipitates, and segregation at boundaries and the resultant radiation hardening in type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) variants, were studied in this work via experimental characterization and multiple simulation methods. Experimental data for up to 40 heats of type 304SS and 316SS variants irradiated in different reactors to 0.6–120 dpa at 275–375°C were either generated from this work or collected from literature reports. These experimental data were then combined with models of Frank loop and cavity evolution, computational thermodynamics and precipitation, and ab initio and rate theory integrated radiation-induced segregation models to provide insights into microstructural evolution and degradation at higher radiation doses.

  19. Early Stages of Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Beta Annealing of Ti 6Al 4V (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-27

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0243 EARLY STAGES OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION DURING BETA ANNEALING OF TI-6AL-4V (PREPRINT) A.L...August 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EARLY STAGES OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION DURING BETA ANNEALING OF TI-6AL-4V (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT...microstructure evolution during annealing of Ti-6Al-4V in the beta phase field were established. For this purpose, a series of short-time heat

  20. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of Ultrafine Ti-6Al-4V During Low Temperature Superplastic Deformation (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-13

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0191 MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ULTRAFINE TIE6ALE4V DURING LOW-TEMPERATURE SUPERPLASTIC...SUBTITLE MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ULTRAFINE TIE6ALE4V DURING LOW- TEMPERATURE SUPERPLASTIC DEFORMATION (POSTPRINT) 5a...influence of microstructure evolution on the low-temperature superplasticity of ultrafine Ti6Al4V was established. For this purpose, the static and

  1. Microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Jung, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yugu peridotite is the largest and freshest ultramafic body in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula, which potentially has a tectonic affinity to the eastward extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. In spite of its tectonic and rheological importance, only few mineralogical and petrological studies have been reported from Yugu peridotite. In order to understand the microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites, we conducted a detailed analysis of the microstructures and petro-fabrics. The majority of Yugu peridotite body is significantly serpentinized, and it consists predominantly of spinel harzburgite together with minor lherzolite, dunite, and clinopyroxenite. We collected peridotites from mainly two areas (northwestern and southwestern parts) of the Yugu ultramafic body, and all samples are spinel harzburgites consisting of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, and amphibole. These samples have similar mineralogy except for the varied amount of clinopyroxene and amphibole. These mineral contents are generally increasing from proto-mylonite peridotites to mylonite peridotites. Based on microstructural characteristics of highly deformed peridotites (especially grain-size of olivine), we classified the samples into four textural types, which are proto-mylonite, proto-mylonite to mylonite transition, mylonite, and ultra-mylonite. Depending on the texture of specimen, it is found that the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine varies from A-type (proto-mylonite) via D-type like (mylonite) to E-type (ultra-mylonite). The fabric strength of olivine (M-index and J-index) systematically decreases with decreasing grain-size of olivine from proto-mylonite via mylonite to ultra-mylonite. The cause of fabric evolution in the Yugu peridotites will be discussed.

  2. Full-field Model and Experimental Validation of Subgrain Texture and Microstructure Evolution of Polycrystalline Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Brenner, Renald; Castelnau, Olivier

    2007-05-17

    An efficient full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) for the prediction of the viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals is applied to the study of the subgrain texture and microstructure evolution in a copper aggregate deformed under tension. Direct input from OIM images is used in the construction of the initial unit cell. Average orientations and misorientations predicted with the FFT-based approach after 11% tensile strain are directly compared with OIM measurements, showing a reasonable agreement. The differences between misorientations of surface grains compared with bulk grains are estimated, and the orientation-dependence of grain's misorientations is studied. Measurements and simulations agree in that grains with initial orientation near (110) tend to develop higher misorientations, as deformation proceeds. This behavior can be explained in terms of attraction towards the two different stable orientations and grain interaction. Only models that account for grain interaction, like the FFT-based formulation, are able to capture these effects.

  3. Fundamental mechanisms of microstructural evolution during spray forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingzhou

    2000-10-01

    Spray forming consists of two physical stages: atomization and deposition. In principle, the spray forming process inherently avoids the extreme thermal excursions, extensive macrosegregation and concomitant degradation in mechanical properties, normally associated with ingot metallurgy. This synthesis approach also eliminates the need to handle fine reactive metallic powders as is necessary with powder metallurgy. In addition, spray forming can be readily used to synthesize particulate reinforced metal matrix composites through different approaches. Presently, spray forming is used for the production of a wide variety of alloys and materials such as Al, Mg, Fe and Ni-based alloys and metal matrix composites, as well as intermetallics. Significant technical progress over the past three decades has helped spray forming to mature into a manufacturing technique. However, review of the published literature reveals that, despite numerous commercial success stories, the fundamentals of spray forming, in many cases, remain to be established. The present dissertation is organized as follows. First, computational fluid dynamic techniques are implemented to analyze the gas flow behavior in a typical atomization configuration with nitrogen as the modeled gas. Second, a numerical approach is implemented to analyze the heat transfer, nucleation and growth of individual droplets during both flight and deposition, and the calculated results, along with the microstructural observation, are used to interpret the formation of the heterogeneous grain morphology in the initially deposited material and the generation of the equiaxed grain morphology beyond a critical deposited thickness. Third, a numerical model is established to describe the thermal environment of a collection of individual droplets thereby predicting the formation of a mushy layer under different processing parameters. Fourth, the aforementioned model is used to investigate the cooling processes of individual

  4. Effects of shape anisotropy on microstructural evolution of diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Ashoutosh

    This dissertation discusses the effects of shape anisotropy on the evolved microstructure of diblock copolymers at various levels. Due to chain connectivity and microphase separation, the diblock copolymers self-assemble into ellipsoidal grains of lamellar and cylindrical morphologies. A grain-structure related phenomenon, Excluded Volume Epitaxy (E.V.E.) is explored in Chapter 2. E.V.E. is a local, inter-grain azimuthal orientational correlations effect, which results from a combination of sporadic nucleation and impingement of growing anisotropic shaped grains. Due to E.V.E., the ellipsoidal grains have a propensity for similar orientations in a local neighborhood, despite complete absence of global orientation in the sample. Simulations and experiments have verified this effect. The Avrami kinetics of anisotropic shaped grains is discussed in Chapter 3. Traditionally Avrami equation is used to model the growth kinetics of volume filling isotropic shaped grains. The probabilistic nature of Avrami kinetics produces a coupling between the grain shape and Poisson distribution. The Poisson-shape coupling remains latent for isotropic grains but becomes operative for anisotropic grains in random orientations scheme leading to inhibited growth kinetics. For unidirectional orientation of anisotropic grains, the growth kinetics remains uninhibited due to absence of Poisson-shape coupling. For two-dimensional case in simultaneous and continuous nucleation regimes, the inhibited kinetics scales as L1/2 where L is the shape anisotropy. The blends of highly shape anisotropic nanoclay, montmorillonite (MMT) and lamellar poly(styrene-b-isoprene), PS-PI are discussed in Appendix A. Annealing and cooling is sufficient to produce long-range lamellar order at 1 wt % clay loading. However at 5 wt % clay loading, shear force is additionally required. This system reveals the effect of shape anisotropy on evolution of long-range order in clay-block copolymer blends. The effect of shape

  5. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities in Coarsening Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-limited capillarity-driven coarsening of precipitates is an important and intensively studied phenomenon. The classic coarsening theory developed by Lifshitz and Syozov and Wagner (LSW theory) is limited to infinitesimally small volume fractions, V(sub nu), therefore neglects all direct interparticle interactions. This work uses modeling and holographic imaging to compare coarsening rates in "high" volume fraction versus low volume fraction microstructures by observing mixed-dimensional droplets (spherical caps on a surface coarsening by two-dimensional diffusion) during ground-based investigations. The method involves filling a cell with selected homogeneous parent phase, and cooling below the consolute temperature to the isopycnic temperature in the two-phase region of a monotectic system. A microgravity holographic experiment is required for three-dimensional observations to minimize sedimentation during long-term coarsening. Determination of sizes and positions of the many droplets in the holographic images requires automation. We have developed software for automated data analysis, and demonstrated good agreement between regenerated maps and scaled photographs of the original holograms for mixed dimensional coarsening. The results of these experiments were presented in a formal microgravity Science Concept Review (SCR) on December 18, 2000.

  6. Microstructural evolution of fusion zone in laser beam welds of pure titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Nakata, K.; Zhang, J.X.; Yamamoto, N.; Liao, J.

    2012-03-15

    Microstructural evolution of fusion zone in laser beam welds of pure titanium was studied by means of electron backscattering diffraction. The microstructural evolution is strongly affected by the {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation mechanism dependent on the cooling rate during phase transformation. The long-range diffusional transformation mainly occurs in the fusion zone at the low cooling rate, and the massive transformation dominantly takes place at the high cooling rate. For this reason, the grain morphologies probably change from the granular-like to columnar-like grains with the cooling rate increasing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures of fusion zone in laser beam welds of pure titanium are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing cooling rate changes grain morphology from granular to columnar one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Final microstructures depend on the {beta}{yields}{alpha} transformation mechanisms.

  7. Evolution of microstructure at hot band annealing of ferritic FeSi steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jürgen; Li, Guangqiang; Franke, Armin; Zhou, Bowen

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic properties of the finally fabricated nonoriented FeSi steels critically depend on the microstructure and on the occurring crystallographic texture. The fabrication route comprises hot rolling, coiling and cooling, hot band annealing before cold rolling (optional), cold rolling and the final thermal treatment. As well known there is an interplay between the microstructure and texture during the various processing steps. For that reason, it is of interest to know more on the evolution of the microstructure at hot band annealing of hot band prepared in different ways. In this paper we will summarize our recent results on the evolution of microstructure during thermal annealing of hot band: thermal treatment following immediately the last pass of hot rolling or a hot band annealing as a separate processing step before cold rolling.

  8. Influence of various heat treatment stages on evolution of microstructure and grain in H407 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Ji, Kai; Jiang, Chen Wei; Zhang, Yun Chang

    2016-09-01

    Regarding heat treatment as one of the main methods for improving property of die steel, dead annealing, quenching, once tempering, twice tempering, and thrice tempering treatment of H407 die steel were conducted in this thesis. Microstructure conversion and grain size development in various stages of heat treatment were analyzed, and then magnitude, shape, and distribution of secondary phase during heat treatment were investigated to explore the function mechanism of microalloyed elements on evolution of microstructure and grain during heat treatment. The steel achieves homogeneous microstructure and composition after this heat treatment. The final phase constituent is α and γ phase as well as the final microstructure consists of tempered martensite, trace retained austenite and granular carbides. A large number of fine and dispersive MC as well as M7C3 type granular carbides containing V, Mo and Cr precipitate in trice tempered microstructure. After this heat treatment grain is finer with grain size of 5.96 μm.

  9. Persistence and variation in microstructural design during the evolution of spider silk

    PubMed Central

    Madurga, R.; Blackledge, T. A.; Perea, B.; Plaza, G. R.; Riekel, C.; Burghammer, M.; Elices, M.; Guinea, G.; Pérez-Rigueiro, J.

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary mechanical performance of spider dragline silk is explained by its highly ordered microstructure and results from the sequences of its constituent proteins. This optimized microstructural organization simultaneously achieves high tensile strength and strain at breaking by taking advantage of weak molecular interactions. However, elucidating how the original design evolved over the 400 million year history of spider silk, and identifying the basic relationships between microstructural details and performance have proven difficult tasks. Here we show that the analysis of maximum supercontracted single spider silk fibers using X ray diffraction shows a complex picture of silk evolution where some key microstructural features are conserved phylogenetically while others show substantial variation even among closely related species. This new understanding helps elucidate which microstructural features need to be copied in order to produce the next generation of biomimetic silk fibers. PMID:26438975

  10. Persistence and variation in microstructural design during the evolution of spider silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurga, R.; Blackledge, T. A.; Perea, B.; Plaza, G. R.; Riekel, C.; Burghammer, M.; Elices, M.; Guinea, G.; Pérez-Rigueiro, J.

    2015-10-01

    The extraordinary mechanical performance of spider dragline silk is explained by its highly ordered microstructure and results from the sequences of its constituent proteins. This optimized microstructural organization simultaneously achieves high tensile strength and strain at breaking by taking advantage of weak molecular interactions. However, elucidating how the original design evolved over the 400 million year history of spider silk, and identifying the basic relationships between microstructural details and performance have proven difficult tasks. Here we show that the analysis of maximum supercontracted single spider silk fibers using X ray diffraction shows a complex picture of silk evolution where some key microstructural features are conserved phylogenetically while others show substantial variation even among closely related species. This new understanding helps elucidate which microstructural features need to be copied in order to produce the next generation of biomimetic silk fibers.

  11. Persistence and variation in microstructural design during the evolution of spider silk.

    PubMed

    Madurga, R; Blackledge, T A; Perea, B; Plaza, G R; Riekel, C; Burghammer, M; Elices, M; Guinea, G; Pérez-Rigueiro, J

    2015-10-06

    The extraordinary mechanical performance of spider dragline silk is explained by its highly ordered microstructure and results from the sequences of its constituent proteins. This optimized microstructural organization simultaneously achieves high tensile strength and strain at breaking by taking advantage of weak molecular interactions. However, elucidating how the original design evolved over the 400 million year history of spider silk, and identifying the basic relationships between microstructural details and performance have proven difficult tasks. Here we show that the analysis of maximum supercontracted single spider silk fibers using X ray diffraction shows a complex picture of silk evolution where some key microstructural features are conserved phylogenetically while others show substantial variation even among closely related species. This new understanding helps elucidate which microstructural features need to be copied in order to produce the next generation of biomimetic silk fibers.

  12. A Monte Carlo-finite element model for strain energy controlled microstructural evolution - 'Rafting' in superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Srolovitz, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a specialized microstructural lattice model, MCFET (Monte Carlo finite element technique), which simulates microstructural evolution in materials in which strain energy has an important role in determining morphology. The model is capable of accounting for externally applied stress, surface tension, misfit, elastic inhomogeneity, elastic anisotropy, and arbitrary temperatures. The MCFET analysis was found to compare well with the results of analytical calculations of the equilibrium morphologies of isolated particles in an infinite matrix.

  13. In situ, laser-ultrasonic monitoring of stainless steel microstructure evolution during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.B.

    1997-02-01

    A laser ultrasonic method is described by which the microstructural evolution of a material may be monitored in situ during thermal processing. The method employs analysis of laser ultrasonic data that includes only those measurable quantities obtained from the ultrasonic data itself. Various microstructural changes, including the magnetic Curie transition and the dissolution of carbide structures in stainless-steel alloys, are investigated. These changes may be identified without specific knowledge of the sample temperature, thereby allowing for the possibility of direct microstructure analysis and control using laser-ultrasonic methods.

  14. Predicting mesoscale microstructural evolution in electron beam welding

    DOE PAGES

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Tikare, Veena; ...

    2016-03-16

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. As a result, the simulations provide anmore » opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.« less

  15. Predicting Mesoscale Microstructural Evolution in Electron Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, T. M.; Madison, J. D.; Tikare, V.; Maguire, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. The simulations provide an opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.

  16. Predicting mesoscale microstructural evolution in electron beam welding

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Tikare, Veena; Maguire, Michael C.

    2016-03-16

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. As a result, the simulations provide an opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.

  17. Microstructure Evolution of HSLA Pipeline Steels after Hot Uniaxial Compression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchang; Shao, Yi; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Dantian

    2016-08-24

    The mechanical properties of the high-strength low-alloy pipeline steels were mainly controlled by the subsequent phase transformations after rolling. The influence of hot uniaxial compression on the phase transformation of acicular ferrite was explored by viewing of the deformation degree, the deformation temperature, and the strain rate. The results show that the increase of deformation amounts raises the transformation starting and finishing temperature during the subsequent cooling and also promotes the polygonal ferrite transformation, which leads to the decrease of Vickers hardness accordingly. With the increasing of the deformation temperature, the achieved microstructure becomes coarsened and thus decreases the hardness. As the strain rate increases, the microstructure is refined and thus the hardness increases gradually; increasing the strain rate appropriately is beneficial to the refinement of the microstructure.

  18. Microstructure Evolution of HSLA Pipeline Steels after Hot Uniaxial Compression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongchang; Shao, Yi; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Dantian

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the high-strength low-alloy pipeline steels were mainly controlled by the subsequent phase transformations after rolling. The influence of hot uniaxial compression on the phase transformation of acicular ferrite was explored by viewing of the deformation degree, the deformation temperature, and the strain rate. The results show that the increase of deformation amounts raises the transformation starting and finishing temperature during the subsequent cooling and also promotes the polygonal ferrite transformation, which leads to the decrease of Vickers hardness accordingly. With the increasing of the deformation temperature, the achieved microstructure becomes coarsened and thus decreases the hardness. As the strain rate increases, the microstructure is refined and thus the hardness increases gradually; increasing the strain rate appropriately is beneficial to the refinement of the microstructure. PMID:28773842

  19. A novel combinatorial approach for understanding microstructural evolution and its relationship to mechanical properties in metallic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Banerjee, R; Fraser, H L

    2007-05-01

    The new generation of metallic biomaterials for prosthesis implantation (orthopedic and dental) typically have a Ti base with fully biocompatible alloying additions such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Mo, Fe and Sn. While the binary Ti-Ta and the ternary Ti-Nb-Ta systems are promising, the large composition space afforded by these systems offers tremendous scope in terms of alloy design via optimization of alloy composition and thermomechanical treatment. In the present paper a novel combinatorial approach has been developed for rapidly exploring the microstructural evolution and microstructure-microhardness (or elastic modulus) relationships in these systems. Using directed laser deposition, compositionally graded alloy samples have been fabricated and subsequently heat-treated to affect different microstructures in terms of the volume fraction and distribution of the alpha phase in the beta matrix as a function of composition. Subsequently, composition-specific indentation-based hardness and modulus information has been obtained from these graded samples, and the resulting data have been used to develop relationships between the composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. Such rapid combinatorial assessments can be very useful in optimizing not only the alloy composition but also the desired microstructure for achieving the best combination of properties for specific orthopedic or dental applications.

  20. Shear band evolution and accumulated microstructural development in Cosserat media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, A.; Peters, J. F.; Gardiner, B. S.

    2004-08-01

    This paper prepares the ground for the continuum analysis of shear band evolution using a Cosserat/micropolar constitutive equation derived from micromechanical considerations. The nature of the constitutive response offers two key advantages over other existing models. Firstly, its non-local character obviates the mathematical difficulties of traditional analyses, and facilitates an investigation of the shear band evolution (i.e. the regime beyond the onset of localization). Secondly, the constitutive model parameters are physical properties of particles and their interactions (e.g. particle stiffness coefficients, coefficients of inter-particle rolling friction and sliding friction), as opposed to poorly understood fitting parameters. In this regard, the model is based on the same material properties used as model inputs to a discrete element (DEM) analysis, therefore, the micromechanics approach provides the vehicle for incorporating results not only from physical experiments but also from DEM simulations. Although the capabilities of such constitutive models are still limited, much can be discerned from their general rate form. In this paper, an attempt is made to distinguish between those aspects of the continuum theory of localization that are independent of the constitutive model, and those that require significant advances in the understanding of micromechanics. Copyright

  1. Microstructural Evolution and Creep-Rupture Behavior of A-USC Alloy Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; DuPont, John N.; Siefert, John A.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of the microstructural evolution of fusion welds in alloys slated for use in advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boilers during creep has been performed. Creep-rupture specimens involving INCONEL® 740, NIMONIC® 263 (INCONEL and NIMONIC are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation), and Haynes® 282® (Haynes and 282 are registered trademarks of Haynes International) have been analyzed via light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling. Focus has been given to the microstructures that develop along the grain boundaries in these alloys during creep at temperatures relevant to the A-USC process cycle, and particular attention has been paid to any evidence of the formation of local γ'-denuded or γ'-free zones. This work has been performed in an effort to understand the microstructural changes that lead to a weld strength reduction factor (WSRF) in these alloys as compared to solution annealed and aged alloy 740 base metal. γ' precipitate-free zones have been identified in alloy 740 base metal, solution annealed alloy 740 weld metal, and alloy 263 weld metal after creep. Their development during long-term thermal exposure is correlated with the stabilization of phases that are rich in γ'-forming elements ( e.g., η and G) and is suppressed by precipitation of phases that do not contain the γ' formers ( e.g., M23C6 and μ). The location of failure and creep performance in terms of rupture life and WSRF for each welded joint is presented and discussed.

  2. Cryomilled and spark plasma sintered titanium: the evolution of microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlík, Jiří; Becker, Hanka; Harcuba, Petr; Stráský, Josef; Janeček, Milos

    2017-05-01

    Bulk ultra-fine grained (UFG) commercially pure Ti was prepared by cryogenic milling in liquid argon and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS). During cryogenic milling, individual powder particles are repetitively severely deformed by attrition forces. Powder particles were not significantly refined, but due to severe repetitive plastic deformation, ultra-fine grained microstructure emerges within each powder particle. Cryogenic milling can be therefore considered as a specific severe plastic deformation (SPD) method. Compactization of cryomilled powder by SPS technique (also referred to as field assisted sintering technique - FAST) requires significantly lower sintering temperatures and shorter sintering times for successful compaction when compared to any other sintering technique. This is crucial for maintaining the UFG microstructure due to its limited thermal stability. Several specimens were prepared by varying processing parameters, in particular the sintering temperature. The microstructure of powders and compacted samples was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increased sintering temperature results in recrystallization and grain growth. A trade-off relationship between the density of compacted material and grain size was identified. Microhardness of the material was found to depend on residual porosity rather than grain size. This contribution presents cryogenic milling and spark plasma sintering as a viable alternative for achieving UFG microstructure in commercially pure Ti.

  3. Microstructure Evolution of a Platinum-Modified Nickel-Aluminide Coating During Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallot, Pierre; Maurel, Vincent; Rémy, Luc; N'Guyen, Franck; Longuet, Arnaud

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure evolution of a platinum-modified nickel-aluminide coating on single-crystal nickel-based superalloy was investigated for various thermal cycling and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions in air for a long-term exposure. An increase in roughness and in β→γ' transformation rate depends similarly on maximum temperature, holding time at maximum temperature and applied stress. Moreover, the evolution of the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) is analyzed by making the distinction between two layers, according to the major phases observed within these layers, namely β-(Ni,Pt)Al and γ'-Ni3Al. This distinction highlighted that the respective thickness evolution of these two layers are sensitive to each parameter of TMF tests with similar increase in evolution rate when increasing time, temperature, as well as applied stress. The distinctive features of phase transformation are finally discussed together with localization of phase transformation and measured evolution of phase transformation within the external coating and β- and γ'-IDZ layer thicknesses under thermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue. This analysis leads to a conclusion that grain boundaries within the external coating as well as interfaces, between thermally grown oxide, external coating, and IDZ, respectively, play a major role in diffusion, phase transformation, and microstructure evolution of typical platinum-modified nickel-aluminide coating.

  4. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) start time, fraction ferrite, ferrite grain diameter, and pearlite interlamellar spacing have been quantified and correlated with steel composition and cooling rate. Tensile tests have been conducted to obtain yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which, with literature data, have been related to the microstructure and composition of the steels. These correlations, which apply to both hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels, have been incorporated in a mathematical model of the Stelmor process, to be described in Part III of this article.[441

  5. Composite model of microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steel under fast neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.; Odette, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A rate-theory-based model has been developed which includes the simultaneous evolution of the dislocation and cavity components of the microstructure of irradiated austenitic stainless steels. Previous work has generally focused on developing models for void swelling while neglecting the time dependence of the dislocation structure. These models have broadened our understanding of the physical processes that give rise to swelling, e.g., the role of helium and void formation from critically-sized bubbles. That work has also demonstrated some predictive capability by successful calibration to fit the results of fast reactor swelling data. However, considerable uncertainty about the values of key parameters in these models limits their usefulness as predictive tools. Hence the use of such models to extrapolate fission reactor swelling data to fusion reactor conditions is compromised.

  6. Microstructure evolution of a multiphase superalloy processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Xavier; Mukhtarov, Shamil

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an overview and some original results about the microstructure evolution of an Ultra Fine Grained (UFG) nickel-iron based alloy INCONEL 718 processed by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD). The ultrafine grain structure of this alloy that contains a high density of γ" and γ' precipitates was characterized by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). We propose a comparison between two SPD processes, High Pressure Torsion (HPT) and Multiple Forging (MF). The grain refinement is much more pronounced by HPT but intermetallic particles are partly dissolved during SPD. The UFG structure after MF is obviously very different and exhibits a much better thermal stability especially because second phase particles do not reprecipitate during post-deformation annealing.

  7. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  8. Modeling Of Microstructure Evolution Of BCC Metals Subjected To Severe Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svyetlichnyy, Dmytro; Majta, Janusz; Muszka, Krzysztof; Łach, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of microstructure evolution and properties of ultrafine-grained materials is one of the most significant, current problems in materials science. Several advanced methods of analysis can be applied for this issue: vertex models, phase field models, Monte Carlo Potts, finite element method (FEM) discrete element method (DEM) and finally cellular automata (CA). The main asset of the CA is ability for a close correlation of the microstructure with the mechanical properties in micro- and meso-scale simulation. Joining CA with the DEM undoubtedly improves accuracy of modeling of coupled phenomena during the innovative forming processes in both micro- and macro-scale. Deformation in micro-scale shows anisotropy, which connected with that the polycrystalline material contains grains with different crystallographic orientation, and grain deformation is depended from configuration of directions of main stresses and axis of grain. Then, CA and DEM must be joint solutions of crystal plasticity theory. In the present model, deformation in macro-scale is transferred to meso-sale, where a block contains several, score or hundreds grains, and then is applied in micro-scale to each grain. Creation of low-angle boundaries and their development into high-angle boundaries are simulated by the cellular automata on the base of calculations using finite element method and crystal plasticity theory. The idea proposed in this study and particular solutions are discussed for the case of ultrafine-grained low-carbon steel.

  9. A Microstructure Evolution Model for Hot Rolling of a Mo-TRIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Fazeli, F.; Militzer, M.; Poole, W. J.

    2007-04-01

    A comprehensive study of microstructure evolution for a Mo-TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel under hot strip rolling conditions has been conducted. This investigation includes austenite grain growth during reheating, deformation behavior, and static recrystallization kinetics of austenite as well as the effect of cooling rate and austenite conditioning on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behavior. The physically based Kocks Mecking model has been employed to describe the deformation behavior of austenite, while the Johnson Mehl Avrami Kolmogorov (JMAK) approach has been used to predict static recrystallization, and an empirical equation has been formulated for the recrystallized austenite grain size. Ferrite transformation start is described by a model considering early growth of corner nucleated ferrite. The fraction of ferrite transformed from austenite during continuous cooling is predicted by the semiempirical JMAK approach in combination with Scheil’s equation of additivity. The effect of carbon enrichment on ferrite transformation kinetics is explicitly included in the model. In addition, a phenomenological model for the bainite formation has been proposed. Martensite transformation start is described by an empirical equation taking into account carbon enrichment of remaining austenite. Finally, the entire hot strip rolling and controlled cooling process have been simulated by hot torsion tests, and the optimum coiling temperatures for the formation of TRIP microstructures have been determined.

  10. Modeling Of Microstructure Evolution Of BCC Metals Subjected To Severe Plastic Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Svyetlichnyy, Dmytro; Majta, Janusz; Muszka, Krzysztof; Lach, Lukasz

    2011-01-17

    Prediction of microstructure evolution and properties of ultrafine-grained materials is one of the most significant, current problems in materials science. Several advanced methods of analysis can be applied for this issue: vertex models, phase field models, Monte Carlo Potts, finite element method (FEM) discrete element method (DEM) and finally cellular automata (CA). The main asset of the CA is ability for a close correlation of the microstructure with the mechanical properties in micro- and meso-scale simulation. Joining CA with the DEM undoubtedly improves accuracy of modeling of coupled phenomena during the innovative forming processes in both micro- and macro-scale. Deformation in micro-scale shows anisotropy, which connected with that the polycrystalline material contains grains with different crystallographic orientation, and grain deformation is depended from configuration of directions of main stresses and axis of grain. Then, CA and DEM must be joint solutions of crystal plasticity theory. In the present model, deformation in macro-scale is transferred to meso-sale, where a block contains several, score or hundreds grains, and then is applied in micro-scale to each grain. Creation of low-angle boundaries and their development into high-angle boundaries are simulated by the cellular automata on the base of calculations using finite element method and crystal plasticity theory. The idea proposed in this study and particular solutions are discussed for the case of ultrafine-grained low-carbon steel.

  11. Effects of solute elements on irradiation hardening and microstructural evolution in low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Fukuya, Koji

    2011-10-01

    The effects of the elements Mn, Ni, Si and Cu on irradiation hardening and microstructural evolution in low alloy steels were investigated in ion irradiation experiments using five kinds of alloys prepared by removing Mn, Ni and Si from, and adding 0.05 wt.%Cu to, the base alloy (Fe-1.5Mn-0.5Ni-0.25Si). The alloy without Mn showed less hardening and the alloys without Ni or Si showed more hardening. The addition of Cu had hardly any influence on hardening. These facts indicated that Mn enhanced hardening and that Ni and Si had some synergetic effects. The formation of solute clusters was not confirmed by atom probe (AP) analysis, whereas small dislocation loops were identified by TEM observation. The difference in hardening between the alloys with and without Mn was qualitatively consistent with loop formation. However, microstructural components that were not detected by the AP and TEM were assumed to explain the hardening level quantitatively.

  12. Connecting grain boundary properties to microstructural evolution in polycrystalline metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Within the last decade, both computational and experimental methods have evolved to the point that large-scale surveys of grain boundary properties have become tractable. Such studies have provided new information and insight about boundary structure, energetics, motion mechanisms, and mobility on a scale that invites application to polycrystalline systems. However, the complex behavior revealed in these studies often generates as many questions as it answers. This presentation will review pertinent computational and experimental studies of grain boundary properties in FCC metals, concentrating on boundary energy and mobility. The goal will be to identify the microstructural signatures of boundary properties in polycrystalline grain boundary networks. Topics will include how boundary energy and mobility trends manifest in real microstructures; the effects of shear coupling on boundary motion in bicrystals and polycrystals; the significance of boundaries that move in a non-thermally-activated manner to low temperature grain growth; and the consequences of the thermal roughening transition on grain stagnation. In each case, individual grain boundary properties couple with the characteristics of the grain boundary network to generate diverse microstructural outcomes. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  13. Evolution of Local Microstructures (ELMS): Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Frazier, Donald O.; Rogers, Jan R.; Witherow, William K.; Downey, J. Patton; Facemire, Barbara R.

    1999-01-01

    This work examines the diffusional growth of discrete phase particles dispersed within a matrix. Engineering materials are microstructurally heterogeneous, and the details of the microstructure determine how well that material performs in a given application. Critical to the development of designing multiphase microstructures with long-term stability is the process of Ostwald ripening. Ripening, or phase coarsening, is a diffusion-limited process which arises in polydisperse multiphase materials. Growth and dissolution occur because fluxes of solute, driven by chemical potential gradients at the interfaces of the dispersed phase material, depend on particle size. The kinetics of these processes are "competitive," dictating that larger particles grow at the expense of smaller ones, overall leading to an increase of the average particle size. The classical treatment of phase coarsening was done by Todes, Lifshitz, and Slyozov, (TLS) in the limit of zero volume fraction, V(sub v), of the dispersed phase. Since the publication of TLS theory there have been numerous investigations, many of which sought to describe the kinetic scaling behavior over a range of volume fractions. Some studies in the literature report that the relative increase in coarsening rate at low (but not zero) volume fractions compared to that / 2 1/ 3 predicted by TLS is proportional to V(sub v)(exp 1/2), whereas others suggest V(sub v)(exp 1/3). This issue has been resolved recently by simulation studies at low volume fractions in three dimensions by members of the Rensselaer/MSFC team.

  14. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Frazier, Donald O.; Rogers, Jan R.; Witherow, William K.; Downey, J. Patton

    2001-01-01

    This work examines the diffusional growth of discrete phase particles dispersed within a matrix. Engineering materials are often microstructurally heterogeneous, and the details of the microstructure determine how well that material performs in a given application. Critical to the development of designing multiphase microstructures with long-term stability is the process of Ostwald ripening. Ripening, or phase coarsening, is diffusion-limited and arises in polydisperse multiphase materials. Growth and dissolution occur because fluxes of solute, driven by chemical potential gradients at the interfaces of the dispersed phase material, depend on particle size. Competitive kinetics of these processes dictates that larger particles grow at the expense of smaller ones, overall leading to an increase of the average particle size. The classical treatment of phase coarsening was done by Todes, Lifshitz, and Slyozov, (TLS) in the limit of zero volume fraction, V(sub V)=0 of the dispersed phase. Since the publication of TLS theory, there have been numerous investigations, many of which sought to describe the kinetic scaling behavior over a range of volume fractions. Some studies in the literature report that the relative increase in coarsening rate at low (but not zero) volume fractions compared to that predicted by TLS is proportional to V(exp 1/2)(sub v) whereas others suggest V(exp 1/3)(sub v).This issue has been addressed recently by simulation studies at low volume fractions in three dimensions by members of the Rensselaer/MSFC team.

  15. Phase-field modeling of microstructure evolutions in magnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the phase-field method has been extended and utilized across many fields of materials science. Since this method can incorporate, systematically, the effect of the coherency induced by lattice mismatch and the applied stress as well as the external electrical and magnetic fields, it has been applied to many material processes including solidification, solid-state phase transformations and various types of complex microstructure changes. In this paper, we focus on the recent phase-field simulations of real magnetic materials, and the simulation method for magnetic materials is explained comprehensively. Several applications of the phase-field method to clarifying the microstructure changes in magnetic materials, such as Ni2MnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy, FePt nanogranular thin film, Co–Sm–Cu rare-earth magnet, Fe–Cr–Co spinodal magnet, and Fe–C steel with external magnetic field, are demonstrated. Furthermore, the general concept of the effective strategy for controlling microstructure in magnetic materials is proposed. PMID:27877924

  16. Microstructure Evolution in Cut Metal Chips of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, L.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior beta grains and equiaxed primary alpha located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary alpha grains and beta lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the beta transus temperature.

  17. Calculation of the evolution of the fuel microstructure in UMo alloys and implications for fuel swelling.

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G. L.; Konovalov, I.; Maslov, A.

    1999-10-01

    The evolution of a cellular dislocation structure and subsequent recrystallization have been identified as important aspects of the irradiated UMo alloy microstructure that can have a strong impact on dispersion fuel swelling. Dislocation kinetics depends on the preferential bias of dislocations for interstitial compared to vacancies. This paper presents theoretical calculations for the evolution of a cellular dislocation structure, and recrystallization in U-10Mo. Implications for fuel swelling are discussed.

  18. Microstructural evolution of pure tungsten neutron irradiated with a mixed energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Hwang, Taehyun; Garrison, Lauren M.; Hu, Xunxiang; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai

    2017-07-01

    Microstructures of single-crystal bulk tungsten (W) and polycrystalline W foil with a strong grain texture were investigated using transmission electron microscopy following neutron irradiation at ∼90-800 °C to 0.03-4.6 displacements per atom (dpa) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor with a mixed energy spectrum. The dominant irradiation defects were dislocation loops and small clusters at ∼90 °C. Additional voids were formed in W irradiated at above 460 °C. Voids and precipitates involving transmutation rhenium and osmium were the dominant defects at more than ∼1 dpa. We found a new phenomenon of microstructural evolution in irradiated polycrystalline W: Re- and Os-rich precipitation along grain boundaries. Comparison of results between this study and previous studies using different irradiation facilities revealed that the microstructural evolution of pure W is highly dependent on the neutron energy spectrum in addition to the irradiation temperature and dose.

  19. Supersoft lithography: candy-based fabrication of soft silicone microstructures.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M; Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We designed a fabrication technique able to replicate microstructures in soft silicone materials (E < 1 kPa). Sugar-based 'hard candy' recipes from the confectionery industry were modified to be compatible with silicone processing conditions, and used as templates for replica molding. Microstructures fabricated in soft silicones can then be easily released by dissolving the template in water. We anticipate that this technique will be of particular importance in replicating physiologically soft, microstructured environments for cell culture, and demonstrate a first application in which intrinsically soft microstructures are used to measure forces generated by fibroblast-laden contractile tissues.

  20. Supersoft lithography: Candy-based fabrication of soft silicone microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M.; Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We designed a fabrication technique able to replicate microstructures in soft silicone materials (E < 1 kPa). Sugar-based ‘hard candy’ recipes from the confectionery industry were modified to be compatible with silicone processing conditions, and used as templates for replica molding. Microstructures fabricated in soft silicones can then be easily released by dissolving the template in water. We anticipate that this technique will be of particular importance in replicating physiologically soft, microstructured environments for cell culture, and demonstrate a first application in which intrinsically soft microstructures are used to measure forces generated by fibroblast-laden contractile tissues. PMID:26245893

  1. Effects of Forging Process Parameters on Microstructure Evolution of Aluminum Alloy 7050

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Youping; Shi Yan; Yang Jihui; Lin Yongcheng

    2007-04-07

    The objective of this work is to investigate the behavior of microstructure evolution of aluminum alloy 7050 under the condition of different forging process parameters by means of combining materials physical model with finite element code. For the purpose of establishing constitutive equation and physical model of microstructure evolution, the isothermal compression test were performed by machine Gleeble 1500 on the condition of temperatures ranging from 250 deg. C to 450 deg. C and constant strain rates of 0.01s-1, 0.1s-1, 1s-1 and 10s-1. The behaviors of microstructure evolutions of aluminum alloy 7050 under difference process parameters were studied by metallographic observations. The experiment results showed that recrystallization during forming process occurred at the critical strain and the volume fraction of recrystallization changed with the temperature and strain rate. According to the results of isothermal compression test, a constitutive equation and an empirical model of DRX were obtained. A finite element code DEFORM 3D was used to analyze the influence of different forging process parameters on the behavior of microstructure evolution in details. The present model and simulation method can be served as a useful tool to predict and control the properties and shape of aluminum alloy 7050 components during forging.

  2. Effects of Forging Process Parameters on Microstructure Evolution of Aluminum Alloy 7050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Youping; Shi, Yan; Yang, Jihui; Lin, Yongcheng

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the behavior of microstructure evolution of aluminum alloy 7050 under the condition of different forging process parameters by means of combining materials physical model with finite element code. For the purpose of establishing constitutive equation and physical model of microstructure evolution, the isothermal compression test were performed by machine Gleeble 1500 on the condition of temperatures ranging from 250°C to 450°C and constant strain rates of 0.01s-1, 0.1s-1, 1s-1 and 10s-1. The behaviors of microstructure evolutions of aluminum alloy 7050 under difference process parameters were studied by metallographic observations. The experiment results showed that recrystallization during forming process occurred at the critical strain and the volume fraction of recrystallization changed with the temperature and strain rate. According to the results of isothermal compression test, a constitutive equation and an empirical model of DRX were obtained. A finite element code DEFORM 3D was used to analyze the influence of different forging process parameters on the behavior of microstructure evolution in details. The present model and simulation method can be served as a useful tool to predict and control the properties and shape of aluminum alloy 7050 components during forging.

  3. Using Antifreeze Proteins to understand ice microstructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer-Giraldi, Maddalena; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa; Weikusat, Christian; Kondo, Hidemasa; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2017-04-01

    Polar ice sheets are considered a unique climate archive. The chemical analysis of its impurities and the development of its microstructure with depth give insight in past climate conditions as well as in the development of the ice sheet with time and deformation. Microstructural patterns like small grain size observed in specific depths are thought to be linked to the retarding effect of impurities on ice grain growth. Clear evidence of size or chemical composition of the impurities causing this effect is missing, but in this context a major role of nanoparticles has been suggested. In order to shed light on different mechanisms by which nanoparticles can control microstructure development we used antifreeze proteins (AFPs) as proxies for particles in ice. These proteins are small nanoparticles, approx. 5 nm in size, with the special characteristics of firmly binding to ice through several hydrogen bonds. We used AFPs from the sea-ice microalgae Fragilariopsis cylindrus (fcAFPs) in bubble-free, small-grained polycrystalline ice obtained by the phase-transition size refinement method. We explain how fcAFP bind to ice by presenting the 3-D-protein structure model inferred by X-ray structure analysis, and show the importance of the chemical interaction between particles and ice in controlling normal grain growth, comparing fcAFPs to other protein nanoparticles. We used modifications of fcAFPs for particle localization through fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, the effect of fcAFPs on the driving factors for ice deformation during creep, i.e. on internal dislocations due to incorporation within the lattice and on the mobility of grain boundaries due to pinning, makes these proteins particularly interesting in studying the process of ice deformation.

  4. Direct handling of sharp interfacial energy for microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández–Rivera, Efraín; Tikare, Veena; Noirot, Laurence; Wang, Lumin

    2014-08-24

    In this study, we introduce a simplification to the previously demonstrated hybrid Potts–phase field (hPPF), which relates interfacial energies to microstructural sharp interfaces. The model defines interfacial energy by a Potts-like discrete interface approach of counting unlike neighbors, which we use to compute local curvature. The model is compared to the hPPF by studying interfacial characteristics and grain growth behavior. The models give virtually identical results, while the new model allows the simulator more direct control of interfacial energy.

  5. Direct handling of sharp interfacial energy for microstructural evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Hernández–Rivera, Efraín; Tikare, Veena; Noirot, Laurence; ...

    2014-08-24

    In this study, we introduce a simplification to the previously demonstrated hybrid Potts–phase field (hPPF), which relates interfacial energies to microstructural sharp interfaces. The model defines interfacial energy by a Potts-like discrete interface approach of counting unlike neighbors, which we use to compute local curvature. The model is compared to the hPPF by studying interfacial characteristics and grain growth behavior. The models give virtually identical results, while the new model allows the simulator more direct control of interfacial energy.

  6. Evolution of microstructure and rheological behavior of alloys in the semisolid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzimas, Evangelos

    1997-09-01

    Semisolid processing is a net-shape metal forming method that combines the advantages of forging and casting. In this work, emphasis is placed on a comparative evaluation of the major methods that produce near-equiaxed microstructures suitable for subsequent semisolid processing: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) casting, strain-induced melt activation (SIMA), and spray casting. The microstructural, material and process parameters that affect the behavior of semisolid materials are identified in each method. The microstructural evolution of the solid phase within time intervals characteristic of semisolid processing is examined in wrought and cast aluminum alloys. This work shows the presence of abnormal grain growth in some spray cast materials as a result of the initial microstructure. A new model is proposed to describe the spherodization of dendrites in the semisolid state. Unconstrained compression and parallel plate 'viscometry' experiments were carried out in order to examine the rheological behavior of semisolid materials. The presence of strain localization and inhomogeneous deformation, especially at lower volume fractions of solid is observed. Deformation at low liquid contents creates significant internal damage imposing a low liquid content limit, of the order of 40v/o, for the applicability of the process. Strain rate 'jump' tests exhibit the reduction of the apparent strain rate sensitivity with the increase of the liquid content. Modulus measurements indicate that cohesion in semisolid materials is limited. The presence of liquid phase segregation during deformation is observed. Segregation is reduced by increasing triaxiality and strain rate and minimizing the total strain and grain size. A phenomenological model for a two-phase material is proposed, accompanied by a mathematical modeling framework, to describe the resistance to flow of semisolid materials. Semisolid materials exhibit non-uniform, pressure dependent, strain rate independent, granular flow

  7. Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Double-Cone Samples of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with Colony Preform Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun Vanna; Lim, Chao Voon Samuel; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Jifeng; Yang, Xiaoguang; Huang, Aijun; Wu, Xinhua; Davies, Christopher H.

    2015-12-01

    Heat-treated Ti-6Al-4V forged bar with colony microstructure was machined into double-cone-shaped samples for a series of isothermal uniaxial compression test at 1223 K (950 °C) with varying constant crosshead speeds of 12.5, 1.25, and 0.125 mms-1 to a height reduction of 70 pct. Another set of samples deformed under the same conditions were heat treated at 1173 K (900 °C) for an hour followed by water quench. Finite element modeling was used to provide the strains, strain rates, and temperature profiles of the hot compression samples, and the microstructure and texture evolution was examined at four positions on each sample, representative of different strain ranges. Lamellae fragmentation and kinking are the dominant microstructural features at lower strain range up to a maximum of 2.0, whereas globularization dominates at strains above 2.0 for the as-deformed samples. The globularization fraction generally increases with strain, or by post-deformation heat treatment, but fluctuates at lower strain. The grain size of the globular α is almost constant with strain and maximizes for samples with the lowest crosshead speed due to the longer deformation time. The globular α grain also coarsens because of post-deformation heat treatment, with its size increasing with strain level. With respect to texture evolution, a basal transverse ring and another component 30 deg from ND is determined for samples deformed at 12.5 mms-1, which is consistent with the temperature increase to close to β-transus from simulation results. The texture type remains unchanged with its intensity increased and spreads with increasing strain.

  8. Microstructurally based finite element simulation of solder joint behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.; Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Stephens, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The most commonly used solder for electrical interconnects in electronic packages is the near eutectic 60Sn-40Pb alloy. This alloy has a number of processing advantages (suitable melting point of 183C and good wetting behavior). However, under conditions of cyclic strain and temperature (thermomechanical fatigue) the microstructure of this alloy undergoes a heterogeneous coarsening and failure process that makes the prediction of solder joint lifetime complex. A finite element simulation methodology to predict solder joint mechanical behavior, that includes microstructural evolution, has been developed. The mechanical constitutive behavior was incorporated into the time dependent internal state variable viscoplastic model through experimental creep tests. The microstructural evolution is incorporated through a series of mathematical relations that describe mass flow in a temperature/strain environment. The model has been found to simulate observed thermomechanical fatigue behavior in solder joints.

  9. Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2017-02-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.

  10. Effect of Austenite Deformation and Continuous Cooling on Microstructure Evolution in a Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Gray, J. M.; Palmiere, E. J.

    The effect of austenite deformation and continuous cooling on the evolution of microstructure in a high temperature processing (HTP) concept pipeline steel was investigated in this research. It was found that without austenite deformation, the transformed microstructure consists of blocky quasi-polygonal ferrite (QF) grains and parallel bainitic ferrite (BF) laths at a cooling rate of 0.5 °C/s. With increased cooling rates, the fraction of BF laths is raised and the microstructure reaches full BF at cooling rates of 5°C/s and higher. After austenite deformation, BF laths disappear at low cooling rates of 0.5 1°C/s and QF is the dominant phase. At a higher cooling rate of 5°C/s, the fraction of QF is reduced and acicualr ferrite (AF) becomes the main phase surrounded by QF grains. Increasing the cooling rate further, QF disappears and fthe raction of BF rises, finally leading to a BF dominant microstructure at a cooling rate of 50°C/s. Factors influencing these microstructure evolution characteristics were discussed, including segregation of niobium atoms at austenite grain boundary and the introduction of intragranular nucleation sites by deformation.

  11. Microstructural and phase evolution in metakaolin geopolymers with different activators and added aluminosilicate fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Madhuchhanda; Dana, Kausik; Das, Sukhen

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the microstructural and phase evolution of alkali activated metakaolin products with different activators and added aluminosilicate filler phases. The added filler phases have different reactivity to the alkali activated metakaolin system. Microstructural evolution in the alkali activated products has been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Variation in strength development in alkali activated metakaolin products was followed by compressive strength measurement test. Microstructural study shows that in case of metakaolin with NaOH activator crystalline sodalite formed in all the product samples irrespective of the added filler phases. The microstructure of these NaOH activated products investigated by FESEM showed crystalline and inhomogeneous morphology. Mixed activator containing both NaOH and sodium silicate in a fixed mass ratio formed predominantly amorphous phase. Microstructure of these samples showed more homogeneity than that of NaOH activated metakaolin products. The study further shows that addition of α-Al2O3 powder, non reactive phase to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount increased crystalline phase in the matrix. α-Al2O3 powder addition increased the compressive strength of the product samples for both the activator compositions. Added phase of colloidal silica, reactive to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount was found to increase amorphous nature of the matrix. Addition of colloidal silica influenced the compressive strength property differently with different activator compositions.

  12. Microstructures of Organometal Trihalide Perovskites for Solar Cells: Their Evolution from Solutions and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Game, Onkar S; Pang, Shuping; Padture, Nitin P

    2015-12-03

    The use of organometal trihalide perovskites (OTPs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is revolutionizing the field of photovoltaics, which is being led by advances in solution processing of OTP thin films. First, we look at fundamental phenomena pertaining to nucleation/growth, coarsening, and microstructural evolution involved in the solution-processing of OTP thin films for PSCs from a materials-science perspective. Established scientific principles that govern some of these phenomena are invoked in the context of specific literature examples of solution-processed OTP thin films. Second, the nature and the unique characteristics of OTP thin-film microstructures themselves are discussed from a materials-science perspective. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the characterization of OTP thin films for not only gaining a deep understanding of defects and microstructures but also elucidating classical and nonclassical phenomena pertaining to nucleation/growth, coarsening, and microstructural evolution in these films. The overall goal is to have deterministic control over the solution-processing of tailored OTP thin films with desired morphologies and microstructures.

  13. Microstructural Evolution during DPRM Process of Semisolid Ledeburitic D2 Tool Steel

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, M. N.; Omar, M. Z.; Syarif, J.; Sajuri, Z.; Salleh, M. S.; Alhawari, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct partial remelting (DPRM) process for the production of AISI D2 with a uniform globular microstructure was revealed. The liquid fraction was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures of the samples were investigated using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyser, while X-ray phase analysis was performed to identify the phase evolution and the type of carbides. Mechanical characterisation was completed by hardness measurements. The typical microstructure after DPRM consists of metastable austenite which was located particularly in the globular grains (average grain size about 50 μm), while the remaining interspaces were filled by precipitated eutectic carbides on the grain boundaries and lamellar network. PMID:24223510

  14. On the effect of natural convection on the thermal-microstructural evolution in gray cast-iron solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celentano, Diego J.; Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Schulz, Bernd J.

    2006-04-01

    A coupled analysis involving natural convection, thermal balance, and microstructural evolution that take place in the solidification process of a hypoeutectic gray cast iron is presented in this work. The microstructural formulation used in this study includes classical models of primary-austenite and eutectic (gray and white) transformations. The influence of both natural convection and heat-transfer conditions on the thermal-microstructural response is particularly assessed in a simple cylindrical casting system. The evolutions of temperature and different microstructural variables are compared and validated with available experimental measurements.

  15. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tikare, Veena; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Madison, Jonathan D.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Patterson, Burton R.; Homer, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  16. Evolution of microstructure and residual stress during annealing of austenitic and ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wawszczak, R.; Baczmański, A.; Marciszko, M.; Wróbel, M.; Czeppe, T.; Sztwiertnia, K.; Braham, C.; Berent, K.

    2016-02-15

    In this work the recovery and recrystallization processes occurring in ferritic and austenitic steels were studied. To determine the evolution of residual stresses during material annealing the nonlinear sin{sup 2}ψ diffraction method was used and an important relaxation of the macrostresses as well as the microstresses was found in the cold rolled samples subjected to heat treatment. Such relaxation occurs at the beginning of recovery, when any changes of microstructure cannot be detected using other experimental techniques. Stress evolution in the annealed steel samples was correlated with the progress of recovery process, which significantly depends on the value of stacking fault energy. - Highlights: • X-ray diffraction was used to determine the first order and second order stresses. • Diffraction data were analyzed using scale transition elastoplastic models model. • Stress relaxation in annealed ferritic and austenitic steels was correlated with evolution of microstructure. • Influence of stacking fault energy on thermally induced processes was discussed.

  17. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm₂O₃ Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Ran, Guang; Chen, Nanjun; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Yaoli

    2016-10-15

    The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt %) Tm₂O₃ powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm₂O₃ to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm₂O₃ was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O) was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt %) Tm₂O₃, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O) solid solution.

  18. Microstructurally based model of fatigue initiation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockenbrough, J. R.; Hinkle, A. J.; Magnusen, P. E.; Bucci, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    A model to calculate fatigue life is developed based on the assumption that fatigue life is entirely composed of crack growth from an initial microstructural inhomogeneity. Specifically, growth is considered to start from either an ellipsoidal void, a cracked particle, or a debonded particle. The capability of predicting fatigue life from material microstructure is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles, the sizes of the crack-initiating microstructural inhomogeneities, and an initiation parameter that is proportional to the cyclic plastic zone size. A key aspect of this modeling approach is that it is linked with a general purpose probability program to analyze the effect of the distribution of controlling microstructural features within the material. This enables prediction of fatigue stress versus life curves for various specimen geometries using distributional statistics obtained from characterizations of the microstructure. Results are compared to experimental fatigue data from an aluminum alloy.

  19. Microstructure Evolution and Rheological Behavior of Cooling Slope Processed Al-Si-Cu-Fe Alloy Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Bera, Supriya; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, microstructure evolution during semi-solid slurry generation of Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloy, using a cooling slope, was studied and the effect of microstructural morphology of the slurry on its rheological behavior was investigated. Microstructure evolution during melt flow along the slope was studied by extracting samples from various locations of the slope and performing rapid oil quenching experiments. Quantitative investigation was performed to evaluate primary phase shape and size for different process conditions of the semi-solid slurry, and subsequently rheological investigations were performed to correlate slurry morphology with its flow behavior. Three different types of rheological experiments were performed: isothermal test, shear jump test, and shear time test, in order to investigate rheological behavior of the semi-solid slurry. In addition, effect of melt treatment, by adding modifier (0.1 wt pct of Al-10Sr) and grain refiner (0.15 wt pct of Al-5Ti-1B), on the microstructure evolution during slurry generation, flow behavior of the slurry, and intermetallics formation was studied.

  20. Microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of a high strength dual-phase steel under monotonic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterova, E.V.; Bouvier, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-02-15

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructures of a high-strength dual-phase steel DP800 have been examined after moderate plastic deformations in simple shear and uniaxial tension. Special attention has been paid to the effect of the intergranular hard phase (martensite) on the microstructure evolution in the near-grain boundary regions. Quantitative parameters of dislocation patterning have been determined and compared with the similar characteristics of previously examined single-phase steels. The dislocation patterning in the interiors of the ferrite grains in DP800 steel is found to be similar to that already observed in the single-phase IF (Interstitial Free) steel whereas the martensite-affected zones present a delay in patterning and display very high gradients of continuous (gradual) disorientations associated with local internal stresses. The above stresses are shown to control the work-hardening of dual-phase materials at moderate strains for monotonic loading and are assumed to influence their microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior under strain-path changes. - Highlights: • The microstructure evolution has been studied by TEM in a DP800 steel. • It is influenced by both martensite and dislocations in the initial state. • The DP800 steel presents a high work-hardening rate due to internal stresses.

  1. Microstructural evolution and trace element mobility in Witwatersrand pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Hough, Robert M.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructural analysis of pyrite from a single sample of Witwatersrand conglomerate indicates a complex deformation history involving components of both plastic and brittle deformation. Internal deformation associated with dislocation creep is heterogeneously developed within grains, shows no systematic relationship to bulk rock strain or the location of grain boundaries and is interpreted to represent an episode of pyrite deformation that predates the incorporation of detrital pyrite grains into the Central Rand conglomerates. In contrast, brittle deformation, manifest by grain fragmentation that transects dislocation-related microstructures, is spatially related to grain contacts and is interpreted to represent post-depositional deformation of the Central Rand conglomerates. Analysis of the low-angle boundaries associated with the early dislocation creep phase of deformation indicates the operation of <010>{100} slip systems. However, some orientation boundaries have geometrical characteristics that are not consistent with simple <010>{100} deformation. These boundaries may represent the combination of multiple slip systems or the operation of the previously unrecognized <001>{120} slip system. These boundaries are associated with order of magnitude enrichments in As, Ni and Co that indicate a deformation control on the remobilization of trace elements within pyrite and a potential slip system control on the effectiveness of fast-diffusion pathways. The results confirm the importance of grain-scale elemental remobilization within pyrite prior to their incorporation into the Witwatersrand gold-bearing conglomerates. Since the relationship between gold and pyrite is intimately related to the trace element geochemistry of pyrite, the results have implications for the application of minor element geochemistry to ore deposit formation, suggest a reason for heterogeneous conductivity and localized gold precipitation in natural pyrite and provide a framework for

  2. A hierarchical framework for the multiscale modeling of microstructure evolution in heterogeneous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Darby J.

    2010-04-01

    All materials are heterogeneous at various scales of observation. The influence of material heterogeneity on nonuniform response and microstructure evolution can have profound impact on continuum thermomechanical response at macroscopic “engineering” scales. In many cases, it is necessary to treat this behavior as a multiscale process thus integrating the physical understanding of material behavior at various physical (length and time) scales in order to more accurately predict the thermomechanical response of materials as their microstructure evolves. The intent of the dissertation is to provide a formal framework for multiscale hierarchical homogenization to be used in developing constitutive models.

  3. Modeling of microstructure evolution, residual stresses and distortions in 6082-T6 aluminum weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Myhr, O.R.; Kluken, A.O.; Klokkehaug, S.; Fjaer, H.G.; Grong, O.

    1998-07-01

    This article illustrates the applications of process modeling for prediction of microstructure evolution, residual stresses and distortions in welding of hollow AA6082-T6 extrusions. The model consists of three components, i.e., a numerical heat flow model, a microstructure model and a mechanical model that are sequentially coupled. It is shown that the model adequately predicts the temperature and local strength distribution. The calculated distortions were found to depend strongly on the welding sequence. Moreover, the local softening of the heat-affected zone was shown to have a significant effect on the simulated residual stress distribution.

  4. Cube-textured substrates for YBCO-coated conductors: microstructure evolution and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannozzi, A.; Rufoloni, A.; Celentano, G.; Augieri, A.; Ciontea, L.; Fabbri, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Gambardella, U.; Mancini, A.; Petrisor, T.

    2006-12-01

    The realization of YBCO-based coated conductors with high critical current density involves the deposition of highly biaxially textured YBCO films. The use of epitaxial growth shifts this requirement to the template used for YBCO deposition. In the rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) approach, an appropriately oriented template is provided by a cube-textured substrate. The development of a cube texture is the result of recrystallization occurring in a heavily deformed tape, which is activated by high-temperature annealing. In the case of Ni-based alloys, thermal treatment at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1150 °C for at least 30 min is commonly used. The determination of the minimum conditions for thermal treatments in terms of temperature-time involved in the recrystallization process is therefore of practical interest. In this work, Ni-5 at.% W alloy has been studied as a substrate for YBCO-coated conductors. 100 µm thick tapes have been obtained through heavy cold rolling, followed by annealing in high vacuum. Different thermal treatments with rates of 20 °C min-1 have been performed in order to study the formation and the evolution of the cube texture. Moreover, the annealing time has been varied in order to inspect the thermal stability of the substrate microstructure at the relatively high deposition temperature of YBCO films. It is found that the substrate begins recrystallizing at 700 °C and that the cube texture is fully developed at temperatures higher than 800 °C, while annealing at 900 °C for 1 h produces a stable microstructure at the typical YBCO deposition conditions.

  5. Microstructure-based modelling of multiphase materials and complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Ewald; Wesenjak, Robert; Fillafer, Alexander; Meier, Felix; Krempaszky, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Micromechanical approaches are frequently employed to monitor local and global field quantities and their evolution under varying mechanical and/or thermal loading scenarios. In this contribution, an overview on important methods is given that are currently used to gain insight into the deformational and failure behaviour of multiphase materials and complex structures. First, techniques to represent material microstructures are reviewed. It is common to either digitise images of real microstructures or generate virtual 2D or 3D microstructures using automated procedures (e.g. Voronoï tessellation) for grain generation and colouring algorithms for phase assignment. While the former method allows to capture exactly all features of the microstructure at hand with respect to its morphological and topological features, the latter method opens up the possibility for parametric studies with respect to the influence of individual microstructure features on the local and global stress and strain response. Several applications of these approaches are presented, comprising low and high strain behaviour of multiphase steels, failure and fracture behaviour of multiphase materials and the evolution of surface roughening of the aluminium top metallisation of semiconductor devices.

  6. Development of the microstructure based stochastic life prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystupa, M. A.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    This study explores the methods of incorporating material microstructural characteristics into the fatigue life prediction models based on the results of the microstructural characterizations and fatigue testing of aluminum 7050-T7451 plate alloys. The emphases in the microstructural characterization part of the program are on the identification of the fatigue-relevant microstructural features and on the characterizations of the microstructural gradients. The characterizations are carried out using both the standard and novel techniques such as tessellation, fractal and modified linear intercept methods. The key measurement is determination of the size distributions of the fatigue crack initiating flaws -- they are assumed equal to the extreme value distributions of the micropore and/or constituent particle size distributions measured on the metallographic sections.

  7. Microstructural evolution in two-phase alloys: Experimental investigation and modeling of stochastic effects at finite volume fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Paula Jean

    2002-01-01

    strong deviation from theory, following the same behavior reported in other coarsening studies. The shape of the 3-D PSD's is somewhat erratic and the indication of time invariance and time-invariant behavior, present in the 2-D PSD's, is not as clear after applying the stereological transformation process. Coarsening rates based on radii measurements exhibited a slight volume fraction dependence but did not agree with the theoretical predictions. By contrast, the coarsening rates derived from the analysis involving the surface area density showed close agreement with the predictions from mean-field theories. These results, along with the particle size distribution results, suggest that the kinetic analysis based on the radii measurements contains significant uncertainties and sources of error. However, the analysis based on the decay of the surface area is more robust and provides a straightforward method by which to quantify microstructural evolution. Experimental results for the coarsening rate behavior also provide the first significant experimental support for the validity of the mean-field approach proposed by Marsh and Glicksman [2] and their suggestion that "direct Laplacian screening" limits interaction distances among particles in a dense microstructure, in clear distinction with diffusional "Debye screening" that occurs in microstructures with relatively low volume fractions. The second part of the study focuses on computer simulations of phase coarsening in very dilute two-phase systems. Computer simulations based on a multiparticle diffusion model, which incorporates the effect of the 'local' environment on the individual particle growth rates was performed for systems of 500 particles. The results reveal that the growth rates of particles with the same radii can differ, in contrast to the mean-field theoretical predictions. A stochastic flux function is used in an effort to quantify the stochastic behavior of the particle growth rates. The fluctuations in

  8. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Deming; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Yuesheng

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  9. Synthetic Microstructure-Based Lifing of Nickel-Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Joseph C.

    This work focuses on the root cause of life limiting behavior in Ni-based superalloys for high pressure and temperature turbine disks applications in low cycle fatigue (LCF) by generating statistical volume elements (SVEs) of directly measured 3D microstructures for finite element method (FEM) simulations with crystal plasticity. Synthetic microstructures with experimentally determined microstructurally small fatigue crack (MSFC) weakest link features of as large as (ALA) grains and long annealing twins comprise the test cases. Upper limit truncated log-normal distributions account for the log-normal upper tail departure in grain size distributions of Ni-based superalloys more accurately representing ALA grains. Probability plots quantify the log-normality of grain sizes more effectively than traditional histograms. Twins are inserted into synthetic microstructures according to the coherent Sigma3 orientation relationship. A 3D measured dataset of the Inconel 100 (IN100) validates the Saltykov method stereology technique for estimating 3D grain size distributions from 2D; the 3D grain size distribution mean field and upper tail of IN100 is accurately predicted. The Saltykov method gave 3D grain sizes from a Rene 88 Damage Tolerant (R88DT) 2D dataset resulting in fatigue SVEs of approximately 1.5 million elements and 200 grains from FEM sensitivity studies. Changing mesh resolution minimally impacted global damage response, but converging locally requires significantly higher refinement. Fatigue interrogating FEM studies evolved hot spots in the local MSFC environment in one SVE, but not in another SVE with different crystallographic orientations, suggesting strong 3D full-field neighbor effects. The study revealed a need for slip line length considerations in crystal plasticity to better capture life limiting behavior. The findings point towards strictly limiting the ALA grain size in Ni-based superalloys to extend service life.

  10. Microstructural evolution of type 304 and 316 stainless steels under neutron irradiation at LWR relevant conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Lizhen; Stoller, Roger E.; Field, Kevin G.; ...

    2015-12-11

    Extension of light water reactors' useful life will expose austenitic internal core components to irradiation damage levels beyond 100 displacements per atom (dpa), which will lead to profound microstructural evolution and consequent degradation of macroscopic properties. Microstructural evolution, including Frank loops, cavities, precipitates, and segregation at boundaries and the resultant radiation hardening in type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) variants, were studied in this work via experimental characterization and multiple simulation methods. Experimental data for up to 40 heats of type 304SS and 316SS variants irradiated in different reactors to 0.6–120 dpa at 275–375°C were either generated from thismore » work or collected from literature reports. These experimental data were then combined with models of Frank loop and cavity evolution, computational thermodynamics and precipitation, and ab initio and rate theory integrated radiation-induced segregation models to provide insights into microstructural evolution and degradation at higher radiation doses.« less

  11. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lü, Xuejie; Dowden, Paul; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-06-24

    We, using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, have studied the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures, strain states, and functionalities. It further shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities.

  12. Microstructure Evolution of Biphasic TiNi1+ x Sn Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Nisha; Douglas, Jason E.; Krämer, Stephan; Pollock, Tresa M.; Seshadri, Ram; Levi, Carlos G.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of thermal treatment on the microstructure of biphasic materials comprising half-Heusler (hH) and full-Heusler (fH) phases, as well as on their associated thermal conductivity, are discussed. The focus of this study was on a biphasic hH/fH alloy of nominal stoichiometry TiNi1.2Sn, synthesized by containerless (magnetic levitation) induction melting. The alloy samples were exposed to various heat treatments to generate microstructures containing second-phase precipitates ranging in size from ~10 nm to a few micrometers. The materials were characterized with regard to morphology, size, shape, and orientation relationship of the fH and hH phases, both of which were present as precipitates within larger regions of the counterpart phase. The solidification path of the alloy and its implications for the subsequent microstructure evolution during heat treatment were elucidated, and relationships with the ensuing thermal conductivity were characterized.

  13. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; ...

    2014-06-24

    Using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, we have researched the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures,more » strain states, and functionalities. Furthermore, it shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities.« less

  14. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lü, Xuejie; Dowden, Paul; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-01-01

    We, using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, have studied the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures, strain states, and functionalities. It further shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities. PMID:24958206

  15. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lü, Xuejie; Dowden, Paul; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-06-24

    Using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, we have researched the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures, strain states, and functionalities. Furthermore, it shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities.

  16. Investigation of microstructure thermal evolution in nanocrystalline Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kai; Li, Hui; Pang, JinBiao; Wang, Zhu

    2011-02-01

    The microstructure of nanocrystalline Cu prepared by compacting nanoparticles (50-60 nm in diameter) under high pressures has been studied by means of positron lifetime spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanoparticles were produced by two different methods. We found that there are order regions interior to the grains and disorder regions at the grain boundaries with a wide distribution of interatomic distances. The mean grain sizes of the nanocrystalline Cu samples decrease after being annealed at 900 °C and increase during aging at 180 °C, which are observed by X-ray diffraction, revealing that the atoms exchange between the two regions. The positron lifetime results clearly indicate that the vacancy clusters formed in the annealing process are unstable and decomposed at the aging time below 6 hours. In addition, the partially oxidized surfaces of the nanoparticles hinder grain growth when the samples age at 180 °C, and the vacancy clusters inside the disorder regions, which are related to Cu 2O, need longer aging time to decompose. The disorder regions remain after the heat treatment in this work, in spite of the grain growth, which will be good for the samples keeping the properties of nanocrystalline material.

  17. Microstructure evolution in Zr under equal channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W. S.; Ryoo, H. S.; Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kwun, S. I.; Chae, S. W.

    2002-03-01

    Pure polycrystalline Zr was deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), and the microstructural characteristics were analyzed. By repeated alternating ECAP, it was possible to refine the grain size from 200 to 0.2 µm. Subsequent annealing heat treatment at 550 °C resulted in a grain growth of up to 6 µm. Mechanical twinning was an important deformation mechanism, particularly during the early stage of deformation. The most active twinning system was identified as 85.2 deg {10bar 12} tensile twinning, followed by 57.1 deg {10bar 11} compressive twinning. Crystal texture as well as grain-boundary misorientation distribution of deformed Zr were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The ECAP-deformed Zr showed a considerable difference in the crystallographic attributes from those of cold-rolled Zr or Ti, in that texture and boundary misorientation-angle distribution tend toward more even distribution with a slightly preferential distribution of boundaries of a 20 to 30 deg misorientation angle. Furthermore, unlike the case of cold rolling, the crystal texture was not greatly altered by subsequent annealing heat treatment. Overall, the present work suggests ECAP as a viable method to obtain significant grain refining in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.

  18. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys upon annealing treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.H.; Chen, Y.Z.; Ma, X.Y.; Wang, H.T.; Liu, F.

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys exhibit an extraordinary thermal stability at elevated temperatures, which enables their potential applications in various fields. However, there remain concerns regarding the controlling stabilization mechanisms responsible for their thermal stability. In this work, two nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys containing 1 at.% Zr and 5 at.% Zr were annealed at various temperatures (T{sub ann}) up to 900 °C. Microstructural evolution of the alloys upon annealing was investigated by means of an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a 2-dimensional detector and transmission electron microscopy. Below 600 °C, microstructures of the two alloys consist of single nanocrystalline ferrite whose grain size is rather stable upon annealing treatments. Above 600 °C, accompanying the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase, an apparent grain coarsening of ferrite is observed, whereas the thermal stability of the alloys is still considerably higher than that of nanocrystalline pure Fe. Based on the experimental results, it was claimed that stabilization of the nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys should not be totally ascribed to the thermodynamic stabilization mechanism due to the reduction in grain boundary energy as suggested in earlier investigations [K.A. Darling et al., Scr. Mater. 59 (2008) 530 and K.A. Darling et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A527 (2010) 3572]; when T{sub ann} is higher than 600 °C, along with the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr, the effect of thermodynamic stabilization is weakened, the kinetic effect arising from Zener pinning of Fe{sub 3}Zr precipitates turns to be an important mechanism contributing to the stabilization of the nanoscale grain size. - Highlights: • We show clear evidence of precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase above 600 °C. • Stabilization of nanostructure is not solely controlled by thermodynamic mechanism. • Above 600 °C, Zener pinning plays an important role in stabilizing nanostructure.

  19. Microstructural evolution in nickel alloy C-276 after Ar-ion irradiation at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuoxue; He, Xinfu; Li, Tiecheng; Ma, Shuli; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2012-10-15

    In present work, the irradiation damage in nickel-base alloy C-276 irradiated with Ar-ions was studied. Specimens of C-276 alloy were subjected to an irradiation of Ar-ions (with 120 keV) to dose levels of 6 and 10 dpa at 300 and 550 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The size distributions and densities of dislocation loops caused by irradiation were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation hardening due to the formation of the loops was calculated using the dispersed barrier-hardening model, showing that irradiation hardening was greatest at 300 Degree-Sign C/6 dpa. The microstructure evolution induced by Ar-ion irradiation (0-10 dpa) in nickel-base alloy C-276 has been studied using a multi-scale modeling code Radieff constructed based on rate theory, and the size of dislocation loops simulated by Radieff was in good agreement with the experiment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High density of dislocation loops appeared after Ar ions irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation hardening due to the formation of loops was calculated by the DBH model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size of loops simulated by Radieff was in good agreement with the experiment.

  20. Microstructural Evolution During Cold Rolling and Subsequent Annealing in Low-Carbon Steel with Different Initial Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Toshio; Dannoshita, Hiroyuki; Maruoka, Kuniaki; Ushioda, Kohsaku

    2017-08-01

    Microstructural evolution during cold rolling and subsequent annealing of low-carbon steel with different initial microstructures was investigated from the perspective of the competitive phenomenon between recrystallization of ferrite and reverse phase transformation from ferrite to austenite. Three kinds of hot-rolled sheet specimens were prepared. Specimen P consisted of ferrite and pearlite, specimen B consisted of bainite, and specimen M consisted of martensite. The progress of recovery and recrystallization of ferrite during annealing was more rapid in specimen M than that in specimens P and B. In particular, the recrystallized ferrite grains in specimen M were fine and equiaxed. The progress of ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation during intercritical annealing was more rapid in specimen M than in specimens P and B. In all specimens, the austenite nucleation sites were mainly at high-angle grain boundaries, such as those between recrystallized ferrite grains. The austenite distribution was the most uniform in specimen M. Thus, we concluded that fine equiaxed recrystallized ferrite grains were formed in specimen M, leading to a uniform distribution of austenite.

  1. Characterization of microstructure in hydrogen ion irradiated vanadium at room temperature and the microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jin; Cui, Lijuan; Wan, Farong

    2016-01-15

    The microstructure of pure vanadium after hydrogen ion irradiation at room temperature to a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} (and 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Small dislocation loops (black spots) and cavities are formed after the irradiation. The nature and Burgers vector of dislocation loops formed in vanadium was characterized using g·b technique and inside–outside method. Interstitial dislocation loops with Burgers vector of 1/2 < 111 > predominantly formed with less than 10% of 1/2 < 110 > type. No < 100 > type or vacancy type dislocation loop formed. The microstructural evolution during the annealing process was also studied. Density and size of dislocation loops changed sharply when the annealing temperature was lifted up to 450 °C. When the annealing temperature was higher than 500 °C, bubble coalescence occurred with some large hydrogen bubbles formed. - Highlights: • Interstitial dislocation loops with Burgers vector of 1/2<111> were predominant. • Less than 10% of 1/2<110> dislocation loops were present in pure vanadium. • No <100> or vacancy type loops were present in pure vanadium. • Density and size of dislocation loops changed sharply at temperature above 450 °C. • Bubble coalescence occurred when annealing temperature was higher than 500 °C.

  2. Multiscale crystal defect dynamics: A coarse-grained lattice defect model based on crystal microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Dandan; Li, Shaofan

    2017-10-01

    Crystal defects have microstructure, and this microstructure should be related to the microstructure of the original crystal. Hence each type of crystals may have similar defects due to the same failure mechanism originated from the same microstructure, if they are under the same loading conditions. In this work, we propose a multiscale crystal defect dynamics (MCDD) model that models defects by considering its intrinsic microstructure derived from the microstructure or material genome of the original perfect crystal. The main novelties of present work are: (1) the discrete exterior calculus and algebraic topology theory are used to construct a scale-up (coarse-grained) dual lattice model for crystal defects, which may represent all possible defect modes inside a crystal; (2) a higher order Cauchy-Born rule (up to the fourth order) is adopted to construct atomistic-informed constitutive relations for various defect process zones, and (3) an hierarchical strain gradient theory based finite element formulation is developed to support an hierarchical multiscale cohesive (process) zone model for various defects in a unified formulation. The efficiency of MCDD computational algorithm allows us to simulate dynamic defect evolution at large scale while taking into account atomistic interaction. The MCDD model has been validated by comparing of the results of MCDD simulations with that of molecular dynamics (MD) in the cases of nanoindentation and uniaxial tension. Numerical simulations have shown that MCDD model can predict dislocation nucleation induced instability and inelastic deformation, and thus it may provide an alternative solution to study crystal plasticity.

  3. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on microstructural evolution in CF8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Li, Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.; ...

    2015-08-21

    The microstructural evolution in ferrite and austenitic in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) CF8, as received or thermally aged at 400 °C for 10,000 h, was followed under TEM with in situ irradiation of 1 MeV Kr ions at 300 and 350 °C to a fluence of 1.9 × 1015 ions/cm2 (~3 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility. For the unaged CF8, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops appeared at a much lower dose in the austenite than in the ferrite. At the end dose, the austenite formed a well-developed dislocation network microstructure, while the ferrite exhibited an extended dislocation structure as linemore » segments. Compared to the unaged CF8, the aged specimen appeared to have lower rate of damage accumulation. The rate of microstructural evolution under irradiation in the ferrite was significantly lower in the aged specimen than in the unaged. Finally, we attributed this difference to the different initial microstructures in the unaged and aged specimens, which implies that thermal aging and irradiation are not independent but interconnected damage processes.« less

  4. Effect of stress evolution on microstructural behavior in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, Yeon Soo; Jamison, L. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Lee, K. H.; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2017-04-01

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel irradiated to high burnup at high power (high fission rate) exhibited microstructural changes including deformation of the fuel particles, pore growth, and rupture of the Al matrix. The driving force for these microstructural changes was meat swelling resulting from a combination of fuel particle swelling and interaction layer (IL) growth. In some cases, pore growth in the interaction layers also contributed to meat swelling. The main objective of this work was to determine the stress distribution within the fuel meat that caused these phenomena. A mechanical equilibrium between the stress generated by fuel meat swelling and the stress relieved by fission-induced creep in the meat constituents (U-Mo particles, Al matrix, and IL) was considered. Test plates with well-recorded fabrication data and irradiation conditions were used, and their post-irradiation examination (PIE) data was obtained. ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to simulate the microstructural evolution of the plates. The simulation results allowed for the determination of effective stress and hydrostatic stress exerted on the meat constituents. The effects of fabrication and irradiation parameters on the stress distribution that drives microstructural evolutions, such as pore growth in the IL and Al matrix rupture, were investigated.

  5. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on microstructural evolution in CF8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Li, Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.; Baldo, Peter M.; Lian, Tiangan

    2015-08-21

    The microstructural evolution in ferrite and austenitic in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) CF8, as received or thermally aged at 400 °C for 10,000 h, was followed under TEM with in situ irradiation of 1 MeV Kr ions at 300 and 350 °C to a fluence of 1.9 × 1015 ions/cm2 (~3 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility. For the unaged CF8, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops appeared at a much lower dose in the austenite than in the ferrite. At the end dose, the austenite formed a well-developed dislocation network microstructure, while the ferrite exhibited an extended dislocation structure as line segments. Compared to the unaged CF8, the aged specimen appeared to have lower rate of damage accumulation. The rate of microstructural evolution under irradiation in the ferrite was significantly lower in the aged specimen than in the unaged. Finally, we attributed this difference to the different initial microstructures in the unaged and aged specimens, which implies that thermal aging and irradiation are not independent but interconnected damage processes.

  6. Manupulation of microstructure, phase evolution and mechanical properties by devitrification of andesite for use as proppant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseski, Ryan P.

    Small, roughly spherical ceramic particles, approximately 1mm in size are used for a number of applications including casting sands, catalysts, and cement fillers. The oil and natural gas industry utilizes such materials in tonnage quantities yearly as extraction aids. Particles intended for this application are referred to as proppants. Proppants are composed of materials that differ by density, strength and cost, and are selected on a site by site basis. Recently, competing usage and depletion of reserves of one of the most popular category of proppant materials, sintered aluminosilicates (e.g. kaolinite, bauxite) have driven the need for alternative raw materials for proppant manufacturing. Andesite, a by-product of mining operations in the south-west United States was identified as an abundant, readily available, and low cost alternative proppant material that can be fused and net-shaped into a glass which when crystallized results in microstructures which may offer substantial toughening and fracture characteristics which may serve to their advantage for use as proppants that do not decrease the permeability ("blind") the particle bed. This study addressed the devitrification behavior and its role on the mechanical properties of andesite-based glass-ceramic spheres for use as proppants. Timetemperature- transformation studies were performed to evaluate the devitrification behavior of andesite glass. Crystalline phase evolution and microstructural development were evaluated using quantitative x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and spectrophotometry. The andesite glass devitrification commenced with the precipitation of iron oxides (magnetite) which served as seeds for the epitaxial growth of dendritic pyroxenes. Mechanical properties, such as diametral compressive strength, fracture toughness, hardness, and fracture morphology were correlated with crystalline phase evolution. Selected heat treatments resulting in the

  7. Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of wrought magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouren; Song, Linghui; Kang, Sukbong; Cho, Jaehyung; Wang, Yingzi

    2013-05-01

    There are many researches on the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys, such as AZ31, AZ80, AZ91, and ZK60 magnesium alloys at different temperatures and strain rates, but few of them focuses on the deformation behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys, especially under the twin-roll casting (TRC) state. Meanwhile, the existing researches only focus on the grain refinement law of the magnesium alloys under deformation conditions, the deformation mechanism has not been revealed yet. The hot compression behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M magnesium alloys under the temperature and strain rate ranges of 250-400 °C and 0.001-1 s-1 are studied by thermal simulation methods using Gleeble 1500 machine and virtual simulation using finite element analysis software. Simulation results show that sine hyperbolic law is the most suitable flow stress model for wider deformation conditions. The most reasonable selected deformation conditions of ZK60M alloy is 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/1 s-1 for conventional casting (CC), while AZ41M alloy is 300 °C/0.01 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for CC. Deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism of them are analyzed at the same deformation conditions. The microstructures of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys are observed at different deformed conditions by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and it reveals the flow behavior and deformation mechanism of them. Working harden and work soften contribute to the activation of basal, non-basal slip systems which promote DRX. The proposed research reveals the deformation behavior and mechanism of the AZ41M and ZK 60M magnesium alloys and concludes their optimized deformation parameters and processes and provides a theory basis for their manufacturing and application.

  8. Microstructural and Mechanical Evolution of a Low Carbon Steel by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekban, Dursun Murat; Aktarer, Semih Mahmut; Zhang, Hao; Xue, Peng; Ma, Zongyi; Purcek, Gencaga

    2017-08-01

    A low carbon steel (Grade A) was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP), and the effect of FSP on the microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated systematically. It was found that two distinct zones called stir zone (SZ) and heat-effected zone (HAZ) were formed during FSP. The SZ and HAZ consist mainly of ferrite, widmanstatten ferrite, ferrite+cementite aggregates, and martensite. FSP considerably refined the microstructure of the steel by means of dynamic recrystallization mechanism and formed a volumetric defect-free basin-like processed region. The ferritic grain size of the steel decreased from 25 µm in the coarse-grained state to about 3 µm in the fine-grained state, and the grains formed were separated mostly by high angle of misorientation with low density of dislocations. This microstructural evolution brought about a considerable increase in both hardness and strength values without a considerable decrease in ductility. Ultrafine-grained microstructure formed around and just beneath the pin increased the hardness of the steel from 140 Hv0.3 to about 245 Hv0.3. However, no hardness uniformity was formed throughout the processed zone due to the changes in deformation- and temperature-induced microstructure. Both yield and tensile strength values of processed zone increased from 256 and 435 MPa to about 334 and 525 MPa, respectively.

  9. Microstructure Evolution in As-Cast and SIMA-Processed AE42 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, Mohammad Javad; Dehghani, Kamran

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, microstructural evolutions of AE42 magnesium alloy via strain-induced melt activation process and the effect of different process parameters are studied. Scanning electron microscope, metallographic observations, and quantitative metallographic method were used for microstructural characterization. The results show that the consumption of supersaturated aluminum during partial remelting led to a decrease in Al/RE ratio and consequently blocky shape Al2RE starts to appear in the microstructure. Furthermore, it was seen that lanthanum and praseodymium did not contribute in precipitate formation and only improved the hardness of the matrix. The effect of compression ratio on the microstructure of treated alloys was confirmed through the increase of both liquid fraction and entrapped pool as well as the kinetic of microstructural changes. Moreover, the effect of compression ratio and holding time on shape factor, liquid fraction, and particle size of the globular structure were measured. It was found that the best result could be achieved at 35% deformation and 40 min holding of the samples at 610 °C.

  10. Microstructural Evolution in Hot and Cold-Rolled Ti-Nb Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabei, A.; Startt, J.; Hoffman, R. T.; Yavari, E.; Deo, C.; Garmestani, H.

    2017-01-01

    Phase transformations, morphology, and crystallographic texture evolution in hot and cold-rolled Ti-25.51 wt.% Nb alloys are investigated. The experimental procedure involves synthesis of the alloy by arc melting followed by cold or hot rolling with intermediate prior and postheat treatments. Composition and phase analysis of all alloys are conducted using x-ray diffraction techniques and microstructural observations are conducted using an optical microscope. These examinations reveal that the as-melted alloy possesses large millimeter size grains with no stored strain energy and a two phase β - α' microstructure. Direct cold rolling followed by a short homogenization leads to a β - α'' mixture with ω precipitates. Two hour annealing before cold rolling leads to an α' - α'' mixture with a characteristic triangular martensitic microstructure evidencing the act of shear on formation of the phase. Hot rolling followed by a water quench results in a β - α'' mixture, while annealing prior to hot rolling transforms the arc-melted material to a α' - α'' mixture. The crystallographic textures of similar microstructure mixtures in hot and cold-rolled samples are distinctively different. The analysis shows that the microstructure serves as an identifying characteristic of the processing paths and is highly dependent on the mode of processing.

  11. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  12. Phase field modeling of microstructure evolution and concomitant effective conductivity change in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Lei, Yinkai; Cheng, Tian -Le; Wen, You -Hai

    2017-02-13

    Microstructure evolution plays an important role in the performance degradation of SOFC electrodes. In this work, we propose a much improved phase field model to simulate the microstructure evolution in the electrodes of solid oxide fuel cell. We demonstrate that the tunability of the interfacial energy in this model has been significantly enhanced. Parameters are set to fit for the interfacial energies of a typical Ni-YSZ anode, an LSM-YSZ cathode and an artificial reference electrode, respectively. The contact angles at various triple junctions and the microstructure evolutions in two dimensions are calibrated to verify the model. As a demonstration ofmore » the capabilities of the model, three dimensional microstructure evolutions are simulated applying the model to the three different electrodes. The time evolutions of grain size and triple phase boundary density are analyzed. In addition, a recently proposed bound charge successive approximation algorithm is employed to calculate the effective conductivity of the electrodes during microstructure evolution. Furthermore, the effective conductivity of all electrodes are found to decrease during the microstructure evolution, which is attributed to the increased tortuosity and the loss of percolated volume fraction of the electrode phase.« less

  13. Phase field modeling of microstructure evolution and concomitant effective conductivity change in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yinkai; Cheng, Tian-Le; Wen, You-Hai

    2017-03-01

    Microstructure evolution plays an important role in the performance degradation of SOFC electrodes. In this work, we propose a much improved phase field model to simulate the microstructure evolution in the electrodes of solid oxide fuel cell. We demonstrate that the tunability of the interfacial energy in this model has been significantly enhanced. Parameters are set to fit for the interfacial energies of a typical Ni-YSZ anode, an LSM-YSZ cathode and an artificial reference electrode, respectively. The contact angles at various triple junctions and the microstructure evolutions in two dimensions are calibrated to verify the model. As a demonstration of the capabilities of the model, three dimensional microstructure evolutions are simulated applying the model to the three different electrodes. The time evolutions of grain size and triple phase boundary density are analyzed. In addition, a recently proposed bound charge successive approximation algorithm is employed to calculate the effective conductivity of the electrodes during microstructure evolution. The effective conductivity of all electrodes are found to decrease during the microstructure evolution, which is attributed to the increased tortuosity and the loss of percolated volume fraction of the electrode phase.

  14. Hot Deformation Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of a Medium Carbon Vanadium Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrim, Rialberth M.; Rodrigues, Samuel F.; Reis, Gedeon S.; Silva, Eden S.; Aranas, Clodualdo; Balancin, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    Hot forging of steel requires application of large strains, under which conditions, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is expected to take place. In this study, torsion tests were carried out on a medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel (38MnSiVS5) to simulate hot forging. Deformations were applied isothermally in the temperature range 900-1200 °C at strain rates of 0.1-10 s-1 in order to observe for the occurrence of DRX and to investigate for the microstructural evolution during straining. The shape of the flow curves indicated that the recrystallization takes place during deformation. This was supported by optical microscopy performed on the quenched samples which displayed considerable amounts of recrystallized grains. It was shown that the grain size depends on straining conditions such as strain rate and temperature. Finally, it was revealed that these process parameters can considerably affect the evolution of microstructure of industrial grade steels by means of DRX.

  15. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Au-20wt.%Sn|Ni Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H. Q.; Vuorinen, V.; Liu, X. W.; Laurila, T.; Li, J.; Paulasto-Kröckel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the microstructural evolution and properties of Au-20wt.%Sn|Ni reaction couples were investigated from two perspectives: (1) by analyzing the microstructure of the as-soldered and aged samples, as well as (2) by measuring the mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds formed within the reaction zone. The evolution of interfacial reaction products for both the as-soldered and aged interconnections was rationalized by using the experimental results in combination with assessed thermodynamic data from the Au-Ni-Sn system. Moreover, nanoindentation tests were implemented to measure the indentation modulus and hardness of the compounds formed at the interface. It was found that aging had a negligible influence on the elastic modulus and hardness of AuSn and Au5Sn, while the solubility of the third element significantly changed the indentation modulus and hardness of the intermetallic compounds.

  16. Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek; ...

    2017-01-03

    Traditional manufacturing of Inconel 718 components from castings and thermomechanical processing routes involve extensive post processing and machining to attain the desired geometry. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies including direct energy deposition (DED), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) can minimize scrap generation and reduce lead times. While there is extensive literature on the use of melting and solidification based AM technologies, there has been limited research on the use of binder jet 3D printing. In this paper, a brief review on binder jet additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 is presented. In addition,more » existing knowledge on sintering of Inconel 718 has been extended to binder jet 3D printing. We found that supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) is necessary to achieve full densification of Inconel 718. SLPS is sensitive to the feedstock chemistry that has a strong influence on the liquid volume fraction at the processing temperature. Based on these results, we discuss an empirical framework to determine the role of powder particle size and liquid volume fraction on sintering kinetics. In conclusion, the role of powder packing factor and binder saturation on microstructural evolution is discussed. The current challenges in the use of BJ3DP for fabrication of Inconel 718, as well as, extension to other metal systems, are presented.« less

  17. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Severely Plastically Deformed (SPD) Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-31

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Severely Plastically Deformed (SPD) Aluminum Alloys 5b...modeling study has been carried out to characterize the structure and mechanical properties of severely plastically deformed (SPD) aluminum and its...these routes is the expectation that since the fracture toughness of precipitation hardened aluminum alloys is known to be degraded by grain boundary

  18. Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During the Thermomechanical Processing of Titanium Alloys (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2008-4353 MODELING OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSING OF TITANIUM ALLOYS (PREPRINT) S.L... PROCESSING OF TITANIUM ALLOYS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) S.L...Handbook, Vol. 22–Modeling and Simulation: Processing of Metallic Materials. PAO Case Number: WPAFB 08-4313; Clearance Date: 14 Jul 2008. The U.S

  19. 3D microstructure modeling of compressed fiber-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiselmann, Gerd; Tötzke, Christian; Manke, Ingo; Lehnert, Werner; Schmidt, Volker

    2014-07-01

    A novel parametrized model that describes the 3D microstructure of compressed fiber-based materials is introduced. It allows to virtually generate the microstructure of realistically compressed gas-diffusion layers (GDL). Given the input of a 3D microstructure of some fiber-based material, the model compresses the system of fibers in a uniaxial direction for arbitrary compression rates. The basic idea is to translate the fibers in the direction of compression according to a vector field which depends on the rate of compression and on the locations of fibers within the material. In order to apply the model to experimental 3D image data of fiber-based materials given for several compression states, an optimal vector field is estimated by simulated annealing. The model is applied to 3D image data of non-woven GDL in PEMFC gained by synchrotron tomography for different compression rates. The compression model is validated by comparing structural characteristics computed for experimentally compressed and virtually compressed microstructures, where two kinds of compression - using a flat stamp and a stamp with a flow-field profile - are applied. For both stamps types, a good agreement is found. Furthermore, the compression model is combined with a stochastic 3D microstructure model for uncompressed fiber-based materials. This allows to efficiently generate compressed fiber-based microstructures in arbitrary volumes.

  20. Effect of deformation path on microstructure, microhardness and texture evolution of interstitial free steel fabricated by differential speed rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, Kotiba; Chung, Bong Kwon; Ko, Young Gun

    2014-08-15

    This paper reports the effect of the deformation path on the microstructure, microhardness, and texture evolution of interstitial free (IF) steel processed by differential speed rolling (DSR) method. For this purpose, total height reductions of 50% and 75% were imposed on the samples by a series of differential speed rolling operations with various height reductions per pass (deformation levels) ranging from 10 to 50% under a fixed roll speed ratio of 1:4 for the upper and lower rolls, respectively. Microstructural observations using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction measurements showed that the samples rolled at deformation level of 50% had the finest mean grain size (∼ 0.5 μm) compared to the other counterparts; also the samples rolled at deformation level of 50% showed a more uniform microstructure. Based on the microhardness measurements along the thickness direction of the deformed samples, gradual evolution of the microhardness value and its homogeneity was observed with the increase of the deformation level per pass. Texture analysis showed that, as the deformation level per pass increased, the fraction of alpha fiber and gamma fiber in the deformed samples increased. The textures obtained by the differential speed rolling process under the lubricated condition would be equivalent to those obtained by the conventional rolling. - Highlights: • Effect of DSR deformation path on microstructure of IF steel is significant. • IF steel rolled at deformation level of 50% has the ultrafine grains of ∼ 0.5 μm. • Rolling texture components are pronounced with increasing deformation level.

  1. Microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korea: Implications for olivine fabric transition in mantle shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Munjae; Jung, Haemyeong

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale emplaced peridotite bodies may provide insights into plastic deformation process and tectonic evolution in the mantle shear zone. Due to the complexity of deformation microstructures and processes in natural mantle rocks, the evolution of pre-existing olivine fabrics is still not well understood. In this study, we examine well-preserved transitional characteristics of microstructures and olivine fabrics developed in a mantle shear zone from the Yugu peridotite body, the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula. The Yugu peridotite body predominantly comprises spinel harzburgite together with minor lherzolite, dunite, and clinopyroxenite. We classified highly deformed peridotites into four textural types based on their microstructural characteristics: proto-mylonite; proto-mylonite to mylonite transition; mylonite; and ultra-mylonite. Olivine fabrics changed from A-type (proto-mylonite) via D-type (mylonite) to E-type (ultra-mylonite). Olivine fabric transition is interpreted as occurring under hydrous conditions at low temperature and high strain, because of characteristics such as Ti-clinohumite defects (and serpentine) and fluid inclusion trails in olivine, and a hydrous mineral (pargasite) in the matrix, especially in the ultra-mylonitic peridotites. Even though the ultra-mylonitic peridotites contained extremely small (24-30 μm) olivine neoblasts, the olivine fabrics showed a distinct (E-type) pattern rather than a random one. Analysis of the lattice preferred orientation strength, dislocation microstructures, recrystallized grain-size, and deformation mechanism maps of olivine suggest that the proto-mylonitic, mylonitic, and ultra-mylonitic peridotites were deformed by dislocation creep (A-type), dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (D-type), and combination of dislocation and diffusion creep (E-type), respectively.

  2. Microstructure evolution in age-hardenable aluminium alloy during processing by hydrostatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, M

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the microstructural evolution occurring during the hydrostatic extrusion of an age-hardenable aluminium alloy. It was shown that processing by hydrostatic extrusion leads to grain refinement to 95 nm in equivalent diameter. Hydrostatic extrusion also influences the geometrical parameters of two different types of particle: intermetallic inclusions and precipitates. The intermetallic inclusions slightly decrease in mean equivalent diameter, but their size remains at the micrometre level. The precipitates are fragmented to nanoscale spherical particles, and their evolution delays the process of grain refinement.

  3. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  4. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    irradiation. This project will focus on modeling microstructural and microchemical evolution of irradiated alloys by performing detailed modeling of such microstructure evolution processes coupled with well-designed in situ experiments that can provide validation and benchmarking to the computer codes. The broad scientific and technical objectives of this proposal are to evaluate the microstructure and microchemical evolution in advanced ferritic/martensitic and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for cladding and duct reactor materials under long-term and elevated temperature irradiation, leading to improved ability to model structural materials performance and lifetime. Specifically, we propose four research thrusts, namely Thrust 1: Identify the formation mechanism and evolution for dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a<100> and determine whether the defect microstructure (predominately dislocation loop/dislocation density) saturates at high dose. Thrust 2: Identify whether a threshold irradiation temperature or dose exists for the nucleation of growing voids that mark the beginning of irradiation-induced swelling, and begin to probe the limits of thermal stability of the tempered Martensitic structure under irradiation. Thrust 3: Evaluate the stability of nanometer sized Y- Ti-O based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) particles at high fluence/temperature. Thrust 4: Evaluate the extent to which precipitates form and/or dissolve as a function of irradiation temperature and dose, and how these changes are driven by radiation induced segregation and microchemical evolutions and determined by the initial microstructure.

  5. A review: applications of the phase field method in predicting microstructure and property evolution of irradiated nuclear materials

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Sun, Xin; ...

    2017-04-14

    Here, complex microstructure changes occur in nuclear fuel and structural materials due to the extreme environments of intense irradiation and high temperature. This paper evaluates the role of the phase field method in predicting the microstructure evolution of irradiated nuclear materials and the impact on their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. The paper starts with an overview of the important physical mechanisms of defect evolution and the significant gaps in simulating microstructure evolution in irradiated nuclear materials. Then, the phase field method is introduced as a powerful and predictive tool and its applications to microstructure and property evolution in irradiatedmore » nuclear materials are reviewed. The review shows that (1) Phase field models can correctly describe important phenomena such as spatial-dependent generation, migration, and recombination of defects, radiation-induced dissolution, the Soret effect, strong interfacial energy anisotropy, and elastic interaction; (2) The phase field method can qualitatively and quantitatively simulate two-dimensional and three-dimensional microstructure evolution, including radiation-induced segregation, second phase nucleation, void migration, void and gas bubble superlattice formation, interstitial loop evolution, hydrate formation, and grain growth, and (3) The Phase field method correctly predicts the relationships between microstructures and properties. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the phase field method, as applied to irradiation effects in nuclear materials.« less

  6. A review: applications of the phase field method in predicting microstructure and property evolution of irradiated nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Sun, Xin; Stan, Marius

    2017-04-01

    Complex microstructure changes occur in nuclear fuel and structural materials due to the extreme environments of intense irradiation and high temperature. This paper evaluates the role of the phase field method in predicting the microstructure evolution of irradiated nuclear materials and the impact on their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. The paper starts with an overview of the important physical mechanisms of defect evolution and the significant gaps in simulating microstructure evolution in irradiated nuclear materials. Then, the phase field method is introduced as a powerful and predictive tool and its applications to microstructure and property evolution in irradiated nuclear materials are reviewed. The review shows that (1) Phase field models can correctly describe important phenomena such as spatial-dependent generation, migration, and recombination of defects, radiation-induced dissolution, the Soret effect, strong interfacial energy anisotropy, and elastic interaction; (2) The phase field method can qualitatively and quantitatively simulate two-dimensional and three-dimensional microstructure evolution, including radiation-induced segregation, second phase nucleation, void migration, void and gas bubble superlattice formation, interstitial loop evolution, hydrate formation, and grain growth, and (3) The Phase field method correctly predicts the relationships between microstructures and properties. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the phase field method, as applied to irradiation effects in nuclear materials.

  7. Homogeneous nucleation and microstructure evolution in million-atom molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Oguchi, Kanae; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu

    2015-08-27

    Homogeneous nucleation from an undercooled iron melt is investigated by the statistical sampling of million-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Fifty independent instances of isothermal MD calculations with one million atoms in a quasi-two-dimensional cell over a nanosecond reveal that the nucleation rate and the incubation time of nucleation as functions of temperature have characteristic shapes with a nose at the critical temperature. This indicates that thermally activated homogeneous nucleation occurs spontaneously in MD simulations without any inducing factor, whereas most previous studies have employed factors such as pressure, surface effect, and continuous cooling to induce nucleation. Moreover, further calculations over ten nanoseconds capture the microstructure evolution on the order of tens of nanometers from the atomistic viewpoint and the grain growth exponent is directly estimated. Our novel approach based on the concept of "melting pots in a supercomputer" is opening a new phase in computational metallurgy with the aid of rapid advances in computational environments.

  8. Effect of Gold on the Microstructural Evolution and Integrity of a Sintered Silver Joint

    DOE PAGES

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.

    2017-01-05

    There is a need for next-generation, high-performance power electronic packages and systems employing wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electric grid applications. Sintered silver joints are currently being evaluated as an alternative to Pb-free solder joints. Of particular interest is the development of joints based on silver paste consisting of nanoscale or micron scale particles that can be processed without the application of an external pressure. Microstructural evolution at the interface of a pressureless sintered silver joint formed between a SiC die with a Ti/Ni/Au metallization and an Active Metal Brazed substrate with Agmore » metallization at 250 °C was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy. Results from Focused Ion Beam cross-sections show that during sintering, the pores in the sintered region close to the Au layer tend to be smaller and are oriented predominantly with their longer dimension oriented parallel to the interface. With further densification, this results in the alignment of small pores parallel to the interface, creating a path for easy crack propagation. Lastly, X-ray microchemical analyses results confirm interdiffusion between Au and Ag and that a region with poor mechanical strength is formed at the edge of this region of interdiffusion.« less

  9. Effect of Gold on the Microstructural Evolution and Integrity of a Sintered Silver Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.

    2017-07-01

    There is a need for next-generation, high-performance power electronic packages and systems employing wide-bandgap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electric grid applications. Sintered silver joints are currently being evaluated as an alternative to Pb-free solder joints. Of particular interest is the development of joints based on silver paste consisting of nano- or micron-scale particles that can be processed without application of external pressure. The microstructural evolution at the interface of a pressureless-sintered silver joint formed between a SiC die with Ti/Ni/Au metallization and an active metal brazed (AMB) substrate with Ag metallization at 250°C has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results from focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sections show that, during sintering, pores in the sintered region near to the Au layer tend to be narrow and elongated with long axis oriented parallel to the interface. Further densification results in formation of many small, relatively equiaxed pores aligned parallel to the interface, creating a path for easy crack propagation. X-ray microanalysis results confirm interdiffusion between Au and Ag and that a region with poor mechanical strength is formed at the edge of this region of interdiffusion.

  10. Effect of Gold on the Microstructural Evolution and Integrity of a Sintered Silver Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for next-generation, high-performance power electronic packages and systems employing wide-bandgap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electric grid applications. Sintered silver joints are currently being evaluated as an alternative to Pb-free solder joints. Of particular interest is the development of joints based on silver paste consisting of nano- or micron-scale particles that can be processed without application of external pressure. The microstructural evolution at the interface of a pressureless-sintered silver joint formed between a SiC die with Ti/Ni/Au metallization and an active metal brazed (AMB) substrate with Ag metallization at 250°C has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results from focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sections show that, during sintering, pores in the sintered region near to the Au layer tend to be narrow and elongated with long axis oriented parallel to the interface. Further densification results in formation of many small, relatively equiaxed pores aligned parallel to the interface, creating a path for easy crack propagation. X-ray microanalysis results confirm interdiffusion between Au and Ag and that a region with poor mechanical strength is formed at the edge of this region of interdiffusion.

  11. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in Wrought Eglin Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leister, Brett M.; DuPont, John N.; Watanabe, Masashi; Abrahams, Rachel A.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to correlate the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution in the heat-affected zone of Eglin steel. A Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator was used to simulate weld thermal cycles with different peak temperatures at a heat input of 1500 J/mm. These samples underwent mechanical testing to determine strength and toughness in the as-welded and post-weld heat-treated conditions. The inter-critical heat-affected zone (HAZ) had the lowest strength following thermal simulation, while the fine-grain and coarse-grain heat-affected zone exhibited increased strength when compared to the inter-critical HAZ. The toughness of the heat-affected zone in the as-simulated condition is lower than that of the base metal in all regions of the HAZ. Post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) increased the toughness of the HAZ, but at the expense of strength. In addition, certain combinations of PWHTs within specific HAZ regions exhibited low toughness caused by tempered martensite embrittlement or intergranular failure. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data have shown that Eglin steel has retained austenite in the fine-grain HAZ in the as-simulated condition. In addition, alloy carbides (M23C6, M2C, M7C3) have been observed in the diffraction spectra for the fine-grain and coarse-grain HAZ following a PWHT of 973 K (700 °C)/4 hours.

  12. Evolution of titanium arc weldment macro and microstructures -- Modeling and real time mapping of phases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Debroy, T.

    2000-04-01

    Macro and microstructural features in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welded titanium were modeled for the first time based on a combination of transport phenomena and phase transformation theory. A transient, three-dimensional, turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to calculate the temperature and velocity fields, thermal cycles, and the shape and size of the fusion zone. The kinetics of the {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta} allotropic transformation during continuous heating and the corresponding ({alpha}+{beta})/{beta} phase boundary were calculated using a modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation and the calculated thermal cycles. The modeling results were compared with the real-time phase mapping data obtained using a unique spatially resolved X-ray diffraction technique with synchrotron radiation. The real-time evolution of grain structure within the entire weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) was modeled in three dimensions using a Monte Carlo technique. The following are the major findings. First, the rates of heat transfer and fluid flow in the titanium weld pool during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) are significantly enhanced by turbulence, and previous calculations of laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in arc-melted pools need to be re-examined. The fusion zone geometry, and the {alpha}/({alpha}+{beta})/{beta} phase boundaries in the HAZ could be satisfactorily predicted. Second, comparison of real-time {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta} transformation kinetics with the rates computed assuming various alternative reaction mechanisms indicates the transition was most likely controlled by the transport of Ti atoms across the {alpha}/{beta} interface. Third, comparison of the experimental data with the simulated results indicates the real-time evolution of the grain structure around the weld pool could be simulated by the Monte Carlo technique. Finally, the insight developed in this research could not have been achieved without concomitant modeling and experiments.

  13. Incorporating physically-based microstructures in materials modeling: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; ...

    2016-04-25

    Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and incorporate them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local models of failure. In this study, we present a modeling framework that incorporates physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) model into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF model yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FEmore » meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards incorporating physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging models of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.« less

  14. Incorporating physically-based microstructures in materials modeling: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.

    2016-04-25

    Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and incorporate them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local models of failure. In this study, we present a modeling framework that incorporates physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) model into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF model yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FE meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards incorporating physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging models of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.

  15. Incorporating physically-based microstructures in materials modeling: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.

    2016-04-25

    Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and incorporate them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local models of failure. In this study, we present a modeling framework that incorporates physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) model into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF model yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FE meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards incorporating physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging models of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.

  16. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.; McCabe, R. J.; Necker, C. T.; Papin, P. A.; Field, R. D.; Kelly, A. M.; Tucker, T. J.; Forsyth, R. T.; Dickerson, P. O.; Foley, J. C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R. M.; Dombrowski, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time-temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2-4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  17. Dielectric Characteristics of Microstructural Changes and Property Evolution in Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Jallisa Janet

    Heterogeneous materials are increasingly used in a wide range of applications such as aerospace, civil infrastructure, fuel cells and many others. The ability to take properties from two or more materials to create a material with properties engineered to needs is always very attractive. Hence heterogeneous materials are evolving into more complex formulations in multiple disciplines. Design of microstructure at multiple scales control the global functional properties of these materials and their structures. However, local microstructural changes do not directly cause a proportional change to the global properties (such as strength and stiffness). Instead, local changes follow an evolution process including significant interactions. Therefore, in order to understand property evolution of engineered materials, microstructural changes need to be effectively captured. Characterizing these changes and representing them by material variables will enable us to further improve our material level understanding. In this work, we will demonstrate how microstructural features of heterogeneous materials can be described quantitatively using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BbDS). The frequency dependent dielectric properties can capture the change in material microstructure and represent these changes in terms of material variables, such as complex permittivity. These changes in terms of material properties can then be linked to a number of different conditions, such as increasing damage due to impact or fatigue. Two different broadband dielectric spectroscopy scanning modes are presented: bulk measurements and continuous scanning to measure dielectric property change as a function of position across the specimen. In this study, we will focus on ceramic materials and fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites as test bed material systems. In the first part of the thesis, we will present how different micro-structural design of porous ceramic materials can be captured

  18. Rock-Fluid Interactions Under Stress: How Rock Microstructure Controls The Evolution of Porosity and Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring chemo-mechanical processes geophysically — e.g., fluid disposal or storage, thermal and chemical stimulation of reservoirs, or natural fluids simply entering a new system in the subsurface— raises numerous concerns because of the likelihood of fluid-rock chemical interactions and our limited ability to decipher the geophysical signature of coupled processes. One of the missing links is coupling the evolution of porosity, permeability, and velocity of rocks together with reactive transport, since rocks deform and their microstructure evolves, as a result of chemical reactions under stress. This study describes recent advances in rock-physics experiments to understand the effects of dissolution-induced compaction on acoustic velocity, porosity, and permeability. Data observation includes time-lapse experiments and imaging tracking transport and elastic properties, the rock microstructure, and the pH and chemical composition of the fluid permeating the rock. Results show that the removal of high surface area, mineral phases such as microcrystalline calcite and clay appears to be mostly responsible for dissolution-induced compaction. Nevertheless, it is the original rock microstructure and its response to stress that ultimately defines how solution-transfer and rock compaction feed back upon each other. This work has a dual aim: understanding the mechanisms underlying permanent modifications to the rock microstructure and providing a richer set of experimental information to inform the formulation of new simulations and rock modeling.

  19. Microstructural evolution of viscoelastic emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Moschakis, Thomas; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

    2005-04-15

    The time-dependent evolution of the phase-separated microstructure of a caseinate-stabilised emulsion containing xanthan gum added before emulsification has been investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, image analysis and rheology. Moderately low levels of xanthan addition lead to depletion flocculation and gravity-induced phase separation. Increasing the polysaccharide concentration causes immobilisation of the microstructure due to an increase in the local viscoelasticity: that is, the emulsion structure cannot easily rearrange to expel xanthan-enriched aqueous serum phase because a weak gel-like network is generated. The effect of xanthan on the evolving microstructure of phase-separated regions, which reflects indirectly the local emulsion micro-rheology, has been estimated from image analysis of time sequences of confocal micrographs. A comparison has been made between object shape analysis using four different shape descriptors. The roundness parameter has been found to be a convenient descriptor for reliably quantifying the structural change in terms of the relaxation rate of xanthan-rich aqueous drops. The Taylor parameter has been used to link the kinetics of drop relaxation to the time-dependent small-deformation rheological behaviour. The analysis of the combined experimental data reveals the difficulty of relating the evolving microstructure to bulk rheological measurements.

  20. Persistence of microstructural evolution in irradiated metals and its consequences at high radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, F. A.; Toloczko, M. B.

    A review is presented of a very general aspect of the response of all metals subjected to displacive irradiation. This aspect is referred to as "persistence" and describes the tendency of both radiation-induced microstructural evolution and the associated changes in material properties or dimensional stability to evolve to saturation states that resist further change upon continued irradiation. It is shown that new persistent states can develop on a longer time frame associated with the late-term loss of existing microstructural components or the gain of new components, especially when transmutation and/or segregation occurs. The persistent states are often dependent on the irradiation conditions, and if these are changed, the material usually adjusts to form the persistent state characteristic of the new conditions, with the memory of the former state often lost, and sometimes leaving no visible record of the former state in the new microstructure. Depending on the microstructural components involved, the transition toward the new persistent state can occur quickly or very slowly.

  1. Microstructural evolution of ferritic-martensitic steels under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topbasi, Cem

    Ferritic-martensitic steels are primary candidate materials for fuel cladding and internal applications in the Sodium Fast Reactor, as well as first-wall and blanket materials in future fusion concepts because of their favorable mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage. Since microstructure evolution under irradiation is amongst the key issues for these materials in these applications, developing a fundamental understanding of the irradiation-induced microstructure in these alloys is crucial in modeling and designing new alloys with improved properties. The goal of this project was to investigate the evolution of microstructure of two commercial ferritic-martensitic steels, NF616 and HCM12A, under heavy ion irradiation at a broad temperature range. An in situ heavy ion irradiation technique was used to create irradiation damage in the alloy; while it was being examined in a transmission electron microscope. Electron-transparent samples of NF616 and HCM12A were irradiated in situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory with 1 MeV Kr ions to ˜10 dpa at temperatures ranging from 20 to 773 K. The microstructure evolution of NF616 and HCM12A was followed in situ by systematically recording micrographs and diffraction patterns as well as capturing videos during irradiation. In these irradiations, there was a period during which no changes are visible in the microstructure. After a threshold dose (˜0.1 dpa between 20 and 573 K, and ˜2.5 dpa at 673 K) black dots started to become visible under the ion beam. These black dots appeared suddenly (from one frame to the next) and are thought to be small defect clusters (2-5 nm in diameter), possibly small dislocation loops with Burgers vectors of either ½ or . The overall density of these defect clusters increased with dose and saturated around 6 dpa. At saturation, a steady-state is reached in which defects are eliminated and created at the same rates so that the

  2. Ex-situ tracking solid oxide cell electrode microstructural evolution in a redox cycle by high resolution ptychographic nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Salvatore; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Esposito, Vincenzo; Tsai, Esther Hsiao Rho; Holler, Mirko; Kreka, Kosova; Abdellahi, Ebtisam; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2017-08-01

    For solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, precise tracking of 3D microstructural change in the electrodes during operation is considered critical to understand the complex relationship between electrode microstructure and performance. Here, for the first time, we report a significant step towards this aim by visualizing a complete redox cycle in a solid oxide cell (SOC) electrode. The experiment demonstrates synchrotron-based ptychography as a method of imaging SOC electrodes, providing an unprecedented combination of 3D image quality and spatial resolution among non-destructive imaging techniques. Spatially registered 3D reconstructions of the same location in the electrode clearly show the evolution of the microstructure from the pristine state to the oxidized state and to the reduced state. A complete mechanical destruction of the zirconia backbone is observed via grain boundary fracture, the nickel and pore networks undergo major reorganization and the formation of internal voids is observed in the nickel-oxide particles after the oxidation. These observations are discussed in terms of reaction kinetics, electrode mechanical stress and the consequences of redox cycling on electrode performance.

  3. Microstructural evolution during ultra-rapid annealing of severely deformed low-carbon steel: strain, temperature, and heating rate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafaei, M. A.; Kazeminezhad, M.

    2016-07-01

    An interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite transformation in low-carbon steel occurs when recrystallization is delayed until the intercritical temperature range by employing high heating rate. The kinetics of recrystallization and transformation is affected by high heating rate and such an interaction. In this study, different levels of strain are applied to low-carbon steel using a severe plastic deformation method. Then, ultra-rapid annealing is performed at different heating rates of 200-1100°C/s and peak temperatures of near critical temperature. Five regimes are proposed to investigate the effects of heating rate, strain, and temperature on the interaction between recrystallization and transformation. The microstructural evolution of severely deformed low-carbon steel after ultra-rapid annealing is investigated based on the proposed regimes. Regarding the intensity and start temperature of the interaction, different microstructures consisting of ferrite and pearlite/martensite are formed. It is found that when the interaction is strong, the microstructure is refined because of the high kinetics of transformation and recrystallization. Moreover, strain shifts an interaction zone to a relatively higher heating rate. Therefore, severely deformed steel should be heated at relatively higher heating rates for it to undergo a strong interaction.

  4. Microstructural evolution of pure tungsten neutron irradiated with a mixed energy spectrum

    DOE PAGES

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Hwang, Taehyun; ...

    2017-04-13

    Here, microstructures of single-crystal bulk tungsten (W) and polycrystalline W foil with a strong grain texture were investigated using transmission electron microscopy following neutron irradiation at ~90–800 °C to 0.03–4.6 displacements per atom (dpa) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor with a mixed energy spectrum. The dominant irradiation defects were dislocation loops and small clusters at ~90 °C. Additional voids were formed in W irradiated at above 460 °C. Voids and precipitates involving transmutation rhenium and osmium were the dominant defects at more than ~1 dpa. We found a new phenomenon of microstructural evolution in irradiated polycrystalline W: Re- andmore » Os-rich precipitation along grain boundaries. Comparison of results between this study and previous studies using different irradiation facilities revealed that the microstructural evolution of pure W is highly dependent on the neutron energy spectrum in addition to the irradiation temperature and dose.« less

  5. Microstructure evolution during helium irradiation and post-irradiation annealing in a nanostructured reduced activation steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Ji, Y. Z.; Tan, P. K.; Zhang, C.; He, C. H.; Yang, Z. G.

    2016-10-01

    Severe plastic deformation, intense single-beam He-ion irradiation and post-irradiation annealing were performed on a nanostructured reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel to investigate the effect of grain boundaries (GBs) on its microstructure evolution during these processes. A surface layer with a depth-dependent nanocrystalline (NC) microstructure was prepared in the RAFM steel using surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Microstructure evolution after helium (He) irradiation (24.8 dpa) at room temperature and after post-irradiation annealing was investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Experimental observation shows that GBs play an important role during both the irradiation and the post-irradiation annealing process. He bubbles are preferentially trapped at GBs/interfaces during irradiation and cavities with large sizes are also preferentially trapped at GBs/interfaces during post-irradiation annealing, but void denuded zones (VDZs) near GBs could not be unambiguously observed. Compared with cavities at GBs and within larger grains, cavities with smaller size and higher density are found in smaller grains. The average size of cavities increases rapidly with the increase of time during post-irradiation annealing at 823 K. Cavities with a large size are observed just after annealing for 5 min, although many of the cavities with small sizes also exist after annealing for 240 min. The potential mechanism of cavity growth behavior during post-irradiation annealing is also discussed.

  6. Linking stress-driven microstructural evolution in nanocrystalline aluminium with grain boundary doping of oxygen.

    PubMed

    He, Mo-Rigen; Samudrala, Saritha K; Kim, Gyuseok; Felfer, Peter J; Breen, Andrew J; Cairney, Julie M; Gianola, Daniel S

    2016-04-13

    The large fraction of material residing at grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals and alloys is responsible for their ultrahigh strength, but also undesirable microstructural instability under thermal and mechanical loads. However, the underlying mechanism of stress-driven microstructural evolution is still poorly understood and precludes rational alloy design. Here we combine quantitative in situ electron microscopy with three-dimensional atom-probe tomography to directly link the mechanics and kinetics of grain boundary migration in nanocrystalline Al films with the excess of O atoms at the boundaries. Site-specific nanoindentation leads to grain growth that is retarded by impurities, and enables quantification of the critical stress for the onset of grain boundary migration. Our results show that a critical excess of impurities is required to stabilize interfaces in nanocrystalline materials against mechanical driving forces, providing new insights to guide control of deformation mechanisms and tailoring of mechanical properties apart from grain size alone.

  7. Microstructure evolution in solution treated Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Janeček, Miloš; Čížek, Jakub; Stráský, Josef; Václavová, Kristína; Hruška, Petr; Polyakova, Veronika; Gatina, Svetlana; Semenova, Irina

    2014-12-15

    Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion were investigated. High pressure torsion straining resulted in strong grain refinement as-observed by transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and light microscopy showed two distinct regions — (i) a central region with radial material flow and low microhardness (340 HV) and (ii) a peripheral region with rotational material flow and high microhardness (430 HV). Positron annihilation spectroscopy showed that the only detectable defects in the material are dislocations, whose density increases with the radial distance and the number of high pressure torsion revolutions. The local chemical environment around defects does not differ significantly from the average composition. - Highlights: • Beta-Ti alloy Ti15Mo was processed by high pressure torsion (HPT). • Lateral inhomogeneity of the microstructure and microhardness was found. • Dislocations are the only lattice defects detectable by positron annihilation. • Molybdenum is not preferentially segregated along dislocation cores.

  8. Microstructural evolution of Al-Cu thin-film conducting lines during post-pattern annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.H.; Morris, J.W. , Jr. |

    1997-07-01

    This work reports a statistical analysis of the evolution of polygranular segment lengths during high-temperature annealing of Al(Cu) thin-film interconnects with quasi-bamboo microstructures. To create samples of Al(Cu) lines that could be imaged by transmission electron microscopy without breaking or thinning, the lines were deposited on electron-transparent silicon nitride films (the {open_quotes}silicon nitride window{close_quotes} technique). The microstructures of the lines were studied as a function of annealing time and temperature. In particular, the distribution of polygranular segment lengths was measured. The results show that the longer polyglranular segments are preferentially eliminated during post-pattern annealing. As a consequence, the segment-length distribution narrows monotonically during annealing, and changes in shape. The preferential loss of the longest polygranular segments leads to a dramatic increase in resistance to electromigration failure.

  9. Microstructural evolution in Mg-Zn alloys during solidification: An experimental and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliwal, Manas; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive microstructural evolution of Mg-1.5, 4.0 and 5.5 wt% Zn alloys with respect to the solidification parameters such as thermal gradient (G), solidification velocity (V), cooling rate (GV) and solute (Zn) content were investigated in the present study. Solidification techniques such as directional solidification and wedge casting were employed in order to obtain cooling rates between 0.05 and 250 K/s. Microstructural features such as secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), microsegregration along the secondary dendrites and secondary phase fractions were experimentally determined. A solidification model that incorporates solute back diffusion, secondary arm coarsening, dendrite tip undercooling and dynamically linked with accurate thermodynamic databases is used to explain the experimental results.

  10. Microstructural evolution of a recycled aluminum alloy deformed by equal channel angular pressing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Thabet; Rebhi, Atef; Couzinié, Jean-Philippe; Champion, Yannick; Njah, Nabil

    2012-11-01

    The microstructural evolution of a recycled aluminum alloy after equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to four passes was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness tests were performed to determine the associated changes in mechanical properties. An ultrafine-grained material has been obtained with a microstructure showing a mixture of highly strained crystallites. A high density of dislocations was achieved as a result of severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the die. Changes in mechanical behavior are also revealed after ECAP due to strain hardening. Thermal analysis and TEM micrographs obtained after annealing indicate the succession of the recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth phenomena. Moreover, the energy stored during ECAP may be related to the dislocation density introduced by SPD. We finally emphasize the role played by the precipitates in this alloy.

  11. TRXRD observations of microstructural evolution in self-shielded flux cored arc weld deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S S; Elmer, J W; David, S A; Quintana, M

    2000-06-28

    Inclusion formation and microstructure development in self-shielded flux cored arc welds has been investigated before [1,2]. Results showed that the liquid metal reactions could promote either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or AlN formation depending upon the aluminum concentration in the weld metal. The residual aluminum that remained in solution was found to modify the solidification behavior of liquid to {delta}-ferrite and subsequent transformation of {delta}-ferrite to austenite during weld cooling. In this work, the microstructure evolution in the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of self-shielded flux cored arc weld (FCAW-S) overlays were investigated using in-situ Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction (TRXRD) with a high flux Synchrotron radiation beam [3, 4].

  12. Linking stress-driven microstructural evolution in nanocrystalline aluminium with grain boundary doping of oxygen

    PubMed Central

    He, Mo-Rigen; Samudrala, Saritha K.; Kim, Gyuseok; Felfer, Peter J.; Breen, Andrew J.; Cairney, Julie M.; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    The large fraction of material residing at grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals and alloys is responsible for their ultrahigh strength, but also undesirable microstructural instability under thermal and mechanical loads. However, the underlying mechanism of stress-driven microstructural evolution is still poorly understood and precludes rational alloy design. Here we combine quantitative in situ electron microscopy with three-dimensional atom-probe tomography to directly link the mechanics and kinetics of grain boundary migration in nanocrystalline Al films with the excess of O atoms at the boundaries. Site-specific nanoindentation leads to grain growth that is retarded by impurities, and enables quantification of the critical stress for the onset of grain boundary migration. Our results show that a critical excess of impurities is required to stabilize interfaces in nanocrystalline materials against mechanical driving forces, providing new insights to guide control of deformation mechanisms and tailoring of mechanical properties apart from grain size alone. PMID:27071458

  13. The co-evolution of microstructure features in self-ion irradiated HT9 at very high damage levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getto, E.; Vancoevering, G.; Was, G. S.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the void swelling and phase evolution of reactor structural materials at very high damage levels is essential to maintaining safety and longevity of components in Gen IV fast reactors. A combination of ion irradiation and modeling was utilized to understand the microstructure evolution of ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 at high dpa. Self-ion irradiation experiments were performed on alloy HT9 to determine the co-evolution of voids, dislocations and precipitates up to 650 dpa at 460 °C. Modeling of microstructure evolution was conducted using the modified Radiation Induced Microstructure Evolution (RIME) model, which utilizes a mean field rate theory approach with grouped cluster dynamics. Irradiations were performed with 5 MeV raster-scanned Fe2+ ions on samples pre-implanted with 10 atom parts per million He. The swelling, dislocation and precipitate evolution at very high dpa was determined using Analytical Electron Microscopy in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) mode. Experimental results were then interpreted using the RIME model. A microstructure consisting only of dislocations and voids is insufficient to account for the swelling evolution observed experimentally at high damage levels in a complicated microstructure such as irradiated alloy HT9. G phase was found to have a minimal effect on either void or dislocation evolution. M2X played two roles; a variable biased sink for defects, and as a vehicle for removal of carbon from solution, thus promoting void growth. When accounting for all microstructure interactions, swelling at high damage levels is a dynamic process that continues to respond to other changes in the microstructure as long as they occur. effect of dislocations on voids, effect of precipitates on dislocations and voids and combined effect of dislocations and precipitates on voids. The overall approach will be to examine a simple system of voids and dislocations and then incorporate the more complex treatments of

  14. Modeling the Microstructure Evolution During Additive Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V: A Comparison Between Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastola, G.; Zhang, G.; Pei, Q. X.; Zhang, Y.-W.

    2016-05-01

    Beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) is an innovative technique in which parts are built layerwise, starting from the material in powder form. As a developing manufacturing technique, achievement of excellent mechanical properties in the final part is of paramount importance for the mainstream adoption of this technique in industrial manufacturing lines. At the same time, AM offers an unprecedented opportunity to precisely control the manufacturing conditions locally within the part during build, enabling local influence on the formation of the texture and microstructure. In order to achieve the control of microstructure by tailoring the AM machine parameters, a full understanding and modeling of the heat transfer and microstructure evolution processes is needed. Here, we show the implementation of the non-equilibrium equations for phase formation and dissolution in an AM modeling framework. The model is developed for the Ti6Al4V alloy and allows us to show microstructure evolution as given by the AM process. The developed capability is applied to the cases of electron beam melting and selective laser melting AM techniques to explain the significantly different microstructures observed in the two processes.

  15. Evolution of permeability and microstructure of tight carbonates due to numerical simulation of calcite dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin; Vanorio, Tiziana; Keehm, Youngseuk

    2017-06-01

    The current study concerns fundamental controls on fluid flow in tight carbonate rocks undergoing CO2 injection. Tight carbonates exposed to weak carbonic acid exhibit order of magnitude changes in permeability while maintaining a nearly constant porosity with respect to the porosity of the unreacted sample. This study aims to determine—if not porosity—what are the microstructural changes that control permeability evolution in these rocks? Given the pore-scale nature of chemical reactions, we took a digital rock physics approach. Tight carbonate mudstone was imaged using X-ray microcomputed tomography. We simulated calcite dissolution using a phenomenological numerical model that stands from experimental and microstructural observations under transport-limited reaction conditions. Fluid flow was simulated using the lattice-Boltzmann method, and the pore wall was adaptively eroded at a rate determined by the local surface area and velocity magnitude, which we use in place of solvent flux. We identified preexisting, high-conductivity fluid pathways imprinted in the initial microstructure. Though these pathways comprise a subset of the total connected porosity, they accommodated 80 to 99% of the volumetric flux through the digital sample and localized dissolution. Porosity-permeability evolution exhibited two stages: selective widening of narrow pore throats that comprised preferential pathways and development and widening of channels. We quantitatively monitored attributes of the pore geometry, namely, porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity, and average hydraulic diameter, which we qualitatively linked to permeability. This study gives a pore-scale perspective on the microstructural origins of laboratory permeability-porosity trends of tight carbonates undergoing transport-limited reaction with CO2-rich fluid.

  16. Effect of alloying on microstructure and precipitate evolution in ferritic weld metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Badri Kannan

    The effect of alloying on the microstructure of ferritic weld metal produced with an self-shielded flux cored arc welding process (FCAW-S) has been studied. The welding electrode has a flux core that is intentionally alloyed with strong deoxidizers and denitriding elements such as aluminum, titanium and zirconium in addition to austenite formers such as manganese and nickel. This results in formation of microstructure consisting of carbide free bainite, retained austenite and twinned martensite. The work focuses on characterization of the microstructures and the precipitates formed during solidification and the allotropic phase transformation of the weld metal. Aluminum, manganese and nickel have significant solubility in iron while aluminum, titanium and zirconium have very strong affinity for nitrogen and oxygen. The effect of these alloying elements on the phase transformation and precipitation of oxides and nitrides have been studied with various characterization techniques. In-situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction has been used to characterize the solidification path and the effect of heating and cooling rates on microstructure evolution. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) in conjunction with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to study the effect of micro-alloying additions on inclusion evolution. The formation of core-shell structure of oxide/nitride is identified as being key to improvement in toughness of the weld metal. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) in combination with Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been employed to study the effect of alloying on austenite to ferrite transformation modes. The prevention of twinned martensite has been identified to be key to improving ductility for achieving high strength weld metal.

  17. Microstructure and fabric development in ice: Lessons learned from in situ experiments and implications for understanding rock evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Peternell, Mark; Piazolo, Sandra; Luzin, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution we present a review of the evolution of microstructures and fabric in ice. Based on the review we show the potential use of ice as an analogue for rocks by considering selected examples that can be related to quartz-rich rocks. Advances in our understanding of the plasticity of ice have come from experimental investigations that clearly show that plastic deformation of polycrystalline ice is initially produced by basal slip. Interaction of dislocations play an essential role for dynamic recrystallization processes involving grain nucleation and grain-boundary migration during the steady-state flow of ice. To support this review we describe deformation in polycrystalline 'standard' water-ice and natural-ice samples, summarize other experiments involving bulk samples and use in situ plane-strain deformation experiments to illustrate the link between microstructure and fabric evolution, rheological response and dominant processes. Most terrestrial ice masses deform at low shear stresses by grain-size-insensitive creep with a stress exponent (n ≤ 3). However, from experimental observations it is shown that the distribution of plastic activity producing the microstructure and fabric is initially dominated by grain-boundary migration during hardening (primary creep), followed by dynamic recrystallization during transient creep (secondary creep) involving new grain nucleation, with further cycles of grain growth and nucleation resulting in near steady-state creep (tertiary creep). The microstructural transitions and inferred mechanism changes are a function of local and bulk variations in strain energy (i.e. dislocation densities) with surface grain-boundary energy being secondary, except in the case of static annealing. As there is a clear correspondence between the rheology of ice and the high-temperature deformation dislocation creep regime of polycrystalline quartz, we suggest that lessons learnt from ice deformation can be used to interpret

  18. Microstructural evolution from stable sliding to fast stick slip: insights from rock deformation experiments on quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco M.; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Inferring microstructural evolution and associated fault slip behaviour along natural and/or experimental faults is a long-standing problem in fault mechanics. For example, does grain-size reduction and shear localization facilitate earthquake slip or vice versa? We have sheared granular layers of quartz gouge in a double direct shear configuration using a biaxial apparatus. We varied loading stiffness and applied normal stresses to produce a spectrum of slip modes from stable sliding at 10 μm/s, slow stick-slip (average slip velocity 100 μm/s) and fast stick slip (average slip velocity 4 mm/s). At the end of the experiments we collected the experimental fault rocks for microstructural investigations. Additional samples were collected from control experiments to investigate shear fabric development and microstructural features before the onset of stick-slip instabilities. We investigated the role of normal stress and stick-slip properties, including slip velocity, in determining fault zone microstructural features. Ranging from stable sliding to fast stick-slip we observe a progressive localization of deformation along fault parallel boundary shear planes. Only during fast stick-slip is the deformation localized along continuous, thin (1-2 microns wide), boundary parallel shear planes. The shear zones are composed of nanograins dispersed within a patchy matrix. We conducted TEM analyses to characterize these materials. In experiments at the same normal stress, fast stick-slip results in localized shear zones and fabric with nanograins whereas for stable sliding the microstructure does not show a significant grain size reduction and localization. Our results indicate that the fault rheological properties and fault slip behaviour, ranging from stable to unstable slip, plays a significant role in shear localization and fault zone fabric development.

  19. Deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline aluminum alloys and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byungmin

    Nanocrystalline or ultrafine-grained Al alloys are often produced by severe plastic deformation methods and exhibit remarkably enhanced strength and hardness compared to conventional coarse-grained materials, resulting in great potential for structural applications. To achieve nanocrystalline structure, grains were refined by cryomilling (mechanical milling at cryogenic temperature) pre-alloyed powders. Cryomilling provides capability for rapid grain refinement and synthesis of commercial quantities (30-40 kg). The cryomilled powder was primarily consolidated by hot or cold isostatic pressing in general. Secondary consolidation was achieved by extrusion or forging. Alternatively, quasi-isostatic forging was applied either as an initial consolidation or as a further deformation step. To improve insufficient ductility and toughness of nanocrystalline materials, an intelligent design with microstructural modification was introduced by generation of multiple size scales. A bimodal grain structure consisting of nanocrystalline grains and inclusions of coarse-grained material was produced by consolidation of blended powders. The resulting materials exhibited enhanced ductility compared to 100% nanocrystalline materials, with only moderate decreases in strength. A similar process was used to produce hybrid trimodal microstructures comprised of regions of nanocrystalline and coarse grains, as well as hard ceramic particles, providing super-high compressive strength. For cryomilled nanocrystalline Al alloys, effects of degassing temperature were investigated in terms of microstructural evolution. Higher degassing temperatures resulted in higher density and lower hydrogen content, which can reduce loss of toughness in consolidated materials. Different consolidation methods were compared with regard to the relation between the microstructures and mechanical properties. Quasi-isostatic forging led to greater and more isotropic fracture toughness, compared with other processing

  20. First direct 3D visualisation of microstructural evolutions during sintering through X-ray computed microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Dominique . E-mail: bernard@icmcb.u-bordeaux.fr; Gendron, Damien; Heintz, Jean-Marc; Bordere, Sylvie; Etourneau, Jean

    2005-01-03

    X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) has been applied to ceramic samples of different materials to visualise, for the first time at this scale, real 3D microstructural evolutions during sintering. Using this technique, it has been possible to follow the whole sintering process of the same grains set. Two materials have been studied; a glass powder heat treated at 700 deg. C and a crystallised lithium borate (Li{sub 6}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}) powder heat treated at 720 deg. C. XCMT measurements have been done after different sintering times. For each material, a sub-volume was individualised and localised on the successive recordings and its 3D images numerically reconstructed. Description of the three-dimensional microstructures evolution is proposed. From the 3D experimental data, quantitative evolutions of parameters such as porosity and neck size are presented for the glass sample. Possibilities offered by this technique to study complex sintering processes, as for lithium borate, are illustrated.

  1. Investigation on microstructural evolution and hardening mechanism in dilute Zrsbnd Nb binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. L.; Matsukawa, Y.; Kano, S.; Duan, Z. G.; Murakami, K.; Abe, H.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the microstructural changes induced by doping of Nb in Zr were investigated by the combined utilization of electron backscatter diffraction and electron transmission microscopy techniques, followed by the correlated hardening mechanism being elucidated based on the obtained microstructural parameters. Microstructural characterization results revealed that microstructural changes caused by doping of Nb in Zr were mainly embodied via two aspects: reducing the matrix α-Zr grain size and increasing the amount of β-Nb particles. β-phase stabilizing effect, dragging effect and pinning effect introduced and enhanced by Nb addition, worked together to significantly reduce the grain size in Zr-Nb alloys. β-Nb particles were firstly observed in Zr0.5Nb specimen with the fairly low number density of ∼2.0 × 1018/m3, then this value explosively increased to ∼3.3 × 1020/m3 for Zr2Nb specimen. In addition, hardness was increased with an increase in the Nb content. The hardening contributions from solid solution hardening, grain boundary hardening and precipitation hardening were quantitatively estimated as per the obtained microstructural parameters. Results inferred that solid solution hardening contributed the majority when the Nb atoms were solid dissolved (≤0.5 wt%), whereas the precipitation hardening surpassed any other factors when the β-Nb particles were steadily precipitated (≥1 wt%).

  2. Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructural Evolution, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Al 7075 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Atul; Sharma, Sandan Kumar; Pal, Kaushik; Mula, Suhrit

    2017-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of process parameters on microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of an age-hardenable Al 7075 alloy. The alloy plates (6 mm thickness) were friction stir processed (FSPed) at various traverse speed, namely 25, 45, 65, 85, 100 and 150 mm/min at 2 different rpm of 508 and 720. The optimized result in terms of defect-free processed zone with refined microstructure was obtained only at a rotational speed of 720 rpm for a traverse speed of 25, 45, 65 and 85 mm/min. The microstructural evolution was investigated using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The grain size of the nugget zone was found to decrease with increase in the traverse speed from 25 to 85 mm/min at a constant rpm of 720. The mechanical properties were evaluated by Vickers hardness measurements, tensile and wear testing. Yield strength was found to be the maximum ( 366 MPa) for the FSPed sample processed at 85 mm/min. The hardness values also followed the similar increasing trend with increase in the traverse speed. The wear volume loss decreased by 38% for the sample processed at a traverse speed of 85 mm/min as compared to that of the sample processed at 25 mm/min. The friction coefficient was found to substantiate well with the wear track morphology. The improvement in mechanical properties is ascertained to the refinement of grain size at higher traverse speed (due to less heat input). The FSPed samples showed inferior corrosion resistance in contrast to that of the base metal. This is possibly due to the coarsening of precipitates and depletion of solutes in the matrix. The morphology of the corroded samples corroborated well with the corrosion behavior of the corresponding specimen.

  3. Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructural Evolution, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Al 7075 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Atul; Sharma, Sandan Kumar; Pal, Kaushik; Mula, Suhrit

    2017-03-01

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of process parameters on microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of an age-hardenable Al 7075 alloy. The alloy plates (6 mm thickness) were friction stir processed (FSPed) at various traverse speed, namely 25, 45, 65, 85, 100 and 150 mm/min at 2 different rpm of 508 and 720. The optimized result in terms of defect-free processed zone with refined microstructure was obtained only at a rotational speed of 720 rpm for a traverse speed of 25, 45, 65 and 85 mm/min. The microstructural evolution was investigated using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The grain size of the nugget zone was found to decrease with increase in the traverse speed from 25 to 85 mm/min at a constant rpm of 720. The mechanical properties were evaluated by Vickers hardness measurements, tensile and wear testing. Yield strength was found to be the maximum ( 366 MPa) for the FSPed sample processed at 85 mm/min. The hardness values also followed the similar increasing trend with increase in the traverse speed. The wear volume loss decreased by 38% for the sample processed at a traverse speed of 85 mm/min as compared to that of the sample processed at 25 mm/min. The friction coefficient was found to substantiate well with the wear track morphology. The improvement in mechanical properties is ascertained to the refinement of grain size at higher traverse speed (due to less heat input). The FSPed samples showed inferior corrosion resistance in contrast to that of the base metal. This is possibly due to the coarsening of precipitates and depletion of solutes in the matrix. The morphology of the corroded samples corroborated well with the corrosion behavior of the corresponding specimen.

  4. Microstructure evolution of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B anisotropic magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. Hono, K.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The microstructural evolution of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets in each stage of hot-deformation process was studied using transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional atom probe (3DAP). The anisotropic growth of initially isotropic grains in rapidly solidified alloy occurs by annealing without pressing. 3DAP analyses showed a higher concentration of rare-earth elements in the intergranular phase parallel to the flat surface of platelet shaped Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains compared to that in the intergranular phase at the side of platelets.

  5. Microstructure evolution in hot rolled 7075 Al via friction stir processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mei Ling; Tan, Ming Jen; Liu, Feng Chao; Song, Xu; Chua, Beng Wah

    2016-10-01

    Friction stir processed (FSP) hot rolled 7075 Al alloy with grain size of 5.2 μm was investigated in the temperature range 350 °C-500 °C and strain rates from 3x10-4 to 10-1 s-1. Maximum superplastic elongation of 776.4 % was achieved at 500 °C and strain rate 10-3 s-1. The microstructure evolution of FSP 7075 Al during superplastic deformation was studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Further analyses of superplastic results indicated the main deformation mechanism of FSP 7075 Al was grain boundary sliding (GBS).

  6. Effects of initial microstructure and texture on microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Li, Hua-Long; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yi; Gao, Fei; An, Ling-Zi; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-05-01

    An equiaxed grained as-cast strip and a columnar grained as-cast strip was produced by using twin-roll strip casting, respectively. Both as-cast strips mainly containing 0.71 wt%Si and 0.44 wt%Al were cold rolled and annealed with or without the hot rolling prior to cold rolling. Microstructure, texture evolution along the whole processing routes and the magnetic properties were investigated in detail. It was found that the equiaxed grained strip was characterized by almost random texture while the columnar grained strip was dominated by strong λ-fiber (<001>‖ND) texture. After cold rolling and annealing, all the final sheets of both the as-cast strips showed extremely weak γ-fiber (<111>‖ND) recrystallization texture. In addition, the finally annealed sheets of the equiaxed grained strip were dominated by relatively weak λ-fiber and strong Goss ({110}<001>) recrystallization texture while those of the columnar grained strip were dominated by much stronger λ-fiber and much weaker Goss recrystallization texture regardless of whether the hot rolling was adopted before cold rolling, thus the former showed much lower magnetic induction than the latter. On the other hand, even though the finally annealed sheets of the equiaxed grained strip showed a little more homogeneous recrystallization microstructure with a little bigger grain size than those of the columnar grained strip in the case of no hot rolling, a much higher iron loss was displayed. By contrast, in the case of hot rolling, the former exhibited a little lower iron loss than the latter as a result of the more significant increase in grain size and λ-fiber recrystallization texture. The introduction of the hot rolling could increase the grain size, strengthen λ-fiber texture and weaken Goss texture of the finally annealed sheets of both the as-cast strips, leading to a much improvement in both the magnetic induction and iron loss.

  7. Microstructural evolution of CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750 under in situ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He Ken; Yao, Zhongwen; Judge, Colin; Griffiths, Malcolm

    2013-11-01

    Work on Inconel®Inconel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.1 X-750 spacers removed from CANDU®CANDU® is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited standing for ''CANada Deuterium Uranium''.2 reactors has shown that they become embrittled and there is development of many small cavities within the metal matrix and along grain boundaries. In order to emulate the neutron irradiation induced microstructural changes, heavy ion irradiations (1 MeV Kr2+ ions) were performed while observing the damage evolution using an intermediate voltage electron microscope (IVEM) operating at 200 kV. The irradiations were carried out at various temperatures 60-400 °C. The principal strengthening phase, γ‧, was disordered at low doses (˜0.06 dpa) during the irradiation. M23C6 carbides were found to be stable up to 5.4 dpa. Lattice defects consisted mostly of stacking fault tetrahedras (SFTs), 1/2<1 1 0> perfect loops and small 1/3<1 1 1> faulted Frank loops. The ratio of SFT number density to loop number density for each irradiation condition was found to be neither temperature nor dose dependent. Under the operation of the ion beam the SFT production was very rapid, with no evidence for further growth once formed, indicating that they probably formed as a result of cascade collapse in a single cascade. The number density of the defects was found to saturate at low dose (˜0.68 dpa). No cavities were observed regardless of the irradiation temperature between 60 °C and 400 °C for doses up to 5.4 dpa. In contrast, cavities have been observed after neutron irradiation in the same material at similar doses and temperatures indicating that helium, produce during neutron irradiation, may be essential for the nucleation and growth of cavities.

  8. The Effect of Cool Deformation on the Microstructural Evolution and Flow Strength of Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi Anijdan, Seyyed Hashem

    Cool deformation is a process in which a small amount of plastic deformation is applied at temperatures well below the end of the austenite transformation temperature. In this thesis, a systematic study was conducted to evaluate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of microalloyed steels processed by thermomechanical schedules incorporating cool deformation. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted to predict equilibrium phases formed by the presence of microalloying elements such as Ti, Nb, Mo and their appearance were then elaborated by means of TEM microscopy. As well, continuous cooling torsion (CCT) was employed to study the transformation behavior of steels for austenite conditioned and unconditioned. Cool deformation was incorporated into a full scale simulation of hotrolling, and the effect of prior austenite conditioning on the cool deformability of microalloyed steels was investigated. Out of these studies, a new definition of no-recystallization temperature (Tnr) was proposed based on dynamic precipitation, which was then recognized in the Nb bearing steels by using TEM analysis as well as flow curves analysis. Results show that cool deformation greatly improves the strength of microalloyed steels. Of the several mechanisms identified, such as work hardening, precipitation, grain refinement, and strain induced transformation (SIT) of retained austenite, SIT was proposed, for the first time in microalloyed steels, to be the significant mechanism of strengthening due to the deformation in ferrite. Results also show that the effect of ferrite precipitation is greatly overshadowed by SIT at room temperature. Finally, considering the interplay of SIT and precipitation for the Nb bearing steels, a rolling schedule was designed incorporating austenite conditioning, cooling rate and cool deformation that maximized the strength.

  9. Microstructural evolution of two binary β-titanium alloys during cold deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebied, Saad Mohamed; Abdel-Hady Gepreel, Mohamed; Hamada, Atef

    2017-05-01

    The deformation mechanism that reflects on the cold workability, of two beta-Ti alloys with chemical compositions of Ti-14Cr and Ti-17Mo in wt. % are studied in this work. The present alloys were solution treated at 900 °C for 1.8 ks. Followed by cold rolling with different reduction ratio from 5% to 30%. The microstructural evolution during cold deformation was followed using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro hardness. It was observed that the hardness and work hardening rate are affected significantly by the amount of cold deformation for the present Ti-alloys. It is apparent from the intensive microstructural observations that the deformation twinning (TWIP effect) is the dominant deformation mechanism in Ti-17Mo alloy at room temperature. However, the formation of slip bands and extended shear bands (SBs) were observed to be the deformation-induced microstructural features in Ti-14Cr alloy. The XRD analyses also revealed that the stress/strain induced martensitic transformation (TRIP effect) has not activated in the deformed Ti-alloys despite high deformation of 30%.

  10. Microstructural evolution of PET under stretching and during stretch blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Martine; Billon, Noëlle

    2007-04-01

    Strain induced crystallisation of PET designed for stretch blow molding is studied combining well-controlled tensile tests and free blowing on a stretch blow prototype. Microstructure evolution is followed by WAXS and SAXS. Observations on blown parts clearly show that the microstructure can differ along the bottle and from processing conditions to another. Difference can be observed on crystalline orientation, periodic arrangement at the level of lamellae and long period. Range of long period, 8.5 to 13 nm is in agreement with literature. In certain case lamellar organisation disappears. Despite of high level of strain and evidence for strain hardening to occur during blowing no perfect crystalline pattern is observed, except in very thick zones. Interrupted tensile tests followed by quenching demonstrates that strain hardening is not correlated to prefect crystallisation. Microstructure clearly depends on the three parameters: temperature, strain rate and strain. It is concluded that strain hardening is mainly controlled by first stages of crystallisation and that actual crystallisation occurs during a following relaxation step. This later is then highly dependent upon cooling step.

  11. Comparison of microstructural evolution in Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe and Ti-15Mo biocompatible alloys.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Banerjee, R; Stechschulte, J; Fraser, H L

    2005-07-01

    The microstructural evolution and attendant strengthening mechanisms in two biocompatible alloy systems, the binary Ti-15Mo and the quaternary Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe (TMZF), have been compared and contrasted in this paper. In the homogenized condition, while the Ti-15Mo alloy exhibited a single phase microstructure consisting of large beta grains, the TMZF alloy exhibited a microstructure consisting primarily of a beta matrix with grain boundary alpha precipitates and a low volume fraction of intra-granular alpha precipitates. On ageing the homogenized alloys at 600 degrees C for 4 h, both alloys exhibited the precipitation of refined scale secondary alpha precipitates homogeneously in the beta matrix. However, while the hardness of the TMZF alloy marginally increased, that of the Ti-15Mo alloy decreased substantially as a result of the ageing treatment. In order to understand this difference in the mechanical properties after ageing, TEM studies have been carried out on both alloys in the homogenized and homogenized plus aged conditions. The results indicate that the omega precipitates dissolve on ageing in case of the Ti-15Mo alloy, consequently leading to a substantial decrease in the hardness. In contrast, the omega precipitates do not dissolve on ageing in the TMZF alloy and the precipitation of the fine scale secondary alpha leads to increased hardness.

  12. Microstructure Evolution of Semi-Solid 7075 Aluminum Alloy During Reheating Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, H.; Ketabchi, M.; Kalaki, A.

    2011-10-01

    Microstructural evolution of semi-solid 7075 Al alloy manufactured by strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process was investigated. The effects of different processing parameters, such as isothermal temperature and holding time on the semi-solid microstructures (the liquid volume fraction, average grain size, and degree of spheroidization of the solid particles) during partial remelting have been investigated on 7075 Al alloy that was extruded by an extrusion ratio of 20 before remelting. Experiments of remelting were carried out in the range of 560-610 °C for 10, 20, and 30 min holding time and then the specimens were quenched in cold water. Microstructure of quenched samples were observed under optical microscope and then analyzed via image analysis. The results showed that high semi-solid isothermal temperature would increase the liquid volume fraction and accelerate the spherical processing of the solid particles. Furthermore at long holding time, the globular grains coarsened slightly and the average grains size are increased. The experimental results showed that the optimum process parameters, should be chosen at isothermal temperature of 580 °C with the holding time, <30 min.

  13. Cellular/Dendritic Transition and Microstructure Evolution during Transient Directional Solidification of Pb-Sb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Daniel M.; Spinelli, José E.; Ferreira, Ivaldo L.; Garcia, Amauri

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies of lead-antimony alloys, used for the production of positive electrodes of lead-acid batteries, have assessed the influences of both the microstructural morphology and of solute redistribution on the surface corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid solution, and have shown that cellular structures and dendritic structures have different responses on the corrosion rate of such alloys. The present article focuses on the search of adequate solidification conditions (alloy composition, cooling rate, and solidification velocity), which determine the occurrence of a microstructural transition from the cellular to the dendritic regime during the transient unidirectional solidification of hypoeutectic Pb-Sb alloys and on the microstructural evolution after such transition. The experimental data refers to the solidification of four hypoeutectic Pb-Sb alloys (2.2, 2.5, 3, and 6.6 wt pct Sb) and of the eutectic composition. The experimental results include transient metal/mold heat-transfer coefficients, liquidus isotherm velocity, cooling rate, and cellular and dendritic spacings. It was found that the cooling rate dependence on cellular and primary dendritic spacings is characterized by an experimental law of the form λ 1 = A{\\cdot}ifmmodeexpandafterdotelseexpandafter\\.fi{T}^{{{kern 1pt} {-0.55}}}, which seems to be independent of composition where A = 60 represents the alloys undergoing a cellular growth and A = 115 can describe the dendritic growth. The sudden change on such multiplier has occurred for the Pb 2.2 wt pct Sb alloy, i.e., for the cellular/dendritic transition.

  14. Modelling multi-scale deformation of amorphous glassy polymers with experimentally motivated evolution of the microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engqvist, Jonas; Wallin, Mathias; Ristinmaa, Matti; Hall, Stephen A.; Plivelic, Tomás S.

    2016-11-01

    Novel experimental data, obtained recently using advanced multi-scale experiments, have been used to develop a micro-mechanically motivated constitutive model for amorphous glassy polymers. Taking advantage of the experiments, the model makes use of a microstructural deformation gradient to incorporate the experimentally obtained deformation of the microstructure, as well as its evolving orientation. By comparing results from the model to experimental data, it is shown that the proposed approach is able to accurately predict glassy polymer deformation over a wide range of length-scales, from the macroscopic response (mm range) down to the deformation of the microstructure (nm range). The proposed model is evaluated by comparing the numerical response to experimental results on multiple scales from an inhomogeneous cold drawing experiment of glassy polycarbonate. Besides the macroscopic force-displacement response, a qualitative comparison of the deformation field at the surface of the specimen is performed. Furthermore, the predicted evolution of the fabric orientation is compared to experimental results obtained from X-ray scattering experiments. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of length scales.

  15. Microstructural evolution and rheology of quartz in a mid-crustal shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahl, Jeffrey M.; Skemer, Philip

    2016-06-01

    We present microstructural and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) data on quartz deformed in the middle crust to explore the interaction and feedback between dynamic recrystallization, deformation processes, and CPO evolution. The sample investigated here is a moderately deformed quartz-rich mylonite from the Blue Ridge in Virginia. We have created high-resolution crystallographic orientation maps using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of 51 isolated quartz porphyroclasts with recrystallized grain fractions ranging from 10 to 100%. Recrystallized grains are internally undeformed and display crystallographic orientations dispersed around the orientation of the associated parent porphyroclast. We document a systematic decrease in fabric intensity with recrystallization, suggesting that progressive deformation of the recrystallized domains involves processes that can weaken a pre-existing CPO. Relationships between recrystallization fraction and shear strain suggest that complete microstructural re-equilibration requires strains in excess of γ = 5. Variation in the degree of recrystallization implies that strain was accumulated heterogeneously, and that a steady-state microstructure and rheology were not achieved.

  16. Preparation of Ag-Ni-Cu Composite Material by Ultrasonic Arc Spray Forming and Accumulative Roll Bonding and the Evolution of Its Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Qin, Guo-Yi; Xu, Si-Yong; Guo, Jin-Xin; Ma, Guang

    2015-02-01

    We prepared a layered composite material by subjecting a deposition billet of AgNiCu15-5 formed by ultrasonic arc spray forming (UASF) to extrusion at 773 K (500 °C), rolling at 673 K (400 °C), and accumulative roll bonding (ARB). The evolution of the microstructure of the formed AgNiCu15-5 strips was analyzed through X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. The deposition billet had a rapid solidification microstructure consisting of β-Ni particles dispersed in α-Ag matrix. ARB significantly refined the microstructure of the AgNiCu15-5 samples. There was no further decrease in the grain size after the 9th ARB cycle. Thus, UASF combined with extrusion and ARB is suitable for producing high-performance AgNiCu15-5-based electrical contact materials efficiently and economically.

  17. Nonequilibrium synthesis of NbAl3 and Nb-Al-V alloys by laser cladding. I - Microstructure evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Mazumder, J.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure in NbAl3 synthesized by a laser cladding technique (a rapid solidification process, with cooling rates up to 10 exp 6 C/sec) is investigated, and the phases are identified using convergent beam electron diffraction. Two new metastable phases were identified and characterized in detail. The effect of adding V on the final microstructure was also investigated, and the various phase chemistries and the partitioning of different elements into different phases were studied.

  18. Nonequilibrium synthesis of NbAl3 and Nb-Al-V alloys by laser cladding. I - Microstructure evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Mazumder, J.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure in NbAl3 synthesized by a laser cladding technique (a rapid solidification process, with cooling rates up to 10 exp 6 C/sec) is investigated, and the phases are identified using convergent beam electron diffraction. Two new metastable phases were identified and characterized in detail. The effect of adding V on the final microstructure was also investigated, and the various phase chemistries and the partitioning of different elements into different phases were studied.

  19. Phase-Field Models for Simulating Physical Vapor Deposition and Microstructure Evolution of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, James A., Jr.

    The focus of this research is to develop, implement, and utilize phase-field models to study microstructure evolution in thin films during physical vapor deposition (PVD). There are four main goals to this dissertation. First, a phase-field model is developed to simulate PVD of a single-phase polycrystalline material by coupling previous modeling efforts on deposition of single-phase materials and grain evolution in polycrystalline materials. Second, a phase-field model is developed to simulate PVD of a polymorphic material by coupling previous modeling efforts on PVD of a single-phase material, evolution in multiphase materials, and phase nucleation. Third, a novel free energy functional is proposed that incorporates appropriate energetics and dynamics for simultaneous modeling of PVD and grain evolution in single-phase polycrystalline materials. Finally, these phase-field models are implemented into custom simulation codes and utilized to illustrate these models' capabilities in capturing PVD thin film growth, grain and grain boundary (GB) evolution, phase evolution and nucleation, and temperature evolution. In general, these simulations show: grain coarsening through grain rotation and GB migration such that grains tend to align with the thin film surface features and GBs migrate to locations between these features so that each surface feature has a distinct grain and orientation; the incident vapor flux rate controls the density of the thin film and the formation of surface and subsurface features; the substrate phase distribution initially acts as a template for the growing microstructure until the thin film becomes sufficiently thick; latent heat released during PVD increases the surface temperature of the thin film creating a temperature gradient within the thin film influencing phase evolution and nucleation; and temperature distributions lead to regions within the thin film that allow for multiple phases to be stable and coexist. Further, this work shows

  20. Crystallization, Microstructure, and Viscosity Evolutions in Lithium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Wheaton, Bryan; Geisinger, Karen; Credle, Allen; Wang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics have found widespread commercial success in areas such as consumer products, telescope mirrors, fireplace windows, etc. However, there is still much to learn regarding the fundamental mechanisms of crystallization, especially related to the evolution of viscosity as a function of the crystallization (ceramming) process. In this study, the impact of phase assemblage and microstructure on the viscosity was investigated using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), beam bending viscometry (BBV), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study provide a first direct observation of viscosity evolution as a function of ceramming time and temperature. Sharp viscosity increases due to phase separation, nucleation and phase transformation are noticed through BBV measurement. A near-net shape ceramming can be achieved in TiO2-containing compositions by keeping the glass at a high viscosity (> 109 Pa.s) throughout the whole thermal treatment.

  1. Microstructure evolution of tin under electromigration studied bysynchrotron X-Ray micro-diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Albert T.; Lloyd, J.R.; Tamura, N.; Tu, K.-N.

    2005-05-05

    Under constant current electromigration, white tin(?-Sn)exhibited a resistance drop of up to 10 percent. It has a body centertetragonal (BCT) structure, and the resistivity along the aand b axes is35 percent smaller than that along the c axis.Microstructure evolutionunder electromigration could be responsible for the resistance drop.Synchrotron radiation white beam x-ray microdiffraction was used to studythis evolution. Both stress and grain orientation was studied.Grain-by-grain analysis was obtained from the diffracted Laue patternsabout the changes of grain orientation during electromigration testing inex-situ and in-situ samples. We observed that high resistance grainsreorient with respect to the neighboring low resistance grains, mostlikely by grain rotation of the latter. A different mechanism ofmicrostructure evolution under electromigration from the normal graingrowth is proposed and discussed.

  2. Modeling of anisotropy induced by evolution of dislocation microstructures on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausmeyer, T.; Bargmann, S.; Svendsen, B.

    2011-05-01

    Many fcc and bcc metals subjected to non-monotonic loading are known to exhibit different kinds of anisotropic hardening. This is due to evolution of (and interaction in) the dislocation microstructure depending on loading type. One purpose of the current work is the investigation of such evolution and interaction in single crystals as well as its effect on their hardening behavior. A single-crystal model accounting for the effects of a change in loading path on the critical shear stress for glide at the glide-system level is developed. On the basis of the crystal plasticity approach an efficient engineering scale model exploiting the insights gained on the lower scales is introduced and applied to simulations of forming processes.

  3. Effect of electrochemical corrosion on the subsurface microstructure evolution of a CoCrMo alloy in albumin containing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Yan, Yu; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2017-06-01

    The subsurface microstructures of metallic implants play a key role in bio-tribocorrosion. Due to wear or change of local environment, the implant surface can have inhomogeneous electrochemical corrosion properties. In this work, the effect of electrochemical corrosion conditions on the subsurface microstructure evolution of CoCrMo alloys for artificial joints was investigated. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was employed to observe the subsurface microstructures of worn areas at different applied potentials in a simulated physiological solution. The results showed that applied potentials could affect the severity of the subsurface deformation not only by changing the surface passivation but also affecting the adsorption of protein on the alloy surface.

  4. Microstructure evolution of metallic nanocrystalline thin-films under ion-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaoumi, Djamel

    The microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline metallic thin-films under ion irradiation, especially grain growth and second-phase precipitation, was studied with detailed in situ experiments, and a theoretical model was developed to explain the results of grain-growth. Free-standing Zr, Pt, Cu and Au, Cu-Fe, and Zr-Fe nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sputter deposition were irradiated in-situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory with Ar and Kr ions to fluences in excess of 1016 ion/cm2 at temperatures ranging from 20 to 773 K. The microstructural evolution of the thin-films was followed in situ by systematically recording bright field images and diffraction patterns at successive ion-irradiation doses. Grain growth was observed as a result of irradiation in all samples at all irradiation temperatures. The results suggest the existence of three regimes with increasing irradiating temperature: a low temperature regime (below about 0.15 to 0.22 Tm) where grain-growth does not depend on the irradiation temperature, a thermally assisted regime where both the grain-growth rate and the final grain size increase with increasing irradiation temperature, and a thermal regime where thermal effects dominate ion beam effects. Similarly to thermal grain growth, the ion-irradiation induced grain growth curves could be best fitted with curves of the type: Dn-Dn0=KF with n˜3 in the low temperature regime. The effect of solute addition on grain-growth was investigated using Zr(Fe) and Cu(Fe) supersaturated solid-solutions. In the case of Zr-Fe, Zr2Fe precipitates formed during irradiation (with the dose-to-precipitation of Zr2Fe decreasing with increasing irradiation temperature), whereas Cu-Fe remained as a solid-solution. The grain-growth rate and final size decreased in both alloys with respect to the pure metallic films as a result of second-phase particle pinning (Zener drag) (Zr-Fe), and solute drag (Cu-Fe). The grain

  5. Influence of the Initial Microstructure on the Reverse Transformation Kinetics and Microstructural Evolution in Transformation-Induced Plasticity-Assisted Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong In; Ryu, Joo Hyun; Lee, Sea Woong; Lee, Kyooyoung; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2016-11-01

    The reverse transformation behavior upon heating to intercritical temperature was studied in Fe-0.21C-2.2Mn-1.5Si (wt pct) alloy with three initial microstructures. One is the cold-rolled (CR) structure and two others are martensite having different fractions of retained austenite. The CR structure exhibits slower reverse transformation kinetics than martensite due to the lesser population of potent nucleation sites and coarse cementite particles. The film type of retained austenite at the martensite lath boundary contributes to the earlier start of the reverse transformation, because it can proceed as the growth of pre-existing retained austenite, which makes the nucleation process less critical. Besides, the growth of interlath austenite plays an essential role in the evolution of fine lath-type reverse-transformed microstructure, which was difficult to obtain from similar initial microstructures of martensite having negligible fraction of interlath austenite.

  6. Microstructure and Microtexture Evolution of Pure Titanium during Single Direction Torsion and Alternating Cyclic Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Han; Li, Fuguo; Liu, Jie; Li, Jinghui; Ma, Xinkai; Wan, Qiong

    2017-05-01

    Systematic experimental studies of microstructure and crystallographic texture of pure titanium during the Single Direction Torsion (SDT) and Alternating Cyclic Torsion (ACT) are carried out at room temperature. The microstructure evolution indicates that the grain size can be refined during SDT, while the grain morphology can be controlled during ACT. Also, lots of {10-12} and few {11-22} twins are observed and their area percentages increase with increasing torsion angles during SDT. The microtexture evolution states that the deformation texture first approaches to the B fiber (0, 90, 0 to 60 deg), and then stays away from B fiber (0, 90, 0 to 60 deg) with increasing plastic strain during SDT. The change of deformation texture is mainly attributed to the appearance of {10-12} twin. However, the deformation texture is always close to B fiber (0, 90, 0 to 60 deg) during ACT. Finally, the effects of different dislocation movements caused by SDT and ACT are discussed. Quantities of subgrains with high density dislocation are observed during SDT while the {10-12} and {11-22} twins intersect with each other, and high density dislocations distribute the twin during ACT.

  7. Microstructure and Microtexture Evolution of Pure Titanium during Single Direction Torsion and Alternating Cyclic Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Han; Li, Fuguo; Liu, Jie; Li, Jinghui; Ma, Xinkai; Wan, Qiong

    2017-03-01

    Systematic experimental studies of microstructure and crystallographic texture of pure titanium during the Single Direction Torsion (SDT) and Alternating Cyclic Torsion (ACT) are carried out at room temperature. The microstructure evolution indicates that the grain size can be refined during SDT, while the grain morphology can be controlled during ACT. Also, lots of {10-12} and few {11-22} twins are observed and their area percentages increase with increasing torsion angles during SDT. The microtexture evolution states that the deformation texture first approaches to the B fiber (0, 90, 0 to 60 deg), and then stays away from B fiber (0, 90, 0 to 60 deg) with increasing plastic strain during SDT. The change of deformation texture is mainly attributed to the appearance of {10-12} twin. However, the deformation texture is always close to B fiber (0, 90, 0 to 60 deg) during ACT. Finally, the effects of different dislocation movements caused by SDT and ACT are discussed. Quantities of subgrains with high density dislocation are observed during SDT while the {10-12} and {11-22} twins intersect with each other, and high density dislocations distribute the twin during ACT.

  8. Alloying effect of Ni and Cr on irradiated microstructural evolution of type 304 stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-11-01

    Life extension of the existing nuclear power plants imposes significant challenges to core structural materials that suffer increased fluences. This paper presents the microstructural evolution of a type 304 stainless steel and its variants alloyed with extra Ni and Cr under neutron irradiation at ˜320 °C for up to 10.2 dpa. Similar to the reported data of type 304 variants, a large amount of Frank loops, ultrafine G-phase/M23C6 particles, and limited amount of cavities were observed in the irradiated samples. The irradiation promoted the growth of pre-existing M23C6 at grain boundaries and resulted in some phase transformation to CrC in the alloy with both extra Ni and Cr. A new type of ultrafine precipitates, possibly (Ti,Cr)N, was observed in all the samples, and its amount was increased by the irradiation. Additionally, α-ferrite was observed in the type 304 steel but not in the Ni or Ni + Cr alloyed variants. The effect of Ni and Cr alloying on the microstructural evolution is discussed.

  9. Effects of Different Forging Processes on Microstructure Evolution for 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dashan; Zhu, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Peipei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2017-10-01

    Forging experiments were designed and carried out on a 3150 kN hydraulic press to investigate the effects of different processes on the microstructure evolution for 316LN steel. The forging processes included single-pass (upsetting) and multipass (stretching) deformations, and the experimental results indicated that the average grain size varied with forging processes. Moreover, the size had distinct differences at different positions in the workpiece. Meanwhile, numerical simulations were implemented to study the influence of temperature, strain, and strain rate on microstructure evolution. The results of experiments and simulations comprehensively demonstrated that dynamic, static, and meta-dynamic recrystallization could coexist in the hot forging process and that the recrystallization process could easily occur under the conditions of higher temperature, larger strain, and higher strain rate. Moreover, the temperature had more significant influence on both recrystallization and grain growth. A higher temperature could not only promote the recrystallization but also speed up the grain growth. Therefore, a lower temperature is beneficial to obtain refinement grains on the premise that the recrystallization can occur completely.

  10. Effects of Different Forging Processes on Microstructure Evolution for 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dashan; Zhu, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Peipei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2017-07-01

    Forging experiments were designed and carried out on a 3150 kN hydraulic press to investigate the effects of different processes on the microstructure evolution for 316LN steel. The forging processes included single-pass (upsetting) and multipass (stretching) deformations, and the experimental results indicated that the average grain size varied with forging processes. Moreover, the size had distinct differences at different positions in the workpiece. Meanwhile, numerical simulations were implemented to study the influence of temperature, strain, and strain rate on microstructure evolution. The results of experiments and simulations comprehensively demonstrated that dynamic, static, and meta-dynamic recrystallization could coexist in the hot forging process and that the recrystallization process could easily occur under the conditions of higher temperature, larger strain, and higher strain rate. Moreover, the temperature had more significant influence on both recrystallization and grain growth. A higher temperature could not only promote the recrystallization but also speed up the grain growth. Therefore, a lower temperature is beneficial to obtain refinement grains on the premise that the recrystallization can occur completely.

  11. Mechanics, microstructure and AMS evolution of a synthetic porphyritic calcite aggregate deformed in torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Machek, M.; Roxerová, Z.; Burg, J.-P.; Almqvist, B. S. G.

    2015-08-01

    In order to investigate the mechanical, microstructural and AMS evolution of porphyritic mylonites, we made a synthetic aggregate composed of 70% fine calcite (< 50 μm) and 30% coarse calcite (200-700 μm), and deformed cylindrical specimens in torsion at 300 MPa, 727 °C, a constant strain rate of 3.0E- 4 s- 1, to shear strains γ ≈ 1 and 5. After peak stress, dynamic recrystallization of porphyroclasts resulted in grain size reduction and weakening till a mechanical steady state was reached. Microstructural, AMS and EBSD analyses show the consistent evolution of pre-torsion (cold-pressed) planar fabric from perpendicular to sample cylinder axis at γ ≈ 0, to oblique at γ ≈ 1, and finally to low angle to the shear plane at γ ≈ 5, as expected for approximate simple shear. At γ ≈ 1, stretched calcite grains > 3 mm in length defined a conspicuous foliation, and showed aligned twins. At γ ≈ 5, calcite porphyroclasts were highly stretched (aspect ratio around 20), and had rotated towards the shear plane. Between γ = 1 and 5, a composite fabric formed, one at low and the other at high angle to the shear plane, from which shear sense can be deduced. The AMS patterns were sensitive to increasing shearing, and tracked strain reasonably well, despite the reduced size and low susceptibility of specimens. From the CPO and the microstructure, we infer that a balance compatible with an optimal dissipation of the applied stress was achieved between grain growth and grain reduction processes.

  12. Microstructural modeling during multi-pass rolling of a nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kannan

    2009-08-01

    Microstructure present at the end of rolling and cooling operations controls the product properties. Therefore, control of grain size is an important characteristic in any hot-working. The narrow temperature range for hot working of Alloy 718 makes the grain size control more difficult. In the current work, a systematic numerical approach to predict the microstructure of Alloy 718 during multi-pass rolling is developed. This approach takes into account the severe deformation that takes place during each pass and also the possible reheating between passes. In order to predict the grain size at the end of rolling process, microstructural processes such as dynamic recrystallization (DRX), metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX), and static grain growth need to be captured at every deformation step for superalloys. Empirical relationships between the average grain size from various microstructural processes and the macroscopic variables such as temperature (T), effective strain 3¯ and strain rate 3¯˙ form the basis for the current work. The empirical relationships considered in this work are based on Avrami equations and utilize data taken from various forging analyses. The macroscopic variables are calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM) by modeling the rolling process as a creeping flow problem. FEM incorporates a mesh re-zoning algorithm that enables the analysis to continue for several passes. A two-dimensional transient thermal analysis is carried out between passes that can capture the MDRX and/or static grain growth during the microstructural evolution. The microstructure prediction algorithm continuously updates two families of grains, namely, the recrystallized family and strained family at the start of deformation in any given pass. In addition, the algorithm calculates various subgroups within these two families at every deformation step within a pass. As the material undergoes deformation between the rolls, recrystallization equations are invoked

  13. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. D.; Dupont, J. N.; Perricone, M. J.; Marder, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The good corrosion resistance of superaustenitic stainless steel (SASS) alloys has been shown to be a direct consequence of high concentrations of Mo, which can have a significant effect on the microstructural development of welds in these alloys. In this research, the microstructural development of welds in the Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system was analyzed over a wide variety of Cr/Ni ratios and Mo contents. The system was first simulated by construction of multicomponent phase diagrams using the CALPHAD technique. Data from vertical sections of these diagrams are presented over a wide compositional range to produce diagrams that can be used as a guide to understand the influence of composition on microstructural development. A large number of experimental alloys were then prepared via arc-button melting for comparison with the diagrams. Each alloy was characterized using various microscopy techniques. The expected δ-ferrite and γ-austenite phases were accompanied by martensite at low Cr/Ni ratios and by σ phase at high Mo contents. A total of 20 possible phase transformation sequences are proposed, resulting in various amounts and morphologies of the γ, δ, σ, and martensite phases. The results were used to construct a map of expected phase transformation sequence and resultant microstructure as a function of composition. The results of this work provide a working guideline for future base metal and filler metal development of this class of materials.

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Composition Control During the Processing of Thin-Gage Metallic Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; Gross, M. E.; Matson, D. W.; Bennett, W. D.; Bonham, C. C.; Ustinov, A. I.; Ballard, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    The manufacture of thin-gage superalloy and gamma-titanium-aluminide foil products via near-conventional thermomechanical processing and two different vapor-deposition methods was investigated. Thermomechanical processing was based on hot-pack rolling of plate and sheet. Foils of the superalloy LSHR and the near-gamma titanium aluminide Ti-45.5Al-2Cr-2Nb made by this approach exhibited excellent gage control and fine two-phase microstructures. The vapor-phase techniques used magnetron sputtering (MS) of a target of the desired product composition or electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) of separate targets of the specific alloying elements. Thin deposits of LSHR and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb made by MS showed uniform thickness/composition and an ultrafine microstructure. However, systematic deviations from the specific target composition were found. During subsequent heat treatment, the microstructure of the MS samples showed various degrees of grain growth and coarsening. Foils of Ti-43Al and Ti-51Al-1V fabricated by EBPVD were fully dense. The microstructures developed during EBPVD were interpreted in terms of measured phase equilibria and the dependence of evaporant flux on temperature.

  15. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y.

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000`s of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in {alpha}Fe during irradiation at 600 K.

  16. Micro-structural Evolution in Metals Subjected to Simple Shear by a Particular Severe Plastic Deformation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinghui; Li, Fuguo; Li, Pan; Ma, Zhanchao; Wang, Chengpeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Simple shear (SS) has been considered an optimal deformation method of severe plastic deformation (SPD). To achieve SS, a particular SPD method known as mutative channel torsion extrusion (MCTE) was designed based on the geometric equivalence of SS, and the cavity parameters of a die were calculated according to strain equivalence. To investigate the characteristics of micro-structural evolution subjected to MCTE, simulated and experimental investigations were conducted. The simulated results indicate that equivalent strain distribution on the cross section is relatively uniform, and the metallographic observations confirm the simulated phenomenon. Transmission electron microscopy investigations show that the process of grain refinement undergoes the formation of shear bands, dislocation cells, dislocation forests, large-angle grain boundaries, and recrystallization nuclei. Two types of mechanisms are proposed in view of the different effects of SS on grain refinement. Eventually, MCTE is ensured as an effective method for grain refinement.

  17. Microstructural evolution and age hardening in aluminium alloys: Atom probe field-ion microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, S.P.; Hono, K.

    2000-02-01

    This paper examines the microstructural evolution in selected aluminum alloys based on commercial age hardenable 2000, 6000, and 7000 series alloys. Atom probe field-ion microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to examine the effects of microalloying and the origins of hardening. The combined application of these techniques is particularly important in the study of nanoscale precipitation processes. It is shown that the nature and kinetics of the precipitation process depend on the solute-solute interactions that produce solute clusters. The solute clusters precede the formation of GP zones or precipitation, and have a defining role on the nature and kinetics of the subsequent precipitation processes. Moreover, interactions between solute clustering and dislocations can have a significant hardening effect, the origins of which seem to be distinctly different from the conventional notion of precipitation hardening.

  18. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term Irradiation at Elevated Temperature: Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Was, Gary; Jiao, Zhijie; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-20

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, dislocation loop formation and growth, radiation induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, as well as the possibility for void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiation-induced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses to 200 dpa and beyond). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible, as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. This project builds upon joint work at the proposing institutions, under a NERI-C program that is scheduled to end in September, to understand the effects of

  19. Strong influence of polymer architecture on the microstructural evolution of hafnium-alkoxide-modified silazanes upon ceramization.

    PubMed

    Papendorf, Benjamin; Nonnenmacher, Katharina; Ionescu, Emanuel; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Riedel, Ralf

    2011-04-04

    The present study focuses on the synthesis and ceramization of novel hafnium-alkoxide-modified silazanes as well as on their microstructure evolution at high temperatures. The synthesis of hafnia-modified polymer-derived SiCN ceramic nanocomposites is performed via chemical modification of a polysilazane and of a cyclotrisilazane, followed by cross-linking and pyrolysis in argon atmosphere. Spectroscopic investigation (i.e., NMR, FTIR, and Raman) shows that the hafnium alkoxide reacts with the N-H groups of the cyclotrisilazane; in the case of polysilazane, reactions of N-H as well as Si-H groups with the alkoxide are observed. Consequently, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the ceramic nanocomposites obtained from cyclotrisilazane and polysilazane exhibited markedly different microstructures, which is a result of the different reaction pathways of the hafnium alkoxide with cyclotrisilazane and with polysilazane. Furthermore, the two prepared ceramic nanocomposites are unexpectedly found to exhibit extremely different high-temperature behavior with respect to decomposition and crystallization; this essential difference is found to be related to the different distribution of hafnium throughout the ceramic network in the two samples. Thus, the homogeneous distribution of hafnium observed in the polysilazane-derived ceramic leads to an enhanced thermal stability with respect to decomposition, whereas the local enrichment of hafnium within the matrix of the cyclotrisilazane-based sample induces a pronounced decomposition upon annealing at high temperatures. The results indicate that the chemistry and architecture of the precursor has a crucial effect on the microstructure of the resulting ceramic material and consequently on its high-temperature behavior. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microstructural Evolution and Creep-Rupture Behavior of Fusion Welds Involving Alloys for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H., Jr.

    Projections for large increases in the global demand for electric power produced by the burning of fossil fuels, in combination with growing environmental concerns surrounding these fuel sources, have sparked initiatives in the United States, Europe, and Asia aimed at developing a new generation of coal fired power plant, termed Advanced Ultrasupercritical (A-USC). These plants are slated to operate at higher steam temperatures and pressures than current generation plants, and in so doing will offer increased process cycle efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Several gamma' precipitation strengthened Ni-based superalloys have been identified as candidates for the hottest sections of these plants, but the microstructural instability and poor creep behavior (compared to wrought products) of fusion welds involving these alloys present significant hurdles to their implementation and a gap in knowledge that must be addressed. In this work, creep testing and in-depth microstructural characterization have been used to provide insight into the long-term performance of these alloys. First, an investigation of the weld metal microstructural evolution as it relates to creep strength reductions in A-USC alloys INCONELRTM 740, NIMONICRTM 263 (INCONEL and NIMONIC are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation), and HaynesRTM 282RTM (Haynes and 282 are registered trademarks of Haynes International) was performed. gamma'-precipitate free zones were identified in two of these three alloys, and their development was linked to the evolution of phases that precipitate at the expense of gamma'. Alloy 282 was shown to avoid precipitate free zone formation because the precipitates that form during long term aging in this alloy are poor in the gamma'-forming elements. Next, the microstructural evolution of INCONELRTM 740H (a compositional variant of alloy 740) during creep was investigated. Gleeble-based interrupted creep and creep-rupture testing was used to

  1. Effect of processing routes in a multi-pass continuous hybrid process on mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture evolutions of low-carbon steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sun Kwang; Baek, Hyun Moo; Joo, Ho Seon; Im, Yong-Taek

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a multi-pass continuous hybrid (CH) process was experimentally applied with up to five passes with three processing routes, A, Bc, and C, to check the practicality of the processing routes and investigate their effect on the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture evolutions of low-carbon steel wires. According to the present investigation, the wires processed by the 5th pass CH process with route A showed the highest ultimate tensile strength value (762 MPa) compared to those for routes Bc (718 MPa) and C (720 MPa), respectively. Based on the compression test results, the CH processed wire showed good workability when the aspect ratio was smaller than 2.4 for all the processing routes. According to the microstructure and texture evolutions, the grain sizes of the 5th pass CH processed wires decreased for all the processing routes than that of the initial specimen, and the wires showed mixed texture distribution of shear and drawing texture components. From the present investigation, it was concluded that the processing routes of the CH process could strongly affect the microstructure and texture evolutions, resulting in changes of the mechanical properties and workability of the low-carbon steel wires.

  2. Thermal and temporal evolution of microstructure in polycrystalline ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kondal, Neha; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

    2016-05-06

    Tug between electronics and spintronics has opened up new area of research named as dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), ZnO is one of the most reliable candidates for spintronic devices and DMS. Since, pure and transition metal doped polycrystalline ZnO shows room temperature ferromagnetism, therefore it is very important to gain insight into its microstructure (MS) evolution. We report thermal evolution of MS of pure ZnO on sintering it at 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C in ambient atmosphere for two hours. Temporal evolution at fixed temperature was analyzed using mean field model of internal energy and entropy. Grain size of ZnO MS were analyzed using integral breadth method of X-ray diffraction (XRD) lines using Voigt profile fit,. XRD line corresponding to [101] plane shifts from 36.17° to 36.28° whereas grain size increases from 67.5 nm to 93.7 nm with increase of temperature from 23°C to 800°C respectively. Grain growth with increase of temperature show Arrhenius type behavior with activation energy of 30.77 kJ-mol{sup −1} and temporal growth shows diffusive behavior with exponent 0.5.

  3. FEM Analysis of Defects and Microstructure Evolution during Hot Working of Specialty Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Victor

    2010-06-15

    The main goals of process simulation in manufacturing are to reduce manufacturing/part development time and cost as well as increasing quality and productivity. In this study, porosity evolution is modeled by introducing a porosity evolution parameter, which is function of strain rate and stress triaxiality factor. Applicability is shown by simulating the first two stages of an ingot conversion process; variables are die geometry and bite size. Moreover, application is extended to hot shape rolling, where the geometry of the oval passes is the variable. Validation is carried out through evaluation of samples from final products. Also, surface defects in hot shape rolling are tracked by studying the instability during the rolling of the material. Plastic work approach was used to judge the occurrence of instability during the process. The effect of number of passes and roll gap was examined to predict the occurrence of surface cracking. On the other hand, unrecrystallized grains and coarse grain problem are other significant problems in the metalworking industry. A recrystallization model is implemented in a finite element framework, to study the effect of forging parameters on the microstructure evolution during ingot conversion process of a superalloy.

  4. Microstructural Evolutions During Annealing of Plastically Deformed AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel: Martensite Reversion, Grain Refinement, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghizadeh, Meysam; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2016-08-01

    Microstructural evolutions during annealing of a plastically deformed AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated. Three distinct stages were identified for the reversion of strain-induced martensite to austenite, which were followed by the recrystallization of the retained austenite phase and overall grain growth. It was shown that the primary recrystallization of the retained austenite postpones the formation of an equiaxed microstructure, which coincides with the coarsening of the very fine reversed grains. The latter can effectively impair the usefulness of this thermomechanical treatment for grain refinement at both high and low annealing temperatures. The final grain growth stage, however, was found to be significant at high annealing temperatures, which makes it difficult to control the reversion annealing process for enhancement of mechanical properties. Conclusively, this work unravels the important microstructural evolution stages during reversion annealing and can shed light on the requirements and limitations of this efficient grain refining approach.

  5. Influence of process parameters on the microstructural evolution of a rear axle tube during cross wedge rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jia-wei; Yang, Cui-ping; Zheng, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Kang-sheng; Ma, Wen-yu

    2016-11-01

    In the shaping process of cross wedge rolling (CWR), metal undergoes a complex microstructural evolution, which affects the quality and mechanical properties of the product. Through secondary development of the DEFORM-3D software, we developed a rigid plastic finite element model for a CWR-processed rear axle tube, coupled with thermomechanical and microstructural aspects of workpieces. Using the developed model, we investigated the microstructural evolution of the CWR process. Also, the influence of numerous parameters, including the initial temperature of workpieces, the roll speed, the forming angle, and the spreading angle, on the grain size and the grain-size uniformity of the rolled workpieces was analyzed. The numerical simulation was verified through rolling and metallographic experiments. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental results, which demonstrated the reliability of the model constructed in this work.

  6. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties during Q&P processing of medium-carbon steels with different silicon levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenicek, S.; Vorel, I.; Kana, J.; Opatova, K.; Rubesova, K.; Kotesovec, V.; Masek, B.

    2017-03-01

    Evolution of microstructure during heat treatment plays a fundamental role in the resulting mechanical properties of steel. Today, mechanical properties in conjunction with technological properties, such as weldability, formability, and machinability, and their optimum combinations, are widely discussed in a number of mechanical engineering disciplines. In this manner, requirements arise for developing steels which could offer high strength and good formability, and which could be used for making parts with high resistance to failure and with a long life. One present-day example of such steels involves Q&P-processed martensitic steels. Their properties are dictated by their treatment, as well as their alloying, particularly by the silicon content. Silicon fundamentally affects microstructure evolution during Q&P processing and, as a result, mechanical properties. With this way it is possible to receive microstructures consinsting of martensite and retained austenite with an ultimate tensile stress of more than 1600 MPa and a uniform elongation of more than 12 %.

  7. Evolution of Microstructure and Texture During Hot Compression of a Ni-Fe-Cr Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coryell, S. P.; Findley, K. O.; Mataya, M. C.; Brown, E.

    2012-02-01

    Superalloys are being employed in more extreme conditions requiring higher strength, which requires producers to forge products to finer grain sizes with less grain size variability. To assess grain size, crystallographic texture, and substructure as a function of forging conditions, frictionless uniaxial compression testing characteristic of hot working was performed on INCOLOY 945 (Special Metals Corporation, Huntington, WV), which is a newly developed hybrid of alloys 718 and 925, over a range of temperatures and strain rates. The microstructure and texture were investigated comprehensively using light optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to provide detailed insight into microstructure evolution mechanisms. Dynamic recrystallization, nucleated by grain/twin boundary bulging with occasional subgrain rotation, was found to be a dominant mechanism for grain refinement in INCOLOY 945. At higher strain rates, static recrystallization occurred by grain boundary migration. During deformation, duplex slip along {111} planes occurred until a stable <110> fiber compression texture was established. Recrystallization textures were mostly random but shifted toward the compression texture with subsequent deformation. An exception occurred at 1423 K (1150 °C) and 0.001 seconds-1, the condition with the largest fraction of recrystallized grains, where a <100> fiber texture developed, which may be indicative of preferential growth of specific grain orientations.

  8. Precipitation hardening and microstructure evolution of the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy during aging.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ruowei; Liu, Huiqun; Yi, Danqing; Wan, Weifeng; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dingchun; Gao, Qi; Xu, Yanfei; Tang, Qian

    2016-06-01

    A biomedical β titanium alloy (Ti-7Nb-10Mo) was designed and prepared by vacuum arc self-consumable melting. The ingot was forged and rolled to plates, followed by quenching and aging. Age-hardening behavior, microstructure evolution and its influence on mechanical properties of the alloy during aging were investigated, using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, tensile and hardness measurements. The electrochemical behavior of the alloy was investigated in Ringer's solution. The microstructure of solution-treated (ST) alloy consists of the supersaturated solid solution β phase and the ωath formed during athermal process. The ST alloy exhibits Young's modulus of 80 GPa, tensile strength of 774 MPa and elongation of 20%. The precipitation sequences during isothermal aging at different temperatures were determined as β+ωath→β+ωiso (144 h) at Taging=350-400 °C, β+ωath→β+ωiso+α→β+α at Taging=500°C, and β+ωath→β+α at Taging=600-650 °C, where ωiso forms during isothermal process. The mechanical properties of the alloy can be tailored easily through controlling the phase transition during aging. Comparing with the conventional Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy is more resistant to corrosion in Ringer's solution. Results show that the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy is promising for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ti segregation in regulating the stress and microstructure evolution in W-Ti nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaub, Tyler; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2017-08-01

    This paper explores the effect of Ti's segregation and corresponding effect on the intrinsic thin film growth stress and microstructural evolution in a series of W1-x(Ti)x alloys where x is varied from 0 to 20 at. %. We report that the addition of the Ti solute reduces the compressive W growth stress, with further reductions achieved through in-situ annealing during growth. Upon examination of the microstructure, Ti did not appear to have a dramatic effect in altering the film's grain size and distribution, but it did increase the fraction of low angle grain boundaries. We confirmed that the A15 to bcc W phase transformation, which occurs in the early stages of W growth, diminished with increasing Ti content. This has been explained with respect to Ti's preference for gettering residual oxygen, a known stabilizer for the A15 phase. Collectively, this work demonstrates the impact of solute segregation in the control of residual stresses, specific grain boundary formations, and phase transformation control in growing thin films.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Fracture Behavior of Friction-Stir-Welded Al-Cu Laminated Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygi, R.; Kazeminezhad, Mohsen; Kokabi, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to characterize the microstructural evolution during friction stir butt welding of Al-Cu-laminated composites and its effect on the fracture behavior of the joint. Emphasis is on the material flow and particle distribution in the stir zone. For this purpose, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, energy-dispersive spectroscopy EDS and XRD analyses, hardness measurements, and tensile tests are carried out on the joints. It is shown that intermetallic compounds exist in lamellas of banding structure formed in the advancing side of the welds. In samples welded from the Cu side, the banding structure in the advancing side and the hook formation in the retreating side determine the fracture behavior of the joint. In samples welded from the Al side, a defect is formed in the advancing side of the weld, which is attributed to insufficient material flow. It is concluded that the contact surface of the laminate (Al or Cu) with the shoulder of the FSW tool influences the material flow and microstructure of welds.

  11. Influence of tempering temperature on both the microstructural evolution and elemental distribution in AISI 4340 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Nam Suk; Bang, Chan Woo; Das, Sanjeev; Jin, Hyun Woo; Ayer, Raghavan; Park, Chan Gyung

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, the influence of tempering temperature on the microstructural evolution and prior austenite grain boundary segregation of AISI 4340 steels was investigated by transmission electron microscope and atom probe. The transmission electron microscopy results showed a variation in the microstructure and the morphology of carbides with a change in tempering temperature. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the prior austenite grain boundaries and carbides were quantified by atom probe tomography. An increase in the tempering temperature led to a decrease in the amount of carbon segregated at the prior austenite grain boundary from 7.9 to 1.3 at.%. It was found that a higher tempering temperature can accelerate the diffusion of carbon from the prior austenite grain boundary into carbide. However, phosphorus atoms were segregated mainly at the prior austenite grain boundary in steel tempered at 400°C (up to 0.18 at.%). It was found that formation of film-like carbide and phosphorus segregation along the prior austenite grain boundary is the main cause of embrittlement in steel tempered at 400°C.

  12. Microstructure evolution of Ag–8Au–3Pd alloy wire during electromigration

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Rui; Gao, Liming; Li, Ming; Mao, Dali; Qian, Kaiyou; Chiu, Hope

    2015-12-15

    As the continuous shrinkage of the interconnect line width in microelectronics devices, there is a growing concern about the electromigration (EM) failure of bonding wire. In addition, an innovative Ag–8Au–3Pd alloy wire has shown promise as an economical substitute for gold wire interconnects due to the cost pressure of gold in the last decade. In present study of the Ag–8Au–3Pd alloy wire, the surface diffusion occupied the dominant position during EM failure, and the activation energy was found to be 0.61 eV. In order to reveal the failure mechanism, the cross-sections of the Ag–8Au–3Pd alloy wire during EM were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining for electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The microstructure evolution of the Ag–8Au–3Pd alloy wire was characterized by the grain size and grain boundary. As a result, the EM failure originates in the atom transportation, which causes grain size increasing and atom diffusion on the wire surface. - Highlights: • The activation energy of Ag–8Au–3Pd alloy wire was obtained as 0.61 eV. • During EM, the silver atoms diffused from negative to the positive terminal on the wire surface. • The microstructure (grain size and grain boundary) was characterized by FIB-EBSD. • During EM, the atom transportation was found to cause grain size growth and atom diffusion on the wire surface.

  13. Microstructural Evolution and Constitutive Relationship of M350 Grade Maraging Steel During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthi, K. V. A.; Koundinya, N. T. B. N.; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2017-02-01

    Maraging steels exhibit extraordinary strength coupled with toughness and are therefore materials of choice for critical structural applications in defense, aerospace and nuclear engineering. Thermo-mechanical processing is an important step in the manufacture of these structural components. This process assumes significance as these materials are expensive and the mechanical properties obtained depend on the microstructure evolved during thermo-mechanical processing. In the present study, M350 grade maraging steel specimens were hot isothermally compressed in the temperature range of 900-1200 °C and in the strain rate range of 0.001-100 s-1, and true stress-true strain curves were generated. The microstructural evolution as a function of strain rate and temperature in the deformed compression specimens was studied. The effect of friction between sample and compression dies was evaluated, and the same was found to be low. The measured flow stress data was used for the development of a constitutive model to represent the hot deformation behavior of this alloy. The proposed equation can be used as an input in the finite element analysis to obtain the flow stress at any given strain, strain rate, and temperature useful for predicting the flow localization or fracture during thermo-mechanical simulation. The activation energy for hot deformation was calculated and is found to be 370.88 kJ/mol, which is similar to that of M250 grade maraging steel.

  14. Thixoforming of an ECAPed Aluminum A356 Alloy: Microstructure Evolution, Rheological Behavior, and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Kaio Niitsu; Zoqui, Eugênio José

    2016-04-01

    Thixoforming depends upon three aspects: (a) solid to liquid transformation; (b) size and morphology of the remaining solid phase in the semisolid state, and (c) the effect of both input factors on rheology of the semisolid slurry. The aluminum A356 alloy presents an ideal solid to liquid transformation, but the solidification process generates coarse aluminum dendrites surrounded by eutectic. In this regard, Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) has great potential as a method for manufacturing thixotropic raw material due to its grain refining effect. Therefore, the microstructure evolution and rheological behavior in the semisolid state of an ECAPed aluminum A356 alloy were investigated. Samples were heated up to 853 K (580 °C) and held for 0, 30, 60, 90, 210, and 600 seconds at this temperature. The isothermal heat treatment caused the globularization of the solid phase without any significant microstructure coarsening. Compression tests were carried out at the same temperature and holding times using an instrumented mechanical press. Apparent viscosities values close to 250 Pa s were obtained, revealing the exceptional rheological behavior of the produced samples. The thixoformed material also presented good mechanical properties, with high yield and ultimate tensile strength values (YS = 110/122 MPa, UTS = 173/202), and good ductility (E = 6.9/7.5 pct). These results indicate that the production of the A356 alloy via the ECAP process increases its thixoformability.

  15. Microstructure and texture evolution of TRC A8006 alloy by homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong-wei; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Xiao-lei

    2013-05-01

    The microstructure and texture evolution of twin-roll cast A8006 alloy by homogenization were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and the microhardness was tested as well. According to the relationship between dendritic arm spacing and cooling rate the cooling rate of the as-cast twin-roll cast A8006 sheet of 6 mm in thickness was estimated as 1.48×103 K·s-1. It is found that the grains and the nanostructural precipitates of the twin-roll cast sheet become coarser after homogenization at 580°C for 4 h in comparison with those after homogenization at 500°C for 8 h. The textures formed after cold rolling and became weaker during homogenization. The increase in hardness of the as-cast twin-roll cast sheets is related to the supersaturated α-Al solid solution and fine microstructure, but the decrease in hardness after homogenization can be attributed to the coarsening of grains and Al6Fe(Mn) precipitates.

  16. Microstructural Evolution and Constitutive Relationship of M350 Grade Maraging Steel During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthi, K. V. A.; Koundinya, N. T. B. N.; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2017-03-01

    Maraging steels exhibit extraordinary strength coupled with toughness and are therefore materials of choice for critical structural applications in defense, aerospace and nuclear engineering. Thermo-mechanical processing is an important step in the manufacture of these structural components. This process assumes significance as these materials are expensive and the mechanical properties obtained depend on the microstructure evolved during thermo-mechanical processing. In the present study, M350 grade maraging steel specimens were hot isothermally compressed in the temperature range of 900-1200 °C and in the strain rate range of 0.001-100 s-1, and true stress-true strain curves were generated. The microstructural evolution as a function of strain rate and temperature in the deformed compression specimens was studied. The effect of friction between sample and compression dies was evaluated, and the same was found to be low. The measured flow stress data was used for the development of a constitutive model to represent the hot deformation behavior of this alloy. The proposed equation can be used as an input in the finite element analysis to obtain the flow stress at any given strain, strain rate, and temperature useful for predicting the flow localization or fracture during thermo-mechanical simulation. The activation energy for hot deformation was calculated and is found to be 370.88 kJ/mol, which is similar to that of M250 grade maraging steel.

  17. Microstructural evolution in a low carbon steel during cold rolling and subsequent annealing.

    PubMed

    Ghassemali, E; Kermanpur, A; Najafizadeh, A

    2010-09-01

    Cold rolling with subsequent annealing of lath martensite structure could lead to the formation of nanostructures in low carbon steels. In the present work, the microstructural evolution of a 0.13% C steel during this process was studied. The specimens were austenitized at 950 degrees C followed by quenching in ice-brine to get martensitic structure. The quenched samples were aged at 200 degrees C for 30 min. These specimens were cold rolled up to 90% reduction in thickness without any intermediate annealing and then annealed at the temperatures from 400 to 600 degrees C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and color metallography was used to investigate the microstructure. Microscopic investigations showed that a multiphase nanostructure composed of equiaxed ferrite grains with the mean grain size of about 188 nm and small blocks of tempered martensite can be achieved under annealing at 400 degrees C for 90 min. Formation of the nanostructure was discussed from the viewpoint of characteristics of the martensite starting structure. Fragmentation of martensite lathes in cold rolling stage play an important role on recrystallization at annealing stage to get the ultrafine structure.

  18. Residual Ductility and Microstructural Evolution in Continuous-Bending-under-Tension of AA-6022-T4

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Milovan; Roemer, Timothy J.; Knezevic, Marko; Korkolis, Yannis P.; Kinsey, Brad L.

    2016-01-01

    A ubiquitous experiment to characterize the formability of sheet metal is the simple tension test. Past research has shown that if the material is repeatedly bent and unbent during this test (i.e., Continuous-Bending-under-Tension, CBT), the percent elongation at failure can significantly increase. In this paper, this phenomenon is evaluated in detail for AA-6022-T4 sheets using a custom-built CBT device. In particular, the residual ductility of specimens that are subjected to CBT processing is investigated. This is achieved by subjecting a specimen to CBT processing and then creating subsize tensile test and microstructural samples from the specimens after varying numbers of CBT cycles. Interestingly, the engineering stress initially increases after CBT processing to a certain number of cycles, but then decreases with less elongation achieved for increasing numbers of CBT cycles. Additionally, a detailed microstructure and texture characterization are performed using standard scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction imaging. The results show that the material under CBT preserves high integrity to large plastic strains due to a uniform distribution of damage formation and evolution in the material. The ability to delay ductile fracture during the CBT process to large plastic strains, results in formation of a strong <111> fiber texture throughout the material. PMID:28773257

  19. Heat transfer and solidification microstructure evolution of continuously cast steel by non-steady physical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Peng; Nguyen, Diem Ai; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Cho, Jung-Wook

    2017-05-01

    The heat transfer and solidification microstructure evolution during continuous casting were experimentally studied in this work. A new approach to physically simulate the steel solidification behavior during continuous casting was developed. Six steel grades with different solidification mode were introduced to elucidate the carbon equivalent dependent mold heat flux, prior austenite grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacing. It is found that the non-steady mold heat fluxes in the experiment against time for all steel grades are comparative to that versus distance in practical continuous casting. Due to the occurrence of L→L+δ→δ+γ→γ transformation with the largest amount of volume contraction in hypo-peritectic steel, it shows the lowest mold heat flux among these six steel grades. It is also demonstrated from the solidification microstructure results that the prior austenite grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacing in the physical simulation are in good agreement with those in continuously cast strand. In addition, the steel with a higher temperature for the onset of δ→γ transformation reveals the larger prior austenite grains resulted from the higher grains growth rate in the post solidification process.

  20. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Varga, Tamas; Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu; Edmondson, Dr. Philip; Xue, Haizhou; Liu, Peng; Moll, Sandra; Namavar, Fereydoon; Hardiman, Chris; Shannon, Prof. Steven; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is

  1. Microstructural modelling of cerebral aneurysm evolution through effective stress mediated destructive remodelling.

    PubMed

    Nabaei, Malikeh; Fatouraee, Nasser

    2014-08-07

    Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in the biomechanical modelling of cerebral aneurysm development. In the present study a fluid-solid-growth model for the formation of a fusiform aneurysm has been presented in an axi-symmetric geometry of the internal carotid artery. This model is the result of two parallel mechanisms: first, defining arterial wall as a living tissue with the ability of degradation, growth and remodelling and second, full coupling of the wall and the blood flow. Here for the first time the degradation of elastin has been defined as a function of vascular wall effective stress to take into account the shear dependent nature of degradation and the mural-cell-mediated destructive activities. The model has been stabilized in size and mechanical properties and is consistent with other computational or clinical studies. Furthermore, the evolving microstructural properties of the wall during the evolution process have been predicted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intergrannular strain evolution in a zircaloy-4 alloy with Widmanstatten microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Bjorn; Vogel, Sven C; Garlea, Eena; Choo, Hahn; Pang, Judy W L; Kenik, Edward A

    2009-01-01

    A Zircaloy-4 alloy with Widmanstatten-Basketweave microstructure and random texture has been used to study the deformation systems responsible for the polycrystalline plasticity at the grain level. The evolution of internal strain and bulk texture is investigated using neutron diffraction and an elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) modeling scheme. The macroscopic stress-strain behavior and intergranular (hkil-specific) strain development, parallel and perpendicular to the loading direction, were measured in-situ during uniaxial tensile loading. Then, the EPSC model was employed to simulate the experimental results. This modeling scheme accounts for the thermal anisotropy; elastic-plastic properties of the constituent grains; and activation, reorientation, and stress relaxation associated with twinning. The agreement between the experiment and the model will be discussed as well as the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) and the hardening coefficients obtained from the model.

  3. Microstructure evolution during isochronal annealing of a 42% cold rolled TRIP-TWIP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, S.; Saleh, A. A.; Santos, D. B.; Pereloma, E. V.; Gazder, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    A high manganese TRIP-TWIP steel was cold rolled to 42% thickness reduction and isochronally annealed between 600 to 900 °C for 300 s. The microstructural evolution during annealing was studied by high resolution electron back-scattering diffraction. After cold rolling, the steel comprised predominant fraction of α'-martensite, a small fraction of blocky ε-martensite and a trace fraction of retained austenite (γ). During annealing, the reversion of ε and α' martensite to γ was followed by the recrystallisation of γ. While the processes of reversion to and recrystallisation of γ were completed by 700 °C, further annealing between 750 to 900 °C led to γ grain growth. A novel method to delineate the γ-γ grain boundaries was developed in order to accurately quantify γ grain size and subsequently the activation energy for γ grain growth.

  4. Microstructure and Texture Evolutions in AISI 1050 Steel by Flow Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Bedekar, Vikram; Pauskar, Praveen; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Howe, Jane Y

    2014-01-01

    Hot rolled and annealed AISI 1050 steel cylindrical coupons were flow formed at different levels of deformation (66% and 90% wall thickness reduction). TEM studies revealed development of ultra fine (sub) grain cell structure due to severe plastic deformation. The transverse subgrain size changed from 10 m (beginning) to 300nm (66% deformation) to 40nm (90% deformation). EBSD study revealed decreased recrystallization fraction at 90% deformation compared with 66% deformation due to orientation pinning from preferred orientation along {002} planes. No evidence of dislocation pinning or cracking was observed on any samples. The aim of the present work is to study the deformation behaviour and microstructural evolution during conventional flow forming process. The study also sheds light on the strengthening behaviour and structural changes during severe straining.

  5. Effect of Impact and Penetration on Microstructural Evolution of High-performance Concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Mattus, Catherine H; Wang, Jy-An John; Dipaolo, Beverly P

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increased concern of public safety in recent years, blast resistance of infrastructures has become an emerging research focus in the cement and concrete industry. Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with fiber reinforcement usually possesses compressive strengths greater than 200 MPa, which makes them promising candidates for blast-resistant building materials. In the current project, two UHPC materials, Ductal and ERDC-M, were subject to projectile penetration testing. The microstructural evolution due to projectile impact was examined via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Possible phase changes were observed in the impact volume, which was likely a result of the high temperature and high pressure induced by the impact.

  6. Microstructural evolution in wire-drawn Ti-22Al-26Nb powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, C. G.; Smith, P. R.; Hanusiak, W. H.; Shepard, M. J.

    2000-11-01

    The microstructural evolution in Ti-22Al-26Nb, as it was drawn from hot isostatically pressed powder to a 0.13 mm wire, is followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The primary α 2 particles present in the starting powder persist throughout the drawing process, although they undergo both morphological and crystallographic changes. They are altered from 4 to 5- µm-diameter, equiaxed particles to 1 to 2- µm-diameter, highly elongated particles by the drawing process. In addition, these primary particles transform in situ to α 2 + O phases. There is considerable oxygen pickup during the intermediate annealing cycles, but the increased oxygen has not deleteriously affected room-temperature tensile ductility.

  7. Effect of localized microstructural evolution on higher harmonic generation of guided wave modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gloria; Liu, Yang; Yao, Xiaochu; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2015-03-01

    Higher harmonic generation of ultrasonic waves has the potential to be used to detect precursors to macroscale damage of phenomenon like fatigue due to microstructural evolution contributing to nonlinear material behavior. Aluminum plates having various plastic zone sizes were plastically deformed to different levels. The fundamental shear horizontal mode was then generated in the plate samples via a magnetostrictive transducer. After propagating through the plastic zone the primary wave mode (SH0) and its third harmonic (sh0) were received by a second transducer. Results of a parallel numerical study using the S1-s2 Lamb mode pair, where sensitivity to changes in third order elastic constants were investigated, are described within the context of the experimental results. Specimens used within both studies are geometrically similar and have double edge notches for dog bone samples that introduce localized plastic deformation. Through both studies, the size of the plastic zone with respect to the propagation distance and damage intensity influence the higher harmonics.

  8. Evolution of microstructure in vanadium oxide bolometer film during annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Xing-Wang; Li, Jing-Bo; Dou, Yan-Kun; Rehman, Fida; Su, De-Zhi; Jin, Hai-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared through direct current magnetron reactive sputtering and post annealing process. The evolution of composition, microstructure, and electrical properties of as-deposited amorphous films during the annealing process was clarified by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and temperature-dependent resistance measurement. A new composition of thin film was acquired which consisted of crystalline V6O13 and amorphous phase. Sheet resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the thin film are 90 kΩ/□ (measured at room temperature) and 2.52%/K, respectively. No metal-to-semiconductor transition was observed in the obtained film at temperatures ranging from room-temperature to 90 °C, suggesting the thin film is suitable for the application in microbolometer.

  9. Microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti during ion irradiation at 200{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Loomis, B.A. Chung, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    The results of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat no. 832665) that was irradiated with 4.5 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup ++} ions at 200 {degrees}C are presented. Dose effects were investigated for fluences ranging from 0.5 to 5 dpa. When the irradiation dose was increased, the relative number density of black dots and dislocation loops was nearly constant and accompanied by an increase in the size of the defects. Cavity formation was not observed in any of the specimens, indicating high resistance of the alloy to void swelling at the lower temperature of the experiments.

  10. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-05

    Amorphous Hf2Co11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo3B2, Hf6Co23 and Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf2Co11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.

  11. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-05

    Amorphous Hf2Co11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo3B2, Hf6Co23 andmore » Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf2Co11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.« less

  12. A variational treatment of material configurations with application to interface motion and microstructural evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna

    2017-02-01

    We present a unified variational treatment of evolving configurations in crystalline solids with microstructure. The crux of our treatment lies in the introduction of a vector configurational field. This field lies in the material, or configurational, manifold, in contrast with the traditional displacement field, which we regard as lying in the spatial manifold. We identify two distinct cases which describe (a) problems in which the configurational field's evolution is localized to a mathematically sharp interface, and (b) those in which the configurational field's evolution can extend throughout the volume. The first case is suitable for describing incoherent phase interfaces in polycrystalline solids, and the latter is useful for describing smooth changes in crystal structure and naturally incorporates coherent (diffuse) phase interfaces. These descriptions also lead to parameterizations of the free energies for the two cases, from which variational treatments can be developed and equilibrium conditions obtained. For sharp interfaces that are out-of-equilibrium, the second law of thermodynamics furnishes restrictions on the kinetic law for the interface velocity. The class of problems in which the material undergoes configurational changes between distinct, stable crystal structures are characterized by free energy density functions that are non-convex with respect to configurational strain. For physically meaningful solutions and mathematical well-posedness, it becomes necessary to incorporate interfacial energy. This we have done by introducing a configurational strain gradient dependence in the free energy density function following ideas laid out by Toupin (1962, Elastic materials with couple-stresses. Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 11, 385-414). The variational treatment leads to a system of partial differential equations governing the configuration that is coupled with the traditional equations of nonlinear elasticity. The coupled system of equations governs

  13. A variational treatment of material configurations with application to interface motion and microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna

    2016-11-20

    We present a unified variational treatment of evolving configurations in crystalline solids with microstructure. The crux of our treatment lies in the introduction of a vector configurational field. This field lies in the material, or configurational, manifold, in contrast with the traditional displacement field, which we regard as lying in the spatial manifold. We identify two distinct cases which describe (a) problems in which the configurational field's evolution is localized to a mathematically sharp interface, and (b) those in which the configurational field's evolution can extend throughout the volume. The first case is suitable for describing incoherent phase interfaces in polycrystalline solids, and the latter is useful for describing smooth changes in crystal structure and naturally incorporates coherent (diffuse) phase interfaces. These descriptions also lead to parameterizations of the free energies for the two cases, from which variational treatments can be developed and equilibrium conditions obtained. For sharp interfaces that are out-of-equilibrium, the second law of thermodynamics furnishes restrictions on the kinetic law for the interface velocity. The class of problems in which the material undergoes configurational changes between distinct, stable crystal structures are characterized by free energy density functions that are non-convex with respect to configurational strain. For physically meaningful solutions and mathematical well-posedness, it becomes necessary to incorporate interfacial energy. This we have done by introducing a configurational strain gradient dependence in the free energy density function following ideas laid out by Toupin (Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 11, 1962, 385-414). The variational treatment leads to a system of partial differential equations governing the configuration that is coupled with the traditional equations of nonlinear elasticity. The coupled system of equations governs the configurational change in crystal

  14. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous Hf2Co11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo3B2, Hf6Co23, and Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf2Co11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.

  15. Microstructural Evolution and Domain Structures of Flux-grown Ferroelectric Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Matthew James

    Barium titanate is one of the most commonly utilized dielectric materials for commercial applications. As devices continue to scale smaller, it is necessary to find processing routes that allow for the integration of high-permittivity barium titanate into the thin film geometry. In the bulk, high permittivity barium titanate can be produced at high processing temperatures (>1250°C). This is several hundred degrees higher than many low temperature substrates are able to withstand, which makes integration of high-permittivity barium titanate onto these substrates a challenge.One method to lower the processing temperature and maintain bulk-like permittivity of barium titanate thin films is through the addition of a liquid forming flux. The fluxing agent increases the kinetics of the system while encouraging densification. This increase in kinetics results in large-grained, dense samples, with high dielectric properties at relatively low processing temperatures. In this dissertation, the underlying mechanisms of how the flux system actually impacts the microstructural evolution of physically vapor deposited barium titanate thin films on sapphire substrates is explored. The flux-system utilized is the barium-borate system (BaOB2O3). It will be shown that the flux system results in large-grained, dense barium titanate thin films grown on sapphire. However, the evolution of the microstructure depends on a complex interaction between the liquid forming flux, a reaction between the sapphire substrate and barium titanate, the resulting reactionary phase of BaAl2O4, and {111}-barium titanate twins. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  16. Creep Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of P92 Steel During Creep Test at 873 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuogui; Shi, Kexian; Wang, Yanfeng; Lin, Fusheng

    In this paper, the creep behavior of P92 steel has been analyzed by creep strain and creep rate variations after the creep tests were stopped at the steady-state creep stage. The microstructure evolution of the P92 steel at the steady-state stage during creep test at 873 K under different load stresses of 125-160 MPa were studied by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The grain boundary characteristics in the P92 steels during creep test were investigated by an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. Experimental results showed that with increasing load stresses from 125 MPa to 160 MPa, creep rates of the P92 steels increased in Norton's power law relation and creep times to the steady-state creep stage decreased. With decreasing load stresses and increasing creep times, martensite lath microstructure occurred recovery and the dislocation densities in ferritic matrix decreased. M23C6 particles located in prior austenite grain, sub-grain and lath boundaries showed slight coarsening. Some Laves phase particles precipitated in the grain boundaries for the P92 specimens after creep test under a load stress of 125 MPa. Comparing to as-tempered P92 steel, the volume fractions of LAGBs are lower and the volume fraction of HAGBs are higher with decreasing load stresses and increasing creep times. It is considered that understanding on creep behavior and microstructual evolution of the P92 steels during creep test will effectively support life design and assessment of the high temperature metal parts in fossil-fired power plant.

  17. A variational treatment of material configurations with application to interface motion and microstructural evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna

    2016-11-20

    We present a unified variational treatment of evolving configurations in crystalline solids with microstructure. The crux of our treatment lies in the introduction of a vector configurational field. This field lies in the material, or configurational, manifold, in contrast with the traditional displacement field, which we regard as lying in the spatial manifold. We identify two distinct cases which describe (a) problems in which the configurational field's evolution is localized to a mathematically sharp interface, and (b) those in which the configurational field's evolution can extend throughout the volume. The first case is suitable for describing incoherent phase interfaces inmore » polycrystalline solids, and the latter is useful for describing smooth changes in crystal structure and naturally incorporates coherent (diffuse) phase interfaces. These descriptions also lead to parameterizations of the free energies for the two cases, from which variational treatments can be developed and equilibrium conditions obtained. For sharp interfaces that are out-of-equilibrium, the second law of thermodynamics furnishes restrictions on the kinetic law for the interface velocity. The class of problems in which the material undergoes configurational changes between distinct, stable crystal structures are characterized by free energy density functions that are non-convex with respect to configurational strain. For physically meaningful solutions and mathematical well-posedness, it becomes necessary to incorporate interfacial energy. This we have done by introducing a configurational strain gradient dependence in the free energy density function following ideas laid out by Toupin (Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 11, 1962, 385-414). The variational treatment leads to a system of partial differential equations governing the configuration that is coupled with the traditional equations of nonlinear elasticity. The coupled system of equations governs the configurational change in crystal

  18. Microstructural coarsening in Sn-Ag-based solders and its effects on mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, I.; Kumar, P.; Subbarayan, G.

    2009-06-01

    Solders based on Sn-Ag alloys are susceptible to microstructural coarsening during storage or service, resulting in evolution of joint properties, and hence reliability, over time. Coarsening can occur during static aging, and even faster during thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC). The kinetics of coarsening may also depend on the scale of the joint. These effects lead to evolution of the mechanical properties of the joint over time, as well as spatial variations of property within the joint. Therefore, accurate prediction of joint properties during service or storage requires a quantitative understanding of coarsening under both isothermal and TMC conditions, and incorporating these in constitutive laws. This paper discusses the kinetics of coarsening in Sn-Ag based solders, and presents a rationale for joint-scale dependence of coarsening. The impact of coarsening on creep and fracture properties of joints under drop conditions are also presented.

  19. Monitoring microstructural evolution of alloy 617 with non-linear acoustics for remaining useful life prediction; multiaxial creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting

    SciTech Connect

    Lissenden, Cliff; Hassan, Tasnin; Rangari, Vijaya

    2014-10-30

    The research built upon a prior investigation to develop a unified constitutive model for design-­by-­analysis of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs). Model development requires a set of failure data from complex mechanical experiments to characterize the material behavior. Therefore uniaxial and multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting tests were conducted on the nickel-­base Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C. The time dependence of material behavior, and the interaction of time dependent behavior (e.g., creep) with ratcheting, which is an increase in the cyclic mean strain under load-­controlled cycling, are major concerns for NGNP design. This research project aimed at characterizing the microstructure evolution mechanisms activated in Alloy 617 by mechanical loading and dwell times at elevated temperature. The acoustic harmonic generation method was researched for microstructural characterization. It is a nonlinear acoustics method with excellent potential for nondestructive evaluation, and even online continuous monitoring once high temperature sensors become available. It is unique because it has the ability to quantitatively characterize microstructural features well before macroscale defects (e.g., cracks) form. The nonlinear acoustics beta parameter was shown to correlate with microstructural evolution using a systematic approach to handle the complexity of multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting deformation. Mechanical testing was conducted to provide a full spectrum of data for: thermal aging, tensile creep, uniaxial fatigue, uniaxial creep-­fatigue, uniaxial creep-ratcheting, multiaxial creep-fatigue, and multiaxial creep-­ratcheting. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Optical Microscopy were conducted to correlate the beta parameter with individual microstructure mechanisms. We researched

  20. Microstructural aspects of fatigue in Ni-base superalloys.

    PubMed

    Antolovich, Stephen D

    2015-03-28

    Nickel-base superalloys are primarily used as components in jet engines and land-based turbines. While compositionally complex, they are microstructurally simple, consisting of small (50-1000 nm diameter), ordered, coherent Ni(3)(Al,Ti)-type L1(2) or Ni(3)Nb-type DO(22) precipitates (called γ(') and γ(''), respectively) embedded in an FCC substitutional solid solution consisting primarily of Ni and other elements which confer desired properties depending upon the application. The grain size may vary from as small as 2 μm for powder metallurgy alloys used in discs to single crystals the actual size of the component for turbine blades. The fatigue behaviour depends upon the microstructure, deformation mode, environment and cycle time. In many cases, it can be controlled or modified through small changes in composition which may dramatically change the mechanism of damage accumulation and the fatigue life. In this paper, the fundamental microstructural, compositional, environmental and deformation mode factors which affect fatigue behaviour are critically reviewed. Connections are made across a range of studies to provide more insight. Modern approaches are pointed out in which the wealth of available microstructural, deformation and damage information is used for computerized life prediction. The paper ends with a discussion of the very important and highly practical subject of thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). It is shown that physics-based modelling leads to significantly improved life prediction. Suggestions are made for moving forward on the critical subject of TMF life prediction in notched components. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress and Microstructure Development in Particle-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Kyle Kirk-Arthur

    Particle-based coatings have a wide range of uses and applications in everyday life. Stress development during the drying process has the potential to impact the performance of the coating. Stress development can be monitored in-situ using a cantilever deflection technique with a laser-photodiode combination. Stress development in the film is directly related to the development of the coating microstructure during drying. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is a powerful characterization method capable of visualizing the microstructure of the coating during the intermediate stages of drying. Using this method, the coating is frozen to arrest microstructure development and solidify the sample so that it can survive the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. This thesis explores the connections between stress and microstructure development in particle-based coatings during drying. Characterization is often complicated by lateral drying, a common phenomenon in particle-based coatings. To avoid these complications, walled substrates were developed which are used to suppress lateral drying and promote drying uniformity. CryoSEM revealed that latex coatings dried on substrates (with photoresist walls) exhibit a greater degree of drying uniformity. Silicon cantilevers with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) walls along the perimeter were used to suppress the effects of lateral drying during stress measurement. The walled cantilevers were used to characterize stress development in ceramic particle coatings and latex films. For the ceramic particle coatings, stress measurements were combined with cryoSEM revealing the origins of stress development in hard particle coatings. Stress development was correlated with the extent of drying and the degree of saturation in the coating. Stress development in latex particle coatings was influenced by the composition and morphology of the latex particles. Additionally, the influence of coalescing aids on stress development was

  2. Microstructures and microhardness evolutions of melt-spun Al-8Ni-5Nd-4Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-03-15

    Al-Ni-Nd-Si alloy with nominal composition of Al-8 wt.%Ni-5 wt.%Nd-4 wt.%Si was rapidly solidified by using melt-spinning technique to examine the influence of the cooling rate/conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties. The resulting conventional cast (ingot) and melt-spun ribbons were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and Vickers microhardness tester. The ingot alloys consists of four phases namely {alpha}-Al, intermetallic Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 11}Nd{sub 3} and fcc Si. Melt-spun ribbons are completely composed of {alpha}-Al phase. The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results show that the microstructures of rapidly solidified ribbons are clearly different from their ingot alloy. The change in microhardness is discussed based on the microstructural observations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid solidification allows a reduction in grain size, extended solid solution ranges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed the matrix lattice parameter increases with increasing wheel speed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt-spun ribbons consist of partly amorphous phases embedded in crystalline phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solidification rate is high enough to retain most of alloying elements in the Al matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rapid solidification has effect on the phase constitution.

  3. Microstructure Evolution and Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadke, Shreyash; Khatirkar, Rajesh K.; Shekhawat, Satish K.; Jain, Shreyans; Sapate, Sanjay G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of quenching and aging treatment on microstructure and abrasive wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The as-received alloy was solution treated at 1339 K, then oil quenched, followed by aging at 823 K for 4 h (14,400 s). The microstructures of as-received and quench-aged specimens were characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction techniques. The as-received specimen consisted of very fine α grains (average grain size 2 μm) with β phase uniformly dispersed throughout. The microstructure of the quench-aged specimen showed α plates (formed by the decomposition of α' during aging). The β phase precipitated out of α' martensite during aging and hence was dispersed uniformly in the α matrix. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was quench-aged to achieve maximum hardness with a view that the increased hardness would lead to an improvement in abrasive wear behavior. Two-body abrasive wear tests were carried out on the as-received and quench-aged specimens using pin-on-disk apparatus with SiC as abrasive media (150-grit size). The effect of sliding distance and normal load on the abrasive wear behavior was studied. The wear resistance of the as-received specimen was greater than that of quench-aged specimen, while hardness of the as-received specimen was lower than that of quench-aged specimen. The abrasive wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been explained based on morphology/microstructure of the alloy and the associated wear mechanism(s).

  4. A novel method of multi-scale simulation of macro-scale deformation and microstructure evolution on metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiquan; Yi, Youping; Li, Pengchuan

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, multi-scale simulation technique of metal forming is gaining significant attention for prediction of the whole deformation process and microstructure evolution of product. The advances of numerical simulation at macro-scale level on metal forming are remarkable and the commercial FEM software, such as Deform2D/3D, has found a wide application in the fields of metal forming. However, the simulation method of multi-scale has little application due to the non-linearity of microstructure evolution during forming and the difficulty of modeling at the micro-scale level. This work deals with the modeling of microstructure evolution and a new method of multi-scale simulation in forging process. The aviation material 7050 aluminum alloy has been used as example for modeling of microstructure evolution. The corresponding thermal simulated experiment has been performed on Gleeble 1500 machine. The tested specimens have been analyzed for modeling of dislocation density, nucleation and growth of recrystallization(DRX). The source program using cellular automaton (CA) method has been developed to simulate the grain nucleation and growth, in which the change of grain topology structure caused by the metal deformation was considered. The physical fields at macro-scale level such as temperature field, stress and strain fields, which can be obtained by commercial software Deform 3D, are coupled with the deformed storage energy at micro-scale level by dislocation model to realize the multi-scale simulation. This method was explained by forging process simulation of the aircraft wheel hub forging. Coupled the results of Deform 3D with CA results, the forging deformation progress and the microstructure evolution at any point of forging could be simulated. For verifying the efficiency of simulation, experiments of aircraft wheel hub forging have been done in the laboratory and the comparison of simulation and experiment result has been discussed in details.

  5. Microstructure-Based Counterfeit Detection in Metal Part Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachowicz, Adam; Chaduvula, Siva Chaitanya; Atallah, Mikhail; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2017-08-01

    Counterfeiting in metal part manufacturing has become a major global concern. Although significant effort has been made in detecting the implementation of such counterfeits, modern approaches suffer from high expense during production, invasiveness during manufacture, and unreliability in practice if parts are damaged during use. In this paper, a practical microstructure-based counterfeit detection methodology is proposed, which draws on inherent randomness present in the microstructure as a result of the manufacturing process. An optical Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) protocol is developed which takes a micrograph as input and outputs a compact, unique string representation of the micrograph. The uniqueness of the outputs and their robustness to moderate wear and tear is demonstrated by application of the methodology to brass samples. The protocol is shown to have good discriminatory power even between samples manufactured in the same batch, and runs on the order of several seconds per part on inexpensive machines.

  6. The microstructural evolution of clay-bearing carbonate faults during high-velocity friction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Rachael; De Paola, Nicola; Holdsworth, Robert

    2014-05-01

    nanoparticles and often containing bubbles as evidence for frictional heating and thermal decomposition of calcite. Initial microstructure of the wet gouges, on the other hand, is characterized by a distributed and interconnected network of wet clay surrounding calcite grains. The microstructure of the sheared wet gouges is characterized by a diffuse PSS, limited fabric development, and no PSZ; deformation is much more distributed. In addition, grain-size reduction in the wet gouges is ~1 order of magnitude less than in dry gouge equivalents. Thus, we attribute the contrasting frictional behaviour and microstructural evolution in the dry vs. wet gouges to the fact that in the wet gouges, distributed slip preferentially occurs on the pre-existing, weak clay network. This reduces the need for grain-breakage to occur before slip is able to localize, explaining the lack of a slip-hardening phase. Shear induced compaction of the wet clay-bearing gouges is also likely to generate a considerable pore-fluid overpressure within the impermeable clay network, further contributing to their weak behaviour. The lack of resistance to frictional sliding shown by the wet clay-bearing gouges contrasts with the traditional concept that phyllosilicates, due to their velocity-strengthening nature, should have a stabilizing role in upper crustal fault zones, and has significant implications for seismic hazard in the Apennines.

  7. Competing Effects Of Electronic And Nuclear Energy Loss On Microstructural Evolution In Ionic-covalent Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Varga, Tamas; Ishimaru, Manabu; Edmondson, P. D.; Xue, H.; Liu, Peng; Moll, Sandra; Hardiman, Christopher M.; Shannon, Steven; Weber, William J.

    2014-05-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence

  8. Compositional Effects on Nickel-Base Superalloy Single Crystal Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Garg,Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen nickel-base superalloy single crystals containing 0 to 5 wt% chromium (Cr), 0 to 11 wt% cobalt (Co), 6 to 12 wt% molybdenum (Mo), 0 to 4 wt% rhenium (Re), and fixed amounts of aluminum (Al) and tantalum (Ta) were examined to determine the effect of bulk composition on basic microstructural parameters, including gamma' solvus, gamma' volume fraction, volume fraction of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases, phase chemistries, and gamma - gamma'. lattice mismatch. Regression models were developed to describe the influence of bulk alloy composition on the microstructural parameters and were compared to predictions by a commercially available software tool that used computational thermodynamics. Co produced the largest change in gamma' solvus over the wide compositional range used in this study, and Mo produced the largest effect on the gamma lattice parameter and the gamma - gamma' lattice mismatch over its compositional range, although Re had a very potent influence on all microstructural parameters investigated. Changing the Cr, Co, Mo, and Re contents in the bulk alloy had a significant impact on their concentrations in the gamma matrix and, to a smaller extent, in the gamma' phase. The gamma phase chemistries exhibited strong temperature dependencies that were influenced by the gamma and gamma' volume fractions. A computational thermodynamic modeling tool significantly underpredicted gamma' solvus temperatures and grossly overpredicted the amount of TCP phase at 982 C. Furthermore, the predictions by the software tool for the gamma - gamma' lattice mismatch were typically of the wrong sign and magnitude, but predictions could be improved if TCP formation was suspended within the software program. However, the statistical regression models provided excellent estimations of the microstructural parameters based on bulk alloy composition, thereby demonstrating their usefulness.

  9. Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Single- and Multiple-Pass Friction Stir Processing of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadammal, Naresh; Kailas, Satish V.; Szpunar, Jerzy; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-09-01

    Microstructure and crystallographic texture evolution during single- and multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) of an age-hardenable aluminum alloy 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) was investigated. Multiple-pass experiments were carried out using two different processing strategies, multi-pass FSP, and multi-track FSP. Effect of a post-FSP heat treatment above and below the solutionizing temperature of the alloy was also studied. FSP experiments were carried out using an optimal set of parameters. Characterization tools used in the study include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural features indicate the occurrence of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) assisted dynamic recrystallization (DRX) as the dominant microstructural evolution mechanism in the nugget zone. Geometrical coalescence occurred, leading to the formation of some larger grains in the nugget zone. Heterogenous micro-texture distribution was observed in the nugget zone with the bulk textures consisting of FCC shear texture components dominated by A 1*/ A 2* and C. Microstructure and texture in the nugget zone remained stable after both routes of multiple-pass processing, demonstrating the possibility of FSP to produce bulk volume of fine-grained materials. Post-FSP heat treatment indicated the stability of microstructure and texture up to 723 K (450 °C) owing to relatively lower strain energies retained after FSP.

  10. Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Single- and Multiple-Pass Friction Stir Processing of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadammal, Naresh; Kailas, Satish V.; Szpunar, Jerzy; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-06-01

    Microstructure and crystallographic texture evolution during single- and multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) of an age-hardenable aluminum alloy 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) was investigated. Multiple-pass experiments were carried out using two different processing strategies, multi-pass FSP, and multi-track FSP. Effect of a post-FSP heat treatment above and below the solutionizing temperature of the alloy was also studied. FSP experiments were carried out using an optimal set of parameters. Characterization tools used in the study include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural features indicate the occurrence of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) assisted dynamic recrystallization (DRX) as the dominant microstructural evolution mechanism in the nugget zone. Geometrical coalescence occurred, leading to the formation of some larger grains in the nugget zone. Heterogenous micro-texture distribution was observed in the nugget zone with the bulk textures consisting of FCC shear texture components dominated by A 1*/A 2* and C. Microstructure and texture in the nugget zone remained stable after both routes of multiple-pass processing, demonstrating the possibility of FSP to produce bulk volume of fine-grained materials. Post-FSP heat treatment indicated the stability of microstructure and texture up to 723 K (450 °C) owing to relatively lower strain energies retained after FSP.

  11. Recrystallization Microstructure Character of Annealing Strip Steel Based on the Compact Strip Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Huiping; Li, Degang; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zili

    Recrystallization microstructure evolution in cold rolled low carbon compact strip production (CSP) steel was observed by means of optical microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM).The influence of fine precipitates on microstructure of strip steel during the recrystallization annealing was analysed by using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique, and the textures evolution was investigated by means of ODF analysis. It was found that the deoxidation residual solute precipitate at the grain boundary during rapid cooling in the CSP process, these fine particles responsible for retarding ferrite grain coalescence and growth during annealing, thus the recrystallization microstructure of CSP strip steel show unique characteristics.

  12. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Ran, Guang; Chen, Nanjun; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Yaoli

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt %) Tm2O3 powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm2O3 was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O) was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt %) Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O) solid solution. PMID:28773955

  13. The effect of urea on microstructures of Ni3S2 on nickel foam and its hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    The effects of urea concentration on microstructures of Ni3S2formed on nickel foam and its hydrogen evolution reaction were investigated. The Ni3S2 nanosheets with porous structure were formed on nickel foam during hydrothermal process due to low urea concentration. While high urea concentration facilitated the forming of Ni3S2 nanotube arrays. The resulting Ni3S2 nanotube arrays exhibited higher catalytic activity than Ni3S2nanosheets for hydrogen evolution reaction. This was mainly attributed to a fact that Ni3S2 nanotube arrays facilitated diffusion of electrolyte for hydrogen evolution reaction.

  14. Streambed microstructure predicts evolution of development and life history mode in the plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis.

    PubMed

    Bonett, Ronald M; Chippindale, Paul T

    2006-03-02

    Habitat variation strongly influences the evolution of developmentally flexible traits, and may drive speciation and diversification. The plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis is endemic to the geologically diverse Ozark Plateau of south-central North America, and comprises both strictly aquatic paedomorphic populations (achieving reproductive maturity while remaining in the larval form) and more terrestrial metamorphic populations. The switch between developmental modes has occurred many times, but populations typically exhibit a single life history mode. This unique system offers an opportunity to study the specific ecological circumstances under which alternate developmental and life history modes evolve. We use phylogenetic independent contrasts to test for relationships between a key microhabitat feature (streambed sediment) and this major life history polymorphism. We find streambed microstructure (sediment particle size, type and degree of sorting) to be highly correlated with life-history mode. Eurycea tynerensis is paedomorphic in streams containing large chert gravel, but metamorphoses in nearby streams containing poorly sorted, clastic material such as sandstone or siltstone. Deposits of large chert gravel create loosely associated streambeds, which provide access to subsurface water during dry summer months. Conversely, streambeds composed of more densely packed sandstone and siltstone sediments leave no subterranean refuge when surface water dries, presumably necessitating metamorphosis and use of terrestrial habitats. This represents a clear example of the relationship between microhabitat structure and evolution of a major developmental and life history trait, and has broad implications for the role of localized ecological conditions on larger-scale evolutionary processes.

  15. Streambed microstructure predicts evolution of development and life history mode in the plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Ronald M; Chippindale, Paul T

    2006-01-01

    Background Habitat variation strongly influences the evolution of developmentally flexible traits, and may drive speciation and diversification. The plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis is endemic to the geologically diverse Ozark Plateau of south-central North America, and comprises both strictly aquatic paedomorphic populations (achieving reproductive maturity while remaining in the larval form) and more terrestrial metamorphic populations. The switch between developmental modes has occurred many times, but populations typically exhibit a single life history mode. This unique system offers an opportunity to study the specific ecological circumstances under which alternate developmental and life history modes evolve. We use phylogenetic independent contrasts to test for relationships between a key microhabitat feature (streambed sediment) and this major life history polymorphism. Results We find streambed microstructure (sediment particle size, type and degree of sorting) to be highly correlated with life-history mode. Eurycea tynerensis is paedomorphic in streams containing large chert gravel, but metamorphoses in nearby streams containing poorly sorted, clastic material such as sandstone or siltstone. Conclusion Deposits of large chert gravel create loosely associated streambeds, which provide access to subsurface water during dry summer months. Conversely, streambeds composed of more densely packed sandstone and siltstone sediments leave no subterranean refuge when surface water dries, presumably necessitating metamorphosis and use of terrestrial habitats. This represents a clear example of the relationship between microhabitat structure and evolution of a major developmental and life history trait, and has broad implications for the role of localized ecological conditions on larger-scale evolutionary processes. PMID:16512919

  16. Microstructure evolution and degradation mechanisms of reactor internal steel irradiated with heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, O. V.; Bryk, V. V.; Kalchenko, A. S.; Parkhomenko, A. A.; Shilyaev, B. A.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Voyevodin, V. N.

    2009-03-01

    Structure evolution and degradation mechanisms during irradiation of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel (material of VVER-1000 reactor internals are investigated). Using accelerator irradiations with Cr3+ and Ar+ ions allowed studying effects of dose rate, different initial structure state and implanted ions on features of structure evolution and main mechanisms of degradation including low temperature swelling and embrittlement of the 18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel. It is shown that differences in dose rate at most irradiation temperatures mainly exert their influence on the duration of the swelling transient regime. Calculations of possible transmutation products during irradiation of this steel in a VVER-1000 spectrum were performed. It is shown that gaseous atoms (He and H), which are generated simultaneously with radiation defects, stabilize the elements of radiation microstructure and influence the swelling. The nature of deformation under different temperatures of irradiation and of mechanical testing is investigated. It is shown that the temperature sensitivity of swelling behaviour in the investigated steel, with different initial structures can be connected with the dynamic behaviour of point defect sinks.

  17. The microstructure evolution of hydrogenated microcrystalline germanium promoted by power gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyu; Ni, Jian; Li, Chang; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Li, Zhenglong; Cai, Hongkun; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the microstructure evolution of hydrogenated microcrystalline germanium (μc-Ge:H) thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). There is an amorphous incubation layer formed in the initial deposition stage of μc-Ge:H thin film. It is demonstrated that the thickness of incubation layer can be reduced by high hydrogen dilution and high discharge power method. However, at high hydrogen dilution, the deposition rate of μc-Ge:H appears a sharply decrease. Using a high discharge power can compensate the deposition rate decrease but lead to decrease of average grain size and appearance of micro-void in the μc-Ge:H thin film. In addition, by comparing two thickness groups of μc-Ge:H thin films deposited at different discharge powers, it is noticed that the evolution process relates to the formation of crystal nucleuses. Thus, a power gradient method is proposed to understand the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth in the initial deposition process of μc-Ge:H films. Finally, by power gradient method, the incubation layer thickness of μc-Ge:H thin films has been decreased to less than 6 nm. Moreover, Raman scattering spectra shows a 38 nm μc-Ge:H film has a crystal fraction (XC) of 62.4%. Meanwhile, the mobility of TFT devices shows the improved electrical property of μc-Ge:H film deposited by power gradient method.

  18. Structural and microstructural studies of montmorillonite-based multilayer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kpogbémabou, David; Gridi-Bennadji, Fayza; Hoang, Lê Chiên; Ghilardi, Serge; Jacquet, Alain; Smith, Agnès; Peyratout, Claire

    2014-03-01

    Montmorillonite, an abundant raw material, is a good candidate to obtain textured nanocomposites. However, the resulting structure of the composite depends on the dispersant used. This work aims at investigating the effect of organic polysaccharides, namely carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or chitosan (Ch) differing by their side groups, on the resulting structure of montmorillonite-based nanocomposites. The effect of sodium hexametaphosphate and of two polysaccharide derivatives (carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan) combined with montmorillonite on the structure and microstructure of resulting composite films was investigated using particle size analysis, rheological measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and flexural properties measurements of the textured films. Results showed that the film structure and microstructure depend on the additive. The high organization (and resulting toughness) of the montmorillonite/sodium hexametaphosphate films results from an exfoliated then layered microstructure, whereas the addition of polysaccharide derivatives leads to the particle agglomeration. In this case, two mechanisms are in competition: surface adsorption and intercalation between exfoliated platelets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of microstructural evolution on the spall response of 1100 aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cyril Labode

    In order to develop a better understanding of the spall response of aluminum and aluminum alloys, spall plate impact experiments in conjunction with shock recovery plate impact experiments were conducted using 1100 aluminum. The objectives of this thesis are to first study the effects of peak shock stress, pulse duration, strain rate, and shock induced microstructural evolution on the spall response of 1100-O aluminum. Then the 1100-O aluminum was cold rolled to various percent reductions and shock loaded to different peak shock stresses so that the effects of cold rolling on the spall response of 1100-O aluminum can be studied. These objectives may lead to a better understanding of the substructure evolution and spall failure process of aluminum and aluminum alloys under shock loading conditions and consequently lead to improved hydrocode models and the design of superior armors. Plate impact experiments were conducted to study the effects of peak shock stress and pulse duration on the spall response of fully annealed 1100 aluminum. The spall strength was observed to decrease as the pulse duration was increased from approximately 0.58 mus to 1.17 mus. Also, an increase in tensile unloading strain rate increases the spall strength. However, our results also show an increase in spall strength with increase in peak shock stress up to approximately 8.3 GPa, followed by a decrease in spall strength for higher shock stresses. Next, shock and spall plate impact recovery experiments were conducted to probe the microstructural evolution of fully annealed 1100 aluminum. It was found that as the shock stress is increased from 4.0 to approximately 8.3 GPa, the material shock hardened due to increase in the net dislocation density. Ductile transgranular fracture was identified as the fracture mode for this shock stress range. The decrease in spall strength beyond 8.3 GPa appears to be due to grain refinement induced by dynamic recovery. Brittle intergranular fracture with

  20. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Cold-deformed Al-5Cu Alloy Samples After Isothermal Heat Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Saklakoglu, Nursen; Gencalp, Simge

    2011-01-17

    Abstract.In this paper, the microscopic morphology of a semi solid Al5Cu alloy by strain induced melt activated (SIMA) process were investigated, and the effects of predeformation, microstructural evolution, aging response and hardness changes were determined. The microstructural observation shows that while the grain boundaries started to appear after 620 deg. C, globular grains surrounded wet boundaries needed for SSP were obtained at 650 deg. C. The grain sizes exhibited ununiformity from the outer surface to the center of the sample because of ununiform predeformation. Although isothermal heat treatments reduced hardness, age hardening gave back the hardness loss.

  1. Microstructure evolution and strain localization in Cu and Cu-8Al single crystals subjected to channel-die compression.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Swiatnicki, Wiesław; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Jasienski, Zdzisław

    2006-09-01

    Single crystals of pure Cu and Cu-8%Al with two initial orientations, {112}111 and {112}110, were subjected to monotonic compression in channel-die at room temperature (293 K). The dislocation microstructure and local crystallography were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after different amounts of deformation. Various factors, such as initial single crystal orientation, chemical composition and amount of plastic deformation, were analysed in order to determine their influence on the microstructure evolution, local orientation variations and strain localization phenomena.

  2. Microstructure Evolution and Its Effect on the Wear Performance of HVOF-Sprayed Conventional WC-Co Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dingfa; Xiong, Haoqi; Wang, Qun

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a conventional tungsten carbide 12% cobalt (WC-12Co) coating was deposited by using a liquid fuel JP-8000 high velocity oxyfuel spray system. The properties of the coating namely phase content, microstructure, hardness, porosity, and fracture toughness were examined. The microstructure evolution and its influence on the abrasive wear behavior of the coatings were evaluated in detail by in-situ scanning electron microscopy and a comprehensive model for decarburization of WC has been established using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses.

  3. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  4. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Cold-deformed Al-5Cu Alloy Samples After Isothermal Heat Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saklakoglu, Nursen; Gencalp, Simge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract.In this paper, the microscopic morphology of a semi solid Al5Cu alloy by strain induced melt activated (SIMA) process were investigated, and the effects of predeformation, microstructural evolution, aging response and hardness changes were determined. The microstructural observation shows that while the grain boundaries started to appear after 620° C, globular grains surrounded wet boundaries needed for SSP were obtained at 650° C. The grain sizes exhibited ununiformity from the outer surface to the center of the sample because of ununiform predeformation. Although isothermal heat treatments reduced hardness, age hardening gave back the hardness loss.

  5. Microstructures induced by a stress gradient in a nickel-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, M.; Buffiere, J.Y.; Chaix, J.M. )

    1993-03-01

    The evolution of the microstructure of single crystals of a nickel-based superalloy during high temperature (1,323 K, 1,050 C) creep in bending has been studied. Bending provides both tensile and compressive stress gradients, consequently the effects of varying stress conditions on the evolution of the morphology of the [gamma][prime] precipitates can be determined from a single specimen. The morphological changes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy using image analysis techniques and by transmission electron microscopy, then described by dimensionless parameters. The authors discuss the dependence of the morphological changes in the superalloy on the stresses acting in the sample (magnitude and sign). The authors also discuss the driving mechanisms for the observed morphological changes.

  6. Evolution of microstructure and grain boundary character distribution of a tin bronze annealed at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Weijiu; Chai, Linjiang; Li, Zhijun; Yang, Xusheng; Guo, Ning; Song, Bo

    2016-04-15

    Specimens cut from a rolled tin bronze sheet were annealed at 400–800 °C for 1 h and evolution of their microstructures was then characterized in details by electron channeling contrast imaging and electron backscatter diffraction techniques. Particularly, statistics on special boundaries (SBs) with Σ ≤ 29 and network connectivity of random high angle boundaries (HABs) in the annealed specimens were examined to probe optimization potentials of grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) for this material. Results show that the deformed microstructure in the as-received material begins to be recrystallized when the annealing temperature increase to 500 °C and average grain sizes surge with further increasing temperatures. As a result of the recrystallization, a large number of annealing twins (with Σ3 misorientation) are produced, leading to remarkably increased fractions of SBs (f{sub SBs}). Thanks to preexisting dense low angle boundaries, the majority of SBs in the 500 °C specimen with only partial recrystallization are Σ3{sub ic} (incoherent) boundaries, which effectively disrupt connectivity of random HABs network. Although the f{sub SBs} can be further increased (up to 72.5%) in specimens with full recrystallization (at higher temperatures), the Σ3{sub ic} boundaries would be replaced to some extent by Σ3{sub c} (coherent) boundaries which do not contribute directly to optimizing the GBCD. This work should be able to provide clear suggestions on applying the concept of grain boundary engineering to tin bronze alloys. - Highlights: • The rolled tin bronze begins to be recrystallized as temperature increases to 500 °C. • A lot of SBs are produced after recrystallization and the highest f{sub SBs} is 72.5%. • Partially recrystallized specimen has the optimum GBCD due to more Σ3{sub ic} boundaries. • The Σ3{sub ic} boundaries are replaced by Σ3{sub c} boundaries after full recrystallization.

  7. Evolution of Mineral Fabrics and Microstructures in Kimmeridge Shale upon Kerogen Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, J.; Vanorio, T.; Liu, Y.; Xiao, X.; Benmore, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale has increasingly received attention due to its recent recognition as a potential game changer of US energy outlook. However a fundamental relationship between mineral lattice preferred orientation (LPO or fabrics), kerogen, and elastic properties of shale remains questionable. Here we present different synchrotron X-ray techniques to capture microstructural transformations in Kimmeridge Shale upon temperature-induced anhydrous maturation. At room condition, the sample is mainly composed of clays 72 vol.%, quartz (15 vol.%), pyrite (11 vol.%), and a small amount of pyrite (2 vol.%). Illite-group is the dominating clay with 50 vol.% present. Illite-mica (30 vol.%) shows the highest degree of LPO (3.33 m.r.d.), which is consistent with previous studies (Wenk et al 2008, Voltolini et al. 2009, Kanitpanyacharoen et al. 2011). However the illite-smectite group exhibits relatively weaker degree of LPO due to the disordered nature of the structure. Chlorite shows the least degree of LPO due to its total clay content, which is only 2 vol.%. Upon heating to 300 °C, the phase proportions did not change much and the degrees of all clay minerals fabrics remain fairly consistent. The high-resolution 3D imaging technique allows us to record different stages of kerogen transformation, particularly a significant gas bubble formation at 400 °C. Upon heating up to 500 °C, kerogen shrinkage (17 vol.%) and clay matrix expansion continued and appeared more pronounced after 10 hours of heating. The consistent results from both experiments confirm that no significant change of mineral fabrics and microstructural features below 300 °C observed. These findings further infer that the evolution of clay fabrics and kerogen maturation may affect elastic anisotropy consistently at the temperature below 300 °C. The reduction of kerogen greatly influences elastic anisotropy properties and the identification of the promising source in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

  8. Deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woei-Shyan; Lin, Ching-Rong

    2016-10-01

    The impact deformation behavior and associated microstructural evolution of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at cryogenic temperatures are investigated using a compressive split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Cylindrical specimens are deformed at strain rates of 1 × 103 s-1, 2 × 103 s-1, 3 × 103 s-1 and 5 × 103 s-1 and temperatures of 0 °C, -100 °C and -196 °C. It is shown that the flow stress is strongly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. For a given temperature, the flow stress varies with the strain rate in accordance with a power law relation with an average exponent of 0.157 and an activation energy of 0.7 kJ/mol. Moreover, the coupled effects of the strain rate and temperature on the flow stress are adequately described by the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z). For all test temperatures, catastrophic failure occurs only under the highest strain rate of 5 × 103 s-1, and is the result of adiabatic shear. An increasing strain rate or reducing temperature leads to a greater dislocation density and a smaller grain size. Finally, the dependence of the flow stress on the microstructural properties of the impacted 7075-T6 specimens is well described by a specific Hall-Petch constitutive model with constants of K = 108.3 MPa μm1/2 and K‧ = 16.1 MPa μm, respectively. Overall, the results presented in this study provide a useful insight into the combined effects of strain rate and temperature on the flow resistance and deformability of 7075-T6 alloy and confirm that 7075-T6 is well suited to the fabrication of fuel tanks and related structural components in the aerospace field.

  9. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial and Temporal Correlation in Clusters Undergoing 2-Dimensional Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor); Frazier, D. O.; Rogers, J. R.; Witherow, W. K.; Facemire, B. R.; Inguva, R.; Glicksman, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-limited, capillarity-driven, coarsening of precipitates is an important and intensively studied phenomenon. Coarsening can occur among several microstructural constituents ranging from the primary phases to widely dispersed precipitates. Moreover, coarsening of three-dimensional (3-D) phase domains, occurring via mass transport through a two-dimensional (2-D) diffusion field (called mixed-dimensional phase coarsening) is a cooperative phenomenon that is of practical importance, especially in thin film technologies and catalysis. A primary objective of our current work is to focus on the details of evolving microstructures through a study of 'island' formation in heteroepitaxial film/substrate systems. Whereas this work has been designed for space-based coarsening studies, which require long-duration quality microgravity to observe 3-D Ostwald ripening, a significant amount of work has been performed during ground-based studies to observe diffusional coarsening in a liquid-liquid two-phase system. We have performed the experiment at an isopycnic point to maximize exclusion of gravity-based system disturbance. This has allowed observations of 3-D droplets, immobilized by container wall contact, undergoing coarsening by 2-D diffusion for the required long times (approximately 4 months) using a holographic imaging technique. Although such systems may not be as reliant on long-duration microgravity processing as 3-D systems are, they are of direct relevance to so-called mixed-dimensional coarsening and to the study of heterostructures grown by thin-film technique

  10. Phase-field model simulation of ferroelectric/antiferroelectric materials microstructure evolution under multiphysics loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyi

    Ferroelectric (FE) and closely related antiferroelectric (AFE) materials have unique electromechanical properties that promote various applications in the area of capacitors, sensors, generators (FE) and high density energy storage (AFE). These smart materials with extensive applications have drawn wide interest in the industrial and scientific world because of their reliability and tunable property. However, reliability issues changes its paradigms and requires guidance from detailed mechanism theory as the materials applications are pushed for better performance. A host of modeling work were dedicated to study the macro-structural behavior and microstructural evolution in FE and AFE material under various conditions. This thesis is focused on direct observation of domain evolution under multiphysics loading for both FE and AFE material. Landau-Devonshire time-dependent phase field models were built for both materials, and were simulated in finite element software Comsol. In FE model, dagger-shape 90 degree switched domain was observed at preexisting crack tip under pure mechanical loading. Polycrystal structure was tested under same condition, and blocking effect of the growth of dagger-shape switched domain from grain orientation difference and/or grain boundary was directly observed. AFE ceramic model was developed using two sublattice theory, this model was used to investigate the mechanism of energy efficiency increase with self-confined loading in experimental tests. Consistent results was found in simulation and careful investigation of calculation results gave confirmation that origin of energy density increase is from three aspects: self-confinement induced inner compression field as the cause of increase of critical field, fringe leak as the source of elevated saturation polarization and uneven defects distribution as the reason for critical field shifting and phase transition speed. Another important affecting aspect in polycrystalline materials is the

  11. Microstructure evolution and tensile mechanical properties of thixoformed high performance Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Bo; Du, Zhi-ming

    2015-09-01

    Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are the strongest aluminum alloys which have been widely used for aerospace applications. They are usually machined from the wrought state usually with a high waste percentage. To reduce waste, it is important to thixoform these alloys in near net shape. In this work, the thixoformability of a commercial high performance Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy 7075 was studied. A novel multistep reheating regime was developed in recrystallization and partial melting (RAP) route to obtain spheroidal semi-solid microstructures. The as-extruded 7075 alloy was fully recrystallized for a short holding time using the multistep reheating regime. Semi-solid microstructures with fine and spherical solid grains with a grain size of 40-50 μm embedded in liquid matrix were obtained. The advantage of the multistep reheating regimes over those conventional routes was also discussed. Some wheel-shaped components were thixoformed from the as-received 7075 alloy. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation to fracture of the thixoformed component based on multistep reheating regime, are 510 MPa, 446 MPa and 17.5% respectively. These values are superior to those of the products manufactured with the conventional RAP route. As the results indicated, thixoforming could be conducted based on commercial extruded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, which has important practical significance.

  12. Microstructural Evolution of INCONEL® Alloy 740H® Fusion Welds During Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; DuPont, John N.; de Barbadillo, John J.; Baker, Brian A.; Watanabe, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    Electron microscopy techniques have been used to investigate the cause of premature creep failure in the fusion zone of INCONEL® Alloy 740H® (INCONEL and 740H are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation) welds. The reduced creep rupture lives of all-weld-metal and cross-weld creep specimens (relative to base metal specimens) have been attributed to the presence of large grain boundary regions that were denuded in fine γ' but contained coarse, elongated particles. Investigation of creep rupture specimens has revealed four factors that influence the formation of these coarsened zones, and the large particles found within them have been identified as γ'. Comparisons of the microstructural characteristics of these zones to the characteristics that are typical of denuded zones formed by a variety of mechanisms identified in the literature have been made. It is concluded that the mechanism of γ'-denuded zone formation in alloy 740H is discontinuous coarsening of the γ' phase. The discontinuous reaction is catalyzed by the grain boundary migration and sliding which occur during creep and likely promoted by the inhomogeneous weld metal microstructure that results from solute segregation during solidification. The increased susceptibility to the formation of the observed γ'-denuded zones in the weld metal as compared to the base metal is discussed in the context of differences in the contributions to the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction.

  13. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Binfeng; Lu, Fenggui

    2017-04-05

    The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability.

  14. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunxia; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Binfeng; Lu, Fenggui

    2017-01-01

    The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability. PMID:28772745

  15. Interfacial Microstructure Evolution and Shear Strength of Titanium Sandwich Structures Fabricated by Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Fan, Minyu; Li, Jinlong; Tao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The corrugated sandwich structure, consisting of a CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) core between two Ti-6Al-4V face sheets, was brazed using pasty Ti-37.5Zr-15Cu-10Ni as filler alloy, at the temperature of 870°C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The effect of brazing time on the microstructure and elemental distribution of the brazed joints was examined by means of SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses. It was found that various intermetallic phases were formed in the brazed joints, following a brazing time of 5 min, and their contents were decreased by the increment of brazing time, while prolonged brazing time resulted in a fine, acicular Widmanstätten microstructure throughout the entire joint. In addition, shear testing was performed in the brazed corrugated specimens in order to indirectly assess the quality of the joints. The debonding between CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V was observed in the specimen brazed for 5 min and the fracture of the CP Ti corrugated core occurred after 30 min of brazing time. Additionally, when brazed for 10 min or 20 min, brittle intermetallic compounds in the joints and the grain growth of the base metal were controllable. Therefore, the sandwich structures failed without debonding in the joints or fracture within the base metal, demonstrating a good combination of strength and ductility.

  16. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai; Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  17. Size effects on plasticity and fatigue microstructure evolution in FCC single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Awady, Jaafar Abbas

    In aircraft structures and engines, fatigue damage is manifest in the progressive emergence of distributed surface cracks near locations of high stress concentrations. At the present time, reliable methods for prediction of fatigue crack initiation are not available, because the phenomenon starts at the atomic scale. Initiation of fatigue cracks is associated with the formation of Persistent slip bands (PSBs), which start at certain critical conditions inside metals with specific microstructure dimensions. The main objective of this research is to develop predictive computational capabilities for plasticity and fatigue damage evolution in finite volumes. In that attempt, a dislocation dynamics model that incorporates the influence of free and internal interfaces on dislocation motion is presented. The model is based on a self-consistent formulation of 3-D Parametric Dislocation Dynamics (PDD) with the Boundary Element method (BEM) to describe dislocation motion, and hence microscopic plastic flow in finite volumes. The developed computer models are bench-marked by detailed comparisons with the experimental data, developed at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Lab (WP-AFRL), by three dimensional large scale simulations of compression loading on micro-scale samples of FCC single crystals. These simulation results provide an understanding of plastic deformation of micron-size single crystals. The plastic flow characteristics as well as the stress-strain behavior of simulated micropillars are shown to be in general agreement with experimental observations. New size scaling aspects of plastic flow and work-hardening are identified through the use of these simulations. The flow strength versus the diameter of the micropillar follows a power law with an exponent equal to -0.69. A stronger correlation is observed between the flow strength and the average length of activated dislocation sources. This relationship is again a power law, with an exponent -0.85. Simulation results

  18. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of SUS430/C11000/SUS430 composites during the laser-forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazari, Hamed Delfan; Seyedkashi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Gollo, Mohammad Hoseinpour; Moon, Young Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Multilayered sheet metals have been widely used to achieve a wide range of favorable mechanical, physical, thermal and electrical properties. Laser beam irradiation over these materials creates extreme temperature changes that can lead to changes in the microstructural properties. Microstructure plays a very crucial role in determining the mechanical property of the irradiated region, thus determining the optimum laser processing conditions. In this study, metallographic studies, as well as tensile, fatigue and hardness tests, are undertaken on SUS430/C11000/SUS430 laminated composites that have been exposed to laser irradiation with different number of passes. This composite can be used in the microelectronics industry since it has the anti-corrosion and strength capability of stainless steel, and the electrical superiority of copper. Ytterbium fiber laser is used in such a way that the governing mechanism of the process is the temperature gradient mechanism. Evolution of the microstructure is revealed by metallography, and the fracture levels of tension and fatigue test specimens are further evaluated by SEM. This study illustrates the significant effects of successive laser irradiation on the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties, which lead to some suggestions for improving the properties of laser-formed SUS430/C11000/SUS430 composites.

  19. Evolution of the microstructure of unmodified and polymer modified asphalt binders with aging in an accelerated weathering tester.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Ilaria; Masad, Eyad

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents findings on the evolution of the surface microstructure of two asphalt binders, one unmodified and one polymer modified, directly exposed to aging agents with increasing durations. The aging is performed using an accelerated weathering tester, where ultraviolet radiation, oxygen and an increased temperature are applied to the asphalt binder surface. Ultraviolet and dark cycles, which simulated the succession of day and night, alternated during the aging process, and also the temperature varied, which corresponded to typical summer day and night temperatures registered in the state of Qatar. Direct aging of an exposed binder surface is more effective in showing microstructural modifications than previously applied protocols, which involved the heat treatment of binders previously aged with standardized methods. With the new protocol, any molecular rearrangements in the binder surface after aging induced by the heat treatment is prevented. Optical photos show the rippling and degradation of the binder surface due to aging. Microstructure images obtained by means of atomic force microscopy show gradual alteration of the surface due to aging. The original relatively flat microstructure was substituted with a profoundly different microstructure, which significantly protrudes from the surface, and is characterized by various shapes, such as rods, round structures and finally 'flower' or 'leaf' structures.

  20. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Welding of Mill-Annealed Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilchak, A. L.; Tang, W.; Sahiner, H.; Reynolds, A. P.; Williams, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    In this study, mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V plates were successfully friction stir welded over a wide range of processing parameters using a tungsten-1 pct La2O3 tool. Two K-type thermocouples embedded in the tool indicated that approximately 25 pct of the heat generated during welding was transferred out of the workpiece and into the tool. The thermocouple data, combined with observations of the microstructure, indicated that the stir zone of all welds exceeded the β transus. The microstructure and texture of two representative welds made just above and high above the β transus were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The β phase orientations were reconstructed with a fully automated technique from the as-collected α phase data through knowledge of the Burgers orientation relationship. The results suggest that the fine β grains in the stir zone are formed from the base material ahead of the advancing tool by dissolution of secondary and primary α phase, and there is no further recrystallization. These grains subsequently deform by slip and rotate toward the orientations that are most stable with respect to the shear deformation induced by the tool. In the highest temperature weld, diffusion tool wear in the form of periodically spaced bands provided an internal marker of the tool/workpiece interface during welding. The flow patterns evident within the tungsten-enriched bands suggest that flow is considerably more chaotic on the advancing side than in the central stir zone.

  1. Phase transformation and microstructural evolution of nanostructured oxides and nitrides under ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fengyuan

    Material design at the nanometer scale is an effective strategy for developing advanced materails with enhanced radiation tolerance for advanced nuclear energy systems as high densities of surfaces and interfaces of the nanostructured materials may behave as effective sinks for defect recovery. However, nanostructured materials may not be intrinsically radiation tolerant, and the interplay among the factors of crystal size, temperature, chemical composition, surface energy and radiation conditions may eventually determine material radiation behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the radiation effects of nanostructured materials and the underlying physics for the design of advanced nanostructured nuclear materials. The main objective of this doctoral thesis is to study the behavior of nanostructured oxides and nitrides used as fuel matrix and waste forms under extreme radiation conditions with the focus of phase transformation, microstructural evolution and damage mechanisms. Radiation experiments were performed using energetic ion beam techniques to simulate radiation damage resulting from energetic neutrons, alpha-decay events and fission fragments, and various experimental approaches were employed to characterize materials’ microstructural evolution and phase stability upon intense radiation environments including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal annealing experiments indicated that nanostructured ZrO2 phase stability is strongly affected by the grain size. Radiation results on nanostructured ZrO2 indicated that thermodynamically unstable or metastable high temperature phases can be induced by energetic beam irradiation at room temperature. Various phase transformation among different polymorphs of monoclinic, tetragonal and amorphous states can be induced, and different mechanisms are responsible for structural transformations including oxygen vacancies accumulation upon displacive

  2. Helium effects on microstructural evolution in tempered martensitic steels: In situ helium implanter studies in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Odette, George R.; Miao, Pifeng; Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2009-04-30

    Microstructural evolutions in tempered martensitic steels (TMS) under neutron-irradiation, at fusion relevant He/dpa ratios and dpa rates, were characterized using a novel in situ He-implanter technique. F82H-mod3 was irradiated at 500 C in HFIR to a nominal 9 dpa and 190 or 380 appm He in both in the as-tempered (AT) and 20% cold-worked (CW) conditions. In all cases, a high number density of 1-2 nm He-bubbles were observed, along with fewer but larger 10 nm void-like faceted cavities. The He-bubbles form preferentially on dislocations and various interfaces. A slightly larger number of smaller He bubbles were observed in the CW condition. The lower He/dpa ratio produced slightly smaller and fewer He-bubbles. Comparisons of these observations to the results in nano-structured ferritic alloy (NFA) MA957 provide additional evidence that TMS may be susceptible to He-embrittlement as well as void swelling at fusion relevant He concentrations, while NFA are much more resistant to these degradation phenomena.

  3. Thermal evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, In-Tae; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chong M.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen

    2009-04-20

    The thermal evolution of the microstructure created by irradiation of a GaN single crystal with 2 MeV Au2+ ions at 150 K is characterized following annealing at 973 K using transmission electron microscopy. In the as-irradiated sample characterized at 300 K, Ga nanocrystals with the diamond structure, which is an unstable configuration for Ga, are directly observed together with nitrogen bubbles in the irradiation-induced amorphous layer. Upon thermal annealing, the thickness of the amorphous layer decreases by ~13.1 %, and nano-beam electron diffraction analysis indicates no evidence for residual Ga nanocrystals, but instead reveals a mixture of hexagonal and cubic GaN phases in the annealed sample. Nitrogen molecules, captured in the as-irradiated bubbles, appear to debond and react with the Ga nanocrystals during the thermal annealing to form crystalline GaN. In addition, electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements reveal an atomic volume change of 18.9 % for the as-irradiated amorphous layer relative to the virgin single crystal GaN. This relative swelling of the damaged layer reduces to 7.7 % after thermal annealing. Partial recrystallization and structural relaxation of the GaN amorphous state are believed responsible for the volume change.

  4. Dislocations via incompatibilities in phase-field models of microstructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, R.; Marchand, B.; Lookman, T.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a phase-field model that describes the elastic distortion of a ferroelastic material with cubic anisotropy due to an arbitrary dislocation network and a uniform external load. The dislocation network is characterized using the Nye tensor and enters the formulation via a set of incompatibility constraints for the internal strain field. The long-range elastic response of the material is obtained by minimization of the free energy that accounts for higher-order terms of the order parameters and symmetry-adapted strain gradients. The influence of dislocations on the microstructure is studied using a static equilibrium analysis of a material without dislocations and with a random array of parallel edge dislocations. A minimal continuum dislocation dynamics is then used to investigate the simultaneous evolution of the network of geometrically necessary dislocations and the internal strain field. The model developed here is directly applicable to single-phase cubic crystals with an arbitrary degree of anisotropy as well as to ferroelastic materials undergoing temperature-driven cubic-to-tetragonal phase transitions.

  5. Transmitted light relaxation and microstructure evolution of ferrofluids under gradient magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Li, Decai; Li, Feng; Zhu, Quanshui; Xie, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Using light transmission experiments and optical microscope observations with a longitudinal gradient magnetic field configuration, the relationship between the behavior of the transmitted light relaxation and the microstructure evolution of ionic ferrofluids in the central region of an axisymmetric field is investigated. Under a low-gradient magnetic field, there are two types of relaxation process. When a field is applied, the transmitted light intensity decreases to a minimum within a time on the order of 101-102 s. It is then gradually restored, approaching its initial value within a time on the order of 102 s. This is type I relaxation, which corresponds to the formation of magnetic columns. After the transmission reaches this value, it either increases or decreases slowly, stabilizing within a time on the order of 103 s, according to the direction of the field gradient. This is a type II relaxation, which results from the shadowing effect, corresponding to the motion of the magnetic columns under the application of a gradient force. Under a magnetic field with a centripetal high-gradient (magnetic materials subjected to a force pointing toward the center of the axisymmetric field), the transmitted light intensity decreases monotonously and more slowly than that under a low-gradient field. Magnetic transport and separation resulted from magnetophoresis under high-gradient fields, changing the formation dynamics of the local columns and influencing the final state of the column system.

  6. Microstructure evolution and advanced performance of Mn3O4 nanomorphologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Ding, Guoji; Zhang, Dong; Jiao, Zheng; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L; Chen, Zhiwen

    2012-04-21

    Mn(3)O(4) morphologies with tetragonal single-crystal nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanorods and nanofractals were successfully prepared by a widely applicable chemical reaction route. The morphologies were synthesized using the reactants MnCl(2)·4H(2)O, H(2)O(2), and NaOH in a suitable surfactant and alkaline solution. The dripping speed of the NaOH solution plays an important role in the microstructure evolution of Mn(3)O(4) morphologies. The difference in the dripping speed of NaOH solutions leads to different Mn(3)O(4) nanomorphologies, which are called nanoparticles, nanorods and nanofractals. The average grain size of the Mn(3)O(4) nanoparticles ranged from a few to several tens of nanometers. The Mn(3)O(4) nanorods were smooth, straight, and the geometrical shape was structurally perfect. Their lengths ranged from several hundred nanometers to a few micrometers, and their diameters ranged from 10 nm to 30 nm. The fractal branches of the Mn(3)O(4) nanofractals were a few micrometers in length and several hundred nanometers in width. The catalytic properties of these Mn(3)O(4) nanomorphologies for the degradation of phenol were evaluated in detail. The results indicated that the Mn(3)O(4) nanofractals possess remarkable catalytic activity for the degradation of phenol in water treatment.

  7. Microstructural evolution during reheating of A356 machining chips at semisolid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Wen-qiang; Xiao, Wen-long; Yamagata, Hiroshi; Ma, Chao-li

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural evolution of A356 machining chips in the semisolid state was studied at different temperatures and holding times. The results showed that the elongated α-Al grains first recrystallized in the semisolid state and then became globular with a high shape factor (SF). Both the temperature and the holding time clearly affected the grain size and SF. When the heating temperature or holding time was increased, the grain size and SF gradually increased and finally became stable. Moreover, the Vickers hardness of primary α-Al grains gradually decreased with increasing heating temperature. The optimal slurry for semisolid processing, with a good combination of grain size and SF, was obtained when the chips were held at 600°C for 15 min. The semisolid slurry of A356 chips exhibited a lower coarsening rate of α-Al grains than those produced by most of the conventional semisolid processes. The coarsening coefficient was determined to be 436 μm3·s-1 on the basis of the linear Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) relationship.

  8. A method for studying weld fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrivas, A.; Lippold, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum alloys may exhibit a variety of microstructures within the fusion zone adjacent to the fusion boundary. Under conventional weld solidification conditions, epitaxial nucleation occurs off grains in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and solidification proceeds along preferred growth directions. In some aluminum alloys, such as those containing Li and Zr, a nondendritic equiaxed grain zone (EQZ) has been observed along the fusion boundary that does not nucleate epitaxially from the HAZ substrate. The EQZ has been the subject of considerable study because of its susceptibility to cracking during initial fabrication and repair. The motivation of this investigation was to develop a technique that would allow the nature and evolution of the fusion boundary to be studied under controlled thermal conditions. A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the Gleeble{reg{underscore}sign} thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples wee heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In Alloy 2195, a 4Cu-1Li alloy, an EQZ could be formed by heating in the temperature range approximately from 630--640 C. At temperatures above 640 C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in Alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6 and 2219-T8. Nucleation in these alloys was observed to be epitaxial. Details of the technique and its effectiveness for performing controlled melting experiments at incremental temperatures above the solidus are described.

  9. Microstructural and textural evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy sheet during bidirectional cyclic bending

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Qinghuan; Yang, Xuyue Ma, Jijun; Sun, Huan; Qin, Jia; Jiang, Yupei

    2013-05-15

    In this work, the microstructural and textural evolution in the sheets of AZ61 magnesium alloy was studied by means of bidirectional cyclic bending for 8 passes at 623 K. The bended samples were examined by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The results showed that a gradient structure with fine grains about 3 μm in the regions near two surfaces and, in contrast, coarse grains in the middle of the sheet were formed. The evident grain refinement was attributed to twin-assisted dynamic recrystallization and continuous dynamic recrystallization induced by kink bands. The texture intensity was clearly reduced, resulting in a negative gradient distribution, with the texture intensity decreases from the center of the sheet to two surfaces. The weakened texture greatly facilitated the reduction of the yield strength. A higher fracture elongation and a slightly improved ultimate tensile strength were achieved concurrently. - Highlights: • The AZ61 Mg alloy is deformed at 623 K by bidirectional cyclic bending. • A symmetric gradient distribution of fine grains along the thickness is formed. • The basal texture in the regions near two surfaces is weakened significantly.

  10. Effects of ball milling parameters on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of W-3% Y composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingyue; Zhou, Zhangjian; Tan, Jun; Ding, Qingming; Zhong, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The W-3 Y composites were successfully prepared by spark plasma sintering of milled W-3 Y powders with different milling times (0 h, 5 h, 15 h, 30 h). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and laser particle size analysis were used to study the microstructural evolution and morphological change during the milling process. The crystallite sizes exhibited a continuous refinement along with the increased milling time. The median particle sizes, measured by the laser diffraction method, showed a similar change tendency. Due to the existence of Y particles, the W-Y milled powders exhibited spherical-like morphology while pure tungsten milled powders exhibited lamellar morphology at the early milling stage (5-15 h). The microhardness of W-3 Y compacts showed a slight increase with the increase of milling time. The maximum bending strength of 795 MPa was obtained by sintering W-3 Y powders milled for 15 h. As the milling time was prolonged to 30 h, the increased oxygen impurity resulted in a slight decrease of density as well as the degradation of bending strength.

  11. Microstructural Evolution of the 55 Wt Pct Al-Zn Coating During Press Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Wook; De Cooman, Bruno Charles

    2014-09-01

    Press hardening is increasingly being used to produce ultra-high strength steel parts for passenger cars. Al-Si, Zn, and Zn-alloy coatings have been used to provide corrosion protection to press hardening steel grades. The use of coatings has drawbacks such as coating delamination or liquid metal-induced embrittlement. In the present work, the microstructural evolution of Al-Zn coating during press hardening was studied. The 55 wt pct Al-Zn coating can in principle provide both Al barrier protection and Zn cathodic protection to press hardened steel. During the heat treatment associated with the press hardening, the 55 wt pct Al-Zn alloy coating is converted to an intermetallic surface layer of Fe2Al5 and a FeAl intermetallic diffusion layer. The Zn is separated from both intermetallic compounds and accumulates at grain boundaries and at the surface. This Zn separation process is beneficial in terms of providing cathodic protection to Al-Zn coated press hardening steel.

  12. Influence of doping concentration on microstructure evolution and sintering kinetics of Er:YAG transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Ivanov, Maxim; Ba, Xuewei; Yuan, Yong; Lin, Li; Chen, Min; Liu, Wenbin; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Chen, Haohong; Pan, Yubai; Cheng, Xiaonong; Guo, Jingkun

    2014-11-01

    Erbium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) transparent ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated from powder mixtures of α-Al2O3, Y2O3, and Er2O3 with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and MgO as sintering aids by solid-state reactive sintering. The sintering temperatures were from 1500 °C up to 1750 °C. Densification, microstructure evolution and optical transparency of Er:YAG ceramics with different doping concentrations were examined. For all the doping concentration, fully dense Er:YAG transparent ceramics with homogeneous grain size distributions around 20-23 μm were obtained by sintering at 1750 °C for 50 h, whose transmittances were all above 83% at the wavelength of 1200 nm. The grain growth kinetic of Er:YAG ceramics was also investigated as a function of erbium content. The calculated activation energies for grain growth of the 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 at%Er:YAG ceramics were 779, 855, 805, and 861 kJ/mol, respectively. The luminescence spectra were also measured and discussed.

  13. Synthesis and Microstructure Evolution of Nano-Titania Doped Silicon Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, N. A.; Umapathy, H.; Mohanty, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Anatase phase of Titania (TiO2) in nanocrystalline form is a well known photocatalyst. Photocatalysts are commercially used to accelerate photoreactions and increase photovoltaic efficiency such as in solar cells. This study investigates the in-flight synthesis of Titania and its doping into a Silicon matrix resulting in a catalyst-dispersed coating. A liquid precursor of Titanium Isopropoxide and ethanol was coaxially fed into the plasma gun to form Titania nanoparticles, while Silicon powder was externally injected downstream. Coatings of 75-150 μm thick were deposited onto flat coupons. Further, Silicon powder was alloyed with aluminum to promote crystallization and reduce the amorphous phase in the Silicon matrix. Dense coatings containing nano-Titania particles were observed under electron microscope. X-ray diffraction showed that both the Rutile and Anatase phases of the Titania exist. The influence of process parameters and aluminum alloying on the microstructure evolution of the doped coatings is analyzed and presented.

  14. Microstructure Evolution during Roller Hemming of AZ31B Magnesium Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Amanda; Mishra, Raja K.; Doherty, Roger D.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2012-10-01

    The differences in the microstructure evolution during laser-roller hemming and conventional roller hemming (done at room temperature) of commercial-grade AZ31B sheet were studied using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). It was observed that the flanging operation, done as a precursor to roller hemming, produced a heterogeneous grain structure that remained throughout the subsequent hemming steps. Laser heating, applied during the roller passes, significantly reduced the amount of both extension and contraction twinning in the inner and outer band, respectively. More importantly, after two roller passes without laser heating, extension twinning in the inner band seemed to saturate. This forced the material in the inner band to accommodate further deformation by harder mechanisms, such as pyramidal slip and contraction twinning, during the third roller pass when failure occurred. The laser-hemmed samples exhibited much lower hardness values, especially in the inner band, which was deemed to be largely responsible for the success of the hemming operation with laser heating.

  15. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of aging high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhou-Hua; Zhang, Zu-Rui; Li, Hua-Bing; Li, Zhen; Qi-Feng, Ma

    2010-12-01

    The microstructural evolution of 18Cr18Mn2Mo0.77N high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel in aging treatment was investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that hexagonal intergranular and cellular Cr2N with a=0.478 nm and c=0.444 nm and body-centered cubic intermetallic χ phase with a=0.892 nm precipitate gradually in the isothermal aging treatment. The matrix nitrogen depletion due to the intergranular Cr2N precipitation induces the decay of Vickers hardness, and the formation of cellular Cr2N and χ phase causes the increase in the values. The impact toughness presents a monotonic decrease and SEM morphologies show the leading brittle intergranular fracture. The tensile strength and elongation deteriorate obviously except for the sample aged for 1 h in yield strength. Stress concentration occurs when the matrix dislocations pile up at the precipitation and matrix interfaces, and the interfacial dislocations may become precursors to the misfit dislocations, which can form small cleavage steps and accelerate the formation of cracks.

  16. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 2219 Al Alloy During Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huimin; Yi, Youping; Huang, Shiquan

    2017-03-01

    Hardness and tensile properties of 2219 Al alloys were tested at various temperature (150, 165, 175 °C) and subjected to T6 temper heat treatment to identify the peak aging time at various temperature. Microstructure evolution and precipitate behavior were analyzed with transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the peak aging time is 24 h at 150 °C and does not vary down to 165 °C. When the aging temperature rise to 175 °C, the peak aging time down to 12 h. Considering the strength and elongation, the optimum aging treatment is at 165 °C for 24 h after the solution treatment at 535 °C for 1.5 h. Compared with that of only water-quenched sample, after aged at 165 °C for 24 h, the tensile strength of the 2219 Al alloy increases from 324.5 to 411.8 MPa, yield strength from 168 to 310.8 MPa, respectively. The improvement in the mechanical performance is mainly attributed to the precipitation strengthening of the GP zones, θ″ and θ' phases.

  17. Chemomechanical evolution of pore space in carbonate microstructures upon dissolution: Linking pore geometry to bulk elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arson, C.; Vanorio, T.

    2015-10-01

    One of the challenges faced today in a variety of geophysical applications is the need to understand the changes of elastic properties due to time-variant chemomechanical processes. The objective of this work is to model carbonate rock elastic properties as functions of pore geometry changes that occur when the solid matrix is dissolved by carbon dioxide. We compared two carbonate microstructures: porous micrite ("mudstone") and grain-supported carbonate ("packstone"). We formulated a mathematical model that distinguishes the effects of microporosity and macroporosity on stiffness changes. We used measures of mechanical and chemical porosity changes recorded during injection tests to compute elastic moduli and compare them to moduli obtained from wave velocity measurements. In mudstones, both experimental and numerical results indicate that bulk moduli change by less than 5%. The evolution of elastic moduli is controlled by macropore enlargement. In packstones, model predictions underestimate changes of elastic moduli with total porosity by 10% to 80%. The total porosity variation is 60% to 75% smaller than the chemical porosity variation, which indicates that pore expansion due to dissolution is counterbalanced by pore shrinkage due to compaction. Packstone elastic properties are controlled by grain sliding. The methodology presented in this paper can be generalized to other chemomechanical processes studied in rocks, such as dislocations, glide, diffusive mass transfer, recrystallization, and precipitation.

  18. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 2219 Al Alloy During Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huimin; Yi, Youping; Huang, Shiquan

    2017-04-01

    Hardness and tensile properties of 2219 Al alloys were tested at various temperature (150, 165, 175 °C) and subjected to T6 temper heat treatment to identify the peak aging time at various temperature. Microstructure evolution and precipitate behavior were analyzed with transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the peak aging time is 24 h at 150 °C and does not vary down to 165 °C. When the aging temperature rise to 175 °C, the peak aging time down to 12 h. Considering the strength and elongation, the optimum aging treatment is at 165 °C for 24 h after the solution treatment at 535 °C for 1.5 h. Compared with that of only water-quenched sample, after aged at 165 °C for 24 h, the tensile strength of the 2219 Al alloy increases from 324.5 to 411.8 MPa, yield strength from 168 to 310.8 MPa, respectively. The improvement in the mechanical performance is mainly attributed to the precipitation strengthening of the GP zones, θ″ and θ' phases.

  19. Microstructural evolution and atomic transport by thermomigration in eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Wu, B. Y.; Chan, Y. C.; Tu, K. N.

    2007-08-01

    The thermomigration behavior of eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joints at an ambient temperature of 150 °C was investigated in terms of microstructural evolution, atomic transport, and numerical simulation. Pb accumulation and phase separation were observed in solder joints near a melting temperature after 50 h, which was supported by energy dispersive x-ray and element mapping analysis. It is believed that Pb atoms migrated from the chip side (the hot side) to the substrate side (the cold side) under a temperature gradient. Thermal electrical finite element simulation for the real flip chip test structure showed the existence of a temperature difference between the substrate side and the chip side. In addition, a temperature gradient above 1000 °C/cm across the adjacent unpowered solder joints was predicted. This was also verified by temperature measurements with thermocouples. The atomic flux of Pb due to thermomigration was calculated here, which was agreeable with the values originally reported. Also, the driving force of thermomigration was estimated to be 10-17 N, even approaching the same order with that of electromigration under a current density of 104 A/cm2.

  20. Microstructure evolution and advanced performance of Mn3O4 nanomorphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Ding, Guoji; Zhang, Dong; Jiao, Zheng; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C. M. Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K. L.; Chen, Zhiwen

    2012-03-01

    Mn3O4 morphologies with tetragonal single-crystal nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanorods and nanofractals were successfully prepared by a widely applicable chemical reaction route. The morphologies were synthesized using the reactants MnCl2.4H2O, H2O2, and NaOH in a suitable surfactant and alkaline solution. The dripping speed of the NaOH solution plays an important role in the microstructure evolution of Mn3O4 morphologies. The difference in the dripping speed of NaOH solutions leads to different Mn3O4 nanomorphologies, which are called nanoparticles, nanorods and nanofractals. The average grain size of the Mn3O4 nanoparticles ranged from a few to several tens of nanometers. The Mn3O4 nanorods were smooth, straight, and the geometrical shape was structurally perfect. Their lengths ranged from several hundred nanometers to a few micrometers, and their diameters ranged from 10 nm to 30 nm. The fractal branches of the Mn3O4 nanofractals were a few micrometers in length and several hundred nanometers in width. The catalytic properties of these Mn3O4 nanomorphologies for the degradation of phenol were evaluated in detail. The results indicated that the Mn3O4 nanofractals possess remarkable catalytic activity for the degradation of phenol in water treatment.

  1. Microstructural Evolution of Semisolid 6063 Aluminum Alloy Prepared by Recrystallization and Partial Melting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongfei; Zhao, Shengdun; Zhang, Chenyang

    2017-08-01

    Radial forging (RF) was proposed as a novel deformation method to prepare semisolid 6063 aluminum alloy in the recrystallization and partial melting (RAP) process. The effects of area reduction rate, isothermal holding temperature and time on the microstructural evolution of RF-deformed 6063 aluminum alloy were investigated. Results showed that RF can be successfully introduced in RAP process to prepare large semisolid 6063 aluminum alloy bar. With the increase of the area reduction rate, the average grain size firstly decreased and then no significant change occurred. Meanwhile, the spheroidization degree of solid grains firstly increased rapidly, and then increased slowly. The effects of isothermal holding temperature and time are similar, with the increase of the isothermal holding temperature or time, the average grain size initially decreased but then increased; and the spheroidization degree of solid grains gradually increased. High-quality semisolid 6063 aluminum alloy can be prepared with 70% area reduction rate and subsequent semisolid isothermal treatment (SSIT) at 630 °C for 10 min. The coarsening rate constant was 5185.2 µm3/s at 630 °C. Additionally, a strong deformation texture was created in the RF-deformed alloy with 70% area reduction rate, which was transformed to a weakened texture following the SSIT process.

  2. Evolutions of Microstructure and Properties During Cold Rolling of 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qingxuan; Xu, Wanjian; Wu, Zhaoyu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yulai; Xiao, Xueshan; Hu, Jincheng; Jiang, Laizhu

    2016-10-01

    Evolutions of microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of 19Cr (Fe-18.9Cr-10.1Mn-0.3Ni-0.261N-0.030C-0.5Si) duplex stainless steel have been investigated during cold rolling at room temperature. Dislocation slip dominated deformation mode of ferrite phase. However, deformation mechanism of austenite phase was different with the increasing cold-rolling reductions. Dislocation slip and strengthening effect of twin boundaries caused pile-up phenomenon at the initial deformation stage. When the amount of cold-rolling reduction attained greater than 50 pct, induced α'-martensite appeared in deformed austenite phase. Hardness of austenite phase was higher than that of the deformed ferrite because of its higher strengthening effect during cold-rolling process. Cold-rolling deformation caused deterioration of the pitting corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt pct NaCl aqueous solution. Pitting corrosion always initiated in the ferrite phase and the phase boundary in the solution-treated alloy. Additional pitting holes appeared in deformed austenite phase because of the decrease in corrosion resistance caused by dislocation accumulation and induced α'-martensite.

  3. Microstructural evolution at the initial stages of annealing in a Bi-2223 multifilament tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Grivel, J.-C.; Wang, W. G.; Poulsen, H. F.

    2001-11-01

    The microstructural evolution at the initial stage of annealing in a multifilament Bi-2223 (2223) tape is studied in quenched samples using XRD, SEM and EDS. The annealing was carried out at 830 °C under reduced oxygen partial pressure. Samples were quenched in air upon reaching 830 °C, as well as after 1, 2, 5, 10, 30 and 52 h at 830 °C. It was found that the initial liquid formation was associated with alkaline-earth cuprate (AEC) particles such as (Ca,Sr)14Cu24Oz and (Ca,Sr)2CuO3. The liquid is rich of Pb and the AEC particles dissolve and supply Cu and Ca into the liquid through direct contact. The 2223 kinetics are well correlated with the structural parameters of liquid and AEC particles. During the first hour the liquid activity is confined to the neighbourhood of AEC particles and the rate of 2223 formation is very low. Between 2 and 10 h the liquid amount increases and the size (measured in tape plane) is comparable with the particle spacing indicating a liquid activity on an overall scale and sufficient feeding of Cu and Ca. Consequently, the 2223 develops at a fast rate. After 10 h the liquid amount is decreased, the particle spacing is far larger than the liquid size and the rate of 2223 formation slows down. The early 2223 forms as precipitates in the structure. The possible formation mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of some Molybdenum based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Pratik Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Ni based superalloys revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry. These materials are capable of operating in extremely harsh environments, comprising of temperatures around 1050 C, under oxidative conditions. Demands for increased fuel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that melt in the 1250 - 1450 C, resulting in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research directions have been skewed towards exploring and developing newer alloy systems. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. Techniques for rapid thermodynamic assessments were developed and applied to two different systems - Mo-Si alloys with transition metal substitutions (and this forms the first part of the thesis) and Ni-Al alloys with added components for providing high temperature strength and ductility. A hierarchical approach towards alloy design indicated the Mo-Ni-Al system as a prospective candidate for high temperature applications. Investigations on microstructures and oxidation behavior, under both isothermal and cyclic conditions, of these alloys constitute the second part of this thesis. It was seen that refractory metal systems show a marked microstructure dependence of oxidation.

  5. Instant polysaccharide-based emulsions: impact of microstructure on lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Foster, Timothy J

    2017-06-21

    The development of emulsion-based products through optimisation of ingredients, reduction in energy-input during manufacture, while fulfilling healthy attributes, are major objectives within the food industry. Instant emulsions can meet these features, but comprehensive studies are necessary to investigate the effect of the initial formulation on the final microstructure and, in turn, on the in vitro lipolysis, comprising the double aim of this work. The instant emulsion is formed within 1.5-3 min after pouring the aqueous phase into the oil phase which contains a mixture of emulsifier (Tween 20), swelling particles (Sephadex) and thickeners (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC, and guar gum, GG) under mild shearing (180 rpm). The creation of oil-in-water emulsions is monitored in situ by viscosity analysis, the final microstructure visualised by microscopy and the release of free fatty acids under simulated intestinal conditions quantified by titration. Increasing the concentration and molecular weight (Mw) of GG leads to smaller emulsion droplets due to increased bulk viscosity upon shearing. This droplet size reduction is magnified when increasing the Mw of HPMC or swelling capacity of viscosifying particles. In addition, in the absence of the emulsifier Tween 20, the sole use of high-Mw HPMC is effective in emulsification due to combined increased bulk viscosity and interfacial activity. Hence, optimisation of the ingredient choice and usage level is possible when designing microstructures. Finally, emulsions with larger droplet size (>20 μm) display a slower rate and lower extent of lipolysis, while finer emulsions (droplet size ≤20 μm) exhibit maximum rate and extent profiles. This correlates with the extent of emulsion destabilisation observed under intestinal conditions.

  6. Crack-seal microstructure evolution in bi-mineralic quartz-chlorite veins in shales and siltstones from the RWTH-1 well, Aachen, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stephan; Hilgers, Christoph; Kukla, Peter A.; Urai, Janos L.

    2011-04-01

    In core samples from the deep geothermal well RWTH-1 we studied Variscan quartz-chlorite veins formed by crack-seal processes in siliciclastics at the brittle to ductile transition. These sheared veins are common in sections of the well, which are interpreted as Variscan thrust zones based on image logs and seismic data. Microstructures interpreted to reflect different stages in the evolution of such crack-seal veins suggest the veins started in microcracks sealed by quartz and chlorite, to veinlets crossing multiple grains, and bundles of veinlets evolving by progressive localization into low-angle extensional shear veins and high-angle dilational jog veins. In the sheared veins, chlorite and quartz ribbons show evidence for crack-seal and simultaneous ductile shearing during vein evolution, forming peculiar fin-shaped microstructures in quartz ribbons. In high-angle dilational jogs fibrous crystals of quartz and chlorite point to multiple crack-seal events with simultaneous growth of two different mineral phases. This is interpreted to be the basic microstructural process in the veins. We extend earlier models of polycrystal growth in fractures and present a series of 2D simulations of the kinematics of crystal growth in these bi-mineralic veins for both localized and non-localized cracking. Results are compared with the observed microstructures. We show that when the relative growth rates of the two mineral phases are different, serrated grain boundaries evolve. The similarities between observation and model suggest that the assumption of our model is valid, although many second order processes require a more detailed study. We propose that the principles observed here can be applied to other bi-mineralic crack-seal veins.

  7. 3D online submicron scale observation of mixed metal powder's microstructure evolution in high temperature and microwave compound fields.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dan; Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Dong, Bo; Xiao, Yu; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT) technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37  μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  8. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Xiao, Yu; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT) technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth. PMID:24737986

  9. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of nanostructured aluminum and aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David Barry

    Nanocrystalline materials are those with grain sizes below 100 nm. Reduction of the grain size to this scale offers great promise in improving material properties, particularly strength. Ultrafine-grained materials are considered those with grain sizes between 100 and 1000 nm, although the transition between "nanocrystalline" and "ultrafine-grained" is not well defined. A clear demarcation between the two based on grain size alone is impractical because dislocation-based deformation is active both above and below 100 nm. In this work, the processing and mechanical behavior of ultrafine-grained Al and Al-Mg alloys are discussed with particular reference to the operative deformation mechanisms and how they relate to the microstructure. The materials in question are based on nanocrystalline powders produced by cryomilling. The powders were canned and degassed, then consolidated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping), followed by extrusion. The microstructures of both as-HIPped and extruded materials were characterized in detail, and the mechanical properties were assessed at different combinations of strain rates and testing temperatures. The microstructures of both as-HIPped and extruded materials were duplex in character, with a fine-grained matrix that reflects the grain refinement due to the mechanical attrition process and a coarse-grained component that forms during consolidation in interparticle void spaces. The average grain size of the fine grained regions in the HIPped materials was between approximately 100 and 150 nm for the different billets examined, and increases to 150 to 250 nm after extrusion. Grain size distributions showed a range of grain sizes from 50 to 500 nm or more. The coarse grained regions had grain sizes on the order of 500 nm to 2 mum, and after extrusion were elongated with the extrusion direction. Yield stress and flow stress of the extruded materials was consistent with the Hall-Petch model using the average grain size. The mechanical

  10. Microstructurally based thermomechanical fatigue lifetime model of solder joints for electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.; Rashid, M.M.; Burchett, S.N.

    1993-07-01

    We present a new methodology for predicting the fatigue life of solder joints for electronics applications. This approach involves integration of experimental and computational techniques. The first stage involves correlating the manufacturing and processing parameters with the starting microstructure of the solder joint. The second stage involves a series of experiments that characterize the evolution of the microstructure during thermal cycling. The third stage consists of a computer modeling and simulation effort that utilizes the starting microstructure and experimental data to produce a reliability prediction of the solder joint. This approach is an improvement over current methodologies because it incorporates the microstructure and properties of the solder directly into the model and allows these properties to evolve as the microstructure changes during fatigue.

  11. Microstructurally based thermomechanical fatigue lifetime model of solder joints for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, D. R.; Rashid, M. M.; Burchett, S. N.

    We present a new methodology for predicting the fatigue life of solder joints for electronics applications. This approach involves integration of experimental and computational techniques. The first stage involves correlating the manufacturing and processing parameters with the starting microstructure of the solder joint. The second stage involves a series of experiments that characterize the evolution of the microstructure during thermal cycling. The third stage consists of a computer modeling and simulation effort that utilizes the starting microstructure and experimental data to produce a reliability prediction of the solder joint. This approach is an improvement over current methodologies because it incorporates the microstructure and properties of the solder directly into the model and allows these properties to evolve as the microstructure changes during fatigue.

  12. Microstructural Evolution in Novel Suction Cast Multicomponent Ti-Fe-Co Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Sumanta; Agarwal, Swapnil; Gautam, Priya; Biswas, Krishanu

    2015-02-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding the solidification pathways of the Ti-rich Ti-Fe-Co in situ composites consisting of ultrafine eutectic with micron-scale dendrites. The effect of addition of Co in the Ti-rich binary Ti-Fe alloys has been systematically investigated. The series of Ti-Fe-Co ternary alloys i.e., Ti75Fe25- x Co x ( x = 0, 5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20), (Ti70.5Fe29.5)100- x Co x ( x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10), Ti70Fe30- x Co x ( x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25), Ti65Fe35- x Co x ( x = 0, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 25), and Ti60Fe40- x Co x ( x = 0, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24) are synthesized by arc melting cum suction casting technique under high purity Ar atmosphere to obtain alloy cylinders having diameter ( ϕ) of 3 mm. Detailed X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic (SEM and TEM) study are carried out to identify the phases as well as to monitor the sequence of phase evolution in the ternary alloys. The present study conclusively proves that the Ti65Fe10Co25, Ti70Fe30- x Co x ( x = 10, 20, 25), and Ti75Fe15Co10 alloys show the ternary quasi-peritectic reaction of L + Ti(Co,Fe) → ( β-Ti)ss + Ti2(Co,Fe) at invariant point P (=Ti75.5±0.8Fe6.3±2.1Co18.2±2.7) which is cooperated by means of eutectic reaction of L → ( β-Ti)ss + Ti2(Co,Fe) below P and peritectic reaction L + Ti(Co,Fe) → Ti2(Co,Fe) for Ti65Fe10Co25,Ti70Fe10Co20, and Ti70Fe5Co25 alloys or eutectic reaction L → ( β-Ti)ss +Ti(Co,Fe) for Ti70Fe20Co10, and Ti75Fe15Co10 alloys above the point P. In addition, the peritectic reaction L + Ti(Co,Fe) → Ti2(Co,Fe) plays a significant role in the phase evolution. The microstructural evolution, phase equilibria and solidification pathways have been explained by generating liquidus projection of the investigated alloys. Interestingly, the Co addition leads to the formation of complex Ti2Co phase and significantly affects the compositional stability of TiFe phase. This is found to have significant influence on the microstructural development during suction

  13. Microstructure and properties of pitch-based carbon composites

    PubMed

    Blanco; Santamaria; Bermejo; Bonhomme; Menendez

    1999-11-01

    Pitches prepared in the laboratory by thermal treatment and air-blowing of a commercial coal-tar pitch were used as matrix precursors of carbon composites using granular petroleum coke, foundry coke, amorphous graphite and anthracite. Pitches were characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, softening point, solubility tests and carbon yield) and light microscopy (mesophase content). Pitch pyrolysis behaviour was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and from the optical texture of cokes. Pitch wettability to the different carbons, at different temperatures, was also studied. Experimental conditions selected for the preparation of composites were based on pitch composition and properties. The main microstructural features of composites were determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Composite properties were described in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength, and related to composite microstructure and the characteristics of the precursors. Thermal treatment and air-blowing of pitch improved carbon composite structure and properties. The lowest porosities and best mechanical properties were observed in those composites obtained with the thermally treated pitches combined with foundry coke and anthracite.

  14. Evolution of microstructure and elastic wave velocities in dehydrated gypsum samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsch, H.; Priegnitz, M.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims at contributing to the experimental database of changes in rock physical properties, particularly elastic wave velocities, induced by devolatilization reactions. Cylindrical samples of natural gypsum were dehydrated in air for up to 800 h at ambient pressure and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Subsequently, the transformation kinetics, reaction induced changes in microstructure and porosity and the concurrent evolution of the sample P and S-wave velocities were constrained. Weighing the heated samples in predefined time intervals yielded the reaction progress where the stoichiometric mass balance indicated an ultimate dehydration to anhydrite regardless of temperature. Porosity was observed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2 % for fully hydrated samples to 30 % for completely dehydrated ones, whilst the initial bulk volume was preserved. In a first set, P-wave velocity was measured at ambient conditions with ultrasonic transducers indicating a linear decrease with porosity from 5.2 km/s at 2 % to 1.0 km/s at 30 %. Results of a second set of ultrasonic measurements for both P and S-waves will be presented as well aiming at a spatially resolved wave velocity dependence on microstructure. For P-waves three different effective medium models - Voigt, Wyllie (Reuss), and Nur - were compared to the data. The linear dependence of P-wave velocity on porosity observed is best represented by the Voigt bound. The Voigt bound, however, overestimates the measured values significantly. The Wyllie-Equation (the Reuss bound) does not replicate the linear decrease in P-wave velocity with porosity and generally underestimates the data. However, at porosities above approximately 25 % the agreement with measured values is excellent. The Nur-Model yields a nonlinear dependence but replicates the data best for model-inherent critical porosities between 0.25 and 0.3. Thin section micrographs taken on selected samples reveal a sharp

  15. Effect of irradiation spectrum on the microstructural evolution in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine and examine the effect of variations in the ionizing and displacive radiation environments on the microstructure of oxide ceramic insulators. Cross section transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate the microstructure of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (spinel) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (alumina) following irradiation with ions of varying mass and energy at room temperature and 650{degree}C. These results clearly indicate that light ion and electron irradiations produce microstructures which are not representative of the microstructure that would form in these ceramics during fission or fusion neutron irradiation.

  16. Microstructural Evolution of the Interdiffusion Zone between U-9 Wt Pct Mo Fuel Alloy and Zr-1 Wt Pct Nb Cladding Alloy Upon Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogy, S.; Laik, A.; Saify, M. T.; Jha, S. K.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion couple formed between U-9 wt pct Mo and Zr-1 wt pct Nb alloys, proposed as fuel and clad materials, respectively, in nuclear research reactors, was annealed to investigate the microstructural evolution of the interdiffusion zone (IZ) as a function of temperature. A layered-type IZ microstructure was observed, the mechanism of development of which was elucidated. Mo2Zr phase, present as dispersoids, in the U-rich part of the as-bonded IZ evolved into a continuous layer and into a "massive" morphology upon annealing. The discontinuous precipitation reaction in the matrix adjoining the Mo2Zr phase, instigated by Mo depletion, generated lamellae of α-U phase within the γ-U(Mo,Zr) matrix. Zr-rich α-Zr(U) precipitates were observed in U-rich U-Mo-Zr matrix in the IZ next to the U-9Mo base material due to the clustering tendency of the matrix phase. The IZ next to Zr-1Nb base material comprised a "basket weave" microstructure of α-Zr laths with β-Zr(Nb,U) interlath boundaries, wherein an omega like transformation of the latter to δ-UZr2 was also noticed. The growth rates of the IZ were orders of magnitude lower when compared with the ones reported between the compositionally similar U-10 wt pct Mo alloy and the presently used Al or Al-Si cladding alloys.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of the Interdiffusion Zone between U-9 Wt Pct Mo Fuel Alloy and Zr-1 Wt Pct Nb Cladding Alloy Upon Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogy, S.; Laik, A.; Saify, M. T.; Jha, S. K.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-03-01

    Diffusion couple formed between U-9 wt pct Mo and Zr-1 wt pct Nb alloys, proposed as fuel and clad materials, respectively, in nuclear research reactors, was annealed to investigate the microstructural evolution of the interdiffusion zone (IZ) as a function of temperature. A layered-type IZ microstructure was observed, the mechanism of development of which was elucidated. Mo2Zr phase, present as dispersoids, in the U-rich part of the as-bonded IZ evolved into a continuous layer and into a "massive" morphology upon annealing. The discontinuous precipitation reaction in the matrix adjoining the Mo2Zr phase, instigated by Mo depletion, generated lamellae of α-U phase within the γ-U(Mo,Zr) matrix. Zr-rich α-Zr(U) precipitates were observed in U-rich U-Mo-Zr matrix in the IZ next to the U-9Mo base material due to the clustering tendency of the matrix phase. The IZ next to Zr-1Nb base material comprised a "basket weave" microstructure of α-Zr laths with β-Zr(Nb,U) interlath boundaries, wherein an omega like transformation of the latter to δ-UZr2 was also noticed. The growth rates of the IZ were orders of magnitude lower when compared with the ones reported between the compositionally similar U-10 wt pct Mo alloy and the presently used Al or Al-Si cladding alloys.

  18. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Varga, T.; Ishimaru, M.; Edmondson, P. D.; Xue, H.; Liu, P.; Moll, S.; Namavar, F.; Hardiman, C.; Shannon, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems.

  19. Microstructural Evolution and Local Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Processed Mg-3Gd-1Zn Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbaghian, M.; Mahmudi, R.

    2016-05-01

    Microstructural evolution, hardness, and shear strength of the cast plates of GZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated after friction stir processing (FSP). Due to severe plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization, FSP breaks the dendrites and results in a fine homogenous structure in the stirred zone (SZ) having average grain sizes of about 4.0 and 2.5 μm in the one and two-pass FSPed plates, respectively. As a novel approach, strength of the processed plates was examined by shear punch testing in three regions of the SZ on the surface layer, namely, center line (CL), retreating side (RS), and advancing side (AS). FSP showed great potential in the enhancement of SZ ultimate shear strength from 114 to about 152 and 155 MPa in the one and two-pass FSPed materials, respectively. The same trend was observed in hardness values of the SZ, where the average hardness of the base material increased from 41 to 60 and 68 Vickers after one and two passes of FSP, respectively. The variations in the shear strength of the CL, RS, and AS zones of the SZ were about 5% for the first pass of FSP, the effect which was decreased to less than 2% after two passes of FSP.

  20. Orienting the Microstructure Evolution of Copper Phthalocyanine as an Anode Interlayer in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells for High Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Xulin; Guo, Jiaxin; Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Liu; Ruan, Shengping

    2017-09-20

    Recent advances in the interfacial modification of inverted-type polymer solar cells (PSCs) have resulted from controlling the surface energy of the cathode-modified layer (TiO2 or ZnO) to enhance the short-circuit current (Jsc) or optimizing the contact morphology of the cathode (indium tin oxide or fluorine-doped tin oxide) and active layer to increase the fill factor. Herein, we report that the performance enhancement of PSCs is achieved by incorporating a donor macromolecule copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as an anode modification layer. Using the approach based on orienting the microstructure evolution, uniformly dispersed island-shaped CuPc spot accumulations are built on the top of PTB7:PC71BM blend film, leading to an efficient spectral absorption and photogenerated exciton splitting. The best power conversion efficiency of PSCs is increased up to 9.726%. In addition to the enhanced light absorption, the tailored anode energy level alignment and optimized boundary morphology by incorporating the CuPc interlayer boost charge extraction efficiency and suppress the interfacial molecular recombination. These results demonstrate that surface morphology induction through molecular deposition is an effective method to improve the performance of PSCs, which reveals the potential implications of the interlayer between the organic active layer and the electrode buffer layer.

  1. Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qian; Kong, Bo Hyun; Yerino, Christopher D.; Ko, Tsung-Shine; Leung, Benjamin; Cho, Hyung Koun; Han, Jung

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we report a detailed study on the evolution of surface morphology and microstructure of nonpolar a-plane GaN (a-GaN) through controlled growth interruptions. Microscopy imaging shows that the two-step a-GaN growth went through a roughening-recovery process. The first-step growth (under high V/III and high pressure) produced a rough surface with tall mesas separated by voids. The second-step growth (under low V/III and low pressure) promoted the lateral growth and filled up the voids. Striations that formed during the island coalescence persisted throughout the second-step growth, but could be relieved by an additional third-step growth. The morphological evolution was explained according to the kinetic Wulff plots. The microstructure of the a-GaN films was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray rocking curve analysis. Most of the extended defects observed in the plan-view TEM images were I1 type basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) and their associated partial dislocations (PDs). It is found that the bending of PDs (at the inclined/vertical growth fronts) within the basal plane toward the m-axes was responsible for the substantial reduction in threading PDs and the increase in BSF dimension. Based on a careful correlation between the morphological evolution and the microstructure development, we proposed a model explaining the possible mechanisms for the great reduction in defect density during the two-step growth process.

  2. Microstructure evolution and material flow behavior in friction-stir welded dissimilar titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonser, Matthew J.

    The purpose of this study was to friction-stir weld dissimilar titanium alloys together and to investigate how macroscopic flow in the stir zone and the resulting weld microstructure affect mechanical properties. Welds were produced with travel speeds from 50 to 100 mm/min and tool rotation speeds of 2000 to 3500 revolutions per minute (RPM). Thermal analysis showed that super transus temperatures were reached in the stir zone and both near-HAZ regions of the weld. Cooling rate data was consistent with the formation of basketweave and colony alpha phase in the prior-beta grains on the Ti-6Al-4V side of the stir zone and near-HAZ. The Timetal 21S region of the stir zone consisted of refined (approximately 18 mum in diameter) metastable-beta grains compared to 30 mum diameter grains in the Timetal 21S base material. Metallurgical mixing between the two alloys resulted in a unique alpha-beta microstructure in the stir zone. The amount of metallurgical mixing was found to be dependent on which alloy was placed on the retreating side of the weld. With the FSW tool centered between the two materials, placement of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the retreating side increased the amount of metallurgical mixing between the two alloys by 40% compared to when the Timetal 21S was placed on the retreating side. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) clearly showed the presence of a TMAZ adjacent to the stir zone on the Timetal 21S side of the weld. This was confirmed by the large number of low angle subgrains (misorientation angle<10°) within the deformed metastable-beta matrix. The stir zone was shown to have fewer subgrains due to the recrystallization of new grains which consume the recovered metastable-beta matrix. A series of aging and solution treatment plus aging heat treatments was given to select as-welded samples to investigate the change in microstructure and properties. The peak hardness for all regions was obtained for the 500°C-8 hour heat treatment, while the 600°C-8

  3. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Property Development of Selective Laser Melted Copper Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Anthony Patrick

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that utilizes a high-power laser to melt metal powder and form a part layer-by-layer. Over the last 25 years, the technology has progressed from prototyping polymer parts to full scale production of metal component. SLM offers several advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques; however, the current alloy systems that are researched and utilized for SLM do not address applications requiring high electrical and thermal conductivity. This work presents a characterization of the microstructural evolution and mechanical property development of two copper alloys fabricated via SLM and post-process heat treated to address this gap in knowledge. Tensile testing, conductivity measurement, and detailed microstructural characterization was carried out on samples in the as-printed and heat treated conditions. A single phase solid solution strengthened binary alloy, Cu-4.3Sn, was the first alloy studied. Components were selectively laser melted from pre-alloyed Cu-4.3Sn powder and heat treated at 873 K (600 °C) and 1173 K (900 °C) for 1 hour. As-printed samples were around 97 percent dense with a yield strength of 274 MPa, an electrical conductivity of 24.1 %IACS, and an elongation of 5.6%. Heat treatment resulted in lower yield strength with significant increases in ductility due to recrystallization and a decrease in dislocation density. Tensile sample geometry and surface finish also showed a significant effect on measured yield strength but a negligible change in measured ductility. Microstructural characterization indicated that grains primarily grow epitaxially with a sub-micron cellular solidification sub-structure. Nanometer scale tin dioxide particles identified via XRD were found throughout the structure in the tin-rich intercellular regions. The second alloy studied was a high-performance precipitation hardening Cu-Ni-Si alloy, C70250. Pre-alloyed powder was selectively laser melted to

  4. Synthesis, microstructural evolution, and properties of polycrystalline and epitaxial metastable titanium tungsten nitride alloy layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang

    Phase composition, microstructural evolution, and physical properties of Ti1-xWxN alloys with 0:5 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 and superlattice layers grown by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution reciprocal lattice map (HR-RLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EMPA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Hall measurements. Polycrystalline Ti1-xWxN alloys were grown on SiO2 at 500°C. Alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.70 were single-phase B1-NaCl crystal structure with a nitrogen-to-metal ratio N/(Ti+W) ranging from slightly overstoichiometric to understoichiometric. The relaxed lattice constant ao initially increased slightly with increasing W and then decreased below the stoichiometric TiN value for understoichiometric alloys (x > 0.50). TiN-rich alloys have a columnar microstructure exhibiting strong 111 preferred orientation with underdense column boundaries. The irradiation by energetic N backscattered from the W target resulted in WN-rich alloys having 002 preferred orientations with denser microstructures. The normalized room-temperature resistivity increased linearly at a rate drho/rho TiNdx = 3.5. Epitaxial B1-NaCl structure Ti1-xWxN alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 were grown on MgO(001) substrates at 500°C. Alloys with x ≥ 0.05 are slightly overstoichiometric. The alloy lattice parameter a⊥ along the film growth direction is 4.251 A for x ≤ 0.41 and decreases slightly at higher concentrations. Ti0.5W 0.5N alloy exhibits long-range CuPt-type atomic ordering on the cation sublattice. The room-temperature resistivity increases linearly due primarily to alloy scattering, while the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR), switches from positive for x ≤ 0.21 to negative because of weak charge carrier localization. The

  5. Evolution of Mechanical Properties and Microstructures in the Inner Accretionary Prism of the Nankai Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. T.; Kitamura, M.; Kitajima, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of accretionary prism sediments can provide detailed deformation history and processes in subduction zones. The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 348 has extended the deep riser hole down to 3058.5 meters below sea floor (mbsf) to the inner accretionary wedge at Site C0002 located 35 km landward from the trench. Here, we conducted deformation experiments on the core samples recovered from 2185 msbf at Site C0002 to understand mechanical behaviors and deformation of inner prism sediments. We deformed the siltstone samples with a porosity of 20% at 25°C or 60°C under isotropic loading path (S1=S2=S3) and triaxial compression (S1>S2=S3). In the isotropic loading test, we step-wisely increased confining pressure (Pc) from 11.5 to 194 MPa and kept pore pressure (Pp) at 10 MPa. In a series of triaxial compression loading tests, we first increased Pc to the targeting 42-78 MPa and Pp to 20 MPa, and then applied the differential load at a constant displacement rate of 0.005 μm/s while keeping Pc and Pp constant. We will analyze the microstructures of the experimentally deformed samples to understand deformation mechanism. We define yield points based on slope changes in relationships between volumetric strain and effective mean stress (p') for isotropic loading and those between differential stress (q) and axial strain for triaxial loading. The sample yields at p' of 100 MPa (q = 0 MPa) in isotropic loading test. In triaxial loading, the samples at effective pressure (Pe) of 22, 28, and 58 MPa yield at q = 30 MPa (p' = 32 MPa), q = 30 MPa (p' = 38 MPa) and q = 45 MPa (p' = 73 MPa), respectively. Upon yield, the samples deformed at Pe of 22 MPa and 28 MPa show brittle behavior with a peak q of 50 MPa and 55 MPa followed by strain weakening to reach q of 36 and 46 MPa at steady state. Both samples show single fracture planes with angles of 30° to S1. On the other hand, the

  6. Defect microstructural evolution in ion irradiated metallic nanofoils: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation versus cluster dynamics modeling and in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Donghua; Wirth, Brian D.; Li Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2012-09-03

    Understanding materials degradation under intense irradiation is important for the development of next generation nuclear power plants. Here we demonstrate that defect microstructural evolution in molybdenum nanofoils in situ irradiated and observed on a transmission electron microscope can be reproduced with high fidelity using an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulation technique. Main characteristics of defect evolution predicted by OKMC, namely, defect density and size distribution as functions of foil thickness, ion fluence and flux, are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the in situ experiments and from previous continuum-based cluster dynamics modeling. The combination of advanced in situ experiments and high performance computer simulation/modeling is a unique tool to validate physical assumptions/mechanisms regarding materials response to irradiation, and to achieve the predictive power for materials stability and safety in nuclear facilities.

  7. A modified split Hopkinson torsional bar system for correlated study of τ-γ relations, shear localization and microstructural evolution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Zhang, Husheng; Shen, Letian; Xu, Yongbo; Bai, Yilong; Dodd, Bradley

    2014-05-13

    The conventional split Hopkinson torsional bar (SHTB) system consists of two bars, which can successfully produce the data for the construction of dynamic torsional shear stress and strain relationships. However, the system cannot provide reliable information on the progression of the deformed micro-structure during the test. The reverberation of waves in the bars and the tested specimen can spoil the microstructural pattern formed during the effective loading. This paper briefly reviews a modified version of the SHTB system consisting of four bars that has been developed. This modified system can eliminate the reverberation of waves in the specimen and provide only a single rectangular torsional stress pulse, thus it can properly freeze the microstructure formed during the effective period of loading in the specimen. By using the advantage of the modified SHTB system, together with a new design of specimen, it is possible to perform a correlated study of the dynamic stress-strain response, shear localization and the evolution of the microstructure at a fixed view-field (position) on a given specimen during the sequence of the loading time. The principles, experimental set-up and procedure, calibration and some preliminary results of the correlated study are reported in this paper.

  8. X-ray nanotomography analysis of the microstructural evolution of LiMn2O4 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao; Han, Kai; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Kung, Harold H.; Wang, Jun; Barnett, Scott A.; Faber, Katherine T.

    2017-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges for advancing lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is to minimize cell degradation during operation for long-term stability. To this end, it is important to understand how cell performance during operation relates to complex LIB microstructures. In this report, transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) nanotomography is used to gain quantitative three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-performance correlations of LIB cathodes during cycling. The 3D microstructures of LiMn2O4 (LMO) electrodes, cycled under different conditions, including cycle number, operating voltage, and temperature, are characterized via TXM and statistically analyzed to investigate the impact of cycling conditions on the electrode microstructural evolution and cell performance. It is found that the number of cracks formed within LMO particles correlated with capacity fade. For the cell cycled at elevated temperatures, which exhibits the most severe capacity fade among all cells tested, mechanical cracking observed in TXM is not the only dominant contributor to the observed degradation. Mn2+ dissolution, as verified by detection of Mn on the counter electrode by energy dispersive spectrometry, also contributed. The current work demonstrate 3D TXM nanotomography as a powerful tool to help probe in-depth understanding of battery failure mechanisms, which could be applicable to electrode structure optimization for advancing LIB development.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution in Al 2014 Alloy Processed Through Multidirectional Cryoforging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Amit; Kumar, Nikhil; Yogesha, K. K.; Jayaganthan, R.; Nath, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of Al 2014 alloy subjected to cryoforging (MDF) to a cumulative strain of 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 were investigated in the present work. The deformed samples after 4 cycles at a cumulative strain of 2.4 shows the formation of ultrafine grain sizes in the range of 100-450 nm with high-angle grain boundaries as observed from TEM analysis. The tensile and hardness of the deformed sample were measured by Universal Testing machine and Vickers hardness Tester, respectively. The tests were also conducted for sample deformed at room temperature to compare with cryo-forged samples. The sample deformed at cryogenic temperature up to a cumulative strain 2.4 shows an improvement of tensile strength, hardness, and apparent fracture toughness (KQ) from 318 MPa to 470 MPa, 103HV to 171 HV, and 23.93 MPa √ m to 37.7 MPa √ m, respectively, with decrease in ductility from 18% to 6% as compared with solution-treated alloy. The cryo-forged Al 2014 alloy exhibits an increment of 7% in tensile strength, 3% in yield strength, and 3% in hardness up to cumulative true strain of 2.4 as compared to the samples forged at room temperature. The improvement in tensile properties of MDFed alloy is attributed to dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening effect at both temperatures. The effective suppression of cross slip and climb at liquid nitrogen temperature improves the strength of cryo-forged sample better than that of room temperature-forged alloy.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Creep Rupture Behavior of INCONEL RTM Alloy 740H Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H., Jr.

    Electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the causes of reduced creep-rupture life in INCONEL® alloy 740H ® fusion welds with a specific focus on understanding the formation and evolution of γ'-free zones along grain boundaries. Investigation of creep-rupture specimens revealed four operational factors that influence the formation of these precipitate-free zones, and the identity of large second phase particles typically found within them has been determined. A stress-free aging has demonstrated the influence of stress on the formation of the precipitate-free regions and has illustrated what appear to be the initial stages of their development. It is concluded that the mechanism of precipitate-free zone formation in alloy 740H is moderate discontinuous precipitation accompanied by significant discontinuous growth of the γ' phase. These discontinuous reactions are likely exacerbated by microsegregation within the welded microstructure and by the mechanical deformation associated with grain boundary sliding during creep. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling were used to determine appropriate heat treatment schedules for homogenization and second phase dissolution of welds in alloy 740H. Following these simulations, a two-step heat treatment process was applied to specimens from a single pass gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to assess the changes in the distribution of alloying elements as well as changes in the fraction of second phase particles within the fusion zone. Experimental results demonstrate that homogenization of alloy 740H weld metal can be achieved by an 1100°C/4hr treatment. Complete dissolution of second phase particles could not be completely achieved, even at exposure to temperatures near the alloy's solidus temperature. These results are in good agreement with thermodynamic and kinetic predictions.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Crystal Growth and Microstructural Evolution of CdZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Charles, Jr.

    2013-03-01

    Crystal growth models and modeling tools for CdTe and CZT along with experimental melt-growth data will be presented and discussed. The emphasis will be on creating a multiscale-modeling framework that can be applied to solve portions of the crystal quality and reproducibility problem of CZT crystals grown for high-resolution radiation detectors. The growth models and methods include ab initio models of CdTe, ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) models CdTe, MD of solidification of CdTe, equilibrium growth defects in CdTe, and development of coarser-scale microstructural evolution models using phase field methods. These model and theory results will be discussed in terms of designing a multiscale approach to two relevant problems in CZT crystal growth, namely solid-liquid interface (SLI) stability and concurrent defect generation in the hot but cooling CZT solid. This dovetails with recent experimental research focused on the growth of CdTe from Te-rich melts with an emphasis on SLI instability. Experimental data on SLI instabilities will be featured as well as results of transmitted IR data on Te-particle distributions in as-grown CZT. A new mechanism of Te-particle genesis and spatial arrangement in CdTe and CZT is discussed in terms of a Rayleigh instability mechanism coupled with crystallographic SLI instabilities during growth. However, there are gaps in our capabilities at every length and time scale, plus gaps in building coarse-grained models from fine-scale models, in statistical representations of complex equilibria, and in understanding the complexities of solidification in ternary alloy systems where coupled thermal, concentration, stress, liquid flow, and SLI morphological fields exist. The talk concludes with an assessment of methods and approaches to address desired models and simulations of CZT solidification from the melt. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  12. Microstructural Evolution and Optical Properties of (InGa)(AsN) Nanostructures Synthesized by Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, X.; Clarke, S.; Kumar, S.; Goldman, R. S.; Rotberg, V. H.; Krishna, S.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Holt, J.; Sipowska, J.; Francis, A.; Daniel, A.; Clarke, R.

    2001-03-01

    Mixed anion nitride-arsenide compound semiconductor heterostructures are promising for light-emitting devices operating throughout the near infrared range. However, due to the large N-As size difference, a limited miscibility of (InGa)(AsN) on the anion sublattice is predicted. Furthermore, alloy phase separation resulting in the formation of quantum dot-like nanostructures has been reported in GaAsN/GaAs [1] and InGaAsN/GaAs [2] superlattices. We have investigated the evolution of the microstructure and optical properties of (InGa)(AsN) quantum dot-like nanostructures synthesized by N ion implantation into GaAs and InAs, using a variety of implantation and rapid thermal annealing conditions. For 50keV N ion implanted GaAs and InAs substrates, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals ~5 nm diameter amorphous nanostructures surrounded by crystalline matrices. For 100keV N ion implanted GaAs epilayers, ~10 nm diameter crystalline nanostructures surrounded by amorphous matrices are apparent. Electron diffraction indicates that these crystallites are mostly randomly-oriented cubic phases, with lattice parameters close to that of pure GaN. Furthermore, the crystalline nanostructures exhibit significant photoluminescence in the near-infrared range. The apparent lowering of the fundamental band gap is consistent with strain-induced band gap narrowing of a GaN-rich spherical cluster [1]. We will discuss the mechanisms of formation and coarsening of these nanostructures, as well as correlations between their optical and structural properties. [1] R. S. Goldman, R. M. Feenstra, B. G. Briner, M. L. O'Steen, and R. J. Hauenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3698 (1996), J. Electr. Mater. 26, 1342 (1997). [2] H. P. Xin, K. L. Kavanagh, Z. Q. Zhu, and C. W. Tu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2337 (1999).

  13. Microstructure evolution and device performance in solution-processed polymeric field-effect transistors: the key role of the first monolayer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suhao; Kiersnowski, Adam; Pisula, Wojciech; Müllen, Klaus

    2012-03-07

    Probing the role of the first monolayer in the evolution of the film polymer microstructure is essential for the fundamental understanding of the charge carrier transport in polymeric field-effect transistors (FETs). The monolayer and its subsequent microstructure of a conjugated polymer [poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene), PBTTT] film were fabricated via solution deposition by tuning the dip-coating speed and were then studied as accumulation and transporting layers in FETs. Investigation of the microstructure of the layers prepared at different coating velocities revealed that the monolayer serves as an important base for further development of the film. Significant improvement of the charge carrier transport occurs only at a critical multilayer network density that establishes the required percolation pathways for the charge carriers. Finally, at a low dip-coating speed, the polymer chains are uniaxially oriented, yielding pronounced structural anisotropy and high charge carrier mobilities of 1.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the alignment direction. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. The Impact of Strain Reversal on Microstructure Evolution and Orientation Relationships in Ti-6Al-4V with an Initial Alpha Colony Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszka, K.; Lopez-Pedrosa, M.; Raszka, K.; Thomas, M.; Rainforth, W. M.; Wynne, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of forward and reverse torsion on flow behavior and microstructure evolution, particularly dynamic and static spheroidization, on Ti-6Al-4V with an alpha lamella colony microstructure was studied. Testing was undertaken sub beta transus [1088 K (815 °C)] at strain rates of either 0.05 or 0.5 s-1. Quantitative metallography and electron back scatter diffraction has identified that a critical monotonic strain ( ɛ c) in the range of 0.3 to 0.6 is required to initiate rapid dynamic spheroidization of the alpha lamella. For material deformed to strains below ɛ c and then reversed to a zero net strain the orientation relationships between alpha colonies are close to ideal Burgers, enabling prior beta grains to be fully reconstructed. Material deformed to strains greater than ɛ c and reversed lose Burgers and no beta reconstruction is possible, suggesting ɛ c is the strain required to generate break-up of lamella. Static spheroidization is, however, sensitive to strain path around ɛ c. Annealing at 1088 K (815 °C) for 4 hours for material subjected to 0.25 forward + 0.25 forward strain produces 48 pct spheroidized grains while material with 0.25 forward + 0.25 reverse strain has 10 pct spheroidization. This is believed to be a direct consequence of different levels of the stored energy between these two strain paths.

  15. A continuum approach to the modeling of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, Hashem M.

    Interest in microstructural evolution of polycrystalline materials stems from the multiplicity of interrelated phenomena that contribute to this evolution, and from the impact that such phenomena have on the performance and reliability of these materials, especially in applications such as microelectronic devices. In this work, a continuum field formulation developed to study this type of phenomena is presented. The formulation accounts fully for the coupling between mechanical behavior, self diffusion, electric effects and interface migration. Each phenomenon being modeled is treated as a coupled initial and boundary value problem, consisting of these four component problems. Atomic-level mechanisms are taken into consideration while developing the thermodynamic basis of the formulation, from which the constitutive relations are derived. The computational framework used to solve the resulting coupled field equations is described in detail. This framework is built around a staggered solution scheme in which the finite element method is used to solve each governing differential equation individually. Additional computational techniques utilized in the implementation are also discussed. Examples of these include the level set method, a least-squares projection/smoothing technique and a modified form of the Galerkin/least-squares stabilization method. To study the problem of void nucleation in polycrystals, the stability of the atom-vacancy system is examined closely. A thermodynamic instability which could lead to spinodal decomposition of this system is identified. The amplications of this result in the context of void nucleation are explored and its relation to classical nucleation theory is realized. All quantities needed to calculate void formation rates are obtained from the coupled field calculations in a consistent mannen As expected, the results indicate that a high tensile stress can lead to void nucleation in the presence of impurities. The problem of grain

  16. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Al-Cu strips by high-speed twin-roll strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Seshadev; Ghosh, Sudipto

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, microstructural evolutions of functionally graded eutectic Al-Cu strips prepared by high-speed twin-roll strip caster at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats were studied. The as-cast sample was subjected to scanning electron microscope to study the evolution of microstructure of the strip at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats. At different casting speeds, non-equilibrium eutectic structure observed on the Al-Cu eutectic strip consists of lamellar as well as wavy structure with a distinct boundary. The lamellar microstructure consists of alternating layers of well-bonded α-Al phase and θ-Al2Cu phase. The globular flowery structure within the eutectic matrix was observed on the strip at different liquid melt superheats. The microhardness of the as-cast strip was studied by Vickers hardness tester, and it was found that hardness value increases with increasing casting speed and decreases with increasing liquid melt superheat.

  17. Linking microstructural evolution and macro-scale friction behavior in metals [Predicting the friction behavior of metals using a microstructural evolution model

    SciTech Connect

    Argibay, N.; Chandross, M.; Cheng, S.; Michael, J. R.

    2016-11-21

    A correlation is established between the macro-scale friction regimes of metals and a transition between two dominant atomistic mechanisms of deformation. Metals tend to exhibit bi-stable friction behavior—low and converging or high and diverging. These general trends in behavior are shown to be largely explained using a simplified model based on grain size evolution, as a function of contact stress and temperature, and are demonstrated for self-mated pure copper and gold sliding contacts. Specifically, the low-friction regime (where µ < 0.5) is linked to the formation of ultra-nanocrystalline surface films (10–20 nm), driving toward shear accommodation by grain boundary sliding. Above a critical combination of stress and temperature—demonstrated to be a material property—shear accommodation transitions to dislocation dominated plasticity and high friction, with µ > 0.5. We utilize a combination of experimental and computational methods to develop and validate the proposed structure–property relationship. As a result, this quantitative framework provides a shift from ph