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Sample records for microwave tissue coagulator

  1. Laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping using a microwave tissue coagulator.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Noriyasu; Yasui, Takahiro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Kubota, Yasue; Mizuno, Kentaro; Okada, Atsushi; Ando, Ryosuke; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-02-01

    To report our initial experience and evaluate the possibility of nonhilar clamp laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy by using a microwave tissue coagulator. From December 2010 to May 2012, all patients with an exophytic, solitary, enhancing small (≤4.0 cm) renal mass were chosen to receive the study treatment. A multichannel port provided both a retroperitoneal and transperitoneal approach. A rigid, articulating apparatus was used to perform dissection, exposure of tumor, tissue coagulation, and resection without hilar clamping. Pathologic and hematologic data, subjective evaluation of pain, and scar appearance were analyzed. Nonhilar clamp LESS partial nephrectomy by using a microwave tissue coagulator was performed in seven patients (mean operative time, 208 min; mean blood loss, 39 mL; mean renal mass size, 1.7 cm); one procedure with uncontrolled bleeding needed to be converted to conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. No transfusion was necessary. Pathologic investigation demonstrated six renal-cell carcinomas and one oncocytoma. The hemoglobin level decreased by a mean of 1.1 g/dL. Patients did not complain about pain, and they had great satisfaction with the results. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13.8 days. LESS partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping by using a microwave tissue coagulator is possible for renal masses, confers postoperative outcomes comparable to the standard counterpart, and assures patient satisfaction. By use of a microwave tissue coagulator, additional trocars were not necessary, and LESS partial nephrectomy could be accomplished through a single port, which reduced invasion and increased the cosmetic satisfaction of the patients.

  2. Liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma using a microwave tissue coagulator: Experience of 1118 cases.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Matsuda, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Goro

    2015-09-28

    To present our extensive experience of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma using a microwave tissue coagulator to demonstrate the effectiveness of this device. A total of 1118 cases (1990-2013) were reviewed, with an emphasis on intraoperative blood loss, postoperative bile leakage and fluid/abscess formation, and adaptability to anatomical resection and hepatectomy with hilar dissection. The median intraoperative blood loss was 250 mL; postoperative bile leakage and fluid/abscess formation were seen in 3.0% and 3.3% of cases, respectively. Anatomical resection was performed in 275 cases, including 103 cases of hilar dissection that required application of microwave coagulation near the hepatic hilum. There was no clinically relevant biliary tract stricture or any vascular problems due to heat injury. Regarding the influence of cirrhosis on intraoperative blood loss, no significant difference was seen between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients (P = 0.38), although cirrhotic patients tended to have smaller tumors and underwent less invasive operations. This study demonstrated outcomes of an extensive experience of hepatectomy using heat coagulative necrosis by microwave tissue coagulator.

  3. Liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma using a microwave tissue coagulator: Experience of 1118 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Matsuda, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Goro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To present our extensive experience of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma using a microwave tissue coagulator to demonstrate the effectiveness of this device. METHODS: A total of 1118 cases (1990-2013) were reviewed, with an emphasis on intraoperative blood loss, postoperative bile leakage and fluid/abscess formation, and adaptability to anatomical resection and hepatectomy with hilar dissection. RESULTS: The median intraoperative blood loss was 250 mL; postoperative bile leakage and fluid/abscess formation were seen in 3.0% and 3.3% of cases, respectively. Anatomical resection was performed in 275 cases, including 103 cases of hilar dissection that required application of microwave coagulation near the hepatic hilum. There was no clinically relevant biliary tract stricture or any vascular problems due to heat injury. Regarding the influence of cirrhosis on intraoperative blood loss, no significant difference was seen between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients (P = 0.38), although cirrhotic patients tended to have smaller tumors and underwent less invasive operations. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated outcomes of an extensive experience of hepatectomy using heat coagulative necrosis by microwave tissue coagulator. PMID:26420966

  4. A Numerical Study on Microwave Coagulation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    treated by applying localized heat to cancerous tissues, often in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Microwave coagulation therapy is one...such clinical technique for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. In the treatment, a thin microwave antenna is inserted into the cancerous tissue and...the microwave energy heats up the tumor, killing the cancer cells by producing a coagulated region. Numerical models of microwave cancer therapy have

  5. Microwave coagulation for liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Riemsma, Robert P; Wolff, Robert; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-10-13

    Primary liver cancer and liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma are the two most common malignant tumours to affect the liver. The liver is second only to the lymph nodes as the most common site for metastatic disease. More than half of patients with metastatic liver disease will die from metastatic complications. Microwave coagulation involves placing an electrode into a lesion under ultrasound or computed tomography guidance. The microwave coagulator generates and transmits microwave energy to the electrode. Coagulative necrosis causes cellular death and destroys tissue in the treatment area, resulting in reduction of tumour size. To study the beneficial and harmful effects of microwave coagulation compared with no intervention, other ablation methods, or systemic treatments in patients with liver metastases. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS, and CINAHL up to December 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials assessing beneficial and harmful effects of microwave coagulation and its comparators, irrespective of the location of the primary tumour. We extracted relevant information on participant characteristics, interventions, and study outcomes and data on outcome measures for our review, as well as information on design and methodology of the studies. Bias risk assessment of trials, determination of whether they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and data extraction from retrieved for final evaluation trials were done by one review author and were checked by a second review author. One randomised clinical trial fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the review. Forty participants with multiple liver metastases of colorectal cancer and no evidence of extrahepatic disease were randomly assigned. Thirty of these participants (14 females and 16 males) were included in the

  6. [Laparoscopic Non-Ischemic Partial Nephrectomy Using a Microwave Tissue Coagulator : A Single-Institutional Study].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Iemura, Yusuke; Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Samma, Shoji

    2017-04-01

    We retrospectively investigated the surgical outcomes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), perioperative complications, and residual renal function in patients receiving laparoscopic non-ischemic partial nephrectomy using a microwave tissue coagulator (MTC). Between January 2002 and December 2015, laparoscopic non-ischemic partial nephrectomy using MTC was performed in 49 patients. The histological diagnosis was RCC in 38 patients, angiomyolipoma in 4, oncocytoma in 2, and others in 5. A histologicallyproven positive surgical margin was observed in 1 (2.0%). Postoperative urine leakage occurred in 1, and it was treated conservatively. The mean follow-up period was 32.0 months. Although there was no patient who died of RCC, local recurrence occurred in 2 patients (4.1%) during the follow-up period. One of these 2 patients had a positive surgical margin. Deterioration of the residual renal function was not observed. Laparoscopic non-ischemic partial nephrectomy using MTC was safe and useful in terms of cancer control and preservation of renal function.

  7. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  8. Tissue Factor in Coagulation: Which? Where? When?

    PubMed Central

    Butenas, Saulius; Orfeo, Thomas; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is an integral membrane protein, normally separated from the blood by the vascular endothelium, which plays a key role in the initiation of blood coagulation. With a perforating vascular injury, TF becomes exposed to blood and binds plasma factor VIIa. The resulting complex initiates a series of enzymatic reactions leading to clot formation and vascular sealing. In some pathologic states, circulating blood cells express TF as a result of exposure to an inflammatory stimulus leading to intravascular clotting, vessel occlusion and thrombotic pathology. Numerous controversies have arisen related to the influence of structural features of TF, its presentation and its function. There are contradictory reports about the synthesis and presentation of TF on blood cells and the presence (or absence) of functionally active TF circulating in normal blood either on microparticles or as a soluble protein. In this review we discuss TF structure-function relationships and the role of TF during various phases of the blood coagulation process. We also highlight controversies concerning the expression/presence of TF on various cells and in blood in normal and pathologic states. PMID:19592470

  9. THE TISSUE FACTOR REQUIREMENT IN BLOOD COAGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Orfeo, Thomas; Butenas, Saulius; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of thrombin is triggered when membrane-localized tissue factor (TF) is exposed to blood. In closed models of this process, thrombin formation displays an initiation phase (low rates of thrombin production cause platelet activation and fibrinogen clotting), a propagation phase (>95% of thrombin production occurs) and a termination phase (prothrombin activation ceases and free thrombin is inactivated). A current controversy centers on whether the TF stimulus requires supplementation from a circulating pool of blood TF in order to sustain an adequate procoagulant response. We have evaluated the requirement for TF during the progress of the blood coagulation reaction and have extended these analyses to assess the requirement for TF during resupply (“flow replacement”). Elimination of TF activity at various times during the initiation phase indicated: a period of absolute dependence (<10s); a transitional period in which the dependence on TF is partial and decreases as the reaction proceeds (10–240s); and a period in which the progress of the reaction is TF independent (>240s). Resupply of reactions late during the termination phase with fresh reactants, but no TF, yielded immediate bursts of thrombin formation similar in magnitude to the original propagation phases. Our data show that independence from the initial TF stimulus is achieved by the onset of the propagation phase and that the ensemble of coagulation products and intermediates which yield this TF independence maintain their prothrombin-activating potential for considerable time. These observations support the hypothesis that the transient, localized expression of TF is sufficient to sustain a TF-independent procoagulant response as long as flow persists. PMID:16215234

  10. The tissue factor requirement in blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Orfeo, Thomas; Butenas, Saulius; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Mann, Kenneth G

    2005-12-30

    Formation of thrombin is triggered when membrane-localized tissue factor (TF) is exposed to blood. In closed models of this process, thrombin formation displays an initiation phase (low rates of thrombin production cause platelet activation and fibrinogen clotting), a propagation phase (>95% of thrombin production occurs), and a termination phase (prothrombin activation ceases and free thrombin is inactivated). A current controversy centers on whether the TF stimulus requires supplementation from a circulating pool of blood TF to sustain an adequate procoagulant response. We have evaluated the requirement for TF during the progress of the blood coagulation reaction and have extended these analyses to assess the requirement for TF during resupply ("flow replacement"). Elimination of TF activity at various times during the initiation phase indicated: a period of absolute dependence (<10 s); a transitional period in which the dependence on TF is partial and decreases as the reaction proceeds (10-240 s); and a period in which the progress of the reaction is TF independent (>240 s). Resupply of reactions late during the termination phase with fresh reactants, but no TF, yielded immediate bursts of thrombin formation similar in magnitude to the original propagation phases. Our data show that independence from the initial TF stimulus is achieved by the onset of the propagation phase and that the ensemble of coagulation products and intermediates that yield this TF independence maintain their prothrombin activating potential for considerable time. These observations support the hypothesis that the transient, localized expression of TF is sufficient to sustain a TF-independent procoagulant response as long as flow persists.

  11. Regulation of tissue factor coagulant activity on cell surfaces

    PubMed Central

    RAO, L.V.M.; PENDURTHI, U.R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein and an essential component of factor VIIa-TF enzymatic complex that triggers activation of the coagulation cascade. Formation of TF-FVIIa complexes on cell surfaces not only trigger the coagulation cascade but also transduce cell signaling via activation of protease-activated receptors. Tissue factor is expressed constitutively on cell surfaces of a variety of extravascular cell types, including fibroblasts and pericytes in and surrounding blood vessel walls and epithelial cells but generally absent on cells that come in contact with blood directly. However, TF expression could be induced in some blood cells, such as monocytes and endothelial cells, following an injury or pathological stimuli. Tissue factor is essential for hemostasis, but aberrant expression of TF leads to thrombosis. Therefore, a proper regulation of TF activity is critical for the maintenance of hemostatic balance and health in general. TF-FVIIa coagulant activity at the cell surface is influenced not only by TF protein expression levels but also independently by a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in membrane phospholipid composition and cholesterol content, thiol-dependent modifications of TF allosteric disulfide bond, and other post-translational modifications of TF. In this article, we critically review key literature on mechanisms by which TF coagulant activity is regulated at the cell surface in the absence of changes in TF protein levels with specific emphasis on recently published data and provide the authors’ perspective on the subject. PMID:23006890

  12. Effect of coagulation on laser light distribution in myocardial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agah, Ramtin; Sheth, Devang; Motamedi, Massoud

    1991-05-01

    The changes in total reflection and transmission of porcine myocardium due to thermal coagulation were measured during tissue heating in a temperature-controlled water bath, at different temperature ranging between 54 degree(s)-63 degree(s)C. At 633 nm, the measurements yield a picture of continuous decrease in transmission and a peak with a subsequent fall (approximately 10% from the peak) in reflection measurements of the tissue during coagulation process. Utilizing these measurements and an inverse solution to the radiative transfer equation, the optical properties of tissue, absorption, (mu)a, and effective scattering, (mu)s=(mu)s(1-g) were calculated. A one-dimensional diffusion approximation was used to demonstrate the effects of thermally induced changes in the optical properties of tissue on light distribution in tissue. The pattern of changes in (mu)a and (mu)s seem to indicate that several simultaneous rate processes may be responsible for tissue coagulation. A postulate is put forward to use one such rate process to characterize threshold thermal damage to porcine myocardium and the accompanying protein denaturation.

  13. Endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy of postoperative hemorrhage from a stapled anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Umano, Yasukazu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Inoue, Masaya; Shono, Yoshiharu; Oku, Yoshimasa; Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Takeshi; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We experienced three cases of postoperative hemorrhage from a stapled gastrointestinal anastomosis, and established endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy (EMCT) with a cylinder-type electrode. We were able to treat postoperative hemorrhage over the entire circumference of stapled anastomosis successfully. Two patients had undergone a lower third thoracic esophagogastrectomy through a left thoraco-abdominal approach for gastric cancer in the cardia, while the other case had undergone Billroth I gastrectomy. They each had fresh bleeding from the stapled anastomosis after the operation. Emergency endoscopic examination was immediately performed. Endoscopy revealed bleeding on the suture line. We performed hemostasis endoscopically with microwave coagulation therapy safely. They were discharged from the hospital without complications such as leakage and stenosis. Since EMCT with the cylinder-type electrode can coagulate shallowly and widely, it is very effective for hemorrhage from a stapled anastomosis.

  14. Effects of microwave radiation on living tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Surrell, J.A.; Alexander, R.C.; Cohle, S.D.; Lovell, F.R. Jr.; Wehrenberg, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    Prompted by an alleged case of child abuse resulting from microwave oven burns and the discovery of one other case, an animal model was chosen to explore microwave burn characteristics upon living, perfusing tissue. Anesthetized piglets were exposed to radiation from a standard household microwave oven for varying lengths of time, sufficient to result in full-thickness skin and visceral burns. Characteristic burn patterns were grossly identified. Biopsies studied with both light and electron microscopy demonstrated a pattern of relative layered tissue sparing. Layered tissue sparing is characterized by burned skin and muscle, with relatively unburned subcutaneous fat between these two layers. These findings have important forensic and patient care implications.

  15. Microwave processing of gustatory tissues for immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Amanda; Kinnamon, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We use immunohistochemistry to study taste cell structure and function as a means to elucidate how taste receptor cells communicate with nerve fibers and adjacent taste cells. This conventional method, however, is time consuming. In the present study we used taste buds from rat circumvallate papillae to compare conventional immunohistochemical tissue processing with microwave processing for the colocalization of several biochemical pathway markers (PLCβ2, syntaxin-1, IP3R3, α-gustducin) and the nuclear stain, Sytox. The results of our study indicate that in microwave versus conventional immunocytochemistry: (1) fixation quality is improved; (2) the amount of time necessary for processing tissue is decreased; (3) antigen retrieval is no longer needed; (4) image quality is superior. In sum, microwave tissue processing of gustatory tissues is faster and superior to conventional immunohistochemical tissue processing for many applications. PMID:23473796

  16. Dose control for noncontact laser coagulation of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggan, Andre; Albrecht, Hansjoerg; Bocher, Thomas; Rygiel, Reiner; Winter, Harald; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1995-01-01

    Nd:YAG lasers emitting at 1064 nm are often used for coagulation of tissue in a non-contact mode, i.e. the treatment of verrucae, endometriosis, tumor coagulation and hemostasis. During this process an uncontrolled temperature rise of the irradiated area leads to vaporization and, finally, to a carbonization of the tissue surface. To prevent this, a dose controlled system was developed using an on-line regulation of the output laser power. The change of the backscattered intensity (remission) of the primary beam was used as a dose dependent feedback parameter. Its dependence on the temperature was determined with a double integrating sphere system and Monte-Carlo simulations. The remission of the tissue was calculated in slab geometry from diffusion theory and Monte-Carlo simulations. The laser control was realized with a PD-circuit and an A/D-converter, enabling the direct connection to the internal bus of the laser system. Preliminary studies with various tissues revealed the practicability of the system.

  17. Tissue Factor, Blood Coagulation, and Beyond: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence shows a broad spectrum of biological functions of tissue factor (TF). TF classical role in initiating the extrinsic blood coagulation and its direct thrombotic action in close relation to cardiovascular risks have long been established. TF overexpression/hypercoagulability often observed in many clinical conditions certainly expands its role in proinflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound repairs, embryonic development, cell adhesion/migration, innate immunity, infection, pregnancy loss, and many others. This paper broadly covers seminal observations to discuss TF pathogenic roles in relation to diverse disease development or manifestation. Biochemically, extracellular TF signaling interfaced through protease-activated receptors (PARs) elicits cellular activation and inflammatory responses. TF diverse biological roles are associated with either coagulation-dependent or noncoagulation-mediated actions. Apparently, TF hypercoagulability refuels a coagulation-inflammation-thrombosis circuit in “autocrine” or “paracrine” fashions, which triggers a wide spectrum of pathophysiology. Accordingly, TF suppression, anticoagulation, PAR blockade, or general anti-inflammation offers an array of therapeutical benefits for easing diverse pathological conditions. PMID:21941675

  18. Initial experiences with MR Image-guided laparoscopic microwave coagulation therapy for hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koichiro; Naka, Shigeyuki; Shiomi, Hisanori; Akabori, Hiroya; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Tani, Tohru

    2015-09-01

    Percutaneous thermal ablation is used for treating hepatic tumors. Recent advances in laparoscopy and imaging modalities have led to the development of a novel image-guided minimally invasive loco-regional treatment. The aim of this trial was to apply laparoscopic assistance to magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided thermoablation instead of ultrasonography, because of its various advantages. Patients with hepatic tumors and liver cirrhosis underwent magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided laparoscopic microwave coagulation therapy using a borescope and endoscopic forceps. Six cases of laparoscopic microwave coagulation treatment using MR image guidance were successfully performed between January 2000 and December 2008. Tumors were detected, punctured, and ablated in an open-configured MR scanner. A total of nine hepatocellular carcinoma nodules were preoperatively identified in S3, S5 and S6 (mean diameter = 20.8 ± 5.4 mm). MR-guided microwave coagulation was laparoscopically achieved in all patients without any significant complications that required invasive treatment. The mean length of the operation was 275.3 ± 60.5 min, and the mean postsurgical hospital stay was 10.0 ± 2.3 days. Postoperative confirmation scanning was performed without moving the patients. MR-guided laparoscopic microwave coagulation therapy is an effective treatment for hepatic tumors adjacent to other organs, as it allows for more accurate detection of lesions and for tumors to be treated safely while avoiding adjacent organs. It is less invasive than conventional procedures, because the MR real-time guidance enabled continuous monitoring throughout the procedure.

  19. Comparison of ablation zones among different tissues using 2450-MHz cooled-shaft microwave antenna: results in ex vivo porcine models.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong; Liu, Xiaoan; Jiang, Yanni; Wang, Yufeng; Ling, Lijun; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Shui

    2013-01-01

    For complete tumor ablation in different tissues, it is necessary to investigate the exact coagulation zone of microwave ablation in different tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the extent of microwave ablation zone in muscle, liver and adipose tissue in ex vivo porcine models and assess the shape of microwave coagulation zone among these tissues. Microwave ablations were performed in ex vivo porcine muscle, liver and adipose tissue using 2450-MHz cooled-shaft microwave antenna. The content of water, fat and protein in these three tissues was determined. Two power increments (40 and 80 W) and five time increments (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minutes) were used in this study. Diameters and shapes of the ablation zones were assessed on gross specimens. The average percentages of water, fat and protein in these three tissues were significantly different (P < 0.001), respectively. The long-axis and short-axis diameters among these three tissues at each time-power combination were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The coagulation zones were all elliptical in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. When microwave ablation was performed in the tissue containing both muscle and adipose tissue, the coagulation zone was also elliptical. Regardless of the output power, the ellipticity index (EI) value of 1 minute treatment duration was higher than that of 10 minutes treatment duration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the EI value did not decrease significantly when the treatment duration was more than 5 minutes (P > 0.05). The extent of microwave ablation zones was not significantly different among completely different tissues. Microwave ablations with ≥ 5 minutes time duration can induce coagulation zones with clinical desirable shape. Future clinical studies are still required to determine the role of microwave ablation in different tissues.

  20. Optical changes of porcine brain tissue after thermal coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Goldbach, Thomas; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Ulrich, Frank; Bettag, Martin; Kahn, Thomas; Kaufmann, Raimund

    1995-05-01

    Porcine brain tissue is a model for human brain structures in laser induced thermo-therapy. However, its optical properties including possible heat-related changes were basically unknown so far. To simulate laser coagulation, 12 specimens (6 grey and 6 white matter) were heated in a saline bath (80°C, 2 hours) and compared to 11 untreated samples (5 grey and 6 white matter). The optical constants were obtained from transmission (total and collimated) and reflection (diffuse) measurements using the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The absorption coefficient ((mu) a) of untreated grey substance decreased from 0.35 +/- 0.06/mm (340 nm) to 0.03 +/- 0.02/mm (800 nm). The scattering coefficient ((mu) s) varied between 20.42 +/- 3.65/mm (340 nm) and 6.85 +/- 2.07/mm (800 nm). The anisotropy factor (g) increased from 0.848 +/- 0.013 (340 nm) to 0.889 +/- 0.009 (800 nm). Coagulation increased (mu) a up to a factor of 2 (340-540 nm; p < 0.05), and (mu) s by a factor up to 3 (340-800 nm, all data p < 0.001) while g was decreased up to 18% (340-560 nm; p < 0.05). White substance exhibited a (mu) a between 0.24 +/- 0.07/mm (340 nm) and 0.04 +/- 0.02/mm (800 nm) while (mu) s varied between 26.72 +/- 9.10/mm (340 nm) and 21.78 +/- 3.88/mm (800 nm). The g-value increased from 0.561 +/- 0.180 (340 nm) to 0.834 +/- 0.068 (800 nm). Coagulation increased (mu) a by a factor up to 2 (340-800 nm; all data p < 0.05) while (mu) s and g remained unchanged. Thermal denaturation changes the absorption and scattering properties of porcine brain significantly.

  1. Laser probes for noninvasive coagulation of subsurface tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chia-Chun; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Varkarakis, Ioannis M.; Lima, Guilherme; Franco, Nicholas; Hayman, Michael H.; Nicol, Theresa; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2006-02-01

    Previous ex vivo tissue studies utilizing deep laser heating combined with contact cooling of the tissue surface produced noninvasive thermal destruction of subsurface tissue structures in skin and liver samples. This study describes the design and preliminary in vivo testing of two integrated laser/cooling probes for simultaneous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and sapphire contact cooling of liver and skin tissues in an in vivo, acute porcine model for potential use in laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. Nd:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 1.06 μm, power of 20 W, 7.5-mm-diameter spot, 500-ms pulse length, and repetition rate of 0.625 Hz, was delivered to the tissue with a total irradiation time of 16 s. The tissue surface was continuously cooled with a sapphire plate maintained at -5 °C, and with pre- and post-ablation cooling times measuring 120 s and 30 s, resulting in a total operation time of 166 s per a lesion. Thermal lesions were created in liver and skin at a 1-mm depth below the tissue surface and with a 3-4 mm diameter. The laser parameters and lesion dimensions were comparable to previous ex vivo tissue studies. Preliminary in vivo animal studies demonstrate noninvasive creation of subsurface thermal lesions in tissue using Nd:YAG laser irradiation in conjunction with sapphire contact cooling. Chronic wound healing studies will be necessary to optimize the laser and cooling parameters. Potential clinical applications include endoscopic laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence and thermal coagulation of early stage bladder tumors.

  2. Microwave Tissue Soldering for Immediate Wound Closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Plan, Chau T.; Byerly, Diane; Dusl, John; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the immediate sealing of traumatic wounds is under development. A portable microwave generator and handheld antenna are used to seal wounds, binding the edges of the wound together using a biodegradable protein sealant or solder. This method could be used for repairing wounds in emergency settings, by restoring the wound surface to its original strength within minutes. This technique could also be utilized for surgical purposes involving solid visceral organs (i.e., liver, spleen, and kidney) that currently do not respond well to ordinary surgical procedures. A miniaturized microwave generator and a handheld antenna are used to deliver microwave energy to the protein solder, which is applied to the wound. The antenna can be of several alternative designs optimized for placement either in contact with or proximity to the protein solder covering the wound. In either case, optimization of the design includes the matching of impedances to maximize the energy delivered to the protein solder and wound at a chosen frequency. For certain applications, an antenna could be designed that would emit power only when it is in direct contact with the wound. The optimum frequency or frequencies for a specific application would depend on the required depth of penetration of the microwave energy. In fact, a computational simulation for each specific application could be performed, which would then match the characteristics of the antenna with the protein solder and tissue to best effect wound closure. An additional area of interest with potential benefit that remains to be validated is whether microwave energy can effectively kill bacteria in and around the wound. Thus, this may be an efficient method for simultaneously sterilizing and closing wounds. Using microwave energy to seal wounds has a number of advantages over lasers, which are currently in experimental use in some hospitals. Laser tissue welding is unsuitable for emergency use because its large, bulky

  3. COAGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study conventional and enhanced coagulation for the control of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and the surrogate total organic halide in t...

  4. The histological features of microwave coagulation therapy: an assessment of a new applicator design

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Benjamin; Strickland, Andrew; West, Kevin; Clegg, Peter; Cronin, Nigel; Lloyd, David

    2003-01-01

    Microwave ablation of tumours within the liver may become an adjunct or alternative to resection in patients with primary or secondary cancers. This technique combines the benefits of a large, localized coagulative effect with a single insertion of the applicator, in a significantly shorter time than comparable treatments. A new range of microwave applicators were developed and tested in animal models and both ex-vivo and in-vivo specimens of human liver at resection. At laparotomy, the applicator tip was inserted into normal liver parenchyma and tumours, with each specimen subjected to irradiation for 180 s or more and at varying power outputs. On sectioning an area of spherical blanching was observed around the applicator cavity. Microscopically a zone of coagulative necrosis was seen adjacent to the site of probe insertion. Damage to blood vessels and bile ducts occurred distal to the probe cavity suggesting the passage of heated fluid, a finding that was diminished by temporary occlusion of the hepatic vasculature (a Pringle manoeuvre). Ultra-structural damage was confirmed within the burn zone and selected liver enzymes were shown to be functioning beyond this region. We suggest this indicates the surrounding liver parenchyma is functioning normally and therefore the volume of microwave-induced damage is controllable. We are confident that the new applicator design will allow the effective treatment of larger tumours in a safe and controlled manner with a single application of energy. PMID:12694484

  5. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy with a "cooled-tip needle" for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Rong-Qin; Nan, Lin; Fang, He-Ping; Liu, Bo; Tang, Zhao-Feng; Deng, Mei-Hai; Xu, Rui-Yun

    2010-09-01

    Curative percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy is difficult or contraindicated in patients with tumors adjacent to the gallbladder because of the associated risk of injury. To date, no clinical data have been published regarding the effects and safety of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy on tumors that are adjacent to the gallbladder. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a combined treatment involving laparoscopic cholecystectomy and subsequent percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to the gallbladder. Twenty-three patients with hepatocellular carcinoma nodules (of less than 5 cm diameter) and adjacent to the gallbladder were treated by percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy with a "cooled-tip needle" after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated with enhanced helical computed tomography and sonography, and the rates of complete necrosis as well as postoperative complications were also analyzed. All of the patients exhibited complete necrosis of their tumor lesions after treatment with percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy. During the follow-up period (which lasted more than 21 months), 22 of 23 patients were alive. Recurrent nodules appeared in other subsegments, but not at the original site treated with percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy. Of note, no fatal complications were observed in any of the patients treated with percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy. Our results suggest that combined treatment comprising both laparoscopic cholecystectomy and subsequent percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy is an effective and safe approach for patients with small (<5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas that are adjacent to the gallbladder.

  6. Using microfluidics to understand the effect of spatial distribution of tissue factor on blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Kastrup, Christian J; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-01-01

    Initiation of blood coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a robust, highly regulated process. Both the spatial distribution of TF and the geometry of the vasculature may play important roles in regulating coagulation. As this review describes, microfluidic systems provide a unique opportunity for investigating the spatiotemporal dynamics of blood coagulation in vitro. Microfluidic systems with surfaces of phospholipid bilayers patterned with TF have been used to demonstrate experimentally the threshold responses of initiation of coagulation to the size and shape of surfaces presenting TF. These systems have also been used to demonstrate experimentally that propagation of coagulation is regulated by the shear rate of blood flow in microcapillaries and microchannels. By understanding these and other aspects of the spatial dynamics that regulate blood coagulation, many new methods for treating clotting disorders, such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) and sepsis, could arise.

  7. Hepatocyte tissue factor activates the coagulation cascade in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Bradley P.; Kopec, Anna K.; Joshi, Nikita; Cline, Holly; Brown, Juliette A.; Bishop, Stephanie C.; Kassel, Karen M.; Rockwell, Cheryl; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we characterized tissue factor (TF) expression in mouse hepatocytes (HPCs) and evaluated its role in mouse models of HPC transplantation and acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. TF expression was significantly reduced in isolated HPCs and liver homogenates from TFflox/flox/albumin-Cre mice (HPCΔTF mice) compared with TFflox/flox mice (control mice). Isolated mouse HPCs expressed low levels of TF that clotted factor VII-deficient human plasma. In addition, HPC TF initiated factor Xa generation without exogenous factor VIIa, and TF activity was increased dramatically after cell lysis. Treatment of HPCs with an inhibitory TF antibody or a cell-impermeable lysine-conjugating reagent prior to lysis substantially reduced TF activity, suggesting that TF was mainly present on the cell surface. Thrombin generation was dramatically reduced in APAP-treated HPCΔTF mice compared with APAP-treated control mice. In addition, thrombin generation was dependent on donor HPC TF expression in a model of HPC transplantation. These results suggest that mouse HPCs constitutively express cell surface TF that mediates activation of coagulation during hepatocellular injury. PMID:23305736

  8. Sequential coagulation factor VIIa domain binding to tissue factor

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterlund, Maria; Persson, Egon; Freskgard, Per-Ola . E-mail: msv@ifm.liu.se

    2005-12-02

    Vessel wall tissue factor (TF) is exposed to blood upon vascular damage which enables association with factor VIIa (FVIIa). This leads to initiation of the blood coagulation cascade through localization and allosteric induction of FVIIa procoagulant activity. To examine the docking pathway of the FVIIa-TF complex, various residues in the extracellular part of TF (sTF) that are known to interact with FVIIa were replaced with cysteines labelled with a fluorescent probe. By using stopped-flow fluorescence kinetic measurements in combination with surface plasmon resonance analysis, we studied the association of the resulting sTF variants with FVIIa. We found the docking trajectory to be a sequence of events in which the protease domain of FVIIa initiates contact with sTF. Thereafter, the two proteins are tethered via the first epidermal growth factor-like and finally the {gamma}-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. The two labelled sTF residues interacting with the protease domain of FVIIa bind or become eventually ordered at different rates, revealing kinetic details pertinent to the allosteric activation of FVIIa by sTF. Moreover, when the Gla domain of FVIIa is removed the difference in the rate of association for the remaining domains is much more pronounced.

  9. Laser tissue welding: Effects of solder coagulation and tissue optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Eric Kin

    Laser tissue welding can be a viable technique for repairing soft tissues in laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. In recent years, the application of an albumin based solder has augmented laser welding of soft tissues. In order to develop a practical laparoscopic welding device, various factors affecting light dosimetry and solder coagulation must be carefully investigated. One important consideration for light dosimetry in laser welding is to obtain accurate tissue optical properties. Spectrophotometric Method using an integrating sphere is a widely accepted technique for determining tissue optical properties in vitro. However, this method requires a specimen large enough to fill the sample port of the integrating sphere. For small and delicate tissues, a technique was developed to estimate the optical properties of intact tissue using frozen ground tissues. This technique allows accurate approximation of tissue optical properties in the visible range. Lasers with wavelengths about the 2 μm water absorption peak are being considered for tissue welding. However, the absorption coefficient of water increases by a factor of two from 2.1 μm (Ho:YAG) to 2.01 μm (Tm:YAG). Soft tissue absorption properties about 2 μm were estimated from tissue thermal response created by a CW tunable laser recorded with an IR thermal camera. Tissue absorption properties are generally lower than those of water, but follow similar spectral profile of water. When the edges of an incision are approximated during laser welding, physical compression occurs which may affect tissue optical properties. The effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties were determined. For compression up to 2 kgf/cm2, soft tissue absorption and reduced scattering coefficients increase with compression in the visible and part of the IR range. A study has been conducted with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the photocoagulation process of an albumin based solder. The process involves

  10. Microwave Tissue Soldering for Immediate Wound Closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong H.; Phan, Chau T.; Byerly, Diane; Dusl, John; Sognier, Marguerite A.; Carl, James

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the immediate sealing of traumatic wounds is under development. A portable microwave generator and handheld antenna are used to seal wounds, binding the edges of the wound together using a biodegradable protein sealant or solder. This method could be used for repairing wounds in emergency settings by restoring the wound surface to its original strength within minutes. This technique could also be utilized for surgical purposes involving solid visceral organs (i.e., liver, spleen, and kidney) that currently do not respond well to ordinary surgical procedures. A miniaturized microwave generator and a handheld antenna are used to deliver microwave energy to the protein solder, which is applied to the wound. The antenna can be of several alternative designs optimized for placement either in contact with or in proximity to the protein solder covering the wound. In either case, optimization of the design includes the matching of impedances to maximize the energy delivered to the protein solder and wound at a chosen frequency. For certain applications, an antenna could be designed that would emit power only when it is in direct contact with the wound. The optimum frequency or frequencies for a specific application would depend on the required depth of penetration of the microwave energy. In fact, a computational simulation for each specific application could be performed, which would then match the characteristics of the antenna with the protein solder and tissue to best effect wound closure. An additional area of interest with potential benefit that remains to be validated is whether microwave energy can effectively kill bacteria in and around the wound. Thus, this may be an efficient method for simultaneously sterilizing and closing wounds.

  11. Microwave fixation versus formalin fixation of surgical and autopsy tissue.

    PubMed

    Login, G R

    1978-05-01

    Microwave irradiation of surgical and autopsy tissue penetrates, fixes, and hardens the tissue almost immediately (the fluid media used in the microwave consisted of saline, ten percent phosphate buffered formalin, and distilled water). Tissue sections from a representative sample of organs were tested. Comparable sections were simultaneously fixed in a phosphate buffered ten percent formalin bath in a vaccum oven as a control. Hematoxylin and eosin were used to stain the sections. Results equal to and superior to the control method were obtained. Saline microwave fixation was superior to formalin microwave fixation. Tissues placed in Zenker's solution and fixed in standard microwave oven (for approximately one minute) yielded results at least equal to conventional Zenker fixation (approximately two hours). No tissue hardening resulted from Zenker microwave fixation. A unique time versus temperature graph (microwave heating curve) reduces individual variation with this technique.

  12. Microwave soft tissue ablation (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Peter J.; Cronin, Nigel J.

    2005-04-01

    Microsulis, in conjunction with the University of Bath have developed a set of novel microwave applicators for the ablation of soft tissues. These interstitial applicators have been designed for use in open surgical, laparoscopic and percutaneous settings and range in diameter from 2.4 to 7 mm. A 20 mm diameter flat faced interface applicator was developed as an adjunct to the open surgical interstitial applicator and has been applied to the treatment of surface breaking lesions in hepatobiliary surgery. Taken as a complete tool set the applicators are capable of treating a wide range of conditions in a safe and efficacious manner. The modality employs a radiated electromagnetic field at the allocated medical frequency of 2.45 GHz and powers between 30 and 150 Watts. Computer simulations, bench testing, safety and efficacy testing, ex-vivo and in-vivo work plus clinical trials have demonstrated that these systems are capable of generating large volumes of ablation in short times with favourable ablation geometries. Clinical studies have shown very low complication rates with minimal local recurrence. It is considered that this modality offers major advantages over currently marketed products. The technique is considered to be particularly safe as it is quick and there is no passage of current obviating the requirement for grounding pads. Since the microwave field operates primarily on water and all soft tissues with the exception of fat are made up of approximately 70% water the heating pattern is highly predictable making repeatability a key factor for this modality.

  13. [Comparison of microwave coagulation using a new type electrode with radiofrequency ablation in the liver of living animals].

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Morita, T; Okuyama, M; Kitada, M; Tsukahara, Y; Ikeda, K; Suzuki, R; Shimano, T; Ishida, T

    2001-10-01

    In the present study, we compared microwave coagulation using a new type of electrode, a teflon-coated electrode that was developed in order to increase the area of coagulation, with radiofrequency ablation using a Radionics Cool-tip electrode inserted into the pig liver. Two Landrace male pig were put under general anesthesia. A microwave electrode (insulated area: 6 mm, teflon-coated electrode 16 G) and a radiofreqency (RF) electrode (Cool-tip RF single electrode 17 G) were passed through the surface of the livers of the pig. A thermometer was placed 1 cm from the tip of the electrode in order to measure the changes in the temperature of the area surrounding the electrode. In this study, the microwave setting was 80 W, and the RF pulse was set automatically. The coagulated and ablated areas of the liver were measured after 2.5, 5, and 10 minutes of energy delivery (n = 4). The diameter of the coagulated area of the liver following 2.5, 5 and 10 minutes of microwave exposure was 23.5 +/- 4.8 mm, 29.5 +/- 5.2 mm and 32.5 +/- 6.4 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the diameter of the ablated area of the liver following 2.5, 5 and 10 minutes of RF exposure was 18.5 +/- 4.1 mm, 24 +/- 7.8 mm and 28 +/- 4.9 mm, respectively. The mean temperature of the liver 1 cm from the microwave and RF electrodes (measured time: 2 minutes) was 69.6 degrees C and 56.3 degrees C. respectively (n = 12). Thus, the temperature of the area surrounding the microwave electrode was significantly higher than the temperature of the area surrounding the RF electrode (p = 0.0065). The teflon-coated microwave electrode achieved superior results to the Radionics Cool-tip electrode with respect to the diameter of the coagulated area and the temperature of the area in which the electrode was inserted, at the specified times.

  14. Tissue factor as an initiator of coagulation and inflammation in the lung.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Patients with severe infections almost invariably exhibit evidence of activation of the coagulation system. The lungs are amongst the most frequently affected organs during severe infection and sepsis. The abundant presence of intravascular and extravascular fibrin appears to be a specific hallmark of acute lung injury after sepsis. Tissue factor (TF) is regarded to be the primary initiator of coagulation in severe infection. Effective blockade of the TF pathway, either by recombinant TF pathway inhibitor or by anti-TF antibodies in experimental sepsis, attenuates lung injury and partially prevents pulmonary dysfunction. In addition, inhibition of the activity of TF prevents local activation of coagulation in models of pneumonia. The TF pathway can influence inflammatory signaling by activation of protease activated receptor-1 and -2. This review presents the most recent data on the crosstalk between TF-mediated coagulation and inflammation, with a specific emphasis on these processes in the lung.

  15. Two-wavelength approach for control of coagulation depth during laser tissue soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Martin; Aden, Mirko; Toedter, Nina; Rosenkranz, Beate

    2015-03-01

    In laser tissue soldering (LTS) protein solutions are used for closing of incisions or fixation of wound dressings. During coagulation and thermal denaturation of the protein solutions their morphology changes significantly such that light is strongly scattered. When scattering becomes major component extinction increases and the optical penetration depth shrinks which could lead to unsufficient coagulation and bonding. For adaption of extinction during coagulation we are investigating a two-wavelength approach. A strongly absorbed laser wavelength (1540 nm) and weakly absorbed wavelength (980 nm) can be applied simultaneously. Simulation of beam propagation is performed in natural and coagulated state of the solder. The model describes a three-layer system consisting of membrane, solder and phantom. The optical properties are determined by spectrometric measurements both in natural and coagulated state. The absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropy factor γ are determined by numerical analysis from the spectrometric data. Beam propagation is simulated for 980 nm and 1540 nm radiation with ZEMAX® software based on the Monte Carlo method. For both wavelengths the beginning of the process with a clear solder layer, and the final state characterized by a coagulated solder layer are examined. The optical penetration depth depends mainly on the optical properties of the solder, which change in the course of coagulation process. The coagulation depth can be varied between 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm by changing the proportion of both laser sources. This leads to concepts for minimizing heat input while maintaining a constant coagulation depth.

  16. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation.

  17. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor–dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Sylvain M.; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation. PMID:27114461

  18. Differential roles of tissue factor and phosphatidylserine in activation of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Henri M H; ten Cate, Hugo; van der Meijden, Paola E J

    2014-05-01

    It has been suggested that the main physiological trigger of coagulation, tissue factor, possesses limited procoagulant activity and occurs in an inactive or so-called encrypted state. For the conversion of encrypted into decrypted tissue factor with sufficient procoagulant activity, four distinct models have been proposed: 1; dimer formation, 2; lipid rafts, 3; disulfide bonds, and 4; phosphatidylserine exposure. Pro and cons can be given for each of these mechanisms of tissue factor encryption/decryption, however, it seems most likely that two or more mechanisms act together in activating the procoagulant activity. The exposure of phosphatidylserine in the outer layer of cell membranes supports coagulation through enhanced formation of the tenase (factors IXa, VIIIa and X) and prothrombinase (factors Xa, Va and prothrombin) complexes. The proposed role for phosphatidylserine in decryption of tissue factor could contribute to the correct orientation of the tissue factor - factor VII complex. Overall, the contribution of both tissue factor and phosphatidylserine to coagulation seems distinct with tissue factor being the physiological activator and phosphatidylserine the driving force of propagation of coagulation.

  19. [Examination of percutaneous microwave coagulation and radiofrequency ablation therapy for metastatic liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Shinichi; Hirokawa, Satoru; Masaki, Takahiro; Miyakawa, Kaoru; Tarao, Kazuo; Akaike, Makoto; Sugimasa, Yukio; Takemiya, Shoji; Sairenji, Motonori; Motohashi, Hisahiko

    2002-11-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) and radio frequency ablation therapy (RFA) as treatments for metastatic liver cancer were examined. PMCT or RFA was administered for 18 metastatic liver cancer lesions (primary lesion: 11 colon rectal cancer, one esophagus cancer, one thyroid cancer, one pancreatic cancer, one pheochromocytoma) in 16 patients from July 1999 to March 2002. RFA was performed 1 time for 12 minutes in principle, using a Cool-tip RF system from Radionics. Patients had a mean age of 58.8 years and the mean diameter of the neoplasms was about 22 mm. Critical complications were not seen. The rate of partial recurrence was 35.3% as of March, 2002, in an average observation period of 7.3 months. On the other hand, with the medical treatment for the hepatocellular carcinoma provided during this period, the rate of partial recurrence was 14.8%. The treatment of metastatic liver cancer by PMCT and RFA is associated with a high rate of a recurrence as compared with hepatocellular carcinoma, and needs to be examined to discover ways of adaptation and improvement of the technology.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound image-guided robotic system for accurate microwave coagulation of malignant liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Jia, Zhen-zhong; Song, Zhang-jun; Yang, Xiang-dong; Chen, Ken; Liang, Ping

    2010-09-01

    The further application of conventional ultrasound (US) image-guided microwave (MW) ablation of liver cancer is often limited by two-dimensional (2D) imaging, inaccurate needle placement and the resulting skill requirement. The three-dimensional (3D) image-guided robotic-assisted system provides an appealing alternative option, enabling the physician to perform consistent, accurate therapy with improved treatment effectiveness. Our robotic system is constructed by integrating an imaging module, a needle-driven robot, a MW thermal field simulation module, and surgical navigation software in a practical and user-friendly manner. The robot executes precise needle placement based on the 3D model reconstructed from freehand-tracked 2D B-scans. A qualitative slice guidance method for fine registration is introduced to reduce the placement error caused by target motion. By incorporating the 3D MW specific absorption rate (SAR) model into the heat transfer equation, the MW thermal field simulation module determines the MW power level and the coagulation time for improved ablation therapy. Two types of wrists are developed for the robot: a 'remote centre of motion' (RCM) wrist and a non-RCM wrist, which is preferred in real applications. The needle placement accuracies were < 3 mm for both wrists in the mechanical phantom experiment. The target accuracy for the robot with the RCM wrist was improved to 1.6 +/- 1.0 mm when real-time 2D US feedback was used in the artificial-tissue phantom experiment. By using the slice guidance method, the robot with the non-RCM wrist achieved accuracy of 1.8 +/- 0.9 mm in the ex vivo experiment; even target motion was introduced. In the thermal field experiment, a 5.6% relative mean error was observed between the experimental coagulated neurosis volume and the simulation result. The proposed robotic system holds promise to enhance the clinical performance of percutaneous MW ablation of malignant liver tumours. Copyright 2010 John Wiley

  1. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  2. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  3. Interpretation of the microwave effect on induction time during CaSO4 primary nucleation by a cluster coagulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhichao; Li, Liye; Han, Wenxiang; Li, Jiawei; Wang, Baodong; Xiao, Yongfeng

    2017-10-01

    The effects of microwave on the induction time of CaSO4 are studied experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, calcium sulfate is precipitated by mixing aqueous CaCl2 solution and Na2SO4 solution. The induction time is measured by recording the change of turbidity in solution. Various energy inputs are used to investigate the effect of energy input on nucleation. The results show that the induction time decreases with increasing supersaturation and increasing energy input. Employing the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension is estimated. In addition, the microwave effects on nucleation order (n) and nucleation coefficient (kN) are also investigated, and the corresponding values of homogeneous nucleation are compared with the values of heterogeneous nucleation in the microwave field. A cluster coagulation model, which brings together the classic nucleation models and the theories describing the behavior of colloidal suspension, was applied to estimate the induction time under various energy inputs. It is found that when nucleation is prominently homogeneous, the microwave energy input does not change the number of monomers in dominating clusters. And when nucleation is prominently heterogeneous, although the dominating cluster size increases with supersaturation increasing, at the same supersaturation level, the dominating cluster size remains constant in the microwave field.

  4. Subsurface thermal coagulation of tissues using near infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung Jack

    Noninvasive laser therapy is currently limited primarily to cosmetic dermatological applications such as skin resurfacing, hair removal, tattoo removal and treatment of vascular birthmarks. In order to expand applications of noninvasive laser therapy, deeper optical penetration of laser radiation in tissue as well as more aggressive cooling of the tissue surface is necessary. The near-infrared laser wavelength of 1075 nm was found to be the optimal laser wavelength for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions in liver tissue, ex vivo, with contact cooling, preserving a surface tissue layer of 2 mm. Monte Carlo light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral thermal damage simulations were conducted at this wavelength, showing good agreement between experiment and simulations. Building on the initial results, our goal is to develop new noninvasive laser therapies for application in urology, specifically for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Various laser balloon probes including side-firing and diffusing fibers were designed and tested for both transvaginal and transurethral approaches to treatment. The transvaginal approach showed the highest feasibility. To further increase optical penetration depth, various types and concentrations of optical clearing agents were also explored. Three cadavers studies were performed to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of laser treatment for SUI.

  5. Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler

    PubMed Central

    Beaudette, Kathy; Baac, Hyoung Won; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Villiger, Martin; Godbout, Nicolas; Bouma, Brett E.; Boudoux, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Double-clad fiber (DCF) is herein used in conjunction with a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) to enable simultaneous and co-registered optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser tissue coagulation. The DCF allows a single channel fiber-optic probe to be shared: i.e. the core propagating the OCT signal while the inner cladding delivers the coagulation laser light. We herein present a novel DCFC designed and built to combine both signals within a DCF (>90% of single-mode transmission; >65% multimode coupling). Potential OCT imaging degradation mechanisms are also investigated and solutions to mitigate them are presented. The combined DCFC-based system was used to induce coagulation of an ex vivo swine esophagus allowing a real-time assessment of thermal dynamic processes. We therefore demonstrate a DCFC-based system combining OCT imaging with laser coagulation through a single fiber, thus enabling both modalities to be performed simultaneously and in a co-registered manner. Such a system enables endoscopic image-guided laser marking of superficial epithelial tissues or laser thermal therapy of epithelial lesions in pathologies such as Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25909013

  6. Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler.

    PubMed

    Beaudette, Kathy; Baac, Hyoung Won; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Villiger, Martin; Godbout, Nicolas; Bouma, Brett E; Boudoux, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Double-clad fiber (DCF) is herein used in conjunction with a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) to enable simultaneous and co-registered optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser tissue coagulation. The DCF allows a single channel fiber-optic probe to be shared: i.e. the core propagating the OCT signal while the inner cladding delivers the coagulation laser light. We herein present a novel DCFC designed and built to combine both signals within a DCF (>90% of single-mode transmission; >65% multimode coupling). Potential OCT imaging degradation mechanisms are also investigated and solutions to mitigate them are presented. The combined DCFC-based system was used to induce coagulation of an ex vivo swine esophagus allowing a real-time assessment of thermal dynamic processes. We therefore demonstrate a DCFC-based system combining OCT imaging with laser coagulation through a single fiber, thus enabling both modalities to be performed simultaneously and in a co-registered manner. Such a system enables endoscopic image-guided laser marking of superficial epithelial tissues or laser thermal therapy of epithelial lesions in pathologies such as Barrett's esophagus.

  7. Preliminary clinical experiences of a motorized manipulator for magnetic resonance image-guided microwave coagulation therapy of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Shigehiro; Naka, Shigeyuki; Murakami, Koichiro; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Shiomi, Hisanori; Tani, Tohru; Haque, Hasnine A; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Inubushi, Toshiro

    2009-09-01

    In magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided microwave thermocoagulation of liver tumors, the choice of the optimal puncture route is an important and time-consuming process. To assist this process, we have developed a motorized MR-compatible manipulator. The manipulator consists of a passive end effecter with 2 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) rotation and active base stages with 3 ultrasonic motors. It automatically chases the preset target point with synergetic remote-center-of-motion (RCM) control. A mechanical torque limiter and an electrical shutdown switch were added for patient safety. The manipulator was used for this procedure in 15 cases and successfully utilized to treat liver tumors in various locations. Thoracoscopic assistance was combined with the manipulator in 6 cases. No complications were experienced. The manipulator was found to be very effective for assisting MR-guided microwave coagulation of liver tumors.

  8. Modeling and analysis of coagulated liver tissue and its interaction with a scalpel blade.

    PubMed

    Leong, Florence; Huang, Wei-Hsuan; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency-assisted methods have been used in hepatectomy--the resection process of removing liver tissue which encapsulates the tumor from the liver organ. A prototype was built to enable smooth surgical transition between radiofrequency ablation and liver resection. There is a lack of literature on mechanical properties of radiofrequency-ablated liver tissue and the tool-tissue interaction during cutting. This led to our study on coagulated tissue mechanical properties and modeling of its dynamic interaction with a scalpel blade. A novel mechanical model was proposed to mimic the mechanical behavior of radiofrequency-ablated liver tissue. The model is able to account for the viscoelastic behavior of the ablated tissue in both compression and relaxation tests. Experiments were performed to validate the proposed model. In addition, a knife blade-tissue interaction model is proposed to demonstrate the potential of integrating the proposed model for application in device design.

  9. Sepsis-Induced Coagulation in the Baboon Lung Is Associated with Decreased Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haiwang; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Popescu, Narcis; Peer, Glenn; Hack, Erik; Lupu, Cristina; Taylor, Fletcher B.; Lupu, Florea

    2007-01-01

    Increased tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity in sepsis may be partly due to decreased expression or function of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To test this hypothesis, baboons were infused with live Escherichia coli and sacrificed after 2, 8, or 24 hours. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed increased leukocyte infiltration and fibrin deposition in the intravascular and interstitial compartments. Large amounts of TF were detected by immunostaining in leukocytes and platelet-rich microthrombi. TF induction was documented by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and coagulation assays. Lung-associated TFPI antigen and mRNA decreased during sepsis, and TFPI activity diminished abruptly at 2 hours. Blocking antibodies against TFPI increased fibrin deposition in septic baboon lungs, suggesting that TF-dependent coagulation might be aggravated by reduced endothelial TFPI. Decreased TFPI activity coincided with the release of tissue plasminogen activator and the peak of plasmin generation, suggesting that TFPI could undergo proteolytic inactivation by plasmin. Enhanced plasmin produced in septic baboons by infusion of blocking antibodies against plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 led to decreased lung-associated TFPI and unforeseen massive fibrin deposition. We conclude that activation of TF-driven coagulation not adequately countered by TFPI may underlie the widespread thrombotic complications of sepsis. PMID:17640967

  10. Cardiac tissue ablation with catheter-based microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, C

    2004-11-01

    The common condition of atrial fibrillation is often treated by cutting diseased cardiac tissue to disrupt abnormal electrical conduction pathways. Heating abnormal tissue with electromagnetic power provides a minimally invasive surgical alternative to treat these cardiac arrhythmias. Radio frequency ablation has become the method of choice of many physicians. Recently, microwave power has also been shown to have great therapeutic benefit in medical treatment requiring precise heating of biological tissue. Since microwave power tends to be deposited throughout the volume of biological media, microwave heating offers advantages over other heating modalities that tend to heat primarily the contacting surface. It is also possible to heat a deeper volume of tissue with more precise control using microwaves than with purely thermal conduction or RF electrode heating. Microwave Cardiac Ablation (MCA) is used to treat heart tissue that allows abnormal electrical conduction by heating it to the point of inactivation. Microwave antennas that fit within catheter systems can be positioned close to diseased tissue. Specialized antenna designs that unfurl from the catheter within the heart can then radiate specifically shaped fields, which overcome problems such as excessive surface heating at the contact point. The state of the art in MCA is reviewed in this paper and a novel catheter-based unfurling wide aperture antenna is described. This antenna consists of the centre conductor of a coaxial line, shaped into a spiral and insulated from blood and tissue by a non-conductive fluid filled balloon. Initially stretched straight inside a catheter for transluminal guiding, once in place at the cardiac target, the coiled spiral antenna is advanced into the inflated balloon. Power is applied in the range of 50-150 W at the reserved industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency of 915 MHz for 30-90 s to create an irreversible lesion. The antenna is then retracted back into the

  11. Assessment of thermal coagulation in ex-vivo tissues using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Matthew; Weersink, Robert A; Whelan, William M

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the effects of heating on specific molecular bonds present in albumen-based coagulation phantoms and ex-vivo tissues. Thermal coagulation is induced by submerging albumen-based phantoms in a 75°C water bath to achieve target temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C. Laser photocoagulation is performed on ex-vivo bovine muscle samples, yielding induced temperatures between 46 and 90°C, as reported by implanted microthermocouples. All phantoms and tissue samples are cooled to room temperature, and Raman spectra are acquired at the microthermocouple locations. Shifts in major Raman bands are observed with laser heating in bovine muscle, specifically from the amide-1 α-helix group (∼1655 cm(-1)), the CH(2)/CH(3) group (∼1446 cm(-1)), the Cα-H stretch group (∼1312 cm(-1)), and the CN stretch group (∼1121cm(-1)). Raman bands at 1334 cm(-1) (tryptophan), 1317 cm(-1) [ν(Cα-H)], and 1655 cm(-1) (amide-1 α-helix) also show a decrease in intensity following heating. The results suggest that Raman band locations and relative intensities are affected by thermal denaturation of proteins, and hence, may be a useful tool for monitoring the onset and progression of coagulation during thermal therapies.

  12. Assessment of thermal coagulation in ex-vivo tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Matthew; Weersink, Robert A.; Whelan, William M.

    2010-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the effects of heating on specific molecular bonds present in albumen-based coagulation phantoms and ex-vivo tissues. Thermal coagulation is induced by submerging albumen-based phantoms in a 75°C water bath to achieve target temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C. Laser photocoagulation is performed on ex-vivo bovine muscle samples, yielding induced temperatures between 46 and 90°C, as reported by implanted microthermocouples. All phantoms and tissue samples are cooled to room temperature, and Raman spectra are acquired at the microthermocouple locations. Shifts in major Raman bands are observed with laser heating in bovine muscle, specifically from the amide-1 α-helix group (~1655 cm-1), the CH2/CH3 group (~1446 cm-1), the Cα-H stretch group (~1312 cm-1), and the CN stretch group (~1121cm-1). Raman bands at 1334 cm-1 (tryptophan), 1317 cm-1 [ν(Cα-H)], and 1655 cm-1 (amide-1 α-helix) also show a decrease in intensity following heating. The results suggest that Raman band locations and relative intensities are affected by thermal denaturation of proteins, and hence, may be a useful tool for monitoring the onset and progression of coagulation during thermal therapies.

  13. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  14. Methods and apparatus for microwave tissue welding for wound closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane L. (Inventor); Dusl, John R. (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite A. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for joining biological tissue together are provided. In at least one specific embodiment, a method for joining biological tissue together can include applying a biological solder on a wound. A barrier layer can be disposed on the biological solder. An antenna can be located in proximate spatial relationship to the barrier layer. An impedance of the antenna can be matched to an impedance of the wound. Microwaves from a signal generator can be transmitted through the antenna to weld two or more biological tissue pieces of the wound together. A power of the microwaves can be adjusted by a control circuit disposed between the antenna and the signal generator. The heating profile within the tissue may be adjusted and controlled by the placement of metallic microspheres in or around the wound.

  15. Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Coagulation and Tissue Fibrosis Independently Predict Venous Thromboembolism in HIV

    PubMed Central

    MUSSELWHITE, Laura W.; SHEIKH, Virginia; NORTON, Thomas D.; RUPERT, Adam; PORTER, Brian O.; PENZAK, Scott R.; SKINNER, Jeff; MICAN, JoAnn M.; HADIGAN, Colleen; SERETI, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV infection is associated with coagulation abnormalities and significantly increased risk of venous thrombosis. It has been shown that higher plasma levels of coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers predicted mortality in HIV. We investigated the relationship between venous thrombosis and HIV-related characteristics, traditional risk factors of hypercoagulability and pre-event levels of biomarkers. Design A retrospective case-control study of 23 HIV-infected individuals who experienced an incident venous thromboembolic (VTE) event while enrolled in National Institutes of Health studies from 1995–2010 and 69 age and sex-matched HIV-infected individuals without known VTE. Methods Biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, tissue fibrosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation were assessed by ELISA-based assays and PCR using plasma obtained prior to the event. Results VTE events were related to nadir CD4 count, lifetime history of multiple opportunistic infections, CMV disease, CMV viremia, immunological AIDS, active infection and provocation (i.e. recent hospitalization, surgery or trauma). VTE events were independently associated with increased plasma levels of P-selectin, P=0.002; D-dimer, P=0.01; and hyaluronic acid, P=0.009 in a multivariate analysis. No significant differences in antiretroviral or interleukin 2 exposures, plasma HIV viremia, or other traditional risk factors were observed. Conclusion Severe immunodeficiency, active infection and provocation are associated with venous thromboembolic disease in HIV. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, coagulation and tissue fibrosis may help identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk of VTE. PMID:21412059

  16. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Westphal, Saskia; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till; Penzkofer, Tobias Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 {+-} 0.14, 1.45 {+-} 0.13, and 1.74 {+-} 0.11 cm for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 {+-} 0.09 and 1.26 {+-} 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 {+-} 0.65, 2.85 {+-} 0.72, and 4.45 {+-} 0.47 cm{sup 3} for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 {+-} 0.30 and 2.29 {+-} 0.55 cm{sup 3} got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.

  17. Coagulation and ablation patterns of high-intensity focused ultrasound on a tissue-mimicking phantom and cadaveric skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Han Gu; Zheng, Zhenlong; Park, Hyoun Jun; Yoon, Jeung Hyun; Oh, Wook; Lee, Cheol Woo; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied noninvasively to create focused zones of tissue coagulation on various skin layers. We performed a comparative study of HIFU, evaluating patterns of focused tissue coagulation and ablation upon application thereof. A tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom was prepared with bovine serum albumin and polyacrylamide hydrogel to evaluate the geometric patterns of HIFU-induced thermal injury zones (TIZs) for five different HIFU devices. Additionally, for each device, we investigated histologic patterns of HIFU-induced coagulation and ablation in serial sections of cadaveric skin of the face and neck. All HIFU devices generated remarkable TIZs in the TM phantom, with different geometric values of coagulation for each device. Most of the TIZs seemed to be separated into two or more tiny parts. In cadaveric skin, characteristic patterns of HIFU-induced ablation and coagulation were noted along the mid to lower dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and along subcutaneous fat to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system or the platysma muscle of the neck at 4.5 mm. Additionally, remarkable pre-focal areas of tissue coagulation were observed in the upper and mid dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and mid to lower dermis at 4.5 mm. For five HIFU devices, we outlined various patterns of HIFU-induced TIZ formation along pre-focal, focal, and post-focal areas of TM phantom and cadaveric skin of the face and neck.

  18. The tissue factor pathway mediates both activation of coagulation and coagulopathy after injury.

    PubMed

    Howard, Benjamin M; Miyazawa, Byron Y; Dong, Weifeng; Cedron, Wendy J; Vilardi, Ryan F; Ruf, Wolfram; Cohen, Mitchell Jay

    2015-12-01

    The initiation of coagulation in trauma is thought to originate from exposed tissue factor (TF); recent data have led to the alternative hypothesis that damage-associated molecular patterns may contribute to postinjury coagulation. In acute traumatic coagulopathy, aberrant coagulation is mediated via the activated protein C (aPC) pathway; the upstream regulators of this process and its relation to TF remain uncharacterized. To examine the role of the TF pathway in mediating acute traumatic coagulopathy, we used specific antibody blockades in an established murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock, hypothesizing that both coagulation activation after injury and aPC-mediated coagulopathy are driven by TF via thrombin. Mice underwent an established model of trauma and hemorrhage and were subjected to either sham (vascular cannulation) or trauma-hemorrhage (cannulation, laparotomy, shock to mean arterial pressure of 35 mm Hg); they were monitored for 60 minutes before sacrifice. Mice in each group were pretreated with either targeted anti-TF antibody to block the TF pathway or hirudin for specific blockade of thrombin. Plasma was assayed for thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and aPC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with controls, trauma-hemorrhage mice treated with anti-TF antibody had significantly reduced levels of TAT (2.3 ng/mL vs. 5.7 ng/mL, p = 0.016) and corresponding decreases in aPC (16.3 ng/mL vs. 31.6 ng/mL, p = 0.034), with reductions to levels seen in sham mice. Direct inhibition of thrombin yielded similar results, with reduction in aPC to levels below those seen in sham mice. In this study, blockade of the TF pathway led to the attenuation of both thrombin production and aPC activation observed in traumatic shock. Specific thrombin inhibition achieved similar results, indicating that aPC-related coagulopathy is mediated via thrombin activated by the TF pathway. The near-complete blockade of TAT and aPC observed in this model argues for a

  19. The Tissue Factor Pathway Mediates Both Activation of Coagulation and Coagulopathy After Injury

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Benjamin M; Miyazawa, Byron Y; Dong, Weifeng; Cedron, Wendy J.; Vilardi, Ryan F; Ruf, Wolfram; Cohen, Mitchell Jay

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The initiation of coagulation in trauma is thought to originate from exposed tissue factor (TF); recent data have led to the alternative hypothesis that DAMPs may contribute to post-injury coagulation. In acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC), aberrant coagulation is mediated via the activated protein C (aPC) pathway; the upstream regulators of this process, and its relation to TF, remain uncharacterized. To examine the role of the TF pathway in mediating ATC, we employed specific antibody blockades in an established murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock, hypothesizing that both coagulation activation after injury and aPC-mediated coagulopathy are driven by TF via thrombin. METHODS Mice underwent an established model of trauma and hemorrhage, and were subjected to either sham (vascular cannulation), or trauma-hemorrhage (cannulation, laparotomy, shock to MAP 35mmHg); they were monitored for 60 min prior to sacrifice. Mice in each group were pre-treated with either targeted anti-TF antibody to block the TF pathway, or hirudin for specific blockade of thrombin. Plasma was assayed for thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and aPC by ELISA. RESULTS Compared to controls, trauma-hemorrhage mice treated with anti-TFAb had significantly reduced levels of TAT (2.3 vs. 5.7 ng/mL, p=0.016), and corresponding decreases in aPC (16.3 vs. 31.6 ng/mL, p=0.034), with reductions to levels seen in sham mice. Direct inhibition of thrombin yielded similar results, with reduction in aPC to levels below those seen in sham mice. CONCLUSIONS In this study, blockade of the TF pathway led to attenuation of both thrombin production and aPC activation observed in traumatic shock. Specific thrombin inhibition achieved similar results, indicating that aPC-related coagulopathy is mediated via thrombin activated by the TF pathway. The near-complete blockade of TAT and aPC observed in this model argues for a dominant role of the TF-thrombin pathway in both coagulation activation after injury

  20. Measuring the mechanical properties of blood clots formed via the tissue factor pathway of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Foley, J H; Butenas, S; Mann, K G; Brummel-Ziedins, K E

    2012-03-01

    Thrombelastography (TEG) is a method that is used to conduct global assays that monitor fibrin formation and fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in whole blood. The purpose of this study was to use a well-characterized tissue factor (Tf) reagent and contact pathway inhibitor (corn trypsin inhibitor, CTI) to develop a reproducible thrombelastography assay. In this study, blood was collected from 5 male subjects (three times). Clot formation was initiated in whole blood with 5 pM Tf in the presence of CTI, and fibrinolysis was induced by adding tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Changes in viscoelasticity were then monitored by TEG. In quality control assays, our Tf reagent, when used at 5 pM, induced coagulation in whole blood in 3.93 ± 0.23 min and in plasma in 5.12 ± 0.23 min (n=3). In TEG assays, tPA significantly decreased clot strength (maximum amplitude, MA) in all individuals but had no effect on clot time (R time). The intraassay variability (CVa<10%) for R time, angle, and MA suggests that these parameters reliably describe the dynamics of fibrin formation and degradation in whole blood. Our Tf reagent reproducibly induces coagulation, making it an ideal tool to quantify the processes that contribute to mechanical clot strength in whole blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor as key regulators of global hemostasis: measurement of their levels in coagulation assays.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, Raj S; Glover, Sam L; Boles, Jeremiah; Mackman, Nigel

    2010-10-01

    The tissue factor (TF)/factor (F)VIIa complex is the primary initiator of coagulation in vivo. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is the physiological inhibitor of the TF/FVIIa complex. Deficiencies of either TF or TFPI have not been reported in humans, and a complete absence of either of these two proteins in mice is embryonically lethal. To maintain normal hemostasis, levels of TF and TFPI need to be balanced. Increased levels of TF can overwhelm the inhibitory capacity of TFPI, resulting in thrombosis. Decreased levels of TF are associated with bleeding. Global assays of coagulation are defined as tests capable of evaluating all components of the clotting cascade that are present in plasma. In these tests the thrombogenic surface is either provided by platelets or exogenous phospholipids. Clotting assays currently used in clinical practice are not designed to measure endogenous levels of TF and TFPI. Therefore, there is a need to develop sensitive and specific assays for measuring levels of functional TF and TFPI in whole blood and plasma. These assays could be useful in patient management in many scenarios.

  2. Tissue Factor and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor as Key Regulators of Global Hemostasis: Measurement of Their Levels in Coagulation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kasthuri, Raj S.; Glover, Sam L.; Boles, Jeremiah; Mackman, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    The tissue factor (TF)/factor (F)VIIa complex is the primary initiator of coagulation in vivo. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is the physiological inhibitor of the TF/FVIIa complex. Deficiencies of either TF or TFPI have not been reported in humans, and a complete absence of either of these two proteins in mice is embryonically lethal. To maintain normal hemostasis, levels of TF and TFPI need to be balanced. Increased levels of TF can overwhelm the inhibitory capacity of TFPI, resulting in thrombosis. Decreased levels of TF are associated with bleeding. Global assays of coagulation are defined as tests capable of evaluating all components of the clotting cascade that are present in plasma. In these tests the thrombogenic surface is either provided by platelets or exogenous phospholipids. Clotting assays currently used in clinical practice are not designed to measure endogenous levels of TF and TFPI. Therefore, there is a need to develop sensitive and specific assays for measuring levels of functional TF and TFPI in whole blood and plasma. These assays could be useful in patient management in many scenarios. PMID:20978997

  3. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai Po H.; Kerschen, Edward J.; Basu, Sreemanti; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J.; Toso, Raffaella; Rezaie, Alireza R.; Fernández, José A.; Camire, Rodney M.; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The key effector molecule of the natural protein C pathway, activated protein C (aPC), exerts pleiotropic effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Coagulation-independent cell signaling by aPC appears to be the predominant mechanism underlying its highly reproducible therapeutic efficacy in most animal models of injury and infection. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, we demonstrate marked disease stage–specific effects of the anticoagulant and cell signaling functions of aPC. aPC resistance of factor (f)V due to the R506Q Leiden mutation protected against detrimental anticoagulant effects of aPC therapy but also abrogated the anti-inflammatory and mortality-reducing effects of the signaling-selective 5A-aPC variant that has minimal anticoagulant function. We found that procofactor V (cleaved by aPC at R506) and protein S were necessary cofactors for the aPC-mediated inhibition of inflammatory tissue-factor signaling. The anti-inflammatory cofactor function of fV involved the same structural features that govern its cofactor function for the anticoagulant effects of aPC, yet its anti-inflammatory activities did not involve proteolysis of activated coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. These findings reveal a novel biological function and mechanism of the protein C pathway in which protein S and the aPC-cleaved form of fV are cofactors for anti-inflammatory cell signaling by aPC in the context of endotoxemia and infection. PMID:26341257

  4. Microwave power absorption differences between normal and malignant tissue. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Joines, W.T.; Jirtle, R.L.; Rafal, M.D.; Schaefer, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    An open-ended coaxial probe that produced a fringing field in the termination tissue was used to measure the fractional power absorption for malignant tumors and normal adjacent tissue in female W/Fu isogeneic rats over the 30 to 2000 MHz range. The fractional power absorption was determined as the difference in measured incident and reflected power divided by the incident power for SMT-2A tumors, and for normal adjacent muscle and mammary tissue. For the coaxial probe, the ratio of power absorbed in malignant to that in normal adjacent tissue peaked at 180 MHz with values of 4.28 and 1.40 for malignant/mammary and malignant/muscle, respectively. By fitting the measured data to an equation for power absorption because of the fringing-field probe, tissue conductivity and dielectric constant versus frequency were determined. These tissue properties were used to determine the ratio of power absorbed in malignant to normal tissue versus frequency for a propagating plane wave. For plane waves, peak differential absorption occurs at 300 MHz; 4.81 and 1.46 for malignant/mammary and malignant/muscle, respectively. Since direct-contact applicators for microwave hyperthermia have both fringing-field and plane-wave characteristics, our results indicate that any operating frequency from 180 to 300 MHz would provide a near optimum differential power absorption between malignant and normal tissue.

  5. Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Asan, Noor Badariah; Noreland, Daniel; Hassan, Emadeldeen; Redzwan Mohd Shah, Syaiful; Rydberg, Anders; Blokhuis, Taco J; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Voigt, Thiemo; Augustine, Robin

    2017-08-01

    The human body can act as a medium for the transmission of electromagnetic waves in the wireless body sensor networks context. However, there are transmission losses in biological tissues due to the presence of water and salts. This Letter focuses on lateral intra-body microwave communication through different biological tissue layers and demonstrates the effect of the tissue thicknesses by comparing signal coupling in the channel. For this work, the authors utilise the R-band frequencies since it overlaps the industrial, scientific and medical radio (ISM) band. The channel model in human tissues is proposed based on electromagnetic simulations, validated using equivalent phantom and ex-vivo measurements. The phantom and ex-vivo measurements are compared with simulation modelling. The results show that electromagnetic communication is feasible in the adipose tissue layer with a low attenuation of ∼2 dB per 20 mm for phantom measurements and 4 dB per 20 mm for ex-vivo measurements at 2 GHz. Since the dielectric losses of human adipose tissues are almost half of ex-vivo tissue, an attenuation of around 3 dB per 20 mm is expected. The results show that human adipose tissue can be used as an intra-body communication channel.

  6. Calibration and standardization of microwave ovens for fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Leonard, J B; Dvorak, A M

    1998-06-01

    Rapid and reproducible fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue for light and electron microscopy studies can be done in a microwave oven. In this review we report a standardized nomenclature for diverse fixation techniques that use microwave heating: (1) microwave stabilization, (2) fast and ultrafast primary microwave-chemical fixation, (3) microwave irradiation followed by chemical fixation, (4) primary chemical fixation followed by microwave irradiation, and (5) microwave fixation used in various combinations with freeze fixation. All of these methods are well suited to fix brain tissue for light microscopy. Fast primary microwave-chemical fixation is best for immunoelectron microscopy studies. We also review how the physical characteristics of the microwave frequency and the dimensions of microwave oven cavities can compromise microwave fixation results. A microwave oven can be calibrated for fixation when the following parameters are standardized: irradiation time; water load volume, initial temperature, and placement within the oven; fixative composition, volume, and initial temperature; and specimen container shape and placement within the oven. Using two recently developed calibration tools, the neon bulb array and the agar-saline-Giemsa tissue phantom, we report a simple calibration protocol that identifies regions within a microwave oven for uniform microwave fixation. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Changes in ultrasonic properties of liver tissue in vitro during heating-cooling cycle concomitant with thermal coagulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Joo; Guntur, Sitaramanjaneya Reddy; Lee, Joo Myoung; Paeng, Dong Guk; Lee, Kang I L; Coleman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The present work considers the ultrasonic properties of porcine liver tissue in vitro measured during heating concomitant with thermal coagulation followed by natural cooling, so as to provide information about changes in the ultrasonic properties of the tissue after thermal coagulation. The excised liver samples were heated in a degassed water bath up to 75°C and naturally cooled down to 30°C. The tissue was observed to begin thermally coagulating at temperatures lower than 75°C. The ultrasonic parameters considered include the speed of sound, the attenuation coefficient, the backscatter coefficient and the nonlinear parameter of B/A. They were more sensitive to temperature when heating than during natural cooling. All of the parameters were shown to rise significantly on completion of the heating-cooling cycle. At 35°C after thermal coagulation, the B/A value was increased by 96%, the attenuation and backscatter coefficients were increased by 50%∼68% and 33%∼37%, respectively, in the typical frequency ranges of 3 MHz∼5 MHz used for ultrasonic imaging and the speed of sound was increased by 1.4%. The results of this study added to the evidence that tissue characterization, in particular, based on the B/A could be valuable for ultrasonically imaging the thermal lesions following high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical techniques for delivering microwave energy to tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Hand, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the physical aspects of delivering microwave energy to tissues have been discussed. Effective penetration of a few cm may be achieved with external applicators whilst small coaxial or cylindrical devices can induce localized heating in sites accessible to catheters or to direct invasion. To heat deep tissue sites in general, systems of greater complexity involving a number of applicators with particular phase relationships between them are required. The problems of thermometry in the presence of electromagnetic fields fall outside the scope of this article. Their solution, however, is no less important to the future of clinical hyperthermia than the development of heating techniques. Finally, it should be remembered that physiological parameters such as blood flow have appreciable effects in determining the efficacy of the physical techniques described above. PMID:6950781

  9. Activation of coagulation and tissue fibrin deposition in experimental influenza in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies relate influenza infection with vascular diseases like myocardial infarction. The hypothesis that influenza infection has procoagulant effects on humans has been investigated by experimental animal models. However, these studies often made use of animal models only susceptible to adapted influenza viruses (mouse adapted influenza strains) or remained inconclusive. Therefore, we decided to study the influence of infection with human influenza virus isolates on coagulation in the well-established ferret influenza model. Results After infection with either a seasonal-, pandemic- or highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) virus strain infected animals showed alterations in hemostasis compared to the control animals. Specifically on day 4 post infection, a four second rise in both PT and aPTT was observed. D-dimer concentrations increased in all 3 influenza groups with the highest concentrations in the pandemic influenza group. Von Willebrand factor activity levels increased early in infection suggesting endothelial cell activation. Mean thrombin-antithrombin complex levels increased in both pandemic and HPAI-H5N1 virus infected ferrets. At tissue level, fibrin staining showed intracapillary fibrin deposition especially in HPAI-H5N1 virus infected ferrets. Conclusion This study showed hemostatic alterations both at the circulatory and at the tissue level upon infection with different influenza viruses in an animal model closely mimicking human influenza virus infection. Alterations largely correlated with the severity of the respective influenza virus infections. PMID:24884666

  10. Preliminary results of anatomic lung resection using energy-based tissue and vessel coagulative fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Matthew J; Abbas, Ghulam; Pettiford, Brian L; Luketich, James D; Landreneau, Rodney J

    2010-11-01

    Mechanical stapling devices have been established as the mainstay of therapy in the selective isolation and division of bronchial and vascular structures during anatomic lung resection. Few data are available regarding the application of energy-based tissue fusion technology during anatomic lung resection. In the present study, we evaluated the use of energy-based instruments for the division of the pulmonary arterial and venous branches during anatomic lung resection. Anatomic lung resection (segmentectomy or lobectomy) was performed using energy-based coagulative fusion technology. A low-profile jaw can be used to facilitate dissection in both open and video-assisted thoracic surgery cases, applying a seal 6 mm wide by 22 mm in length. Two energy applications were applied to the arterial and venous branches before vessel division. The bipolar tissue fusion system was used in 211 patients between 2008 and 2010 (104 lobectomies and 107 anatomic segmentectomies). Initially, we used a device with a smaller, curved jaw (n = 12), producing a 3.3- to 4.7-cm seal. No arterial dehiscences and 2 partial venous dehiscences that were recognized and controlled intraoperatively occurred. For the remaining cases, we used a new device with a larger jaw that applied a seal 6 mm wide by 22 mm in length. No arterial or venous dehiscences (vessel size range, 0.4-1.2 cm) occurred. The bipolar tissue fusion system provided safe and reliable control of pulmonary arterial and venous branches during anatomic lung resection. The use of energy-based tissue fusion technology represents a reasonable alternative to mechanical stapling devices during anatomic lung resection. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Tissue Preparation for Rapid Fixation, Decalcification, Antigen Retrieval, Cryosectioning, and Immunostaining

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microwave irradiation of tissue during fixation and subsequent histochemical staining procedures significantly reduces the time required for incubation in fixation and staining solutions. Minimizing the incubation time in fixative reduces disruption of tissue morphology, and reducing the incubation time in staining solution or antibody solution decreases nonspecific labeling. Reduction of incubation time in staining solution also decreases the level of background noise. Microwave-assisted tissue preparation is applicable for tissue fixation, decalcification of bone tissues, treatment of adipose tissues, antigen retrieval, and other special staining of tissues. Microwave-assisted tissue fixation and staining are useful tools for histological analyses. This review describes the protocols using microwave irradiation for several essential procedures in histochemical studies, and these techniques are applicable to other protocols for tissue fixation and immunostaining in the field of cell biology. PMID:27840640

  12. Investigation for role of tissue factor and blood coagulation system in severe acute pancreatitis and associated liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhi-Bing; Miao, Chun-Mu; Ye, Ming-Xin; Xing, Ding-Pei; He, Kun; Li, Pei-Zhi; Zhu, Rong-Tao; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and SAP-associated liver injury, we performed an association analysis of the functions of tissue factor (TF) and blood coagulation system in both SAP patients and mouse SAP model. Our results showed that serum TF and tissue factor-microparticle (TF-MP) levels were highly up-regulated in both SAP patients and SAP mouse model, which was accompanied by the dysfunction of blood coagulation system. Besides, TF expression was also highly up-regulated in the Kupffer cells (KCs) of SAP mouse model. After inhibiting KCs in SAP mouse model, the amelioration of blood coagulation system functions was associated with the decrease in serum TF and TF-MPs levels, and the reduction of SAP-associated liver injury was associated with the decrease of TF expression in KCs. In conclusion, the dis-regulated TF expression and associated dysfunction of blood coagulation system are critical factors for the pathogenesis of SAP and SAP-associated liver injury. TF may serve as a potential and effective target for treating SAP and SAP-associated liver injury.

  13. Silicon micromachined ultrasonic scalpel for the dissection and coagulation of tissue.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, R; Friedrich, F; Briand, D; Margairaz, P; Sandoz, J-P; Brossard, J; Keppner, H; Olson, W; Dietz, T; Tardy, Y; Meyer, H; Stadelmann, P; Robert, C; Boegli, A; Farine, P-A; de Rooij, N F; Burger, J

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a planar, longitudinal mode ultrasonic scalpel microfabricated from monocrystalline silicon wafers. Silicon was selected as the material for the ultrasonic horn due to its high speed of sound and thermal conductivity as well as its low density compared to commonly used titanium based alloys. Combined with a relatively high Young's modulus, a lighter, more efficient design for the ultrasonic scalpel can be implemented which, due to silicon batch manufacturing, can be fabricated at a lower cost. Transverse displacement of the piezoelectric actuators is coupled into the planar silicon structure and amplified by its horn-like geometry. Using finite element modeling and experimental displacement and velocity data as well as cutting tests, key design parameters have been identified that directly influence the power efficiency and robustness of the device as well as its ease of controllability when driven in resonance. Designs in which the full- and half-wave transverse modes of the transducer are matched or not matched to the natural frequencies of the piezoelectric actuators have been evaluated. The performance of the Si micromachined scalpels has been found to be comparable to existing commercial titanium based ultrasonic scalpels used in surgical operations for efficient dissection of tissue as well as coaptation and coagulation of tissue for hemostasis. Tip displacements (peak-to-peak) of the scalpels in the range of 10-50 μm with velocities ranging from 4 to 11 m/s have been achieved. The frequency of operation is in the range of 50-100 kHz depending on the transverse operating mode and the length of the scalpel. The cutting ability of the micromachined scalpels has been successfully demonstrated on chicken tissue.

  14. Real-time magnetic resonance-guided microwave coagulation therapy for pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer: initial clinical experience using a 0.5 T open magnetic resonance system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomoharu; Endo, Yoshihiro; Mekata, Eiji; Tatsuta, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Tani, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate consecutive cases of recurrent rectal cancer in the pelvic cavity treated with microwave coagulation therapy using real-time navigation by an open magnetic resonance system. Nine recurrent pelvic lesions in 8 patients after curative resection of rectal cancer were treated with real-time magnetic resonance-guided microwave coagulation therapy as a palliative local therapy to reduce tumor volume and/or local pain. Clinical and pathological data were collected retrospectively by reviewing medical records and clinical imaging results. Seven patients received other treatments before real-time magnetic resonance-guided microwave coagulation. Six patients had distant synchronous metastases. Three patients underwent surgery under lumbar anesthesia. Microwave coagulation was performed percutaneously in 5 lesions and under laparotomy in 4 lesions. Although adverse events related to microwave coagulation (skin necrosis and nerve injury) were observed, no fatal complications occurred. Local re-recurrence was observed in 2 of 9 ablated lesions. Except for 1 patient who died of chronic renal failure, the remaining 7 patients died of cancer. Median overall survival after microwave coagulation for all patients was 10 months (range, 4-37 mo). Median overall survival after discovery of pelvic recurrence in all patients was 22 months (range, 9-42 mo). The benefits of using an open magnetic resonance system in the pelvic cavity include the abilities to treat tumors that cannot be visualized by other modalities, to demonstrate internal architectural changes during treatment, to differentiate treated vs untreated areas, and to allow adjustments to the treatment plan during the procedure. Additional studies are required to clarify the efficacy of tumor coagulation for local control.

  15. Analysis of minimally invasive directional antennas for microwave tissue ablation.

    PubMed

    Sebek, Jan; Curto, Sergio; Bortel, Radoslav; Prakash, Punit

    2017-02-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) applicators capable of creating directional heating patterns offer the potential of simplifying treatment of targets in proximity to critical structures and avoiding the need for piercing the tumour volume. This work reports on improved directional MWA antennas with the objectives of minimising device diameter for percutaneous use (≤ ∼13 gauge) and yielding larger ablation zones. Two directional MWA antenna designs, with a modified monopole radiating element and spherical and parabolic reflectors are proposed. A 3D-coupled electromagnetic heat transfer with temperature-dependent material properties was implemented to characterise MWA at 40 and 77 W, for 5 and 10 min. Simulations were also used to assess antenna impedance matching within liver, kidney, lung, bone and brain tissue. The two antenna designs were fabricated and experimentally evaluated with ablations in ex vivo tissue at the two power levels and treatment durations (n = 5 repetitions for each group). The computed specific absorption rate (SAR) patterns for both antennas were similar, although simulations indicated slightly greater forward penetration for the parabolic antenna. Based on simulations for antennas inserted within different tissues, the proposed antenna design appears to offer good impedance matching for a variety of tissue types. Experiments in ex vivo tissue showed radial ablation depths of 19 ± 0.9 mm in the forward direction for the applicator with spherical reflector and 18.7 ± 0.7 mm for the applicator with parabolic reflector. These results suggest the applicator may be suitable for creating localised directional ablation zones for treating small and medium-sized targets with a percutaneous approach.

  16. Infrared fiber optic temperature monitoring of biological tissues heated in a microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovsky, Edward; Ashkenasy, Y.; Shenfeld, Ofer; Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-05-01

    The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a non uniform way by the microwave radiation. Fiber optic radiometry makes possible accurate temperature measurement in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Using a IR silver halide fiber optic radiometric temperature sensor we obtained accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave, enabling us to control the heating process in all regions of the tissue. We also performed temperature mapping of the heated tissues and demonstrated the non-uniform temperature distributions in them.

  17. Optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver tissue measured ex-vivo with diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez-Ullah; Atif, M.; Firdous, S.; Mehmood, M. S.; Hamza, M. Y.; Imran, M.; Hussain, G.; Ikram, M.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver at 720, 740, 770, 810, 825 and 840 nm wavelengths of laser irradiation. So, we were able to evaluate these optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients) with ex-vivo study using Kubelka Munk Model (KMM) from the radial dependence of the diffuse reflectance with femtosecond pulsed laser in near IR region. These coefficients were significantly increased with coagulation. The penetration depths of the diffused light have been reported to a maximum value of 8.12 ± 0.36 mm in normal liver and 2.49 ± 0.17 mm in coagulated liver at 840 nm showing increasing behavior towards IR region. The Monte Carlo simulation was used to check the theoretical validation of measured optical properties of the tissue that showed a good match with our experimental results. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding arid optimal use of laser applications in medicine and differential diagnosis of tissues by using different optical methods. Especially for the investigation of biological tissue for photodynamic therapy (PDT), the knowledge of the specific optical properties and their thermo-induced changes is important.

  18. Comparison of Prostatic Tissue Processed by Microwave and Conventional Technique Using Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Promil; Kumar, Sanjay; Arora, B; Singh, Sneh; Chabbra, Sonia; Sen, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Rapid processing of histopathological specimens and decreased turnaround time is important to fulfill the needs of clinicians treating sick patients, so the present study was conducted to compare the time taken and quality of sections in processing of prostatic tissue by rapid microwave and conventional techniques using morphometry. Methods: Four to five mm thick paired prostate tissue pieces of fifty cases of prostatectomy specimens were taken. One tissue piece of the pair was processed routinely overnight by conventional tissue processing and the other by microwave processing. Time taken for processing by both conventional technique and microwave technique was noted and compared. Then, both were stained with conventional method of hematoxylin and eosin staining and examined for histological typing and grading. Morphometric study was done on slides of prostatic tissue processed by both conventional and microwave technique. Result: The prostatectomy specimens included both benign (86%) and malignant (14%) prostatic lesions in the age range of 46-85 years. The time taken for steps of dehydration, clearing and impregnation in microwave technique was significantly less as compared to histoprocessing done by conventional technique. Morphology, staining patterns of prostatic tissue processed within minutes by microwave technique, whether benign or malignant, were comparable to those sections which were processed in days using standard technique. Conclusion: Domestic microwave oven can be used for histoprocessing to accelerate the processing with preservation of morphology and is cheaper than commercially available microwave ovens and processing time was considerably reduced from days to minutes. PMID:26516319

  19. Comparison of Prostatic Tissue Processed by Microwave and Conventional Technique Using Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Promil; Kumar, Sanjay; Arora, B; Singh, Sneh; Chabbra, Sonia; Sen, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Rapid processing of histopathological specimens and decreased turnaround time is important to fulfill the needs of clinicians treating sick patients, so the present study was conducted to compare the time taken and quality of sections in processing of prostatic tissue by rapid microwave and conventional techniques using morphometry. Four to five mm thick paired prostate tissue pieces of fifty cases of prostatectomy specimens were taken. One tissue piece of the pair was processed routinely overnight by conventional tissue processing and the other by microwave processing. Time taken for processing by both conventional technique and microwave technique was noted and compared. Then, both were stained with conventional method of hematoxylin and eosin staining and examined for histological typing and grading. Morphometric study was done on slides of prostatic tissue processed by both conventional and microwave technique. The prostatectomy specimens included both benign (86%) and malignant (14%) prostatic lesions in the age range of 46-85 years. The time taken for steps of dehydration, clearing and impregnation in microwave technique was significantly less as compared to histoprocessing done by conventional technique. Morphology, staining patterns of prostatic tissue processed within minutes by microwave technique, whether benign or malignant, were comparable to those sections which were processed in days using standard technique. Domestic microwave oven can be used for histoprocessing to accelerate the processing with preservation of morphology and is cheaper than commercially available microwave ovens and processing time was considerably reduced from days to minutes.

  20. Dielectric permittivity of biological tissues in the microwave frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behari, J.; Alex, Z. C.; Zaidi, Zahid H.

    1994-09-01

    The accurate knowledge of complex dielectric behavior of biological tissues at microwave frequency is of great importance in the biomedical field for its diagnostic and therapeutic uses. This information is also essential for studying the mechanism underlying the absorption of electromagnetic energy and also the emission by tissues. In the present work, in vitro complex dielectric permittivity of liver and muscle were measured in the frequency range 0.6 GHz to 1.2 GHz using a network analyzer. An open ended coaxial cable method was used and the complex dielectric permittivity was measured from the actual terminal admittance of the sample. The system was calibrated with three standard samples. The measurements were conducted at room temperature. The calculated values of (Epsilon) ' varied from 53 to 48 for liver and from 49 to 46 for muscle. The corresponding (Epsilon) ' varied from 29 to 38 and 30 to 34 respectively. The relaxation frequency and degree of dispersion were also calculated and estimation of bound water content made in each case.

  1. Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, A. N.; Schulze, P. C.; Yaroslavsky, I. V.; Schober, R.; Ulrich, F.; Schwarzmaier, H.-J.

    2002-06-01

    Medical laser applications require knowledge about the optical properties of target tissue. In this study, the optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain structures were determined in vitro in the spectral range between 360 and 1100 nm. The tissues investigated included white brain matter, grey brain matter, cerebellum and brainstem tissues (pons, thalamus). In addition, the optical properties of two human tumours (meningioma, astrocytoma WHO grade II) were determined. Diffuse reflectance, total transmittance and collimated transmittance of the samples were measured using an integrating-sphere technique. From these experimental data, the absorption coefficients, the scattering coefficients and the anisotropy factors of the samples were determined employing an inverse Monte Carlo technique. The tissues investigated differed from each other predominantly in their scattering properties. Thermal coagulation reduced the optical penetration depth substantially. The highest penetration depths for all tissues investigated were found in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1100 nm. A comparison with data from the literature revealed the importance of the employed tissue preparation technique and the impact of the theoretical model used to extract the optical coefficients from the measured quantities.

  2. Synergy Between Tissue Factor and Exogenous Factor XIa in Initiating Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Leiderman, Karin; Chang, William C; Ovanesov, Mikhail; Fogelson, Aaron L

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests involvement of coagulation factor XIa (FXIa) in thrombotic event development. This study was conducted to explore possible synergies between tissue factor (TF) and exogenous FXIa (E-FXIa) in thrombin generation. In thrombin generation assays, for increasing concentrations of E-FXIa with low, but not with high TF concentrations, peak thrombin significantly increased whereas lag time and time to peak significantly decreased. Similar dependencies of lag times and rates of thrombin generation were found in mathematical model simulations. In both in vitro and in silico experiments that included E-FXIa, thrombin bursts were seen for TF levels much lower than those required without E-FXIa. For in silico thrombin bursts initiated by the synergistic action of TF and E-FXIa, the mechanisms leading to the burst differed substantially from those for bursts initiated by high TF alone. For the synergistic case, sustained activation of platelet-bound FIX by E-FXIa, along with the feedback-enhanced activation of platelet-bound FVIIIa and FXa, was needed to elicit a thrombin burst. Furthermore, the initiation of thrombin bursts by high TF levels relied on different platelet FIX/FIXa binding sites than those involved in bursts initiated by low TF levels with E-FXIa. Low concentrations of TF and exogenous FXIa, each too low to elicit a burst in thrombin production alone, act synergistically when in combination to cause substantial thrombin production. The observation about FIX/FIXa binding sites may have therapeutic implications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Study of laser-induced thermoelastic deformation of native and coagulated ex-vivo bovine liver tissues for estimating their optical and thermomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Soroushian, Behrouz; Whelan, William M; Kolios, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have explored the potential of optoacoustic imaging for monitoring thermal therapies, yet the origin of the contrast in the images is not well understood. A technique is required to measure the changes in the optical and thermomechanical properties of tissues upon coagulation to better understand this contrast. An interferometric method is presented for measuring simultaneously the optical and thermomechanical properties of native and coagulated ex-vivo bovine tissue samples based on analysis of the surface displacement of irradiated samples. Surface displacements are measured after irradiation by short laser pulses at 750 nm. A 51% decrease in the optical attenuation depth is observed for coagulated liver samples compared to native samples. No significant differences in the Grüneisen coefficient are measured in the native and coagulated tissue samples. A mean value of 0.12 for the Grüneisen coefficient is measured for both native and coagulated liver tissues. The displacement profiles exhibit consistent differences between the two tissue types. To assess the changes in the sample mechanical properties, the experimental data also are compared to numerical solutions of the equation for thermoelastic deformation. The results demonstrate that differences in the tissue expansion dynamics arise from higher values of elastic modulus for coagulated liver samples compared to native ones.

  4. Potential Coagulation Factor-Driven Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Ovarian Cancer Tissues Associated with Insufficient O2 and Plasma Supply

    PubMed Central

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2017-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a cell surface receptor for coagulation factor VII (fVII). The TF-activated fVII (fVIIa) complex is an essential initiator of the extrinsic blood coagulation process. Interactions between cancer cells and immune cells via coagulation factors and adhesion molecules can promote progression of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This process is not necessarily advantageous, as tumor tissues generally undergo hypoxia due to aberrant vasculature, followed by reduced access to plasma components such as coagulation factors. However, hypoxia can activate TF expression. Expression of fVII, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines can be synergistically induced in EOC cells in response to hypoxia along with serum deprivation. Thus, pro-inflammatory responses associated with the TF-fVIIa–ICAM-1 interaction are expected within hypoxic tissues. Tumor tissue consists of multiple components such as stromal cells, interstitial fluid, albumin, and other micro-factors such as proton and metal ions. These factors, together with metabolism reprogramming in response to hypoxia and followed by functional modification of TF, may contribute to coagulation factor-driven inflammatory responses in EOC tissues. The aim of this review was to describe potential coagulation factor-driven inflammatory responses in hypoxic EOC tissues. Arguments were extended to clinical issues targeting this characteristic tumor environment. PMID:28417928

  5. Tissue factor is induced by interleukin-33 in human endothelial cells: a new link between coagulation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovic, Stefan; Kaun, Christoph; Basilio, Jose; Rauscher, Sabine; Hell, Lena; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Bonstingl, Cornelia; de Martin, Rainer; Gröger, Marion; Ay, Cihan; Holnthoner, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Neumayer, Christoph; Huk, Ihor; Huber, Kurt; Demyanets, Svitlana; Wojta, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the primary trigger of coagulation. Elevated levels of TF are found in atherosclerotic plaques, and TF leads to thrombus formation when released upon plaque rupture. Interleukin (IL)-33 was previously shown to induce angiogenesis and inflammatory activation of endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we investigated the impact of IL-33 on TF in human ECs, as a possible new link between inflammation and coagulation. IL-33 induced TF mRNA and protein in human umbilical vein ECs and coronary artery ECs. IL-33-induced TF expression was ST2- and NF-κB-dependent, but IL-1-independent. IL-33 also increased cell surface TF activity in ECs and TF activity in ECs-derived microparticles. IL-33-treated ECs reduced coagulation time of whole blood and plasma but not of factor VII-deficient plasma. In human carotid atherosclerotic plaques (n = 57), TF mRNA positively correlated with IL-33 mRNA expression (r = 0.691, p < 0.001). In this tissue, IL-33 and TF protein was detected in ECs and smooth muscle cells by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, IL-33 and TF protein co-localized at the site of clot formation within microvessels in plaques of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. Through induction of TF in ECs, IL-33 could enhance their thrombotic capacity and thereby might impact on thrombus formation in the setting of atherosclerosis. PMID:27142573

  6. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The “robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy” (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles’ operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot’s movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle “collision-free reachable workspace” (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor

  7. EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM MARINE SEDIMENTS AND TISSUES USING MICROWAVE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compared microwave solvent extraction (MSE) to conventional methods for extracting organic contaminants from marine sediments and tissues with high and varying moisture content. The organic contaminants measured were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chl...

  8. EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM MARINE SEDIMENTS AND TISSUES USING MICROWAVE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compared microwave solvent extraction (MSE) to conventional methods for extracting organic contaminants from marine sediments and tissues with high and varying moisture content. The organic contaminants measured were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chl...

  9. Silver halide fiber optic radiometry for temperature monitoring and control of tissues heated by microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenfeld, Ofer; Belotserkovsky, Edward; Goldwasser, Benad; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-02-01

    The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields, such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention, and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a nonuniform way by the microwave radiation. Conventional temperature sensors used today are inaccurate in the presence of microwave radiation and require contact with the heated tissue. Fiber optic radiometry makes it possible to measure temperatures accurately in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave was obtained using a silver halide optic radiometer, enabling control of the heating process in other regions of the tissue samples. Temperature mappings of the heated tissues were performed and the nonuniform temperature distributions in these tissues was demonstrated.

  10. The Role of Putative Phosphatidylserine-Interactive Residues of Tissue Factor on Its Coagulant Activity at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shabbir A.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Sen, Prosenjit; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is thought to play a critical role in tissue factor (TF) decryption. Recent molecular dynamics simulation studies suggested that the TF ectodomain may directly interact with PS. To investigate the potential role of TF direct interaction with the cell surface phospholipids on basal TF activity and the enhanced TF activity following the decryption, one or all of the putative PS-interactive residues in the TF ectodomain were mutated and tested for their coagulant activity in cell systems. Out of the 9 selected TF mutants, five of them -TFS160A, TFS161A, TFS162A, TFK165A, and TFD180A- exhibited a similar TF coagulant activity to that of the wild-type TF. The specific activity of three mutants, TFK159A, TFS163A, and TFK166A, was reduced substantially. Mutation of the glycine residue at the position 164 markedly abrogated the TF coagulant activity, resulting in ~90% inhibition. Mutation of all nine lipid binding residues together did not further decrease the activity of TF compared to TFG164A. A similar fold increase in TF activity was observed in wild-type TF and all TF mutants following the treatment of THP-1 cells with either calcium ionomycin or HgCl2, two agents that are commonly used to decrypt TF. Overall, our data show that a few select TF residues that are implicated in interacting with PS contribute to the TF coagulant activity at the cell surface. However, our data also indicate that TF regions outside of the putative lipid binding region may also contribute to PS-dependent decryption of TF. PMID:27348126

  11. Domestic Microwave Versus Conventional Tissue Processing: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devi R, Bhuvanamha; A.R., Subhashree; Parameaswari, P.J.; Parijatham, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Microwave irradiation has been tried as a replacement for the conventional tissue processing technique in histopathology laboratories for quite some time. Studies have shown that Domestic Microwave Tissue Processing (DMWTP) provides a faster delivery of the tissue sections with a morphology which is similar to that which is seen Conventional Tissue Processing (CTP). But many laboratories still confine the domestic microwave tissue processing method only to the handle selected specimens, for which urgent reports are needed. One of the probable reasons is that, understanding about the number of tissue sections which can be processed using a microwave oven at a time, with the appropriate quality, still remains unclear. Aim: The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the optimum number of samples that a domestic microwave could process at a time, as well as to qualitatively analyze the morphological outcome of those tissue sections with that of conventional processing. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the research and ethical committee of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. A total of 135 paired tissue sections were included in the study. Ten tissue sections (which are mentioned hereafter as A10) were processed in a domestic microwave and their paired 10 tissues were processed by a conventional method. Subsequently, the number of tissues which was to be processed was increased to B15, C20, D25, E30 and F35, after ascertaining that the morphological qualities of the previously processed tissue sections were satisfactory. Sections of 4 μm thickness were taken and they were stained by the Haematoxylin and Eosin method. The slides of the tissues which were processed by the microwave method and the conventional method were randomly numbered, for a blind study, which were independently evaluated by two observers. The qualities of slides were assessed, based on 4 parameters: the cytoplasmic details, the nuclear details, the tissue

  12. [Microwave thermoacoustic signal analysis of biological tissues based on the coupling of multifield].

    PubMed

    Tao, Chunjing; Song, Tao; Liu, Guoqiang; Yan, Jing

    2008-02-01

    According to the coupling relationship of electromagnetic field, thermal field and acoustic field during the time that microwave irradiates the biological tissues, we conducted a study on the microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography forward problem. In the study, we started from the thermoacoustic wave propagation that incorporated the spatial inhomogeneities of thermal and acoustic properties, and we used a method based on the finite element to solve the thermoacoustic equation. As the penetration depth and the specific absorption rate changed with the microwave frequency in biological tissue, the hotspot position and value altered, so the pressure wave propagation and the detecting value would be influenced. By analyzing the simulation results, we found that different detection point has different information content. Because the microwave-induced acoustic waves contain abundant information about the structural, electromagnetic and acoustic properties of phantom, they can reflect information on the tissue composition and structure of the phantom effectively.

  13. Microwave dielectric measurements and tissue characteristics of the human brain: potential in localizing intracranial tissues.

    PubMed

    Axer, Hubertus; Grässel, David; Steinhauer, Matthias; Stöhr, Peter; John, Andreas; Coenen, Volker A; Jansen, Rolf H; von Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf

    2002-05-21

    This study describes the measurements of dielectric properties in the microwave range to differentiate various human central nervous structures. Using a vector network analyser transmission and reflection coefficients were measured from 500 MHz to 18 GHz in four human formalin fixed human brains. The positions of the electrodes were marked, and the tissue was histologically stained to visualize the myelo- and the cytoarchitecture as well as the nerve fibre orientation at the electrodes. The profiles of the transmission coefficients showed a characteristic minimum peak. In order to describe this peak, a mathematical function was fitted. Parameters derived from digital image processing were used to characterize the myelo- and cytoarchitecure of the tissue at the electrodes. A multiple regression model, with the frequency at the transmission peak minimum as a dependent variable and two tissue characteristics at the two electrodes as independent variables, showed a multiple regression coefficient of 0.765. A neural network model was able to estimate the frequency at the transmission peak minimum from the tissue characteristics at the electrode. The measurements of dielectric properties are well suited to differentiate distinct intracerebral structures. The method could be used for online monitoring of the needle's position during a stereotactic intervention in neurosurgery.

  14. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy.

  15. Optical properties measurement of laser coagulated tissues with double integrating sphere and inverse Monte Carlo technique in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Norihiro; Nanjo, Takuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2012-03-01

    In laser medicine, the accurate knowledge about the optical properties (absorption coefficient; μa, scattering coefficient; μs, anisotropy factor; g) of laser irradiated tissues is important for the prediction of light propagation in tissues, since the efficacy of laser treatment depends on the photon propagation within the irradiated tissues. Thus, it is likely that the optical properties of tissues at near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths will be more important due to more biomedical applications of lasers will be developed. For improvement of the laser induced thermotherapy, the optical property change during laser treatment should be considered in the wide wavelength range. For estimation of the optical properties of the biological tissues, the optical properties measurement system with a double integrating sphere setup and an inverse Monte Carlo technique was developed. The optical properties of chicken muscle tissue were measured in the native state and after laser coagulation using the optical properties measurement system in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm. A CO2 laser was used for laser coagulation. After laser coagulation, the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue increased. And, the optical penetration depth decreased. For improvement of the treatment depth during laser coagulation, a quantitative procedure using the treated tissue optical properties for determination of the irradiation power density following light penetration decrease might be important in clinic.

  16. Tissue Factor in Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Bullous Pemphigoid: Link between Immune and Coagulation System in Subepidermal Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowska, Agnieszka; Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Malgorzata; Danilewicz, Marian; Wieczfinska, Joanna; Pniewska, Ewa; Zebrowski, Michal; Waszczykowska, Elzbieta; Wozniacka, Anna; Eusebio, Makandjou-Ola; Pietruczuk, Miroslawa; Pawliczak, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are skin diseases associated with eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltrations. Although chemokines are critical for the selective accumulation and activation of various leukocyte subsets in the inflammatory process, there are few findings concerning inflammatory cells and production of coagulation factors in blistering diseases. Skin biopsies were taken from 14 patients with DH, 27 with BP, and 20 control subjects. The localization and expression of tissue factor (TF) in skin lesions and perilesional skin were studied by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by Western Blot. Moreover the plasma concentrations of TF were measured by immunoassays. D dimers, fibrinogen, and selected coagulation parameters were measured by routine methods. Expression of TF in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in dermis was detected in skin biopsies from BP patients. Examined TF expression was detected in perilesional skin of all BP patients too. The expression of TF was not observed in biopsies from healthy people and DH patients. The findings of the study show an increased expression of tissue factor in the lesional and perilesional skin of patients with bullous pemphigoid. The difference in chemokine pattern expression and variations in the cellular infiltration in BP and DH cause variable expression of TF. PMID:27057091

  17. Electrical circuit modeling and analysis of microwave acoustic interaction with biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zheng, Qian; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2014-05-01

    Numerical study of microwave imaging and microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging utilizes finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis for simulation of microwave and acoustic interaction with biological tissues, which is time consuming due to complex grid-segmentation and numerous calculations, not straightforward due to no analytical solution and physical explanation, and incompatible with hardware development requiring circuit simulator such as SPICE. In this paper, instead of conventional FDTD numerical simulation, an equivalent electrical circuit model is proposed to model the microwave acoustic interaction with biological tissues for fast simulation and quantitative analysis in both one and two dimensions (2D). The equivalent circuit of ideal point-like tissue for microwave-acoustic interaction is proposed including transmission line, voltage-controlled current source, envelop detector, and resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) network, to model the microwave scattering, thermal expansion, and acoustic generation. Based on which, two-port network of the point-like tissue is built and characterized using pseudo S-parameters and transducer gain. Two dimensional circuit network including acoustic scatterer and acoustic channel is also constructed to model the 2D spatial information and acoustic scattering effect in heterogeneous medium. Both FDTD simulation, circuit simulation, and experimental measurement are performed to compare the results in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and pseudo S-parameters characterization. 2D circuit network simulation is also performed under different scenarios including different sizes of tumors and the effect of acoustic scatterer. The proposed circuit model of microwave acoustic interaction with biological tissue could give good agreement with FDTD simulated and experimental measured results. The pseudo S-parameters and characteristic gain could globally evaluate the performance of tumor detection. The 2D circuit network

  18. [Physical model of the plant tissue response to exposure to the microwave electromagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, L G; Boshkova, I L

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis was suggested to explain the effect of biostimulation of seeds exposed to microwave electromagnetic field. It was shown that the assumption on the determining influence of the microwave field on the transport properties of the conducting system of a plant satisfactorily explains the phenomena observed in germinating seeds and growing plants. A physical model of the response of a plant cell to a microwave field is presented, which served as a basis for the method of calculating the maximum possible time of exposure of plant tissue.

  19. Platelet-Derived Short-Chain Polyphosphates Enhance the Inactivation of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor by Activated Coagulation Factor XI

    PubMed Central

    Puy, Cristina; Tucker, Erik I.; Ivanov, Ivan S.; Gailani, David; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H.; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Factor (F) XI supports both normal human hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Activated FXI (FXIa) promotes thrombin generation by enzymatic activation of FXI, FIX, FX, and FV, and inactivation of alpha tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPIα), in vitro. Some of these reactions are now known to be enhanced by short-chain polyphosphates (SCP) derived from activated platelets. These SCPs act as a cofactor for the activation of FXI and FV by thrombin and FXIa, respectively. Since SCPs have been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant function of TFPIα, we herein investigated whether SCPs could serve as cofactors for the proteolytic inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa, further promoting the efficiency of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation to generate thrombin. Methods and Results Purified soluble SCP was prepared by size-fractionation of sodium polyphosphate. TFPIα proteolysis was analyzed by western blot. TFPIα activity was measured as inhibition of FX activation and activity in coagulation and chromogenic assays. SCPs significantly accelerated the rate of inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa in both purified systems and in recalcified plasma. Moreover, platelet-derived SCP accelerated the rate of inactivation of platelet-derived TFPIα by FXIa. TFPIα activity was not affected by SCP in recalcified FXI-depleted plasma. Conclusions Our data suggest that SCP is a cofactor for TFPIα inactivation by FXIa, thus, expanding the range of hemostatic FXIa substrates that may be affected by the cofactor functions of platelet-derived SCP. PMID:27764259

  20. Positive Feedback Loops for Factor V and Factor VII Activation Supply Sensitivity to Local Surface Tissue Factor Density During Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Balandina, A.N.; Shibeko, A.M.; Kireev, D.A.; Novikova, A.A.; Shmirev, I.I.; Panteleev, M.A.; Ataullakhanov, F.I.

    2011-01-01

    Blood coagulation is triggered not only by surface tissue factor (TF) density but also by surface TF distribution. We investigated recognition of surface TF distribution patterns during blood coagulation and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. For these investigations, we employed 1), an in vitro reaction-diffusion experimental model of coagulation; and 2), numerical simulations using a mathematical model of coagulation in a three-dimensional space. When TF was uniformly immobilized over the activating surface, the clotting initiation time in normal plasma increased from 4 min to >120 min, with a decrease in TF density from 100 to 0.7 pmol/m2. In contrast, surface-immobilized fibroblasts initiated clotting within 3–7 min, independently of fibroblast quantity and despite a change in average surface TF density from 0.5 to 130 pmol/m2. Experiments using factor V-, VII-, and VIII-deficient plasma and computer simulations demonstrated that different responses to these two TF distributions are caused by two positive feedback loops in the blood coagulation network: activation of the TF–VII complex by factor Xa, and activation of factor V by thrombin. This finding suggests a new role for these reactions: to supply sensitivity to local TF density during blood coagulation. PMID:22004734

  1. Activation of blood coagulation factor VIIa with cleaved tissue factor extracellular domain and crystallization of the active complex.

    PubMed

    Kirchhofer, D; Guha, A; Nemerson, Y; Konigsberg, W H; Vilbois, F; Chène, C; Banner, D W; D'Arcy, A

    1995-08-01

    Exposure of blood to tissue factor leads to the formation of a high affinity tissue factor/factor VIIa complex which initiates blood coagulation. As a first step toward obtaining structural information of this enzyme system, a complex of active-site inhibited factor VIIa (F.VIIai) and soluble tissue factor (sTF) was prepared for crystallization. Crystals were obtained, but only after long incubation times. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry indicated the presence of sTF fragments similar to those formed by proteolytic digestion with subtilisin (Konigsberg, W., Nemerson, Y., Fang, C., Lin, T.-C. Thromb. Haemost. 69:1171, 1993). To test the hypothesis that limited proteolysis of sTF facilitated the crystallization of the complex, sTF fragments were generated by subtilisin digestion and purified. Analysis by tandem mass spectrometry showed the presence of nonoverlapping N- and C-terminal sTF fragments encompassing more than 90% of the tissue factor extracellular domain. Enzymatic assays and binding studies demonstrated that an equimolar mixture of N- and C-terminal fragments bound to factor VIIa and fully restored cofactor activity. A complex of F.VIIai and sTF fragments was prepared for crystallization. Crystals were obtained using microseeding techniques. The best crystals had maximum dimensions of 0.12 x 0.12 x 0.6 mm and showed diffraction to a resolution of 3 A.

  2. Histology-Directed Microwave Assisted Enzymatic Protein Digestion for MALDI MS Analysis of Mammalian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study presents on-tissue proteolytic digestion using a microwave irradiation and peptide extraction method for in situ analysis of proteins from spatially defined regions of a tissue section. The methodology utilizes hydrogel discs (1 mm diameter) embedded with trypsin solution. The enzyme-laced hydrogel discs are applied to a tissue section, directing enzymatic digestion to a spatially confined area of the tissue. By applying microwave radiation, protein digestion is performed in 2 min on-tissue, and the extracted peptides are then analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reliability and reproducibility of the microwave assisted hydrogel mediated on-tissue digestion is demonstrated by the comparison with other on-tissue digestion strategies, including comparisons with conventional heating and in-solution digestion. LC-MS/MS data were evaluated considering the number of identified proteins as well as the number of protein groups and distinct peptides. The results of this study demonstrate that rapid and reliable protein digestion can be performed on a single thin tissue section while preserving the relationship between the molecular information obtained and the tissue architecture, and the resulting peptides can be extracted in sufficient abundance to permit analysis using LC-MS/MS. This approach will be most useful for samples that have limited availability but are needed for multiple analyses, especially for the correlation of proteomics data with histology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25427280

  3. Histology-directed microwave assisted enzymatic protein digestion for MALDI MS analysis of mammalian tissue.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Domenico; Norris, Jeremy L; Caprioli, Richard M

    2015-01-06

    This study presents on-tissue proteolytic digestion using a microwave irradiation and peptide extraction method for in situ analysis of proteins from spatially defined regions of a tissue section. The methodology utilizes hydrogel discs (1 mm diameter) embedded with trypsin solution. The enzyme-laced hydrogel discs are applied to a tissue section, directing enzymatic digestion to a spatially confined area of the tissue. By applying microwave radiation, protein digestion is performed in 2 min on-tissue, and the extracted peptides are then analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reliability and reproducibility of the microwave assisted hydrogel mediated on-tissue digestion is demonstrated by the comparison with other on-tissue digestion strategies, including comparisons with conventional heating and in-solution digestion. LC-MS/MS data were evaluated considering the number of identified proteins as well as the number of protein groups and distinct peptides. The results of this study demonstrate that rapid and reliable protein digestion can be performed on a single thin tissue section while preserving the relationship between the molecular information obtained and the tissue architecture, and the resulting peptides can be extracted in sufficient abundance to permit analysis using LC-MS/MS. This approach will be most useful for samples that have limited availability but are needed for multiple analyses, especially for the correlation of proteomics data with histology and immunohistochemistry.

  4. Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Madsen, Ernest L; Frank, Gary R; Hagness, Susan C

    2005-09-21

    We propose and characterize oil-in-gelatin dispersions that approximate the dispersive dielectric properties of a variety of human soft tissues over the microwave frequency range from 500 MHz to 20 GHz. Different tissues are mimicked by selection of an appropriate concentration of oil. The materials possess long-term stability and can be employed in heterogeneous configurations without change in geometry or dielectric properties due to osmotic effects. Thus, these materials can be used to construct heterogeneous phantoms, including anthropomorphic types, for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave technologies, such as breast cancer detection and imaging systems.

  5. Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2005-09-01

    We propose and characterize oil-in-gelatin dispersions that approximate the dispersive dielectric properties of a variety of human soft tissues over the microwave frequency range from 500 MHz to 20 GHz. Different tissues are mimicked by selection of an appropriate concentration of oil. The materials possess long-term stability and can be employed in heterogeneous configurations without change in geometry or dielectric properties due to osmotic effects. Thus, these materials can be used to construct heterogeneous phantoms, including anthropomorphic types, for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave technologies, such as breast cancer detection and imaging systems.

  6. A simple method for determining the coagulation threshold temperature of transparent tissue-mimicking thermal therapy gel phantoms: Validated by magnetic resonance imaging thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, N. Patrik; Partanen, Ari; Asp, Patrik; Branch, Craig A.; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Tissue-mimicking thermal therapy phantoms that coagulate at specific temperatures are valuable tools for developing and evaluating treatment strategies related to thermal therapy. Here, the authors propose a simple and efficient method for determining the coagulation threshold temperature of transparent thermal therapy gel phantoms. Methods: The authors used a previously published gel phantom recipe with 2% (w/v) of bovine serum albumin as the temperature-sensitive protein. Using the programmable heating settings of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machine, the authors heated 50 μl gel samples to various temperatures for 3 min and then imaged them using the BioRad Gel Doc system to determine the coagulation temperature using an opacity quantification method. The estimated coagulation temperatures were then validated for gel phantoms prepared with different pH levels using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) heating and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thermometry methods on a clinical MR-HIFU system. Results: The PCR heating method produced consistent and reproducible coagulation of gel samples in precise correlation with the set incubation temperatures. The resulting coagulation threshold temperatures for gel phantoms of varying pH levels were found to be 44.1 ± 0.1, 53.4 ± 0.9, and 60.3 ± 0.9 °C for pH levels of 4.25, 4.50, and 4.75, respectively. This corresponded well with the coagulation threshold temperatures determined by MR-thermometry, with coagulation defined as a 95% decrease in T2 relaxation time, which were estimated at 53.6 ± 1.9 and 62.9 ± 2.4 °C for a pH of 4.50 and 4.75, respectively. Conclusions: The opacity quantification method provides a fast and reproducible estimate of the coagulation threshold temperature of transparent temperature-sensitive gel phantoms. The temperatures determined using this method were well within the range of temperatures estimated using MR-thermometry. Due to the specific heating capabilities

  7. Validation of microwave radiometry for measuring the internal temperature profile of human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, A.; Land, D.; Hand, J.

    2011-06-01

    A phantom target with a known linear temperature gradient has been developed for validating microwave radiometry for measuring internal temperature profiles within human tissue. The purpose of the phantom target is to simulate the temperature gradient found within the surface layers of a baby's brain during hypothermal neuroprotection therapy, in which the outer surface of the phantom represents the skin surface and the inner surface the brain core. The target comprises a volume of phantom tissue material with similar dielectric properties to high water-content human tissue, contained between two copper plates at known temperatures. The antenna of a microwave radiometer is in contact with one surface of the phantom material. We have measured the microwave temperature of the phantom with microwave radiometry in a frequency band of 3.0-3.5 GHz. Our microwave temperature measurements have small 0.05 °C (type A) uncertainties associated with random effects and provide temperatures consistent with values determined using theoretical models of the antenna-target system within uncertainties. The measurements are in good agreement with the major signal contribution being formed over a near plane-wave response within the material with a much smaller contribution from close to the antenna face.

  8. Microwave imaging for tissue assessment: initial evaluation in multitarget tissue-equivalent phantoms.

    PubMed

    Meaney, P M; Paulsen, K D; Hartov, A; Crane, R K

    1996-09-01

    A prototype microwave imaging system is evaluated for its ability to recover two-dimensional (2-D) electrical property distributions under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination using multitarget tissue equivalent phantoms. Experiments conducted in a surrounding lossy saline tank demonstrate that simultaneous recovery of both the real and imaginary components of the electrical property distribution is possible using absolute imaging procedures over a frequency range of 300-700 MHz. Further, image reconstructions of embedded tissue-equivalent targets are found to be quantitative not only with respect to geometrical factors such as object size and location but also electrical composition. Quantitative assessments based on full-width half-height criteria reveal that errors in diameter estimates of reconstructed targets are less than 10 mm in all cases, whereas, positioning errors are less than 1 mm in single object experiments but degrade to 4-10 mm when multiple targets are present. Recovery of actual electrical properties is found to be frequency dependent for the real and imaginary components with background values being typically within 10-20% of their correct size and embedded object having similar accuracies as a percentage of the electrical contrast, although errors as high as 50% can occur. The quantitative evaluation of imaging performance has revealed potential advantages in a two-tiered receiver antenna configuration whose measured field values are more sensitive to target region changes than the typical tomographic type of approach which uses reception sites around the full target region perimeter. This measurement strategy has important implications for both the image reconstruction algorithm where there is a premium on minimizing problem size without sacrificing image quality and the hardware system design which seeks to economize on the amount of measured data required for quantitative image reconstruction while maximizing its sensitivity to target

  9. Microwave-stimulated formaldehyde fixation of experimental renal biopsy tissues: computerised morphometric analysis of distortion artefacts.

    PubMed

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Loh, Kum-Chee

    2005-06-01

    Although microwave irradiation has been used in the histopathology laboratory for several years, there has been minimal published experimental data on its effects on the technical and staining quality of histological sections. Furthermore, it has not been clear whether the advantages gained in reduction of fixation and staining duration has been at the expense of increasing architectural distortion to the tissues. We report here our experience with computerised morphometric analysis to investigate glomerular artifacts caused by microwave-stimulated fixation of renal tissues. 39 rat and 33 human autopsy kidney samples were subjected to (1) fixation in neutral buffered formaldehyde (control), (2) microwave-stimulated fixation followed by neutral buffered formaldehyde, and (3) neutral buffered formaldehyde followed by microwave irradiation. In addition, the effect of post-fixation in 70% ethanol was also investigated. Microwave irradiation was delivered through a dedicated laboratory microwave oven at 80% power and at 55 degrees C for 3 minutes. The different fixation methods were compared with regards to shrinkage (distortion) to glomerular structures (glomeruli and Bowman's spaces) on H and E sections, as determined by morphometric image analysis using a temporary assembled-system consisting of a trinocular microscope, a digital video camera and personal computer. A FlashPoint VGA 3.3 film-grabber card was used to capture images for morphometric analysis by using a Scion Image program. Morphometric analysis of glomerular structures showed that microwaves caused more shrinkage to the area bounded by the Bowman's capsule than the glomerulus proper, but post-fixation with ethanol reduced this shrinkage. These findings have implications on the logistics of tissue preparation of renal biopsies in clinical practice.

  10. [Histologic tissue processing in an automated microwave histoprocessor].

    PubMed

    Zubkova, T V; Makarov, V L; Nemykin, V I; Tarnopol'skaia, O V; Nepomniashchaia, E M; Marmarova, T Iu

    1999-01-01

    A new vacuum histoprocessor has been tested as well as new more effective protocols to work with this processor. The device allows histoprocessing of 50 samples simultaneously of surgery, biopsy or autopsy material during 1-1.5 h. Apart from the standard protocols, new protocols with a much lower (5-10 times) expenditure of the chemicals can be implemented due to combination of microwaves and vacuum. Each protocol was tested repeatedly (20 and more times) with stable good quality of microscopic image.

  11. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders.

  12. C1-inhibitor efficiently inhibits Escherichia coli-induced tissue factor mRNA up-regulation, monocyte tissue factor expression and coagulation activation in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Landsem, A; Nielsen, E W; Fure, H; Christiansen, D; Ludviksen, J K; Lambris, J D; Østerud, B; Mollnes, T E; Brekke, O-L

    2013-01-01

    Both the complement system and tissue factor (TF), a key initiating component of coagulation, are activated in sepsis, and cross-talk occurs between the complement and coagulation systems. C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) can act as a regulator in both systems. Our aim in this study was to examine this cross-talk by investigating the effects of C1-INH on Escherichia coli-induced haemostasis and inflammation. Fresh human whole blood collected in lepirudin was incubated with E. coli or ultrapurified E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of C1-INH or protease-inactivated C1-INH. C3 activation was blocked by compstatin, a specific C3 convertase inhibitor. TF mRNA was measured using reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR), and TF surface expression was measured by flow cytometry. In plasma, the terminal complement complex, prothrombin F1·2 (PTF1·2) and long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytokines were analysed using a multiplex kit. C1-INH (1·25–5 mg/ml) reduced both LPS- and E. coli-induced coagulation, measured as a reduction of PTF1·2 in plasma, efficiently and dose-dependently (P < 0·05). Both LPS and E. coli induced marked up-regulation of TF mRNA levels and surface expression on whole blood monocytes. This up-regulation was reduced efficiently by treatment with C1-INH (P < 0·05). C1-INH reduced the release of PTX3 (P < 0·05) and virtually all cytokines measured (P < 0·05). Complement activation was inhibited more efficiently with compstatin than with C1-INH. C1-INH inhibited most of the other readouts more efficiently, consistent with additional non-complement-dependent effects. These results indicate that complement plays a role in activating coagulation during sepsis and that C1-INH is a broad-spectrum attenuator of the inflammatory and haemostatic responses. PMID:23607270

  13. The modification of specific absorption rates in interstitial microwave hyperthermia via tissue-equivalent material bolus.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, S; Denman, D L; Legorreta, R A; Foster, A E; Redmond, K P; Elson, H R; Born, A M; Samaratunga, R C; Lewis, G C; Kereiakes, J G

    1990-09-01

    Patterns of specific absorption rates generated by interstitial, microwave antenna arrays must be experimentally ascertained and quantified to facilitate their clinical incorporation. Phantom studies involved the use of four single-gap, coaxial antennas oriented in a 2 cm square array. These dipoles were driven in phase by a microwave generator at a frequency of 915 MHz. The inherent limitations in modifying the specific absorption rate patterns were addressed with the addition of bolus to the phantom. These additions of Guy's muscle tissue-equivalent material were made either proximal or distal to the phantom proper. Experiments conducted in the presence and absence of tissue-equivalent material bolus showed the ability to achieve broader bands of 50% power deposition in certain bolus conditions. These heating patterns were sufficiently reproducible and predictable to warrant clinical application of the bolus addition. A through-and-through method of catheter implantation allowed for bolus addition when deemed necessary. Treatments with veterinary and human patients using the bolus method to modify heating patterns yielded augmented patterns of power deposition. The effective length of the antennas that would radiate efficiently was essentially broadened via introduction of a microwave-interacting medium. As a result of the tissue equivalent material's ability to absorb microwave power, it was necessary to interpose minimally-interactive styrofoam spacers to limit heat transfer effects at the tissue-bolus interfaces.

  14. Dual-mode antenna array for microwave heating and noninvasive thermometry of superficial tissue disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Rossetto, Francesca; Diederich, Chris J.; Neuman, Daniel

    1999-05-01

    Hyperthermia therapy of superficial skin disease has proven clinically useful, but current heating equipment is clumsy and technically inadequate for many patients. The present effort describes a dual purpose multielement conformal array microwave applicator that is fabricated from flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material to facilitate heating of large surface areas overlying contoured anatomy. Preliminary studies document the feasibility of combining concentric spiral microstrip antennas within multilayer PCB material in order to achieve tissue heating simultaneously with non-invasive thermometry by radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the target tissue under the applicator. Results demonstrate that superficial tissue regions may be heated uniformly above 50% of SARmax out to the periphery of 915 MHz conformal array applicators made from arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor apertures. Finally the data clearly demonstrate that separate complimentary antenna structures may be combined together in thin and lightweight conformal arrays to provide heating simultaneously with microwave radiometry based temperature monitoring of superficial tissue.

  15. Thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation under hypothermic conditions: an in vitro evaluation of tissue factor initiated whole blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Whelihan, Matthew F.; Kiankhooy, Armin; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite trauma-induced hypothermic coagulopathy being familiar in the clinical setting, empirical experimentation concerning this phenomenon is lacking. In this study we investigated the effects of hypothermia on thrombin generation, clot formation and global hemostatic functions in an in vitro environment using a whole blood model and thromboelastography (TEG) which can recapitulate hypothermia. Methods Blood was collected from healthy individuals through venipuncture and treated with corn trypsin inhibitor, to block the contact pathway. Coagulation was initiated with 5pM tissue factor at temperatures 37°C, 32°C, and 27°C. Reactions were quenched over time with soluble and insoluble components of each time point analyzed for thrombin generation, fibrinogen consumption, factor (f)XIII activation and fibrin deposition. Global coagulation potential was evaluated through TEG. Results Data showed that thrombin generation in samples at 37°C and 32°C had comparable rates while 27°C had a much lower rate (39.2 ± 1.1 and 43 ± 2.4 nM/min vs 28.6 ± 4.4 nM/min, respectively). Fibrinogen consumption and fXIII activation were highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and 27°C (13.8 ± 2.9 percent/min vs 7.8 ± 1.8 percent/min, respectively). Fibrin formation as seen through clot weights also followed this trend. TEG data showed clot formation was fastest in samples at 37°C and lowest at 27°C. Maximum clot strength was similar for each temperature. Also, percent lysis of clots was highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and then 27°C. Conclusions Induced hypothermic conditions directly affect the rate of thrombin generation and clot formation while global clot stability remains intact. PMID:24331944

  16. Thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation under hypothermic conditions: an in vitro evaluation of tissue factor initiated whole blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Whelihan, Matthew F; Kiankhooy, Armin; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E

    2014-02-01

    Despite trauma-induced hypothermic coagulopathy being familiar in the clinical setting, empirical experimentation concerning this phenomenon is lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothermia on thrombin generation, clot formation, and global hemostatic functions in an in vitro environment using a whole blood model and thromboelastography, which can recapitulate hypothermia. Blood was collected from healthy individuals through venipuncture and treated with corn trypsin inhibitor, to block the contact pathway. Coagulation was initiated with 5pM tissue factor at temperatures 37°C, 32°C, and 27°C. Reactions were quenched over time, with soluble and insoluble components analyzed for thrombin generation, fibrinogen consumption, factor (f)XIII activation, and fibrin deposition. Global coagulation potential was evaluated through thromboelastography. Data showed that thrombin generation in samples at 37°C and 32°C had comparable rates, whereas 27°C had a much lower rate (39.2 ± 1.1 and 43 ± 2.4 nM/min vs 28.6 ± 4.4 nM/min, respectively). Fibrinogen consumption and fXIII activation were highest at 37°C, followed by 32°C and 27°C. Fibrin formation as seen through clot weights also followed this trend. Thromboelastography data showed that clot formation was fastest in samples at 37°C and lowest at 27°C. Maximum clot strength was similar for each temperature. Also, percent lysis of clots was highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and then 27°C. Induced hypothermic conditions directly affect the rate of thrombin generation and clot formation, whereas global clot stability remains intact. © 2013.

  17. Microwave irradiation of human brain tissue: production of microscopic slides within one day.

    PubMed Central

    Boon, M E; Marani, E; Adriolo, P J; Steffelaar, J W; Bots, G T; Kok, L P

    1988-01-01

    A three step method using microwave irradiation enabled microscopic slides of human brain tissue to be obtained within one working day: steps 1 and 2 hardened and solidified brain tissue; step 3 completed formalin fixation. The efficacy and precision of the method was compared with slides of conventionally processed brain tissue that had been fixed in formalin for six weeks. The microscopic quality of the sections was excellent with good presentation of brain tissue and equalled that of conventionally processed slides. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3290268

  18. Noninvasive thermal coagulation of deep subsurface tissue structures using a laser probe with integrated contact cooling.

    PubMed

    Cilip, Christopher M; Scott, Nicholas J; Trammell, Susan R; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2008-01-01

    Cooling methods are used during cosmetic laser surgery to preserve a superficial layer of the skin surface. This study investigates contact cooling for sparing a deeper layer of the tissue surface during laser irradiation of subsurface tissues, with the goal of developing noninvasive laser therapy applications beyond cosmetic surgery. A laser probe was designed and tested for simultaneous laser irradiation and contact cooling of liver tissue, ex vivo. Gross and histologic examination was used to quantify thermal lesion dimensions. Liver lesions of 5.8-mm-diameter were created, while preserving the tissue surface to a depth of 1.5 mm. In vivo animal studies are planned to optimize the laser and cooling parameters for potential clinical applications.

  19. Tissue structure of rat brain after microwave irradiation using maximum magnetic field component.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Okada, M; Maruyama, Y

    1986-05-14

    A novel microwave instrument has recently been designed by New Japan Radio Co. Ltd., to provide more homogeneous distribution of the rapidly deposited heat in the rodent brain. Being the first commercial unit which concentrates the maximum magnetic field component of irradiation, rather than the usual electric field, it provides complete enzymatic inactivation in a typical rat brain when a power of 9 kW (90% of maximum) is applied for 0.80 s at the standard operating frequency of 2450 MHz. Tissue structural integrity was investigated in animals sacrificed by this approach or by the usual decapitation to see if any tissue disruption or pressure-induced spreading, a major problem with other microwave devices, might also be of concern for this new unit. Histological examination of tissue samples employed both light and electron microscopy. Using Luxol Fast Blue in the light microscopy, the microwave irradiated tissues exhibited a decreased affinity for the staining agent, an appearance of slight vacuoles, and the disappearance of fine fibrils in the parenchyma. However, the interfacial areas between distinct brain regions remained well preserved. Electron microscopic observation indicated that microwave irradiated tissue caused protein denaturation accompanied by the aggregation of nuclear chromatin, the disappearance of Nissl bodies, ribosomes and neurofilaments, and noticeably irregular myelin sheaths. However, the essential structure of nerve cell membranes and synaptic membranes were maintained, and synaptic vesicles were clearly defined. These results indicated that the rapid heating of brain tissue with maximal magnetic field concentration of the irradiation does not result in significant tissue disruption, pressure-induced spreading or cell breakdown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Correlations between B-mode ultrasonic image texture features and tissue temperature in microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunlan; Zhu, Hao; Wu, Shuicai; Bai, Yanping; Gao, Hongjian

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the correlations between B-mode ultrasonic tissue texture features and tissue temperature in microwave ablation. A total of 20 in vitro porcine liver samples were used for microwave ablation experiments. B-mode ultrasonic images under various temperatures were acquired. The texture features of the differential images based on the gray level histogram, including the mean of the gray scale (MGS), standard deviation of the gray scale, and entropy of the gray scale (ENT), and those based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix, including the contrast (CON), angular second moment (ASM), inverse difference moment (IDM), and correlation, were extracted. Correlations between the features and liver sample temperature were analyzed. In addition, water bath heating experiments were also performed on 15 in vitro porcine liver samples for analysis validation. The correlation coefficients across the MGS, ENT, and ASM in 4 directions (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°), the CON and IDM in 3 directions (45°, 90°, and 135°), and a temperature range of 15°C to 90°C were high and greater than 0.9 during microwave ablation. All texture features of the differential B-mode ultrasonic images changed with rising temperature from 25°C to 60°C during water bath heating. Changes in image features reflect changes in tissue temperature during microwave ablation.

  1. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

    2007-09-01

    It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure.

  2. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Cells in Tissue Culture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-31

    gravity sedimentation, 0.7 ml of lymphocyte-rich serum was added to McCoy’s 5A chromsome medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum, phytohemaglutinin, and...tissue culture chromsomes . Proc. USNC/URSI, 102. Harrington, R.F. (1961). "Time-harmonic Electromagnetic Field", pp. 480, McGraw Hill, New York. Hell, J.H

  3. Changes in backscatter of liver tissue due to thermal coagulation induced by focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shishitani, Takashi; Matsuzawa, Ryo; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Ultrasonic imaging has advantages in its self-consistency in guiding and monitoring ultrasonic treatment such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. Changes in ultrasonic backscatter of tissues due to HIFU treatment have been observed, but their mechanism is still under discussion. In this paper, ultrasonic backscatter of excised and degassed porcine liver tissue was observed before and after HIFU exposure using a diagnostic scanner, and its acoustic impedance was mapped using an ultrasonic microscope. The histology of its pathological specimen was also observed using an optical microscope. The observed decrease in backscatter intensity due to HIFU exposure was consistent with a spatial Fourier analysis of the histology, which also showed changes due to the exposure. The observed increase in acoustic impedance due to the exposure was also consistent with the histological change assuming that the increase was primarily caused by the increase in the concentration of hepatic cells.

  4. Comparative experiments on phantom and ex vivo liver tissue in microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fei; Nan, Qun; Ding, Jinli; Xu, Dehao; Zhang, Huijuan; Liu, Youjun; Bai, Fan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal field distribution of phantom and ex vivo liver tissue in microwave ablation. We intent to verify if the phantom can be used in future studies in lieu of actual tissue. This experiment was divided into two groups of phantom and ex vivo porcine liver tissue. 2450 MHz is set. The tests last up to 240 s in 60 W. The velocity of the circulating water pumps were adjusted to 40 rounds/min. Twenty-five copper-constantan thermocouples (TCs) were inserted at the specified position to record temperature data. For the cooling water, the temperature field was non-symmetric distribution at the gap before (z > z < 0 mm) of two groups of experiments. At the part without cooling water (z > 0 mm), effective ablation areas were larger; near the microwave antenna, the temperature curves showed good consistency for both materials. Far away from the microwave antenna, the value difference increased between phantom and liver tissue. Moreover, the effect of cooling water in phantom is more obvious than it in liver tissue. The shapes of ablation areas from two groups are not same. The result of the present work implied that heating patterns of liver tissue and phantom are comparable. But the difference of temperature field between two kinds of materials cannot be ignored. In cases of using phantom to verify temperature field in lieu of actual tissue, the researchers should pay full attention to these difference points.

  5. Microwave Radar Imaging of Heterogeneous Breast Tissue Integrating A Priori Information

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas N.; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional radar-based image reconstruction techniques fail when they are applied to heterogeneous breast tissue, since the underlying in-breast relative permittivity is unknown or assumed to be constant. This results in a systematic error during the process of image formation. A recent trend in microwave biomedical imaging is to extract the relative permittivity from the object under test to improve the image reconstruction quality and thereby to enhance the diagnostic assessment. In this paper, we present a novel radar-based methodology for microwave breast cancer detection in heterogeneous breast tissue integrating a 3D map of relative permittivity as a priori information. This leads to a novel image reconstruction formulation where the delay-and-sum focusing takes place in time rather than range domain. Results are shown for a heterogeneous dense (class-4) and a scattered fibroglandular (class-2) numerical breast phantom using Bristol's 31-element array configuration. PMID:25435861

  6. Microwave oven-based technique for immunofluorescent staining of paraffin-embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Buggs, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging due to potential modifications of protein structure by exposure to formalin. Heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques can reverse reactions between formalin and proteins that block antibody recognition. Interactions between antibodies and antigens are further enhanced by microwave irradiation, which has simplified immunohistochemical staining protocols. In this report, we modify a technique for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by showing that it works well with several antibodies and buffers. This microwave-assisted method for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining eliminates the need for blocking reagents and extended washes, which greatly simplifies the protocol allowing one to complete the analysis in less than 3 h. PMID:17653827

  7. Microwave oven-based technique for immunofluorescent staining of paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Long, Delwin J; Buggs, Colleen

    2008-02-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging due to potential modifications of protein structure by exposure to formalin. Heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques can reverse reactions between formalin and proteins that block antibody recognition. Interactions between antibodies and antigens are further enhanced by microwave irradiation, which has simplified immunohistochemical staining protocols. In this report, we modify a technique for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by showing that it works well with several antibodies and buffers. This microwave-assisted method for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining eliminates the need for blocking reagents and extended washes, which greatly simplifies the protocol allowing one to complete the analysis in less than 3 h.

  8. Improving heating uniformity of pathological tissue specimens inside a domestic microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Osama A; Kandil, Ahmed H; El Bialy, Ahmed M; Hassaballa, Iman A

    2013-01-01

    A 3D coupled electromagnetic thermal model was developed using COMSOL 4.0 to predict the electromagnetic field distribution and temperature profile in pathological tissue samples immersed in a reagent inside the oven cavity. The effect of the volume of reagent on the mean heating rate and heating uniformity within the tissue sample was investigated. Also, the effect of using a water load, as a method of temperature control, is emphasized. A well insulated K type thermocouple connected to a PC is used for model validation. Good agreement is found between experimental and simulated temperature profiles. Results show that as the volume of reagent increases, the mean heating rate decreases and temperature homogeneity increases. Also, it is possible to minimize overshooting temperature values inside the tissue sample and enhance tissue uniformity by about 27% using 100 ml of water load and 42.26% using 150 ml. Domestic microwave oven is a low cost economical tool that can speed up tissue processing steps. Achieving uniform heating inside the microwave oven is the key factor for improving workflow inside pathological labs and maintaining tissue quality and integrity.

  9. Temperature distribution analysis of tissue water vaporization during microwave ablation: experiments and simulations.

    PubMed

    Ai, Haiming; Wu, Shuicai; Gao, Hongjian; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Chunlan; Zeng, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The temperature distribution in the region near a microwave antenna is a critical factor that affects the entire temperature field during microwave ablation of tissue. It is challenging to predict this distribution precisely, because the temperature in the near-antenna region varies greatly. The effects of water vaporisation and subsequent tissue carbonisation in an ex vivo porcine liver were therefore studied experimentally and in simulations. The enthalpy and high-temperature specific absorption rate (SAR) of liver tissues were calculated and incorporated into the simulation process. The accuracy of predictions for near-field temperatures in our simulations has reached the level where the average maximum error is less than 5°C. In addition, a modified thermal model that accounts for water vaporisation and the change in the SAR distribution pattern is proposed and validated with experiment. The results from this study may be useful in the clinical practice of microwave ablation and can be applied to predict the temperature field in surgical planning.

  10. A new osteonecrosis animal model of the femoral head induced by microwave heating and repaired with tissue engineered bone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rui; Geng, Chengkui; Wang, Yongnian; Wei, Lei

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to induce a new animal model of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) by microwave heating and then repair with tissue engineered bone. The bilateral femoral heads of 84 rabbits were heated by microwave at various temperatures. Tissue engineered bone was used to repair the osteonecrosis of femoral heads induced by microwave heating. The roentgenographic and histological examinations were used to evaluate the results. The femoral heads heated at 55°C for ten minutes showed low density and cystic changes in X-ray photographs, osteonecrosis and repair occurred simultaneously in histology at four and eight weeks, and 69% femoral heads collapsed at 12 weeks. The ability of tissue engineered bone to repair the osteonecrosis was close to that of cancellous bone autograft. The new animal model of ONFH could be induced by microwave heating, and the tissue engineering technique will provide an effective treatment. PMID:18956184

  11. Correction of coagulation in the hemophilic dog by transplantation of lymphatic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Carl G.; Hathaway, William E.; Gustafsson, Åke; Geis, W. Peter; Putnam, Charles W.; Björkén, Christer; Porter, K. A.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Available data concerning the non-hepatic source of plasma factor VIII are conflicting. In the present study, dogs with factor VIII deficiency hemophilia were transplanted with spleen or vascularized lymph node grafts obtained from normal donor dogs. Postoperative immunosuppression was done with azathioprine and heterologous antilymphocyte globulin. Four spleen transplants were successful and the recipients had positive technetium sulfide spleen scans along with adequate plasma factor VIII levels for three to eight weeks. Cessation of graft isotope uptake was accompanied by prompt disappearance of plasma factor in all four dogs. Histologically, the grafts were rejected at this time. In one dog, a second spleen graft immediately restored therapeutic factor VIII levels. Four lymph node transplants were successful and plasma factor VIII was detected for one, one, two, and ten weeks. Three dogs rejected their lymph node grafts with disappearance of factor VIII, while one had a viable transplant removed with loss of factor VIII within two days. The data suggest that factor VIII is produced in the lymphatic tissue of the dog. PMID:4824431

  12. [Investigation on the impact of hot temperature methods of the tissue dissection and coagulation on parenchymatous organs in experiment].

    PubMed

    Sukhin, I A; Khudets'kyĭ, I Iu; Kachan, S H; Bilylovets', O M

    2013-01-01

    There are adduced the results of experimental operations on mongrel rabbits with dissection and coagulation of the liver and the spleen, using highly temperature coagulation apparatuses of various kinds. There was established, that while application of various highly temperature technologies a typical process occurs, consisting of the heat spreading inside the organ. The temperature raising grade depends on the method and duration of the impact.

  13. Investigation of the thermal and tissue injury behavior in microwave thermal therapy of the porcine kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoming; Mcgee, Shawn; Coad, James E.; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Iaizzo, Paul; Swanlund, David J.; Rudie, Eric; Kluge, Stan; Bischof, John C.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we report the characterization of microwave therapy in normal porcine kidneys both in vitro and in vivo. This technology is being developed for eventual use in the treatment of small renal cell carcinomas (RCC) using minimally invasive procedures. Microwave energy was applied through an interstitial microwave probe (Urologix, Plymouth, MN) to the kidney cortex with involvement of the medulary region. The thermal histories at several locations were recorded. After treatment, the kidneys were bisected and tissue sections were prepared for histologic study at approximately the same depth as the thermal probe. Histologic cellular injury and microvascular stasis were quantitatively evaluated. Absolute rate kinetic models of cellular injury and vascular stasis were fit to the thermal and histologic data to determine the kinetic parameters. A 3-D finite element thermal model based on the Pennes Bioheat equation was developed and solved using a commercial software package (ANSYS, V5.7). The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the microwave probe was measured experimentally. This is the first thermal model validated using measured in vitro thermal histories and then used to determine the blood perfusion term in vivo.

  14. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Repke, D.; Gemmell, C.H.; Guha, A.; Turitto, V.T.; Nemerson, Y. ); Broze, G.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec{sup {minus}1}. The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2{endash}-to 3{endash}fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia.

  15. Electromagnetic Spectroscopy of Normal Breast Tissue Specimens Obtained From Reduction Surgeries: Comparison of Optical and Microwave Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Zhu, Changfang; Palmer, Gregory M.; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Hagness, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Techniques utilizing electromagnetic energy at microwave and optical frequencies have been shown to be promising for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Since different biophysical mechanisms are exploited at these frequencies to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, combining these two modalities may result in a more powerful approach for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Toward this end, we performed microwave dielectric spectroscopy and optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements at the same sites on freshly-excised normal breast tissues obtained from reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin Hospital, using microwave and optical probes with very similar sensing volumes. We found that the microwave dielectric constant and effective conductivity are correlated with tissue composition across the entire measurement frequency range (|r|~0.5–0.6, p<0.01), and that the optical absorption coefficient at 460 nm and optical scattering coefficient are correlated with tissue composition (|r|~ 0.4–0.6, p<0.02). Finally, we found that the optical absorption coefficient at 460 nm is correlated with the microwave dielectric constant and effective conductivity (r=−0.55, p<0.01). Our results suggest that combining optical and microwave modalities for analyzing breast tissue samples may serve as a crosscheck and provide complementary information about tissue composition. PMID:18838370

  16. Electromagnetic spectroscopy of normal breast tissue specimens obtained from reduction surgeries: comparison of optical and microwave properties.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Zhu, Changfang; Palmer, Gregory M; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Hagness, Susan C

    2008-10-01

    Techniques utilizing electromagnetic energy at microwave and optical frequencies have been shown to be promising for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Since different biophysical mechanisms are exploited at these frequencies to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, combining these two modalities may result in a more powerful approach for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Toward this end, we performed microwave dielectric spectroscopy and optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements at the same sites on freshly excised normal breast tissues obtained from reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin Hospital, using microwave and optical probes with very similar sensing volumes. We found that the microwave dielectric constant and effective conductivity are correlated with tissue composition across the entire measurement frequency range (|r| approximately 0.5-0.6, p<0.01) and that the optical absorption coefficient at 460 nm and optical scattering coefficient are correlated with tissue composition (|r| approximately 0.4-0.6, p<0.02). Finally, we found that the optical absorption coefficient at 460 nm is correlated with the microwave dielectric constant and effective conductivity (r=-0.55, p<0.01). Our results suggest that combining optical and microwave modalities for analyzing breast tissue samples may serve as a crosscheck and provide complementary information about tissue composition.

  17. Coagulation and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis is almost invariably associated with systemic activation of coagulation. There is ample evidence that demonstrates a wide-ranging cross-talk between hemostasis and inflammation, which is probably implicated in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in patients with sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to initiation and propagation of coagulation activity, but coagulation also markedly influences inflammation. Molecular mechanisms that play a role in inflammation-induced effects on coagulation have been recognized in much detail. Pro-inflammatory cells and cyto- and chemokines can activate the coagulation system and downregulate crucial physiological anticoagulant mechanisms. Initiation of coagulation activation and consequent thrombin generation is caused by expression of tissue factor on activated monocytes and endothelial cells and is ineffectually offset by tissue factor pathway inhibitor. At the same time, endothelial-associated anticoagulant pathways, in particular the protein C system, is impaired by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, fibrin removal is severely obstructed by inactivation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system, mainly as a result of upregulation of its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin generation and impaired break down lead to deposition of (micro)vascular clots, which may contribute to tissue ischemia and ensuing organ dysfunction. The foundation of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the explicit and thorough treatment of the underlying disorder by antibiotic treatment and source control measures. Adjunctive strategies focused at the impairment of coagulation, including anticoagulants and restoration of physiological anticoagulant mechanisms, may supposedly be indicated and have been found advantageous in experimental and initial clinical trials.

  18. Is there any information on micro-structure in microwave tomography of bone tissue?

    PubMed

    Irastorza, R M; Carlevaro, C M; Vericat, F

    2013-08-01

    In this work, two-dimensional simulations of the microwave dielectric properties of models with ellipses and realistic models of trabecular bone tissue are performed. In these simulations, finite difference time domain methodology has been applied to simulate two-phase structures containing inclusions. The results presented here show that the micro-structure is an important factor in the effective dielectric properties of trabecular bone. We consider the feasibility of using the dielectric behaviour of bone tissue to be an indicator of bone health. The frequency used was 950 MHz. It was found that the dielectric properties can be used as an estimate of the degree of anisotropy of the micro-structure of the trabecular tissue. Conductivity appears to be the most sensitive parameter in this respect. Models with ellipse shaped-inclusions are also tested to study their application to modelling bone tissue. Models with ellipses that had an aspect ratio of a/b=1.5 showed relatively good agreement when compared with realistic models of bone tissue. According to the results presented here, the anisotropy of trabecular bone must be accounted for when measuring its dielectric properties using microwave imaging.

  19. Minimum wound size for clotting: flowing blood coagulates on a single collagen fiber presenting tissue factor and von Willebrand factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Diamond, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown if a lower size limit exists for human blood coagulation under flow over physiologically vessel wall triggers as small as a single collagen fiber. Prior determinations of the smallest sized surface stimuli necessary for clotting of human blood, defined as the patch size threshold, have not deployed whole blood, hemodynamic flow, and platelet adhesive stimuli. For whole blood perfused in microfluidic devices, we report that steady venous flow (wall shear rate, 100 s−1) was sufficient to drive platelet deposition on 20-micron long zones of collagen fibers or on a single fiber. With tissue factor (TF)-coated collagen, flowing blood generated robust platelet deposits, platelet-localized thrombin, and fibrin on a single collagen fiber, thus demonstrating the absence of a physiological patch size threshold under venous flow. In contrast, at arterial wall shear rate (1000 s−1) with TF present, essentially no platelet or fibrin deposition occurred on 20-micron collagen zones or on a single collagen fiber, demonstrating a patch threshold, which was overcome by pre-coating the collagen with von Willebrand factor (VWF). For venous flows, human blood can clot on one of the smallest biological units of a single collagen fiber presenting TF. For arterial flows, VWF together with TF allows human blood to generate thrombin and fibrin on a patch stimulus as limited as a single collagen fiber. VWF-dependent platelet adhesion represents a particle-based sensing mechanism of micron-scale stimuli that then allows amplification of the molecular components of TF-driven thrombin and fibrin production under arterial flow. PMID:27339024

  20. Minimum wound size for clotting: flowing blood coagulates on a single collagen fiber presenting tissue factor and von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Diamond, Scott L

    2016-08-08

    It is unknown if a lower size limit exists for human blood coagulation under flow over physiological vessel wall triggers as small as a single collagen fiber. Prior determinations of the smallest sized surface stimuli necessary for clotting of human blood, defined as the patch size threshold, have not deployed whole blood, hemodynamic flow, and platelet adhesive stimuli. For whole blood perfused in microfluidic devices, we report that steady venous flow (wall shear rate, 100 s(-1)) was sufficient to drive platelet deposition on 20 micron long zones of collagen fibers or on a single fiber. With tissue factor (TF)-coated collagen, flowing blood generated robust platelet deposits, platelet-localized thrombin, and fibrin on a single collagen fiber, thus demonstrating the absence of a physiological patch size threshold under venous flow. In contrast, at arterial wall shear rate (1000 s(-1)) with TF present, essentially no platelet or fibrin deposition occurred on 20 micron collagen zones or on a single collagen fiber, demonstrating a patch threshold, which was overcome by pre-coating the collagen with von Willebrand factor (vWF). For venous flows, human blood can clot on one of the smallest biological units of a single collagen fiber presenting TF. For arterial flows, vWF together with TF allows human blood to generate thrombin and fibrin on a patch stimulus as limited as a single collagen fiber. vWF-dependent platelet adhesion represents a particle-based sensing mechanism of micron-scale stimuli that then allows amplification of the molecular components of TF-driven thrombin and fibrin production under arterial flow.

  1. Computer modeling of electromagnetic and thermal effects in microwave soft tissue ablation (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Nigel J.; Clegg, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    Microwave Endometrial Ablation (MEA) is a technique that can be used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. The procedure involves sweeping a specially designed microwave applicator throughout the uterine cavity to achieve an ideally uniform depth of tissue necrosis of between 5 and 6mm. We have performed a computer analysis of the MEA procedure in which finite element analysis was used to determine the SAR pattern around the applicator. This was followed by a Green Function based solution of the Bioheat equation to determine the resulting induced temperatures. The method developed is applicable to situations involving a moving microwave source, as used in MEA. The validity of the simulation was verified by measurements in a tissue phantom material using a purpose built applicator and a calibrated pulling device. From the calculated temperatures the depth of necrosis was assessed through integration of the resulting rates of cell death estimated using the Arrhenius equation. The Arrhenius parameters used were derived from published data on BHK cells. Good agreement was seen between the calculated depths of cell necrosis and those found in human in-vivo testing.

  2. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    Objective To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. Methods We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. Results The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. Conclusion The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement. PMID:26316827

  3. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement.

  4. A method for determination of selenium in organic tissues using microwave digestion and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Govasmark, Espen; Grimmett, Mark G

    2007-01-01

    An existing laboratory procedure for selenium analysis using open-vessel wet digestion and liquid chromatographic fluorescence determination was modified for use with microwave digestion. The proposed microwave digestion method eliminated the hazards associated with the use of HClO4 while maintaining excellent recoveries of selenium. A 2-step HNO3/H2O2 digestion procedure was developed. Digested samples were derivatized with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene, and the resultant piazselenol complex was measured fluorometrically using a liquid chromatograph. Measured values were in agreement with 9 different certified reference materials. The detection limit for this method was 0.54 ng Se/g tissue (3 sigma), and the calibration curve remained linear (r2 = 0.9968) up to 2 microg Se/g.

  5. Average dielectric property analysis of complex breast tissue with microwave transmission measurements.

    PubMed

    Garrett, John D; Fear, Elise C

    2015-01-09

    Prior information about the average dielectric properties of breast tissue can be implemented in microwave breast imaging techniques to improve the results. Rapidly providing this information relies on acquiring a limited number of measurements and processing these measurement with efficient algorithms. Previously, systems were developed to measure the transmission of microwave signals through breast tissue, and simplifications were applied to estimate the average properties. These methods provided reasonable estimates, but they were sensitive to multipath. In this paper, a new technique to analyze the average properties of breast tissues while addressing multipath is presented. Three steps are used to process transmission measurements. First, the effects of multipath were removed. In cases where multipath is present, multiple peaks were observed in the time domain. A Tukey window was used to time-gate a single peak and, therefore, select a single path through the breast. Second, the antenna response was deconvolved from the transmission coefficient to isolate the response from the tissue in the breast interior. The antenna response was determined through simulations. Finally, the complex permittivity was estimated using an iterative approach. This technique was validated using simulated and physical homogeneous breast models and tested with results taken from a recent patient study.

  6. Average Dielectric Property Analysis of Complex Breast Tissue with Microwave Transmission Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, John D.; Fear, Elise C.

    2015-01-01

    Prior information about the average dielectric properties of breast tissue can be implemented in microwave breast imaging techniques to improve the results. Rapidly providing this information relies on acquiring a limited number of measurements and processing these measurement with efficient algorithms. Previously, systems were developed to measure the transmission of microwave signals through breast tissue, and simplifications were applied to estimate the average properties. These methods provided reasonable estimates, but they were sensitive to multipath. In this paper, a new technique to analyze the average properties of breast tissues while addressing multipath is presented. Three steps are used to process transmission measurements. First, the effects of multipath were removed. In cases where multipath is present, multiple peaks were observed in the time domain. A Tukey window was used to time-gate a single peak and, therefore, select a single path through the breast. Second, the antenna response was deconvolved from the transmission coefficient to isolate the response from the tissue in the breast interior. The antenna response was determined through simulations. Finally, the complex permittivity was estimated using an iterative approach. This technique was validated using simulated and physical homogeneous breast models and tested with results taken from a recent patient study. PMID:25585106

  7. Numerical simulation of microwave ablation incorporating tissue contraction based on thermal dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Brace, Christopher L.

    2017-03-01

    Tissue contraction plays an important role during high temperature tumor ablation, particularly during device characterization, treatment planning and imaging follow up. We measured such contraction in 18 ex vivo bovine liver samples during microwave ablation by tracking fiducial motion on CT imaging. Contraction was then described using a thermal dose dependent model and a negative thermal expansion coefficient based on the empirical data. FEM simulations with integrated electromagnetic wave propagation, heat transfer, and structural mechanics were evaluated using temperature-dependent dielectric properties and the negative thermal expansion models. Simulated temperature and displacement curves were then compared with the ex vivo experimental results on different continuous output powers. The optimized thermal dose model indicated over 50% volumetric contraction occurred at the temperature over 102.1 °C. The numerical simulation results on temperature and contraction-induced displacement showed a good agreement with experimental results. At microwave powers of 55 W, the mean errors on temperature between simulation and experimental results were 8.25%, 2.19% and 5.67% at 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm radially from the antenna, respectively. The simulated displacements had mean errors of 16.60%, 14.08% and 23.45% at the same radial locations. Compared to the experimental results, the simulations at the other microwave powers had larger errors with 10-40% mean errors at 40 W, and 10-30% mean errors at 25 W. The proposed model is able to predict temperature elevation and simulate tissue deformation during microwave ablation, and therefore may be incorporated into treatment planning and clinical translation from numerical simulations.

  8. Microwave Sintered 3D Printed Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    We report here the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) interconnected macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds with controlled internal architecture by direct 3D printing (3DP), and high mechanical strength by microwave sintering. TCP scaffolds with 27%, 35% and 41% designed macro porosity having pore sizes of 500 μm, 750 μm, and 1000 μm, respectively, have been fabricated via direct 3DP. These scaffolds are then sintered at 1150 °C and 1250 °C in conventional electric muffle furnace as well as microwave furnace. Total open porosity between 42% and 63% is obtained in the sintered scaffolds due to the presence of intrinsic micro pores along with the designed pores. A significant increase in compressive strength, between 46% and 69%, is achieved by microwave sintering as compared to conventional sintering as a result of efficient densification. A maximum compressive strength of 10.95 ± 1.28 MPa and 6.62 ± 0.67 MPa is achieved for scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores (~400 μm after sintering) sintered in microwave and conventional furnaces, respectively. An increase in cell density with a decrease in macro pore size is observed during in vitro cell-material interactions using human osteoblast cells. Histomorphological analysis reveals that the presence of both micro and macro pores facilitated osteoid like new bone formation when tested in the femoral defect on Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that bioresorbable 3D printed TCP scaffolds have great potential in tissue engineering applications for bone tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:22396130

  9. Initial experience of surgical microwave tissue precoagulation in liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Abdelraouf, A; Hamdy, H; El Erian, A M; Elsebae, M; Taha, S; Elshafey, H E; Ismail, S; Hassany, M

    2014-08-01

    Surgical hepatic resection has been considered as the first-line treatment which is most effective and radical treatment for HCC, however, HCC is usually associated with poor liver function owing to chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Techniques that can eradicate the tumor and also preserve liver function are needed. Moreover, hepatic resection, in the presence of cirrhosis, raises special problem of high risk as hemorrhage and liver failure, thus, good clinical results can only be achieved by minimizing operative blood loss, time of the intervention as well as the hepatic reserve. The tremendous progress in microwave technology has recently attracted considerable attention. This study evaluated the feasibility of this new liver transection technique demonstrating the high performance of this procedure, the accuracy in terms of squeeze effect on veins and portal branch and in terms of reducing the intra operative blood loss, and minimizing the operative time for safe hepatectomy. Twenty-six consecutive patients a first-time diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on top of liver cirrhosis were recruited for the study, from August 2011 to January 2013. All patients were subjected to full clinical examination, laboratory investigations, abdomen ultrasound (U/S), triphasic computed tomographic liver scan (CT) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in some doubtful cases. Inclusion requirements were presence of resectable disease without vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread at imaging, Child-Pugh class A & B (Score 7) liver cirrhosis, (INR) < 1.6 or platelet count) 60 000/mm3 with no previous treatment. Patients were treated by applying pre-coagulation of the liver transection lines using microwave probe positioned in parallel to the line of resection by open approach after intra-operative U/S assessment for localization of the tumor and line of resection. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Mobilization of the liver was not

  10. Estimating internal tissue temperature using microwave radiometry data and bioheat models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingyu; Kelly, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    An ability to noninvasively measure the temperature of internal tissue regions would be valuable for applications including the detection of malignancy, inflammation, or ischemia. The output power of a microwave radiometer with an antenna at the skin surface is a weighted average of temperature in a tissue volume beneath the antenna. It is difficult, however, to translate radiometric measurements into temperature estimates for specific internal tissue regions. The chief difficulty is insufficient data: in a realistic system there are no more than a few measurements to characterize the entire volume. Efficient use must be made of available prior information together with the radiometric data in order to generate a useful temperature map. In this work we assume that we know the tissue configuration (obtained from another modality), along with arterial blood temperature, skin temperature, and nominal tissue-specific values for metabolic and blood perfusion rates, thermal conductivity, and dielectric constants. The Pennes bioheat equation can then be used to construct a nominal temperature map, and electromagnetic simulation software to construct the radiometric weighting functions for any given radiometer configuration. We show that deviations from the nominal conditions in localized regions (due, e.g., to the presence of a tumor) lead to changes in the tissue temperature that can also be approximated in terms of the nominal bioheat model. This enables the development of algorithms that use the nominal model along with radiometric data to detect areas of elevated temperature and estimate the temperature in specified tissue regions.

  11. Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Carolin; Puentes, Margarita; Maasch, Matthias; Hübner, Frank; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J.; Damm, Christian; Jakoby, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W. PMID:27618050

  12. Argon plasma coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Zenker, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) is an application of gas discharges in argon in electrosurgery, which is increasingly used especially in endoscopy. The major application fields are haemostasis, tissue devitalization and tissue reduction. This review describes the physics and technology of electrosurgery and APC. Some characteristics of the argon discharge are shown and discussed, and thermal effects in biological tissue are described. Subsequently, examples of medical applications are given. PMID:20204117

  13. The tissue effect of argon-plasma coagulation with prior submucosal injection (Hybrid-APC) versus standard APC: A randomized ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Alexander; Scharpf, Marcus; Braun, Kirsten; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian; Fend, Falko; Enderle, Markus D

    2014-01-01

    Background Thermal ablation for Barrett’s oesophagus has widely been established in gastrointestinal endoscopy during the last decade. The mainly used methods of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and argon-plasma coagulation (APC) carry a relevant risk of stricture formation of up to 5–15%. Newer ablation techniques that are able to overcome this disadvantage would therefore be desirable. The aim of the present study was to compare the depth of tissue injury of the new method of Hybrid-APC versus standard APC within a randomized study in a porcine oesophagus model. Methods Using a total of eight explanted pig oesophagi, 48 oesophageal areas were ablated either by standard or Hybrid-APC (APC with prior submucosal fluid injection) using power settings of 50 and 70 W. The depth of tissue injury to the oesophageal wall was analysed macroscopically and histopathologically. Results Using 50 W, mean coagulation depth was 937 ± 469 µm during standard APC, and 477 ± 271 µm during Hybrid-APC (p = 0.064). Using 70 W, coagulation depth was 1096 ± 320 µm (standard APC) and 468 ± 136 µm (Hybrid-APC; p = 0.003). During all settings, damage to the muscularis mucosae was observed. Using standard APC, damage to the submucosal layer was observed in 4/6 (50 W) and 6/6 cases (70 W). During Hybrid-APC, coagulation of the submucosal layer occurred in 2/6 (50 W) and 1/6 cases (70 W). The proper muscle layer was only damaged during conventional APC (50 W: 1/6; 70 W: 3/6). Limitations Ex-vivo animal study with limited number of cases. Conclusions Hybrid-APC reduces coagulation depth by half in comparison with standard APC, with no thermal injury to the proper muscle layer. It may therefore lead to a lower rate of stricture formation during clinical application. PMID:25360316

  14. Low-power near-field microwave applicator for localized heating of soft matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copty, A.; Sakran, F.; Golosovsky, M.; Davidov, D.; Frenkel, A.

    2004-06-01

    We report a 9 GHz near-field microwave probe for local surface heating of microwave absorbing materials. The probe radiates microwave energy through a narrow slot microfabricated at the apex of the dielectric resonator. The microwave energy is concentrated in a small region close to the applicator, in such a way that the microwave intensity there is very high. A temperature of 60-120 °C can be achieved in a spot size as small as 0.3×0.5 mm2, using an input power of only a few watts. The applicator can be used for local heating, coagulation, and melting of various soft-matter mediums. Particularly, we emphasize results on local heating and coagulation of egg-white and albumin which may be used as a "biological solder" for tissue welding applications.

  15. Changes of amino acid gradients in brain tissues induced by microwave irradiation and other means

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, C.F.; Parsons, J.E.; Oh, C.C.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Baldwin, R.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Focused microwave irradiation to the head (FMI) has been used extensively by neurochemists for rapid inactivation of enzymatic activity in brain tissues and the preservation, for in vitro analysis, of in vivo substrate concentrations. Periodically the suitability of this technique for regional studies has been questioned. Evidence has now been obtained, on the basis of altered concentration gradients for GABA and taurine from the Substantia Nigra (SN) to an Adjacent Dorsal Area (ADJ), that FMI not only inactivates enzymes, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of small molecules from areas of high concentrations to adjacent areas of lower concentration. To a lesser extent, the implantation of plastic injection cannulas also decreased these concentration gradients. These results offer clear evidence that FMI is ill suited and unreliable for studies designed to map and compare the in vivo regional concentrations of diffusible organic molecules (such as amino acids) in brain tissues. Any invasive technique that compromises membrane barriers is likely to produce smaller similar effects.

  16. Multimode near-field microwave monitoring of free water content of skin and imaging of tissue.

    PubMed

    Lofland, S E; Mazzatenta, J D; Croman, J; Tyagi, S D

    2007-03-07

    We have used the near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) technique in the 1-10 GHz range to monitor the free water content of skin. The water content is interpreted from the measured dielectric properties of the epidermis. The finger skin was first hydrated by soaking in water at 37 degrees C for 30 min followed by monitoring of water content as the free water evaporated under ambient conditions. The same technique has also been employed to image a 1 cm x 1 cm sample of chicken skin. It has been shown that variations exist in the resonant frequencies and quality factors of tissue under varying physical parameters. The samples analysed were as-received and thermally dehydrated or damaged chicken tissue samples. We contrast between the dielectric properties with the optical images. We also discuss possible application of our imaging technique in clinical monitoring of the wound healing process.

  17. Three-Dimensional Near-Field Microwave Holography for Tissue Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Amineh, Reza K.; Khalatpour, Ali; Xu, Haohan; Baskharoun, Yona; Nikolova, Natalia K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the progress toward a fast and reliable microwave imaging setup for tissue imaging exploiting near-field holographic reconstruction. The setup consists of two wideband TEM horn antennas aligned along each other's boresight and performing a rectangular aperture raster scan. The tissue sensing is performed without coupling liquids. At each scanning position, wideband data is acquired. Then, novel holographic imaging algorithms are implemented to provide three-dimensional images of the inspected domain. In these new algorithms, the required incident field and Green's function are obtained from numerical simulations. They replace the plane (or spherical) wave assumption in the previous holographic methods and enable accurate near-field imaging results. Here, we prove that both the incident field and Green's function can be obtained from a single numerical simulation. This eliminates the need for optimization-based deblurring which was previously employed to remove the effect of realistic non-point-wise antennas. PMID:22550472

  18. Effect of microwaves at X-band on guinea-pig skin in tissue culture: 3. Effect of pulsed microwaves on skin respiration and biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Carney, S. A.; Lawrence, J. C.; Ricketts, C. R.

    1970-01-01

    Carney, S. A., Lawrence, J. C., and Ricketts, C. R. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 72-76. Effect of microwaves at X-band on guinea-pig skin in tissue culture. 3. Effect of pulsed microwaves on skin respiration and biochemistry. Small pieces of guinea-pig skin were exposed to known power densities of pulsed microwaves at X-band (9·6 GHz). The pulse duration was 0·25 microsecond and the pulse repetition frequency 4 KHz. The peak power was thus 1,000 times the mean power. Otherwise conditions were closely comparable with those of previous experiments using continuous microwaves. After exposure the skin was maintained on a nutrient medium in vitro. The respiration of the skin and the uptake of 35S-sulphate, 32P-phosphate, and 14C-L-proline into skin constituents were reduced by exposure. The reduction was very similar to that observed after exposure to the same mean power density of continuous microwaves. The effects are believed to be attributable to heating of the skin. PMID:5418922

  19. Platelet coagulation-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Peter N

    2004-08-01

    The biochemical mechanisms by which activated platelets participate in exposing receptors for the assembly of enzyme-cofactor-substrate complexes at all stages of the blood coagulation cascade are reviewed. Information derived from studies conducted during the last 30 years supports the concept that the initiation of blood coagulation is triggered by exposure of tissue factor at injury sites, leading to the generation of minute quantities of thrombin (limited by tissue factor pathway inhibitor), sufficient to activate platelets, factors XI, VIII, and V, and trigger the consolidation pathway (i.e., the sequential activation of factors XI, IX, X, and prothrombin on the activated platelet surface), leading to the generation of sufficient thrombin to convert fibrinogen to fibrin and effect hemostasis. Platelets localize coagulation to the hemostatic thrombus and protect coagulation enzymes from inhibition by both plasma and platelet inhibitors (e.g., protease nexin 2), thus preventing disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  20. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-05-21

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties.

  1. Feasibility of salvage interstitial microwave thermal therapy for prostate carcinoma following failed brachytherapy: studies in a tissue equivalent phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Claire; Kumaradas, J. Carl; Gertner, Mark R.; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Dolan, Alfred M.; Sherar, Michael D.

    2003-04-01

    Thermal therapy is an experimental treatment to destroy solid tumours by heating them to temperatures ranging from 55 °C to 90 °C, inducing thermal coagulation and necrosis of the tumour. We are investigating the feasibility of interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment for prostate cancer patients with local recurrence following failed brachytherapy. Due to the electrical and thermal conductivity of the brachytherapy seeds, we hypothesized that the seeds could scatter the microwave energy and cause unpredictable heating. To investigate this, a 915 MHz helical antenna was inserted into a muscle-equivalent phantom with and without brachytherapy seeds. Following a 10 W, 5 s input to the antenna, the temperature rise was used to calculate absorbed power, also referred to as specific absorption rate (SAR). Plane wave models based on Maxwell's equations were also used to characterize the electromagnetic scattering effect of the seeds. In addition, the phantom was heated with 8 W for 5 min to quantify the effect of the seeds on the temperature distribution during extended heating. SAR measurements indicated that the seeds had no significant effect on the shape and size of the SAR pattern of the antenna. However, the plane wave simulations indicated that the seeds could scatter the microwave energy resulting in hot spots at the seed edges. Lack of experimental evidence of these hot spots was probably due to the complex polarization of the microwaves emitted by the helical antenna. Extended heating experiments also demonstrated that the seeds had no significant effect on the temperature distributions and rates of temperature rise measured in the phantom. The results indicate that brachytherapy seeds are not a technical impediment to interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment following failed brachytherapy.

  2. Feasibility of salvage interstitial microwave thermal therapy for prostate carcinoma following failed brachytherapy: studies in a tissue equivalent phantom.

    PubMed

    McCann, Claire; Kumaradas, J Carl; Gertner, Mark R; Davidson, Sean R H; Dolan, Alfred M; Sherar, Michael D

    2003-04-21

    Thermal therapy is an experimental treatment to destroy solid tumours by heating them to temperatures ranging from 55 degrees C to 90 degrees C, inducing thermal coagulation and necrosis of the tumour. We are investigating the feasibility of interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment for prostate cancer patients with local recurrence following failed brachytherapy. Due to the electrical and thermal conductivity of the brachytherapy seeds, we hypothesized that the seeds could scatter the microwave energy and cause unpredictable heating. To investigate this, a 915 MHz helical antenna was inserted into a muscle-equivalent phantom with and without brachytherapy seeds. Following a 10 W, 5 s input to the antenna, the temperature rise was used to calculate absorbed power, also referred to as specific absorption rate (SAR). Plane wave models based on Maxwell's equations were also used to characterize the electromagnetic scattering effect of the seeds. In addition, the phantom was heated with 8 W for 5 min to quantify the effect of the seeds on the temperature distribution during extended heating. SAR measurements indicated that the seeds had no significant effect on the shape and size of the SAR pattern of the antenna. However, the plane wave simulations indicated that the seeds could scatter the microwave energy resulting in hot spots at the seed edges. Lack of experimental evidence of these hot spots was probably due to the complex polarization of the microwaves emitted by the helical antenna. Extended heating experiments also demonstrated that the seeds had no significant effect on the temperature distributions and rates of temperature rise measured in the phantom. The results indicate that brachytherapy seeds are not a technical impediment to interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment following failed brachytherapy.

  3. CT imaging during microwave ablation: Analysis of spatial and temporal tissue contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dong; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze the spatial distribution and temporal development of liver tissue contraction during high-temperature ablation by using intraprocedural computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: A total of 46 aluminum fiducial markers were positioned in a 60 × 45 mm grid, in a single plane, around a microwave ablation antenna in each of six ex vivo bovine liver samples. Ablations were performed for 10 min at 100 W. CT data of the liver sample were acquired every 30 s during ablation. Fiducial motion between acquisitions was tracked in postprocessing and used to calculate measures of tissue contraction and contraction rates. The spatial distribution and temporal evolution of contraction were analyzed. Results: Fiducial displacement indicated that the zone measured postablation was 8.2 ± 1.8 mm (∼20%) smaller in the radial direction and 7.1 ± 1.0 mm (∼10%) shorter in the longitudinal direction than the preablation tissue dimension. Therefore, the total ablation volume was reduced from its preablation value by approximately 45%. Very little longitudinal contraction was noted in the distal portion of the ablation zone. Central tissues contracted more than 60%, which was near an estimated limit of ∼70% based on initial water content. More peripheral tissues contracted only 15% in any direction. Contraction rates peaked during the first 60 s of heating with a roughly exponential decay over time. Conclusions: Ablation zones measured posttreatment are significantly smaller than the pretreatment tissue dimensions. Tissue contraction is spatially dependent, with the greatest effect occurring in the central ablation zone. Contraction rate peaks early and decays over time.

  4. Blood Coagulation, Inflammation and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Seydel, Karl B.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2010-01-01

    I. ABSTRACT Malaria remains a highly prevalent disease in more than 90 countries and accounts for at least 1 million deaths every year. Plasmodium falciparum infection is often associated with a procoagulant tonus characterized by thrombocytopenia and activation of the coagulation cascade and fibrinolytic system; however, bleeding and hemorrhage are uncommon events, suggesting that a compensated state of blood coagulation activation occurs in malaria. This article i) reviews the literature related to blood coagulation and malaria in a historic perspective, ii) describes basic mechanisms of coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis, iii) explains the laboratory changes in acute and compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), iv) discusses the implications of tissue factor (TF) expression in the endothelium of P. falciparum-infected patients, and v) emphasizes the pro-coagulant role of parasitized erythrocytes (pRBC) and activated platelets in the pathogenesis of malaria. This article also presents the ‘Tissue Factor Model’ (TFM) for malaria pathogenesis, which places TF as the interface between sequestration, endothelial cell activation, blood coagulation disorder and inflammation often associated with the disease. The relevance of the coagulation-inflammation cycle for the multiorgan dysfunction and coma is discussed in the context of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:18260002

  5. Design and realisation of tissue-equivalent dielectric simulators for dosimetric studies on microwave antennas for interstitial ablation.

    PubMed

    Lopresto, V; Pinto, R; Lodato, R; Lovisolo, G A; Cavagnaro, M

    2012-07-01

    Thermal ablation therapies, based on electromagnetic field sources (interstitial or intracavitary antennas) at radio and microwave frequencies, are increasingly used in medicine due to their proven efficacy in the treatment of many diseases (tumours, stenosis, etc). Such techniques need standardized procedures, still not completely consolidated, as to analyze the behaviour of antennas for treatment optimisation. Several tissue-equivalent dielectric simulators (also named phantoms) have been developed to represent human head tissues, and extensively used in the analysis of human exposure to the electromagnetic emissions from hand-held devices; yet, very few studies have considered other tissues, as those met in ablation therapies. The objective of this study was to develop phantoms of liver and kidney tissue to experimentally characterise interstitial microwave antennas in reference conditions. Phantom properties depend on the simulated target tissue (liver or kidney) and the considered frequency (2.45 GHz in this work), addressing the need for a transparent liquid to easily control the positioning of the probe with respect to the antenna under test. An experimental set-up was also developed and used to characterise microwave ablation antenna performances. Finally, a comparison between measurements and numerical simulations was performed for the cross-validation of the experimental set-up and the numerical model. The obtained results highlight the fundamental role played by dielectric simulators in the development of microwave ablation devices, representing the first step towards the definition of a procedure for the ablation treatment planning.

  6. Microwaves and tea: new tools to process plant tissue for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Anaïs; Abreu, Susana; Trichet, Michael; Satiat-Jeunemaitre, Béatrice

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing sample processing, reducing the duration of the preparation of specimen, and adjusting procedures to adhere to new health and safety regulations, are the current challenges of plant electron microscopists. To address these issues, plant processing protocols for TEM, combining the use of polyphenolic compounds as substitute for uranyl acetate with microwave technology are being developed. In the present work, we optimized microwave-assisted processing of different types of plant tissue for ultrastuctural and immunocytochemical studies. We also explored Oolong tea extract as alternative for uranyl acetate for the staining of plant samples. We obtained excellent preservation of cell ultrastructure when samples were embedded in epoxy resin, and of cell antigenicity, when embedded in LR-White resin. Furthermore, Oolong tea extract successfully replaced uranyl acetate as a counterstain on ultrathin sections, and for in block staining. These novel protocols reduce the time spent at the bench, and improve safety conditions for the investigator. The preservation of the cell components when following these approaches is of high quality. Altogether, they offer significant simplification of the procedures required for electron microscopy of plant ultrastructure. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux using Microwave Radiometry – System Characterization with Tissue Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Maccarini, Paolo; De Luca, Valeria; Tognolatti, Piero; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent; Stauffer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) radiometry is proposed for passive monitoring of kidney temperature to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of urine that is externally heated by a MW hyperthermia device and thereafter reflows from the bladder to kidneys during reflux. Here we characterize in tissue-mimicking phantoms the performance of a 1.375 GHz radiometry system connected to an electromagnetically (EM) shielded microstrip log spiral antenna optimized for VUR detection. Phantom EM properties are characterized using a coaxial dielectric probe and network analyzer (NA). Power reflection and receive patterns of the antenna are measured in layered tissue phantom. Receiver spectral measurements are used to assess EM shielding provided by a metal cup surrounding the antenna. Radiometer and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying volumes (10–30 mL) and temperatures (40–46°C) of the urine phantom at 35 mm depth surrounded by 36.5°C muscle phantom. Directional receive pattern with about 5% power spectral density at 35 mm target depth and better than −10dB return loss from tissue load are measured for the antenna. Antenna measurements demonstrate no deterioration in power reception and effective EM shielding in the presence of the metal cup. Radiometry power measurements are in excellent agreement with the temperature of the kidney phantom. Laboratory testing of the radiometry system in temperature controlled phantoms supports the feasibility of passive kidney thermometry for VUR detection. PMID:21257366

  8. Detection of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave radiometry-system characterization with tissue phantoms.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; De Luca, Valeria; Tognolatti, Piero; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent; Stauffer, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiometry is proposed for passive monitoring of kidney temperature to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of urine that is externally heated by a MW hyperthermia device and thereafter reflows from the bladder to kidneys during reflux. Here, we characterize in tissue-mimicking phantoms the performance of a 1.375 GHz radiometry system connected to an electromagnetically (EM) shielded microstrip log spiral antenna optimized for VUR detection. Phantom EM properties are characterized using a coaxial dielectric probe and network analyzer (NA). Power reflection and receive patterns of the antenna are measured in layered tissue phantom. Receiver spectral measurements are used to assess EM shielding provided by a metal cup surrounding the antenna. Radiometer and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying volumes (10-30 mL) and temperaturesg (40-46°C) of the urine phantom at 35 mm depth surrounded by 36.5°C muscle phantom. Directional receive pattern with about 5% power spectral density at 35 mm target depth and better than -10 dB return loss from tissue load are measured for the antenna. Antenna measurements demonstrate no deterioration in power reception and effective EM shielding in the presence of the metal cup. Radiometry power measurements are in excellent agreement with the temperature of the kidney phantom. Laboratory testing of the radiometry system in temperature-controlled phantoms supports the feasibility of passive kidney thermometry for VUR detection.

  9. Nebulized Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Attenuates Coagulation and Exerts Modest Anti-inflammatory Effects in Rat Models of Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Hofstra, Jorrit J; Brands, Xanthe; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Zaat, Sebastiaan A J; Van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-04-01

    Critically ill patients are at a constant risk of direct (e.g., by pneumonia) or indirect lung injury (e.g., by sepsis). Excessive alveolar fibrin deposition is a prominent feature of lung injury, undermining pulmonary integrity and function. We examined the effect of local administration of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI), a natural anticoagulant, in two well-established models of lung injury in rats. Rats received intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing direct lung injury, or they received an intravenous injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), causing indirect lung injury. Rats were randomized to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo through repeated nebulization. Challenge with P. aeruginosa or LPS was associated with increased coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma. Rh-TFPI levels in BALF increased after nebulization, whereas plasma rh-TFPI levels remained low and systemic TFPI activity was not affected. Nebulization of rh-TFPI attenuated pulmonary and systemic coagulation in both models, without affecting fibrinolysis. Nebulization of rh-TFPI modestly reduced the inflammatory response and bacterial growth of P. aeruginosa in the alveolar compartment. Local treatment with rh-TFPI does not alter systemic TFPI activity; however, it attenuates both pulmonary and systemic coagulopathy. Furthermore, nebulized rh-TFPI modestly reduces the pulmonary inflammatory response and allows increased bacterial clearance in rats with direct lung injury caused by P. aeruginosa.

  10. The reciprocal relationship between inflammation and coagulation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mauria

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation and coagulation constitute two host defense systems with complementary roles in eliminating invading pathogens, limiting tissue damage, and restoring homeostasis. Extensive cross talk exists between these 2 systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation considerably affects inflammatory activity. Infection leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, stimulate the production of tissue factor. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation are dependent on the expression of tissue factor. Conversely, activated coagulation proteases may affect specific receptors on inflammatory cells and endothelial cells and thereby modulate the inflammatory response. Activation of coagulation with the simultaneous down-regulation of endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanisms and endogenous fibrinolysis characterizes the pathophysiology of sepsis. The mechanisms by which these highly complex and codependent defense strategies are linked together both in health and disease is the focus of this review.

  11. Dual-mode antenna design for microwave heating and noninvasive thermometry of superficial tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, S; Stauffer, P R; Neuman, D G

    2000-11-01

    Hyperthermia therapy of superficial skin disease has proven clinically useful, but current heating equipment is somewhat clumsy and technically inadequate for many patients. The present effort describes a dual-purpose, conformal microwave applicator that is fabricated from thin, flexible, multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) material to facilitate heating of surface areas overlaying contoured anatomy. Preliminary studies document the feasibility of combining Archimedean spiral microstrip antennas, located concentrically within the central region of square dual concentric conductor (DCC) annular slot antennas. The motivation is to achieve homogeneous tissue heating simultaneously with noninvasive thermometry by radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the target tissue under the applicator. Results demonstrate that the two antennas have complimentary regions of influence. The DCC ring antenna structure produces a peripherally enhanced power deposition pattern with peaks in the outer corners of the aperture and a broad minimum around 50% of maximum centrally. In contrast, the Archimedean spiral radiates (or receives) energy predominantly along the boresight axis of the spiral, thus confining the region of influence to tissue located within the central broad minimum of the DCC pattern. Analysis of the temperature-dependent radiometer signal (brightness temperature) showed linear correlation of radiometer output with test load temperature using either the spiral or DCC structure as the receive antenna. The radiometric performance of the broadband Archimedean antenna was superior compared to the DCC, providing improved temperature resolution (0.1 degree C-0.2 degree C) and signal sensitivity (0.3 degree C-0.8 degree C/degree C) at all four 500 MHz integration bandwidths tested within the frequency range from 1.2 to 3.0 GHz.

  12. Dual-slot antennas for microwave tissue heating: parametric design analysis and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Brace, Christopher L

    2011-07-01

    Design and validate an efficient dual-slot coaxial microwave ablation antenna that produces an approximately spherical heating pattern to match the shape of most abdominal and pulmonary tumor targets. A dual-slot antenna geometry was utilized for this study. Permutations of the antenna geometry using proximal and distal slot widths from 1 to 10 mm separated by 1-20 mm were analyzed using finite-element electromagnetic simulations. From this series, the most optimal antenna geometry was selected using a two-term sigmoidal objective function to minimize antenna reflection coefficient and maximize the diameter-to-length aspect ratio of heat generation. Sensitivities to variations in tissue properties and insertion depth were also evaluated in numerical models. The most optimal dual-slot geometry of the parametric analysis was then fabricated from semirigid coaxial cable. Antenna reflection coefficients at various insertion depths were recorded in ex vivo bovine livers and compared to numerical results. Ablation zones were then created by applying 50 W for 2-10 min in simulations and ex vivo livers. Mean zone diameter, length, aspect ratio, and reflection coefficients before and after heating were then compared to a conventional monopole antenna using ANOVA with post-hoc t-tests. Statistical significance was indicated for P <0.05. Antenna performance was highly sensitive to dual-slot geometry. The best-performing designs utilized a proximal slot width of 1 mm, distal slot width of 4 mm +/- 1 mm and separation of 8 mm +/- 1 mm. These designs were characterized by an active choking mechanism that focused heating to the distal tip of the antenna. A dual-band resonance was observed in the most optimal design, with a minimum reflection coefficient of -20.9 dB at 2.45 and 1.25 GHz. Total operating bandwidth was greater than 1 GHz, but the desired heating pattern was achieved only near 2.45 GHz. As a result, antenna performance was robust to changes in insertion depth and

  13. Microwave ablation devices for interventional oncology.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert C; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2013-03-01

    Microwave ablation is one of the several options in the ablation armamentarium for the treatment of malignancy, offering several potential benefits when compared with other ablation, radiation, surgical and medical treatment modalities. The basic microwave system consists of the generator, power distribution system and antennas. Often under image (computed tomography or ultrasound) guidance, a needle-like antenna is inserted percutaneously into the tumor, where local microwave electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the probe's active tip, producing frictional tissue heating, capable of causing cell death by coagulation necrosis. Half of the microwave ablation systems use a 915 MHz generator and the other half use a 2450 MHz generator. To date, there are no completed clinical trials comparing microwave devices head-to-head. Prospective comparisons of microwave technology with other treatment alternatives, as well as head-to-head comparison with each microwave device, is needed if this promising field will garner more widespread support and use in the oncology community.

  14. [Use in immunohistochemical studies of a method of restoration of antigenic specificity as affected by microwaves in tissue fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin].

    PubMed

    Gurevich, L E; Isakov, V A

    1999-01-01

    Recovery of specific antigenic characteristics using microwave treatment of paraffin sections of tissues fixed by formalin allows to extend spectrum of antibodies for immunohistochemical diagnosis. Microwaves enable the reaction on the material prepared according to the standard technique, and macropreparations long stored in formalin and archive blocks.

  15. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  16. [Determination of thirty three elements in lung cancer tissues of patients with lung cancer by microwave digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Guo-Ping; Wei, Fu-Sheng

    2009-12-01

    A method for determining 33 elements in lung tissues of patients with lung cancer was developed by using vacuum freeze-drying microwave digestion-ICP-MS. The lung tissue samples were treated by vacuum freeze-drying equipment. After microwave digestion in HNO3-H2O2 solution system, the samples were diluted with the method of constant volume. Under the optimized conditions the samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. The double internal standard elements Rh and Re were used to compensate for matrix suppression effect and sensitivity drift. The analytical results showed that the detection limits of the 33 elements were 0.01-0.45 ng x mL(-1). The national standard reference material GBW(E)080193 bovine liver was analyzed by the described method and the measured element values accorded with the standard values or the reference values. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was 2.1%-14.3%. The recovery rates of the studied elements were 90.1%-117.5%. The contents of 33 elements in lung cancer tissues, paracancerous lung tissues and benign lung tissues of 6 patients with lung cancer were determined by the method. It was indicated that the method is rapid, simple and accurate for determining multi-elements in human lung tissue and other biological samples.

  17. Microwave-assisted tissue processing for same-day EM-diagnosis of potential bioterrorism and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Josef A; Gelderblom, Hans R; Hauroeder, Baerbel; Schmetz, Christel; Milios, Jim; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the turnaround times, section and image quality of a number of more "difficult" specimens destined for rapid diagnostic electron microscopy (EM) after microwave-assisted processing. The results were assessed and compared with those of conventionally processed samples. A variety of infectious agents, some with a potential for bioterrorism, and liver biopsies serving as an example for routine histopathology samples were studied. The samples represented virus-producing cell cultures (such as SARS-coronavirus, West Nile virus, Orthopox virus), bacteria suspensions (cultures of Escherichia coli and genetically knockout apathogenic Bacillus anthracis), suspensions of parasites (malaria Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania major, Microsporidia cuniculi, Caenorhabditis elegans), and whole Drosophila melanogaster flies infected with microsporidia. Fresh liver samples and infected flies were fixed in Karnovsky-fixative by microwaving (20 min), all other samples were fixed in buffered glutaraldehyde or Karnovsky-fixative overnight or longer. Subsequently, all samples were divided to evaluate alternative processing protocols: one part of the sample was OsO4-postfixed, ethanol-dehydrated, Epon-infiltrated (overnight) in an automated tissue processor (LYNX, Leica), and polymerized at 60 degrees C for 48 h; in parallel the other part was microwave-assisted processed in the bench microwave device (REM, Milestone), including post-osmication and the resin block polymerization. The microwave-assisted processing protocol required at minimum 3 h 20 min: the respective epon resin blocks were uniformly polymerized allowing an easy sectioning of semi- and ultrathin sections. Sections collected on non-coated 200 mesh grids were stable in the electron beam and showed an excellent preservation of the ultrastructure and high contrast, thus allowing an easy, unequivocal and rapid assessment of specimens. Compared with conventional routine methods

  18. Investigation of the thermal and tissue injury behaviour in microwave thermal therapy using a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    He, X; McGee, S; Coad, J E; Schmidlin, F; Iaizzo, P A; Swanlund, D J; Kluge, S; Rudie, E; Bischof, J C

    2004-09-01

    Minimally invasive microwave thermal therapies are being developed for the treatment of small renal cell carcinomas (RCC, d<3 cm). This study assessed the thermal history and corresponding tissue injury patterns resulting from microwave treatment of the porcine renal cortex. Three groups of kidneys were evaluated: (1) in vitro treated, (2) in vivo with 2-h post-treatment perfusion (acute) and (3) in vivo with 7-day post-treatment perfusion (chronic). The kidneys were treated with an interstitial water-cooled microwave probe (Urologix, Plymouth, MN) that created a lesion centered in the renal cortex (50 W for 10 min). The thermal histories were recorded at 0.5 cm radial intervals from the probe axis for correlation with the histologic cellular and vascular injury. The kidneys showed a reproducible 2 cm chronic lesion with distinct histologic injury zones identified. The thermal histories at the edge of these zones were found using Lagrangian interpolation. The threshold thermal histories for microvascular injury and stasis appeared to be lower than that for renal epithelial cell injury. The Arrhenius kinetic injury models were fit to the thermal histories and injury data to determine the kinetic parameters (i.e. activation energy and frequency factor) for the thermal injury processes. The resultant activation energies are consistent in magnitude with those for thermally induced protein denaturation. A 3-D finite element thermal model based on the Pennes bioheat equation was developed and solved using ANSYS (V7.0). The real geometry of the kidneys studied and temperature dependent thermal properties were used in this model. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the microwave probe required for the thermal modelling was experimentally determined. The results from the thermal modelling suggest that the complicated change of local renal blood perfusion with temperature and time during microwave thermal therapy can be predicted, although a first order kinetic model may

  19. Microwave ablation of ex vivo bovine tissues using a dual slot antenna with a floating metallic sleeve.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Ayo Zaccheaus; Nwoye, Ephraim Okeke; Aweda, Adebayo Moses; Oremosu, Ademola A; Anunobi, Chidozie Charles; Akanmu, Nurudeen Olanrewaju

    2016-12-01

    To study the efficiency of a dual slot antenna with a floating metallic sleeve on the ablation of different ex vivo bovine tissues. COMSOL Multiphysics® version 4.4 (Stockholm, Sweden), which is based on finite element methods (FEM), was used to design and simulate monopole and dual slot with sleeve antennas. Power, specific absorption rate (SAR), temperature and necrosis distributions in the selected tissues were determined using these antennas. Monopole and dual slot with sleeve antennas were designed, simulated, constructed and applied in this study based on a semi-rigid coaxial cable. Ex vivo experiments were performed on liver, lung, muscle and heart of bovine obtained from a public animal slaughter house. The microwave energy was delivered using a 2.45 GHz solid-state microwave generator at 40 W for 3, 5 and 10 min. Aspect ratio, ablation length and ablation diameter were also determined on ablated tissues and compared with simulated results. Student's t-test was used to compare the statistically significant difference between the performance of the two antennas. The dual slot antenna with sleeve produces localised microwave energy better than the monopole antenna in all ablated tissues using simulation and experimental validation methods. There were significant differences in ablation diameter and aspect ratio between the sleeve antenna and monopole antenna. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the simulation and experimental results. This study demonstrated that the dual slot antenna with sleeve produced larger ablation zones and higher sphericity index in ex vivo bovine tissues with minimal backward heating when compared with the monopole antenna.

  20. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tissue: In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Microwave and Radiofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, Laura Bozzi, Elena; Faviana, Pinuccia; Cioni, Dania; Della Pina, Clotilde; Sbrana, Alberto; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to compare feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation versus radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tissue in a rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were submitted to MW (n = 10, group A) or RF ablation (n = 10, group B). The procedures were performed with a prototype MW ablation device with a 1.6-cm radiating section antenna (Valleylab MW Ablation System) and with a 2-cm exposed-tip RF electrode (Cool-tip RF Ablation System). At immediate computed tomography increase in density, maximum diameters (D1-D3) of ablation zones were measured and ablation volume was calculated. Histopathologic assessment was performed 3 and 7 days after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in nine of 10 rabbits in each group. One death occurred in group B. Complications included pneumothorax (group A, n = 4; group B, n = 4), abscess (group A, n = 1; group B, n = 1), and thoracic wall burn (group A, n = 4). No significant differences were demonstrated in attenuation increase (P = 0.73), dimensions (P = 0.28, 0.86, 0.06, respectively, comparing D1-D3) and volume (P = 0.17). At histopathology, ablation zones were similar, with septal necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete thrombosis of more than 90% of vessels up to 2 mm in diameter was depicted at the periphery of the ablation zone in group A specimens. In group B specimens, complete thrombosis was depicted in 20% of vessels. Feasibility and safety of MW and RF ablation are similar in a lung rabbit model. MW ablation produces a greater damage to peripheral small vessels inducing thrombosis.

  1. Preparation of a Carbon Doped Tissue-Mimicking Material with High Dielectric Properties for Microwave Imaging Application

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Siang-Wen; Weng, Min-Hang; Yang, Ru-Yuan; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Chung, Yaoh-Sien; Yu, Tsung-Chih; Wu, Chun-Sen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the oil-in-gelatin based tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) doped with carbon based materials including carbon nanotube, graphene ink or lignin were prepared. The volume percent for gelatin based mixtures and oil based mixtures were both around 50%, and the doping amounts were 2 wt %, 4 wt %, and 6 wt %. The effect of doping material and amount on the microwave dielectric properties including dielectric constant and conductivity were investigated over an ultra-wide frequency range from 2 GHz to 20 GHz. The coaxial open-ended reflection technology was used to evaluate the microwave dielectric properties. Six measured values in different locations of each sample were averaged and the standard deviations of all the measured dielectric properties, including dielectric constant and conductivity, were less than one, indicating a good uniformity of the prepared samples. Without doping, the dielectric constant was equal to 23 ± 2 approximately. Results showed with doping of carbon based materials that the dielectric constant and conductivity both increased about 5% to 20%, and the increment was dependent on the doping amount. By proper selection of doping amount of the carbon based materials, the prepared material could map the required dielectric properties of special tissues. The proposed materials were suitable for the phantom used in the microwave medical imaging system. PMID:28773678

  2. Toward Carbon-Nanotube-Based Theranostic Agents for Microwave Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Enhanced Dielectric and Heating Response of Tissue-Mimicking Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mashal, Alireza; Sitharaman, Balaji; Li, Xu; Avti, Pramod; Sahakian, Alan V.; Booske, John H.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results reported in this letter suggest that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have the potential to enhance dielectric contrast between malignant and normal tissue for microwave detection of breast cancer and facilitate selective heating of malignant tissue for microwave hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer. In this study, we constructed tissue-mimicking materials with varying concentrations of SWCNTs and characterized their dielectric properties and heating response. At SWCNT concentrations of less than 0.5% by weight, we observed significant increases in the relative permittivity and effective conductivity. In microwave heating experiments, we observed significantly greater temperature increases in mixtures containing SWCNTs. These temperature increases scaled linearly with the effective conductivity of the mixtures. This work is a first step towards the development of functionalized, tumor-targeting SWCNTs as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents for microwave breast cancer detection and treatment. PMID:20176534

  3. Toward carbon-nanotube-based theranostic agents for microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer: enhanced dielectric and heating response of tissue-mimicking materials.

    PubMed

    Mashal, Alireza; Sitharaman, Balaji; Li, Xu; Avti, Pramod K; Sahakian, Alan V; Booske, John H; Hagness, Susan C

    2010-08-01

    The experimental results reported in this paper suggest that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have the potential to enhance dielectric contrast between malignant and normal tissue for microwave detection of breast cancer and facilitate selective heating of malignant tissue for microwave hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer. In this study, we constructed tissue-mimicking materials with varying concentrations of SWCNTs and characterized their dielectric properties and heating response. At SWCNT concentrations of less than 0.5% by weight, we observed significant increases in the relative permittivity and effective conductivity. In microwave heating experiments, we observed significantly greater temperature increases in mixtures containing SWCNTs. These temperature increases scaled linearly with the effective conductivity of the mixtures. This work is a first step towards the development of functionalized, tumor-targeting SWCNTs as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents for microwave breast cancer detection and treatment.

  4. Inherited disorders of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-08-01

    Hemostasis is traditionally defined as a physiological response to blood vessel injury and bleeding, which entails a co-ordinated process involving the blood vessel, platelets, and blood clotting proteins (i.e. coagulation factors). Hemostasis can be divided into primary and secondary components. The former rapidly initiates after endothelial damage and is characterized by vascular contraction, platelet adhesion, and formation of a soft aggregate plug. The latter is initiated following the release of tissue factor and involves a complex sequence of events known as the blood coagulation cascade, encompassing serial steps where each coagulation factor activates another in a chain reaction that culminates in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Patients carrying abnormalities of the coagulation cascade (i.e. deficiencies of coagulation factors) have an increased bleeding tendency, where the clinical severity is mostly dependent upon the type and the plasma level of the factor affected. These disorders also impose a heavy medical and economic burden on individual patients and society in general. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview on the pathophysiology, clinics, diagnostics, and therapy of inherited disorders of coagulation factors.

  5. Systems Biology of Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate computer simulation of blood function can inform drug target selection, patient-specific dosing, clinical trial design, biomedical device design, as well as the scoring of patient-specific disease risk and severity. These large-scale simulations rely on hundreds of independently measured physical parameters and kinetic rate constants. However, the models can be validated against large scale, patient-specific laboratory measurements. By validation with high dimensional data, modelling becomes a powerful tool to predict clinically complex scenarios. Currently, it is possible to accurately predict the clotting rate of plasma or blood in a tube as it is activated with a dose of tissue factor, even as numerous coagulation factors are altered by exogenous attenuation or potentiation. Similarly, the dynamics of platelet activation, as indicated by calcium mobilisation or inside-out signalling, can now be numerically simulated with accuracy in cases where platelets are exposed to combinations of agonists. Multiscale models have emerged to combine platelet function and coagulation kinetics into complete physics-based descriptions of thrombosis under flow. Blood flow controls platelet fluxes, delivery and removal of coagulation factors, adhesive bonding, and von Willebrand factor conformation. The field of Blood Systems Biology has now reached a stage that anticipates the inclusion of contact, complement, and fibrinolytic pathways along with models of neutrophil and endothelial activation. Along with “-omics” data sets, such advanced models seek to predict the multifactorial range of healthy responses and diverse bleeding and clotting scenarios, ultimately to understand and improve patient outcomes. PMID:23809126

  6. Coagulation in patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; Poll, Tom van der

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of patients with severe sepsis, systemic activation of coagulation is present. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between coagulation and inflammation that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular pathways that contribute to inflammation-induced activation of coagulation have been precisely identified. Proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators are capable of activating the coagulation system and downregulating important physiological anticoagulant pathways. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation is dependent on expression of tissue factor on activated mononuclear cells and endothelial cells, and is insufficiently counteracted by TFPI. Simultaneously, endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanism, in particular the protein C system, is shutoff by proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, fibrin removal is severely inhibited, because of inactivation of the fibrinolytic system, caused by an upregulation of its main inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin formation and impaired removal lead to (micro)vascular thrombosis, which may result in tissue ischemia and subsequent organ damage. The cornerstone of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of coagulation activation may theoretically be justified and have been found beneficial in experimental and initial clinical studies. Heparin may be an effective anticoagulant approach and alternative strategies comprise restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways.

  7. Rapid sample preparation for determination of iron in tissue by closed-vessel digestion and microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Van Wyck, D B; Schifman, R B; Stivelman, J C; Ruiz, J; Martin, D

    1988-06-01

    We developed a rapid acid-digestion method for preparing tissue samples for iron determination. Specimens were digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide under high temperature and pressure in closed Teflon vessels, with microwave energy. Analysis for iron in 25- to 250-mg portions of digested bovine liver powder (National Bureau of Standards Certified Reference Material no. 1577a) showed excellent linearity ([predicted] = 1.007[actual] - 0.166 micrograms per sample) and analytical recovery (98%). Precision (CV) was 5.4% when iron content was 10 micrograms per sample. Assaying split samples of mouse tissues, we found a close correlation between iron concentrations obtained with closed vs open vessels ([closed] = 0.878[open] + 68 micrograms/g, r = 0.994, range 400-4600 micrograms/g dry weight). In contrast to time-consuming conventional procedures for tissue dissolution, closed-vessel digestion with microwave energy dramatically shortens time for tissue preparation, minimizes use of caustic acid, reduces risk of sample loss or contamination, and yields accurate and reproducible results.

  8. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for six inorganic and organic arsenic species in chicken tissues using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-09-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for microwave-assisted extraction of six major inorganic and organic arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone) from chicken tissues, followed by detection using a high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry detection method, which allows the simultaneous analysis of both inorganic and organic arsenic species in the extract in a single run. Effects of extraction medium, solution pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, and the temperature and time of microwave-assisted extraction on the extraction of the targeted arsenic species were studied. The optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions were: 100 mg of chicken tissue, extracted by 5 mL of 22% v/v methanol, 90 mmol/L (NH4 )2 HPO4 , and 0.07% v/v trifluoroacetic acid (with pH adjusted to 10.0 by ammonium hydroxide solution), ramping for 10 min to 71°C, and holding for 11 min. The method has good extraction performance for total arsenic in the spiked and nonspiked chicken tissues (104.0 ± 13.8% and 91.6 ± 7.8%, respectively), except for the ones with arsenic contents close to the quantitation limits. Limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone in chicken tissues using this method were 0.012, 0.058, 0.039, 0.061, 0.102, and 0.240 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effects of antigen retrieval by microwave heating in formalin-fixed tissue sections on a broad panel of antibodies.

    PubMed

    von Wasielewski, R; Werner, M; Nolte, M; Wilkens, L; Georgii, A

    1994-09-01

    Formaldehyde fixation of biopsy specimens for routine purposes has often been held responsible for the poor reproducibility of immunohistochemical studies. Recently, antigen retrieval (AGR) using microwave irradiation was described as a potential tool to enhance immunostaining. A comparison of conventional staining and staining after microwave heating was performed for 52 markers, using tissues fixed in formaldehyde for 24 h, 1 to 6 weeks and 3 years respectively, as well as consultant case material. After adequate duration of fixation (24 h), only a few markers (17%) showed better results after AGR, but this percentage was increased to 50% when tissues were fixed for longer periods. Maximal enhancement was obtained in the group of consultant cases (58% of tested markers demonstrated better staining results), in which the period of fixation and tissue processing was unknown. To achieve reliable enhancement with AGR, continuous heating (100 degrees C) should not be shorter than 20 min. In conclusion, AGR may become the most important tool to simplify and equalize immunohistochemical techniques, if critically evaluated.

  10. Microwaves create larger ablations than radiofrequency when controlled for power in ex vivo tissue.

    PubMed

    Andreano, A; Huang, Yu; Meloni, M Franca; Lee, Fred T; Brace, Christopher

    2010-06-01

    To compare ablation zones created with equal amounts of 2.45 GHz microwave and 480 kHz radiofrequency (RF) energy inex vivo liver and lung. A total of 38 ablations were performed inex vivo liver and lung for 10 min each. Nineteen RF ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were performed with a 480 kHz system (200 W max, impedance-based pulsing) and cooled electrode while measuring the average RF power applied. Nineteen microwave ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were then created using a cooled triaxial antenna to deliver 2.45 GHz at the same power level as in RF experiments. Ablation zones were then sectioned and measured for minimum, maximum and mean diameters, and circularity. Measurements were compared using t-tests, with P<0.05 indicating statistical significance. Mean diameters of microwave ablations were greater than RF ablations in both liver and lung (4.4±0.3 vs 3.3±0.2cm in liver; 2.45±0.3 vs 1.6±0.5cm in lungs; P<0.0005 all comparisons). There was no significant difference in the mean power applied during microwave or RF ablations in either organ (54.44±1.71W vs 56.4±6.7W in liver, P>0.05; 40±0.95W vs 44.9±7.1W in lung, P>0.05). Using a single cooled applicator, microwave energy at 2.45 GHz produces larger ablations than an equivalent amount of 480 kHz RF energy in normal liver and lung. This was more apparent in lung, likely due to the high baseline impedance which limits RF, but not microwave power delivery. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Microwaves create larger ablations than radiofrequency when controlled for power in ex vivo tissue

    PubMed Central

    Andreano, A.; Huang, Yu; Meloni, M. Franca; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ablation zones created with equal amounts of 2.45 GHz microwave and 480 kHz radiofrequency (RF) energy in ex vivo liver and lung. Methods: A total of 38 ablations were performed in ex vivo liver and lung for 10 min each. Nineteen RF ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were performed with a 480 kHz system (200 W max, impedance-based pulsing) and cooled electrode while measuring the average RF power applied. Nineteen microwave ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were then created using a cooled triaxial antenna to deliver 2.45 GHz at the same power level as in RF experiments. Ablation zones were then sectioned and measured for minimum, maximum and mean diameters, and circularity. Measurements were compared using t-tests, with P<0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: Mean diameters of microwave ablations were greater than RF ablations in both liver and lung (4.4±0.3 vs 3.3±0.2 cm in liver; 2.45±0.3 vs 1.6±0.5 cm in lungs; P<0.0005 all comparisons). There was no significant difference in the mean power applied during microwave or RF ablations in either organ (54.44±1.71 W vs 56.4±6.7 W in liver, P>0.05; 40±0.95 W vs 44.9±7.1 W in lung, P>0.05). Conclusions: Using a single cooled applicator, microwave energy at 2.45 GHz produces larger ablations than an equivalent amount of 480 kHz RF energy in normal liver and lung. This was more apparent in lung, likely due to the high baseline impedance which limits RF, but not microwave power delivery. PMID:20632609

  12. Early assessment of coagulation necrosis after hepatic microwave ablation: a comparison of non-enhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Qi-Feng; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Wu, Wen-Tao; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To compare the technical success and accuracy of hepatic microwave ablation (MWA) using non-enhanced and enhanced T1-weighted imaging early after ablation. Patients were evaluated with regard to the ablation zone and local tumor progression (LTP). This retrospective study conducted between September 2014 and December 2015 which consisted of 56 patients with 56 hepatic malignant lesions who underwent percutaneous MWA. Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imagings were performed within 2 days after tumor ablation. The efficacy of ablation assessed according to the hyperintense middle zone on non-enhanced T1-weighted images and the non-enhanced area on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were compared. The development of LTP during ≥7 months of follow-up served as the end point. On the non-enhanced T1-weighted images, the ablated region had a characteristic two-zone structure featuring a hyperintense middle zone and a surrounding hypointense band. Among the 56 patients, LTP developed in ten including seven lesions, in which both the non-enhanced T1-weighted and portal-phase images showed incomplete tumor ablation. In two of the remaining three patients, incomplete tumor ablation was detected on the non-enhanced T1-weighted images, whereas the corresponding portal-phase images showed complete ablation. In the remaining patient, no residual tumor was detected on either the non-enhanced T1-weighted or the portal-phase images. In the 46 patients without LTP, there was no evidence of residual tumor on the non-enhanced T1-weighted or portal-phase images obtained early after ablation. Non-enhanced T1-weighted images are useful in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of MWA of liver tumors early after the procedure.

  13. Helical antenna arrays for interstitial microwave thermal therapy for prostate cancer: tissue phantom testing and simulations for treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherar, Michael D.; Gladman, Aviv S.; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Gertner, Mark R.

    2001-07-01

    Interstitial microwave therapy is an experimental treatment for prostate cancer. The objective of this work was to measure the power deposition (specific absorption rate, SAR) patterns of helical microwave antennae both individually and in array patterns that would be useful for clinical treatment protocols. Commercial helical antenna 3D SAR patterns were measured in muscle equivalent phantoms using a thermographic technique. Two array patterns were tested: a `square' and a `crescent' array, both surrounding the urethra. To assess the feasibility of pre-treatment planning, the measured SAR patterns were input to a treatment planning computer simulation program based on a series of trans-rectal ultrasound images from a prostate cancer patient. The simulation solved the Pennes linear bioheat heat transfer equation in prostate tissue, with the aim of achieving a target of 55 °C at the prostate periphery while not allowing normal surrounding tissues (bladder, urethra, rectum) to rise above 42 °C. These criteria could not be met with the square array but they could be met with the crescent array, provided that the prostate was first dissected away from the rectum. This can be done with a procedure such as `hydrodissection', where sterile saline is injected to separate the prostate and rectum. The results of these SAR measurements and heat transfer simulations indicate that arrays of helical antennae could be used for safe and effective thermal therapy for prostate cancer.

  14. Microwave dispersion and absorption in tissues: molecular mechanisms. Final report, 1 January 1978-28 February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.R.

    1987-12-10

    The authors measured the dielectric properties of materials (tissues, aqueous protein solutions, microemulsions, macroscopic suspensions) from 0.1-18 GHz. These properties are determined over this frequency range by the dielectric properties of water and by ionic effects. Analysis of the data shows that the dielectric properties of the suspending water differ from those of the pure liquid, presumably due to interfacial effects. Similar effects are seen in diverse transport properties and even in nonaqueous systems. The results suggest that water within a couple of monolayers from surfaces have motional correlation times that are tenfold or so longer than those of the bulk liquid. The authors suggest that this motional restriction is a physical effect due to the presence of relatively immobile surfaces, rather than from chemically specific binding. This study has led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of absorption of microwave energy in tissues, and shown the usefulness of comparative studies of transport processes in complex suspensions.

  15. Micro-quantity tissue digestion for metal measurements by use of a microwave acid-digestion bomb.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J R; Savory, M G; Savory, J; Wills, M R

    1989-03-01

    We describe a simple and convenient method for processing small amounts of tissue samples for trace-metal measurements by atomic absorption spectrometry, by use of a modified Parr microwave digestion bomb. Digestion proceeds rapidly (less than or equal to 90 s) in a sealed Teflon-lined vessel that eliminates contamination or loss from volatilization. Small quantities of tissue (5-100 mg dry weight) are digested in high-purity nitric acid, yielding concentrations of analyte that can be measured directly without further sample manipulation. We analyzed National Institute of Standards and Technology bovine liver Standard Reference Material to verify the accuracy of the technique. We assessed the applicability of the technique to analysis for aluminum in bone by comparison with a dry ashing procedure.

  16. Systems biology of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S L

    2013-06-01

    Accurate computer simulation of blood function can inform drug target selection, patient-specific dosing, clinical trial design, biomedical device design, as well as the scoring of patient-specific disease risk and severity. These large-scale simulations rely on hundreds of independently measured physical parameters and kinetic rate constants. However, the models can be validated against large-scale, patient-specific laboratory measurements. By validation with high-dimensional data, modeling becomes a powerful tool to predict clinically complex scenarios. Currently, it is possible to accurately predict the clotting rate of plasma or blood in a tube as it is activated with a dose of tissue factor, even as numerous coagulation factors are altered by exogenous attenuation or potentiation. Similarly, the dynamics of platelet activation, as indicated by calcium mobilization or inside-out signaling, can now be numerically simulated with accuracy in cases where platelets are exposed to combinations of agonists. Multiscale models have emerged to combine platelet function and coagulation kinetics into complete physics-based descriptions of thrombosis under flow. Blood flow controls platelet fluxes, delivery and removal of coagulation factors, adhesive bonding, and von Willebrand factor conformation. The field of blood systems biology has now reached a stage that anticipates the inclusion of contact, complement, and fibrinolytic pathways along with models of neutrophil and endothelial activation. Along with '-omics' data sets, such advanced models seek to predict the multifactorial range of healthy responses and diverse bleeding and clotting scenarios, ultimately to understand and improve patient outcomes. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Application of microwave-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of parabens in human ovarian cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Choolani, Mahesh; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-09-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. However, weak estrogenicity of some parabens has been reported in several studies, which provided the impetus for this work. Here, a simple and efficient analytical method for quantifying parabens in cancer tissues has been developed. This technique involves the simultaneous use of microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), in tandem with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) analysis for the determination of parabens. The pollutants studied included four parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens). Optimization of the experimental parameters for MASE and μ-SPE was performed. Good relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.09 to 2.81% and high enrichment factors (27-314) were obtained. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) up to 0.9962 were obtained across a concentration range of 5.0-200ngg(-1). The method detection limits for parabens ranged from 0.005 to 0.0244ngg(-1). The procedure was initially tested on prawn samples to demonstrate its feasibility on a complex biological matrix. Preliminary studies on human ovarian cancer (OC) tissues showed presence of parabens. Higher levels of parabens were detected in malignant ovarian tumor tissues compared to benign tumor tissue samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coagulation and metastasis: what does the experimental literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Gil-Bernabé, Ana M; Lucotti, Serena; Muschel, Ruth J

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of coagulation greatly limits cancer metastasis in many experimental models. Cancer cells trigger coagulation, through expression of tissue factor or P-selectin ligands that have correlated with worse prognosis in human clinical studies. Cancer cells also affect coagulation through expression of thrombin and release of microparticles that augment coagulation. In the cancer-bearing host, coagulation facilitates tumour progression through release of platelet granule contents, inhibition of Natural Killer cells and recruitment of macrophages. We are revisiting this literature in the light of recent studies in which treatment of clinical cohorts with anticoagulant drugs led to diminished metastasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Microwave ablation with triaxial antennas tuned for lung: results in an in vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Durick, Nathan A; Laeseke, Paul F; Broderick, Lynn S; Lee, Fred T; Sampson, Lisa A; Frey, Tina M; Warner, Thomas F; Fine, Jason P; van der Weide, Daniel W; Brace, Christopher L

    2008-04-01

    To prospectively determine in swine the size and shape of coagulation zones created in normal lung tissue by using small-diameter triaxial microwave antennas and to prospectively quantify the effects of bronchial occlusion and multiple antennas on the coagulation zone. The study was approved by the research animal care and use committee, and all husbandry and experimental studies were compliant with the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Twenty-four coagulation zones (three per animal) were created at thoracotomy in eight female domestic swine (mean weight, 55 kg) by using a microwave ablation system with 17-gauge lung-tuned triaxial antennas. Ablations were performed for 10 minutes each by using (a) a single antenna, (b) a single antenna with bronchial occlusion, and (c) an array of three antennas powered simultaneously. The animals were sacrificed immediately after ablation. The coagulation zones were excised en bloc and sectioned into approximately 4-mm slices for measurement of size, shape, and circularity. Analysis of variance and two-sample t tests were used to identify differences between the three ablation groups. The overall mean diameters of coagulation achieved with a single antenna and bronchial occlusion (4.11 cm +/- 1.09 [standard deviation]) and with multiple-antenna arrays (4.05 cm +/- 0.69) were significantly greater than the overall mean diameter achieved with a single antenna alone (3.09 cm +/- 0.83) (P = .016 for comparison with multiple antennas, P = .032 for comparison with bronchial occlusion). No significant differences in size were seen between the coagulation zones created with bronchial occlusion and those created with multiple antennas (P = .68). The coagulation zones in all groups were very circular (isoperimetric ratio > 0.80) at cross-sectional analysis. A 17-gauge triaxial microwave ablation system tuned for lung tissue yielded large circular zones of coagulation in vivo in porcine lungs

  20. Microfluidics and Coagulation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Colace, Thomas V.; Tormoen, Garth W.

    2014-01-01

    The study of blood ex vivo can occur in closed or open systems, with or without flow. Microfluidic devices facilitate measurements of platelet function, coagulation biology, cellular biorheology, adhesion dynamics, pharmacology, and clinical diagnostics. An experimental session can accommodate 100s to 1000s of unique clotting events. Using microfluidics, thrombotic events can be studied on defined surfaces of biopolymers, matrix proteins, and tissue factor under constant flow rate or constant pressure drop conditions. Distinct shear rates can be created on a device with a single perfusion pump. Microfluidic devices facilitated the determination of intraluminal thrombus permeability and the discovery that platelet contractility can be activated by a sudden decrease in flow. Microfluidics are ideal for multicolor imaging of platelets, fibrin, and phosphatidylserine and provide a human blood analog to the mouse injury models. Overall, microfluidic advances offer many opportunities for research, drug testing under relevant hemodynamic conditions, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:23642241

  1. Detection of diatoms in water and tissues by combination of microwave digestion, vacuum filtration and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sunlin; Liu, Chao; Wen, Jinfeng; Dai, Weilie; Wang, Songcai; Su, HuiFang; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-10

    The detection of diatoms has been proposed to be useful in the diagnosis of drowning. In the presented paper, we describe a novel method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diatoms in water and organs. Samples were treated by microwave digestion. The fluid obtained was vacuum-filtrated; its sediment on the membrane was coated and examined under the scanning electron microscope with the mode of automatic field scanning; and qualitative and quantitative diatom analysis was performed based on the images captured automatically and on manual identification of the suspected diatoms at a required higher magnification. The method is rapid, sensitive, labor-saving, and accurate for qualitative and quantitative diatom analysis. However, further scientific research in the field of automatic diatom identification using SEM images has to be done in order to automate the process of detection and identification of diatoms in water and tissues for the diagnosis of drowning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion of animal tissues and sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, R; Das, A K; Cervera, M L; De La Guardia, M

    1996-04-01

    The determination of cadmium in different sample types has been carried out by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with D(2)-background correction using a unpyrocoated graphite tube, after pressurized microwave-assisted digestion. Five chemical modifiers [(NH(4))(2)HPO(4), Pd(NO)(3))(2), Ni(NO(3))(2), thiourea and Triton X-100] have been assayed and nickel nitrate has been found to be most effective for an accurate determination of cadmium in mussel tissue, pig kidney and sewage sludge. The characteristic mass of the method is of the order of 1 pg and the limit of detection is lower than 0.1 ng/ml.

  3. Evolution of the complex permittivity of biological tissue at microwaves ranges: correlation study with burn depth.

    PubMed

    Matthieu, Brusson; Jerome, Rossignol; Stephane, Binczak; Gabriel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the muscle tissue's complex permittivity represents a growing interest in terms of characterization in medicine and biology. The influence of a burned part on the permittivity is not very developed. In this work, an estimation of the complex permittivity of biological tissues is performed as a function of the depth of burn tissues. The sensor, an open-ended coaxial probe, is placed directly against each sample. The evolution of the complex permittivity is studied for two measurements conditions (in the air and in a physiological solution). A correlation study is attempted with the depth of burn tissue.

  4. Controlling coagulation dysregulation in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Peter J; Robson, Simon C; d'Apice, Anthony J F

    2011-04-01

    Deletion of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) gene in pigs has removed a major xenoantigen but has not eliminated the problem of dysregulated coagulation and vascular injury. Rejecting GalT knockout organ xenografts almost invariably show evidence of thrombosis and platelet sequestration, and primate recipients frequently develop consumptive coagulopathy. This review examines recent findings that illuminate potential mechanisms of this current barrier to successful xenotransplantation. The coagulation response to xenotransplantation differs depending on the type of organ and quite likely the distinct vasculatures. Renal xenografts appear more likely to initiate consumptive coagulopathy than cardiac xenografts, possibly reflecting differential transcriptional responses. Liver xenografts induce rapid and profound thrombocytopenia resulting in recipient death within days due to bleeding; ex-vivo data suggest that liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes are responsible for platelet consumption by a coagulation-independent process.It has been proposed that expression of recipient tissue factor on platelets and monocytes is an important trigger of consumptive coagulopathy. Finally, pigs transgenic for human anticoagulants and antithrombotics are slowly but surely coming on line, but have not yet been rigorously tested to date. Successful control of coagulation dysregulation in xenotransplantation may require different combinatorial pharmacological and genetic strategies for different organs.

  5. Changes in the dielectric properties of rat tissue as a function of age at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyman, A.; Rezazadeh, A. A.; Gabriel, C.

    2001-06-01

    The dielectric properties of ten rat tissues at six different ages were measured at 37 °C in the frequency range of 130 MHz to 10 GHz using an open-ended coaxial probe and a computer controlled network analyser. The results show a general decrease of the dielectric properties with age. The trend is more apparent for brain, skull and skin tissues and less noticeable for abdominal tissues. The variation in the dielectric properties with age is due to the changes in the water content and the organic composition of tissues. The percentage decrease in the dielectric properties of certain tissues in the 30 to 70 day old rats at cellular phone frequencies have been tabulated. These data provide an important input in the provision of rigorous dosimetry in lifetime-exposure animal experiments. The results provide some insight into possible differences in the assessment of exposure for children and adults.

  6. Dual mode microwave tool for dielectric analysis and thermal ablation treatment of organic tissue.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Margarita; Bashir, Fahed; Schüssler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A dual mode tool design to analyze organic tissue and locally perform thermal ablation treatment is presented. The tool is made of an array of split-ring resonators. It can operate on a sensing mode to track the relative dielectric changes from the organic tissue and on a treatment mode to perform thermal ablation at different input powers. The measurements were done with phantoms of human tissue. The tool is able to focus a hot spot of approximately 0.2mm with a temperature of 109 °C at an input power of 10W.

  7. Microwave distillation-solid phase adsorbent trapping device for the determination of off-flavors, geosmin and methylisoborneol, in catfish tissue below their rejection levels

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, E.D.; Shen, C.Y.; Miller, D.W.; Perschbacher, P.W.

    1996-08-01

    Described is a rapid microwave-mediated steam distillation device for determining two predominant off-flavor compounds, geosmin and methylisoborneol, in catfish tissue. A microwave on-time of 10 min is needed to efficiently remove these off-flavor compounds from the sample matrix and trap them on a solid phase adsorbent. A minimal amount of organic solvent is used to elute the trapped compounds. The extract is then analyzed by gas chromatography with ion trap detection in the selective ion storage mode. Detection limits in the sub-parts-per-billion range are obtained with this method. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Stable microwave radiometry system for long term monitoring of deep tissue temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-02-01

    Background: There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods: We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain onaxis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results: We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of +0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions: A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  9. Stable Microwave Radiometry System for Long Term Monitoring of Deep Tissue Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain on-axis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3–5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of ∓0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface

  10. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  11. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  12. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  13. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dario B; Maccarini, Paolo F; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J S; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2013-02-26

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm(3)) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm(3)) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  14. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831

  15. Laser optoacoustic technique for real-time measurement of thermal damage in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Karabutov, Alexander A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    1999-05-01

    Optoacoustic monitoring of thermally-induced damage in tissues in real time is proposed as a mean for controlling the extent of tissue coagulation in human organs, such as liver, prostate, myocardium, breast, and brain. This technique can potentially provide fast and accurate feedback information during tumor thermal coagulation by interstitial delivery of laser, ultrasonic, radiofrequency, and microwave radiation or conductive and convective heating. Amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic signals are dependent on optical and thermophysical properties of tissues. Changes in tissue optical properties during coagulation can be detected by measuring and analyzing the amplitude and temporal characteristics of the optoacoustic signals. We performed studies on optoacoustic monitoring of coagulation by CW Nd:YAG laser interstitial irradiation and conductive heating. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses were used as a probing radiation to obtain optoacoustic pressure profiles and images. Our preliminary studies suggest that the laser optoacoustic technique is capable of detecting thermally-induced changes in optical properties of liver, myocardium, and prostate. The major merits of the laser optoacoustic monitoring of tissue coagulation include high contrast provided by changes in tissue optical properties, capability to perform real-time measurements, and high spatial resolution.

  16. Low dose of continuous-wave microwave irradiation did not cause temperature increase in muscles tissue adjacent to titanium alloy implants--an animal study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dongmei; Xu, Yiming; Fu, Tengfei; Zhang, Han; Feng, Xianxuan; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Lan; Bai, Yuehong

    2013-12-23

    Research studies on the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on implants in vitro have failed to investigate temperature changes in the tissues adjacent to the implants under microwave therapy. We therefore, used a rabbit model in an effort to determine the impact of microwave therapy on temperature changes in tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implants and the safety profile thereof. Titanium alloy internal fixation plates were implanted in New Zealand rabbits in the middle of femur. Microwave therapy was performed by a 2450 MHz microwave generator 3 days after the surgery. Temperature changes of muscles adjacent to the implants were recorded under exposure to dose-gradient microwave radiation from 20w to 60w. Significant difference between control and microwave treatment group at peak temperatures (T(peak)) and temperature gap (T(gap) = T(peak)-T(vally)) were observed in deep muscles (T(peak), 41.63 ± 0.21°C vs. 44.40 ± 0.17°C, P < 0.01; T(gap), 5.33 ± 0.21°C vs. 8.10 ± 0.36°C, P < 0.01) and superficial muscles (T(peak), 41.53 ± 0.15°C vs. 42.03 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.04; T(gap), 5.23 ± 0.21°C vs. 5.80 ± 0.17°C, P = 0.013) under 60 w, and deep muscles (T(peak), 40.93 ± 0.25°C vs. 41.87 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.01; T(gap), 4.73 ± 0.20°C vs. 5.63 ± 0.35°C, P = 0.037) under 50w, but not under 20, 30 and 40w. Our results suggest that low-dose (20w-40w) continuous-wave microwave irradiation delivered by a 2450 MHz microwave generator might be a promising treatment for patients with titanium alloy internal fixation, as it did not raise temperature in muscle tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implant.

  17. Low dose of continuous – wave microwave irradiation did not cause temperature increase in muscles tissue adjacent to titanium alloy implants – an animal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research studies on the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on implants in vitro have failed to investigate temperature changes in the tissues adjacent to the implants under microwave therapy. We therefore, used a rabbit model in an effort to determine the impact of microwave therapy on temperature changes in tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implants and the safety profile thereof. Methods Titanium alloy internal fixation plates were implanted in New Zealand rabbits in the middle of femur. Microwave therapy was performed by a 2450 MHz microwave generator 3 days after the surgery. Temperature changes of muscles adjacent to the implants were recorded under exposure to dose-gradient microwave radiation from 20w to 60w. Results Significant difference between control and microwave treatment group at peak temperatures (Tpeak) and temperature gap (Tgap= Tpeak-Tvally) were observed in deep muscles (Tpeak, 41.63 ± 0.21°C vs. 44.40 ± 0.17°C, P < 0.01; Tgap, 5.33 ± 0.21°C vs. 8.10 ± 0.36°C, P < 0.01) and superficial muscles (Tpeak, 41.53 ± 0.15°C vs. 42.03 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.04; Tgap, 5.23 ± 0.21°C vs. 5.80 ± 0.17°C, P = 0.013) under 60 w, and deep muscles (Tpeak, 40.93 ± 0.25°C vs. 41.87 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.01; Tgap, 4.73 ± 0.20°C vs. 5.63 ± 0.35°C, P = 0.037) under 50w, but not under 20, 30 and 40w. Conclusion Our results suggest that low-dose (20w-40w) continuous-wave microwave irradiation delivered by a 2450 MHz microwave generator might be a promising treatment for patients with titanium alloy internal fixation, as it did not raise temperature in muscle tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implant. PMID:24365389

  18. [Determination of trace element silver in animal serum, tissues and organs by microwave digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun-Jie; Xie, You-Zhuan; Han, Chen; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Xiao; Lu, Jian-Xi; Ren, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the silver is widely used in the biological field and its biological safety catches great attention. It is important to know the distribution of silver ions within the biological organism and the toxic threshold concentration in the tissue. Therefore, a highly sensitive method for measurement of trace amount of silver ion in the medical biological samples is needed. With its high sensitivity for detection of metal ions, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is well suited for quantification of trace amount of silver ion in such samples, but method development is still in its infancy. Consequently, a simple and convenient method for determination of trace amount of silver in the animal serum, tissues or organs was developed, in which the samples were subjected to the microwave digestion, followed by the ICP-MS analysis. To begin with, the samples of serum, muscle, bone marrow, bone, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney were sequently processed in 5 mL of HNO3 and 2 mL of H2O2 solution. Then the samples were completely digested by microwave with the power of 2 000 watts. The temperature was raised gradually by 3-step program. Moreover, the data achieved were reproducible and the method was time saving and especially for large amounts of sample processing. Then the digested solutions were diluted to constant volume. Finally, the concentration of 107Ag in the samples was analyzed by the method of ICP-MS under the optimized conditions. Element yttrium (Y) was used as the internal standard to compensate for matrix suppression effect and improve the accuracy of measurement. For one thing, the analytical results showed that the detection limit of the trace element 107Ag was 0.98 μg · kg(-1), and furthermore, the correlation coefficient of standard curve was 0.999 9. For another thing, the recovery rate of the silver element ranged from 98% to 107%, which was calculated according to measured quantity before adding standard, adding standard and

  19. The pilot experience upon surgical ablation of large liver tumor by microwave system with tissue permittivity feedback control mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microwave ablation (MWA) is used to treat patients with unresectable liver cancer. Our institution applied a novel microwave generator capable of automatically adjusting energy levels based on feedback related to tissue permittivity. This approach is meant to facilitate ablations over larger areas and provide results of greater predictablility. This paper reports on the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of this new system in the treatment of patients with large liver tumors. Methods Between July 2012 and December 2012, a total of 23 patients with malignant liver tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter underwent surgical MWA using a 902–928 MHz generator. The proposed system used a 14-gauge antenna without internal-cooling. Follow up on tumor recurrence was performed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging at 1 month and then at 3 month intervals for a period of at least 12 months following ablation. Results Among the cancers treated, 10 were primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 13 were metastatic lesions from primary colorectal cancer (CRLM). The mean tumor size was 5.40 cm (range of 4.0-7.0 cm). A total of 18 patients underwent MWA via open surgery, and 5 received laparoscopic MWA. The mean ablation time was 1982 seconds, with a range of 900-3600 seconds, and the median number of ablation sessions was 2.0 (range of 1–4 sessions). The rate of complete ablation, as defined by a total loss of contrast-enhancement one month post-treatment, was 82.6% (19 of 23 patients), and the rate of local recurrence was 26.3% (5 of 19 patients). For tumors with a diameter of 4.0-7.0 cm, the technical success rate of MWA was higher for HCC patients (70%) than for metastatic liver cancer (53.8%) patients; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All patients survived throughout the observation period, and the morbidity rate was 8.6%. Conclusions MWA treatment using the proposed system with tissue

  20. STUDIES IN BLOOD COAGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Van Allen, C. M.

    1927-01-01

    Description is given of changes in blood coagulability found in diseases of the rabbit, including malignant tumor, spontaneous infections, non-bacterial diseases and lesions, and hemorrhagic states specifically induced. The changes involved variously the time of onset of blood coagulation, clot formation rate and the rate and extent of clot retraction. PMID:19869243

  1. The Interface between Inflammation and Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demetz, Gabriele; Ott, Ilka

    2012-01-01

    The intimate connection between coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular disease has moved more and more into focus of clinical research. This paper focuses on the essential components of this interplay in the settings of cardiovascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Tissue factor, the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, plays a central role via causing a proinflammatory response through activation of coagulation factors and thereby initiating coagulation and downstream cellular signalling pathways. Regarding activated clotting factors II, X, and VII, protease-activated receptors provide the molecular link between coagulation and inflammation. Hereby, PAR-1 displays deleterious as well as beneficial properties. Unravelling these interrelations may help developing new strategies to ameliorate the detrimental reciprocal aggravation of inflammation and coagulation. PMID:22518344

  2. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-06-27

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test. Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested. Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

  3. Coagulation in chaotic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzio, F.J.; Ottino, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    We study coagulation in the flow field of a time-periodic deterministic chaotic flow and focus on the simplest case: point particles convected without diffusion and allowed to coagulate with probability 1 when the distance is less than d. An analysis of the underlying physics is presented. Under ''well-mixed'' conditions the system behaves as if the particles were moved by Brownian motion, and a simple kinetic model describes the main results. The poorly mixed case is considerably more complex. Spatial inhomogeneities result from competition between the rate of coagulation and mixing, and trapping and leaking of clusters due to Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser surfaces.

  4. Dust coagulation in ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  5. [Coagulation disorders in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Avila, Felix I; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in the clotting process. In this organ are sintetizated the major part of the coagulation factors. Historically, was considered that alteration in liver function causes important bleeding disorders. However, actual evidence is not in agreement with this asseveration. Decreased synthesis of clotting and inhibitor factors, decrease clearance of activated factors, quantitative and qualitative platelet defects, hyperfibrinolysis and intravascular coagulation are some of the defects observed in liver diseases. Thrombotic events, even if rare in cirrhotic patients, occur manly in the portal and mesenteric veins. The aim of the present work is to review the present evidence in coagulation disorders and liver disease.

  6. Practical evaluations on heating characteristics of thin microwave antenna for intracavitary thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Tsubouchi, Kousuke; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Microwave thermal therapy is one of the modalities for cancer treatment. There are several schemes of microwave heating. The authors have been studying thin coaxial antenna for intracavitary microwave heating aiming at the treatment of bile duct carcinoma. Up to now, the heating characteristics of the antenna are investigated by numerical simulation and experiment for finding a possibility of the treatment. In this study, in order to consider practical situations of the treatment, heating characteristics of the antenna inserted into a metallic stent is evaluated by numerical simulations. Moreover, the relation between coagulation size of the tissue and the radiation power from the antenna is investigated experimentally. It must be considered, when the input power of the antenna is high (around several tens of watts). From these investigations, some useful results for practical treatments were found.

  7. Doped tricalcium phosphate bone tissue engineering scaffolds using sucrose as template and microwave sintering: enhancement of mechanical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Ke, Dongxu; Bose, Susmita

    2017-09-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a widely used biocompatible ceramic in orthopedic and dental applications. However, its osteoinductivity and mechanical properties still require improvements. In this study, porous β-TCP and MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffolds were prepared by the thermal decomposition of sucrose. Crack-free cylindrical scaffolds could only be prepared with the addition of MgO and ZnO due to their stabilization effects. Porous MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffolds with a density of 61.39±0.66%, an estimated pore size of 200μm and a compressive strength of 24.96±3.07MPa were prepared by using 25wt% sucrose after conventional sintering at 1250°C. Microwave sintering further increased the compressive strength to 37.94±6.70MPa, but it decreased the open interconnected porosity to 8.74±1.38%. In addition, the incorporation of polycaprolactone (PCL) increased 22.36±3.22% of toughness while maintaining its compressive strength at 25.45±2.21MPa. Human osteoblast cell line was seeded on scaffolds to evaluate the effects of MgO/ZnO and PCL on the biological property of β-TCP in vitro. Both MgO/ZnO and PCL improved osteoinductivity of β-TCP. PCL also decreased osteoblastic apoptosis due to its particular surface chemistry. This novel porous MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffold with PCL shows improved mechanical and biological properties, which has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Mechanisms of Coagulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Richard; Jesty, Jolyon

    1994-01-01

    Several topics such as heart disease, strokes, biochemical reactions, blood components, and genetics can be related to blood clotting. Introduces a simple, safe and inexpensive hands-on demonstration using bovine (cattle) blood plasma of normal and abnormal coagulation. (ZWH)

  9. [Diagnostic of blood coagulation].

    PubMed

    Barthels, M

    2008-12-01

    A survey is given on the peculiar characteristics of laboratory methods for analyzing the blood coagulation system with special regard to the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical phase. Routinely used methods are described.

  10. The Mechanisms of Coagulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Richard; Jesty, Jolyon

    1994-01-01

    Several topics such as heart disease, strokes, biochemical reactions, blood components, and genetics can be related to blood clotting. Introduces a simple, safe and inexpensive hands-on demonstration using bovine (cattle) blood plasma of normal and abnormal coagulation. (ZWH)

  11. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  12. Pro-coagulant activity of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Christy, Barbara A; Herzig, Maryanne C; Montgomery, Robbie K; Delavan, Christopher; Bynum, James A; Reddoch, Kristin M; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-04-05

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma, based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity in order to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis. Multiple MSC populations derived from either human adipose tissue or bone marrow were expanded in the recommended stem cell media. Stem cell identity was confirmed using a well-characterized panel of positive and negative markers. Tissue factor expression on the cell surface was evaluated by flow cytometry with anti-CD142 antibody. Effects on blood coagulation were determined by thromboelastography (TEG) and calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assays using platelet poor plasma or whole blood. MSCs express tissue factor on their surfaces and are pro-coagulant in the presence of blood or plasma. The adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSC) evaluated were more pro-coagulant and expressed more tissue factor than bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), which showed a greater variability in TF expression. BM-MSCs were identified that exhibited low pro-coagulant activity, whereas all Ad-MSCs examined exhibited high pro-coagulant activity. The percentage of cells in a given population expressing surface tissue factor correlates roughly with functional pro-coagulant activity. MSC tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity change over time in culture. All MSC populations are not equivalent; care should be taken to select cells for clinical use that minimize potential safety problems and maximize chance of patient benefit. Adipose-derived MSCs appear more consistently pro-coagulant than BM-MSCs, presenting a

  13. Partial microwave-assisted wet digestion of animal tissue using a baby-bottle sterilizer for analyte determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Wladiana O.; Menezes, Eveline A.; Gonzalez, Mário H.; Costa, Letícia M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2009-06-01

    A procedure for partial digestion of bovine tissue is proposed using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-vessels inside a baby-bottle sterilizer under microwave radiation for multi-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Samples were directly weighed in laboratory-made polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide were added to the uncovered vessels, which were positioned inside the baby-bottle sterilizer, containing 500 mL of water. The hydrogen peroxide volume was fixed at 100 µL. The system was placed in a domestic microwave oven and partial digestion was carried out for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The single-vessel approach was used in the entire procedure, to minimize contamination in trace analysis. Better recoveries and lower residual carbon content (RCC) levels were obtained under the conditions established through a 2 4-1 fractional factorial design: 650 W microwave power, 7 min digestion time, 50 µL nitric acid and 50 mg sample mass. The digestion efficiency was ascertained according to the residual carbon content determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was checked against two certified reference materials.

  14. [Blood coagulation in hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Zwierzina, W D; Herold, M; Günther, R; Kunz, F

    1980-01-01

    Young healthy volunteers were treated with physical hyperthermia (baths) in order to investigate changes in blood coagulation. Such therapy is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Single hot baths (mean body temperature 38,2-39,9 degrees C) resulted in a rise of fibrinogen, factors IX and XII, maximal amplitude of the thrombelastogram and hemoglobin and in a decrease of plasminogen. In a series of hypothermic baths no additional changes of coagulation or fibrinolysis could be found. The results suggest that hyperthermia causes a tendency to thrombosis.

  15. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  16. Finite-element analysis and in vitro experiments of placement configurations using triple antennas in microwave hepatic ablation.

    PubMed

    Phasukkit, Pattarapong; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan; Sangworasil, Manas

    2009-11-01

    This study presents analyses of triple-antenna configurations and designs for microwave (MW) hepatic ablation using 3-D finite-element (FE) analyses verified by in vitro experiments. Treatment of hepatic cancer often requires removal or destruction of large volume lesions. Using multiple antennas offers a potential solution for creating ablation zones with larger dimensions, as well as varied geometrical shapes. We performed both 3-D FE analyses and in vitro experiments using three identical open-tip MW antennas simultaneously, placing them in three types of configurations-"linear array," "triangular," and "T-shaped" arrangements. We compared coagulation volumes created, as well as temperature distribution characteristics, from the three-antenna arrangements after power delivery of 50 W for 60 s. We also performed additional tests using nonidentical antennas (open tip, slot, and slot with insulating jacket) for the three configurations. The results illustrate that arranging antennas in the "T-shaped" pattern destroyed more unwanted tissues than those found when using "linear array" and "triangular" arrangements, with maximum coagulation width and depth of 46 and 81 mm, respectively, and coagulation volume of 30.7 cm(3) . In addition, using nonidentical triple antennas caused variations in coagulation zone characteristics, and thus, the technique could be applied to treatment situations where nonsymmetric coagulation zones are required.

  17. Novel microwave applicators for thermal therapy, ablation, and hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Clegg, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Microwave applicators are becoming more prevalent in cancer ablation therapy due to factors of penetration, high power, and shortened treatment time. These applicators create the largest zones of necrosis of available energy sources. Progress has been made both with interstitial applicators for surgical, laparoscopic, or radiological approaches, as well as surface applicators that provide hemostasis or precoagulation prior to resection. Most commonly, the applicators operate at 915 MHz or 2450 MHz, and are well matched to tissue. Surgical applicators are as large as 5.6 mm and have the capability to operate at 100-200 W. With smaller applicators, internal cooling may be required to avoid heating sensitive skin surfaces if used percutaneously or laparoscopically. With the interstitial applicators, animal studies have shown a strong relationship between power and ablation volume, including reaching a steady-state plateau in performance based more on power level and less on time. As shown in-vivo, MW surface applicators are very efficient in surface coagulation for hemostasis or precoagulation and in the treatment of surface breaking lesions. These applicators are also capable of deep penetration as applied from the surface. Characteristic treatment times for interstitial applicators are four minutes and for surface applicators, one minute or less is sufficient. Examples will be shown of multi-organ results with surface coagulation using high-power microwaves. Finally, future trends will be discussed that include treatment planning, multiple applicators, and navigation.

  18. Comparative experimental study of argon plasma and bipolar coagulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Riegel, T; Tirakotai, W; Mennel, H D; Hellwig, D; Sure, U; Bertalanffy, H; Celik, I

    2006-07-01

    Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is based on the principle of ionised argon creating conductive plasma between an activating electrode and tissue surface and is used as an effective alternative coagulation technique in various surgical disciplines. This trial aims to compare thermal injury in rat brain caused by APC and conventional bipolar coagulation technique. A controlled study design with constant power setting and application time was established. Twenty rats were randomised into the APC and bipolar groups. Each group of ten rats had 20 treated lesions. Early and late histopathological changes, as well as maximum extent of the lesion after 48 hours (h) and 12 days were studied in overall 20 lesions. Although the maximum depth of the lesions was different in APC (2.2 mm) and bipolar (1.8 mm) groups after 48 h, this did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.151). The superficially coagulated area was significantly larger after APC compared with the bipolar technique at the 48 h time point (p=0.032). After twelve days there were no differences in penetration depth (p=0.310) or coagulated area (p=0.222). Tissue defects after APC application on rat brains were comparable to conventional bipolar technique in this trial. The results suggest that argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective coagulation technique.

  19. DNA and RNA isolated from tissues processed by microwave-accelerated apparatus MFX-800-3 are suitable for subsequent PCR and Q-RT-PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Bödör, Csaba; Schmidt, Otto; Csernus, Balázs; Rajnai, Hajnalka; Szende, Béla

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, methods of molecular biology have appeared in diagnostic pathology and are routinely applied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histological samples, processed via conventional embedding methods. Due to its reagent- and cost-effectiveness, embedding techniques that utilize microwave acceleration in one or more steps of histoprocessing are increasingly used by numerous laboratories. The demand arises that tissues processed this way should also be suitable for the requirements of molecular pathology. In this study, both conventionally embedded and MFX-800-3 machine-processed tissue samples from the same source were used for isolation of DNA and RNA and for performing PCR and real-time PCR. PCR amplification of the beta-globin gene, as well as the real-time PCR amplification of the ABL mRNA was successful in all cases. Our conclusion is that samples processed by the vacuum assisted automatic microwave histoprocessor MFX-800-3 are perfectly applicable for DNA and RNA isolation and provide appropriate templates for further PCR and realtime PCR studies.

  20. Tailor-made biopolymers porous scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering: application of radiant energy in the form of microwave under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Jaya, S; Durance, T D

    2008-01-01

    Many methods are available for developing three-dimensional porous scaffolds using various polymeric materials for tissue-engineering applications. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the available methods and their limitations were discussed briefly. This paper focuses on the scope of novel technology called radiant energy application under vacuum for the fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Radiant energy application in the form of microwave under vacuum has been shown to develop and maintain the porous structure in fruits and vegetables after dehydration, which produced the microstructure similar to the freeze dried materials. Same principle of applying radiant energy under vacuum was used on the biopolymeric gels to create tailor-made, porous scaffolds for biomedical purposes. It has many advantages over the other existing methods of scaffold fabrication. This paper also reviews the scaffolds design recently fabricated by the authors using radiant energy under vacuum.

  1. Colour doppler ultrasonography provides real-time microwave field visualisation in an ex vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2011-06-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) uses non-ionising thermal energy to cause cell death by coagulative necrosis. Colour Doppler ultrasound (US) produces a spherical image during tissue ablation that appears to approximate the microwave near field (MNF) in shape and size. The aim of the present study was to determine whether colour Doppler US images observed during microwave ablation correlate with the actual thermocoagulation zone (TCZ) observed in liver tissue. Twenty MWAs were performed in ex vivo bovine liver using a 915-MHz ablation antenna set to 45 W for 6 min concomitant with Doppler US imaging. The edges of spherical images observed with colour Doppler US were marked circumferentially in the tissue. The tissue was transected parallel to the angle of antenna insertion, and the distances between methylene blue markings and the TCZ were measured. The images observed using colour Doppler US were similar in size and shape to the actual TCZ observed in the tissue. The mean distance between the observed colour Doppler US field diameter and the measured TCZ was 2 ± 1 mm. Using colour Doppler US, the visualised field during MWA correlates with the TCZ in an ex vivo bovine liver model. Real-time, dynamic feedback of the treatment area may increase the effectiveness of MWA for liver tumours in vivo. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Coagulation alterations due to local fibrinolytic therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rauber, Klaus; Heidinger, Kathrin S.; Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the systemic effects of local fibrinolytic therapy with low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods. Ten patients received intrathrombal infusion of 20 mg rt-PA and heparin for local thrombolysis and had subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Eight controls underwent PTA and received heparin alone. We measured t-PA, D-Dimer, and fibrinogen levels before, directly after, and 20, 40, and 60 min and 24 hr after therapy. Results. In the thrombolysis group the t-PA level peaked immediately after infusion and then declined within 1 hr. D-Dimer increased and remained elevated, whereas in the control group only t-PA levels increased, and only after 24 hr. Fibrinogen remained within the normal range in both groups. Eight of ten patients in the thrombolysis group and seven of eight with PTA had clinical improvement after the procedure. Conclusions. The increase in D-Dimer in the rt-PA group indicates a good local fibrinolytic effect. The fact that fibrinogen levels remained unchanged indicates that there is a lack of systemic fibrinogenolysis.

  3. Simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium species in fish tissues using microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction and ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Laura Hinojosa; Mar, Jorge L Guzmán; Rahman, G M Mizanur; Seybert, Bryan; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Kingston, H M Skip

    2009-05-15

    A microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction (MAEE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) species in fish tissues. The extraction efficiency of total As and Se and the stability of As and Se species were evaluated by analyzing DOLT-3 (dogfish liver). Enzymatic extraction using pronase E/lipase mixture assisted by microwave energy was found to give satisfactory extraction recoveries for As and Se without promoting interspecies conversion. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be 0.2 g of sample, 20 mg pronase E and 5mg lipase in 10 mL of 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.25 at 37 degrees C. The total extraction time was 30 min. The speciation analysis was performed by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). The accuracy of the developed extraction procedure was verified by analyzing two reference materials, DOLT-3 and BCR-627. The extraction recoveries in those reference materials ranged between 82 and 94% for As and 57 and 97% for Se. The accuracy of arsenic species measurement was tested by the analysis of BCR 627. The proposed method was applied to determine As and Se species in fish tissues purchased from a local fish market. Arsenobetaine (AsB) and selenomethionine (SeMet) were the major species detected in fish tissues. In the analyzed fish extracts, the sum of As species detected was in good agreement with the total As extracted. However, for Se, the sum of its species was lower than the total Se extracted, revealing the presence of Se-containing peptides or proteins.

  4. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Standards Industry Guidance Other Resources Description Microwave ovens heat food using microwaves, a form of electromagnetic radiation ... vibration results in friction between molecules, which produces heat that cooks the food. Risks/Benefits Microwaves are ...

  5. Asthma and coagulation.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J Daan; Majoor, Christof J; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Bel, Elisabeth H D; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-04-05

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by paroxysmal airflow obstruction evoked by irritative stimuli on a background of allergic lung inflammation. Currently, there is no cure for asthma, only symptomatic treatment. In recent years, our understanding of the involvement of coagulation and anticoagulant pathways, the fibrinolytic system, and platelets in the pathophysiology of asthma has increased considerably. Asthma is associated with a procoagulant state in the bronchoalveolar space, further aggravated by impaired local activities of the anticoagulant protein C system and fibrinolysis. Protease-activated receptors have been implicated as the molecular link between coagulation and allergic inflammation in asthma. This review summarizes current knowledge of the impact of the disturbed hemostatic balance in the lungs on asthma severity and manifestations and identifies new possible targets for asthma treatment.

  6. Coagulation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Maureane

    2015-07-01

    The liver plays a key role in hemostasis as the site of synthesis of many of the proteins involved in the coagulation, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems that interact to both establish hemostasis, and preventing thrombosis. The common laboratory tests, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), evolved from studies of plasma clotting in test tubes. Such studies laid the basis for the coagulation cascade model of hemostasis. However, thought has evolved to place a greater emphasis on the active roles of cells in localizing and regulating hemostasis. The PT and aPTT do not reflect the roles of cellular elements in hemostasis, nor do they reflect the crucial roles of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems. Thus, though the PT may indeed reflect the synthetic capacity of the liver, it does not accurately reflect the risk of bleeding or thrombosis in patients with liver failure.

  7. Overview of the coagulation system

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Palta, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ‘coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same. PMID:25535411

  8. A short contemporary history of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to a widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. There is ample experimental and pathological evidence that the fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ failure. The massive and ongoing activation of coagulation may result in depletion of platelets and coagulation factors, which may cause bleeding (consumption coagulopathy). The syndrome of DIC is well known in the medical literature for centuries, although a more precise description of the underlying mechanisms had to await the 20th century. Initial ideas on a role of the contact activation system as the primary trigger for the systemic activation of coagulation as well as a presumed hyperfibrinolytic response in DIC have been found to be misconceptions. Experimental and clinical evidence now indicate that the initiation of coagulation in DIC is caused by tissue factor expression, which in combination with downregulated physiological anticoagulant pathways and impaired fibrinolysis leads to widespread fibrin deposition. In addition, an extensive bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammation may further contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC.

  9. The emerging role of coagulation proteases in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Thati; Kerlin, Bryce A.; Isermann, Berend

    2016-01-01

    A role of coagulation proteases in kidney disease beyond their function in normal haemostasis and thrombosis has long been suspected, and studies performed in the past 15 years have provided novel insights into the mechanisms involved. The expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) in renal cells provides a molecular link between coagulation proteases and renal cell function and revitalizes research evaluating the role of haemostasis regulators in renal disease. Renal cell-specific expression and activity of coagulation proteases, their regulators and their receptors are dynamically altered during disease processes. Furthermore, renal inflammation and tissue remodelling are not only associated, but are causally linked with altered coagulation activation and protease-dependent signalling. Intriguingly, coagulation proteases signal through more than one receptor or induce formation of receptor complexes in a cell-specific manner, emphasizing context specificity. Understanding these cell-specific signalosomes and their regulation in kidney disease is crucial to unravelling the pathophysiological relevance of coagulation regulators in renal disease. In addition, the clinical availability of small molecule targeted anticoagulants as well as the development of PAR antagonists increases the need for in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms through which coagulation proteases might regulate renal physiology. PMID:26592189

  10. Quantification of Paraquat, MPTP, and MPP+ in brain tissue using microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Winnik, Bozena; Barr, Dana B.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Montesano, M. Angela; Richfield, Eric K.; Buckley, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Animal models, consistent with the hypothesis of direct interaction of paraquat (PQ) and 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) with specific areas of the central nervous system have been developed to study Parkinson’s disease (PD) in mice. These models have necessitated the creation of an analytical method for unambiguous identification and quantitation of PQ and structurally similar MPTP and 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) in brain tissue. A method for determination of these compounds was developed using microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Extraction solvent and microwave conditions such as power and time were optimized to produce recoveries of 90% for PQ 78% for MPTP and 97% for its metabolite MPP+. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C8, column and detection was carried out using an ion trap as an analyzer with electrospray ionization. Mass spectrometer parameters such as heated capillary temperature, spray voltage, capillary voltage and others were also optimized for each analyte. Analysis was done in Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode using 186 m/z for PQ, m/z 174 for MPTP, and m/z 170 for MPP+. The method detection limit for paraquat in matrix was 100 pg and 40 pg for MPTP and 20 pg MPP+. PMID:19618168

  11. Electrosurgical device for both mechanical cutting and coagulation of bleeding

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.; McCabe, C.W.

    1985-02-08

    Bipolar electrical coagulation of tissue using radiofrequency energy is combined with the functions of conventional surgical pressure tissue cutting instruments without significant modification thereof in a single instrument with the result that a surgeon can perform both procedures without having to redirect his attention from the area of the surgery. 4 figs.

  12. Electrosurgical device for both mechanical cutting and coagulation of bleeding

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1987-01-01

    Bipolar electrical coagulation of tissue using radio-frequency energy is combined with the functions of conventional surgical pressure tissue cutting instruments without significant modification thereof in a single instrument with the result that a surgeon can perform both procedures without having to redirect his attention from the area of the surgery.

  13. Implementation of a microwave-assisted tissue-processing system and an automated embedding system for breast needle core biopsy samples: morphology, immunohistochemistry, and FISH evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, Enrico; Pandolfi, Maura; Di Loreto, Carla

    2013-07-01

    A platform composed of a microwave (MW)-assisted tissue-processing system and an automated embedding system has been recently introduced in pathology laboratories. Needle core biopsy (NCB) is an established, highly accurate method for diagnosing breast lesions and for providing important pathologic, predictive, and prognostic information such as biomarker expression in case of breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether breast NCBs processed with the MW-assisted tissue-processing system and automatically embedded show good-quality histology preparations and whether they are suitable for the assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and HER2 in breast carcinoma. A series of 233 consecutive breast NCBs processed by both conventional and MW-assisted tissue-processing systems was included in this study. The histomorphologic and immunohistochemical quality, as well as the results of the evaluation of the biomarkers, were compared-the conventional processing method being the gold standard for comparison. The quality of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical tissue sections provided by the new system is comparable to that obtained after the conventional processing method. Moreover, in breast carcinomas, a perfect agreement between the paired tissues when evaluating ER and PR status (Cohen κ = 1) and a very good agreement when evaluating Ki-67 (κ = 0.91) and HER2 (κ = 0.93) have been found. In conclusion, applying strict criteria in tissue-handling steps, breast NCB can be processed and automatically embedded with these platforms. The diagnosability and the evaluation of the main prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been proved to be reliable.

  14. Examination of the effect of dose-death interval on detection of meperidine exposure in decomposed skeletal tissues using microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Watterson, James H; Desrosiers, Nathalie A

    2011-04-15

    The effect of dose-death interval and tissue distribution on the detection of meperidine in selected skeletal tissues was examined using a rapid microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methodology. Rats (n=14) were dosed with 0 (n=2) or 30 mg/kg (n=12) meperidine (i.p.). Drug-positive rats were sacrificed with CO(2) after 20, 30, 90 and 150 min (n=3 per group). Heart blood was collected immediately after death. Tibiae were excised and frozen for further analysis. The remaining carcasses were allowed to decompose outside in secured cages to the point of complete skeletonization in a rural Northern Ontario location during the late summer months. Vertebrae and pelvi were collected for each animal. Tibial marrow was homogenized in 3 mL PB6 (phosphate buffer, 0.1M, pH 6). Fresh tibiae, and decomposed vertebrae and pelvi were cleaned in PB8.5 (phosphate buffer, 0.1M, pH 8.5) and sonicated to remove remaining soft tissue. Samples of dried, ground bone (0.5-1g) suspended in 2 mL PB6 were then irradiated in a domestic microwave oven (1100 W) at atmospheric pressure for 15 min. Samples of vertebral bone (1g) were also extracted by passive incubation in methanol (3 mL, 50°C, 72 h). All supernatants then underwent solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC/MS, using electron impact ionization in the Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode. Mean GC/MS responses for each tissue type were negatively correlated with dose-death interval, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.32 to -0.87. Analysis of variance showed dose-death interval to be a main effect (p<0.05) with respect to GC/MS response for blood, marrow, tibial epiphyses prepared by MAE, and vertebral bone prepared by passive extraction, but not for tibial diaphyses, pelvi or vertebrae prepared by MAE. Overall, MAE is advantageous as a rapid extraction tool for screening purposes in skeletal tissues, but assignment of significance to quantitative expressions of skeletal drug concentrations is complex and should be approached

  15. Determination of Co(II) in plant tissue by microwave digestion and ion chromatography coupled with luminol/perborate or luminol/percarbonate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Murillo Pulgarín, José A; García Bermejo, Luisa F; Carrasquero Durán, Armando

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt is an essential element for leguminous plants but may be harmful for other species; for that reason determination of Co(II) is very important for the management of polluted areas and for discover plants with capacity for the hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, which has produced a growing necessity of fast, sensitive and selective analytical techniques. To develop an analytical procedure for the determination of cobalt in plant tissue by coupling the ionic chromatography to the luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. The sample was digested in a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, using an microwave oven to dissolve the Co(II). The solution containing Co(II) ions was injected to an ionic chromatograph using oxalic acid as the eluent. The detection was based on the catalytic effect of Co(II) on the luminol chemiluminescence using perborate or percarbonate as oxidants. Experimental variables, such as concentrations, pH, flow rates and acid digestion conditions were optimised. Well-resolved chromatographic peaks were obtained. The height and area showed linear dependences with the Co(II) concentration, which were used to quantify the heavy metal, with recoveries up to 95%. The microwave irradiation (60  s) was sufficient for the complete mineralisation of 200  mg of sample, employing 2  mL of the acid mixture. The method was free from the interferences, requiring less than 12 minutes to complete the analysis. The method was simple and rapid for the determination of cobalt in plant tissue with detection limits comparable to those obtained with more sophisticated and expensive analytical equipment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: a review for the internist.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-02-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. Recent knowledge on important pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to DIC has resulted in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches to patients with DIC. The diagnosis of DIC can be made by sensitive laboratory tests; however, most of these tests are not readily available in a clinical setting. A reliable diagnosis can also be made on the basis of a small series of laboratory tests that can be combined in a scoring algorithm. The cornerstone of the management of DIC is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of coagulation activation may theoretically be justified and have been found beneficial in experimental and clinical studies. These strategies comprise inhibition of tissue factor-mediated activation of coagulation or restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways.

  17. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Maitz, Manfred F.; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which—in turn—becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules. PMID:23868446

  18. Allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Persson, Egon; Olsen, Ole Hvilsted

    2011-06-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is present at subnanomolar concentration and represents a small percentage of the total amount of FVII in the circulation. FVIIa is poised to initiate blood clotting when it encounters its pivotal cofactor tissue factor (TF) which becomes exposed to blood upon vascular rupture. The requirement for complex formation with TF in order for FVIIa to express procoagulant activity ensures thrombin and fibrin generation at the right time and place. Thus TF acts as a guardian of safety of paramount importance to blood coagulation by providing localization to the site of injury and at the same time inducing maturation of zymogen-like free FVIIa to the active cofactor-bound enzyme. This review gives an account of the accumulated knowledge about the structure, function and TF dependence of FVIIa to arrive at a plausible allosteric mechanism by which TF induces maturation of the active conformation of FVIIa.

  19. Arsenic removal by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.N.; Green, J.F.; Do, H.D.; McLean, S.J.

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated the removal of naturally occurring arsenic in a full-scale (106-mgd) conventional treatment plant. When the source water was treated with 3--10 mg/L of ferric chloride or 6, 10, or 20 mg/L of alum, arsenic removal was 81--96% (ferric chloride) and 23--71% (alum). Metal concentrations in the sludge produced during this study were below the state`s current hazardous waste levels at all coagulant dosages. No operational difficulties were encountered.

  20. Coagulant modulates the hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu (coagulated soymilk).

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2007-06-01

    The recent increase in soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption, especially in Western countries, is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods; consumption of soybean would prevent heart diseases. Since the amount and the type of coagulated biomolecules (such as isoflavones) will vary with the type of coagulant, this will inevitably alter their biological activity. This study sought to assess the effect of some coagulants (calcium chloride, alum, and steep water from pap production) commonly used in the production of tofu in Nigeria on the serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in albino rats fed tofu for 14 days. The results of this study revealed that there was a significant difference (P < .05) in the total phenol [calcium chloride (0.9%), alum (0.8%), and steep water (1.2%)] content of all the tofu produced. Furthermore, feeding albino rats with tofu and water ad libitum for 14 days caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum cholesterol and LDL when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < .05) in serum HDL when compared with the control. However, rats fed steep water-coagulated tofu had the lowest serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, followed by those fed alum- and calcium chloride-coagulated tofu, respectively, while those fed with alum-coagulated tofu had the highest serum HDL level, closely followed by those fed steep water-coagulated tofu. It was therefore concluded that of all the coagulants, steep water appeared to be the most promising coagulant with regard to the production of tofu with a high hypocholesterolemic effect based on the low serum cholesterol and LDL levels and high HDL level.

  1. Coagulation equations with gelation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, E.M.; Ernst, M.H.; Ziff, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Smoluchowski's equation for rapid coagulation is used to describe the kinetics of gelation, in which the coagulation kernel K/sub i/j models the bonding mechanism. For different classes of kernels we derive criteria for the occurrences of gelation, and obtain critical exponents in the pre- and postgelation stage in terms of the model parameters; we calculate bounds on the time of gelation t/sub c/, and give an exact postgelation solution for the model K/sub i/j = (ij)/sup ..omega../ (..omega..>1/2) and K/sub i/j = ..cap alpha../sup i/+j (..cap alpha..>1). For the model K/sub i/j = i/sup ..omega../+j/sup ..omega../ (..omega..<1, without gelation) initial solutions are given. It is argued that the kernel K/sub i/japprox. (ij)/sup ..omega../ with ..omega..approx. =1-1/d (d is dimensionality) effectively models the sol-gel transformation is polymerizing systems and approximately accounts for the effects of cross-linking and steric hindrance neglected in the classical theory of Flory and Stockmayer (..omega.. = 1). For all ..omega.. the exponents, tau = ..omega..+3/2 and sigma = ..omega..-1/2, ..gamma.. = (3/2-..omega..)/(..omega..-1/2) and ..beta.. = 1, characterize the size distribution, at the slightly below the gel point, under the assumption that scaling is valid.

  2. Determination of steroid hormones in fish tissues by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2017-12-15

    Steroid hormones produce adverse effects on biota as well as bioaccumulation in fish and seafood, making it necessary to develop methodologies to evaluate these compounds in samples related to the food chain. This work presents an analytical method for evaluating 15 steroid hormones in fish tissue. It is based on microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MAE-SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed method shows appropriate detection limits (0.14-49.0ngg(-1)), recoveries in the range of 50% and good repeatability. After optimization, the method was applied to different tissues from two small fishes of the Canary Islands that constitute an important level of the food web (Boops boops and Sphoeroides marmoratus) and were exposed to the outfall of the Las Palmas de Gran Canaria wastewater treatment plant. The concentrations of eight detected compounds ranged from below the quantification limits to 3.95μgg(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation program for wastewater coagulation.

    PubMed

    Ratnaweera, H; Lei, L; Lindholm, O

    2002-01-01

    The lack of comprehensive simulation models for wastewater coagulation is one of the obstacles to achieving optimal coagulant dosing. Two approaches for developing a model to describe the coagulation process are presented. The comprehensiveness in describing the influent quality with several parameters, rather than with one parameter, is identified to give high efficiency in dosing models based on algorithms constructed using the partial least squares method. The concept was tested on two full-scale wastewater treatment plants, with coagulant savings and effluent quality improvements. Significant differences were observed with the increase of online parameters in the models. The second approach is based on distribution of coagulant for particle and phosphate removal processes and is discussed for inert fractions. The concept is integrated into existing simulation software as a module. The calibration results and dosage predictions are demonstrated.

  4. Analysis of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan in decomposed skeletal tissues by microwave assisted extraction, microplate solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (MAE-MPSPE-GCMS).

    PubMed

    Fraser, Candice D; Cornthwaite, Heather M; Watterson, James H

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of decomposed skeletal tissues for dextromethorphan (DXM) and dextrorphan (DXT) using microwave assisted extraction (MAE), microplate solid-phase extraction (MPSPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. Rats (n = 3) received 100 mg/kg DXM (i.p.) and were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation roughly 20 min post-dose. Remains decomposed to skeleton outdoors and vertebral bones were recovered, cleaned, and pulverized. Pulverized bone underwent MAE using methanol as an extraction solvent in a closed microwave system, followed by MPSPE and GC-MS. Analyte stability under MAE conditions was assessed and found to be stable for at least 60 min irradiation time. The majority (>90%) of each analyte was recovered after 15 min. The MPSPE-GCMS method was fit to a quadratic response (R(2)  > 0.99), over the concentration range 10-10 000 ng⋅mL(-1) , with coefficients of variation <20% in triplicate analysis. The MPSPE-GCMS method displayed a limit of detection of 10 ng⋅mL(-1) for both analytes. Following MAE for 60 min (80 °C, 1200 W), MPSPE-GCMS analysis of vertebral bone of DXM-exposed rats detected both analytes in all samples (DXM: 0.9-1.5 µg⋅g(-1) ; DXT: 0.5-1.8 µg⋅g(-1) ). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard M; Monga, Manoj; Elliott, Sean P; Macdonald, Roderick; Langsjoen, Jens; Tacklind, James; Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-09-12

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been the gold-standard treatment for alleviating urinary symptoms and improving urinary flow in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the morbidity of TURP approaches 20%, and less invasive techniques have been developed for treating BPH. Preliminary data suggest that microwave thermotherapy, which delivers microwave energy to produce coagulation necrosis in prostatic tissue, is a safe, effective treatment for BPH. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of microwave thermotherapy techniques for treating men with symptomatic benign prostatic obstruction. Randomized controlled trials were identified from The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, bibliographies of retrieved articles, reviews, technical reports, and by contacting relevant expert trialists and microwave manufacturers. All randomized controlled trials evaluating transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) for men with symptomatic BPH were eligible for this review. Comparison groups could include transurethral resection of the prostate, minimally invasive prostatectomy techniques, sham thermotherapy procedures, and medications. Outcome measures included urinary symptoms, urinary function, prostate volume, mortality, morbidity, and retreatment. Two review authors independently identified potentially relevant abstracts and then assessed the full papers for inclusion. Two review authors independently abstracted study design, baseline characteristics, and outcomes data and assessed methodological quality using a standard form. We attempted to obtain missing data from authors or sponsors, or both. In this update, we identified no new randomized comparisons of TUMT that provided evaluable effectiveness data. Fifteen studies involving 1585 patients met the inclusion criteria, including six comparisons of microwave thermotherapy with TURP, eight comparisons with sham thermotherapy procedures, and one comparison with an alpha

  6. Autoantibodies to coagulation factors: from pathophysiology to diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cugno, Massimo; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Tedeschi, Alberto; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies may develop against coagulation factors altering their function or promoting their rapid clearance. In non-congenitally deficient patients, they are usually in association with autoimmune diseases, malignancies, pregnancy or advanced age. The possible development of coagulation factor autoantibodies should be considered when a patient presents with bleeding symptoms without any prior bleeding diathesis. The most common disorder associated with coagulation factor autoantibodies is acquired factor VIII deficiency, which is characterized by hemorrhages involving soft tissues, muscles and skin; hemarthroses are less frequent than in the inherited form. Acquired deficiencies of von Willebrand factor and factor XIII due to autoantibodies are emerging conditions. Autoantibodies to the other coagulation factors may be associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from minimal or no bleeding to life-threatening conditions. The diagnostic approach begins with global coagulation tests: prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). In case of prolonged times, mixing studies (typically using normal plasma in a 1:1 proportion) should be performed. Specific factor and inhibitor assays, assessment of lupus anticoagulant and eventually enzyme immunoassays for specific anti-factor antibodies complete the evaluation. A prompt diagnosis of specific coagulation factor inhibitors is mandatory for starting an appropriate treatment aimed at overcoming the deficient factor, in case of bleeding, and, if possible, at the suppression of the autoantibody's production. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies. PMID:23889169

  8. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luize G; Monteiro, Robson Q

    2013-09-04

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies.

  9. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by 'quorum acting'.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Christian J; Boedicker, James Q; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Moayeri, Mahtab; Bian, Yao; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kline, Timothy R; Sylvestre, Patricia; Shen, Feng; Leppla, Stephen H; Tang, Wei-Jen; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-12-01

    Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation factors, they have not been shown to directly initiate the coagulation cascade that precedes clot formation. Here we demonstrated, using microfluidics and surface patterning, that the spatial localization of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax-causing pathogen, directly initiated coagulation of blood in minutes when bacterial cells were clustered. Coagulation of human blood by B. anthracis required secreted zinc metalloprotease InhA1, which activated prothrombin and factor X directly (not via factor XII or tissue factor pathways). We refer to this mechanism as 'quorum acting' to distinguish it from quorum sensing--it does not require a change in gene expression, it can be rapid and it can be independent of bacterium-to-bacterium communication.

  10. Microwave Ablation Using Four-Tine Antenna: Effects of Blood Flow Velocity, Vessel Location, and Total Displacement on Porous Hepatic Cancer Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaichanyut, Montree; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan

    2016-01-01

    This research is concerned with microwave ablation analyses using a 2.45 GHz four-tine (4T) antenna for hepatic cancer tissue. In the study, three-dimensional finite-element models were utilized to examine the tissue temperature distributions during and after MW ablation. A preliminary study was first carried out with regard to the specific absorption rates along the 4T antenna insertion depths and the temperature distributions inside the solid and porous liver models with either 3 cm-in-diameter tumor or 5 cm-in-diameter tumor. Based on the preliminary results, the porous models were further examined for the effect of varying blood flow velocities (0-200 cm/s) with a 1 cm-in-diameter blood vessel next to the antenna and also for the effect of vessel-antenna locations (0, 0.8, and 1.3 cm) with a constant blood flow velocity of 16.7 cm/s. All scenarios were simulated under temperature-controlled mode (90°C). The findings revealed that the blood flow velocity and vessel location influence the ablation effectiveness and that increased blood flow inhibits heat transfer to the vessel wall. At the nearest and farthest vessel-antenna locations (0 and 1.3 cm), approximately 90.3% and 99.55% of the cancer cells were eradicated except for the areas adjacent to the vessel. In addition, total tissue thermal displacement is 5.9 mm which is 6.59% of the total length of the overall model.

  11. Prospective 1-year follow-up pilot study of CT-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Sébastien; Dubut, Jonathan; Nueffer, Jean-Philippe; Chaigneau, Loic; Vidal, Chrystelle; Kastler, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this work were to assess the feasibility, efficacy, short-term outcome and safety of microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of malignant musculoskeletal tumours. Sixteen bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours were prospectively included and were treated by CT-guided MWA. The percentage and size of necrosis of the lesions were measured by contrast-enhanced MRI before the procedure and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. mRECIST criteria were used to assess tumour response. Procedural success was defined as ≥80 % necrosis. Patient pain (as assessed using a numeric visual scale (NVS)) and side effects were noted. Six osteolytic metastases, five osteoblastic metastases and five soft tissue sarcomas were treated. At 1 month, 40 % were treated completely, the percentage of necrosis was 85 ± 30.4 %, and the success rate was 80 %. At 3, 6 and 12 months the success rate was 80 %, 76.9 % and 63.6 %, respectively. At 12 months, four lesions (36.3 %) still had no recurrence. Mean NVS during the procedure was 3.5 ± 2.8. One patient had transitory sciatica without neurological deficit that was treated medically. CT-guided MWA of bone and soft-tissue malignant tumours is efficient, well tolerated and has good short-term anti-cancer effects. • CT-guided MWA is efficient in treating musculoskeletal malignant tumours. • This prospective pilot study showed MWA induces high percentages of tumour necrosis. • MWA has good short-term anti-cancer effects. • MWA has healing potential when lesions can be completely necrosed. • CT-guided MWA under equimolar mixture of oxygen-nitrous oxide inhalation is well tolerated.

  12. Total iodine quantification in fluids and tissues from iodine- or iodide-supplemented rats by ion chromatography following microwave-assisted digestion.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Guadalupe; Muñoz-Torres, Carolina; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, and several reports have shown that iodine per se is implicated in the physiopathology of other organs. Innovative ion chromatography detection following a four-step temperature ramp microwave digestion in 25-50 mM nitric acid was developed to measure total iodine in biological fluids and tissue samples from female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with 0.05% molecular iodine (I2) or 0.05% potassium iodide (I(-)) in drinking water. The reported method allows the measurement of total iodine with a limit of quantification of 13.7 μg L(-1), recoveries of 96.3-100.3%, and intra- and inter-assay variations, of 3.5% and 7.4% respectively. Analysis of biological fluids showed that after 48 hours, iodine-supplemented animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total iodine in both serum and urine compared with those supplemented with iodide. The half-life of iodine in serum and urine measured over the first 48 h showed similar patterns for both the I2 (7.89 and 7.76 hours) and I(-) (8.27 and 8.90 hours) supplements. Differential uptake patterns were observed in tissues after 6 days of supplements, with I(-) preferentially retained by thyroid, lactating mammary gland, and milk, and a slightly but significantly higher capture of I2 in pituitary, ovary, and virgin mammary gland. We developed a rapid, selective, and accurate digestion method to process fluid and tissue samples that permits reproducible measurements of total iodine by ion chromatography; iodine or iodide supplement show a similar serum and urine half-life, but organ-specific uptake depends on the chemical form of the iodine supplement.

  13. Microwave Ablation Using Four-Tine Antenna: Effects of Blood Flow Velocity, Vessel Location, and Total Displacement on Porous Hepatic Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chaichanyut, Montree

    2016-01-01

    This research is concerned with microwave ablation analyses using a 2.45 GHz four-tine (4T) antenna for hepatic cancer tissue. In the study, three-dimensional finite-element models were utilized to examine the tissue temperature distributions during and after MW ablation. A preliminary study was first carried out with regard to the specific absorption rates along the 4T antenna insertion depths and the temperature distributions inside the solid and porous liver models with either 3 cm-in-diameter tumor or 5 cm-in-diameter tumor. Based on the preliminary results, the porous models were further examined for the effect of varying blood flow velocities (0–200 cm/s) with a 1 cm-in-diameter blood vessel next to the antenna and also for the effect of vessel-antenna locations (0, 0.8, and 1.3 cm) with a constant blood flow velocity of 16.7 cm/s. All scenarios were simulated under temperature-controlled mode (90°C). The findings revealed that the blood flow velocity and vessel location influence the ablation effectiveness and that increased blood flow inhibits heat transfer to the vessel wall. At the nearest and farthest vessel-antenna locations (0 and 1.3 cm), approximately 90.3% and 99.55% of the cancer cells were eradicated except for the areas adjacent to the vessel. In addition, total tissue thermal displacement is 5.9 mm which is 6.59% of the total length of the overall model. PMID:27642364

  14. Thermophoretically modified aerosol Brownian coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Zugasti, Manuel; Rosner, Daniel E.

    2011-08-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation rates resulting from continuum-regime Brownian coagulation in the presence of size-dependent particle thermophoresis is developed and explored here. We are motivated by a wide variety of applications in which particle Brownian coagulation occurs in a nonisothermal gas where differential thermophoretic drift contributes to, but does not dominate, the encounter frequency between suspended spherical particles (e.g., mist droplets) of different sizes. We employ a Smoluchowski-like population-balance to demonstrate the relative roles of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis in shaping the short and long time (asymptotic or “coagulation-aged”) mist-droplet size distribution (DSD) function. To carry out these combined-mechanism DSD-evolution calculations we developed a rational “coupled” coagulation rate constant (allowing for simultaneous Brownian diffusion and relative thermophoretic drift) rather than simply adding the relevant individual coagulation “kernels.” Dimensionless criteria are provided to facilitate precluding other coagulation mechanisms not considered here (such as simultaneous sedimentation or Marangoni-flow-induced mist-droplet phoresis) and potential complications not included in the present model [as finite-rate coalescence, initial departures from the continuum (Stokes drag-) limit, and even dense (nonideal) vapor effects].

  15. Thermophoretically modified aerosol brownian coagulation.

    PubMed

    Arias-Zugasti, Manuel; Rosner, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation rates resulting from continuum-regime brownian coagulation in the presence of size-dependent particle thermophoresis is developed and explored here. We are motivated by a wide variety of applications in which particle brownian coagulation occurs in a nonisothermal gas where differential thermophoretic drift contributes to, but does not dominate, the encounter frequency between suspended spherical particles (e.g., mist droplets) of different sizes. We employ a Smoluchowski-like population-balance to demonstrate the relative roles of brownian diffusion and thermophoresis in shaping the short and long time (asymptotic or "coagulation-aged") mist-droplet size distribution (DSD) function. To carry out these combined-mechanism DSD-evolution calculations we developed a rational "coupled" coagulation rate constant (allowing for simultaneous brownian diffusion and relative thermophoretic drift) rather than simply adding the relevant individual coagulation "kernels." Dimensionless criteria are provided to facilitate precluding other coagulation mechanisms not considered here (such as simultaneous sedimentation or Marangoni-flow-induced mist-droplet phoresis) and potential complications not included in the present model [as finite-rate coalescence, initial departures from the continuum (Stokes drag-) limit, and even dense (nonideal) vapor effects].

  16. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Kim, Jaehan; Abuawad, Ahlam; Naeem, Mubeena; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure”) THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ’s ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p < 0.001). Mechanistically, while THQ had minimal to no effect on factor IIa and Xa inactivation, it strongly reduced the effects of TNF-α on NF-κB elements (p < 0.001). THQ has a minimal effect on basal coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies. PMID:27043539

  17. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Kim, Jaehan; Abuawad, Ahlam; Naeem, Mubeena; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-03-30

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased ("pure") THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ's ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p < 0.001). Mechanistically, while THQ had minimal to no effect on factor IIa and Xa inactivation, it strongly reduced the effects of TNF-α on NF-κB elements (p < 0.001). THQ has a minimal effect on basal coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies.

  18. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies. (b...

  1. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-08-01

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used.

  2. Microwave diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, David

    Plasma treatment of biological tissues has tremendous potential due to the wide range of applications. Most plasmas have gas temperatures which greatly exceed room temperature. These are often utilized in electro-surgery for cutting and coagulating tissue. Another type of plasma, referred to as cold atmospheric plasma, or CAP, is characterized by heavy particle temperatures which are at or near room temperature. Due to this lack of thermal effect, CAP may provide less invasive medical procedures. Additionally, CAP have been demonstrated to be effective at targeting cancer cells while minimizing damage to the surrounding tissue. A recently fabricated Microwave Electron Density Device (MEDD) utilizes microwave scattering on small atmospheric plasmas to determine the electron plasma density. The MEDD can be utilized on plasmas which range from a fraction of a millimeter to several centimeters at atmospheric pressure when traditional methods cannot be applied. Microwave interferometry fails due to the small size of the plasma relative to the microwave wavelength which leads to diffraction and negligible phase change; electrostatic probes introduce very strong perturbation and are associated with difficulties of application in strongly-collisional atmospheric conditions; and laser Thomson scattering is not sensitive enough to measure plasma densities less than 1012 cm-3. The first part of this dissertation provides an overview of two types of small atmospheric plasma objects namely CAPs and plasmas utilized in the electro-surgery. It then goes on to describe the fabrication, testing and calibration of the MEDD facility. The second part of this dissertation is focused on the application of the MEDD and other diagnostic techniques to both plasma objects. A series of plasma images that illustrate the temporal evolution of a discharge created by an argon electrosurgical device operating in the coagulation mode and its behavior was analyzed. The discharge of the argon

  3. Determination of methylmercury in fish tissue by gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, H E; Leonel, L V

    2000-03-01

    The detection of methylmercury species (MeHg) in fish tissue was investigated. Samples were digested with KOH-methanol and acidified prior to extraction with methylene chloride. MeHg was back-extracted from the organic phase into water. An aliquot of this aqueous solution (buffered to pH 5) was subjected to derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) and then extracted with toluene. The organic phase containing MePhHg was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) which is on-line with a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MIP-AED). The quantification limit was about 0.6 microg/g and 0.1 microg/g of MeHg (as Hg) for 0.08 g of freeze-dried fish powder and 0.5 g of fresh samples, respectively. Two certified reference materials, CRM 464 (tuna fish) from Community Bureau of Reference-BCR and DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) from National Research Council Canada-NRC were selected for checking the accuracy of the method. This methodology was applied to the determination of MeHg in some kinds of fish from the Carmo river with alluvial gold recovery activities ("garimpos") in Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  4. Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, D; Beilin, Y

    2015-12-01

    The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more rare acute fatty liver of pregnancy, with a focus on their implications for neuraxial anaesthesia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Proteins influencing the blood coagulation].

    PubMed

    Alberio, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    This review describes some natural proteins, which can be employed, either as factor concentrates derived from human plasma or as recombinant drug, to modulate the coagulation system. I will address some biochemical characteristics and the physiological role of von Willebrand factor, the coagulation factors of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and the physiological anticoagulant protein C. In addition, I will detail the pharmacological compounds, which are available for influencing or substituting the coagulation proteins: desmopressin (DDAVP), single coagulation factor concentrates, prothrombin complex concentrates, and protein C concentrate. In particular, I will address some treatment topics of general medical interest, such as the treatment of massive bleeding, the correction of the coagulopathy induced by vitamin K-antagonists in patients with cerebral haemorrhage, and of the coagulopathy of meningococcemia. Finally, I will describe some properties and practical clinical applications of the recombinant anticoagulans lepirudin and bivalirudin, which are derived from hirudin, the natural anticoagulant of the medical leech.

  6. Whole blood coagulation analyzers.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Whole blood Coagulation analyzers (WBCAs) are widely used point-of-care (POC) testing devices found primarily in cardiothoracic surgical suites and cardia catheterization laboratories. Most of these devices can perform a number of coagulation tests that provide information about a patient's blood clotting status. Clinicians use the results of the WBCA tests, which are available minutes after applying a blood sample, primarily to monitor the effectiveness of heparin therapy--an anticoagulation therapy used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, angioplasty, hemodialysis, and other clinical procedures. In this study we evaluated five WBCAs from four suppliers. Our testing focused on the applications for which WBCAs are primarily used: Monitoring moderate to high heparin levels, as would be required, for example, during CPB are angioplasty. For this function, WCBAs are typically used to perform an activated clotting time (ACT) test or, as one supplier refers to its test, a heparin management test (HMT). All models included in this study offered an ACT test or an HMT. Monitoring low heparin levels, as would be required, for example,during hemodialysis. For this function, WBCAs would normally be used to perform either a low-range ACT (LACT) test or a whole blood activated partial thromboplastin time (WBAPTT) test. Most of the evaluated units could perform at least one of these tests; one unit did not offer either test and was therefore not rated for this application. We rated and ranked each evaluated model separately for each of these two applications. In addition, we provided a combined rating and ranking that considers the units' appropriateness for performing both application. We based our conclusions on a unit's performance and humans factor design, as determined by our testing, and on its five-year life-cycle cost, as determined by our net present value (NPV) analysis. While we rated all evaluated units acceptable for each appropriate category, we did

  7. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  8. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  9. Demonstration of the extrinsic coagulation pathway in teleostei: Identification of zebrafish coagulation factor VII

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, John; Templer, Michael; Gregory, Michael; Hanumanthaiah, Ravikumar; Troyer, Dean; Phan, Thao; Thankavel, Bharath; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2001-01-01

    It is not known whether the mammalian mechanism of coagulation initiation is conserved in fish. Identification of factor VII is critical in providing evidence for such a mechanism. A cDNA was cloned from a zebrafish (teleost) library that predicted a protein with sequence similarity to human factor VII. Factor VII was shown to be present in zebrafish blood and liver by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Immunodepletion of factor VII from zebrafish plasma selectively inhibited thromboplastin-triggered thrombin generation. Heterologous expression of zebrafish factor VII demonstrated a secreted protein (50 kDa) that reconstituted thromboplastin-triggered thrombin generation in immunodepleted zebrafish plasma. These results suggest conservation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway between zebrafish and humans and add credence to the zebrafish as a model for mammalian hemostasis. The structure of zebrafish factor VIIa predicted by homology modeling was consistent with the overall three-dimensional structure of human factor VIIa. However, amino acid disparities were found in the epidermal growth factor-2/serine protease regions that are present in the human tissue factor–factor VIIa contact surface, suggesting a structural basis for the species specificity of this interaction. In addition, zebrafish factor VII demonstrates that the Gla-EGF-EGF-SP domain structure, which is common to coagulation factors VII, IX, X, and protein C, was present before the radiation of the teleosts from the tetrapods. Identification of zebrafish factor VII significantly narrows the evolutionary window for development of the vertebrate coagulation cascade and provides insight into the structural basis for species specificity in the tissue factor–factor VIIa interaction. PMID:11459993

  10. Coagulation Parameters in Wilson Disease.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Weber, Laura; Gotthardt, Daniel; Seessle, Jessica; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Weiss, Karl Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Alterations of copper metabolism have been associated with changes in coagulation factors. The aim of the present study was the analysis of coagulation factors in WD patients. 100 patients attending a tertiary WD outpatient clinic were analyzed in a prospective cross sectional cohort study. Out of peripheral venous blood samples coagulation factors were assessed including: full blood count, INR, partial thromboplastin time (PTT), clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, von Willebrand factor/-antigen, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, protein S, protein C, activated protein C (APC) resistance. Subgroup analyses of the blood tests were performed for sex, initial clinical presentation, WD treatment and liver function. Subgroup analysis by liver function showed decreased levels of factors II, V, VII and X. Subgroup analysis by gender or clinical course of the disease did not reveal significant coagulation changes. In patients treated with trientine significantly decreased levels of factors II, VII and antithrombin III and increased von Willebrand factor/-antigen levels were detected. Factor VIII levels were significantly reduced in patients receiving zinc. Although significant differences of some coagulation parameters in subgroup analysis were found, no clinically relevant alterations of the coagulation system in WD patients could be detected.

  11. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties of a novel zirconium-glycine complex coagulant with traditional coagulants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilin; Wu, Chunde; Wu, Yue; Hu, Caixia

    2014-05-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material zirconium-glycine complex (ZGC) was firstly used as a coagulant in a coagulation process to treat Pearl River raw water. Its coagulation performance was compared with commonly used aluminum (Al) coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), in terms of water quality parameters and floc properties. ZGC coagulation achieved higher removal of turbidity (93.8%) than other traditional coagulants. Charge neutralization was proven to act as a dominant mechanism during ZGC coagulation. The aggregated flocs with ZGC showed the fastest growth rate and good recovery ability compared with the other coagulants and achieved the largest floc size within 5 min. The ZGC coagulant can decrease the hydraulic retention time and increase removal efficiency.

  12. Coagulation-Flocculation Process in Landfill Leachate Treatment: Focus on Coagulants and Coagulants Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, M. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Yusoff, M. S.; Alrozi, R.; Neculai, O.

    2017-06-01

    In physico-chemical treatment, the separation of suspended particles from the liquid phase is usually accomplished by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Coagulation-flocculation processes have been widely used as alternative treatment to remove leachate pollutants such as BOD, COD, TSS, heavy metals, colour, and nitrogen compounds prior to other treatment methods. It is often coupled with treatment methods like biological process, chemical oxidation, adsorption or filtration to achieve desirable effluent quality. In spite of being economical, the dewatering and disposal of the precipitated sludge could be laborious and time-consuming. In this manuscript, brief discussions on coagulant and coagulants aid in landfill leachate treatment is discussed with respect to their mechanism.

  13. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  14. Hydrolysis of polyaluminum chloride prior to coagulation: Effects on coagulation behavior and implications for improving coagulation performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Wang, Jun; Liu, Dan; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Xiaolin; Song, Boyu; Yue, Bing; Zhao, Kehui; Song, Yun

    2017-07-01

    The effects of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) hydrolysis prior to coagulation on both the coagulation zone and coagulation performance of a kaolin suspension were investigated by a novel jar test named the "reversed coagulation test". The tests showed that PACl hydrolysis prior to coagulation decreased the performance of charge neutralization coagulation in the case of short-time slow mixing (10min; G=15sec(-1)) and increased the optimal dosage for charge neutralization and sweep coagulation. Moreover, the hydrolysis time had insignificant effects on the size and zeta potential of PACl precipitates and the residual turbidity of the raw water. However, PACl hydrolysis prior to coagulation and the size of PACl precipitates had a negligible effect on the performance of sweep coagulation. The results imply that, in practice, preparing a PACl solution with deionized water, rather than tap water or the outlet water from a wastewater treatment unit, can significantly save PACl consumption and improve the performance of charge neutralization coagulation, while preparing the PACl solution with tap or outlet water would not affect the performance of sweep coagulation. In addition, the optimal rapid mixing intensity appears to be determined by a balance between the degree of coagulant hydrolysis before contacting the primary particles and the average size of flocs in the rapid mixing period. These results provide new insights into the role of PACl hydrolysis and will be useful for improving coagulation efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Coagulation disorders in the intensive care station].

    PubMed

    Hart, C; Spannagl, M

    2014-05-01

    Coagulation disorders are frequently encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are challenging due to a variety of potential etiologies. Critically ill patients with coagulation abnormalities may present with an increased risk of bleeding, show coagulation activation resulting in thromboembolism, or have no specific symptoms. Hemostatic abnormalities observed in ICU patients range from isolated thrombocytopenia or prolonged global clotting tests to complex and life-threatening coagulation defects. Successful management of coagulation disorders requires prompt and accurate identification of the underlying cause. This review describes the most frequently occurring diagnoses found in intensive care patients with thrombocytopenia and coagulation test abnormalities and summarizes appropriate diagnostic interventions and current approaches to differential diagnosis.

  16. Ultrasonic measurement of milk coagulation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, F.; Moudden, A.; Faiz, B.; Amghar, A.; Maze, G.; Montero de Espinosa, F.; Akhnak, M.

    2001-12-01

    Using a pulse reflection technique an ultrasonic system has been developed to monitor in situ the coagulation process of rennetted milk. The velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through coagulating milk were continuously monitored. The observed changes in ultrasonic velocity during coagulation were used to predict the coagulation time. The coagulation time is indicative of the transition from the enzymatic phase to the physicochemical phase. The determination of coagulation time has a decisive role in determining the qualities of the end product in cheesemaking.

  17. Advances of Coagulation Factor XIII

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Da-Yu; Wang, Shu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To provide a comprehensive literature review on roles of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) in coagulation, wound healing, neoplasm, bone metabolism, and pregnancy. Data Sources: All articles in PubMed with key words Coagulation factor XIII, wound, leukemia, tumor, bone, and pregnancy with published date from 2001 to 2016 were included in the study. Frequently cited publications before 2000 were also included. Study Selection: We reviewed the role of FXIII in biologic processes as documented in clinical, animal, and in vitro studies. Results: FXIII, a member of the transglutaminase (TG) family, plays key roles in various biological processes. Besides its well-known function in coagulation, the cross-linking of small molecules catalyzed by FXIII has been found in studies to help promote wound healing, improve bone metabolism, and prevent miscarriages. The study has also shown that FXIII concentration level differs in the blood of patients with leukemia and solid tumors and offers promises as a diagnostic indicator. Conclusions: FXIII has many more biologic functions besides being known as coagulation factor. The TG activity of FXIII contributes to several processes, including wound healing, bone extracellular matrix stabilization, and the interaction between embryo and decidua of uterus. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between FXIII and leukemia and solid tumors. PMID:28091415

  18. Interspecies differences in coagulation profile.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Spiel, Alexander; Quehenberger, Peter; Jilma, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    Many animals are used in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, but the relevance of animal models to human health is often questioned because of differences between species. The objective was to find an appropriate animal species, which mimics the coagulation profile in humans most adequately. Species differences in the coagulation profile with and without thrombin stimulation in vitro were assessed in whole blood by Rotation Thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Endogenous thrombin generation was measured in platelet-poor plasma. Measurements were performed in blood from five different species: humans, rats, pigs, sheep and rabbits. In humans and sheep, the clotting time (ROTEM) was in the same range with or without thrombin stimulation and a 100-fold lower dose of thrombin (0.002 IU) was required to cause a shortening in the clotting time as compared to rats, pigs and rabbits (0.2 IU) (p<0.05). Similarly, the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was in the same range in humans and sheep. The maximum clot firmness with or without thrombin stimulation was similar in rabbits and humans. The maximum lysis with or without thrombin stimulation was similar in humans and pigs. Significant species differences exist in the coagulation profile with or without thrombin stimulation. Most importantly, sheep had a clotting time most similar to humans and could thus be a suitable species for translational coagulation studies. Moreover, our findings confirm the potential usefulness of pigs as an experimental species to study fibrinolytic pathway and support the usefulness of rabbits as a species for examining platelets.

  19. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue to treat ventricular tachycardia and other arrhythmias while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In operation, microwave energy between about 1 Gigahertz and 12 Gigahertz is applied to monopole microwave radiator having a surface wave limiter. A test setup provides physical testing of microwave radiators to determine the temperature profile created in actual heart tissue or ersatz heart tissue. Saline solution pumped over the heart tissue with a peristaltic pump simulates blood flow. Optical temperature sensors disposed at various tissue depths within the heart tissue detect the temperature profile without creating any electromagnetic interference. The method may be used to produce a desired temperature profile in other body tissues reachable by catheter such as tumors and the like.

  20. Transcatheter Antenna For Microwave Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor); Karasack, Vincent G. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Pieper, Carl F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue to treat ventricular tachycardia and other arrhythmias while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In operation, microwave energy between about 1 Gigahertz and 12 Gigahertz is applied to monopole microwave radiation having a surface wave limiter. A test setup provides physical testing of microwave radiators to determine the temperature profile created in actual heart tissue or ersatz heart tissue. Saline solution pumped over the heart tissue with a peristaltic pump simulates blood flow. Optical temperature sensors disposed at various tissue depths within the heart tissue detect the temperature profile without creating any electromagnetic interference. The method may he used to produce a desired temperature profile in other body tissues reachable by catheter such as tumors and the like.

  1. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  2. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  3. Coagulation assays and anticoagulant monitoring.

    PubMed

    Funk, Dorothy M Adcock

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy, including conventional agents and a variety of new oral, fast-acting drugs, is prescribed for millions of patients annually. Each anticoagulant varies in its effect on routine and specialty coagulation assays and each drug may require distinct laboratory assay(s) to measure drug concentration or activity. This review provides an overview of the assorted assays that can measure anticoagulant drug concentration or activity and includes key assay interferences. The effect of these conventional and new anticoagulant agents on specialty coagulation assays used to evaluate for bleeding or clotting disorders, and whether this impact is physiological or factitious, is included. Also provided is a short review of superwarfarin poisoning and features distinguishing this from warfarin overdose. Knowledge of clinically significant pearls and pitfalls pertinent to coagulation assays in relation to anticoagulant therapy are important to optimize patient care.

  4. Tissue Factor, Protease Activated Receptors and Pathologic Heart Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor is the primary initiator of coagulation cascade and plays an essential role in hemostasis and thrombosis. In addition, tissue factor and coagulation proteases contribute to the many cellular responses via activation of protease activated receptors. Heart is the organ demonstrating high levels of constitutive tissue factor expression. This review focuses on the role of tissue factor, coagulation proteases and protease activated receptors in heart hemostasis and the pathological heart remodeling associated with myocardial infarction, viral myocarditis and hypertension. PMID:25104210

  5. Improved ultrastructural preservation of rat ciliary body after high pressure freezing and freeze substitution: a perspective view based upon comparison with tissue processed according to a conventional protocol or by osmium tetroxide/microwave fixation.

    PubMed

    Eggli, E S; Graber, W

    1994-09-01

    Conventional fixation of the delicate, highly folded rat ciliary body and its iridial extension, as well as of vitreal structures, is associated with the induction of a number of artifacts, thus limiting the reliability of morphological interpretations. Improved ultrastructural preservation may be achieved by microwave heating in combination with osmium tetroxide fixation. This protocol, although simple and cheap, yields results, particularly with respect to the extracellular matrix compartment between inner and outer ciliary epithelial cells, which are not greatly inferior to those obtained by implementing the sophisticated high pressure freezing and freeze substitution technique. The latter affords good to very good ultrastructural preservation of epithelium and stromal components, such as blood vessels, neural elements, smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, and free cells, up to a depth of 50-100 microns from the tissue surface. Its superiority over osmium tetroxide/microwave fixation is revealed in the cytoplasmic, intraorganellar, and vitreal matrix compartments, which incur no obvious losses.

  6. The Inflammatory Actions of Coagulant and Fibrinolytic Proteases in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schuliga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aside from their role in hemostasis, coagulant and fibrinolytic proteases are important mediators of inflammation in diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. The blood circulating zymogens of these proteases enter damaged tissue as a consequence of vascular leak or rupture to become activated and contribute to extravascular coagulation or fibrinolysis. The coagulants, factor Xa (FXa), factor VIIa (FVIIa), tissue factor, and thrombin, also evoke cell-mediated actions on structural cells (e.g., fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) or inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages) via the proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Plasmin, the principle enzymatic mediator of fibrinolysis, also forms toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) activating fibrin degradation products (FDPs) and can release latent-matrix bound growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Furthermore, the proteases that convert plasminogen into plasmin (e.g., urokinase plasminogen activator) evoke plasmin-independent proinflammatory actions involving coreceptor activation. Selectively targeting the receptor-mediated actions of hemostatic proteases is a strategy that may be used to treat inflammatory disease without the bleeding complications of conventional anticoagulant therapies. The mechanisms by which proteases of the coagulant and fibrinolytic systems contribute to extravascular inflammation in disease will be considered in this review. PMID:25878399

  7. Lutein recovery from Chlorella sp. ESP-6 with coagulants.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Rhesa Pramudita; Chang, Yin-Ru; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-07-01

    Production of algal lutein included cell cultivation, biomass harvesting, cell wall disruption, and subsequent purification if needed. This work cultivated Chlorella sp. ESP-6 cells in photobioreactor to a biomass content of 1.1 gl(-1) and then the freezing-grinding, ultrasonic treatment (20 and 42kHz) and microwave treatment were used to disrupt the cell walls for recover intracellular lutein. The grinding recovered more lutein than ultrasound or microwave pretreatment. Single coagulation using >30 mgl(-1) chitosan or dual-conditioning using 10 mg l(-1) polyaluminum chloride and 10 mgl(-1) chitosan effectively enhance sedimentation and membrane filtration efficiency of algal suspensions. However, the presence of coagulants lowers the lutein yield from algal biomass in the subsequent 20 kHz ultrasound treatment and purification process. Simulation results revealed affine adsorption of lutein onto chitosan molecules via hydroxyl-amine interaction. The possible drawback by pre-treatment stage should be considered together with the subsequent recovery stage in whole process assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.C.; Liang, S.; Wang, H.C.; Beuhler, M.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The possible use of enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal was examined at the facilities of a California utility in 1992 and 1993. The tests were conducted at bench, pilot, and demonstration scales, with two source waters. Alum and ferric chloride, with cationic polymer, were investigated at various influence arsenic concentrations. The investigators concluded that for the source waters tested, enhanced coagulation could be effective for arsenic removal and that less ferric chloride than alum, on a weight basis, is needed to achieve the same removal.

  9. Depinning as a coagulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İşeri, M.; Kaspar, D.; Mungan, M.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a one-dimensional model that describes the depinning of an elastic string of particles in a strongly pinning, phase-disordered periodic environment under a slowly increasing force. The evolution towards depinning occurs by the triggering of avalanches in regions of activity which are at first isolated, but later grow and merge. For large system sizes the dynamically critical behavior is dominated by the coagulation of these active regions. Our analysis and numerical simulations show that the evolution of the sizes of active regions is well described by a Smoluchowski coagulation equation, allowing us to predict correlation lengths and avalanche sizes in terms of certain moments of the size distribution.

  10. [Coagulation behavior of Al13 species].

    PubMed

    Hu, Cheng-zhi; Liu, Hui-juan; Qu, Jiu-hui

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation behavior of Al13 species was examined in synthetic water with high alkalinity and high humic acid concentration from viewpoint of the transformation of Al hydrolysis products during the coagulation process. The results indicated that coagulation efficiency of Al coagulants positively correlated with the content of Al13 in the coagulation process. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was more effective than polyaluminum chloride (PACI) in removing turbidity and dissolved organic matter in the synthetic water because AlCl3 could not only generate Al13 species but also function as pH control agent in the coagulation process. During coagulation process pH control can improve coagulation process through regulating Al speciation, and AlCl3 benefited most from pH control.

  11. Theoretical Modeling for Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Punit

    2010-01-01

    Thermal tissue ablation is an interventional procedure increasingly being used for treatment of diverse medical conditions. Microwave ablation is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of large soft tissue targets in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. Theoretical models of the ablation process are a powerful tool for predicting the temperature profile in tissue and resultant tissue damage created by ablation devices. These models play an important role in the design and optimization of devices for microwave tissue ablation. Furthermore, they are a useful tool for exploring and planning treatment delivery strategies. This review describes the status of theoretical models developed for microwave tissue ablation. It also reviews current challenges, research trends and progress towards development of accurate models for high temperature microwave tissue ablation. PMID:20309393

  12. Microwave processing: A boon for oral pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Kango, Prasad G; Deshmukh, RS

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research in oral and maxillofacial pathology has unlimited potential. We use every technology available to us for better and faster reliable diagnosis. But in most institutions, private laboratories and multispecialty hospitals, tissue processing takes considerable time, and therefore delays the diagnosis, which is required in urgent cases. We, in this institution, conducted a study to hasten the processing by using a simple kitchen microwave. Aim: To analyze tissue sections processed by microwave as compared to the gold standard of conventional processing. Settings and design: Studies published from 1970 till 2008, used body tissues such as brain, liver, kidney, heart, and lungs, for microwave processing. Oral tissues were not processed in microwave till now, except one study by Dr Shivaparthasundaram et al., in 2008. This is the second such study that used a sample size of 50 cases. Materials and Methods: A kitchen microwave was used for irradiation of the tissues. Conventional processing was carried out as per departmental protocol. A total of 50 microwave-coded slides were mixed with 50 conventional slides. All 100 slides were evaluated by four different pathologists. Statistical analysis: The result was subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test. Result and Conclusion: It was found that to make a diagnosis, microwave-processed tissue were at par with the conventional technique. Thus, it is time to move on from conventional processing to microwave processing to yield faster and reliable results. PMID:21731271

  13. A Multiscale Model of Venous Thrombus Formation with Surface-Mediated Control of Blood Coagulation Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiliang; Lioi, Joshua; Mu, Jian; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.; Liu, Xiaomin; Chen, Danny Z.; Rosen, Elliot D.; Alber, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A combination of the extended multiscale model, new image processing algorithms, and biological experiments is used for studying the role of Factor VII (FVII) in venous thrombus formation. A detailed submodel of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation is introduced within the framework of the multiscale model to provide a detailed description of coagulation cascade. Surface reactions of the extrinsic coagulation pathway on membranes of platelets are studied under different flow conditions. It is shown that low levels of FVII in blood result in a significant delay in thrombin production, demonstrating that FVII plays an active role in promoting thrombus development at an early stage. PMID:20441735

  14. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Henri Mh; van der Voort, Danielle; Ten Cate, Hugo

    2004-12-01

    The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factor - factor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin.The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced atherosclerosis systemic and

  15. The coagulation profile of preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Keren-Politansky, Anat; Breizman, Tatiana; Brenner, Benjamin; Sarig, Galit; Drugan, Arieh

    2014-04-01

    Hypercoagulation was suggested to be involved in preterm birth etiology; however, the coagulation state of preterm parturients remains unelucidated. The study aim was to evaluate the haemostatic system of pregnant women with premature uterine contractions (PUC). The cohort study population consisted of 76 healthy pregnant women admitted with regular PUC. The study group included 38 women who experienced preterm birth; 14 of them had preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The control group included 38 women who eventually had term delivery. Groups were matched for maternal age, number of births and gestational age at admission. Blood samples were tested for haemostatic parameters and coagulation activation markers. Significantly shorter PT and aPTT were documented in the study compared to control group (25.7±2 vs. 27.4±2.7seconds, P=0.003, and 9.96±0.5 vs. 10.1±0.4seconds, P=0.05, respectively), although differences in absolute values were small. There was no significant difference between the two groups in levels of: fibrinogen, D-dimer, protein C-global, free protein S antigen, factor VIII activity, Von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, prothrombin fragments F1+2 (PT F1+2), tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Women with PPROM had significantly lower PT F1+2 levels compared to those who had preterm delivery with intact membranes (351±99 vs. 561±242pmol/L, P=0.003). Shortened PT and aPTT, reflecting increased thrombotic activity in maternal plasma, could serve as a marker of real preterm labor in women with premature uterine contractions. Further prospective studies in a larger cohort are warranted to validate these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  17. Protocols to Assess Coagulation Following In Vitro Infection with Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is upregulated in macrophages following infection of nonhuman primates with the filovirus Ebola virus...Jahrling PB, Larsen T, Geisbert JB, Paragas J, Young HA, Fredeking TM, Rote WE, Vlasuk GP. 2003. Treatment of Ebola virus infection with a recombinant...coagulation abnormalities in ebola hemorrhagic fever: overexpression of tissue factor in primate monocytes/macrophages is a key event. J Infect Dis 188:1618

  18. A plasma proteolysis pathway comprising blood coagulation proteases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Li, Yun; Bhattacharya, Arup; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2016-07-05

    Coagulation factors are essential for hemostasis. Here, we show that these factors also team up to degrade plasma proteins that are unrelated to hemostasis. Prolidase, SRC and amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42) are used as probes. Each probe, upon entering the blood circulation, binds and activates factor XII (FXII), triggering the intrinsic and common coagulation cascades, which in turn activate factor VII, a component of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. Activated factor VII (FVIIa) rapidly degrades the circulating probes. Therefore, FXII and FVIIa serve as the sensor/initiator and executioner, respectively, for the proteolysis pathway. Moreover, activation of this pathway by one probe leads to the degradation of all three probes. Significant activation of this pathway follows tissue injury and may also occur in other disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, of which Aβ1-42 is a key driver. However, enoxaparin, a clinically used anticoagulant, inhibits the proteolysis pathway and elevates plasma levels of the probes. Enoxaparin may also mitigate potential impact of activators of the proteolysis pathway on coagulation. Our results suggest that the proteolysis pathway is important for maintaining low levels of various plasma proteins. Our finding that enoxaparin inhibits this pathway provides a means to control it. Inhibition of this pathway may facilitate the development of disease biomarkers and protein therapeutics, e.g., plasma Aβ1-42 as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease or recombinant human prolidase as an antitumor agent.

  19. Defective thrombus formation in mice lacking coagulation factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Renné, Thomas; Pozgajová, Miroslava; Grüner, Sabine; Schuh, Kai; Pauer, Hans-Ulrich; Burfeind, Peter; Gailani, David; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Blood coagulation is thought to be initiated by plasma protease factor VIIa in complex with the membrane protein tissue factor. In contrast, coagulation factor XII (FXII)–mediated fibrin formation is not believed to play an important role for coagulation in vivo. We used FXII-deficient mice to study the contributions of FXII to thrombus formation in vivo. Intravital fluorescence microscopy and blood flow measurements in three distinct arterial beds revealed a severe defect in the formation and stabilization of platelet-rich occlusive thrombi. Although FXII-deficient mice do not experience spontaneous or excessive injury-related bleeding, they are protected against collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Infusion of human FXII into FXII-null mice restored injury-induced thrombus formation. These unexpected findings change the long-standing concept that the FXII-induced intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo. The results establish FXII as essential for thrombus formation, and identify FXII as a novel target for antithrombotic therapy. PMID:16009717

  20. Extracellular RNA constitutes a natural procoagulant cofactor in blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Kannemeier, Christian; Shibamiya, Aya; Nakazawa, Fumie; Trusheim, Heidi; Ruppert, Clemens; Markart, Philipp; Song, Yutong; Tzima, Eleni; Kennerknecht, Elisabeth; Niepmann, Michael; von Bruehl, Marie-Luise; Sedding, Daniel; Massberg, Steffen; Günther, Andreas; Engelmann, Bernd; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2007-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, locally controlled haemostasis prevents life-threatening blood loss and ensures wound healing. Intracellular material derived from damaged cells at these sites will become exposed to blood components and could contribute to blood coagulation and pathological thrombus formation. So far, the functional and mechanistic consequences of this concept are not understood. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro evidence that different forms of eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA serve as promoters of blood coagulation. Extracellular RNA was found to augment (auto-)activation of proteases of the contact phase pathway of blood coagulation such as factors XII and XI, both exhibiting strong RNA binding. Moreover, administration of exogenous RNA provoked a significant procoagulant response in rabbits. In mice that underwent an arterial thrombosis model, extracellular RNA was found associated with fibrin-rich thrombi, and pretreatment with RNase (but not DNase) significantly delayed occlusive thrombus formation. Thus, extracellular RNA derived from damaged or necrotic cells particularly under pathological conditions or severe tissue damage represents the long sought natural “foreign surface” and provides a procoagulant cofactor template for the factors XII/XI-induced contact activation/amplification of blood coagulation. Extracellular RNA thereby reveals a yet unrecognized target for antithrombotic intervention, using RNase or related therapeutic strategies. PMID:17405864

  1. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  2. Measurement of the coagulation dynamics of bovine liver using the modified microscopic Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Terenji, Albert; Willmann, Stefan; Osterholz, Jens; Hering, Peter; Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim

    2005-06-01

    During heating, the optical properties of biological tissues change with the coagulation state. In this study, we propose a technique, which uses these changes to monitor the coagulation process during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). Untreated and coagulated (water bath, temperatures between 35 degrees C and 90 degrees C for 20 minutes.) samples of bovine liver tissue were examined using a Nd:YAG (lambda = 1064 nm) frequency-domain reflectance spectrometer. We determined the time integrated intensities (I(DC)) and the phase shifts (Phi) of the photon density waves after migration through the tissue. From these measured quantities, the time of flight (TOF) of the photons and the absorption coefficients of the samples were derived using the modified microscopic Beer-Lambert law. The absorption coefficients of the liver samples decreased significantly with the temperature in the range between 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C. At the same time, the TOF of the investigated photos was found increased indicating an increased scattering. The coagulation dynamics could be well described using the Arrhenius formalism with the activation energy of 106 kJ/mol and the frequency factor of 1.59 x 10(13)/second. Frequency-domain reflectance spectroscopy in combination with the modified microscopic Beer-Lambert (MBL) is suitable to measure heat induced changes in the absorption and scattering properties of bovine liver in vitro. The technique may be used to monitor the coagulation dynamics during local thermo-coagulation in vivo. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-01

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  4. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging. PMID:26568136

  5. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Mukunda, Archana; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundhari; Shashidhara, R; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson's, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  6. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  7. Native and microwaved bean and pea starch preparations: physiological effects on the intestinal ecosystem, caecal tissue and serum lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Wronkowska, Małgorzata; Soral-Smietana, Maria; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2010-04-01

    Dietary beans and peas provide fibre, resistant starch and other nutrients that are often lacking in the human diet. The influence of native starches of beans and peas (and microwaved preparations) on N utilisation, biochemical indices in blood serum and caecal ecosystem state (SCFA, bacterial enzymes, micro-organisms) was studied in vivo. The native pea starch contained more resistant starch compared with its bean counterpart (31 v. 17 %); however, processing decreased these amounts to 25 v. 10 %. N digestibility was found to decrease considerably in all experimental groups. A considerable reduction was observed in glucose and total cholesterol concentration in rat blood serum as a result of feeding both dietary legume starch preparations under microwave treatment. This indicates that starch of bean origin activated glycolytic bacterial enzymes; however, all the analysed starches were found to reduce the activity of beta-glucuronidase. In addition, both dietary bean starches significantly induced the formation of SCFA in the caecal digesta. As compared with the control group, a significant decrease in the pH of caecal and colonic digesta was demonstrated for both bean starch preparations. In comparison with the diet with native pea starch, its microwaved preparation reduced the concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids among caecal SCFA and increased the pH of caecal and colonic digesta. The atherogenic index was significantly lower in rats fed microwaved pea starch. All investigated starch preparations increased the population of Bifidobacterium spp. in caecal digesta, but were also good substrates for opportunistic Enterococcus or Escherichia coli.

  8. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  9. Transcatheter Microwave Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Dickey G. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method, simulation, and apparatus are provided that are highly suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A catheter is disclosed that includes a small diameter disk loaded monopole antenna surrounded by fusion material having a high heat of fusion and a melting point preferably at or near body temperature. Microwaves from the antenna heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. The fusion material keeps the urethra cool by means of the heat of fusion of the fusion material. This prevents damage to the urethra while the prostatic tissue is necrosed. A computer simulation is provided that can be used to predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of the catheter and method of applying microwave energy a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  10. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does the Evaluation of Coagulation Factors Contribute to Etiological Diagnosis of Pleural Effusions?

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Marcelo Alexandre Costa; Vargas, Francisco Suso; de Andrade Marinho, Felipe Costa; D’Amico, Élbio Antonio; Rocha, Tânia Rubia Flores; Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. The coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates). RESULTS The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates), there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:19759883

  12. Coagulation Changes During Graded Orhostatic Stress and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Cvirn, Gerhard; Schlagenhauf, Aaxel; Leschnik, Bettina; Koestenberger, Martin; Roessler, Andreas; Jantscher, Andreas; Waha, James Elvis; Wolf, Sabine; Vrecko, Karoline; Juergens, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-02-01

    Background: Orthostatic stress has been introduced as a novel paradigm for activating the coagulation system. We examined whether graded orthostatic stress (using head up tilt, HUT + lower body negative pressure, LBNP) until presyncope leads to anti / pro-coagulatory changes and how rapidly they return to baseline during recovery. Methodology: Eight male subjects were enrolled in this study. Presyncopal runs were carried out using HUT + LBNP. At minute zero, the tilt table was brought from 0° (supine) to 70 ° head-up position for 4 min, after which pressure in the LBNP chamber was reduced to -15, -30, and -45 mm Hg every 4 min. At presyncope, the subjects were returned to supine position. Coagulatory responses and plasma mass density (for volume changes) were measured before, during and 20 min after the orthostatic stress. Whole blood coagulation was examined by means of thrombelastometry. Platelet aggregation in whole blood was examined by using impedance aggregometry. Thrombin generation parameters, prothrombin levels, and markers of endothelial activation were measured in plasma samples. Results: At presyncope, plasma volume was 20 % below the initial supine value. Blood cell counts, prothrombin levels, thrombin peak, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels increased during the protocol, commensurate with hemoconcentration. The markers of endothelial activation (tissue factor, TF, tissue plasminogen activator, t-PA) and the markers of thrombin generation (Prothrombin fragments 1 and 2, F1+2, and thrombin-antithrombin complex, TAT) increased significantly. During recovery, all the coagulation parameters returned to initial supine values except F1 +2 and TAT. Conclusion: Head-up tilt/LBNP leads to activation of the coagulation system. Some of the markers of thrombin formation are still at higher than supine levels during recovery.

  13. Differences in Coagulation Between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Donald F.; Carl, Daniel E.; Mohammed, Bassem M.; Song, Jingmei; Martin, Erika J.; Bostic, Jessica L.; Gehr, Todd W.B.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: End-stage renal disease patients have significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but little is known about differences in coagulation profiles between patients on hemodialysis (HD) and on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Given their long-term exposure to glucose-based dialysate, patients on PD can experience metabolic derangements. Theoretically, that exposure should create a more prothrombotic environment than occurs in HD patients. The objective of the present study was to quantify potential differences in baseline coagulation between PD and HD patients. ♦ Methods: Our single-center cross-sectional study at a large academic health science center enrolled 50 age-, race-, and sex-matched subjects (10 control subjects, 20 HD patients, and 20 PD patients). Measurements included platelet function, platelet receptor distribution, and coagulation dynamics by thromboelastography and Hemodyne hemostasis assay (Hemodyne, Richmond, VA, USA). ♦ Results: Compared with healthy control subjects, patients on both forms of dialysis showed prothrombotic coagulation protein profiles. The tissue-factor pathway was markedly elevated in both groups, but PD was associated with significantly greater concentrations of tissue factor (p = 0.0056) and tissue-factor pathway inhibitor (p = 0.0138). Similarly, compared with patients receiving HD, patients on PD had greater concentrations of fibrinogen (p = 0.0325), which corresponded with platelet hyperfunction as measured by platelet contractile force and clot elastic modulus (p = 0.003 and 0.017 respectively, compared with values in HD patients). Platelet receptor distribution was similar between the groups. ♦ Conclusions: Compared with patients on HD, patients on PD appear to have a more prothrombotic profile. The clinical relevance of these findings needs to be studied in a prospective manner. PMID:24293664

  14. Sepsis-Associated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Thromboembolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Nicola; Ammollo, Concetta T.; Semeraro, Fabrizio; Colucci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis is almost invariably associated with haemostatic abnormalities ranging from subclinical activation of blood coagulation (hypercoagulability), which may contribute to localized venous thromboembolism, to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), characterized by massive thrombin formation and widespread microvascular thrombosis, partly responsible of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and subsequent consumption of platelets and coagulation proteins causing, in most severe cases, bleeding manifestations. There is general agreement that the key event underlying this life-threatening sepsis complication is the overwhelming inflammatory host response to the infectious agent leading to the overexpression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistically, the latter, together with the micro-organism and its derivatives, causes DIC by 1) up-regulation of procoagulant molecules, primarily tissue factor (TF), which is produced mainly by stimulated monocytes-macrophages and by specific cells in target tissues; 2) impairment of physiological anticoagulant pathways (antithrombin, protein C pathway, tissue factor pathway inhibitor), which is orchestrated mainly by dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs); and 3) suppression of fibrinolysis due to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by ECs and likely also to thrombin-mediated activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Notably, clotting enzymes non only lead to microvascular thrombosis but can also elicit cellular responses that amplify the inflammatory reactions. Inflammatory mediators can also cause, directly or indirectly, cell apoptosis or necrosis and recent evidence indicates that products released from dead cells, such as nuclear proteins (particularly extracellular histones), are able to propagate further inflammation, coagulation, cell death and MODS. These insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of DIC and MODS may have important implications for the

  15. Effects of ethanol intoxication and gender on blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, Nicholas; Underwood, Samantha; Differding, Jerome; Van, Phil; Sambasivan, Chitra; Shapiro, David; Schreiber, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication is a common contributor to traumatic injury. It is unknown whether ethanol consumption contributes to the coagulation differences seen between men and women after trauma. Our aim was to examine the combined effect of ethanol intoxication and gender on coagulation. Fifty-eight healthy subjects participated and chose to enter into a control group (CG; n = 20; 10 men and 10 women) or drinking group (DG; n = 38; 20 men and 18 women). Venous blood samples for thrombelastography, plasminogen activator inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and tissue plasminogen activator were drawn at the beginning of the study. Subjects then interacted in a social atmosphere for at least 2 hours, eating and consuming alcoholic (DG) or nonalcoholic (CG) beverages. After 2 hours, blood alcohol level was determined and blood was drawn for a second set of coagulation studies. Demographics were similar between groups except for age (36.7 years CG vs. 29.9 years DG; p = 0.009). All baseline thrombelastography measurements were similar between the CG and DG. Blood alcohol levels in the DG were similar between genders at the end of study. At the end of study, a decreased rate of fibrin formation, decreased clot strength, and a decreased rate of fibrin cross-linking was seen in men but not in women. Fibrinolysis was inhibited in drinkers compared with controls. Consumption of commonly ingested quantities of alcohol correlated with the development of a hypocoagulable state in men but had no effect on coagulation status in women. This phenomenon may contribute to differences in post-trauma coagulation status previously noted between genders.

  16. Medical applications of microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lim, Eng Gee; Tang, Yujun; Leach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy.

  17. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  18. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  19. [Monitoring of blood coagulation in perioperative care].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hisanari

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation disorders often occur perioperatively and monitoring of blood coagulation should be fast and adequate to treat these disorders to protect patients from massive bleeding. Control of hemostasis is one of the main issues in major surgeries. Coagulation test results from a central laboratory may delay making such a perioperative decision. Recently, point-of-care monitoring (POCM), which is able to examine coagulation disorder in an operation theater with short waiting time, has become important. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated clotting time (ACT) are very useful and popular, but also criticized because they can be monitored only until fibrin formation. On the other hand, viscoelastic monitorings of whole blood, are able to estimate fibrin formation, clot fixation, platelet function and fibrinolysis. In this review article, among variable perioperative POCMs of blood coagulation, three thromboelastographic monitorings, such as TEG ROTEM, and Sonoclot as well as PT and ACT, are described along with their utilities and limits to examine perioperative coagulation.

  20. Pretreatment in a high-pressure microwave processor for MIB-1 immunostaining of cytological smears and paraffin tissue sections to visualize the various phases of the mitotic cycle.

    PubMed

    Suurmeijer, A J; Boon, M E

    1999-08-01

    In many pathology laboratories, both microwave ovens and pressure cookers are used for pretreatment of cytologic smears and paraffin sections to allow MIB-1 staining. For both methods there are two problems. First, the results cannot be used for quantitation because standardization is impossible. Second, the staining results are often suboptimal, resulting in negative staining of cells in the G(1)- and S-phases. When pretreatment is performed in a microwave processor, allowing microwave heating under pressure, precise temperature monitoring becomes possible. In addition, the importance of the pH of the buffer was studied using a test battery series. Optimal staining is achieved at a temperature of 115C, 10 min, pH 6. This method proved to be highly reproducible. Because the immunostaining results are optimal, the various phases of the cell cycle can be defined in the sections and smears. In addition, the perinucleolar staining of the late G(1)-phase is optimally visualized and nuclei of the stable pKi-67 pathway can be identified. Under suboptimal conditions, in particular, the number of cells in the late G(1)-phase are underestimated in the MIB-1 counts.

  1. Simulation of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Smoczynski, L; Bukowski, Z; Wardzynska, R; Zaleska-Chrost, B; Dluzynska, K

    2009-04-01

    The computer program ZB2 was used to study simulated coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. The effect of the initial velocity of soil particles on the values of reaction-rate constants was investigated. In this respect, the results obtained with the program ZB2 corresponded to the theory and realities of coagulation carried out under practical conditions. The effect of coagulant excess/deficiency on the formation of the first floc and on the rate of coagulation of 50% of a soil was also estimated. An increase in simulated coagulant excess caused a decrease in the simulated rate of soil coagulation. In this respect, the results obtained with the program ZB2 did not correspond to the realities of coagulation carried out under practical conditions. An attempt was made to explain this inconsistency referring to the coagulation-flocculation theory. The simulation program ZB2 may provide a basis for developing "local" programs simulating coagulation-flocculation, which can be successfully applied at wastewater treatment plants.

  2. Change of coagulation parameters after double plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa; Dikmen, Tamer; Sonmez, Mehmet; Akdogan, Elif; Durmus, Ahmet; Omay, Serdar Bedii; Ovali, Ercument

    2007-10-01

    In the previous studies, some authors reported that automated apheresis leads to a hypercoagulable state. We tried to find out changes in coagulation parameters after double plateletpheresis in this study. Forty-five donors were recruited to the study, and coagulation parameters were assessed before and after double plateletpheresis. After double plateletpheresis, fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII and factor IX were decreased compared with the values before apheresis. Although serum levels of this coagulation parameters are decreasing, they are still in the normal limits. Therefore, we suggest that double plateletpheresis is a safe procedure for healthy volunteers taking into account these coagulation parameters.

  3. [The application of argon plasma coagulation in thoracic surgery: principles, surgical technique and clinical results].

    PubMed

    Radev, R; Nenkov, R; Kornovski, S; Dokov, V; Kuzmanov, Ia; Kuzmanov, S; Nenkova, S; Nanev, B

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, together with the well-known high-frequency electro-coagulation, the application of plasma coagulation has been also introduced in the clinical practice. The argon plasma coagulator (APC) is one of the representatives of this surgical technique. By its nature, the APC represents a non-contact electrothermal tissue coagulation, combining the principle of the augmented surface and enhanced autogenous haemostatic mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether APC is an effective and safe modality in the open pulmonary surgery. For the period from 01.01.2003 to 30.01.2004 year, in the Clinic of Thoracic Surgery, we have applied the technique of APC to 15 patients. The distribution by sex was: 10 males and 5 females. According to the nosological units, the distribution was as follows: pulmonary carcinoma in 3, pulmonary echinococcosis in 4, pleural empyema in 6, pulmonary abscessus in 1 and esophageal ahalasia in 1 patient. In our practice, we have used an argon plasma coagulator of BERCHTOLD GmbH. A power setting of 20W with exposition time 15 s and an argon gas flow setting of 1,5-2 1/h have been used in our series. Energy dose applied in our patients didn't exceed 300 J/cm2. The results we have obtained demonstrate the following fundamental advantages of APC: a possibility to work with long electrode--tissue distance; a possibility for large surface coagulation as well as coagulation under variable angle, limited and well controlled depth of penetration, substantial reduction of carbonization; regular distribution of the energy over the whole coagulating surface, a possibility to treat effectively larger bleeding surfaces. Although initial, our experience gives us the confidence to recommend the use of APC as an effective and safe procedure in the pulmonary surgery.

  4. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  5. Mineral balance in milk heated using microwave energy.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Olano, Agustín; Juárez, Manuela

    2002-04-10

    Milk heated to 75 and 85 degrees C in a water bath or in a microwave oven was assayed for changes in salt partitioning after cooling to room temperature. To properly to assess differences and draw valid comparisons, the two heating methods used in the experiment were applied to samples for identical exposure times, and the samples were heated to attain the same final temperatures. Although the soluble Ca and P(i) contents were lower in the heated milk samples, no significant differences in salt partitioning were found between microwave and conventional heating. Ionic calcium levels in the milk samples pasteurized using microwave energy were very close to the levels in the samples heated in a conventional water bath (approximately 90% of the level in the untreated milk samples). The microwave heating-induced changes were completely reversed after storage at 20 degrees C for 24 h. The coagulation properties of the heated milk samples were also examined, and the coagulation time was longer and the curd formation rate slower in the microwave-heated milk than in the raw milk. Still, the experimental results demonstrated that microwave heating was no more detrimental to the milk than conventional heating and could thus be used for pasteurization purposes.

  6. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Loof, Torsten G.; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit. PMID:25309880

  7. Interconnections between autophagy and the coagulation cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K-D; Wang, C-C; Tsai, M-C; Wu, C-H; Yang, H-J; Chen, L-Y; Nakano, T; Goto, S; Huang, K-T; Hu, T-H; Chen, C-L; Lin, C-C

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy has an important role in tumor biology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies demonstrated that tissue factor (TF) combined with coagulation factor VII (FVII) has a pathological role by activating a G-protein-coupled receptor called protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) for tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the interactions of autophagy and the coagulation cascade in HCC. Seventy HCC patients who underwent curative liver resection were recruited. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were performed to determine TF, FVII, PAR2 and light chain 3 (LC3A/B) expressions in tumors and their contiguous normal regions. We found that the levels of autophagic marker LC3A/B-II and coagulation proteins (TF, FVII and PAR2) were inversely correlated in human HCC tissues. Treatments with TF, FVII or PAR2 agonist downregulated LC3A/B-II with an increased level of mTOR in Hep3B cells; in contrast, knockdown of TF, FVII or PAR2 increased LC3A/B. Furthermore, mTOR silencing restored the impaired expression of LC3A/B-II in TF-, FVII- or PAR2-treated Hep3B cells and activated autophagy. Last, as an in vivo correlate, we administered TF, FVII or PAR2 agonist in a NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model and showed decreased LC3A/B protein levels in HepG2 tumors with treatments. Overall, our present study demonstrated that TF, FVII and PAR2 regulated autophagy mainly via mTOR signaling. The interaction of coagulation and autophagic pathways may provide potential targets for further therapeutic application in HCC. PMID:24853422

  8. Blood coagulation activation and fibrinolysis during a downhill marathon run.

    PubMed

    Sumann, Günther; Fries, Dietmar; Griesmacher, Andrea; Falkensammer, Gerda; Klingler, Anton; Koller, Arnold; Streif, Werner; Greie, Sven; Schobersberger, Beatrix; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Prolonged physical exercise is associated with multiple changes in blood hemostasis. Eccentric muscle activation induces microtrauma of skeletal muscles, inducing an inflammatory response. Since there is a link between inflammation and coagulation we speculated that downhill running strongly activates the coagulation system. Thirteen volunteers participated in the Tyrolean Speed Marathon (42,195 m downhill race, 795 m vertical distance). Venous blood was collected 3 days (T1) and 3 h (T2) before the run, within 30 min after finishing (T3) and 1 day thereafter (T4). We measured the following key parameters: creatine kinase, myoglobin, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, D-dimer, plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 antigen and thrombelastography with ROTEM [intrinsic pathway (InTEM) clotting time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, alpha angle]. Thrombin generation was evaluated by the Thrombin Dynamic Test and the Technothrombin TGA test. Creatine kinase and myoglobin were elevated at T3 and further increased at T4. Thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, D-dimer, plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 antigen were significantly increased at T3. ROTEM analysis exhibited a shortening of InTEM clotting time and clot formation time after the marathon, and an increase in InTEM maximum clot firmness and alpha angle. Changes in TGA were indicative for thrombin generation after the marathon. We demonstrated that a downhill marathon induces an activation of coagulation, as measured by specific parameters for coagulation, ROTEM and thrombin generation assays. These changes were paralleled by an activation of fibrinolysis indicating a preserved hemostatic balance.

  9. Near-field interference microwave diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belichenko, V. P.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Matvievskiy, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    The article explores the dimensions of the probing region of two coaxial probes during the measurement of the dielectric properties of biological tissues and media at microwave radiation. This region is formed in the overlapping evanescent fields of the probes.

  10. Coagulative and ablative characteristics of a novel diode laser system (1470nm) for endonasal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, C. S.; Havel, M.; Janda, P.; Leunig, A.; Sroka, R.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction: Being practical, efficient and inexpensive, fibre guided diode laser systems are preferable over others for endonasal applications. A new medical 1470 nm diode laser system is expected to offer good ablative and coagulative tissue effects. Methods: The new 1470 nm diode laser system was compared to a conventional 940 nm system with regards to laser tissue effects (ablation, coagulation, carbonization zones) in an ex vivo setup using fresh liver and muscle tissue. The laser fibres were fixed to a computer controlled stepper motor, and the light was applied using comparable power settings and a reproducible procedure under constant conditions. Clinical efficacy and postoperative morbidity was evaluated in two groups of 10 patients undergoing laser coagulation therapy of hyperplastic nasal turbinates. Results: In the experimental setup, the 1470 nm laser diode system proved to be more efficient in inducing tissue effects with an energy factor of 2-3 for highly perfused hepatic tissue to 30 for muscular tissue. In the clinical case series, the higher efficacy of the 1470 nm diode laser system led to reduced energy settings as compared to the conventional system with comparable clinical results. Postoperative crusting was less pronounced in the 1470 nm laser group. Conclusion: The 1470 nm diode laser system offers a highly efficient alternative to conventional diode laser systems for the coagulation of hyperplastic nasal turbinates. According to the experimental results it can be furthermore expected that it disposes of an excellent surgical potential with regards to its cutting abilities.

  11. Increased coagulation in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Yildiz Dallar; Alioglu, Bulent; Simşek, Enver; Tapci, Ayse Esra; Ozen, Cınar

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between childhood obesity and procoagulant and anticoagulant systems. Fifty-one obese children and 32 normal-weighted children with similar age and gender distribution and between ages of 5 and 16 years were recruited to the study. Antropometric measures of all subjects, existence of any accompanying disease, and medication histories had been recorded. Full blood count, procoagulant, and anticoagulant coagulation tests were run for all subjects. When hematologic variables of obese children were compared with those of healthy controls, it was found that average erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte distribution width, and platelet count of obese children are significantly higher than healthy control group. It was also found that fibrinogen, thrombin time, factor (F) VIII, FIX, FX, and von Willebrand factor levels of obese children are higher than healthy control group. By contrast, antithrombin levels of obese children are found to be lower. In our study, we found that there is a procoagulant increase in the coagulation system activity of obese children compared to non-obese healthy children, whereas there is a significant decrease in anticoagulant system. These changes occurred in obese patients, especially higher levels of plasma procoagulant factors such as fibrinogen, FVIII, FIX, and von Willebrand factor, lead us to think that there is an activity in these patients at endothelial level. Further studies are needed on endothelial activity of obese children.

  12. [Blood coagulation disorders in oncological patients].

    PubMed

    von Depka Prondzinski, M

    2005-01-01

    Patients with malignancies often experience acute disorders of coagulation. They may manifest as thromboembolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation or a tendency to bleed. Either disorder carries a high rate of complications and a difficult task in diagnosing and treating them. Some complications typical for patients with malignancies are discussed. Among these are tumor associated thrombophilia, acquired von Willebrand's disease, and thrombocytopenia.

  13. Virus inactivation in aluminum and polyaluminum coagulation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Sakuma, Satoru; Gojo, Takahito; Mamiya, Teppei; Suzuoki, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takanobu

    2003-11-15

    Inorganic aluminum salts, such as aluminum sulfate, are coagulants that cause small particles, such as bacteria and viruses as well as inorganic particles, to destabilize and combine into larger aggregates. In this investigation, batch coagulation treatments of water samples spiked with Qbeta, MS2, T4, and P1 viruses were conducted with four different aluminum coagulants. The total infectious virus concentration in the suspension of floc particles that eventually formed by dosing with coagulant was measured after the floc particles were dissolved by raising the pH with an alkaline beef extract solution. The virus concentrations were extremely reduced after the water samples were dosed with aluminum coagulants. Viruses mixed with and adsorbed onto preformed aluminum hydroxide floc were, however, completely recovered after the floc dissolution. These results indicated that the aluminum coagulation process inactivates viruses. Virucidal activity was most prominent with the prehydrolyzed aluminum salt coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PACl). Virucidal activity was lower in river water than in ultrapure water--natural organic matter in the river water depressed the virucidal activity. Mechanisms and kinetics of the virus inactivation were discussed. Our results suggest that intermediate polymers formed during hydrolysis of the aluminum coagulants sorbed strongly to viruses, either rendering them inactive or preventing infectivity.

  14. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Moya, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    NASA seeks to transfer the NASA developed microwave ablation technology, designed for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (irregular heart beat), to industry. After a heart attack, many cells surrounding the resulting scar continue to live but are abnormal electrically; they may conduct impulses unusually slowly or fire when they would typically be silent. These diseased areas might disturb smooth signaling by forming a reentrant circuit in the muscle. The objective of microwave ablation is to heat and kill these diseased cells to restore appropriate electrical activity in the heart. This technology is a method and apparatus that provides for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In comparison with other methods that involve direct-current pulses or radio frequencies below 1 GHz, this method may prove more effective in treating ventricular tachycardia. This is because the present method provides for greater control of the location, cross-sectional area, and depth of a lesion via selection of the location and design of the antenna and the choice of microwave power and frequency.

  15. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siauve, N.; Lormel, C.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  16. Immunoassays for diagnosis of coagulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Kappel, A; Ehm, M

    2010-11-01

    Immunoassays play a pivotal role in the clinical laboratory. In the coagulation section of the laboratory, they are used as an aid for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, thrombophilia screening, or detection of coagulation factor deficiencies, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and latex agglutination immunoassay technologies are currently most widely used, while Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Immunoassay (LOCI®) and other chemiluminescence-based immunoassays are emerging technologies for the coagulation laboratory. However, not all immunoassay technologies employed are compatible with the workflow requirements of the coagulation laboratory, and, not all technologies are suitable for detection or quantification of every marker. This review focuses on technical and performance aspects of those immunoassay technologies that are most widely used in the coagulation laboratory, and provides a description of markers that are typically tested by immunoassays.

  17. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  18. Microwave dissolution of plant tissue and the subsequent determination of trace lanthanide and actinide elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J.S.; Neal, T.J.; Smith, L.L.; Erickson, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    Recently there has been much concern with the ability of plants to uptake heavy metals from their surroundings. With the development of instrumental techniques with low detection limits such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), attention is shifting toward achieving faster and more elegant ways of oxidizing the organic material inherent in environmental samples. Closed-vessel microwave dissolution was compared with conventional methods for the determination of concentrations of cerium, samarium, europium, terbium, uranium and thorium in a series of samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and from fields in Idaho. The ICP-MS technique exhibited detection limits in parts-per-trillion and linear calibration plots over three orders of magnitude for the elements under study. The results obtained by using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave digestion system for the analysis of reference materials showed close agreement with the accepted values. These values were compared with results obtained from dry- and wet-ashing procedures. The findings from an experiment comparing radiometric techniques for the determination of actinide elements to ICP-MS are reported.

  19. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  20. Platelets and neutrophil extracellular traps collaborate to promote intravascular coagulation during sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Braedon; Davis, Rachelle P; Kim, Seok-Joo; Tse, Mandy; Esmon, Charles T; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta; Jenne, Craig N

    2017-03-09

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs; webs of DNA coated in antimicrobial proteins) are released into the vasculature during sepsis where they contribute to host defense, but also cause tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Various components of NETs have also been implicated as activators of coagulation. Using multicolor confocal intravital microscopy in mouse models of sepsis, we observed profound platelet aggregation, thrombin activation, and fibrin clot formation within (and downstream of) NETs in vivo. NETs were critical for the development of sepsis-induced intravascular coagulation regardless of the inciting bacterial stimulus (gram-negative, gram-positive, or bacterial products). Removal of NETs via DNase infusion, or in peptidylarginine deiminase-4-deficient mice (which have impaired NET production), resulted in significantly lower quantities of intravascular thrombin activity, reduced platelet aggregation, and improved microvascular perfusion. NET-induced intravascular coagulation was dependent on a collaborative interaction between histone H4 in NETs, platelets, and the release of inorganic polyphosphate. Real-time perfusion imaging revealed markedly improved microvascular perfusion in response to the blockade of NET-induced coagulation, which correlated with reduced markers of systemic intravascular coagulation and end-organ damage in septic mice. Together, these data demonstrate, for the first time in an in vivo model of infection, a dynamic NET-platelet-thrombin axis that promotes intravascular coagulation and microvascular dysfunction in sepsis.

  1. Changes in Blood Parameters and Coagulation-Related Gene Expression in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Urasoko, Yoshinaka; He, Xi Jun; Ebata, Tomonori; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahiro; Ikeya, Masamichi

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined changes in maternal blood parameters, particularly those related to blood coagulation, as well as alterations in blood coagulation-related gene expression in the liver during gestation in rats. Fibrinogen concentration and platelet count increased as pregnancy progressed whereas prothrombin time and overall activity of vitamin-K–dependent coagulation factors decreased before delivery, suggesting a physiologic response to prevent prolonged bleeding at parturition. Conversely, compared with values for nonpregnant rats, activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged before delivery and antithrombin time was significantly higher during fetal organogenesis and thereafter, indicating a mechanism to prevent the development of deep tissue thrombosis in dams. DNA microarray analysis revealed no differences in coagulation-related gene expression in the liver on gestation day 13 between pregnant and nonpregnant rats, whereas the gene expression of various fibrinogen-related factors, coagulation factors II and X, and the anticoagulation factor-related factor leuserpin 2 were increased on gestational day 19. In addition, changes similar to those reported previously in pregnant rats were confirmed. The data obtained from the present study can be used as background data for effective evaluation of reproductive toxicology in rats, and they suggest that the rat is a useful animal model for investigating the mechanisms of disorders in the blood coagulation system that can occur during late pregnancy in women. PMID:19476716

  2. Interstitial laser coagulation therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNicholas, Thomas A.; Alsudani, Mohammed

    1996-05-01

    Alternatives to the side-firing laser method include controlled destruction of prostatic adenoma by an atraumatic saline cooled laser fiber introduced endoscopically into the prostate under visual and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) control. Laser light produces intense heating and interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) occurs with characteristic TRUS changes which are used to control the volume of tissue destruction. The prostatic urethral lining is preserved which may reduce laser side effects). Thirty-six men with symptomatic BPH were treated by ILC between April 1994 and September 1995. All were discharged home on the first post-operative day and reviewed periodically to 12 months post-treatment with measurement of IPSS, flow rate (FR), residual volume, complications, potency and TRUS. Seventeen men (47%) voided immediately, 15 (42%) performed intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) for 3.5 days (2 - 5). Four men (11%) required catheterization for 1/52. Thirty-five men tolerated the treatment well, requiring only mild oral analgesia. One man developed dysuria and required early transurethral resection revealing a large volume of coagulative necrosis. Improvement in symptoms and flow rate developed from 1 - 30 days later. There were no significant complications. Hyperechoic and cystic zones developed at the ILC site which persisted to 12 months. This clinical study indicates the feasibility and safety of intense heating by ILC with visible and ultrasound control to coagulate the adenoma while preserving the urethra. Changes are easily seen on TRUS, symptomatic improvement is good and there have been minimal urethral symptoms or complications.

  3. Crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation: the lessons of sepsis.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, Tom; Levi, Marcel

    2012-09-01

    Sepsis results in the concurrent activation of inflammatory and procoagulant pathways. Bacterial products and proinflammatory cytokines trigger the coagulation system primarily via induction of tissue factor. During sepsis, activation of coagulation is accompanied by impaired function of major anticoagulant mechanisms, including antithrombin, the protein C system and fibrinolysis. Protease activated receptors (PARs) form the molecular connection between coagulation and inflammation, and especially PAR1 seems to play an eminent role in sepsis pathogenesis. Activated protein C (APC) can cleave PAR1 when associated with either the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or CD11b/CD18, resulting in broad cytoprotective effects mediated by sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1). In contrast, activation of PAR1 by high dose thrombin results in barrier disruptive effects in endothelial cells via an S1P3 dependent mechanism. Recombinant APC protects against mortality in experimental endotoxemia and sepsis by effects that can be mediated by either EPCR - PAR1 dependent (endothelial cells, dendritic cells) or CD11b/CD18 - PAR1 dependent (macrophages) mechanisms. These protective APC effects do not rely on the anticoagulant properties of this protein. APC mutants that lack anticoagulant properties but retain the capacity to activate PAR1 are promising new drugs for sepsis treatment.

  4. [Coagulation profiles during cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Bitkova, E E; Zvereva, N Iu; Khvatov, V B; Chumakov, M V; Timerbaev, V Kh; Dublev, A V; Redkoborodyĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate patients' hemostasis after cardiac surgery using thromboelastometric and impedance aggregometry. 66 patients were examined intraoperatively. Comparison group included 45 blood donors. Hemostasis was tested for thromboelastometricRotem Gamma with the assessment of external (exTem) and internal (inTem) pathways of coagulation tests performed detection of heparin (hepTem) and cytochalasin-D-inactivation of platelets (fibTem) to assess the level of fibrinogen. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was determined in an aggregometer CHRONO-LOG (USA). Significant deviations of the parameters of hemostasis were detected in 52 of the 66 studied patients. In group-1 (23 patients) revealed a residual effect of heparin. The effect manifested prolongation CT (clotting time) inTem to an average of 241 +/- 15 s, compared with CT hepTem--181 +/- 7. Patients in this group were in need of additional administration of protamine sulfate. Postoperative bleeding and resternotomia were observed in 3 patients of group-1. In group-2 (25 patients) CT inTem was 216 +/- 21 with significantly fewer CT hepTem (272 +/- 26). The data indicated excess of protamine sulfate. Platelets aggregation decreased compared to the norm. According to the obtained results, the addition of protamine sulfate is not required, however, in 7 cases the protamine sulfate was administered in a dose of 8.9 +/- 0.8 mg in 6 cases resternotomiya required. In the third group (n = 6) bleeding was observed in 4 patients. The difference in CT-hepCT was significant. Significant variations were revealed in the tests of the activity of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and cytochalasin-D-induced inactivation of platelets: exMCF- 42 +/- 2 mm (normal 57 +/- 15 mm), fibMCF 5.0 +/- 0.3 mm (norm 12.8 +/- 4.3 mm). The concentration of platelets and their aggregation activity was sharply reduced. Disorders of hemostasis in the third group, designated as dilution coagulopathy. Turning thromboelastometric and impedance

  5. Inflammation and coagulation in urticaria and angioedema.

    PubMed

    Cugno, Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Lazzari, Riccardo; Marzano, Angelo V

    2012-09-01

    Urticaria is a skin disease characterised by short-lived surface swellings of the dermis (wheals) frequently accompanied by itching. It is classified as acute or chronic depending on whether the wheal recurrence occurs for less or more than six weeks. Acute urticaria is often due to a hypersensitivity reaction, whereas about 50% of the cases of chronic urticaria are regarded as autoimmune. Urticaria may occur alone or in association with a deeper swelling (angioedema) involving the subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues, and last from hours to a few days. Angioedema can also develop alone, and may be idiopathic or be caused by allergies, inherited or acquired deficiencies of C1-inhibitor protein, or adverse drug reactions. An interplay between inflammation and coagulation has been proposed as a pathomechanism in urticaria and urticaria-associated angioedema (in which histamine and thrombin are involved), as well as in angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency, which involves various biological systems. An increase in the plasma markers of thrombin generation, fibrinolysis and inflammation has been documented during exacerbations of urticaria and angioedema, with the marker levels decreasing to normal during remission. However, the hypercoagulable state in chronic urticaria and angioedema has not been reported to be associated with any increased risk of thrombosis, although there have been a number of reports of cardiovascular events occurring during episodes of acute urticaria. These observations have provided the rationale for the clinical evaluation of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic drugs, the efficacy of which has sometimes been demonstrated.

  6. Blood coagulation reactions on nanoscale membrane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureza, Vincent S.

    Blood coagulation requires the assembly of several membrane-bound protein complexes composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits. The biomembranes involved in these reactions not only provide a platform for these procoagulant proteins, but can also affect their function. Increased exposure of acidic phospholipids on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane can dramatically modulate the catalytic efficiencies of such membrane-bound enzymes. Under physiologic conditions, however, these phospholipids spontaneously cluster into a patchwork of membrane microdomains upon which membrane binding proteins may preferentially assemble. As a result, the membrane composition surrounding these proteins is largely unknown. Through the development and use of a nanometer-scale bilayer system that provides rigorous control of the phospholipid membrane environment, I investigated the role of phosphatidylserine, an acidic phospholipid, in the direct vicinity (within nanometers) of two critical membrane-bound procoagulant protein complexes and their respective natural substrates. Here, I present how the assembly and function of the tissue factor˙factor VIIa and factor Va˙factor Xa complexes, the first and final cofactor˙enzyme complexes of the blood clotting cascade, respectively, are mediated by changes in their immediate phospholipid environments.

  7. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.

    1987-09-01

    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  8. Coagulation assessment by rotation thrombelastometry in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huissoud, Cyril; Carrabin, Nicolas; Benchaib, Mehdi; Fontaine, Oriane; Levrat, Albrice; Massignon, Denis; Touzet, Sandrine; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Berland, Michel

    2009-04-01

    We analysed changes in coagulation during normal pregnancy with a novel point-of-care device based on thrombelastometry (ROTEM). We compared the results obtained with those of standard coagulation tests in 104 patients: 20 non-pregnant women (controls) and 84 women in the first (T1, n = 17), second (T2, n = 9) and third (T3, n = 58) trimesters of pregnancy. We measured the clotting time (CT), the maximum clot firmness (MCF), the early clot amplitude at 5 and 15 minutes (CA(5), CA(15)) and the clot lysis index (CLI(30)) with four tests containing specific reagents. (a) The INTEM test involving ellagic acid activated the intrinsic pathway and (b) the EXTEM test using tissue factor triggered the extrinsic pathway; (c) The FIBTEM test based on a platelet inhibitor (cytochalasin D) evaluated the contribution of fibrinogen to clot formation and (d) the APTEM test was similar to the EXTEM but was based on inhibition in vitro of fibrinolysis by aprotinin. CT and CLI(30) were not significantly modified during pregnancy whereas MCF, CA(5) and CA(15) (INTEM, EXTEM, FIBTEM) increased significantly between the second and third trimesters (e.g. median [interquartile range]: MCF-FIBTEM, 13 [11-16] mm vs. 19 [17-23] mm, respectively, in controls and T3, p < 0.001). EXTEM values were not significantly different from those measured with APTEM. There were significant correlations between the results obtained with ROTEM and those from standard coagulation tests. ROTEM analysis showed a marked increase in coagulability during normal pregnancy. ROTEM values may serve as the basis for future studies in pregnant women.

  9. Influence of Blood Lipids on Global Coagulation Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Methods PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). Results The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. Conclusion High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels. PMID:25553275

  10. Influence of blood lipids on global coagulation test results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels.

  11. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants.

  12. Stability, sterility, coagulation, and immunologic studies of salmon coagulation proteins with potential use for mammalian wound healing and cell engineering.

    PubMed

    Laidmäe, Ivo; McCormick, Margaret E; Herod, Julia L; Pastore, Jennifer J; Salum, Tiit; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Janmey, Paul A; Uibo, Raivo

    2006-12-01

    Fibrin sealants made by polymerization of fibrinogen activated by the protease thrombin have many applications in hemostasis and wound healing. In treatments of acute injury or surgical wounds, concentrated fibrin preparations mimic the initial matrix that normally prevents bleeding and acts as a scaffold for cells that initiate tissue repair. However risks of infectious disease, immunogenic reaction, and the high cost of purified human or other mammalian blood proteins limit widespread use of these materials. Purified coagulation proteins from Atlantic salmon represent a potentially safer, equally effective, and less costly alternative in part because of the low ambient temperature of these farmed animals and the absence of endogenous agents known to be infectious in mammalian hosts. This study reports rheologic measurements of lyophilized salmon fibrinogen and thrombin that demonstrate stability to prolonged storage and gamma irradiation sufficient to reduce viral loads by over five orders of magnitude. Coagulation and immunologic studies in rats and rabbits treated intraperitoneally with salmon fibrin show no deleterious effects on coagulation profiles and no cross reactivity with host fibrinogen or thrombin. The results support the potential of salmon fibrin as an alternative to mammalian proteins in clinical applications.

  13. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  14. Hi-tech of the prostate: interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschter, Rolf; Hofstetter, Alfons G.; Hessel, Stefan F. F.; Keiditsch, Ernst; Rothenberger, Karl-Heinz; Schneede, Peter; Frank, Klaus H.

    1992-06-01

    We report on the new technique of interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate (ILCP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Basic experiments by use of a Nd:YAG laser in combination with a newly designed fiber tip homogeneously distributing the laser irradiation have been performed in potato, muscle, liver, and surgically removed human BPH-tissue to determine the volume of coagulation. The coagulation zone surrounding the probe was well defined and homogeneous. The size was dependent on laser power and irradiation time. Carbonization was never present except in darker tissues irradiated with high energy. Volume and time resolved measurements correlated well with the size of coagulation. 10 W and 5 minutes, for example, resulted in a coagulation zone of 17 X 15 mm. Comparable results have been seen in in-vivo experiments in surgically exposed canine prostates. Specimen for macroscopic and microscopic examination were taken immediately after treatment and after 5 and 35 days. The well demarked coagulation necrosis of the early stage resulted in cystic degeneration and fibrosis in the later stages. This was combined with shrinkage and reduction in volume. The urothelium of the urethra, the external sphincter and the rectum showed no damage. Until now, 15 patients suffering from obstructive symptoms due to BPH have been treated with interstitial laser coagulation. The probes were inserted from the perineum into the center of each lateral lobe of the prostate by transrectal ultrasound guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic control. Dependent on the size of the prostate irradiation, time was 5 to 10 minutes per lobe at a power setting of 5 to 10 W.

  15. Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-01-01

    There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation. PMID:24876736

  16. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    PubMed

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  17. Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-05-28

    There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation.

  18. Routine coagulation testing in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Musca, Steven; Desai, Shilpa; Roberts, Brigit; Paterson, Timothy; Anstey, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    To test a simple clinical guideline to reduce unnecessary routine testing of coagulation status. A prospective, unblinded, observational study of coagulation testing frequency before and after introduction of a simple clinical guideline. We included 253 patients admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit: 100 patients consecutively enrolled before our intervention (May - July 2015) and 153 patients consecutively enrolled after our intervention (August - September 2015). We introduced a clinical guideline and educational program in the ICU from 18 August 2015. The number of coagulation tests performed per patient bed-day, and the associated pathology costs. Over the 3-month sample period, 999 coagulation profiles were performed for 253 patients: 720 (72%) in 100 patients before, and 279 (28%) in 153 patients after our intervention. The testing frequency fell from 1.12 to 0.41 per patient bed-day (P < 0.001). A total of 463 pre-intervention coagulation profiles (64%) were classified as unnecessary, and the cost of all coagulation tests fell by 60.5% per bedday after the intervention. A simple clinical guideline and educational package reduced unnecessary coagulation tests and costs in a tertiary referral ICU.

  19. In Vivo Simulator for Microwave Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor); Karasack, Vincent G. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Pieper, Carl F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue to treat ventricular tachycardia and other arrhythmias while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about 6 GHz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna. frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In operation, microwave energy between about 1 GHz and 12 GHz is applied to monopole microwave radiator having a surface wave limiter. A test setup provides physical testing of microwave radiators to determine the temperature profile created in actual heart tissue or ersatz heart tissue. Saline solution pumped over the heart tissue with a peristaltic pump simulates blood flow. Optical temperature sensors disposed at various tissue depths within the heart tissue detect the temperature profile without creating any electromagnetic interference. The method may be used to produce a desired temperature profile in other body tissues reachable by catheter such as tumors and the like.

  20. Reaction-diffusion waves of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Galochkina, Tatiana; Bouchnita, Anass; Kurbatova, Polina; Volpert, Vitaly

    2017-06-01

    One of the main characteristics of blood coagulation is the speed of clot growth. In the current work we consider a mathematical model of the coagulation cascade and study existence, stability and speed of propagation of the reaction-diffusion waves of blood coagulation. We also develop a simplified one-equation model that reflects the main features of the thrombin wave propagation. For this equation we estimate the wave speed analytically. The resulting formulas provide a good approximation for the speed of wave propagation in a more complex model as well as for the experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  2. SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IN XENOGRAFT RECIPIENTS PRECEDES ACTIVATION OF COAGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Ezzelarab, MB; Ekser, B; Azimzadeh, A; Lin, CC; Zhao, Y; Rodriguez, R; Echeverri, GJ; Iwase, H; Long, C; Hara, H; Ayares, D; Pierson, RN; Thomson, AW; Cooper, DKC

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of coagulation is considered a major barrier against successful pig organ xenotransplantation in nonhuman primates. Inflammation is known to promote activation of coagulation. The role of pro-inflammatory factors as well as the relationship between inflammation and activation of coagulation in xenograft recipients is poorly understood. Methods Baboons received kidney (n=3), heart (n=4) or artery patch (n=8) xenografts from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs or GTKO pigs additionally transgenic for human complement regulatory protein CD46 (GTKO/CD46). Immunosuppression (IS) was based on either CTLA4-Ig or anti-CD154 costimulation blockade. Three artery patch recipients did not receive IS. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and coagulation parameters were evaluated in the circulation after transplantation. In artery patch recipients, monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) were monitored in peripheral blood. Expression of tissue factor (TF) and CD40 on monocytes and DC were assessed by flow cytometry. C-reactive protein (C-RP) levels in the blood and C-RP deposition in xenografts as well as native organs were evaluated. Baboon and pig C-RP mRNA in heart and kidney xenografts were evaluated. Results In heart and kidney xenograft recipients, the levels of INFγ, TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-8 were not significantly higher after transplantation. However, MCP-1 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher after transplantation, particularly in kidney recipients. Elevated C-RP levels preceded activation of coagulation in heart and kidney recipients, where high levels of C-RP were maintained until the time of euthanasia in both heart and kidney recipients. In artery patch recipients, INFγ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-8 and MCP-1 were elevated with no IS, while IL-6 was not. With IS, INFγ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-8 and MCP-1 were reduced, but IL-6 was elevated. Elevated IL-6 levels were observed as early as 2 weeks in artery patch recipients. While IS was

  3. Ferric coagulant recovered from coagulation sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, N; Li, G B

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of ferric coagulant recovery from chemical sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) to make the process more cost-effective, as well as reduce sludge volume. The optimum conditions and efficiency of the acidification for ferric coagulant recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated. Experimental results showed that the recovered coagulants can be used in CEPT and the pollutants removal efficiency is similar to that of fresh coagulant, and for some aspects the effect of recovered coagulants is better than that of fresh ones, such as turbidity removal. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on treated wastewater quality. Acidification condition also had significant influence on reduction of sludge volume. The efficiency of coagulant recovery had a linear relationship with sludge reduction. Experiments verify that it would be a sustainable and cost-effective way to recover ferric coagulant from coagulation sludge in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and then recycle it to CEPT, as well as reduce sludge volume.

  4. Markers of coagulation activation after hepatic resection for cancer: evidence of sustained upregulation of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L; Scurrah, N; Parker, F C; Dauer, R; Marshall, J; McCall, P; Story, D; Smith, C; McNicol, L

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the possibility that despite postoperative derangements of routine laboratory coagulation tests, markers of coagulation activation and thrombin generation would be normal or increased in patients undergoing hepatic resection for cancer In addition to the conventional coagulation tests prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, we measured select markers of coagulation activation prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (PF1 + 2), thrombin-antithrombin complexes and plasma von Willebrand Factor antigen in 21 patients undergoing hepatic resection. The impact of hepatic resection on coagulation and fibrinolysis was studied with thromboelastography. Preoperatively, routine laboratory coagulation and liver function tests were normal in all patients. On the first postoperative day, prothrombin time was prolonged (range 16 to 22 seconds) in eight patients (38%). For these patients, thromboelastography was normal in six (75%), PF1 + 2 was elevated in four (50%), and thrombin-antithrombin complexes and von Willebrand Factor antigen were elevated in all, which was evidence of acute phase reaction, sustained coagulation factor turnover and activation. By the fifth postoperative day, despite normalisation of prothrombin time, markers of increased coagulation activity remained greater than 85% of baseline values. The findings indicate that in patients undergoing liver resection for cancer, there is significant and prolonged postoperative activation of the haemostatic system despite routine coagulation tests being normal or even prolonged. Before considering therapeutic interventions an integrated approach to interpreting haematological data with clinical correlation is essential.

  5. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes.

  6. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Pruett, Ashlee; Adhikary, Sanjib Das

    2014-09-01

    Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome.

  7. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Pruett, Ashlee; Adhikary, Sanjib Das

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome. PMID:25535418

  8. Coagulation management in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Görlinger, Klaus; Bergmann, Lars; Dirkmann, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support therapy remains high and is associated with bad outcomes and increased costs. The need for anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy varies widely between different pulsatile and non-pulsatile ventricular-assist devices (VADs) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) systems. Therefore, a unique anticoagulation protocol cannot be recommended. Notably, most thrombo-embolic complications occur despite values of conventional coagulation tests being within the targeted range. This is due to the fact that conventional coagulation tests such as international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelet count cannot detect hyper- or hypofibrinolysis, hypercoagulability due to tissue factor expression on circulating cells or increased clot firmness, and platelet aggregation as well as response to anti-platelet drugs. By contrast, point-of-care (POC) whole blood viscoelastic tests (thromboelastometry/-graphy) and platelet function tests (impedance or turbidimetric aggregometry) reflect in detail the haemostatic status of patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support therapy and the efficacy of their anticoagulation and antiaggregation therapy. Therefore, monitoring of haemostasis using POC thromboelastometry/-graphy and platelet function analysis is recommended during mechanical circulatory support therapy to reduce the risk of bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications. Notably, these haemostatic tests should be performed repeatedly during mechanical circulatory support therapy since thrombin generation, clot firmness and platelet response may change significantly over time with a high inter- and intra-individual variability. Furthermore, coagulation management can be hampered in non-pulsatile VADs by acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and in general by acquired factor XIII deficiency as well as by heparin

  9. Dust Coagulation in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, W.; Henning, Th.; Mucha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of dust particles in circumstellar disk-like structures around protostars and young stellar objects is discussed. In particular, we consider the coagulation of grains due to collisional aggregation. The coagulation of the particles is calculated by solving numerically the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. The different physical processes leading to relative velocities between the grains are investigated. The relative velocities may be induced by Brownian motion, turbulence and drift motion. Starting from different regimes which can be identified during the grain growth we also discuss the evolution of dust opacities. These opacities are important for both the derivation of the circumstellar dust mass from submillimeter/millimeter continuum observations and the dynamical behavior of the disks. We present results of our numerical studies of the coagulation of dust grains in a turbulent protoplanetary accretion disk described by a time-dependent one-dimensional (radial) alpha-model. For several periods and disk radii, mass distributions of coagulated grains have been calculated. From these mass spectra, we determined the corresponding Rosseland mean dust opacities. The influence of grain opacity changes due to dust coagulation on the dynamical evolution of a protostellar disk is considered. Significant changes in the thermal structure of the protoplanetary nebula are observed. A 'gap' in the accretion disk forms at the very frontier of the coagulation, i.e., behind the sublimation boundary in the region between 1 and 5 AU.

  10. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism.

  11. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-10-15

    Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca(2+) and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatic dysfunction contributes to coagulation disturbances in patients undergoing whole body hyperthermia by use of extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Worel, Nina; Knöbl, Paul; Karanikas, Georgios; Fuchs, Eva-Maria; Bojic, Andja; Brodowicz, Thomas; Jilma, Petra; Zielinski, Christoph C; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Locker, Gottfried J

    2014-09-01

    This phase I study was performed to evaluate coagulation alterations during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) induced whole body hyperthermia (WBHT) in 12 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. To distinguish between effects of normothermic ECC and ECC-WBHT, blood samples were drawn at different time points: at baseline, after 30 min on normothermic ECC, at the end of the heating period, and 24 h and 7 days thereafter. Standard coagulation tests, coagulation factors, thrombelastography,platelets and reticulated platelets, liver enzymes, and scintigraphic platelet imaging were performed. Normothermic ECC resulted in coagulation alterations most likely due to systemic anticoagulation. Induction of hyperthermia caused thrombocytopenia, increased fibrin degradation products,prolonged clotting times, alteration in coagulation factors, and increased liver enzymes. The majority of these effects was most pronounced 24 h after ECC-WBHT. In addition, late liver sequestration of platelets was demonstrated in scintigraphic imaging at that time point. Temporal correlation between hemostatic alterations and elevation in liver enzymes leads to the assumption that liver impairment might play a crucial role in coagulation disturbances observed during ECC-WBHT and thereafter, thus strongly supported by liver sequestration of platelets.Therefore a close monitoring of hepatic derived coagulation alterations in patients undergoing extracorporeal whole body hypothermia is warranted.

  13. Perioperatively acquired disorders of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Grottke, Oliver; Fries, Dietmar; Nascimento, Bartolomeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of acquired coagulopathies that can occur in various perioperative clinical settings. Also described are coagulation disturbances linked to antithrombotic medications and currently available strategies to reverse their antithrombotic effects in situations of severe hemorrhage. Recent findings Recent studies highlight the link between low fibrinogen and decreased fibrin polymerization in the development of acquired coagulopathy. Particularly, fibrin(ogen) deficits are observable after cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery, on arrival at the emergency room in trauma patients, and with ongoing bleeding after child birth. Regarding antithrombotic therapy, although new oral anticoagulants offer the possibility of efficacy and relative safety compared with vitamin K antagonists, reversal of their anticoagulant effect with nonspecific agents, including prothrombin complex concentrate, has provided conflicting results. Specific antidotes, currently being developed, are not yet licensed for clinical use, but initial results are promising. Summary Targeted hemostatic therapy aims to correct coagulopathies in specific clinical settings, and reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions, thus preventing massive transfusion and its deleterious outcomes. Although there are specific guidelines for reversing anticoagulation in patients treated with antiplatelet agents or warfarin, there is currently little evidence to advocate comprehensive recommendations to treat drug-induced coagulopathy associated with new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25734869

  14. Coagulation algorithms with size binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statton, David M.; Gans, Jason; Williams, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation describes the time evolution of an aerosol particle size distribution due to aggregation or coagulation. Any algorithm for computerized solution of this equation requires a scheme for describing the continuum of aerosol particle sizes as a discrete set. One standard form of the Smoluchowski equation accomplishes this by restricting the particle sizes to integer multiples of a basic unit particle size (the monomer size). This can be inefficient when particle concentrations over a large range of particle sizes must be calculated. Two algorithms employing a geometric size binning convention are examined: the first assumes that the aerosol particle concentration as a function of size can be considered constant within each size bin; the second approximates the concentration as a linear function of particle size within each size bin. The output of each algorithm is compared to an analytical solution in a special case of the Smoluchowski equation for which an exact solution is known . The range of parameters more appropriate for each algorithm is examined.

  15. Characterization and literature review of bowel perforation injuring using argon beam coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Kelli S.; Merchel, Renée. A.; Taylor, Kenneth D.

    2015-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: Argon Beam Coagulation (ABC®) technology is used in conjunction with the ConMed ABCFlex® Probe to provide non-contact hemostasis, coagulation, and tissue devitalization during endoscopic procedures. ABC provides a superficial tissue effect; however, there is a risk of bowel perforation. To better understand the settings that lead to perforation, this study reviews the literature and provides an ex vivo characterization of the ABCFlex Probe tissue effect at different settings when used at small distances. METHODS: Depth of thermal tissue effect was characterized to determine the effect of three parameters: power (W), distance from probe tip to tissue (mm) and application duration (s). 3 ABCFlex Probes were used to create 15 samples on ex vivo porcine small intestine for each combination of parameters. The depth of tissue effect for each sample was measured using a light microscope. RESULTS: Depth of tissue effect increases as power and application time increases. An increase of distance from the probe tip to the tissue results in a decrease in depth of tissue effect from a near contact to 1mm distance. Depth of tissue effect doesn't significantly change from 1mm to 3mm distance. CONCLUSION: ABCFlex Probe can be used to achieve hemostasis in endoscopic procedures. Increasing power and application time increases the depth of thermal effect while increasing distance from the probe time to the surface of the tissue decreases the depth of tissue effect.

  16. Microwave liver ablation: influence of hepatic vein size on heat-sink effect in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nam C; Raman, Steven S; Kim, Young Jun; Lassman, Charles; Chang, Xinlian; Lu, David S K

    2008-07-01

    To determine influence of hepatic vein size on perfusion-mediated attenuation in adjacent microwave thermal ablation. With approval of the institutional animal research committee, seven Yorkshire pigs underwent percutaneous (n = 2) or open (n = 5) microwave liver ablation under general anesthesia. In each, multiple ultrasound-guided, nonoverlapping thermal lesions were created within 1 cm of hepatic veins in a 5-10-minute ablation at 45 W. After euthanasia, the liver was harvested and sectioned at 0.5-cm intervals and the degree of perivascular coagulation attenuation was graded on histopathologic analysis. Correlation between venous size (small, < or =3 mm; medium, 3-6 mm; and large, >6 mm) and attenuation grade was performed with use of the Spearman rank test. In 63 of 103 sections (61%)--29 of 37 (78%) small, 27 of 48 (56%) medium, and seven of 18 (39%) large veins--the thermal injury extended to the vein wall around the entire circumference of the coagulation front without distortion of the ablation margin. In 40 of 103 sections (38.9%), varying degrees of concave distortion of perivenous ablation margins were noted, with significant correlation between vein size and heat-sink extent (P < .01). However, thermal injury extended to the vascular wall in all sections without complete circumferential sparing of liver tissue. Around two thrombosed veins, thermal lesions encased the vessels, producing paradoxically convex ablation margins. Although the heat-sink effect was significantly dependent on hepatic vein size, the majority of pathologic sections exhibited no or minimal effect. Further study is required to assess clinical implications.

  17. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-01

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity. PMID:26731441

  18. Does Activation of the Blood Coagulation Cascade Play a Role in Malaria Pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection is often associated with a procoagulant state. Recent identification of tissue factor (TF) in the brain endothelium of patients who died from cerebral malaria casts new light in our understanding of the coagulation disorder found in P. falciparum infection. It has also been revealed that parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) support assembly of multimolecular coagulation complexes. In this article, the role of TF expression by the endothelium and amplification of the coagulation cascade by pRBC and/or activated platelets—particularly at sequestration sites— is discussed as crucial events in mounting and sustaining a coagulation–inflammation cycle that contributes to organ dysfunction and coma in P. falciparum malaria. PMID:18467176

  19. Coagulation factor V(A2440G) causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lisa M; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-09-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers' plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder-associated F5(A2440G) leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation.

  20. Coagulation factor VA2440G causes east Texas bleeding disorder via TFPIα

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Lisa M.; Tran, Sinh; Livaja, Ruzica; Bensend, Tracy A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited east Texas bleeding disorder is linked to an A2440G variant in exon 13 of the F5 gene. Affected individuals have normal levels of coagulation factor V (FV) activity, but demonstrate inhibition of global coagulation tests. We demonstrated that the A2440G mutation causes upregulation of an alternatively spliced F5 transcript that results in an in-frame deletion of 702 amino acids of the large activation fragment, the B domain. The approximately 250-kDa FV isoform (FV-short), which can be fully activated by thrombin, is present in all A2440G carriers’ plasma (n = 16). FV-short inhibits coagulation through an indirect mechanism by forming a complex with tissue factor pathway inhibitor-α (TFPIα), resulting in an approximately 10-fold increase in plasma TFPIα, suggesting that the TFPIα:FV-short complexes are retained in circulation. The TFPIα:FV-short complexes efficiently inhibit thrombin generation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. These data demonstrate that the east Texas bleeding disorder–associated F5A2440G leads to the formation of the TFPIα:FV-short complex, which inhibits activation and propagation of coagulation. PMID:23979162

  1. Clinical utility of biomarkers of endothelial activation and coagulation for prognosis in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Susan M; Mwilu, Regina; Liles, W Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: HIV infection is associated with vascular dysfunction and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Our objective was to review the evidence regarding the clinical utility of endothelial activation and coagulation biomarkers for the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for publications using the keywords “HIV” or “HIV infection” and “endothelium” or “coagulation”. We reviewed reference lists and hand-searched for additional relevant articles. All clinical studies that enrolled non-pregnant, HIV-infected adults, measured biomarkers reflecting endothelial activation or coagulation, and prospectively evaluated their associations with vascular dysfunction or clinical outcomes were included. Results: Seventeen studies were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 11 investigated endothelial activation biomarkers and 12 investigated coagulation biomarkers. Biomarkers and outcomes varied widely across studies. Overall, published studies support an association between P-selectin and venous thromboembolism in HIV-infected patients, an association between tissue-type plasminogen activator and death, and associations between D-dimer and several clinical outcomes, including venous thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Several studies have demonstrated associations between biomarkers of endothelial activation and coagulation and clinically important outcomes in HIV-1 infection. Additional large-scale prospective investigations to determine the utility of endothelial activation and coagulation biomarkers for risk stratification and prediction of adverse outcomes are clearly warranted. PMID:23732995

  2. CpaA a novel protease from Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates deregulates blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Derek; Law, Robert; Warren, Sarah; Samis, John A; Kumar, Ayush

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that displays high antibiotic resistance. It causes a variety of infections including pneumonias and sepsis which may result in disseminated intravascular coagulation. In this work, we identify and characterize a novel secreted, zinc-dependent, metallo-endopeptidase CpaA (coagulation targeting metallo-endopeptidase of Acinetobacter baumannii) which deregulates human blood coagulation in vitro and thus is likely to contribute to A. baumannii virulence. Three quarters of the clinical isolates tested (n = 16) had the cpaA gene; however, it was absent from two type strains, A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and A. baumannii ATCC 19606. The CpaA protein was purified from one clinical isolate and was able to cleave purified factor (F) V and fibrinogen and reduce the coagulation activity of FV in human plasma. CpaA-treated plasma showed reduced clotting activity in contact pathway-activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assays, but increased clotting activity in tissue factor pathway prothrombin time (PT) assays. A significant portion of clinically relevant A. baumannii isolates secrete a protease which targets and deregulates the coagulation system.

  3. Prothrombin Loading of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Exosomes Regulates Coagulation and Calcification.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, Alexander N; Schoppet, Michael; Schurgers, Leon J; Reynolds, Joanne L; McNair, Rosamund; Heiss, Alexander; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Hackeng, Tilman M; Schlieper, Georg; Harrison, Paul; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    The drug warfarin blocks carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins and acts as an anticoagulant and an accelerant of vascular calcification. The calcification inhibitor MGP (matrix Gla [carboxyglutamic acid] protein), produced by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is a key target of warfarin action in promoting calcification; however, it remains unclear whether proteins in the coagulation cascade also play a role in calcification. Vascular calcification is initiated by exosomes, and proteomic analysis revealed that VSMC exosomes are loaded with Gla-containing coagulation factors: IX and X, PT (prothrombin), and proteins C and S. Tracing of Alexa488-labeled PT showed that exosome loading occurs by direct binding to externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exosomal surface and by endocytosis and recycling via late endosomes/multivesicular bodies. Notably, the PT Gla domain and a synthetic Gla domain peptide inhibited exosome-mediated VSMC calcification by preventing nucleation site formation on the exosomal surface. PT was deposited in the calcified vasculature, and there was a negative correlation between vascular calcification and the levels of circulating PT. In addition, we found that VSMC exosomes induced thrombogenesis in a tissue factor-dependent and PS-dependent manner. Gamma-carboxylated coagulation proteins are potent inhibitors of vascular calcification suggesting warfarin action on these factors also contributes to accelerated calcification in patients receiving this drug. VSMC exosomes link calcification and coagulation acting as novel activators of the extrinsic coagulation pathway and inducers of calcification in the absence of Gla-containing inhibitors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  5. Extracellular vesicles in human follicular fluid do not promote coagulation.

    PubMed

    Franz, Cordula; Böing, Anita N; Montag, Markus; Strowitzki, Thomas; Markert, Udo R; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Nieuwland, Rienk; Toth, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Body fluids contain extracellular vesicles expressing tissue factor on their surface and serve as an additional trigger for coagulation. During the menstrual cycle ovarian tissue restoration is mandatory and it is unknown whether follicular fluid might provide procoagulant substances. Within an observational study, follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), electron microscopy, resistive pulse sensing (RPS), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and fibrin generation tests (FGT). The presence of extracellular vesicles, especially CD9-positive extracellular vesicles in follicular fluid, was proven. However, clotting tests revealed no procoagulant properties of the detected extracellular vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solutions of the coagulation equation with time-dependent coagulation rates. [For stellar formation mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, C.; Bastien, P.

    1986-10-01

    In attempting to reproduce the initial stellar mass function, the authors solved analytically the coagulation equation with an explicit time dependence in the coagulation rate in order to simulate the gravitational collapse of the fragments upon themselves as they move within the progenitor cloud. Two separate cases have been studied, with and without a mass dependence in the coagulation rate. The solutions show that: (1) inclusion of self-gravitation can change the results to the point of preventing coalescence to work altogether, depending on the values of the two free parameters; (2) the precise form of the mass dependence of the coagulation rate is not of prime importance in most situations of astrophysical interest; (3) coagulation alone is not sufficient to yield a realistic mass spectrum, and fragmentation must also be taken into account. 30 references.

  7. Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lim, Eng Gee; Tang, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy. PMID:25379515

  8. Simultaneous measurement of thrombin and plasmin generation to assess the interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoko; Nogami, Keiji; Shima, Midori

    2013-10-01

    Normal haemostasis is maintained by a controlled balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, involving thrombin and plasmin the respective key enzymes. Simultaneous evaluation of both enzymes facilitates, therefore, an overall understanding of normal and pathological haemostasis. Combined thrombin and plasmin generation (T/P-G) assays have been recently described, and we have adapted the technique to investigate the interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with various haemostatic disorders. Our modified T/P-G was initiated by the addition of a mixture of optimised lower concentrations of tissue factor and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Thrombin generation (TG) and plasmin generation (PG) were monitored simultaneously using individual fluorescent substrates in separate microtitre wells. The relationship between coagulation and fibrinolysis was demonstrated by analysing the effects of thrombin inhibitors, activated protein C and thrombomodulin. The most evident impairments in TG were observed with plasma samples deficient of coagulation factors participating in the prothrombinase complex. Defects in PG were observed with deficiencies of factor (F)V, FX, fibrinogen, and plasminogen. TG appeared to be a prerequisite for the initiation of PG, and overall PG was governed by fibrinogen concentration. TG in patients with haemophilia A correlated with levels of FVIII activity, but there was no significant relationship between PG and FVIII:C, confirming that the abnormal haemostasis in haemophilia A results in a severe imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The findings demonstrate that global haemostasis depends on a sensitive balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, and that the modified T/P-G assay could provide an enhanced understanding of haemorrhage and thrombosis in clinical practice.

  9. Global coagulation in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Gianniello, Francesca; Clerici, Marigrazia; Lemma, Laura; Padovan, Lidia; Gatti, Loredana; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora

    2013-12-01

    In spite of their recognized risk of thrombosis, patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) show little or no abnormalities of traditional coagulation tests, perhaps because these are unable to represent the balance between pro- and anticoagulants nor the effect of platelets and blood cells. We investigated whether global tests such as thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or thromboelastometry in whole blood were able to detect signs of procoagulant imbalance in MPN. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 111 patients and 89 controls was measured in PRP with platelet count adjusted to the original patient- or control-count. Testing was performed with and without thrombomodulin (the physiological protein C activator) and results were expressed as ETP ratios (with/without thrombomodulin). High ETP ratios reflect resistance to thrombomodulin and were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. Patients were also investigated by thromboelastometry that provides such parameters as the clot formation time (CFT) and maximal clot firmness (MCF). Short CFT or high MCF were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. ETP ratios were higher in patients than in controls and were directly correlated with platelet counts and inversely with the plasma levels of free protein S, protein C and antithrombin. Patients on hydroxyurea had lower ETP ratios than those on other treatments. CFT was shorter and MCF was greater in patients than controls; CFT and MCF were correlated with platelet counts. In conclusion, patients with MPN display a procoagulant imbalance detectable by thrombin generation and thromboelastometry. These tests might be useful in the frame of clinical trials to assess their association with the occurrence of thrombosis and with the effect of therapeutic strategies in MPN.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction in natural products isolation.

    PubMed

    Delazar, Abbas; Nahar, Lutfun; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) or simply microwave extraction is a relatively new extraction technique that combines microwave and traditional solvent extraction. Application of microwaves for heating the solvents and plant tissues in extraction process, which increases the kinetic of extraction, is called microwave-assisted extraction. MAE has a number of advantages, e.g., shorter extraction time, less solvent, higher extraction rate and lower cost, over traditional method of extraction of compounds from various matrices, especially natural products. The use of MAE in natural products extraction started in the late 1980s, and through the technological developments, it has now become one of the popular and cost-effective extraction methods available today, and several advanced MAE instrumentations and methodologies have become available, e.g., pressurized microwave-assisted extraction (PMAE) and solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE). This chapter provides an overview of the MAE and presents a number of specific protocols for natural products extraction.

  11. Microrheological Coagulation Assay Exploiting Micromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Francesco; Duffy, James; Hegner, Martin

    2017-01-03

    Rheological measurements in biological liquids yield insights into homeostasis and provide information on important molecular processes that affect fluidity. We present a fully automated cantilever-based method for highly precise and sensitive measurements of microliter sample volumes of human blood plasma coagulation (0.009 cP for viscosity range 0.5-3 cP and 0.0012 g/cm(3) for density range 0.9-1.1 g/cm(3)). Microcantilever arrays are driven by a piezoelectric element, and resonance frequencies and quality factors of sensors that change over time are evaluated. A highly accurate approximation of the hydrodynamic function is introduced that correlates resonance frequency and quality factor of cantilever beams immersed in a fluid to the viscosity and density of that fluid. The theoretical model was validated using glycerol reference solutions. We present a surface functionalization protocol that allows minimization of unspecific protein adsorption onto cantilevers. Adsorption leads to measurement distortions and incorrect estimation of the fluid parameters (viscosity and density). Two hydrophilic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) sensor surfaces are compared to a hydrophobic terminated SAM coating. As expected, the hydrophobic modified surfaces induced the highest mass adsorption and could promote conformational changes of the proteins and subsequent abnormal biological activity. Finally, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assay was performed, and the viscosity, density, and coagulation rate of human blood plasma were measured along with the standard coagulation time. The method could extend and improve current coagulation testing.

  12. [Investigation of coagulation time: PT and APTT].

    PubMed

    Ramakers, Christian; van der Heul, Cees; van Wijk, Eduard M

    2012-01-01

    The first case report describes an extremely prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in a patient with no history of increased bleeding tendency. Heparin use was excluded. The APTT mixing study combined with the medical history suggests a deficiency in one of the non-essential coagulation factors. This was confirmed by factor XII activity of <1%. The second case report describes a prolonged APTT in a patient with no history of increased bleeding tendency. The negative bleeding tendency in combination with a failure of the mixing study to correct the coagulation assay results suggests a factor inhibitor, most probably lupus anticoagulant. Indeed, the lupus anticoagulant was positive and the anti-cardiolipin antibody titre was also positive. Aberrations in the process of haemostasis can be efficiently screened using a platelet count, an APTT, a PT and a thorough physical examination combined with a thorough medical history taking. Common causes of prolonged PT and/or APTT are the use of oral anticoagulants or heparin, vitamin K deficiency and liver disease. Other causes include coagulation factor deficiencies, coagulation factor inhibitors and diffuse intravascular coagulation.

  13. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kenya Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  14. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  15. Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Utilizing commercial microwave for rapid and effective immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Owens, Katrina; Park, Ji H; Kristian, Tibor

    2013-09-30

    There is an accumulating literature demonstrating the application of microwaves across a wide spectrum of histological techniques. Although exposure to microwaves for short periods resulted in substantial acceleration of all procedures this technique still is not adopted widely. In part, this may be due to concerns over solutions that will avoid induction of thermal damage to the tissue when using standard microwave. Here, we offer a cooling setup that can be used with conventional microwave ovens. We utilized dry ice for effective cooling during microwave irradiation of tissue samples. To prevent overheating, the cups with tissue during exposure to microwaves were surrounded with powdered dry ice. Since the dry ice does not touch the walls of the cups, freezing is prevented. Overheating is avoided by alternating the microwave treatment with 1-2 min time periods when the cups are cooled outside of the microwave oven. This technique was used on mouse brain sections that were immunostained with microglia-specific CD68 antiserum and astrocyte labeling GFAP antibody. Both standard and microwave-assisted immonolabeling gave comparable results visualizing cells with fine processes and low background signal. Short incubation time in the microwave requires high concentrations of antibody for tissue immunostaining. We show that by prolonging the microwaving procedure we were able to reduce the antibody concentration to the levels used in standard immunostaining protocol. In summary, our technique gives a possibility to use a conventional microwave for rapid and effective immunolabeling resulting in reduced amount of antibody required for satisfactory immunostaining. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Microwave-assisted purge-and-trap extraction device coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of five predominant odors in sediment, fish tissues, and algal cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuwei; Xie, Ping; Qi, Min; Liang, Gaodao; Chen, Jun; Ma, Zhimei; Jiang, Yan

    2012-01-06

    Off-flavors are among the most troublesome compounds in the environment worldwide. The lack of a viable theory for studying the sources, distribution, and effect of odors has necessitated the accurate measurement of odors from environmental compartments. A rapid and flexible microwave-assisted purge-and-trap extraction device for simultaneously determining five predominant odors, namely, dimethyltrisulfide, 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone, from the primary sources and sinks is demonstrated. This instrument facilitates the extraction and concentration of odors from quite different matrices simultaneously. This device is a solvent-free automated system that does not require cleaning and is timesaving. The calibration curves of the five odor compounds showed good linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/L, with correlation coefficients above 0.999 (levels=7) and with residuals ranging from approximately 77% to 104%. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were below 0.15 ng/L in algae sample and 0.07 ng/g in sediment and fish tissue samples. The relative standard deviations were between 2.65% and 7.29% (n=6). Thus the proposed design is ready for rapid translation into a standard analytical tool and is useful for multiple applications in the analysis of off-flavors.

  18. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  19. Effect of remote ischaemic conditioning on coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Jacobina; Grove, Erik L; Rise, Nina; Neergaard-Petersen, Søs; Würtz, Morten; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-05-01

    Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) reduces infarct size and may improve prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To explore the potential mechanisms, we investigated the effects of RIC on coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interventional crossover study including 30 healthy drug-naïve males. Participants were exposed to a sham intervention (visit 1) and to RIC (visit 2 and 3) induced by intermittent arm ischaemia through four cycles of 5-min inflation of a blood pressure cuff followed by 5-min deflation. Prior to visit 3, all participants received aspirin 75mg daily for seven days. Blood samples were obtained at baseline as well as 5 and 45min after intervention. Whole blood coagulation was assessed by thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Fibrinolysis was evaluated by clot turbidity-lysis, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). No differences were found in clot initiation, clot propagation or clot strength evaluated by ROTEM® (all p-values≥0.98). During aspirin treatment, clot initiation and clot propagation decreased after RIC evaluated by ROTEM® EXTEM® clotting time (p=0.04) and ROTEM® EXTEM® maximum velocity (p=0.03). After sham and RIC, thrombin generation declined as evaluated by reduced endogenous thrombin potential (RIC: p=0.001) and peak (RIC: p=0.01). After RIC during aspirin treatment, changes in thrombin generation were inconsistent; increased peak (p=0.04) and time to peak (p<0.001) and a decrease in lag-time (p<0.001). Clot lysis time was prolonged both after sham and after RIC (p<0.001). After RIC, PAI-1 levels declined (p=0.03), but t-PA levels also declined after all interventions (p-values≤0.04). RIC did not have substantial effects on coagulation or fibrinolysis compared to sham. Overall, aspirin did not influence the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  1. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-08

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA.

  2. Total microwave processing using microwave technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.J.; Kingston, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of total microwave processing of samples involves all processes after the collection of a sample up to but not including the analysis. These processes are often time consuming and a primary source of critical analytical errors. The use of microwave technology has been shown to improve sample digestion while also reducing contamination. However, microwave technology can also be used in the preparation of representative samples and matrix modifications; essentially total sample preparation. The concept of total microwave processing will be discussed as applied to the routine analysis of samples according to proposed Environmental Protection Agency Method 3052. This method requires microwave digestion and provides for several methods of post-digestion removal of hydrofluoric acid. Microwave technologies will be shown to efficiently dry, digest, and perform matrix modifications.

  3. Fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, John C.; Hajjar, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis as both the primary product of the coagulation cascade and the ultimate substrate for fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis efficiency is greatly influenced by clot structure, fibrinogen isoforms and polymorphisms, the rate of thrombin generation, the reactivity of thrombus-associated cells such as platelets, and the overall biochemical environment. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system, like that of the coagulation cascade, is accomplished by a wide array of cofactors, receptors, and inhibitors. Fibrinolytic activity can be generated either on the surface of a fibrin-containing thrombus, or on cells that express profibrinolytic receptors. In a widening spectrum of clinical disorders, acquired and congenital defects in fibrinolysis contribute to disease morbidity, and new assays of global fibrinolysis now have potential predictive value in multiple clinical settings. Here, we summarize the basic elements of the fibrinolytic system, points of interaction with the coagulation pathway, and some recent clinical advances. PMID:25294122

  4. Coagulation-membrane filtration of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Liao, Guan-Yu; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    Filtration-based separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was investigated using a surface-modified hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) attained maximum turbidity removal at 200 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3). The membrane filtration flux at 1 bar increased as the PACl dose increased, regardless of overdosing in the coagulation stage. The filtered cake at the end of filtration tests peaked in solid content at 10 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3), reaching 34% w/w, roughly two times that of the original suspension. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests demonstrate that the cake with minimum water-solid binding strength produced the driest filter cake. Coagulation using 10 mg L(-1) PACl as Al(2)O(3), followed by PTFE membrane filtration at 1 bar, is an effective process for harvesting C. vulgaris from algal froth.

  5. Prostate cancer: beware of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mihir; John, Babbin; Evans, Gillian; Eddy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological systemic condition resulting from aberrant activation of the coagulation system. It is characterised by the release and activation of procoagulants into the blood, with an associated consumption coagulopathy. Its association with solid and haematological malignancies is well described in literature. This case describes an elderly man, known to have prostate cancer, who following transurethral resection of the prostate developed DIC with haematuria, spontaneous ecchymoses and mucosal bleeding. Subsequent investigations revealed a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >1000 µg/L, and staging CT showed multiple sclerotic metastatic lesions affecting the thoracic and lumbar vertebra, as well as infiltration into his left femur. Coagulation normalised with blood products and vitamin K within 1 week, and the patient responded to antiandrogen therapy with a reduction in pain and PSA on discharge. PMID:25819815

  6. Coagulation of carbon clusters in detonation front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupershtokh, A. L.; Ershov, A. P.; Medvedev, D. A.

    1996-05-01

    During the detonation synthesis, diamonds of ˜3 nm in size are produced from the excess carbon released in explosion. Coagulation occurs generally well below the melting temperature. Molecular dynamic simulations within the framework of simple Lennard-Jones model showed important features of interacting carbon clusters: 1) Coagulation is exothermic, and small clusters merge as liquid drops. Clusters larger than ˜3 nm unite keeping their shape, but surface atoms are in quasimolten state and can migrate between two grains. This "wetting" is rather slow. For small clusters there exist considerable temperature fluctuations due to interaction with the thermal bath. 2) Coagulation is accompanied by strong tensions. Both positive and negative pressure phases during the collision can reach ˜30 GPa. This can explain why the region of good diamond yield lies on P-T plane much higher than the graphite-diamond transition line.

  7. Fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Chapin, John C; Hajjar, Katherine A

    2015-01-01

    Fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis as both the primary product of the coagulation cascade and the ultimate substrate for fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis efficiency is greatly influenced by clot structure, fibrinogen isoforms and polymorphisms, the rate of thrombin generation, the reactivity of thrombus-associated cells such as platelets, and the overall biochemical environment. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system, like that of the coagulation cascade, is accomplished by a wide array of cofactors, receptors, and inhibitors. Fibrinolytic activity can be generated either on the surface of a fibrin-containing thrombus, or on cells that express profibrinolytic receptors. In a widening spectrum of clinical disorders, acquired and congenital defects in fibrinolysis contribute to disease morbidity, and new assays of global fibrinolysis now have potential predictive value in multiple clinical settings. Here, we summarize the basic elements of the fibrinolytic system, points of interaction with the coagulation pathway, and some recent clinical advances.

  8. Scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: signal, resolution, and contrast.

    PubMed

    Ku, G; Wang, L V

    2001-01-01

    Scanning thermoacoustic tomography was explored in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Short microwave pulses were used to induce acoustic waves by thermoelastic expansion in biological tissues. Cross sections of tissue samples were imaged by a linear scan of the samples while a focused ultrasonic transducer detected the time-resolved thermoacoustic signals. Based on the microwave-absorption properties of normal and cancerous breast tissues, the piezoelectric signals in response to the thermoacoustic contrast were investigated over a wide range of electromagnetic frequencies and depths of tumor locations. The axial resolution is related to the temporal profile of the microwave pulses and to the impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer. The lateral resolution is related to the numerical aperture of the ultrasonic transducer as well as to the frequency spectra of the piezoelectric signals in the time window corresponding to the axial resolution. Gain compensation, counteracting the microwave attenuation, was applied to enhance the image contrast.

  9. Coagulation characteristics of titanium (Ti) salt coagulant compared with aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) salts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Gao, B Y; Shon, H K; Cao, B C; Kim, J-H

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the performance of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl(4)) coagulation and flocculation is compared with commonly used coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)), polyaluminum chloride (PACl), iron chloride (FeCl(3)), and polyferric sulfate (PFS) in terms of water quality parameters and floc properties. TiCl(4) flocculation achieved higher removal of UV(254) (98%), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (84%) and turbidity (93%) than other conventional coagulants. Charge neutralization and physical entrapment of colloids within coagulant precipitates and adsorption, seemed to play a significant role during TiCl(4) flocculation, while the main mechanism for conventional coagulants was bridge-aggregation and adsorption. The aggregated flocs after TiCl(4) flocculation showed the fastest growth rate compared to the other coagulants, with the largest floc size (801 μm) occurring within 8 min. The floc strength factor of PACl, Al(2)(SO(4))(3), PFS, FeCl(3) and TiCl(4) was 34, 30, 29, 26 and 29, respectively, while the floc recovery factor of the TiCl(4) coagulant was the lowest. Based on the results of the above study, it is concluded that the TiCl(4) flocculation can reduce the hydraulic retention time of slow and rapid mixing, however, careful handling of sludge is required due to the low recoverability of the aggregated floc. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate.

  11. Coagulation monitoring: current techniques and clinical use of viscoelastic point-of-care coagulation devices.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Michael T; Hofer, Christoph K

    2008-05-01

    Perioperative monitoring of blood coagulation is critical to better understand causes of hemorrhage, to guide hemostatic therapies, and to predict the risk of bleeding during the consecutive anesthetic or surgical procedures. Point-of-care (POC) coagulation monitoring devices assessing the viscoelastic properties of whole blood, i.e., thrombelastography, rotation thrombelastometry, and Sonoclot analysis, may overcome several limitations of routine coagulation tests in the perioperative setting. The advantage of these techniques is that they have the potential to measure the clotting process, starting with fibrin formation and continue through to clot retraction and fibrinolysis at the bedside, with minimal delays. Furthermore, the coagulation status of patients is assessed in whole blood, allowing the plasmatic coagulation system to interact with platelets and red cells, and thereby providing useful additional information on platelet function. Viscoelastic POC coagulation devices are increasingly being used in clinical practice, especially in the management of patients undergoing cardiac and liver surgery. Furthermore, they provide useful information in a large variety of clinical scenarios, e.g., massive hemorrhage, assessment of hypo- and hypercoagulable states, guiding pro- and anticoagulant therapies, and in diagnosing of a surgical bleeding. A surgical etiology of bleeding has to be considered when viscoelastic test results are normal. In summary, viscoelastic POC coagulation devices may help identify the cause of bleeding and guide pro- and anticoagulant therapies. To ensure optimal accuracy and performance, standardized procedures for blood sampling and handling, strict quality controls and trained personnel are required.

  12. Blood flow controls coagulation onset via the positive feedback of factor VII activation by factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood coagulation is a complex network of biochemical reactions, which is peculiar in that it is time- and space-dependent, and has to function in the presence of rapid flow. Recent experimental reports suggest that flow plays a significant role in its regulation. The objective of this study was to use systems biology techniques to investigate this regulation and to identify mechanisms creating a flow-dependent switch in the coagulation onset. Results Using a detailed mechanism-driven model of tissue factor (TF)-initiated thrombus formation in a two-dimensional channel we demonstrate that blood flow can regulate clotting onset in the model in a threshold-like manner, in agreement with existing experimental evidence. Sensitivity analysis reveals that this is achieved due to a combination of the positive feedback of TF-bound factor VII activation by activated factor X (Xa) and effective removal of factor Xa by flow from the activating patch depriving the feedback of "ignition". The level of this trigger (i.e. coagulation sensitivity to flow) is controlled by the activity of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Conclusions This mechanism explains the difference between red and white thrombi observed in vivo at different shear rates. It can be speculated that this is a special switch protecting vascular system from uncontrolled formation and spreading of active coagulation factors in vessels with rapidly flowing blood. PMID:20102623

  13. MICROWAVE SOLID-STATE GENERATORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS , *SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, *TRANSISTORS, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, X BAND, FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS, MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND, NARROWBAND, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS.

  14. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

  15. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  16. Assessing blood coagulation status with laser speckle rheology

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed and investigated a novel optical approach, Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR), to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status by measuring the viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation. In LSR, a blood sample is illuminated with laser light and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are measured using a high-speed CMOS camera. During blood coagulation, changes in the viscoelastic properties of the clot restrict Brownian displacements of light scattering centers within the sample, altering the rate of speckle intensity fluctuations. As a result, blood coagulation status can be measured by relating the time scale of speckle intensity fluctuations with clinically relevant coagulation metrics including clotting time and fibrinogen content. Our results report a close correlation between coagulation metrics measured using LSR and conventional coagulation results of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and functional fibrinogen levels, creating the unique opportunity to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status in real-time at the point of care. PMID:24688816

  17. Microwave generator for scientific and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Ciupa, R.; Neamtu, C.

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays power microwave radiation is widely used in medical applications as hyperthermia, diathermy or ablation and for scientific applications such as plasma generation, digestion, or as a catalyst in green chemistry. Nevertheless, designing a suitably adapted microwave generator that meets both the scientific and the more restrictive medical criteria remains a difficult task. We present here a simplified approach in designing such a microwave generator, according to the IEC60601 medical standard. The generator, based on a continuous wave (CW) magnetron, is coupled via a TE10 waveguide to feed either a hyperthermia applicator or a reactor chamber. Microwave interactions with the probe (or the tissue) depend strongly on the magnetron's power supply parameters and the impedance match of the entire microwave circuit. Any unmatched elements (magnetron to waveguide, waveguide to applicator, applicator to patient) give rise to a large voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) which loads the generator with a surplus energy, converted to heat. Extra heating of the magnetron will deteriorate the amplitude of the generated microwave power field. We show here that, by using a proprietary patented temperature sensor sheet, we were able to detect and improve the impedance matching of the microwave circuit.

  18. Minimizing Epidermal Damage In Laser Coagulation Of Superficial Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, Adrianna; Anderson, R. Rox

    1989-09-01

    Laser surgery has become the most frequently used treatment for cutaneous vascular malformations. Unfortunately, using the continuous wave lasers such as the argon and argon tunable dye lasers has resulted in a fairly high risk of scarring, ranging from 5-30% compared to the pulsed light from the flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The flashlamp-pumped dye laser was designed to coagulate vessels about 100 microns in diameter. It is not effective in closing vessels much larger than this. For this reason it is important to have a modality that makes the closure of larger vessels possible without scarring. It is possible to minimize epidermal temperature rise in response to continuous wave light application by the use of a 100 micron spot size focused on the vessel tissue which will restrict coagulation to the vessels. Skin surface temperatures were measured using a thermocouple. When coherent light was delivered from an argon (514 nm) and argon tunable dye (577 nm) lasers, a 100 micron spot power of 0.1 watt and one second exposures were used, the mean skin surface temperature rise was 6 ± 2 degrees celsius. By contrast, a 1000 micron spot, power of 1 watt and one second exposure resulted in a mean temperature rise of 20 ± 2 degrees celsius. These measurements were confirmed using an Inframetrics thermal camera. Treatment of portwine stains using this technique has substantially reduced the incidence of post-laser scarring.

  19. Nanoparticle coagulation in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, Shota; Kondo, Michio; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yukio

    2008-08-15

    The kinetics of nanoparticle coagulation has been studied in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas. The coagulation occurs when the mutual collision frequency among nanoparticles exceeds their charging and decharging/neutralization frequency. Interestingly, the coagulation is suppressed while a fraction (several percent) of nanoparticles are negatively charged in a plasma, in which stochastic charging plays an important role. A model is developed to predict a phase diagram of the coagulation and its suppression.

  20. Coagulation dynamics of a blood sample by multiple scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, Magalie; Peltié, Philippe; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Cosnier, Marie-Line; Cubizolles, Myriam; Nougier, Christophe; Négrier, Claude; Pouteau, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    We report a new technique to measure coagulation dynamics on whole-blood samples. The method relies on the analysis of the speckle figure resulting from a whole-blood sample mixed with coagulation reagent and introduced in a thin chamber illuminated with a coherent light. A dynamic study of the speckle reveals a typical behavior due to coagulation. We compare our measured coagulation times to a reference method obtained in a medical laboratory.

  1. Unsupervised analysis of combined lipid and coagulation data reveals coagulopathy subtypes among dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Contaifer, Daniel; Carl, Daniel E; Warncke, Urszula Osinska; Martin, Erika J; Mohammed, Bassem M; Van Tassell, Benjamin; Brophy, Donald F; Chalfant, Charles E; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S

    2017-03-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are the primary means of managing end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, these treatment modalities are associated with the onset of coagulation abnormalities. Effective management of coagulation risk among these patients requires the identification of surrogate markers that provide an early indication of the coagulation abnormalities. The role of sphingolipids in the manifestation and prediction of coagulation abnormalities among dialysis patients have never been investigated. Herein, we report the first instance of an in depth investigation into the sphingolipid changes among ESRD patients undergoing HD and PD. The results reveal distinct differences in terms of perturbations to specific sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways that are highly dependent on the treatment modality. Our studies also demonstrated strong correlation between specific sphingolipids and coagulation parameters, such as HexCer(d18:1/26:0) and maximal amplitude (MA), SM(d18:1/24:1) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and sphingosine 1-phosphate d18:1 and FX (Spearman ρ of 0.93, 0.89, and -0.89, respectively). Furthermore, our study revealed the potential for using HexCer(d18:1/22:0), HexCer(d18:1/24:0), and HexCer(d18:1/26:0) (r(2) = 0.71, 0.82, and 0.63, respectively) and coagulation parameter MA (r(2) = 0.7) for successful diagnosis of differential coagulopathies among ESRD patients undergoing HD, providing an opportunity toward personalized disease management. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Coagulation Activation in Children with Sickle Cell Disease Is Associated with Cerebral Small Vessel Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Colombatti, Raffaella; De Bon, Emiliano; Bertomoro, Antonella; Casonato, Alessandra; Pontara, Elena; Omenetto, Elisabetta; Saggiorato, Graziella; Steffan, Agostino; Damian, Tamara; Cella, Giuseppe; Teso, Simone; Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Patrizia; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Basso, Giuseppe; Sartori, Maria Teresa; Sainati, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombotic complications in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) arise since infancy, but the role of the coagulation system in children has been poorly explored. To determine its role in the development of clinical complications in childhood we measured coagulation and endothelial parameters in children with SCD at steady state. Methods Markers of thrombin generation, fibrin dissolution and endothelial activation were evaluated in 38 children with SS-Sβ°, 6 with SC disease and 50 age and blood group matched controls. Coagulation variables were correlated with markers of hemolysis and inflammation, with the presence of cerebral and lung vasculopathy and with the frequency of clinical complications. Results SS-Sβ° patients presented higher levels of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and collagen binding activity, tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA:Ag), D-dimer, p-selectin, prothrombin fragment1+2 (F1+2) and lower ADAMTS-13:activity/VWF:Ag (p<0.05) compared to controls and SC patients. In SS-Sβ° patients coagulation variables correlated positively with markers of inflammation, hemolysis, and negatively with HbF (p<0.05). Patients with cerebral silent infarcts showed significant decrease in t-PA:Ag and ADAMTS-13 Antigen and a tendency toward higher D-dimer, F1+2, TAT compared to patients without them. D-dimer was associated with a six fold increased risk of cerebral silent infarcts. No correlation was found between coagulation activation and large vessel vasculopathy or other clinical events except for decreased t-PA:Ag in patients with tricuspid Rigurgitant Velocity >2.5m/sec. Conclusions SS-Sβ° disease is associated with extensive activation of the coagulation system at steady state since young age. ADAMTS-13 and t-PA:Ag are involved in the development of cerebral silent infarcts. PMID:24205317

  3. Coagulation indices in very preterm infants from cord blood and postnatal samples.

    PubMed

    Neary, E; McCallion, N; Kevane, B; Cotter, M; Egan, K; Regan, I; Kirkham, C; Mooney, C; Coulter-Smith, S; Ní Áinle, F

    2015-11-01

    Very premature infants are at high risk of bleeding complications; however, few data exist on ranges for standard coagulation tests. The primary objective of this study was to measure standard plasma coagulation tests and thrombin generation in very premature infants compared with term infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether an association existed between coagulation indices and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Cord and peripheral blood of neonates < 30 weeks gestational age (GA) was drawn at birth, on days 1 and 3 and fortnightly until 30 weeks corrected gestational age. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen and coagulation factor levels were measured and tissue factor-stimulated thrombin generation was characterized. Control plasma was obtained from cord blood of term neonates. One hundred and sixteen infants were recruited. Median (range) GA was 27.7 (23.7-29.9) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight was 1020 (255) g. Median (5th-95th percentile) day 1 PT, APTT and fibrinogen were 17.5 (12.7-26.6) s, 78.7 (48.7-134.3) s and 1.4 (0.72-3.8) g L(-1) , respectively. No difference in endogenous thrombin potential between preterm and term plasma was observed, where samples were available. Levels of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X, protein C, protein S and antithrombin were reduced in preterm compared with term plasma. Day 1 APTT and PT were not associated with IVH. In the largest cross-sectional study to date of very preterm infants, typical ranges for standard coagulation tests were determined. Despite long clotting times, thrombin generation was observed to be similar in very preterm and term infants. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Use of the diode laser (805 nm) and an angled fiber for coagulation/vaporization of the prostate in the dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.; Stair, Ernest L.; Dickey, D. Thomas; Hurd, John S.; Powell, Ronald; Schafer, Steven A.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Willis, Randall J.; Hults, Donald F.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates tissue coagulation and ablation effects in the prostate gland of the canine model when a diode laser (805 nm-Diomed 25R-Surgimedics/ESP, The Woodlands, Texas) and an angled fiber configuration (1000 (mu) 20 degree bent-Surgimedics/ESP, The Woodlands, Texas were used at specified power densities. Comparisons of therapeutic modalities included animals treated with noncontact coagulation alone, contact ablation alone, and noncontact coagulation and contact ablation in combination. The principal objective was to validate the effectiveness of coagulating prostatic tissue in a noncontact mode at a lower power, followed immediately with contact ablation of the prostatic urethra at a higher energy level. Applying laser energy with the fiber tip in noncontact mode created a deeper zone of coagulative necrosis with an increased level of cellular destruction (lower power 15 - 20 watts delivered to four quadrants for 200 seconds/quadrant) than did higher power modalities alone. An increased luminal diameter, which prevented immediate postoperative urodynamic abnormalities (stranguria, dysuria, and severe hematuria) in this model, was produced by ablating the prostatic urethra with the fiber tip in a contact mode (higher power: 23 - 60 watts for an additional 120 - 200 seconds for the ablative process) immediately following the coagulative procedure. Additionally, semen evaluations performed before and after laser surgery (8 weeks after coagulation/ablation) were performed on one dog and found to be normal with respect to number of spermatozoa and motility.

  5. Toward a better understanding of coagulation for dissolved organic nitrogen using polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate coagulant.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Qian; Yin, Jun; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Bozhi; Fan, Gongduan; Wan, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The increase of agricultural related activities and the lack of effective waste control has led to an increase of organic nitrogen in water. The development of coagulants to effectively remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a high priority in the water treatment industry. We developed a polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate (ZnFeP) coagulant and investigated its coagulation effect on DON removal. Optimum coagulant for coagulation for DON and TDN removals was characterized by the dense convex-concave packing structure differing from other zinc-based coagulant, polycrystalline structure and high content colloidal species, which could account up to 87% of the total colloidal species. Coagulation experiments showed the DON removal rate to vary greatly depending on principal components and their interaction with metals, phosphate and hydroxyl. DON removal efficiency increased with the increase of colloidal species. The coagulation was also dependent on coagulant dosage and water quality parameters: Coagulation efficiency increased with coagulant dosage in the investigated range of 1-16 mg/l, and a pH of 6 was found to be superior for the coagulation. DON removal efficiency was also higher than and linearly correlated with total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) removal, which implies that an effective coagulation for TDN is also effective for DON. The findings in this study indicate that coagulation of DON is largely influenced by coagulant composition and species. We also found the removal of DON by our newly developed polymeric ZnFeP coagulant to be effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  7. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third…

  8. Microwave Medical Treatment Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); George, W. Rflfoul (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods, simulations, and apparatus are provided that may be utilized for medical treatments which are especially suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In a preferred embodiment, a plurality of separate microwave antennas are utilized to heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. By utilizing constructive and destructive interference of the microwave transmission, the energy can be deposited on the tissues to be necrosed while protecting other tissues such as the urethra. Saline injections to alter the conductivity of the tissues may also be used to further focus the energy deposits. A computer simulation is Provided that can be used to Predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of one or more catheters and the methods of applying microwave energy, a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  9. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. The technical work program was initiated on July 1, 1992. Force-distance curves were generated for DDOA Br-coated mica surfaces in water and used to calculate hydrophobicity constants and decay lengths for this system; and a new device for the measurement of water contact angles, similar to the Wilhelmy plate balance, has been built 225 kg samples of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhom No. 3 seam coals were obtained; a static mixer test facility for the study of coagula growth was set up and was undergoing shakedown tests at the end of the quarter; a bench-scale lamella thickener was being constructed; and preliminary coagula/ mineral separation tests were being conducted in a bench-scale continuous drum filter.

  10. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA[sup [minus

  11. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation with Fusobacterium necrophorum septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, M. N.; Drysdale, H. C.; Price, P. A.; Buck, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    A 23 year old woman died within six hours of admission from acute disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram negative anaerobic organism, was isolated as a single pathogen from the blood cultures. This association has not previously been reported. PMID:3174529

  13. Establishing reference intervals in the coagulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Castellone, D D

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study. Many RI are obtained from package inserts, or from publications written by experts in lieu of laboratories conducting their own studies. An overview of validating reference intervals and options for verifying or transference of reference intervals is discussed. Based on the confidence interval and the acceptability of risk laboratories are willing to accept, coagulation laboratories have options to conduct robust studies for their RI. Data mining or global reference studies may help to provide data for age specific ranges. Pre-analytical variables and selection of healthy subjects have the largest impact on coagulation testing outcomes and need to be well controlled during the establishment of reference intervals. Laboratories have options in lieu of conducting a full validation on how to verify RI based on smaller RI studies or transference of RI after determining compatibility of the original RI study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Milestones and perspectives in coagulation and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2009-02-01

    Hemostasis is traditionally defined as the physiologic process whereby bleeding is antagonized and possibly stopped to minimize blood loss. The first medical description of the clinical and inherited features of hemostasis can be dated back more than 1000 years, when Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Andalusi al-Zahrawi' medical treatise provided some initial insights into this puzzling process. Since then, continuous and revolutionary scientific developments have contributed to decoding several aspects of this intricate but essential physiologic phenomenon, providing a reliable model to explain the leading mechanisms involved. Although the point at which bleeding stops is commonly referred to as "coagulation," blood coagulation is actually only one part of a two-part hemostatic process that develops through sequential steps referred to as primary and secondary hemostasis. Throughout its activation and development, the coagulation cascade is strictly regulated by a series of natural inhibitors, which prevent unnecessary and excessive clotting. The aim of this article is to provide a concise overview of the major discoveries and past and current perspectives in coagulation and hemostasis.

  15. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  16. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  17. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an economical method of producing low-ash and low-sulfur coals using the selective coagulation process. The work is subdivided into three tasks: (1) Project Planning, (2) Establish the fundamental mechanism of the selective coagulation process and determine the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur, and (3) Conduct bench-scale process development testwork to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from the dispersed mineral matter. The effect of pH on the energy of particle/bubble detachment has been measured with a single point surface force apparatus (Task 2.1); bench-scale coagulation experiments, coupled with contact angle and zeta potential measurements, are being used to determine hydrophobic interaction parameters for a Pittsburgh No. 8 coal sample (Task 2.2); and a population balance model of the hydrophobic coagulation process is under development (Task 2.3). A sample of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been received and is currently being characterized (Tasks 3.1 3.2), and the mixer required for Task 3.3 was designed and constructed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Blood coagulation: hemostasis and thrombin regulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi A; Key, Nigel S; Levy, Jerrold H

    2009-05-01

    Perioperative bleeding is a major challenge particularly because of increasing clinical use of potent antithrombotic drugs. Understanding current concepts of coagulation is important in determining the preoperative bleeding risk of patients, and in managing hemostatic therapy perioperatively. The serine protease thrombin plays pivotal roles in the activation of additional serine protease zymogens (inactive enzymatic precursors), cofactors, and cell-surface receptors. Thrombin generation is closely regulated to locally achieve rapid hemostasis after injury without causing uncontrolled systemic thrombosis. During surgery, there are major disturbances in coagulation and inflammatory systems because of hemorrhage/hemodilution, blood transfusion, and surgical stresses. Postoperative bleeding often requires allogeneic blood transfusions, which support thrombin generation and hemostasis. However, procoagulant activity and inflammation are increased postoperatively; thus, antithrombotic therapy may be required to prevent perioperative thrombotic complications. There have been significant advances in the management of perioperative hemostasis and thrombosis because of the introduction of novel hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs. However, a limitation of current treatment is that conventional clotting tests do not reflect the entire physiological processes of coagulation making optimal pharmacologic therapy difficult. Understanding the in vivo regulatory mechanisms and pharmacologic modulation of thrombin generation may help control bleeding without potentially increasing prothrombotic risks. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombin generation using multiple, simplified models of coagulation.

  19. Point of Care Assessment of Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Clare E; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of hemostasis can be difficult to fully elucidate but can severely affect patient outcome. The optimal therapy for coagulopathies is also not always clear. Point of care (POC) testing in veterinary medicine can assist in the diagnosis of hemostatic disorders and also direct treatment. Advantages of POC testing include rapid turnaround times, ease of use, and proximity to the patient. Disadvantages include differences in analytic performance compared with reference laboratory devices, the potential for operator error, and limited test options per device. Conventional coagulation tests such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and activated clotting time can be measured by POC devices and can accurately diagnose hypocoagulability, but they cannot detect hypercoagulability or disorders of fibrinolysis. Viscoelastic POC coagulation testing more accurately evaluates in vivo coagulation, and can detect hypocoagulability, hypercoagulability, and alterations in fibrinolysis. POC platelet function testing methodologies can detect platelet adhesion abnormalities including von Willebrand disease, and can be used to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs. It is unlikely that a single test would be ideal for assessing the complete coagulation status of all patients; therefore, the ideal combination of tests for a specific patient needs to be determined based on an understanding of the underlying disease, and protocols must be standardized to minimize interoperator and interinstitutional variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Different Recovery Profiles of Coagulation Factors, Thrombin Generation, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-06

    Different recovery profiles of coagulation factors, thrombin generation, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in pigs Wenjun Z. Martini ...Defense. Address for reprints: Wenjun Z. Martini , PhD, The US Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass, Ft. Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martini W. Z., Cortez D. S., Dubick M. A., Blackbourne L. H., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  1. Novel Ion-Exchange Coagulants Remove More Low Molecular Weight Organics than Traditional Coagulants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huazhang; Wang, Lei; Hanigan, David; Westerhoff, Paul; Ni, Jinren

    2016-04-05

    Low molecular weight (MW) charged organic matter is poorly removed by conventional coagulants but contributes to disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination of drinking waters. We hypothesized that CIEX, a new Al-based hybrid coagulant with ion-exchange functional groups, would be new mechanistic approach to remove low MW organic matter during coagulation and would perform better than polyaluminum chloride (PACl) or metal-salt based coagulants. We measured coagulation performance using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a high hardness surface water. CIEX achieved excellent turbidity removal and removed 20% to 46% more DOC than FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, or PACl, depending on dose. The improved DOC removal was attributable to better removal of low MW organic matter (<2 kDa). We further studied removal mechanisms in a model water containing a low MW organic acid (salicylic acid (SA)). CIEX achieved high removal of organic acids (>90% of SA) independent of pH, whereas removal by metal salts was lower (<15%) and was strongly pH dependent. CIEX ion-exchange capability is facilitated by its covalently bound quaternary ammonium group, which conventional coagulants lack. Plus, unlike other cationic polymers that react with chloramines to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), CIEX has a low molar yield (9.3 × 10(-7) mol NDMA per mol CIEX-N).

  2. Dynamic analysis of coagulation of low turbidity water sources using Al- and Fe-based coagulants.

    PubMed

    Ebie, K; Kawaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, D

    2006-01-01

    The direct filtration system is widely used in the treatment of source waters with low and stable turbidity. We have previously indicated the importance of optimizing agitation strength GR and time TR in rapid mixing tanks in order to decrease filter head loss and treated water turbidity in direct filtration. In the present study, we employ a batch-type coagulation experimental apparatus that incorporates a high-sensitivity particle counter, where the particulate concentrations are measured continuously after injection of coagulant, in order to clarify the fundamental coagulation and microfloc formation dynamics. Specifically, it is shown that, after injection of the coagulant, coagulation and microfloc formation occur through distinct periods: an agglomeration preparation period, followed by an agglomeration progression period, and then finally an agglomeration stabilization period, and that optimization of the GR value is the most important consideration, although both the coagulant concentration and GR influence the time at which agglomeration begins in the preparatory period, the time at which agglomeration stabilizes after the progression period, and the concentration of initial particles with diameters of 1-3 microm at completion of agglomeration.

  3. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  4. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. Materials and methods: A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 an