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Sample records for microwave water radiometer

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  2. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  3. Using Multiple Instrument Measurements To Assess Integrated Water Vapor Path From A Multispectral Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, J.; Han, Z. T.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave Radiometers are mounted on satellites and the ground to collect climatological data. While they provide very useful information about temperature, RH, and water vapor, radiometers should periodically be cross-referenced with other instruments to gauge the veracity of the data. Data available from the closest ground-based GPS receivers and sun photometers was plotted alongside, and used to analyze, data from City College's Microwave Radiometer. Observing all of the data together in a graph allows one to see some of the general advantages and disadvantages of each instrument. The GPS-MET seems to be accurate continuously, while AERONET data is not even available during the night and while there is cloud cover. Lastly, the microwave radiometer collects data continuously, but at certain times the data are about five times higher than the expected values, based on the values given by GPS-MET and AERONET. A good explanation for those spikes is rainfall. For times when it is not raining, the microwave radiometer at City College is sufficiently close to the integrated water vapor data collected by City College's sun photometer and data from Union, New Jersey and East Moriches, New York, as proven by statistical tools.

  4. Microwave radiometer studies of atmospheric water over the oceans, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1992-01-01

    Since Seasat carried the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) into space, shortly followed by the SMMR on Nimbus 7, a new type of data source on atmospheric water vapor and other meteorological parameters has been available for analysis of weather systems over the ocean. Since 1987, the Scanning Multichannel Microwave/Imager (SMM/I) has provided similar data. A collection of work using this data is presented.

  5. Retrieval of water, ammonia and dynamics using microwave spectra: With application to Juno Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Janssen, Michael A.

    2016-10-01

    The Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) is designed to measure the thermal emission of Jupiter's atmosphere from the cloud tops at about 1 bar pressure to as deep as hundreds of bars pressure, with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. Unlike infrared spectroscopy, microwave observations of giant planetary atmospheres are difficult to interpret due to the absence of spectral features and broad weighting functions. The observed quantity is an intricate consequence of thermodynamic and dynamic processes. To unravel the mystery, we introduce two scalar parameters (stretching and cooling) that describe the alteration of the atmospheric thermal and compositional structure by dynamics. Using the above parameters, we are able to fit the Galileo Probe results as well as model the spectral differences between hot spots, zones and belts in Jupiter's atmosphere observed by VLA (de Pater et al., 2016). Finally, we make use of the state-of-the-art retrieval method - Markov Chain Monte Carlo - to determine the joint probability distribution of all parameters of interest. This approach fully calibrates error, assesses covariance between parameters, and explores the widest possible types of atmospheric conditions as opposed to traditional trial-and-error method. We apply this method to simulated Juno/MWR observations. We show that the water abundance is constrained to +3.1/-1.5 times solar for a normal situation and is constrained to an upper limit for an extreme situation.

  6. Microwave radiometer studies of atmospheric water over the oceans, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Seasat carried the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) into space in July of 1978, shortly followed by the SMMR on Nimbus 7, which operated for almost a decade, a new type of data source on atmospheric water vapor and other meteorological parameters has been available for analysis of weather systems over the ocean. Since 1987, we have had the Scanning Multichannel Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instrument on Defense Meteorological Satellites providing similar data. We present a collection of our work performed over the last years of the study.

  7. A multifrequency microwave radiometer of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.; Wilheit, T.; Murphy, R.; Swift, C.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the High-Resolution Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (HMMR), which is to be installed on EOS, is described. The HMMR is to consist of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), the Advanced Mechanically Scanned Radiometer (AMSR), and the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). The AMSU is a 20-channel microwave radiometer system designed to measure profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity and the AMSR is a microwave imager with channels at 6, 10, 18, 21, 37, and 90 GHz for measuring snow cover over land, the age and areal extent of sea ice, the intensity of precipitation over oceans and land, and the amount of water in the atmosphere. ESTAR is an imaging radiometer operating near 1.4 GHz capable of obtaining global maps of surface soil moisture with a spatial resolution of about 10 km. The antenna and signal processing utilized in the ESTAR to achieve the real aperture resolution are examined.

  8. Water vapour profiles from Raman lidar automatically calibrated by microwave radiometer data during HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, A.; Baars, H.; Di Girolamo, P.; Pospichal, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a method to derive water vapour profiles from Raman lidar measurements calibrated by the integrated water vapour (IWV) from a collocated microwave radiometer during the intense observation campaign HOPE in the frame of the HD(CP)2 initiative. The simultaneous observation of a microwave radiometer and a Raman lidar allowed an operational and continuous measurement of water vapour profiles also during cloudy conditions. The calibration method provides results which are in a good agreement with conventional methods based on radiosondes. The calibration factor derived from the proposed IWV method is very stable with a relative uncertainty of 5 %. This stability allows for the calibration of the lidar even in the presence of clouds using the calibration factor determined during the most recent clear sky interval. Based on the application of this approach, it is possible to retrieve water vapour profiles during all non-precipitating conditions. A statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the lidar measurements and collocated radiosondes. The relative biases amount to less than 6.7 % below 2 km.

  9. Water vapour profiles from Raman lidar automatically calibrated by microwave radiometer data during HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, A.; Baars, H.; Di Girolamo, P.; Pospichal, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to derive water vapour profiles from Raman lidar measurements calibrated by the integrated water vapour (IWV) from a collocated microwave radiometer during the intense observation campaign HOPE in the frame of the HD(CP)2 initiative. The simultaneous observation of a microwave radiometer and a Raman lidar allowed an operational and continuous measurement of water vapour profiles also during cloudy conditions. The calibration method provides results in a good agreement with conventional methods based on radiosondes. The calibration factor derived from the proposed IWV method is very stable with a relative uncertainty of 6%. This stability allows to calibrate the lidar even in the presence of clouds using the calibration factor determined during the closest in time clear sky interval. Based on the application of this approach, it is possible to retrieve water vapour profiles during all non-precipitating conditions. A statistical analysis shows a good agreement between the lidar measurements and collocated radiosondes. The relative biases amount to less than 6.7% below 2 km.

  10. Wideband Agile Digital Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; Brown, Shannon T.; Ruf, Christopher; Gross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to take the initial steps needed to develop a field programmable gate array (FPGA)- based wideband digital radiometer backend (>500 MHz bandwidth) that will enable passive microwave observations with minimal performance degradation in a radiofrequency-interference (RFI)-rich environment. As manmade RF emissions increase over time and fill more of the microwave spectrum, microwave radiometer science applications will be increasingly impacted in a negative way, and the current generation of spaceborne microwave radiometers that use broadband analog back ends will become severely compromised or unusable over an increasing fraction of time on orbit. There is a need to develop a digital radiometer back end that, for each observation period, uses digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to identify the maximum amount of RFI-free spectrum across the radiometer band to preserve bandwidth to minimize radiometer noise (which is inversely related to the bandwidth). Ultimately, the objective is to incorporate all processing necessary in the back end to take contaminated input spectra and produce a single output value free of manmade signals to minimize data rates for spaceborne radiometer missions. But, to meet these objectives, several intermediate processing algorithms had to be developed, and their performance characterized relative to typical brightness temperature accuracy re quirements for current and future microwave radiometer missions, including those for measuring salinity, soil moisture, and snow pack.

  11. Observing atmospheric water in storms with the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, K. B.; Lewis, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Employing data on integrated atmospheric water vapor, total cloud liquid water and rain rate obtainable from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), we study the frontal structure of several mid-latitude cyclones over the North Pacific Ocean as they approach the West Coast of North America in the winter of 1979. The fronts, analyzed with all available independent data, are consistently located at the leading edge of the strongest gradient in integrated water vapor. The cloud liquid water content, which unfortunately has received very little in situ verification, has patterns which are consistent with the structure seen in visible and infrared imagery. The rain distribution is also a good indicator of frontal location and rain amounts are generally within a factor of two of what is observed with rain gauges on the coast. Furthermore, the onset of rain on the coast can often be accurately forecast by simple advection of the SMMR observed rain areas.

  12. Measurements of integrated water vapor and cloud liquid water from microwave radiometers at the DOE ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, J.C.; Lesht, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    The operation and calibration of the ARM microwave radiometers is summarized. Measured radiometric brightness temperatures are compared with calculations based on the model using co-located radiosondes. Comparisons of perceptible water vapor retrieved from the radiometer with integrated soundings and co-located GPS retrievals are presented. The three water vapor sensing systems are shown to agree to within about 1 mm.

  13. Observations of water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometers and Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Yong; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    In November to December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensors and in situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the climate experiment First ISCCP Regional Experiment Phase 2 (FIRE 2). Includede in the suite of instruments were (1) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA GSFC Raman lidar, (3) ETL radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent, research-quality radiosondes. The Raman lidar operated only at night and the focus of this portion of the experiment concentrated on clear conditions. The lidar data, together with frequent radiosondes and measurements of temperature profiles (every 15 min) by RASS allowed profiles of temperature and absolute humidity to be estimated every minute. We compared 20 min measurements of brightness temperature (T(sub b) with calculations of T(sub b) that were based on the Liebe and Layton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) microwave propagation models, as well as the Waters (1976) model. The comparisons showed the best agreement at 20.6 GHz with the Waters model, with the Liebe et al. (1993) model being best at 31.65 GHz. The results at 90 GHz gave about equal success with the Liebe and Layton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) models. Comparisons of precipitable water vapor derived independently from the two instruments also showed excellent agreement, even for averages as short as 2 min. The rms difference between Raman and radiometric determinations of precipitable water vapor was 0.03 cm which is roughly 2%. The experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of simultaneous operation of radiometers and Raman lidars for fundamental physical studies of water vapor.

  14. Water vapour variability during Indian monsoon over Trivandrum observed using Microwave Radiometer and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Suresh C.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Ramachandran Pillai, Renju; Uma, K. N.; Saha, Korak

    2012-07-01

    The Indian summer monsoon is a highly regular synoptic event, providing most of the annual rainfall received over the sub-continent. Trivandrum, at the southwestern tip of Indian peninsula, is considered as the gate way of Indian monsoon, with its climatological onset on June 01. During this season, the region, experiences large seasonal variation in water vapor, rain fall and wind (speed and direction) in the troposphere. The variability in water vapor and wind information are the vital parameters in forecasting the onset of monsoon. This study focuses on water vapor measurements over the tropical coastal station Trivandrum (8.5oN & 76.9oE) using microwave techniques and the analyses with an effort to link the seasonal variability of water vapor with the onset of monsoon. At Trivandrum a hyper-spectral microwave radiometer profiler (MRP) and a Triple-frequency global positioning system receiver (GPS) have been in regular operation since April 2010. A station-dependent simple empirical relation suitable for the equatorial atmospheric condition is formulated to map the nonhydrostatic component of GPS tropospheric delay to the PWV, based on the columnar water vapor estimated from the multi-year daily radiosonde ascends from Trivandrum. A trained artificial neural network (ANN) with climatological atmospheric data of Trivandrum, is employed to derive the water vapor from the MRP brightness temperature measurements. The accuracy, reliability and consistency of PWV measurements over the tropical coastal station from these two independent instruments are assessed by comparing PWV derived from MRP and GPS measurements which resulted an rms deviation of <1.2mm (with correlation coefficient of ~0.98). This confirms the PWV derived over Trivandrum from microwave measurements are accurate even during the monsoon period in the presence of clouds and rain. PWV from microwave radiometer measurements for more than two years are used to study the water vapour variability during

  15. A comparative study of microwave radiometer observations over snowfields with radiative transfer model calculations. [for water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Shiue, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Truck mounted microwave instrumentation was used to study the microwave emission characteristics of the Colorado Rocky Mountain snowpack in the vicinity of Fraser, Colorado during the winter of 1978. The spectral signatures of 5.0, 10.7, 18, and 37 GHz radiometers with dual polarization were used to measure the snowpack density and temperature profiles, rain profile, and free water content. These data were compared with calculated results based on microscopic scattering models for dry, surface melting, and very wet snowpacks.

  16. Comparisons of line-of-sight water vapor observations using the global positioning system and a pointing microwave radiometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research

    2003-05-01

    Line-of-sight measurements of integrated water vapor from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a microwave radiometer are compared. These two instruments were collocated at the central facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains region, near Lamont, Oklahoma. The comparison was made using 47 days of observations in May and June of 2000. Weather conditions during this time period were variable with total integrated water vapor ranging from less than 10 to more than 50 mm. To minimize errors in the microwave radiometer observations, observations were compared during conditions when the liquid water measured by the radiometer was less than 0.1 mm. The linear correlation of the observations between the two instruments is 0.99 with a root-mean-square difference of the GPS water vapor to a linear fit of the microwave radiometer of 1.3 mm. The results from these comparisons are used to evaluate the ability of networks of GPS receivers to measure instantaneous line-of-sight integrals of water vapor. A discussion and analysis is provided regarding the additional information of the water vapor field contained in these observations compared to time- and space-averaged zenith and gradient measurements.

  17. Salinity surveys using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.; Droppleman, J. D.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer and L-band channel of the multifrequency microwave radiometer are used to survey the distribution of surface water temperature and salinity. These remote sensors were flown repetitively in November 1971 over the outflow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. Data reduction parameters were determined through the use of flight data obtained over a known water area. With these parameters, the measured infrared and microwave radiances were analyzed in terms of the surface temperature and salinity.

  18. Inter- annual variability of water vapor over an equatorial coastal station using Microwave Radiometer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renju, Ramachandran Pillai; Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Mathew, Nizy; Raju C, Suresh

    The south-western region of the Indian peninsula is the gateway of Indian summer monsoon. This region experiences continuous monsoon rain for a longer period of about six months from June to November. The amount of water vapor variability is one of the important parameters to study the onset, active and break phases of the monsoon. Keeping this in view, a multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) has been made operational for continuous measurements of water vapor over an equatorial coastal station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5(°) N, 76.9(°) E) since April 2010. The MRP estimated precipitable water vapor (PWV) for different seasons including monsoon periods have been evaluated by comparing with the collocated GPS derived water vapor and radiosonde measurements. The diurnal, seasonal and inter annual variation of water vapor has been studied for the last four years (2010-2013) over this station. The significant diurnal variability of water vapor is found only during the winter and pre-monsoon periods (Dec -April). The vertical distribution of water vapour is studied in order to understand its variability especially during the onset of monsoon. During the building up of south-west monsoon, the specific humidity increases to ˜ 10g/kg in the altitude range of 4-6 km and consistently maintained it throughout the active spells and reduces to below 2g/kg during break spells of monsoon. The instrument details and the results will be presented.

  19. Microwave radiometer observations of interannual water vapor variability and vertical structure over a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renju, R.; Suresh Raju, C.; Mathew, Nizy; Antony, Tinu; Krishna Moorthy, K.

    2015-05-01

    The intraseasonal and interannual characteristics and the vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor from the tropical coastal station Thiruvananthapuram (TVM) located in the southwestern region of the Indian Peninsula are examined from continuous multiyear, multifrequency microwave radiometer profiler (MRP) measurements. The accuracy of MRP for precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation, particularly during a prolonged monsoon period, has been demonstrated by comparing with the PWV derived from collocated GPS measurements based on regression model between PWV and GPS wet delay component which has been developed for TVM station. Large diurnal and intraseasonal variations of PWV are observed during winter and premonsoon seasons. There is large interannual PWV variability during premonsoon, owing to frequent local convection and summer thunderstorms. During monsoon period, low interannual PWV variability is attributed to the persistent wind from the ocean which brings moisture to this coastal station. However, significant interannual humidity variability is seen at 2 to 6 km altitude, which is linked to the monsoon strength over the station. Prior to monsoon onset over the station, the specific humidity increases up to 5-10 g/kg in the altitude region above 5 km and remains consistently so throughout the active spells.

  20. Digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Stanley, W. D.; Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor based digital signal processing unit has been proposed to replace analog sections of a microwave radiometer. A brief introduction to the radiometer system involved and a description of problems encountered in the use of digital techniques in radiometer design are discussed. An analysis of the digital signal processor as part of the radiometer is then presented.

  1. Biases in Total Precipitable Water Vapor Climatologies from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2006-01-01

    We examine differences in total precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) experiments sharing the Aqua spacecraft platform. Both systems provide estimates of PWV over water surfaces. We compare AIRS and AMSR-E PWV to constrain AIRS retrieval uncertainties as functions of AIRS retrieved infrared cloud fraction. PWV differences between the two instruments vary only weakly with infrared cloud fraction up to about 70%. Maps of AIRS-AMSR-E PWV differences vary with location and season. Observational biases, when both instruments observe identical scenes, are generally less than 5%. Exceptions are in cold air outbreaks where AIRS is biased moist by 10-20% or 10-60% (depending on retrieval processing) and at high latitudes in winter where AIRS is dry by 5-10%. Sampling biases, from different sampling characteristics of AIRS and AMSR-E, vary in sign and magnitude. AIRS sampling is dry by up to 30% in most high-latitude regions but moist by 5-15% in subtropical stratus cloud belts. Over the northwest Pacific, AIRS samples conditions more moist than AMSR-E by a much as 60%. We hypothesize that both wet and dry sampling biases are due to the effects of clouds on the AIRS retrieval methodology. The sign and magnitude of these biases depend upon the types of cloud present and on the relationship between clouds and PWV. These results for PWV imply that climatologies of height-resolved water vapor from AIRS must take into consideration local meteorological processes affecting AIRS sampling.

  2. Forward Model Studies of Water Vapor Using Scanning Microwave Radiometers, Global Positioning System, and Radiosondes during the Cloudiness Intercomparison Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattioli, Vinia; Westwater, Ed R.; Gutman, S.; Morris, Victor R.

    2005-05-01

    Brightness temperatures computed from five absorption models and radiosonde observations were analyzed by comparing them with measurements from three microwave radiometers at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz. Data were obtained during the Cloudiness Inter-Comparison experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) site in North-Central Oklahoma in 2003. The radiometers were calibrated using two procedures, the so-called instantaneous ?tipcal? method and an automatic self-calibration algorithm. Measurements from the radiometers were in agreement, with less than a 0.4-K difference during clear skies, when the instantaneous method was applied. Brightness temperatures from the radiometer and the radiosonde showed an agreement of less than 0.55 K when the most recent absorption models were considered. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) computed from the radiometers were also compared to the PWV derived from a Global Positioning System station that operates at the ARM site. The instruments agree to within 0.1 cm in PWV retrieval.

  3. Atmospheric absorption model for dry air and water vapor at microwave frequencies below 100 GHz derived from spaceborne radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Liebe and Rosenkranz atmospheric absorption models for dry air and water vapor below 100 GHz are refined based on an analysis of antenna temperature (TA) measurements taken by the Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) in the frequency range 10.7 to 89.0 GHz. The GMI TA measurements are compared to the TA predicted by a radiative transfer model (RTM), which incorporates both the atmospheric absorption model and a model for the emission and reflection from a rough-ocean surface. The inputs for the RTM are the geophysical retrievals of wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water obtained from the satellite radiometer WindSat. The Liebe and Rosenkranz absorption models are adjusted to achieve consistency with the RTM. The vapor continuum is decreased by 3% to 10%, depending on vapor. To accomplish this, the foreign-broadening part is increased by 10%, and the self-broadening part is decreased by about 40% at the higher frequencies. In addition, the strength of the water vapor line is increased by 1%, and the shape of the line at low frequencies is modified. The dry air absorption is increased, with the increase being a maximum of 20% at the 89 GHz, the highest frequency considered here. The nonresonant oxygen absorption is increased by about 6%. In addition to the RTM comparisons, our results are supported by a comparison between columnar water vapor retrievals from 12 satellite microwave radiometers and GPS-retrieved water vapor values.

  4. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometers : an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; McKague, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes 1) the progress of the work of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Instrumentation and Future Technologies Technical Committee (IFT-TC) Microwave Radiometer Working Group and 2) an overview of the development of interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometers as an introduction to a dedicated session.

  5. Comparison of precipitable water observations in the near tropics by GPS, microwave radiometer and radiosondes.

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, Y. A.; Teng, Y. T.; VanHove, T.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; National Central Univ.; UCAR

    2001-01-01

    The sensing of precipitable water (PW) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the near Tropics is investigated. GPS data acquired from the Central Weather Bureau's Taipei weather station in Banchao (Taipei), Taiwan, and each of nine International GPS Service (IGS) stations were utilized to determine independently the PW at the Taipei site from 18 to 24 March 1998. Baselines between Taipei and the other nine stations range from 676 to 3009 km. The PW determined from GPS observations for the nine baseline cases are compared with measurements by a dual-channel water vapor radiometer (WVR) and radiosondes at the Taipei site. Although previous results from other locations show that the variability in the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-observed PW ranges from 1 to 2 mm, a variability of 2.2 mm is found. The increase is consistent with scaling of the variability with the total water vapor burden (PW). In addition, accurate absolute PW estimates from GPS data for baseline lengths between 1500 and 3000 km were obtained. Previously, 500 and 2000 km have been recommended in the literature as the minimum baseline length needed for accurate absolute PW estimation. An exception occurs when GPS data acquired in Guam, one of the nine IGS stations, were utilized. This result is a possible further indication that the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-measured PW is dependent on the total water vapor burden, because both Taipei and Guam are located in more humid regions than the other stations.

  6. Electrically scanning microwave radiometer for Nimbus E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An electronically scanning microwave radiometer system has been designed, developed, and tested for measurement of meteorological, geomorphological and oceanographic parameters from NASA/GSFC's Nimbus E satellite. The system is a completely integrated radiometer designed to measure the microwave brightness temperature of the earth and its atmosphere at a microwave frequency of 19.35 GHz. Calibration and environmental testing of the system have successfully demonstrated its ability to perform accurate measurements in a satellite environment. The successful launch and data acquisition of the Nimbus 5 (formerly Nimbus E) gives further demonstration to its achievement.

  7. Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. L.

    1980-05-01

    The large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) is a high resolution 4 meter aperture scanning radiometer system designed to determine sea surface temperature and wind speed, atmospheric water vapor and liquid water, precipitation, and various sea ice parameters by interpreting brightness temperature images from low Earth orbiting satellites. The LAMMR with dual linear horizontal and vertical polarization radiometer channels from 1.4 to 91 GHZ can provide multidiscipline data with resolutions from 105 to 7 km. The LAMMR baseline radiometer system uses total power radiometers to achieve delta T's in the 0.5 to 1.7 K range and system calibration accuracies in the 1 to 2 deg range. A cold sky horn/ambient load two point calibration technique is used in this baseline concept and the second detector output uses an integrated and dump circuit to sample the scanning cross-tract resolution cells.

  8. Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) is a high resolution 4 meter aperture scanning radiometer system designed to determine sea surface temperature and wind speed, atmospheric water vapor and liquid water, precipitation, and various sea ice parameters by interpreting brightness temperature images from low Earth orbiting satellites. The LAMMR with dual linear horizontal and vertical polarization radiometer channels from 1.4 to 91 GHZ can provide multidiscipline data with resolutions from 105 to 7 km. The LAMMR baseline radiometer system uses total power radiometers to achieve delta T's in the 0.5 to 1.7 K range and system calibration accuracies in the 1 to 2 deg range. A cold sky horn/ambient load two point calibration technique is used in this baseline concept and the second detector output uses an integrated and dump circuit to sample the scanning cross-tract resolution cells.

  9. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  10. Digital simulation of dynamic processes in radiometer systems. [microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The development and application of several computer programs for simulating different classes of microwave radiometers are described. The programs are dynamic in nature, and they may be used to determine the instantaneous behavior of system variables as a function of time. Some of the programs employ random variable models in the simulations so that the statistical nature of the results may be investigated. The programs have been developed to utilize either the Continuous System Modeling Program or the Advanced Continuous System Language. The validity of most of the programs was investigated using statistical tests, and the results show excellent correlation with theoretical predictions. The programs are currently being used in the investigation of new design techniques for microwave radiometers.

  11. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.; Gasiewski, A.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-07-22

    Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper) examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  12. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  13. Comparison of column water vapor measurements using downward-looking near-infrared and infrared imaging systems and upward-looking microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Westwater, Ed R.; Stankov, B. B.; Birkenheuer, D.; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1992-01-01

    Remote soundings of precipitable water vapor from three systems are compared with each other and with ground truth from radiosondes. Ancillary data from a mesoscale network of surface observing stations and from wind-profiling radars are also used in the analysis. The three remote-sounding techniques are: (a) a reflectance technique using spectral data collected by the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer; (b) an emission technique using Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) data acquired from the NOAA's GOES; and (c) a microwave technique using data from a limited network of three ground-based dual-channel microwave radiometers. The data were taken over the Front Range of eastern Colorado on 22-23 March 1990. The generally small differences between the three types of remote-sounding measurements are consistent with the horizontal and temporal resolutions of the instruments. The microwave and optical reflectance measurements agreed to within 0.1 cm; comparisons of the microwave data with radiosondes were also either as good or explainable. The largest differences between the VAS and the microwave radiometer at Elbert were between 0.4 and 0.5 cm and appear to be due to variable terrain within the satellite footprint.

  14. The microwave radiometer spacecraft: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A large passive microwave radiometer spacecraft with near all weather capability of monitoring soil moisture for global crop forecasting was designed. The design, emphasizing large space structures technology, characterized the mission hardware at the conceptual level in sufficient detail to identify enabling and pacing technologies. Mission and spacecraft requirements, design and structural concepts, electromagnetic concepts, and control concepts are addressed.

  15. Accounting For Nonlinearity In A Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, Charles T.

    1991-01-01

    Simple mathematical technique found to account adequately for nonlinear component of response of microwave radiometer. Five prescribed temperatures measured to obtain quadratic calibration curve. Temperature assumed to vary quadratically with reading. Concept not limited to radiometric application; applicable to other measuring systems in which relationships between quantities to be determined and readings of instruments differ slightly from linearity.

  16. Radiometer system requirements for microwave remote sensing from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jeng-Nan

    1990-01-01

    An area of increasing interest is the establishment of a significant research program in microwave remote sensing from satellites, particularly geosynchronous satellites. Due to the relatively small resolution cell sizes, a severe requirement is placed on beam efficiency specifications for the radiometer antenna. Geostationary satellite microwave radiometers could continuously monitor several important geophysical parameters over the world's oceans. These parameters include the columnar content of atmospheric liquid water (both cloud and rain) and water vapor, air temperature profiles, and possibly sea surface temperature. Two principle features of performance are of concern. The first is the ability of the radiometer system to resolve absolute temperatures with a very small absolute error, a capability that depends on radiometer system stability, on frequency bandwidth, and on footprint dwell time. The second is the ability of the radiometer to resolve changes in temperature from one resolution cell to the next when these temperatures are subject to wide variation over the overall field-of-view of the instrument. Both of these features are involved in the use of the radiometer data to construct high-resolution temperature maps with high absolute accuracy.

  17. Submarine fresh water outflow detection with a dual-frequency microwave and an infrared radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Since infrared measurements are only very slightly affected by whitecap and banking angle influences, the combined multifrequency radiometric signatures of the L-band, the S-band, and an infrared radiometer are used in identifying freshwater outflows (submerged and superficial). To separate the river and lagoon outflows from the submarine outflows, geographical maps with a scale of 1:100,000 are used. In all, 44 submarine freshwater springs are identified. This is seen as indicating that the submarine freshwater outflow locations are more numerous around the island than had earlier been estimated. Most of the submarine springs are located at the northwest and southeast portion of the Puerto Rican coastline; the success in detecting the submarine springs during both missions at the northwest portion of the island is 39%. Salinity and temperature distribution plots along the flight path in longitude and latitude coordinates reveal that runoff direction can be determined.

  18. Current status of the global change observation mission - water SHIZUKU (GCOM-W) and the advanced microwave scanning radiometer 2 (AMSR2) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takashi; Kachi, Misako; Kasahara, Marehito

    2016-10-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W) or "SHIZUKU" in 18 May 2012 (JST) from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center. The GCOM-W satellite joins to NASA's A-train orbit since June 2012, and its observation is ongoing. The GCOM-W satellite carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). The AMSR2 is a multi-frequency, total-power microwave radiometer system with dual polarization channels for all frequency bands, and successor microwave radiometer to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) loaded on the NASA's Aqua satellite. The AMSR-E kept observation in the slower rotation speed (2 rotations per minute) for cross-calibration with AMSR2 since December 2012, its operation ended in December 2015. The AMSR2 is designed almost similarly as the AMSR-E. The AMSR2 has a conical scanning system with large-size offset parabolic antenna, a feed horn cluster to realize multi-frequency observation, and an external calibration system with two temperature standards. However, some important improvements are made. For example, the main reflector size of the AMSR2 is expanded to 2.0 m to observe the Earth's surface in higher spatial resolution, and 7.3-GHz channel is newly added to detect radio frequency interferences at 6.9 GHz. In this paper, we present a recent topic for the AMSR2 (i.e., RFI detection performances) and the current operation status of the AMSR2.

  19. Receivers for the Microwave Radiometer on Juno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, F.; Russell, D.; Dawson, D.; Hatch, W.; Brown, S.; Oswald, J.; Janssen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Six receivers for the MicroWave Radiometer (MWR) are currently under development at JPL. These receivers cover a frequency range of 0.6 to 22 GHz in approximately octave steps, with 4 % bandwidth. For calibration and diagnosis three noise diodes and a Dicke switch are integrated into each receiver. Each receiver is connected to its own antenna which is mounted with its bore sights perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft. As the spacecraft spins at 2 RPM, the antenna field of view scans Jupiter's atmosphere from limb to nadir to limb, measuring microwave emission down to 1000-bar.

  20. Null-balancing microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, W. N.; Love, A. W.; Jones, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Device performs absolute temperature measurements over range of 0 to 300 degrees Kelvin. Stability of device approaches 0.1 degrees Kelvin. Potential uses include detecting oil slicks on water and determining cloud water content and water vapor content of atmosphere.

  1. Remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Chang, A. T. C.; Boyne, H.; Ellerbruch, D.

    1978-01-01

    A microwave remote sensing of snowpack experiment is described and some preliminary data presented. A mobile field laboratory consisting of a four-frequency (5, 10.7, 18 and 37 GHz), all with dual linear (vertical and horizontal) polarizations, microwave radiometer system attached to a truck-mounted aerial lift was used to study the microwave emission characteristics of snowpacks in the Colorado Rocky Mountains during the winter of 1977-78. The influence of snowpack physical parameters such as water equivalent, grain size, and melt-freeze cycle on its microwave brightness temperature and its implications to the application of microwave radiometric technique to remote sensing of snowpack for runoff prediction are discussed.

  2. High-Precision Laboratory Measurements Supporting Retrieval of Water Vapor, Gaseous Ammonia, and Aqueous Ammonia Clouds with the Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, Paul G.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Karpowicz, Bryan M.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Noorizadeh, Sahand; Duong, Danny; Chinsomboon, Garrett; Bellotti, Amadeo; Janssen, Michael A.; Bolton, Scott J.

    2016-08-01

    The NASA Juno mission includes a six-channel microwave radiometer system (MWR) operating in the 1.3-50 cm wavelength range in order to retrieve abundances of ammonia and water vapor from the microwave signature of Jupiter (see Janssen et al. 2016). In order to plan observations and accurately interpret data from such observations, over 6000 laboratory measurements of the microwave absorption properties of gaseous ammonia, water vapor, and aqueous ammonia solution have been conducted under simulated Jovian conditions using new laboratory systems capable of high-precision measurement under the extreme conditions of the deep atmosphere of Jupiter (up to 100 bars pressure and 505 K temperature). This is one of the most extensive laboratory measurement campaigns ever conducted in support of a microwave remote sensing instrument. New, more precise models for the microwave absorption from these constituents have and are being developed from these measurements. Application of these absorption properties to radiative transfer models for the six wavelengths involved will provide a valuable planning tool for observations, and will also make possible accurate retrievals of the abundance of these constituents during and after observations are conducted.

  3. Single-Pole Double-Throw MMIC Switches for a Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the effect of gain and noise instabilities in the RF chain of a microwave radiometer, a Dicke radiometer topology is often used, as in the case of the proposed surface water and ocean topography (SWOT) radiometer instrument. For this topology, a single-pole double-throw (SPDT) microwave switch is needed, which must have low insertion loss at the radiometer channel frequencies to minimize the overall receiver noise figure. Total power radiometers are limited in accuracy due to the continuous variation in gain of the receiver. High-frequency SPDT switches were developed in the form of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) using 75 micron indium phosphide (InP) PIN-diode technology. These switches can be easily integrated into Dicke switched radiometers that utilize microstrip technology.

  4. Preliminary development of digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Topics covered involve a number of closely related tasks including: the development of several control loop and dynamic noise model computer programs for simulating microwave radiometer measurements; computer modeling of an existing stepped frequency radiometer in an effort to determine its optimum operational characteristics; investigation of the classical second order analog control loop to determine its ability to reduce the estimation error in a microwave radiometer; investigation of several digital signal processing unit designs; initiation of efforts to develop required hardware and software for implementation of the digital signal processing unit; and investigation of the general characteristics and peculiarities of digital processing noiselike microwave radiometer signals.

  5. COBE differential microwave radiometers - Calibration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Janssen, M.; Gulkis, S.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Backus, C.; Hauser, M. G.; Mather, J. C.; Rokke, L.

    1992-01-01

    The COBE spacecraft was launched November 18, 1989 UT carrying three scientific instruments into earth orbit for studies of cosmology. One of these instruments, the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), is designed to measure the large-angular-scale temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation at three frequencies (31.5, 53, and 90 GHz). This paper presents three methods used to calibrate the DMR. First, the signal difference between beam-filling hot and cold targets observed on the ground provides a primary calibration that is transferred to space by noise sources internal to the instrument. Second, the moon is used in flight as an external calibration source. Third, the signal arising from the Doppler effect due to the earth's motion around the barycenter of the solar system is used as an external calibration source. Preliminary analysis of the external source calibration techniques confirms the accuracy of the currently more precise ground-based calibration. Assuming the noise source behavior did not change from the ground-based calibration to flight, a 0.1-0.4 percent relative and 0.7-2.5 percent absolute calibration uncertainty is derived, depending on radiometer channel.

  6. Wide-Band Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven C.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon T.; Tanner, Alan B.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Parashare, Chaitali; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Gaier, Todd C.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Nelson, Scott P.; Johnson, Thaddeus; Hadel, Victoria; Gilliam, Kyle L.; Razavi, Behzad

    2013-04-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the area of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful about 40 km from the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band millimeter-wave window channels at 90 to 170 GHz, yielding finer spatial resolution for a fixed antenna size. In addition, NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission in formulation (Phase A) is planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans, and to measure the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite radar altimetry into the coastal zone. The addition of millimeter-wave channels near 90, 130 and 166 GHz to current Jason-class radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. The Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended in 2012 to add these millimeter-wave channels to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks associated with wet-tropospheric path delay correction over coastal areas and fresh water bodies, we are developing an airborne radiometer with 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz microwave channels, as well as millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 166 GHz, and temperature sounding above 118 as well as water vapor sounding below 183 GHz for validation of wet-path delay. For nadir-viewing space-borne radiometers with no moving parts, two-point internal calibration sources are necessary, and the

  7. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 2: Observation system simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.; Gasiewski, A.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-07-01

    Part 1 of this research concluded that many conditions of the 2003 Wakasa Bay experiment were not optimal for the purpose of tomographic retrieval. Part 2 (this paper) then aims to find possible improvements to the mobile cloud tomography method using observation system simulation experiments. We demonstrate that the incorporation of the L{sub 1} norm total variation regularization in the tomographic retrieval algorithm better reproduces discontinuous structures than the widely used L{sub 2} norm Tikhonov regularization. The simulation experiments reveal that a typical ground-based mobile setup substantially outperforms an airborne one because the ground-based setup usually moves slower and has greater contrast in microwave brightness between clouds and the background. It is shown that, as expected, the error in the cloud tomography retrievals increases monotonically with both the radiometer noise level and the uncertainty in the estimate of background brightness temperature. It is also revealed that a lower speed of platform motion or a faster scanning radiometer results in more scan cycles and more overlap between the swaths of successive scan cycles, both of which help to improve the retrieval accuracy. The last factor examined is aircraft height. It is found that the optimal aircraft height is 0.5 to 1.0 km above the cloud top. To summarize, this research demonstrates the feasibility of tomographically retrieving the spatial structure of cloud liquid water using current microwave radiometric technology and provides several general guidelines to improve future field-based studies of cloud tomography.

  8. Sensor Calibration and Ocean Products for TRMM Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Lawrence, Richard J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    During the three years of finding, we have carefully corrected for two sensor/platform problems, developed a physically based retrieval algorithm to calculate SST, wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates, validated these variables, and demonstrated that satellite microwave radiometers can provide very accurate SST retrievals through clouds. Prior to this, there was doubt by some scientists that the technique of microwave SST retrieval from satellites is a viable option. We think we have put these concerns to rest, and look forward to making microwave SSTs a standard component of the Earth science data sets. Our TMI SSTs were featured on several network news broadcasts and were reported in Science magazine. Additionally, we have developed a SST algorithm for VIRS to facilitate IR/MW inter-comparisons and completed research into diurnal cycles and air-sea interactions.

  9. Sensor Calibration and Ocean Products for TRMM Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Richard J. (Technical Monitor); Wentz, Frank J.

    2003-01-01

    During the three years of fundin& we have carefully corrected for two sensor/platform problems, developed a physically based retrieval algorithm to calculate SST, wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates, validated these variables, and demonstrated that satellite microwave radiometers can provide very accurate SST retrievals through clouds. Prior to this, there was doubt by some scientists that the technique of microwave SST retrieval from satellites is a viable option. We think we have put these concerns to rest, and look forward to making microwave SSTs a standard component of the Earth science data sets. Our TMI SSTs were featured on several network news broadcasts and were reported in Science magazine. Additionally, we have developed a SST algorithm for VIRS to facilitate IR/MW inter-comparisons and completed research into diurnal cycles and air-sea interactions.

  10. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  11. Microwave integrated circuit radiometer front-ends for the Push Broom Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.; Hearn, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Microwave integrated circuit front-ends for the L-band, S-band and C-band stepped frequency null-balanced noise-injection Dicke-switched radiometer to be installed in the NASA Langley airborne prototype Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) are described. These front-ends were developed for the fixed frequency of 1.413 GHz and the variable frequencies of 1.8-2.8 GHz and 3.8-5.8 GHz. Measurements of the noise temperature of these units were made at 55.8 C, and the results of these tests are given. While the overall performance was reasonable, improvements need to be made in circuit losses and noise temperatures, which in the case of the C-band were from 1000 to 1850 K instead of the 500 K specified. Further development of the prototypes is underway to improve performance and extend the frequency range.

  12. Stratus cloud liquid water and turbulence profiles using a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability, and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the ETL cloud sensing Doppler radar and three channel microwave radiometer were deployed on the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a CO{sub 2} Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model which related the three parameters of the model to the first 3 Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, the authors are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  13. Application of microwave radiometers for wetlands and estuaries monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shutko, A.; Haldin, A.; Novichikhin, E.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents the examples of experimental data obtained with airborne microwave radiometers used for monitoring of wetlands and estuaries located in coastal environments. The international team of researchers has successfully worked in Russia, Ukraine and USA. The data presented relate to a period of time between 1990 and 1995. They have been collected in Odessa Region, Black Sea coast, Ukraine, in Regions of Pittsville and Winfield, Maryland, USA, and in Region of St. Marks, Florida, USA. The parameters discussed are a soil moisture, depth to a shallow water table, vegetation index, salinity of water surface.

  14. Stable Targets for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Chan, S. K.; Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Savoie, M. H.; Knowles, K.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, continuous observations of the Earth have been made by spaceborne microwave radiometers. Since these instruments have different observational characteristics, care must be taken in combining their data to form consistent long term records of brightness temperatures and derived geophysical quantities. To be useful for climate studies, data from different instruments must be calibrated relative to each other and to reference targets on the ground whose characteristics are stable and can be monitored continuously. Identifying such targets over land is not straightforward due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the land surface and cover. In this work, we provide an analysis of multi-sensor brightness temperature statistics over ocean, tropical forest, and ice sheet locations, spanning the period from 1978 to the present, and indicate the potential of these sites as continuous calibration monitoring targets.

  15. Advanced microwave radiometer antenna system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummer, W. H.; Villeneuve, A. T.; Seaton, A. F.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of a multi-frequency antenna for spaceborne microwave radiometers was considered in detail. The program consisted of a comparative study of various antenna systems, both mechanically and electronically scanned, in relation to specified design goals and desired system performance. The study involved several distinct tasks: definition of candidate antennas that are lightweight and that, at the specified frequencies of 5, 10, 18, 22, and 36 GHz, can provide conical scanning, dual linear polarization, and simultaneous multiple frequency operation; examination of various feed systems and phase-shifting techniques; detailed analysis of several key performance parameters such as beam efficiency, sidelobe level, and antenna beam footprint size; and conception of an antenna/feed system that could meet the design goals. Candidate antennas examined include phased arrays, lenses, and optical reflector systems. Mechanical, electrical, and performance characteristics of the various systems were tabulated for ease of comparison.

  16. Microwave radiometer observations of soil moisture in HAPEX-SAHEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; Chanzy, Andre; Kerr, Yann H.; van Oevelen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Water stored in the soil serves as the reservoir for the evapotranspiration process, thus the interest in trying to map its spatial and temporal variations in experiments studying the soil- plant-atmosphere interactions at the GCM grid scale. During the 8 week intensive observation period (IOP) of HAPEX-Sahel (Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel), this was done with two airborne microwave radiometer systems. The five frequency (5 to 90 GHz) PORTOS radiometer on the French ARAT aircraft and the single frequency (1.42 GHz) multibeam pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR) on the NASA C-130 were used. These aircraft measurements were supported by ground based observations at the central sites and, because of several rains during the IOP, covered a good range of soil wetness conditions that existed. The PBMR and the 5.05 GHz PORTOS channel in H polarization show a large dynamic range of TB on each day and between different days in response to variations in rainfall and drying conditions ranging from low TBs of 210 to 220 K for the wettest conditions to values of 280 to 290 K for the driest.

  17. Mapping the sky with the COBE differential microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Gulkis, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument on COBE is designed to determine the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background by providing all-sky maps of the diffuse sky brightness at microwave frequencies. The principal intent of this lecture is to show how these maps are generated from differential measurements.

  18. Multichannel infrared fiber optic radiometer for controlled microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drizlikh, S.; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham

    1990-07-01

    An infrared fiberoptic multichannel radiometer was used for monitoring and controlling the temperature of samples in a microwave heating system. The temperature of water samples was maintained at about 40 °C, with a standard deviation of +/- 0.2°C and a maximum deviation of +/- 0.5°C. The temperature was monitored on the same time at several points on the surface and inside the sample. This novel controlled system is reliable and precise. Such system would be very useful for medical applications such as hypothermia and hyperthermi a.

  19. Progress report of FY 1999 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1999-09-10

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. While analyzing data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma, several questions arose about the calibration of the ARM microwave radiometers (MWR). A large portion of this years effort was a thorough analysis of the many factors that are important for the calibration of this instrument through the tip calibration method and the development of algorithms to correct this procedure. An open literature publication describing this analysis has been accepted.

  20. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar and Microwave Radiometer Observations from - Improvements and Initial Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, W. S.; Grecu, M.; Munchak, S. J.; Kuo, K. S.; Johnson, B. T.; Haddad, Z. S.; Tian, L.; Liao, L.; Kelley, B. L.; Ringerud, S.

    2015-12-01

    In recent satellite missions, spaceborne radar observations, sometimes in combination with passive microwave radiometer measurements, are being used to estimate vertical profiles of precipitation rates. Launched in 2014, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite observatory features a dual-frequency radar operating at 13.6 and 35.5 GHz (Ku and Ka bands) and a microwave radiometer with thirteen channels from 10 - 183 GHz. The use of combined radar and radiometer observations should yield the most accurate estimates of precipitation profiles from space, and these estimates will ultimately serve as a crucial reference for cross-calibrating passive microwave precipitation estimates from the GPM radiometer constellation. And through the microwave radiometer estimates, the combined algorithm calibration will ultimately be propagated to GPM infrared-microwave multisatellite estimates of surface rainfall. The GPM combined precipitation estimation algorithm performs initial estimates (an "ensemble") of precipitation profiles based upon an observed Ku-band reflectivity profile and different a priori assumptions concerning the size distributions of the precipitation particles and the profiles of cloud water and water vapor in the atmospheric column. The initial ensemble of profiles is then updated using a filter that embodies the physics relating precipitation to the observed Ka reflectivity profile, Ku and Ka path-integrated attenuation (derived from radar surface backscatter measurements), and microwave radiances. The final, filtered ensemble of profiles is consistent with all the available radar-radiometer data and a priori information. Since the GPM launch, the combined radar-radiometer algorithm has been improved to more specifically account for the effects of radar non-uniform beamfilling, multiple-scattering of radar pulses, the different resolutions of the radar and radiometer observations, interrelated radar and passive microwave surface

  1. Sensitivity of Spacebased Microwave Radiometer Observations to Ocean Surface Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Timothy W.; Li, Li

    2000-01-01

    Ocean surface evaporation and the latent heat it carries are the major components of the hydrologic and thermal forcing on the global oceans. However, there is practically no direct in situ measurements. Evaporation estimated from bulk parameterization methods depends on the quality and distribution of volunteer-ship reports which are far less than satisfactory. The only way to monitor evaporation with sufficient temporal and spatial resolutions to study global environment changes is by spaceborne sensors. The estimation of seasonal-to-interannual variation of ocean evaporation, using spacebased measurements of wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and integrated water vapor, through bulk parameterization method,s was achieved with reasonable success over most of the global ocean, in the past decade. Because all the three geophysical parameters can be retrieved from the radiance at the frequencies measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus-7, the feasibility of retrieving evaporation directly from the measured radiance was suggested and demonstrated using coincident brightness temperatures observed by SMMR and latent heat flux computed from ship data, in the monthly time scale. However, the operational microwave radiometers that followed SMMR, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), lack the low frequency channels which are sensitive to SST. This low frequency channels are again included in the microwave imager (TMI) of the recently launched Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The radiance at the frequencies observed by both TMI and SSM/I were simulated through an atmospheric radiative transfer model using ocean surface parameters and atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles produced by the reanalysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). From the same ECMWF data set, coincident evaporation is computed using a surface layer turbulent transfer model. The sensitivity of the radiance to

  2. A Microwave Radiometer for Internal Body Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Robert Patterson

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a microwave radiometer for internal body temperature measurements. There is currently no available method for non-invasive temperature measurement inside the human body. However, knowledge of both relative and absolute temperature variations over time is important to a number of medical applications. The research presented in this thesis details a proof-of-concept near-field microwave radiometer demonstrating relative thermometry of a multi-layer phantom. There are a number of technical challenges addressed in this thesis for radiometric determination of sub-degree temperature variations in the human body. A theoretical approach is developed for determining sensing depth from known complex layered tissues, which is defined as a figure of merit, and is shown to be dependent on frequency, electrical properties of the tissues, and the near-field probe. In order to obtain depth resolution, multiple frequency operation can be used, so multi-frequency probes are designed and demonstrated in this work. The choice of frequencies is determined not only by the tissue material properties, but also by the ever increasing radio interference in the environment. In this work, quiet bands allocated to radio astronomy are investigated. The radiometer and probe need to be compact to be wearable, and several advancements are made towards a fully wearable device: multi-frequency low-profile probes are designed and fabricated on a flexible substrate and the process of on-chip integration is demonstrated by a GaAs MMIC cold noise source for radiometer calibration. The implemented proof-of-concept device consists of two radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 2.7 GHz, designed with commercial inexpensive devices that can enable sufficient sensitivity. The device is tested on a phantom with two water layers whose temperatures are varied in a controlled manner, and focused on the human body temperature range. Measured results are discussed qualitatively

  3. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The current status of microwave radiometry is provided. The fundamentals of the microwave radiometer are reviewed with particular reference to airborne operations, and the interpretative procedures normally used for the modeling of the apparent temperature are presented. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines in Chickasha, Oklahoma and Weslaco, Texas. Extensive ground measurements of soil moisture were made in support of the aircraft mission over the two locations. In addition, laboratory determination of the complex permittivities of soil samples taken from the flight lines were made with varying moisture contents. The data were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between measured apparent temperatures and soil moisture content.

  4. Progress report of FY 1997 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1997-10-05

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this proposal was to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The algorithm will include recently-developed quality control procedures for radiometers. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during an intensive operating period at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.

  5. Precipitation from the GPM Microwave Imager and Constellation Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Randel, David; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kulie, Mark; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors are fundamentally underconstrained requiring either implicit or explicit a-priori information to constrain solutions. The radiometer algorithm designed for the GPM core and constellation satellites makes this a-priori information explicit in the form of a database of possible rain structures from the GPM core satellite and a Bayesian retrieval scheme. The a-priori database will eventually come from the GPM core satellite's combined radar/radiometer retrieval algorithm. That product is physically constrained to ensure radiometric consistency between the radars and radiometers and is thus ideally suited to create the a-priori databases for all radiometers in the GPM constellation. Until a robust product exists, however, the a-priori databases are being generated from the combination of existing sources over land and oceans. Over oceans, the Day-1 GPM radiometer algorithm uses the TRMM PR/TMI physically derived hydrometer profiles that are available from the tropics through sea surface temperatures of approximately 285K. For colder sea surface temperatures, the existing profiles are used with lower hydrometeor layers removed to correspond to colder conditions. While not ideal, the results appear to be reasonable placeholders until the full GPM database can be constructed. It is more difficult to construct physically consistent profiles over land due to ambiguities in surface emissivities as well as details of the ice scattering that dominates brightness temperature signatures over land. Over land, the a-priori databases have therefore been constructed by matching satellite overpasses to surface radar data derived from the WSR-88 network over the continental United States through the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ) initiative. Databases are generated as a function of land type (4 categories of increasing vegetation cover as well as 4 categories of increasing snow depth), land surface temperature and

  6. Multibeam 1.4-GHz Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Roland W.; Bailey, Marion C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Hearn, Chase P.; Wells, John G., Jr.; Stanley, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Airborne prototype of multiple-beam pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR) developed to advance radiometric technology necessary for remote sensing of geophysical parameters. Instrument used in several joint Langley Research Center/United States Department of Agriculture soil-moisture flight experiments in Virginia, Texas, and California. Data from experiments used to modify, develop, and verify algorithms used to predict soil moisture from remote-sensing measurements. Image data useful in study of effects of characters of beams on radiometer imaging data.

  7. ESTAR - A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer for measuring soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Griffis, A.; Swift, C. T.; Jackson, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of soil moisture from space requires putting relatively large microwave antennas in orbit. Aperture synthesis, an interferometric technique for reducing the antenna aperture needed in space, offers the potential for a practical means of meeting these requirements. An aircraft prototype, electronically steered thinned array L-band radiometer (ESTAR), has been built to develop this concept and to demonstrate its suitability for the measurement of soil moisture. Recent flights over the Walnut Gulch Watershed in Arizona show good agreement with ground truth and with measurements with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR).

  8. Progress report of FY 1998 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1999-10-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.

  9. Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

  10. Source analysis of spaceborne microwave radiometer interference over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Sibo

    2016-03-01

    Satellite microwave thermal emissions mixed with signals from active sensors are referred to as radiofrequency interference (RFI). Based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations from June 1 to 16, 2011, RFI over Europe was identified and analyzed using the modified principal component analysis algorithm in this paper. The X band AMSR-E measurements in England and Italy are mostly affected by the stable, persistent, active microwave transmitters on the surface, while the RFI source of other European countries is the interference of the reflected geostationary TV satellite downlink signals to the measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometers. The locations and intensities of the RFI induced by the geostationary TV and communication satellites changed with time within the observed period. The observations of spaceborne microwave radiometers in ascending portions of orbits are usually interfered with over European land, while no RFI was detected in descending passes. The RFI locations and intensities from the reflection of downlink radiation are highly dependent upon the relative geometry between the geostationary satellite and the measuring passive sensor. Only these fields of view of a spaceborne instrument whose scan azimuths are close to the azimuth relative to the geostationary satellite are likely to be affected by RFI.

  11. ENVISAT-1 Microwave Radiometer (MWR): validation campaign achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Ornella; L'Abbate, Michele; Svara, Carlo; Caltagirone, Francesco; Guijarro, J.

    1998-12-01

    Alenia Aerospazio Remote Sensing Division started in 1986 the study of microwave radiometers under Italian Space Agency fundings, and since 1989 the definition and development of radiometric systems under European Space Agency (ESA) contracts. In particular the Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer (MIMR) and the ENVISAT Microwave Radiometer (MWR) were both developed by the European Industry, with Alenia Aerospazio as Prime Contractor. MWR is an instrument designed and developed as part of the Envisat-1 satellite scientific payload, with Alenia Spazio engaged in the phase C-D as instrument Prime Contractor, leading an industrial consortium of European and American companies. The Flight Model of the Instrument has been delivered to ESA at the end of July 1997, after completion of test and calibration activities. Given the MWR in-flight calibration concept, a specific pre-flight calibration and characterization activity was performed to define a radiometer mathematical model and a relevant ground characterization database including all model coefficients. The model and its database will be used by on-ground processing during instrument in-flight operation to retrieve the antenna-measured temperature. Standing its complexity and iterative measurement concept, the pre-flight characterization and calibration of the instrument is the key aspect of its development phase. Within this paper the key instrument design topics are summarized, and after a summary overview of the overall flight model qualification campaign, emphasis will be on the pre-flight calibration and characterization activities and radiometric performance achievements among several test phases.

  12. Remote sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T.; Webster, W., Jr.; Gloerson, P.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented that were derived from measurements made by microwave radiometers during the March 1972 and February 1973 flights of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Convair-9900 aircraft over agricultural test sites in the southwestern part of United States. The purpose of the missions was to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The microwave radiometers covered the 0.8- to 21-cm wavelength range. The results show a good linear correlation between the observed microwave brightness temperature and moisture content of the 0- to 1-cm layer of the soil. The results at the largest wavelength (21 cm) show the greatest sensitivity to soil moisture variations and indicate the possibility of sensing these variations through a vegetative canopy. The effect of soil texture on the emission from the soil was also studied and it was found that this effect can be compensated for by expressing soil moisture as a percent of field capacity for the soil. The results were compared with calculations based on a radiative transfer model for layered dielectrics and the agreement is very good at the longer wavelengths. At the shorter wavelengths, surface roughness effects are larger and the agreement becomes poorer.

  13. Progress in Low-Power Digital Microwave Radiometer Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Three component technologies were combined into a digital correlation microwave radiometer. The radiometer comprises a dual-channel X-band superheterodyne receiver, low-power high-speed cross-correlator (HSCC), three-level ADCs, and a correlated noise source (CNS). The HSCC dissipates 10 mW and operates at 500 MHz clock speed. The ADCs are implemented using ECL components and dissipate more power than desired. Thus, a low-power ADC development is underway. The new ADCs arc predicted to dissipated less than 200 mW and operate at 1 GSps with 1.5 GHz of input bandwidth. The CNS provides different input correlation values for calibration of the radiometer. The correlation channel had a null offset of 0.0008. Test results indicate that the correlation channel can be calibrated with 0.09% error in gain.

  14. Comparison of time series of integrated water vapor measured using radiosonde, GPS and microwave radiometer at the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Franceso; Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    . radiosondes (processed using GRUAN processing algorithm); 4. a microwave radiometer (data processed using a retrieval based on a neural network). F. Amato, M. Rosoldi, and F. Madonna Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (CNR-IMAA), Tito Scalo, Potenza, Italy Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor is essential to improve our knowledge of weather forecasting and climate change. Water vapor is highly variable in space and time depending on the complex interplay of several phenomena like convection, precipitation, turbulence, etc. It remains one of the most poorly characterized meteorological parameters. Remarkable progress in using of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), in particular GPS, for the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor has been achieved during the last decades. Various studies have demonstrated that GPS could provide accurate water vapor estimates for the study of the atmosphere. Different GPS data processing provided within the scientific community made use of various tropospheric models that primarily differs for the assumptions on the vertical refractivity profiles and the mapping of the vertical delay with elevation angles. This works compares several models based on the use of surface meteorological data. In order to calculate the Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), an algorithm for calculating the zenith tropospheric delay was implemented. It is based upon different mapping functions (Niell, Saastamoinen, Chao and Herring Mapping Functions). Observations are performed at the Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (IMAA) GPS station located in Tito Scalo, Potenza (40.60N, 15.72E), from July to December 2014, in the framework of OSCAR project (Observation System for Climate Application at Regional scale). The retrieved values of the IWV using the GPS are systematically compared with the other estimation of IWV collected at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric

  15. Inflatable Antenna Microwave Radiometer for Soil Moisture Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Schroeder, Lyle C.; Harrington, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave measurements of soil moisture are not being obtained at the required spatial Earth resolution with current technology. Recently, new novel designs for lightweight reflector systems have been developed using deployable inflatable antenna structures which could enable lightweight real-aperture radiometers. In consideration of this, a study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the feasibility of developing a microwave radiometer system using inflatable reflector antenna technology to obtain high spatial resolution radiometric measurements of soil moisture from low Earth orbit and which could be used with a small and cost effective launch vehicle. The required high resolution with reasonable swath width coupled with the L-band measurement frequency for soil moisture dictated the use of a large (30 meter class) real aperture antenna in conjunction with a pushbroom antenna beam configuration and noise-injection type radiometer designs at 1.4 and 4.3 GHz to produce a 370 kilometer cross-track swath with a 10 kilometer resolution that could be packaged for launch with a Titan 2 class vehicle. This study includes design of the inflatable structure, control analysis, structural and thermal analysis, antenna and feed design, radiometer design, payload packaging, orbital analysis, and electromagnetic losses in the thin membrane inflatable materials.

  16. Multifrequency Aperture-Synthesizing Microwave Radiometer System (MFASMR). Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, C. A.; Chang, M. U.

    1981-01-01

    Background material and a systems analysis of a multifrequency aperture - synthesizing microwave radiometer system is presented. It was found that the system does not exhibit high performance because much of the available thermal power is not used in the construction of the image and because the image that can be formed has a resolution of only ten lines. An analysis of image reconstruction is given. The system is compared with conventional aperture synthesis systems.

  17. Scanning mechanism study for multi-frequency microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, I.

    1976-01-01

    Scanning mode for a microwave radiometer having large aperture antenna is determined from scientific needs by engineering tradeoffs. Two configurations of the scan drive mechanism with an integral momentum compensation are formulated for 1.OM and 1.4M diameter antennas. As the formulation is based on currently available components, it is possible to design and fabricate the formulated mechanism without new hardware development. A preliminary specification for major components of formulated drives is also included in the report.

  18. COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, P. D.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; Deamici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Keegstra, P. B.; Kogut, A.; Lineweaver, C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) experiment on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite is to make whole-sky maps, at frequencies of 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz, of any departures of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from its mean value of 2.735 K. An elaborate software system is necessary to calibrate and invert the differential measurements, so as to make sky maps free from large scale systematic errors to levels less than a millionth of the CMB.

  19. COBE DMR results and implications. [Differential Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture presents early results obtained from the first six months of measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard COBE and discusses significant cosmological implications. The DMR maps show the dipole anisotropy and some galactic emission but otherwise a spatially smooth early universe. The measurements are sufficiently precise that we must pay careful attention to potential systematic errors. Maps of galactic and local emission such as those produced by the FIRAS and DIRBE instruments will be needed to identify foregrounds from extragalactic emission and thus to interpret the results in terms of events in the early universe. The current DMR results are significant for Cosmology.

  20. Use of a cloud-sensing radar and a microwave radiometer as a stratus cloud profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Remote sensors such as radar offer an alternate approach to the study of could and drizzle properties. Combining stratus cloud measurements from a K{sub {alpha}}-band radar and microwave radiometer can give profiles of liquid water and droplet distribution. In addition, in drizzle, the radar measurements can be used to estimate drizzle parameters such as number concentration, liquid water, and droplet distribution.

  1. Design and Development of the SMAP Microwave Radiometer Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Medeiros, James J.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Brambora, Clifford K.; Estep, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer will measure land surface brightness temperature at L-band (1413 MHz) in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI) for soil moisture remote sensing. The radiometer design was driven by the requirements to incorporate internal calibration, to operate synchronously with the SMAP radar, and to mitigate the deleterious effects of RFI. The system design includes a highly linear super-heterodyne microwave receiver with internal reference loads and noise sources for calibration and an innovative digital signal processor and detection system. The front-end comprises a coaxial cable-based feed network, with a pair of diplexers and a coupled noise source, and radiometer front-end (RFE) box. Internal calibration is provided by reference switches and a common noise source inside the RFE. The RF back-end (RBE) downconverts the 1413 MHz channel to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 120 MHz. The IF signals are then sampled and quantized by high-speed analog-to-digital converters in the radiometer digital electronics (RDE) box. The RBE local oscillator and RDE sampling clocks are phase-locked to a common reference to ensure coherency between the signals. The RDE performs additional filtering, sub-band channelization, cross-correlation for measuring third and fourth Stokes parameters, and detection and integration of the first four raw moments of the signals. These data are packetized and sent to the ground for calibration and further processing. Here we discuss the novel features of the radiometer hardware particularly those influenced by the need to mitigate RFI.

  2. The Use of Rotating Shadowband Radiometers and Microwave Radiometers to Obtain Cloud Properties in Arctic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C. ); Liljegren, James C.; Min, Qilong; Doran, J Christopher )

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of rotating shadowband radiometers and microwave radiometers to find shortwave cloud optical depth and cloud effective radius at two Arctic sites. These sites are the SHEBA ice camp site (a field study undertaken in 1997 and 1998) and the ARM Barrow (AK) site. Special measures are necessary to process the data from the SHEBA site to account for the harsh environment in which the instruments reside. The analysis shows that, over the summer of 1998, the median cloud optical depth at the SHEBA site is greater than the median cloud optical depth at the Barrow site. The cloud droplet effective radius is less at the SHEBA site than the Barrow site.

  3. Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Mikhail; Schmid, Beat; Turner, David D.; Cairns, Brian; Oinas, Valdar; Lacis, Andrew A.; Gutman, S.; Westwater, Ed R.; Smirnov, A.; Eilers, J.

    2009-01-26

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measures direct and diffuse irradiances in the visible and near IR spectral range. In addition to characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, MFRSR data also allow retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV) column amounts, which are determined from the direct normal irradiances in the 940 nm spectral channel. The HITRAN 2004 spectral database was used in our retrievals to model the water vapor absorption. We present a detailed error analysis describing the influence of uncertainties in instrument calibration and spectral response, as well as those in available spectral databases, on the retrieval results. The results of our PWV retrievals from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site operated by the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program were compared with correlative standard measurements by Microwave Radiometers (MWRs) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) water vapor sensor, as well as with retrievals from other solar radiometers (AERONET’s CIMEL, AATS-6). Some of these data are routinely available at the SGP’s Central Facility, however, we also used measurements from a wider array of instrumentation deployed at this site during the Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period (WVIOP2000) in September – October 2000. The WVIOP data show better agreement between different solar radiometers or between different microwave radiometers (both groups showing relative biases within 4%) than between these two groups of instruments, with MWRs values being consistently higher (up to 14%) than those from solar instruments. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using MFRSR network data for creation of 2D datasets comparable with the MODIS satellite water vapor product.

  4. Data processing for the DMSP microwave radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigone, J. L.; Stogryn, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    A software program was developed and tested to process microwave radiometry data to be acquired by the microwave sensor (SSM/T) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft. The SSM/T 7-channel microwave radiometer and systems data will be data-linked to Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) where they will be merged with ephemeris data prior to product processing for use in the AFGWC upper air data base (UADB). The overall system utilizes an integrated design to provide atmospheric temperature soundings for global applications. The fully automated processing at AFGWC was accomplished by four related computer processor programs to produce compatible UADB soundings, evaluate system performance, and update the a priori developed inversion matrices. Tests with simulated data produced results significantly better than climatology.

  5. Thermoelectric temperature control system for the pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Averill, R. D.

    1984-06-01

    A closed loop thermoelectric temperature control system is developed for stabilizing sensitive RF integrated circuits within a microwave radiometer to an accuracy of + or - 0.1 C over a range of ambient conditions from -20 C to +45 C. The dual mode (heating and cooling) control concept utilizes partial thermal isolation of the RF units from an instrument deck which is thermally controlled by thermoelectric coolers and thin film heaters. The temperature control concept is simulated with a thermal analyzer program (MITAS) which consists of 37 nodes and 61 conductors. A full scale thermal mockup is tested in the laboratory at temperatures of 0 C, 21 C, and 45 C to confirm the validity of the control concept. A flight radiometer and temperature control system is successfully flight tested on the NASA Skyvan aircraft.

  6. Thermoelectric temperature control system for the pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Averill, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A closed loop thermoelectric temperature control system is developed for stabilizing sensitive RF integrated circuits within a microwave radiometer to an accuracy of + or - 0.1 C over a range of ambient conditions from -20 C to +45 C. The dual mode (heating and cooling) control concept utilizes partial thermal isolation of the RF units from an instrument deck which is thermally controlled by thermoelectric coolers and thin film heaters. The temperature control concept is simulated with a thermal analyzer program (MITAS) which consists of 37 nodes and 61 conductors. A full scale thermal mockup is tested in the laboratory at temperatures of 0 C, 21 C, and 45 C to confirm the validity of the control concept. A flight radiometer and temperature control system is successfully flight tested on the NASA Skyvan aircraft.

  7. The utilization of spaceborne microwave radiometers for monitoring snowpack properties. [United States and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Snow accumulation and depletion at specific locations can be monitored from space by observing related variations in microwave brightness temperatures. Using vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures from the Nimbus 6 electrically scanning microwave radiometer, a discriminant function can be used to separate snow from no snow areas and map snowcovered area on a continental basis. For dry snow conditions on the Canadian high plains, significant relationships between snow depth or water equivalent and microwave brightness temperature were developed which could permit remote determination of these snow properties after acquisition of a wider range of data. The presence of melt water in the snowpack causes a marked increase in brightness temperature which can be used to predict snowpack priming and timing of runoff. As the resolutions of satellite microwave sensors improve the application of these results to snow hydrology problems should increase.

  8. Limits of Precipitation Detection from Microwave Radiometers and Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, S. J.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Johnson, B. T.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will unify and draw from numerous microwave conical scanning imaging radiometers and cross-track sounders, many of which already in operation, to provide near real-time precipitation estimates worldwide at 3-hour intervals. Some of these instruments were designed for primary purposes unrelated to precipitation remote sensing. Therefore it is worthwhile to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each set of channels with respect to precipitation detection to fully understand their role in the GPM constellation. The GPM radiometer algorithm will use an observationally-based Bayesian retrieval with common databases of precipitation profiles for all sensors. Since these databases are still under development and will not be truly complete until the GPM core satellite has completed at least one year of dual-frequency radar observations, a screening method based upon retrieval of non-precipitation parameters related to the surface and atmospheric state is used in this study. A cost function representing the departure of modeled radiances from their observed values plus the departure of surface and atmospheric parameters from the TELSEM emissivity atlas and MERRA reanalysis is used as an indicator of precipitation. Using this method, two datasets are used to evaluate precipitation detection: One year of matched AMSR-E and AMSU-B/MHS overpasses with CloudSat used as validation globally; and SSMIS overpasses over the United States using the National Mosaic and QPE (NMQ) as validation. The Heidke Skill Score (HSS) is used as a metric to evaluate detection skill over different surfaces, seasons, and across different sensors. Non-frozen oceans give the highest HSS for all sensors, followed by bare land and coasts, then snow-covered land and sea ice. Negligible skill is present over ice sheets. Sounders tend to have higher skill than imagers over complex surfaces (coast, snow, and sea ice), whereas imagers have higher skill

  9. A One-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A proposed one-dimensional synthetic- aperture microwave radiometer could serve as an alternative to either the two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer described in the immediately preceding article or to a prior one-dimensional one, denoted the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), mentioned in that article. The proposed radiometer would operate in a pushbroom imaging mode, utilizing (1) interferometric cross-track scanning to obtain cross-track resolution and (2) the focusing property of a reflector for along-track resolution. The most novel aspect of the proposed system would be the antenna (see figure), which would include a cylindrical reflector of offset parabolic cross section. The reflector could be made of a lightweight, flexible material amenable to stowage and deployment. Other than a stowage/deployment mechanism, the antenna would not include moving parts, and cross-track scanning would not entail mechanical rotation of the antenna. During operation, the focal line, parallel to the cylindrical axis, would be oriented in the cross-track direction, so that placement of receiving/radiating elements at the focal line would afford the desired along-track resolution. The elements would be microwave feed horns sparsely arrayed along the focal line. The feed horns would be oriented with their short and long cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis to obtain fan-shaped beams having their broad and narrow cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis. The interference among the beams would be controlled in the same manner as in the ESTAR to obtain along-cylindrical- axis (cross-track) resolution and cross-track scanning.

  10. Clear air turbulence avoidance using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The avoidance of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) is theoretically possible by selecting flight levels that are a safe distance from the tropopause and inversion layers. These favored sites for CAT generation can be located by an 'airborne microwave radiometer' (AMR) passive sensor system that measures altitude temperature profiles. A flight evaluation of the AMR sensor shows that most CAT could be avoided by following sensor-based advisories. Some limitations still exist for any hypothetical use of the sensor. The principal need is to augment the sensor's 'where' advisories to include useful 'when' forecasts.

  11. Global atmospheric temperature anomaly monitoring with passive microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The potential of microwave sounding units (MSU) for augmenting the surface-based thermometer record by providing a measurement representing a significant depth of the troposphere is considered. These radiometers measure the thermal emission by molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at different spectral intervals in the oxygen absorption complex near 60 GHz. Brightness temperature variations measured by NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 MSUs during a near-two year period are analyzed and compared with monthly averaged surface air temperature data. It is demonstrated that MSUs, while of limited use for vertical profiling of the atmosphere, provide stable measurements of vertically average atmospheric temperatures, centered at a constant pressure level.

  12. Systems design and analysis of the microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    Systems design and analysis data were generated for microwave radiometer spacecraft concept using the Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer aided design and analysis program. Parametric analyses were conducted for perturbations off the nominal-orbital-altitude/antenna-reflector-size and for control/propulsion system options. Optimized spacecraft mass, structural element design, and on-orbit loading data are presented. Propulsion and rigid-body control systems sensitivities to current and advanced technology are established. Spacecraft-induced and environmental effects on antenna performance (surface accuracy, defocus, and boresight off-set) are quantified and structured material frequencies and modal shapes are defined.

  13. COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Preliminary systematic error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Wright, E. L.; Aymon, J.; De Amici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Kaita, E.; Keegstra, P.

    1992-01-01

    The techniques available for the identification and subtraction of sources of dynamic uncertainty from data of the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument aboard COBE are discussed. Preliminary limits on the magnitude in the DMR 1 yr maps are presented. Residual uncertainties in the best DMR sky maps, after correcting the raw data for systematic effects, are less than 6 micro-K for the pixel rms variation, less than 3 micro-K for the rms quadruple amplitude of a spherical harmonic expansion, and less than 30 micro-(K-squared) for the correlation function.

  14. COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Preliminary systematic error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Wright, E. L.; Aymon, J.; de Amici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Kaita, E.; Keegstra, P.; Lineweaver, C.; Loewenstein, K.; Rokke, L.; Tenorio, L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Gulkis, S.; Hauser, M. G.; Janssen, M. A.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S.; Moseley, S. H.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1992-12-01

    The techniques available for the identification and subtraction of sources of dynamic uncertainty from data of the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument aboard COBE are discussed. Preliminary limits on the magnitude in the DMR 1 yr maps are presented. Residual uncertainties in the best DMR sky maps, after correcting the raw data for systematic effects, are less than 6 micro-K for the pixel rms variation, less than 3 micro-K for the rms quadruple amplitude of a spherical harmonic expansion, and less than 30 micro-(K-squared) for the correlation function.

  15. Preliminary separation of galactic and cosmic microwave emission for the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, C. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Hinshaw, G.; Wright, E. L.; Kogut, A.; De Amici, G.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Gulkis, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary models of microwave emission from the Milky Way Galaxy based on COBE and other data are constructed for the purpose of distinguishing cosmic and Galactic signals. Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) maps, with the modeled Galactic emission removed, are fitted for a quadrupole distribution. Autocorrelation functions for individual Galactic components are presented. When Galactic emission is removed from the DMR data, the residual fluctuations are virtually unaffected, and therefore they are not dominated by any known Galactic emission component.

  16. Airborne Demonstration of Microwave and Wide-Band Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Corrections for Coastal and Inland Water Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, Steven; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Tanner, Alan; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Montes, Oliver; Parashare, Chaitali; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Hadel, Victoria; Johnson, Thaddeus; Brown, Shannon; Khayatian, Behrouz; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd; Razavi, Behzad

    2014-05-01

    Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the size of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals is substantially degraded near coastlines, and retrievals are not provided over land. Retrievals are flagged as not useful within approximately 40 km of the world's coastlines. A viable approach to improve their capability is to add wide-band high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels in the 90-180 GHz band, thereby achieving finer spatial resolution for a limited antenna size. In this context, the upcoming NASA/CNES/CSA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is in formulation and planned for launch in late 2020. The primary objectives of SWOT are to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes on 10-km and larger scales in the global oceans and provide measurements of the global water storage in inland surface water bodies and the flow rate of rivers. Therefore, an important new science objective of SWOT is to transition satellite altimetry from the open ocean into the coastal zone and over inland water. The addition of 90-180 GHz millimeter-wave window-channel radiometers to current Jason-class 18-34 GHz radiometers is expected to improve retrievals of wet-tropospheric delay in coastal areas and to enhance the potential for over-land retrievals. In 2012 the Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting recommended to add high-frequency millimeter-wave radiometers to the Jason Continuity of Service (CS) mission. To reduce the risks of wet-tropospheric path delay measurement over coastal areas and inland water bodies, we have designed, developed and fabricated a new airborne radiometer, combining three high-frequency millimeter-wave window channels at 90, 130 and 168 GHz, along with Jason-series microwave channels at 18.7, 23.8 and 34.0 GHz, and validation channels sounding

  17. Mission definition for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An Earth-observation measurements mission is defined for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft. This mission is defined without regard to any particular spacecraft design concept. Space data application needs, the measurement selection rationale, and broad spacecraft design requirements and constraints are described. The effects of orbital parameters and image quality requirements on the spacecraft and mission performance are discussed. Over the land the primary measurand is soil moisture; over the coastal zones and the oceans important measurands are salinity, surface temperature, surface winds, oil spill dimensions and ice boundaries; and specific measurement requirements have been selected for each. Near-all-weather operation and good spatial resolution are assured by operating at low microwave frequencies using an extremely large aperture antenna in a low-Earth-orbit contiguous mapping mode.

  18. Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study of deriving both a wind speed and direction from microwave radiometer measurements of the ocean is presented. The study was based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) measurements in conjunction with buoy reports from the National Data Buoy Center. It was found that the SSM/I minus the buoy wind speed difference is correlated with wind direction due to a wind direction signal in the brightness temperatures. When this wind direction signal is removed the rms difference between the SSM/I and buoy winds reduces to 1.3 m/s. The wind direction signal was used to make global, low-resolution maps of the monthly mean oceanic wind vector.

  19. Millimeter-wave imaging radiometer data processing and development of water vapor retrieval algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, L. Aron

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the current status of Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) data processing and the technical development of the first version of a water vapor retrieval algorithm. The algorithm is being used by NASA/GSFC Microwave Sensors Branch, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes. It is capable of a three dimensional mapping of moisture fields using microwave data from airborne sensor of MIR and spaceborne instrument of Special Sensor Microwave/T-2 (SSM/T-2).

  20. Towards the Temperature Retrieval by Using Airborne Microwave Radiometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Szajkowski, Michal; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter when dealing with the atmosphere in areas such as climatology and meteorology. In general, thermal emissions of molecular lines (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide) can be used for the determination of the temperature profile. The superheterodyne radiometer MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) passively detects thermal emission from oxygen lines at a selection of frequencies between 55-60 GHz by scanning the atmosphere from near zenith to near nadir in the flight direction. The MTP instrument was designed to observe the vertical temperature distribution over the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) with a good temporal and spatial resolution. The instrument was originally developed at NASA's JPL and has been recently flown on DLR's HALO research aircraft.To estimate the temperature profile from microwave measurements (e.g. provided by MTP), the retrieval algorithm TIRAMISU (Temperature Inversion Algorithm for Microwave Sounding) has been developed at DLR and is currently used to conduct the data processing of the MTP measurements. This study performs the retrievals from the MTP data with a focus on the ML-CIRRUS mission. The corresponding retrieval performance is investigated by associated error characterization and external comparisons with other ground-based and satellite observations. These observations are important to resolve a variety of phenomena in the UTLS region and to potentially improve the temperature spaceborne soundings.

  1. MWR: Microwave Radiometer for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Oswald, J. E.; Brown, S. T.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Allison, M. D.; Atreya, S. K.; Gautier, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.; Orton, G. S.; Owen, T. C.; Steffes, P. G.; Adumitroaie, V.; Bellotti, A.; Jewell, L. A.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Misra, S.; Oyafuso, F. A.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sarkissian, E.; Williamson, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Kitiyakara, A.; Ulloa-Severino, A.; Chen, J. C.; Maiwald, F. W.; Sahakian, A. S.; Pingree, P. J.; Lee, K. A.; Mazer, A. S.; Redick, R.; Hodges, R. E.; Hughes, R. C.; Bedrosian, G.; Dawson, D. E.; Hatch, W. A.; Russell, D. S.; Chamberlain, N. F.; Zawadski, M. S.; Khayatian, B.; Franklin, B. R.; Conley, H. A.; Kempenaar, J. G.; Loo, M. S.; Sunada, E. T.; Vorperion, V.; Wang, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    The Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) is a six-frequency scientific instrument designed and built to investigate the deep atmosphere of Jupiter. It is one of a suite of instruments on NASA's New Frontiers Mission Juno launched to Jupiter on August 5, 2011. The focus of this paper is the description of the scientific objectives of the MWR investigation along with the experimental design, observational approach, and calibration that will achieve these objectives, based on the Juno mission plan up to Jupiter orbit insertion on July 4, 2016. With frequencies distributed approximately by octave from 600 MHz to 22 GHz, the MWR will sample the atmospheric thermal radiation from depths extending from the ammonia cloud region at around 1 bar to pressure levels as deep as 1000 bars. The primary scientific objectives of the MWR investigation are to determine the presently unknown dynamical properties of Jupiter's subcloud atmosphere and to determine the global abundance of oxygen and nitrogen, present in the atmosphere as water and ammonia deep below their respective cloud decks. The MWR experiment is designed to measure both the thermal radiation from Jupiter and its emission-angle dependence at each frequency relative to the atmospheric local normal with high accuracy. The antennas at the four highest frequencies (21.9, 10.0, 5.2, and 2.6 GHz) have ˜12° beamwidths and will achieve a spatial resolution approaching 600 km near perijove. The antennas at the lowest frequencies (0.6 and 1.25 GHz) are constrained by physical size limitations and have 20° beamwidths, enabling a spatial resolution of as high as 1000 km to be obtained. The MWR will obtain Jupiter's brightness temperature and its emission-angle dependence at each point along the subspacecraft track, over angles up to 60° from the normal over most latitudes, during at least six perijove passes after orbit insertion. The emission-angle dependence will be obtained for all frequencies to an accuracy of better than one

  2. A statistical method to sense sea surface temperature from the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Wang, I.

    1983-01-01

    Among the five channels in the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the brightness temperature measured at 6.6 GHz vertical polarization is least affected by the atmospheric water vapor and liquid water in clouds or rain. Furthermore, as the undisturbed sea surface emissivity at 6.6 GHz is nearly constant over the temperature range 275 to 300 K, this channel has the best sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST). The 6.6 GHz channel on SMMR is specifically chosen for these reasons to measure SST.

  3. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  4. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  5. Calibrating ground-based microwave radiometers: Uncertainty and drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küchler, N.; Turner, D. D.; Löhnert, U.; Crewell, S.

    2016-04-01

    The quality of microwave radiometer (MWR) calibrations, including both the absolute radiometric accuracy and the spectral consistency, determines the accuracy of geophysical retrievals. The Microwave Radiometer Calibration Experiment (MiRaCalE) was conducted to evaluate the performance of MWR calibration techniques, especially of the so-called Tipping Curve Calibrations (TCC) and Liquid Nitrogen Calibrations (LN2cal), by repeatedly calibrating a fourth-generation Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO-G4) that measures downwelling radiance between 20 GHz and 60 GHz. MiRaCalE revealed two major points to improve MWR calibrations: (i) the necessary repetition frequency for MWR calibration techniques to correct drifts, which ensures stable long-term measurements; and (ii) the spectral consistency of control measurements of a well known reference is useful to estimate calibration accuracy. Besides, we determined the accuracy of the HATPRO's liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody's temperature. TCCs and LN2cals were found to agree within 0.5 K when observing the liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody with a physical temperature of 77 K. This agreement of two different calibration techniques suggests that the brightness temperature of the LN2 cooled blackbody is accurate within at least 0.5 K, which is a significant reduction of the uncertainties that have been assumed to vary between 0.6 K and 1.5 K when calibrating the HATPRO-G4. The error propagation of both techniques was found to behave almost linearly, leading to maximum uncertainties of 0.7 K when observing a scene that is associated with a brightness temperature of 15 K.

  6. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth's surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  7. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  8. Wiener filtering of the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Fisher, Karl B.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Lahav, Ofer; Silk, Joseph; Zaroubi, Saleem

    1994-01-01

    We derive an optimal linear filter to suppress the noise from the cosmic background explorer satellite (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) sky maps for a given power spectrum. We then apply the filter to the first-year DMR data, after removing pixels within 20 deg of the Galactic plane from the data. We are able to identify particular hot and cold spots in the filtered maps at a level 2 to 3 times the noise level. We use the formalism of constrained realizations of Gaussian random fields to assess the uncertainty in the filtered sky maps. In addition to improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the map as a whole, these techniques allow us to recover some information about the cosmic microwave background anisotropy in the missing Galactic plane region. From these maps we are able to determine which hot and cold spots in the data are statistically significant, and which may have been produced by noise. In addition, the filtered maps can be used for comparison with other experiments on similar angular scales.

  9. Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature from Airborne Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter associated with fields such as meteorology, climatology, or photochemistry. There exist several techniques to measure temperature profiles. In the case of microwave remote sensing, the vertical temperature profile can be estimated from thermal emission lines of molecular oxygen. The MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instrument is an airborne radiometer developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), United States. The instrument passively measures natural thermal emission from oxygen lines at 3 frequencies and at a selection of 10 viewing angles (from near zenith to near nadir). MTP has participated in hundreds of flights, including on DLR's Falcon and HALO aircrafts. These flights have provided data of the vertical temperature distribution from the troposphere to the lower stratosphere with a good temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we present temperature retrievals based on the Tikhonov-type regularized nonlinear least squares fitting method. In particular, Jacobians (i.e. temperature derivatives) are evaluated by means of automatic differentiation. The retrieval performance from the MTP measurements is analyzed by using synthetic data. Besides, the vertical sensitivity of the temperature retrieval is studied by weighting functions characterizing the sensitivity of the transmission at different frequencies with respect to changes of altitude levels.

  10. The NASA Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR): A New Sensor for Earth Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer recently developed by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it performs dual-polarized imaging at all standard passive microwave frequency bands (6-89 GHz) using only one sensor headscanner package, providing an efficient solution for Earth remote sensing applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precipitation, ocean winds, sea surface temperature, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, C-130s and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high- altitude microwave imaging. Parallel filter banks allow AESMIR to simultaneously simulate the exact passbands of multiple satellite radiometers: SSM/I, TMI, AMSR, Windsat, SSMI/S, and the upcoming GPM/GMI and NPOESS/CMIS instruments --a unique capability among aircraft radiometers. An L-band option is also under development, again using the same scanner. With this option, simultaneous imaging from 1.4 to 89 GHz will be feasible. And, all receivers except the sounding channels will be configured for 4-Stokes polarimetric operation using high-speed digital

  11. Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) PARM tape user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Gloersen, P.; Kim, S. T.; Fu, C. C.; Cebula, R. P.; Macmillan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) instrument, onboard the Nimbus-7 spacecraft, collected data from Oct. 1978 until Jun. 1986. The data were processed to physical parameter level products. Geophysical parameters retrieved include the following: sea-surface temperatures, sea-surface windspeed, total column water vapor, and sea-ice parameters. These products are stored on PARM-LO, PARM-SS, and PARM-30 tapes. The geophysical parameter retrieval algorithms and the quality of these products are described for the period between Nov. 1978 and Oct 1985. Additionally, data formats and data availability are included.

  12. Microwave radiometer and scatterometer design for the aquarius sea surface Salinity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Yueh, Simon H.; Pellerano, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of sea surface salinity with L-band microwave radiometers is a very challenging task. Since the L-band brightness temperature variations associated with salinity changes are small, it is necessary to have a very sensitive and stable radiometer. In addition, the corrections for the ocean surface roughness require real time scatterometer measurements. The designs of the Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer are described in this paper.

  13. Calibration of ground-based microwave radiometers - Accuracy assessment and recommendations for network users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Küchler, Nils; Löhnert, Ulrich; Crewell, Susanne; Czekala, Harald; Güldner, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are becoming widely used in atmospheric remote sensing and start to be routinely operated by national weather services and other institutions. However, common standards for calibration of these radiometers and a detailed knowledge about the error characteristics is needed, in order to assimilate the data into models. Intercomparisons of calibrations by different MWRs have rarely been done. Therefore, two calibration experiments in Lindenberg (2014) and Meckenheim (2015) were performed in the frame of TOPROF (Cost action ES1303) in order to assess uncertainties and differences between various instruments. In addition, a series of experiments were taken in Oklahoma in autumn 2014. The focus lay on the performance of the two main instrument types, which are currently used operationally. These are the MP-Profiler series by Radiometrics Corporation as well as the HATPRO series by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG). Both instrument types are operating in two frequency bands, one along the 22 GHz water vapour line, the other one at the lower wing of the 60 GHz oxygen absorption complex. The goal was to establish protocols for providing quality controlled (QC) MWR data and their uncertainties. To this end, standardized calibration procedures for MWR were developed and recommendations for radiometer users were compiled. We focus here mainly on data types, integration times and optimal settings for calibration intervals, both for absolute (liquid nitrogen, tipping curve) as well as relative (hot load, noise diode) calibrations. Besides the recommendations for ground-based MWR operators, we will present methods to determine the accuracy of the calibration as well as means for automatic data quality control. In addition, some results from the intercomparison of different radiometers will be discussed.

  14. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  15. High-resolution imaging of rain systems with the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Hood, Robbie E.; Lafontaine, Frank J.; Smith, Eric A.; Platt, Robert; Galliano, Joe; Griffin, Vanessa L.; Lobl, Elena

    1994-01-01

    An advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) has been developed and flown in the NASA ER-2-high-altitude aircraft for imaging various atmospheric and surface processes, primarily the internal structure of rain clouds. The AMPR is a scanning four-frequency total power microwave radiometer that is externally calibrated with high-emissivity warm and cold loads. Separate antenna systems allow the sampling of the 10.7- and 19.35-GHz channels at the same spatial resolution, while the 37.1- and 85.5-GHz channels utilize the same multifrequency feedhorn as the 19.35-GHz channel. Spatial resolutions from an aircraft altitude of 20-km range from 0.6 km at 85.5 GHz to 2.8 km at 19.35 and 10.7 GHz. All channels are sampled every 0.6 km in both along-track and cross-track directions, leading to a contiguous sampling pattern of the 85.5-GHz 3-dB beamwidth footprints, 2.3X oversampling of the 37.1-GHz data, and 4.4X oversampling of the 19.35- and 10.7-GHz data. Radiometer temperature sensitivities range from 0.2 to 0.5 C. Details of the system are described, including two different calibration systems and their effect on the data collected. Examples of oceanic rain systems are presented from Florida and the tropical west Pacific that illustrate the wide variety of cloud water, rainwater, and precipitation-size ice combinations that are observable from aircraft altitudes.

  16. On the Long-Term Stability of Microwave Radiometers Using Noise Diodes for Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon T.; Desai, Shailen; Lu, Wenwen; Tanner, Alan B.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from the long-term monitoring and calibration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jason Microwave Radiometer (JMR) on the Jason-1 ocean altimetry satellite and the ground-based Advanced Water Vapor Radiometers (AWVRs) developed for the Cassini Gravity Wave Experiment. Both radiometers retrieve the wet tropospheric path delay (PD) of the atmosphere and use internal noise diodes (NDs) for gain calibration. The JMR is the first radiometer to be flown in space that uses NDs for calibration. External calibration techniques are used to derive a time series of ND brightness for both instruments that is greater than four years. For the JMR, an optimal estimator is used to find the set of calibration coefficients that minimize the root-mean-square difference between the JMR brightness temperatures and the on-Earth hot and cold references. For the AWVR, continuous tip curves are used to derive the ND brightness. For the JMR and AWVR, both of which contain three redundant NDs per channel, it was observed that some NDs were very stable, whereas others experienced jumps and drifts in their effective brightness. Over the four-year time period, the ND stability ranged from 0.2% to 3% among the diodes for both instruments. The presented recalibration methodology demonstrates that long-term calibration stability can be achieved with frequent recalibration of the diodes using external calibration techniques. The JMR PD drift compared to ground truth over the four years since the launch was reduced from 3.9 to - 0.01 mm/year with the recalibrated ND time series. The JMR brightness temperature calibration stability is estimated to be 0.25 K over ten days.

  17. Low Power Silicon Germanium Electronics for Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Terence A.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Space-based radiometric observations of key hydrological parameters (e.g., soil moisture) at the spatial and temporal scales required in the post-2002 era face significant technological challenges. These measurements are based on relatively low frequency thermal microwave emission (at 1.4 GHz for soil moisture and salinity, 10 GHz and up for precipitation, and 19 and 37 GHz for snow). The long wavelengths at these frequencies coupled with the high spatial and radiometric resolutions required by the various global hydrology communities necessitate the use of very large apertures (e.g., greater than 20 m at 1.4 GHz) and highly integrated stable RF electronics on orbit. Radio-interferometric techniques such as Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometry (STAR), using silicon germanium (SiGe) low power radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC), is one of the most promising technologies to enable very large non-rotating apertures in space. STAR instruments are composed of arrays of small antenna/receiving elements that are arranged so that the collecting area is smaller than an equivalent real aperture system, allowing very high packing densities for launch. A 20 meter aperture at L-band, for example, will require greater than 1000 of these receiving elements. SiGe RFIC's reduce power consumption enough to make an array like this possible in the power-limited environment of space flight. An overview of the state-of-the-art will be given, and current work in the area of SiGe radiometer development for soil moisture remote sensing will be discussed.

  18. Baseline Observations of Hemispheric Sea Ice with the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per

    1998-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the NASA Nimbus 7 satellite was designed to obtain data for sea surface temperatures (SSTs), near-surface wind speeds, sea ice coverage and type, rainfall rates over the oceans, cloud water content, snow water equivalent, and soil moisture. In this paper, I shall emphasize the sea ice observations and mention briefly some important SST observations. A prime factor contributing to the importance of SMMR sea ice observations lies in their successful integration into a long-term time series, presently being extended by observations from the series of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI) on board the DOD/DMSP F8, Fl1, and F12 satellites. This currently constitutes a 19-year data set. Almost half of this was provided by the SMMR. Unfortunately, the 4-year data set produced earlier by the single-channel Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) was not successfully integrated into the SMMR/SSMI data set. This resulted primarily from the lack of an overlap period to provide intersensor adjustment, but also because of the large difference between the algorithms to produce ice concentrations and large temporal gaps in the ESMR data. The lack of overlap between the SeaSat and Nimbus 7 SMMR data sets was an important consideration for also excluding the SeatSat one, but the spatial gaps especially in the Southern Hemisphere daily SeaSat observations was another. The sea ice observations will continue into the future by means of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on board the ADEOS II and EOS satellites due to be launched in mid- and late-2000, respectively. Analysis of the sea ice data has been carried out by a number of different techniques. Long-term trends have been examined by means of ordinary least squares and band-limited regression. Oscillations in the data have been examined by band-limited Fourier analysis. Here, I shall present results from a novel combination of Principal

  19. Mixing layer height retrievals by multichannel microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, D.; De Angelis, F.; Dupont, J.-C.; Pal, S.; Haeffelin, M.

    2013-06-01

    The mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter for boundary layer studies, including meteorology, air quality, and climate. MLH estimates are inferred from in situ radiosonde measurements or remote sensing observations from instruments like lidar, wind profiling radar, or sodar. Methods used to estimate MLH from radiosonde profiles are also used with atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles retrieved by microwave radiometers (MWR). This paper proposes an alternative approach to estimate MLH from MWR data, based on direct observations (brightness temperatures, Tb) instead of retrieved profiles. To our knowledge, MLH estimates directly from Tb observations has never been attempted before. The method consists of a multivariate linear regression trained with an a priori set of collocated MWR Tb observations (multi-frequency and multi-angle) and MLH estimates from a state-of-the-art lidar system. Results show that the method is able to follow both the diurnal cycle and the day-to-day variability as suggested by the lidar measurements, and also it can detect low MLH values that are below the full overlap limit (~ 200 m) of the lidar system used. Statistics of the comparison between MWR- and reference lidar-based MLH retrievals show mean difference within 10 m, RMS within 340 m, and correlation coefficient higher than 0.77. Monthly mean analysis for day-time MLH from MWR, lidar, and radiosonde shows consistent seasonal variability, peaking at ~ 1200-1400 m in June and decreasing down to ~ 600 m in October. Conversely, night-time monthly mean MLH from all methods are within 300-500 m without any significant seasonal variability. The proposed method provides results that are more consistent with radiosonde estimates than MLH estimates from MWR retrieved profiles. MLH monthly mean values agree well within 1 std with bulk Richardson number method applied at radiosonde profiles at 11:00 and 23:00 UTC. The method described herewith operates continuously and it is

  20. Mixing layer height retrievals by multichannel microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, D.; De Angelis, F.; Dupont, J.-C.; Pal, S.; Haeffelin, M.

    2013-11-01

    The mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter for boundary layer studies, including meteorology, air quality, and climate. MLH estimates are inferred from in situ radiosonde measurements or remote sensing observations from instruments like lidar, wind profiling radar, or sodar. Methods used to estimate MLH from radiosonde profiles are also used with atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles retrieved by microwave radiometers (MWR). This paper proposes an alternative approach to estimate MLH from MWR data, based on direct observations (brightness temperatures, Tb) instead of retrieved profiles. To our knowledge, MLH estimates directly from Tb observations have never been attempted before. The method consists of a multivariate linear regression trained with an a priori set of collocated MWR Tb observations (multifrequency and multi-angle) and MLH estimates from a state-of-the-art lidar system. The proposed method was applied to a 7-month data set collected at a typical midlatitude site. Results show that the method is able to follow both the diurnal cycle and the day-to-day variability as suggested by the lidar measurements, and also it can detect low MLH values that are below the full overlap limit (~200 m) of the lidar system used. Statistics of the comparison between MWR- and reference lidar-based MLH retrievals show mean difference within 10 m, root mean square within 340 m, and correlation coefficient higher than 0.77. Monthly mean analysis for daytime MLH from MWR, lidar, and radiosonde shows consistent seasonal variability, peaking at ~1200-1400 m in June and decreasing down to ~600 m in October. Conversely, nighttime monthly mean MLH from all methods are within 300-500 m without any significant seasonal variability. The proposed method provides results that are more consistent with radiosonde estimates than MLH estimates from MWR-retrieved profiles. MLH monthly mean values agree well within 1 standard deviation with the bulk Richardson number method

  1. Microwave radiometer measurement of tidally induced salinity changes off the Georgia coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, B.M.; Blanton, J.O.

    1981-07-01

    A quasi-synoptic survey of tidally induced salinity changes off the Georgia coast was performed by using a L band microwave radiometer onboard a NASA aircraft. Salinity maps were obtained for ebb and flood conditions in order to define the salinity distributions near rivers and sounds and major changes that occur from ebb flow to flood flow. The Savannah River plume dominated the salinity regime and extended out from the Savannah River mouth about 12 km during ebb tidal conditions. The plume merged into a band of low salinity water extending along the Georgia-South Carolina coast which was produced by the many river sources of freshwater entering the coastal waters. The changes in salinity observed offshore of the river plume area were consistent with estimates of the changes that would occur over a typical tidal excursion perpendicular to the observed gradient. 7 references, 5 figures.

  2. Advanced systems requirements for ocean observations via microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Swift, C. T.; Kendall, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    A future microwave spectroradiometer operating in several frequency bands will have the capability to step or sweep frequencies on an adaptable or programmable basis. The on-board adaptable frequency shifting can make the systems immune from radio interference. Programmable frequency sweeping with on-board data inversion by high speed computers would provide for instantaneous synoptic measurements or sea surface temperature and salinity, water surface and volume pollution, ice thickness, ocean surface winds, snow depth, and soil moisture. Large structure satellites will allow an order of magnitude improvement in the present radiometric measurement spacial resolution.

  3. A New Principle for Construction of Microwave Multireceiver Radiometers Using a Modified Method of Zero Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    We consider a microwave multireceiver radiometer based on in-parallel operated receiving channels using the principle of zero balance and measuring the antenna signal by all receivers in the same spectral range with time division. This yields a higher fluctuation sensitivity than in the case of an ideal full-power compensation radiometer while achieving a high stability of measurements by a modified method of zero measurement.

  4. Soil Moisture ActivePassive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth’s surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  5. TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. Instrument Description and Antenna Temperature Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR instrument and the radiometric instrument calibration required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field calibration campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...

  6. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  7. Microwave Radiometers from 0.6 to 22 GHz for Juno, a Polar Orbiter around Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    P. Pingree; Janssen, M.; Oswald, J.; Brown, S.; Chen, J.; Hurst, K.; Kitiyakara, A.; Maiwald, F.; Smith, S.

    2008-01-01

    A compact radiometer instrument is under development at JPL for Juno, the next NASA New Frontiers mission, scheduled to launch in 2011. This instrument is called the MWR (MicroWave Radiometer), and its purpose is to measure the thermal emission from Jupiter's atmosphere at selected frequencies from 0.6 to 22 GHz. The objective is to measure the distributions and abundances of water and ammonia in Jupiter's atmosphere, with the goal of understanding the previously unobserved dynamics of the subcloud atmosphere, and to discriminate among models for planetary formation in our solar system. The MWR instrument is currently being developed to address these science questions for the Juno mission. As part of a deep space mission aboard a solar-powered spacecraft, MWR is designed to be compact, lightweight, and low power. The entire MWR instrument consists of six individual radiometer channels with approximately 4% bandwidth at 0.6, 1.25,2.6,5.2, 10,22 GHz operating in direct detection mode. Each radiometer channel has up to 80 dB of gain with a noise figure of several dB. The highest frequency channel uses a corrugated feedhorn and waveguide transmission lines, whereas all other channels use highly phase stable coaxial cables and either patch array or waveguide slot array antennas. Slot waveguide array antennas were chosen for the low loss at the next three highest frequencies and patch array antennas were implemented due to the mass constraint at the two lowest frequencies. The six radiometer channels receive their voltage supplies and control lines from an electronics unit that also provides the instrument communication interface to the Juno spacecraft. For calibration purposes each receiver has integrated noise diodes, a Dicke switch, and temperature sensors near each component that contributes to the noise figure. In addition, multiple sensors will be placed along the RF transmission lines and the antennas in order to measure temperature gradients. All antennas and RF

  8. Retrievals on Tropical small scale humidity variability from multi-channel microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhao; Zuidema, Paquita; Turner, David

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale atmospheric humidity structure is important to many atmospheric process studies. In the Tropics especially, convection is sensitive to small variations in humidity. High temporal-resolution humidity profiles and spatially-resolved humidity fields are valuable for understanding the relationship of convection to tropical humidity, such as at convectively-induced cold pools and as part of the shallow-to-deep cloud transition. Radiosondes can provide high resolution vertical profiles of temperature and humidity, but are relatively infrequent. Microwave radiometers (MWR) are able to profile and scan autonomously and output measurements frequently (~1 Hz). To date, few assessments of microwave humidity profiling in the Tropics have been undertaken. Löhnert et al. (2009) provide one evaluation for Darwin, Australia. We build on this using four months of data from the equatorial Indian Ocean, at Gan Island, collected from University of Miami's (UM) multi-channel radiometer during the Dynamics of Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign. Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Water Vapor Path (WVP) are physically retrieved using the MWR RETrieval (MWRRET) algorithm (Turner et al., 2007b), and humidity profiles in the tropics are retrieved using the Integrated Profiling Technique (Löhnert et al., 2004). Tropical temperature variability is weak and a climatological temperature profile is assumed, with humidity information drawn from five channels between 22 to 30 GHz. Scanning measurements were coordinated with the scanning pattern of NCAR's S-Pol-Ka radar. An analysis of the humidity information content gathered from both the profiling and scanning measurements will be presented.

  9. Interpretation of the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy detected by the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Meyer, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kogut, A.; Lineweaver, C.; Mather, J. C.; Smoot, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    The large-scale cosmic background anisotropy detected by the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument is compared to the sensitive previous measurements on various angular scales, and to the predictions of a wide variety of models of structure formation driven by gravitational instability. The observed anisotropy is consistent with all previously measured upper limits and with a number of dynamical models of structure formation. For example, the data agree with an unbiased cold dark matter (CDM) model with H0 = 50 km/s Mpc and Delta-M/M = 1 in a 16 Mpc radius sphere. Other models, such as CDM plus massive neutrinos (hot dark matter (HDM)), or CDM with a nonzero cosmological constant are also consistent with the COBE detection and can provide the extra power seen on 5-10,000 km/s scales.

  10. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  11. Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration Mission (MiRaTA): Advancing Weather Remote Sensing with Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Bishop, R. L.; Erickson, N.; Fish, C. S.; Neilsen, T. L.; Stromberg, E. M.; Bardeen, J.; Dave, P.; Marinan, A.; Marlow, W.; Kingsbury, R.; Kennedy, A.; Byrne, J. M.; Peters, E.; Allen, G.; Burianek, D.; Busse, F.; Elliott, D.; Galbraith, C.; Leslie, V. V.; Osaretin, I.; Shields, M.; Thompson, E.; Toher, D.; DiLiberto, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration (MiRaTA) is a 3U CubeSat mission sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). Microwave radiometer measurements and GPS radio occultation (GPSRO) measurements of all-weather temperature and humidity provide key contributions toward improved weather forecasting. The MiRaTA mission will validate new technologies in both passive microwave radiometry and GPS radio occultation: (1) new ultra-compact and low-power technology for multi-channel and multi-band passive microwave radiometers, and (2) new GPS receiver and patch antenna array technology for GPS radio occultation retrieval of both temperature-pressure profiles in the atmosphere and electron density profiles in the ionosphere. In addition, MiRaTA will test (3) a new approach to spaceborne microwave radiometer calibration using adjacent GPSRO measurements. The radiometer measurement quality can be substantially improved relative to present systems through the use of proximal GPSRO measurements as a calibration standard for radiometric observations, reducing and perhaps eliminating the need for costly and complex internal calibration targets. MiRaTA will execute occasional pitch-up maneuvers so that the radiometer and GPSRO observations sound overlapping volumes of atmosphere through the Earth's limb. To validate system performance, observations from both microwave radiometer (MWR) and GPSRO instruments will be compared to radiosondes, global high-resolution analysis fields, other satellite observations, and to each other using radiative transfer models. Both the radiometer and GPSRO payloads, currently at TRL5 but to be advanced to TRL7 at mission conclusion, can be accommodated in a single 3U CubeSat. The current plan is to launch from an International Space Station (ISS) orbit at ~400 km altitude and 52° inclination for low-cost validation over a ~90-day mission to fly in 2016. MiRaTA will demonstrate high fidelity, well-calibrated radiometric

  12. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental results and with some recent airborne radiometric measurements. The relationship of soil moisture to the permittivity for the soil was obtained in the laboratory. A dual frequency radiometer, 1.41356 GHz and 10.69 GHz, took measurements at angles between 0 and 50 degrees from an altitude of about fifty feet. Distinct surface roughnesses were studied. With the roughness undisturbed, oats were later planted and vegetated and bare field measurements were compared. The 1.4 GHz radiometer was less affected than the 10.6 GHz radiometer, which under vegetated conditions was incapable of detecting soil moisture. The bare surface theoretical model was inadequate, although the vegetation model appeared to be valid. Moisture parameters to correlate apparent temperature with soil moisture were compared.

  13. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  14. Geosynchronous Microwave Atmospheric Sounding Radiometer (MASR) feasibility studies. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The mission of the microwave atmospheric sounding radiometer (MASR) is to collect data to aid in the observation and prediction of severe storms. The geosynchronous orbit allows the continuous atmospheric measurement needed to resolve mesoscale dynamics. The instrument may operate in conjunction with this document, Volume 1 - Management, which summarizes the highlights of final reports on both the radiometer instrument and antenna studies. The radiometer instrument summary includes a synopsis of Volume 2 - Radiometer Receiver Feasibility, including design, recommended configuration, performance estimates, and weight and power estimates. The summary of the antenna study includes a synopsis of Volume 3 - Antenna Feasibility, including preliminary design tradeoffs, performance of selected design, and details of the mechanical/thermal design.

  15. Multifrequency Aperture-Synthesizing Microwave Radiometer System (MFASMR). Volume 2: Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, C. A.; Chang, M. U.

    1981-01-01

    A number of topics supporting the systems analysis of a multifrequency aperture-synthesizing microwave radiometer system are discussed. Fellgett's (multiple) advantage, interferometer mapping behavior, mapping geometry, image processing programs, and sampling errors are among the topics discussed. A FORTRAN program code is given.

  16. Design, fabrication and deployment of a miniaturized spectrometer radiometer based on MMIC technology for tropospheric water vapor profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturbide-Sanchez, Flavio

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and deployment of the Compact Microwave Radiometer for Humidity profiling (CMR-H). The CMR-H is a new and innovative spectrometer radiometer that is based on monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology and is designed for tropospheric water vapor profiling. The CMR-H simultaneously measures microwave emission at four optimally-selected frequency channels near the 22.235 GHz water vapor absorption line, constituting a new set of frequencies for the retrieval of the water vapor profile. State-of-the-art water vapor radiometers either measure at additional channels with redundant information or perform multi-frequency measurements sequentially. The fabrication of the CMR-H demonstrates the capability of MMIC technology to reduce substantially the operational power consumption and size of the RF and IF sections. Those sections comprise much of the mass and volume of current microwave receivers for remote sensing, except in the case of large antennas. The use of the compact box-horn array antenna in the CMR-H demonstrates its capability to reduce the mass and volume of microwave radiometers, while maintaining similar performance to that of commonly-used, bulky horn antennas. Due to its low mass, low volume, low power consumption, fabrication complexity and cost, the CMR-H represents a technological improvement in the design of microwave radiometers for atmospheric water vapor observations. The field test and validation of the CMR-H described in this work focuses on comparisons of measurements during two field experiments from the CMR-H and a state-of-the-art microwave radiometer, which measures only in a volume subtended by the zenith-pointing antenna's beam pattern. In contrast, the CMR-H is designed to perform volumetric scans and to function correctly as a node in a network of radiometers. Mass production of radiometers based on the CMR-H design is expected to enable the

  17. Relocation of Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer 1 to Deep Space Station 55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, J.; Riley, L.; Hubbard, A.; Rosenberger, H.; Tanner, A.; Keihm, S.; Jacobs, C.; Lanyi, G.; Naudet, C.

    2005-01-01

    In June of 2004, the Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) unit no. 1 was relocated to the Deep Space Station (DSS) 55 site in Madrid, Spain, from DSS 25 in Goldstone, California. This article summarizes the relocation activity and the subsequent operation and data acquisition. This activity also relocated the associated Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) and Surface Meteorology (SurfMET) package that collectively comprise the Cassini Media Calibration System (MCS).

  18. Relocation of Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer 1 to Deep Space Station 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, J.; Riley, L.; Hubbard, A.; Rosenberger, H.; Tanner, A.; Keihm, S.; Jacobs, Christopher S.; Lanyi. G. E.; Naudet, C. J.

    2005-11-01

    In June of 2004, the Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) unit no. 1 was relocated to the Deep Space Station (DSS) 55 site in Madrid, Spain, from DSS 25 in Goldstone, California. This article summarizes the relocation activity and the subsequent operation and data acquisition. This activity also relocated the associated Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) and Surface Meteorology (SurfMET) package that collectively comprise the Cassini Media Calibration System (MCS).

  19. Monitoring a convective winter episode of the Iberian Peninsula using a multichannel microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascón, E.; Sánchez, J. L.; Fernández-González, S.; Hermida, L.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Merino, A.

    2015-02-01

    On 4 March 2011, a heavy snowfall episode affected the central Iberian Peninsula. Under the TECOAGUA Project (aimed at the study of winter cloud masses that produce snow in the Guadarrama Mountains near Madrid), measurements using a ground-based multichannel microwave radiometer (MMWR) with vertical range 10 km recorded this episode of winter convection embedded within stratiform precipitation. In contrast to radiosondes, data retrieval from the MMWR has a clear advantage for identifying hazardous weather phenomena of short duration, such as winter convective episodes. From these continuous measurements, we analyzed the behavior of variables such as temperature, surface pressure, relative humidity, liquid water content, liquid water path, water vapor content, and integrated water vapor throughout the day. The continuous measurements also permitted construction of skew-T log-P profiles every 15 min during the convective episode, indicating vertical evolution of an event with an appearance similar to a "zipper" in which temperature and dew point temperature profiles are "closed" from the surface to 400 hPa and "reopen" at the end of the event. Finally, we selected six indices of stability most suitable for the study of winter convection, namely, the Showalter index, low-topped convection index, most unstable lifted index, most unstable convective available potential energy (MUCAPE), convective inhibition, and MUCAPE level of free convection. Each of these indices has been evaluated for their capacity to warn of meteorological conditions leading to a convective heavy snowfall event.

  20. Iapetus' near surface thermal emission modeled and constrained using Cassini RADAR Radiometer microwave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Keihm, S.; Wye, L. C.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Tosi, F.

    2014-10-01

    most probably >200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 is inferred. This suggests a gradient in density with depth or, more likely, that the Radiometer has probed the icy substrate underlying the dark layer. Furthermore, the measured thermal emission is found to arise from the upper few meters of the subsurface, which points to tholins, rather than iron oxide compounds, as the primary contaminants of the dark material. We also find that, although there is a latitudinal decrease probably related to the thinning of the dark layer away from the Equator, the CR region exhibits a high 2.2-cm emissivity, 0.87 in average, which is close to the emissivity of Phoebe, a putative source of the dark matter. In the case of RT + ST, model fitting points to a mean thermal inertia of ∼160 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 along with the possible presence of an absorbing compound in the regolith of the bright terrains. Nevertheless, this layer is transparent enough for the Radiometer to capture the seasonal contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres. Lastly, a global decline of the microwave emissivity with latitude is revealed; it is probably indicative of a progressive increase of the water ice content in the near surface.

  1. On the determination of atmospheric path length by passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave radiometer techniques were evaluated for use in atmospheric path length correction of Pacific Plate Motion Experiment interferometer measurements. It is shown that passive microwave radiometry allows precise measurement of the brightness temperature of the sky. It is also noted that the technological requirements of radiometers are very different from the requirements of radio astronomy. The technology was used in the construction of radiometers which are sufficient for use in the path length correction problem. A simulation study shows that, when combined with surface meteorology data, passive microwave radiometer data would allow a determination of the path length correction to better than 2 cm at the zenith. By a careful choice of frequencies, a dual frequency system would allow a measurement of the path length correction to better than 4 cm at zenith angles as great as 60 deg. Because of the wide range of weather conditions to be expected for the PPME sites (which include Alaska, Hawaii and Massachusetts), it will probably be necessary to use a separate correction algorithm for each site.

  2. Soil moisture detection by Skylab's microwave sensors. [radiometer/scatterometer measurements of Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Barr, J. C.; Sobti, A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Terrain microwave backscatter and emission response to soil moisture variations were investigated using Skylab's 13.9 GHz RADSCAT (radiometer/scatterometer) system. Data acquired on June 5, 1973, over a test site in west-central Texas indicated a fair degree of correlation with composite rainfall. The scan made was cross-track contiguous (CTC) with a pitch of 29.4 deg and no roll effect. Vertical polarization was employed with both radiometer and scatterometer. The composite rainfall was computed according to the flood prediction technique using rainfall data supplied by weather reporting stations.

  3. A new broadband square law detector. [microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Gardner, R. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    A broadband constant law detector was developed for precision power measurements, radio metric measurements, and other applications. It has a wide dynamic range and an accurate square law response. Other desirable characteristics, which are all included in a single compact unit, are: (1) high-level dc output with immunity to ground loop problems; (2) fast response times; (3) ability to insert known time constants; and (4) good thermal stability. The detector and its performance are described in detail. The detector can be operated in a programmable system with a ten-fold increase in accuracy. The use and performance of the detector in a noise-adding radiometer system is also discussed.

  4. Angular power spectrum of the microwave background anisotropy seen by the COBE differential microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Lubin, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    The angular power spectrum estimator developed by Peebles (1973) and Hauser & Peebles (1973) has been modified and applied to the 2 yr maps produced by the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE DMR)). The power spectrum of the real sky has been compared to the power spectra of a large number of simulated random skies produced with noise equal to the observed noise and primordial density fluctuation power spectra of power-law form, with P(k) proportional to k(exp n). Within the limited range of spatial scales covered by the COBE DMR, corresponding to spherical harmonic indices 3 less than or = l is less than or approximately = 30, the best-fitting value of the spectral index is n = 1.25(sup +0.39 sub -0.44) with the Harrisson-Zel'dovich value n = 1 approximately 0.5 sigma below the best fit. For 3 less than or = l less than or approximately = 19, the best fit is n = 1.46(sup +0.39 sub -0.44). Comparing the COBE DMR delta-T/T at small l to the delta-T/T at l approximately = 50 from degree scale anisotropy experiments gives a smaller range of acceptable spectral indices which includes n = 1.

  5. Angular power spectrum of the microwave background anisotropy seen by the COBE differential microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Lubin, P. M.

    1994-12-01

    The angular power spectrum estimator developed by Peebles (1973) and Hauser & Peebles (1973) has been modified and applied to the 2 yr maps produced by the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE DMR)). The power spectrum of the real sky has been compared to the power spectra of a large number of simulated random skies produced with noise equal to the observed noise and primordial density fluctuation power spectra of power-law form, with P(k) proportional to kn. Within the limited range of spatial scales covered by the COBE DMR, corresponding to spherical harmonic indices 3 less than or = l is less than or approximately = 30, the best-fitting value of the spectral index is n = 1.25+0.39-0.44 with the Harrisson-Zel'dovich value n = 1 approximately 0.5 sigma below the best fit. For 3 less than or = l less than or approximately = 19, the best fit is n = 1.46+0.39-0.44. Comparing the COBE DMR delta-T/T at small l to the delta-T/T at l approximately = 50 from degree scale anisotropy experiments gives a smaller range of acceptable spectral indices which includes n = 1.

  6. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, A.; Roucaries, B.; Williams, B.; Rubin, I.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Meinhold, P.; Lubin, P.; Franceschet, C.; Jahn, S.; Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  7. The monitoring of critical infrastructures using microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Jirousek, Matthias; Süß, Helmut

    2008-04-01

    Microwaves in the range of 1-300 GHz are used in many respects for remote sensing applications. Besides radar sensors particularly passive measurement methods are used for two-dimensional imaging. The imaging of persons and critical infrastructures for security purposes is of increasing interest particularly for transportation services or public events. Personnel inspection with respect to weapons and explosives becomes an important mean concerning terrorist attacks. Microwaves can penetrate clothing and a multitude of other materials and allow the detection of hidden objects by monitoring dielectric anomalies. Passive microwave remote sensing allows a daytime independent non-destructive observation and examination of the objects of interest under nearly all weather conditions without artificial exposure of persons or areas. The performance of millimeter-wave radiometric imaging with respect to wide-area surveillance is investigated. Measurement results of some typical critical infrastructure scenarios are discussed. Requirements for future operational systems are outlined exploring a radiometric range equation.

  8. Studies on Physical Properties of Snow Based on Multi Channel Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Takeda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the data observed over a snow field with a breadboard model of MSR (microwave scanning radiometer) to be installed in MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) indicates that: (1) the influence of incident angle on brightness temperature is larger in horizontal polarization component than in vertical polarization component. The effect of incident angle depends upon the property of snow with larger value for dry snow; (2) the difference of snow surface configuration consisting of artifically made parallel ditches of 5 cm depth and 5 cm width with spacing of 10 and 30 cm respectively which are oriented normal to electrical axis do not affect brightness temperature significantly; and (3) there is high negative correlation between brightness temperature and snow depth up to the depth of 70 cm which suggests that the snow depth can be measured with a two channel microwave radiometer up to this depth.

  9. Stratiform and Convective Rain Discrimination from Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Cadeddu, M.; Short, D. A.; Weinman, J. A.; Schols, J. L.; Haferman, J.

    1997-01-01

    A criterion based on the SSM/I observations is developed to discriminate rain into convective and stratiform types. This criterion depends on the microwave polarization properties of the flat melting snow particles that fall slowly in the stratiform clouds. Utilizing this criterion and some spatial and temporal characteristics of hydrometeors in TOGA-COARE area revealed by ship borne radars, we have developed an algorithm to retrieve convective and stratiform rain rate from SSM/I data.

  10. Weight estimates and packaging techniques for the microwave radiometer spacecraft. [shuttle compatible design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, J. K.; Wright, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of total spacecraft weight and packaging options were made for three conceptual designs of a microwave radiometer spacecraft. Erectable structures were found to be slightly lighter than deployable structures but could be packaged in one-tenth the volume. The tension rim concept, an unconventional design approach, was found to be the lightest and transportable to orbit in the least number of shuttle flights.

  11. Baltic Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Using Sentinel-1 SAR and Microwave Radiometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvonen, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice concentration (SIC) is an important sea ice parameter in environmental research, weather and ice forecasting and for navigation. We have developed a method for estimation of the Baltic Sea SIC using SENTINEL-1 SAR data and AMSR-2 microwave radiometer (MWR). Here we present the method and first results of January 2016. Ice concentration of FMI daily ice charts has been used as reference data in this study.

  12. L band push broom microwave radiometer: Soil moisture verification and time series experiment Delmarva Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Shiue, J.; Oneill, P.; Wang, J.; Fuchs, J.; Owe, M.

    1984-01-01

    The verification of a multi-sensor aircraft system developed to study soil moisture applications is discussed. This system consisted of a three beam push broom L band microwave radiometer, a thermal infrared scanner, a multispectral scanner, video and photographic cameras and an onboard navigational instrument. Ten flights were made of agricultural sites in Maryland and Delaware with little or no vegetation cover. Comparisons of aircraft and ground measurements showed that the system was reliable and consistent. Time series analysis of microwave and evaporation data showed a strong similarity that indicates a potential direction for future research.

  13. Results from the pushbroom microwave radiometer flights over the Konza Prairie in 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Wang, J. R.; Lawrence, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Four flights were conducted by the NASA C-130 aircraft sensor platform bearing the 'pushbroom' microwave radiometer (PBMR) over the Konza Prairie in central Kansas in 1985, in order to monitor soil surface variations. When the brightness temperature maps thus obtained were analyzed, a striking difference was noted between burned and unburned watersheds; the latter had a very high emissivity despite having saturated soils, while the former had low values that increased with the gradual drying of the soils. The lack of sensitivity for the unburned watershed is tentatively attributed to the build-up of a thatch layer by the decaying vegetation, which serves as a good microwave absorber when wet.

  14. Heavy thunderstorms observed over land by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.; Olson, W. S.; Martin, D. W.; Weinman, J. A.; Santek, D. A.; Wu, R.

    1983-01-01

    Brightness temperatures obtained through examination of microwave data from the Nimbus 7 satellite are noted to be much lower than those expected on the strength of radiation emanating from rain-producing clouds. Very cold brightness temperature cases all coincided with heavy thunderstorm rainfall, with the cold temperatures being attributable to scattering by a layer of ice hydrometeors in the upper parts of the storms. It is accordingly suggested that brightness temperatures observed by satellite microwave radiometers can sometimes distinguish heavy rain over land.

  15. TOPEX/POSEIDON Microwave Radiometer (TMR): III. Wet Troposphere Range Correction Algorithm and Pre-Launch Error Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.; Ruf, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The sole mission function of the TOPEX/POSEIDON Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is to provide corrections for the altimeter range errors induced by the highly variable atmospheric water vapor content. The three TMR frequencies are shown to be near-optimum for measuring the vapor-induced path delay within an environment of variable cloud cover and variable sea surface flux background. After a review of the underlying physics relevant to the prediction of 5-40 GHz nadir-viewing microwave brightness temperatures, we describe the development of the statistical, iterative algorithm used for the TMR retrieval of path delay. Test simulations are presented which demonstrate the uniformity of algorithm performance over a range of cloud liquid and sea surface wind speed conditions...

  16. The 1982-1983 El Nino Atlas: Nimbus-7 microwave radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    1987-01-01

    Monthly maps of sea surface temperature, atmospheric water vapor, and surface level wind speed as measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite for the tropical Pacific from June 1982 to October 1983, during one of the most intense El Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO) episodes, are presented. The non-ENSO annual cycle was compiled by averaging the 1980 and 1981 data for each calendar month and was removed from monthly fields of 1982 and 1983 to reveal the anomalous distributions. The anomaly fields and part of the non-ENSO annual cycle are also presented. This study and earlier evaluations demonstrate that the Nimbus/SMMR can be used to monitor large scale and low frequency variabilities in the tropical ocean. The SMMR data support and extend conventional measurements. The variabilities of the three parameters are found to represent various aspects of ENSO related through ocean atmosphere interaction. Their simultaneous and quantitative descriptions pave the way for the derivation of ocean atmosphere latent heat exchange and further the understanding of the coupled atmospheric and oceanic thermodynamics.

  17. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  18. Microwave Radiometers from 0.6 to 22 GHz for Juno, a Polar Orbiter around Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Janssen, M.; Oswald, J.; Brown, S.; Chen, J.; Hurst, K.; Kitiyakara, A.; Maiwald, F.; Smith, S.

    2008-01-01

    A compact instrument called the MWR (microwave radiometer) is under development at JPL for Juno, the next NASA new frontiers mission, scheduled to launch in 2011. It's purpose is to measure the thermal emission from Jupiter's atmosphere at six selected frequencies from 0.6 to 22 GHz, operating in direct detection mode, in order to quantify the distributions and abundances of water and ammonia in Jupiter's atmosphere. The goal is to understand the previously unobserved dynamics of the sub-cloud atmosphere, and to discriminate among models for planetary formation in our solar system. as part of a deep space mission aboard a solar-powered spacecraft, MWR is designed to be compact, lightweight, and low power. The receivers and control electronics are protected by a radiation-shielding enclosure on the Juno spacecraft that also provides for a benign and stable operating temperature environment. All antennas and RF transmission lines outside the vault must withstand low temperatures and the harsh radiation environment surrounding Jupiter. This paper describes the concept of the MWR instrument and presents results of one breadboard receiver channel.

  19. Microwave Radiometers from 0.6 to 22 GHz for Juno, A Polar Orbiter Around Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, P.; Janssen, M.; Oswald, J.; Brown, S.; Chen, J.; Hurst, K.; Kitiyakara, A.; Maiwald, F.; Smith, S.

    2008-01-01

    A compact instrument called the MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is under development at JPL for Juno, the next NASA New Frontiers mission, scheduled to launch in 2011. It's purpose is to measure the thermal emission from Jupiter's atmosphere at six selected frequencies from 0.6 to 22 GHz, operating in direct detection mode, in order to quantify the distributions and abundances of water and ammonia in Jupiter's atmosphere. The goal is to understand the previously unobserved dynamics of the sub-cloud atmosphere, and to discriminate among models for planetary formation in our solar system. As part of a deep space mission aboard a solar-powered spacecraft, MWR is designed to be compact, lightweight, and low power. The receivers and control electronics are protected by a radiation-shielding enclosure on the Juno spacecraft that would provide a benign and stable operating temperature environment. All antennas and RF transmission lines outside the vault must withstand low temperatures and the harsh radiation environment surrounding Jupiter. This paper describes the concept of the MWR instrument and presents results of one breadboard receiver channel.

  20. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    another when an observed precipitation system extends over two or more types of surfaces. As input data, the PNPR algorithm incorporates the TBs from selected channels, and various additional TBs-derived variables. Ancillary geographical/geophysical inputs (i.e., latitude, terrain height, surface type, season) are also considered during the training phase. The PNPR algorithm outputs consist of both the surface precipitation rate (along with the information on precipitation phase: liquid, mixed, solid) and a pixel-based quality index. We will illustrate the main features of the PNPR algorithm and will show results of a verification study over Europe and Africa. The study is based on the available ground-based radar and/or rain gauge network observations over the European area. In addition, results of the comparison with rainfall products available from the NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) (over the African area) and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) will be shown. The analysis is built upon a two-years coincidence dataset of AMSU/MHS and ATMS observations with PR (2013-2014) and DPR (2014-2015). The PNPR is developed within the EUMETSAT H/SAF program (Satellite Application Facility for Operational Hydrology and Water Management), where it is used operationally towards the full exploitation of all microwave radiometers available in the GPM era. The algorithm will be tailored to the future European Microwave Sounder (MWS) onboard the MetOp-Second Generation (MetOp-SG) satellites.

  1. GROMOS-C, a novel ground-based microwave radiometer for ozone measurement campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Murk, A.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-07-01

    Stratospheric ozone is of major interest as it absorbs most harmful UV radiation from the sun, allowing life on Earth. Ground-based microwave remote sensing is the only method that allows for the measurement of ozone profiles up to the mesopause, over 24 hours and under different weather conditions with high time resolution. In this paper a novel ground-based microwave radiometer is presented. It is called GROMOS-C (GRound based Ozone MOnitoring System for Campaigns), and it has been designed to measure the vertical profile of ozone distribution in the middle atmosphere by observing ozone emission spectra at a frequency of 110.836 GHz. The instrument is designed in a compact way which makes it transportable and suitable for outdoor use in campaigns, an advantageous feature that is lacking in present day ozone radiometers. It is operated through remote control. GROMOS-C is a total power radiometer which uses a pre-amplified heterodyne receiver, and a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer for the spectral analysis. Among its main new features, the incorporation of different calibration loads stands out; this includes a noise diode and a new type of blackbody target specifically designed for this instrument, based on Peltier elements. The calibration scheme does not depend on the use of liquid nitrogen; therefore GROMOS-C can be operated at remote places with no maintenance requirements. In addition, the instrument can be switched in frequency to observe the CO line at 115 GHz. A description of the main characteristics of GROMOS-C is included in this paper, as well as the results of a first campaign at the High Altitude Research Station at Jungfraujoch (HFSJ), Switzerland. The validation is performed by comparison of the retrieved profiles against equivalent profiles from MLS (Microwave Limb Sounding) satellite data, ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) model data, as well as our nearby NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric

  2. Microwave radiometer experiment of soil moisture sensing at BARC test site during summer 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Jackson, T.; Engman, E. T.; Gould, W.; Fuchs, J.; Glazer, W.; Oneill, P.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1984-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured by truck mounted microwave radiometers at the frequencies of 1.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 10.7 GHz. The soil textures in the two test sites were different so that the soil type effect of microwave radiometric response could be studied. Several fields in each test site were prepared with different surface roughnesses and vegetation covers. Ground truth on the soil moisture, temperature, and the biomass of the vegetation was acquired in support of the microwave radiometric measurements. Soil bulk density for each of the fields in both test sites was sampled. The soils in both sites were measured mechanically and chemically. A tabulation of the measured data is presented and the sensors and operational problems associated with the measurements are discussed.

  3. Design data collection with Skylab microwave radiometer-scatterometer S-193, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab S-193 radiometer/scatterometer produced terrain responses with various polarizations and observation angles for cells of 100 to 400 sq km area. Classification of the observations into natural categories was achieved by K-means and spatial clustering algorithms. Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert area by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that the microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. Correlations were noted between microwave backscatter response at approximately 33 deg from scatterometer (operating at 13.9 GHz) and the configuration of ground targets in Brazil as discerned from coarse scale maps. With limited, available ground truth, these correlations were sufficient to permit the production of image-like displays which bear a marked resemblance to known terrain features in several instances.

  4. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar and Microwave Radiometer Observations from GPM- Initial Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, W. S.; Grecu, M.; Munchak, S. J.; McLaughlin, S. F.; Haddad, Z. S.; Kuo, K. S.; Tian, L.; Johnson, B. T.; Masunaga, H.

    2014-12-01

    In the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar - GPM Microwave Imager (DPR-GMI) combined radar-radiometer precipitation algorithm will provide, in principle, the most accurate and highest resolution estimates of surface rainfall rate and precipitation vertical structure from a spaceborne observing platform. In addition to direct applications of these precipitation estimates, they will serve as a crucial reference for cross-calibrating passive microwave precipitation profile estimates from the GPM radiometer constellation. And through the microwave radiometer estimates, the combined algorithm calibration will ultimately be propagated to GPM infrared-microwave multisatellite estimates of surface rainfall. The GPM combined DPR-GMI precipitation algorithm is based upon an ensemble filtering technique. At each DPR footprint location, an initial estimate is made of the distribution of possible precipitation profiles consistent with DPR Ku reflectivity observations and a priori information regarding the intercepts of the assumed size distributions of precipitation particles and parameters describing environmental conditions. This Ku-consistent profile distribution is filtered using coincident DPR Ka reflectivities, the vertical path-integrated attenuation at Ku and Ka bands, and GMI brightness temperature observations. The resulting filtered distribution of precipitation profiles is consistent with all of the available data and a priori information; the mean of the profiles gives the best estimate of precipitation, and the standard deviation is a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate. The DPR-GMI algorithm will be evaluated by comparing estimated reflectivity and precipitation profiles against ground-based polarimetric radar data, and also by checking that the "best fit" precipitation distributions lead to forward radiative model simulations that are generally unbiased with respect to the observations. The impacts of

  5. Topographic Effects on the Surface Emissivity of a Mountainous Area Observed by a Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Marzano, Frank S

    2008-03-03

    A simulation study to understand the influence of topography on the surfaceemissivity observed by a satellite microwave radiometer is carried out. We analyze theeffects due to changes in observation angle, including the rotation of the polarization plane.A mountainous area in the Alps (Northern Italy) is considered and the information on therelief extracted from a digital elevation model is exploited. The numerical simulation refersto a radiometric image, acquired by a conically-scanning radiometer similar to AMSR-E,i.e., flying at 705 km of altitude with an observation angle of 55°. To single out the impacton surface emissivity, scattering of the radiation due to the atmosphere or neighboringelevated surfaces is not considered. C and X bands, for which atmospheric effects arenegligible, and Ka band are analyzed. The results indicate that the changes in the localobservation angle tend to lower the apparent emissivity of a radiometric pixel with respectto the corresponding flat surface characteristics. The effect of the rotation of thepolarization plane enlarges (vertical polarization), or attenuates (horizontal polarization)this decrease. By doing some simplifying assumptions for the radiometer antenna, theconclusion is that the microwave emissivity at vertical polarization is underestimated,whilst the opposite occurs for horizontal polarization, except for Ka band, for which bothunder- and overprediction may occur. A quantification of the differences with respect to aflat soil and an approximate evaluation of their impact on soil moisture retrieval areyielded.

  6. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  7. Microwave Radiometer - UND Radiometrics MWR, John Day - Reviewed Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Leo, Laura

    2017-03-31

    The present dataset contains the post-reprocessed level1 and level2 data files from November 2015 to May 2016. The original raw dataset's (mwr.z02.00) purpose was to monitor real-time profiles of temperature (K), water vapor (gm-3), relative humidity (%), and liquid water (gm-3) up to 10 km.

  8. Two-Look Polarimetric (2LP) Microwave Radiometers for Ocean Vector Wind Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, F. J.; Hilburn, K. A.; Meissner, T.; Brown, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    This talk discusses the future utilization of two-look polarimetric (2LP) microwave radiometers for measuring the ocean surface wind vector. Potentially, these 2LP satellite radiometers offer two advantages over conventional scatterometers: unambiguous wind vector retrievals and low-cost. One concept for a 2LP radiometer is being developed by JPL and is called the Compact Ocean Wind Vector Radiometer (COWVR). A space demonstration of COWVR is planned for 2016 timeframe. To explore the potential of 2LP radiometers, we use the 11 years of WindSat observations as a testbed. We only use that portion of the WindSat swath that has both fore and aft observations. WindSat provides fully polarimetric observations (all four Stokes parameters) at 11, 19, and 37 GHz. This represents 12 independent channels for each of the two azimuth directions. A wind vector retrieval algorithm is developed to fully utilize this wide assortment of information. Since this analysis is based on actual observations, it provides a realistic picture of what to expect from future 2LP radiometers. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the combination of WindSat's fore and aft observations has been fully utilized for wind vector retrievals. In our talk we compare the 2LP wind vector retrieval performance with that of single-look polarimetric radiometers (i.e., WindSat standard product) and scatterometers. We provide basic statistics from a triple collocation between winds from WindSat, QuikScat, and NDBC/PMEL ocean moored buoys. The statistics include the standard deviation of the first ranked ambiguity direction, skill rate, and number of ambiguities. All available data from the common period of operation between WindSat and QuikScat (2003-2009) are used. We characterize the wind direction accuracy as a function of wind speed, and show how 2LP retrievals are able to extend the wind vector accuracy to lower wind speeds than previously considered possible for radiometers.

  9. Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Levine, D. M.; Swift, C. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations designed to study land surface hydrologic-atmospheric interactions, showing the potential of L band passive microwave radiometry for measuring surface soil moisture over large areas, are discussed. Satisfying the data needs of these investigations requires the ability to map large areas rapidly. With aircraft systems this means a need for more beam positions over a wider swath on each flightline. For satellite systems the essential problem is resolution. Both of these needs are currently being addressed through the development and verification of Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) technology. The ESTAR L band radiometer was evaluated for soil moisture mapping applications in two studies. The first was conducted over the semiarid rangeland Walnut Gulch watershed located in south eastern Arizona (U.S.). The second was performed in the subhumid Little Washita watershed in south west Oklahoma (U.S.). Both tests showed that the ESTAR is capable of providing soil moisture with the same level of accuracy as existing systems.

  10. The Split Window Microwave Radiometer (SWMR) for hurricane wind speed measurement from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Black, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    The monitoring of hurricanes demands considerable resources each year by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Even with the extensive use of satellite and airborne probing of those storms, there is still much uncertainty involved in predicting landfall for timely evacuation of people subject to the threat. The concept of the Split Window Microwave Radiometer (SWMR) is to add an additional capability of remotely measuring surface winds to hopefully improve prediction capabilities or at least define the severity of the storm while it is far from land. Some of the present science and observational needs are addressed in this report as are remote sensing limitations which impact the design of a minimal system which can be launched into low earth orbit by a low cost launch system. This study has concluded that wind speed and rain rate maps of hurricanes can be generated with an X-Band radiometer system with an antenna whose aperture is 2 m on a side.

  11. A Preview of AMSR: Airborne C-band Microwave Radiometer (ACMR) Observations from SGP99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Doiron, Terence; Principe, Caleb; Gong, Lei; Shiue, James

    2000-01-01

    Although L-band is generally considered ideal for passive microwave sensing of soil moisture, near-future satellite observing systems such as Advanced Mechanically Scanned Radiometer (AMSR) will provide C-band data for several years before any L-band data might become available. The Southern Great Plains'99 (SGP99) Experiment was designed to generate C-band observations suitable for testing and refinement of AMSR-era soil moisture retrieval algorithms. C-band data collected using the Airborne C-band Microwave Radiometer (ACMR), a new high-accuracy NASA/GSFC instrument, clearly demonstrated a strong response to a 9-day drydown event as well as to differences between the northern (cooler & wetter) and southern (warmer & dryer) areas covered by the P-3 flights. For example, the H-polarized brightness temperatures observed during the first three days of the drydown increased up to 50 K in the northern areas. These observations represent a preview of what we can expect from AMSR, albeit at 3-km spatial resolution vs. approximately 60 km for AMSR. Initial results of soil-vegetation microwave modeling will also be presented to estimate the relative contributions of soil physical temperature, canopy physical temperature, soil moisture, and canopy moisture. Significant radio-frequency interference (RFI) was evident during the experiment, and amelioration strategies will be discussed. The net effect of RFI (an upward bias in brightnesses) when averaged over an AMSR footprint is expected to be more subtle.

  12. Stratus cloud measurements with a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) held in the North Atlantic during June 1992 was to determine the physical reasons for the transition from stratocumulus to broken clouds. Some possible reasons for this transition were such things as cloud top entrainment instability and the decoupling effects of drizzle. As part of this experiment, the Environmental Technology Laboratory`s cloud sensing Doppler radar and three-channel microwave radiometer were deployed in the island of Porto Santo in the Madeira Islands of Portugal along with a carbon dioxide Doppler lider. Drizzle properties in stratus were examined using a log-normal droplet distribution model that related the model`s three parameters to the first three Doppler spectral moments of the cloud radar. With these moments, we are then able to compute the drizzle droplet concentration, modal radius, liquid water, and liquid water flux as a function of height.

  13. A microwave radiometer weather-correcting sea ice algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, J. M.; Ruf, C.; Swift, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    A new algorithm for estimating the proportions of the multiyear and first-year sea ice types under variable atmospheric and sea surface conditions is presented, which uses all six channels of the SMMR. The algorithm is specifically tuned to derive sea ice parameters while accepting error in the auxiliary parameters of surface temperature, ocean surface wind speed, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud liquid water content. Not only does the algorithm naturally correct for changes in these weather conditions, but it retrieves sea ice parameters to the extent that gross errors in atmospheric conditions propagate only small errors into the sea ice retrievals. A preliminary evaluation indicates that the weather-correcting algorithm provides a better data product than the 'UMass-AES' algorithm, whose quality has been cross checked with independent surface observations. The algorithm performs best when the sea ice concentration is less than 20 percent.

  14. Bayesian Estimation of Precipitation from Satellite Passive Microwave Observations Using Combined Radar-Radiometer Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation estimation from satellite passive microwave radiometer observations is a problem that does not have a unique solution that is insensitive to errors in the input data. Traditionally, to make this problem well posed, a priori information derived from physical models or independent, high-quality observations is incorporated into the solution. In the present study, a database of precipitation profiles and associated brightness temperatures is constructed to serve as a priori information in a passive microwave radiometer algorithm. The precipitation profiles are derived from a Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) combined radar radiometer algorithm, and the brightness temperatures are TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observed. Because the observed brightness temperatures are consistent with those derived from a radiative transfer model embedded in the combined algorithm, the precipitation brightness temperature database is considered to be physically consistent. The database examined here is derived from the analysis of a month-long record of TRMM data that yields more than a million profiles of precipitation and associated brightness temperatures. These profiles are clustered into a tractable number of classes based on the local sea surface temperature, a radiometer-based estimate of the echo-top height (the height beyond which the reflectivity drops below 17 dBZ), and brightness temperature principal components. For each class, the mean precipitation profile, brightness temperature principal components, and probability of occurrence are determined. The precipitation brightness temperature database supports a radiometer-only algorithm that incorporates a Bayesian estimation methodology. In the Bayesian framework, precipitation estimates are weighted averages of the mean precipitation values corresponding to the classes in the database, with the weights being determined according to the similarity between the observed brightness temperature principal

  15. A Model for Estimation of Rain Rate on Tropical Land from TRMM Microwave Imager Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2004-01-01

    Over the tropical land regions observations of the 85 GHz brightness temperature (T(sub 85v)) made by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer when analyzed with the help of rain rate (R(sub pR)) deduced from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) indicate that there are two maxima in rain rate. One strong maximum occurs when T(sub 85) has a value of about 220 K and the other weaker one when T(sub 85v) is much colder approx. 150 K. Together with the help of earlier studies based on airborne Doppler Radar observations and radiative transfer theoretical simulations, we infer the maximum near 220 K is a result of relatively weak scattering due to super cooled rain drops and water coated ice hydrometeors associated with a developing thunderstorm (Cb) that has a strong updraft. The other maximum is associated with strong scattering due to ice particles that are formed when the updraft collapses and the rain from the Cb is transit2oning from convective type to stratiform type. Incorporating these ideas and with a view to improve the estimation of rain rate from existing operational method applicable to the tropical land areas, we have developed a rain retrieval model. This model utilizes two parameters, that have a horizontal scale of approx. 20km, deduced from the TMI measurements at 19, 21 and 37 GHz (T(sub 19v), T(sub 21v), T(sub 37v). The third parameter in the model, namely the horizontal gradient of brightness temperature within the 20 km scale, is deduced from TMI measurements at 85 GHz. Utilizing these parameters our retrieval model is formulated to yield instantaneous rain rate on a scale of 20 km and seasonal average on a mesoscale that agree well with that of the PR.

  16. Improvements to Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer Real-time Tropical Cyclone Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlhorn, E. W.; Klotz, B.

    2012-12-01

    With the installation of C-band stepped frequency microwave radiometers (SFMR) on Air Force Reserve Command WC-130J hurricane reconnaissance aircraft, the SFMR has assumed a prominent role for operational measurement of surface winds, and thus, hurricane intensity estimation. The current SFMR wind retrieval algorithm was developed from GPS dropwindsonde surface wind measurements, and has been successfully implemented across all SFMR-equipped aircraft. The algorithm improvements were specifically targeted at improving surface wind accuracy at hurricane force conditions (> 65 kts, 33 m/s), especially within the eyewall, although the SFMR surface wind vs. emissivity geophysical model function was developed over a broad range of wind speeds (10-140 kts, 5-70 m/s) with the expectation that the hurricane wind field could be readily measured in general. Due to the significant microwave absorption by precipitation, a by-product of the wind retrieval process is an estimate of the path-averaged rain rate (in actuality, the rain water content). An SFMR surface wind speed high bias in strong precipitation has recently been quantified and is particularly evident at weak-to-moderate wind speeds (<65 kts, 33 m/s) and large rain rates (>20 mm/hr), which has important implications for identifying tropical systems at the depression and storm stages, and additionally for observing significant outer wind radii. A major reason for this wind bias is due to an inaccurate rain absorption model that was used to develop the current surface emissivity vs. wind speed geophysical model function. Observations now suggest that the rain-induced absorption is significantly overestimated by the model, resulting in underestimated rain rate values. With the wind speed bias identified, the rain absorption component of the SFMR geophysical model function is addressed to provide an improved rain rate product. This new absorption model is developed by relating SFMR excess brightness temperature

  17. Evaluation of geophysical parameters measured by the Nimbus-7 microwave radiometer for the TOGA Heat Exchange Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Mock, Donald R.

    1986-01-01

    The data distributed by the National Space Science Data Center on the Geophysical parameters of precipitable water, sea surface temperature, and surface-level wind speed, measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus-7, are evaluated with in situ measurements between Jan. 1980 and Oct. 1983 over the tropical oceans. In tracking annual cycles and the 1982-83 E1 Nino/Southern Oscillation episode, the radiometer measurements are coherent with sea surface temperatures and surface-level wind speeds measured at equatorial buoys and with precipitable water derived from radiosonde soundings at tropical island stations. However, there are differences between SMMR and in situ measurements. Corrections based on radiosonde and ship data were derived supplementing correction formulae suggested in the databook. This study is the initial evaluation of the data for quantitative description of the 1982-83 E1 Nino/Southern Oscillation episode. It paves the way for determination of the ocean-atmosphere moisture and latent heat exchanges, a priority of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Heat Exchange Program.

  18. Errors from Rayleigh-Jeans approximation in satellite microwave radiometer calibration systems.

    PubMed

    Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei

    2013-01-20

    The advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a total power radiometer and scans across the track within a range of ±52.77° from nadir. It has 22 channels and measures the microwave radiation at either quasi-vertical or quasi-horizontal polarization from the Earth's atmosphere. The ATMS sensor data record algorithm employed a commonly used two-point calibration equation that derives the earth-view brightness temperature directly from the counts and temperatures of warm target and cold space, and the earth-scene count. This equation is only valid under Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) approximation. Impacts of RJ approximation on ATMS calibration biases are evaluated in this study. It is shown that the RJ approximation used in ATMS radiometric calibration results in errors on the order of 1-2 K. The error is also scene count dependent and increases with frequency.

  19. Soil moisture verification study of the ESTAR microwave radiometer - Walnut Gulch, AZ 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Le Vine, D. M.; Griffis, A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Swift, C. T.; O'Neill, P. E.; Roberts, R. R.; Parry, R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of an electronically steered thinned array L-band radiometer (ESTAR) for soil moisture mapping is investigated over the arid rangeland Walnut Gulch Watershed. Antecedent rainfall and evaporation for the flights are very different and result in a wide range of soil moisture conditions. The high spatial variability of rainfall events within this region results in moisture conditions with dramatic spatial patterns. Sensor performance is verified using two approaches. Microwave data are used in conjunction with a microwave emission model to predict soil moisture. These predictions are compared to ground observations of soil moisture. A second verification is possible using an extensive data set. Both tests showed that the ESTAR is capable of providing soil moisture with the same level of accuracy as existing systems.

  20. Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data and an antecedent precipitation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, G. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear regression analysis between three transforms of the five dual polarized SMMR wavelengths of 0.81, 1.36, 1.66, 2.80 and 4.54 cm and an antecedent precipitation index representing the precipitation history showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 for pixel aggregates of 25-50 km. The use of surface air temperatures to approximate the temperature of the emitting layer was not required to obtain high correlation coefficients between the transforms and the antecedent precipitation index.

  1. Sensor development in the Shuttle era. [infrared temperature sounders and microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerding, R. B.; Mantarakis, P. Z.; Webber, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the Space Shuttle in the development of earth observation sensors is examined. Two sensor classes are selected for case histories: infrared temperature sounders and microwave radiometers. The most significant finding in each of the developmental studies of these two sensor classes is considered to be the feasibility and value of using the Shuttle/Spacelab as a test vehicle for the operation in space of a versatile multimode experimental sensor. The Shuttle Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer and the Shuttle Infrared Interferometer are found to be the most effective instruments in this context. The Shuttle/Spacelab Sortie mission characteristics provide opportunities for new approaches to the development of sensors, using the Shuttle as a test vehicle to improve the efficiency of the process with respect to time, cost, and/or quality of the final product. As for crew functions, the short-term Spacelab mission requires some near real-time evaluation of data quality and sensor function in order to insure efficient data collection.

  2. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Alimenti, Federico; Roselli, Luca; Bonafoni, Stefania

    2016-06-17

    This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows.

  3. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study †

    PubMed Central

    Alimenti, Federico; Roselli, Luca; Bonafoni, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows. PMID:27322280

  4. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  5. Status of VESAS: a fully-electronic microwave imaging radiometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

    2010-04-01

    Present applications of microwave remote sensing systems cover a large variety. One utilisation of the frequency range from 1 - 300 GHz is the domain of security and reconnaissance. Examples are the observation of critical infrastructures or the performance of security checks on people in order to detect concealed weapons or explosives, both being frequent threats in our world of growing international terrorism. The imaging capability of concealed objects is one of the main advantages of microwave remote sensing, because of the penetration performance of electromagnetic waves through dielectric materials in this frequency domain. The main physical effects used in passive microwave sensing rely on the naturally generated thermal radiation and the physical properties of matter, the latter being surface characteristics, chemical and physical composition, and the temperature of the material. As a consequence it is possible to discriminate objects having different material characteristics like ceramic weapons or plastic explosives with respect to the human body. Considering the use of microwave imaging with respect to people scanning systems in airports, railway stations, or stadiums, it is advantageous that passively operating devices generate no exposure on the scanned objects like actively operating devices do. For frequently used security gateways it is additionally important to have a high through-put rate in order to minimize the queue time. Consequently fast imaging systems are necessary. In this regard the conceptual idea of a fully-electronic microwave imaging radiometer system is introduced. The two-dimensional scanning mechanism is divided into a frequency scan in one direction and the method of aperture synthesis in the other. The overall goal here is to design a low-cost, fully-electronic imaging system with a frame rate of around one second at Ka band. This frequency domain around a center frequency of 37 GHz offers a well-balanced compromise between the

  6. Inversion Algorithms for Water Vapor Radiometers Operating at 20.7 and 31.4 Ghz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Eight water vapor radiometers (WVRs) were constructed as research and development tools to support the Advanced System Programs in the Deep Space Network and the Crustal Dynamics Project. These instruments are intended to operate at the stations of the Deep Space Network (DSN), various radio observatories, and obile facilities that participate in very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) experiments. It is expected that the WVRs will operate in a wide range of meteorological conditions. Several algorithms are discussed that are used to estimate the line-of-sight path delay due to water vapor and columnar liquid water rom the observed microwave brightness temperatures provided by the WVRs. In particular, systematic effects due to site and seasonal variations are examined. The accuracy of the estimation as indicated by a simulation calculation is approximately 0.3 cm for a noiseless WVR in clear and moderately cloudy weather. With a realistic noise model of WVR behavior, the inversion accuracy is approximately 0.6 cm.

  7. HMMR (High-Resolution Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer) Earth observing system, volume 2e. Instrument panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations and background are provided for a passive microwave remote sensing system of the future designed to meet the observational needs of Earth scientist in the next decade. This system, called the High Resolution Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (HMMR), is to be part of a complement of instruments in polar orbit. Working together, these instruments will form an Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide the information needed to better understand the fundamental, global scale processes which govern the Earth's environment. Measurements are identified in detail which passive observations in the microwave portion of the spectrum could contribute to an Earth Observing System in polar orbit. Requirements are established, e.g., spatial and temporal resolution, for these measurements so that, when combined with the other instruments in the Earth Observing System, they would yield a data set suitable for understanding the fundamental processes governing the Earth's environment. Existing and/or planned sensor systems are assessed in the light of these requirements, and additional sensor hardware needed to meet these observational requirements are defined.

  8. Global Climate Monitoring with the EOS PM-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning 2 Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called Aqua) in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-II satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM/I and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-II AMSR). The ADEOS-II AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team 3 activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The US Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  9. Wind Retrievals under Rain for Passive Satellite Microwave Radiometers and its Applications to Hurricane Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm that retrieves wind speed under rain using C-hand and X-band channels of passive microwave satellite radiometers. The spectral difference of the brightness temperature signals due to wind or rain allows to find channel combinations that are sufficiently sensitive to wind speed but little or not sensitive to rain. We &ve trained a statistical algorithm that applies under hurricane conditions and is able to measure wind speeds in hurricanes to an estimated accuracy of about 2 m/s. We have also developed a global algorithm, that is less accurate but can be applied under all conditions. Its estimated accuracy is between 2 and 5 mls, depending on wind speed and rain rate. We also extend the wind speed region in our model for the wind induced sea surface emissivity from currently 20 m/s to 40 mls. The data indicate that the signal starts to saturate above 30 mls. Finally, we make an assessment of the performance of wind direction retrievals from polarimetric radiometers as function of wind speed and rain rate

  10. TRMM Microwave Radiometer Rain Rate Estimation Method with Convective and Stratiform Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R.; Weinman, J. A.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer brightness temperature data in the 85 GHz channel (T85) reveal distinct local minima (T85min) in a regional map containing a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). A map of surface rain rate for that region, deduced from simultaneous measurements made by the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the TRMM satellite, reveals that these T85min, produced by scattering, correspond to local PR rain maxima. Utilizing the PR rain rate map as a guide, we have developed a TMI algorithm to retrieve convective and stratiform rain. In this algorithm, two parameters are used to classify three kinds of thunderstorms (Cbs) based on the T85 data: a) the magnitude of scattering depression deduced from local T85mi, and b) the mean horizontal gradient of T85 around such minima. Initially, the algorithm is optimized or tuned utilizing the PR and TMI data of a few MCS events. The areal distribution of light (1-10 mm/hr), moderate (10-20 mm/hr), and intense (greater than or equal to 20 mm/hr) rain rates are retrieved on the average with an accuracy of about 15%. Taking advantage of this ability of our retrieval method, one could derive the latent heat input into the atmosphere over the 760 km wide swath of the TMI radiometer in the tropics.

  11. A conceptual design of a large aperture microwave radiometer geostationary platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garn, Paul A.; Garrison, James L.; Jasinski, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Platform has been developed and technology areas essential to the design and on-orbit viability of the platform have been defined. Those technologies that must be developed to the requirement stated here for the LAMR mission to be viable include: advanced radiation resistant solar cells, integrated complex structures, large segmented reflector panels, sub 3 kg/m(exp 2) areal density large antennas, and electric propulsion systems. Technology areas that require further development to enhance the capabilities of the LAMR platform (but are not essential for viability) include: electrical power storage, on-orbit assembly, and on-orbit systems checkout and correction.

  12. Geosynchronous Microwave Atmospheric Sounding Radiometer (MASR) antenna feasibility study. Volume 3: Antenna feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villeneuve, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Antenna systems capable of operating with a multichannel microwave radiometer intended for mapping severe storm activity over patches on the surface of the earth 750 km square were compared. These systems included a paraboloidal reflector with an offset focal point feed, and a symmetrical Cassegrain reflector system. Both systems are acceptable from the point of view of beam efficiency, however, from the point of view of maintaining the required positional accuracies and surface tolerances, as well as from the point of view of manufacturability, cost effectiveness, and technical risk, the symmetrical Casegrain was selected as the preferred configuration. Performance characteristics were calculated and a mechanical design study was conducted to provide estimates of the technical risk, costs, and development time required for the construction of such an antenna system.

  13. Exploring the Turbulent Urban Boundary by Use of Lidars and Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, Mark; Valerio, Ivan; Neufeld, Stephen; Bishir, Raymond; Wu, Younghu; Moshary, Fred; Melecio-Vazquez, David; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    A Doppler lidar has been developed using fiber optic based technologies and advanced signal processing techniques. Although this system has been operated in a scanning mode in the past, for this application, the system is operated in a vertically pointing mode and delivers a time series of vertical velocity profiles. By cooperating the Doppler lidar with other instruments, including a back scatter lidar, and a microwave radiometer, models of atmospheric stability can be tested, opening up an exciting path for researchers, applied scientists and engineers to discover unique phenomena related to fundamental atmospheric science processes. A consistent set of retrievals between each of these instruments emphasizes the utility for such a network of instruments to better characterize the turbulent atmospheric urban boundary layers which is expected to offer a useful capability for assessing and improving models that are in great need of such ground truth.

  14. Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer /SMMR/ in-orbit performance appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Gatlin, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Calibration and processing techniques enacted during first year of operation of the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) are described. It was found that in-orbit calibration was necessary, as was fine-tuning of the geophysical parameter retrieval parameters to account for anomalies such as lower-than-expected polarization differences in ocean radiances. Phase shifts in the scan angles were corrected in order to avoid polarization mixing. Calibration constants to eliminate cross-talk and phase shift effects were established for radiation reflected from the earth, then averaged over data from 300 orbits to fit points on a sine curve to better than 0.2 K accuracy. An iterative approach was determined to be necessary due to signal anomalies caused by antenna dish oscillations. Global ocean and atmosphere parameters used to construct a radiation model of ten latitude bands are presented for use in radiation transfer equations.

  15. Aquarius L-Band Microwave Radiometer: Three Years of Radiometric Performance and Systematic Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Hong, Liang; Pellerano, Fernando A.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band microwave radiometer is a three-beam pushbroom instrument designed to measure sea surface salinity. Results are analyzed for performance and systematic effects over three years of operation. The thermal control system maintains tight temperature stability promoting good gain stability. The gain spectrum exhibits expected orbital variations with 1f noise appearing at longer time periods. The on-board detection and integration scheme coupled with the calibration algorithm produce antenna temperatures with NEDT 0.16 K for 1.44-s samples. Nonlinearity is characterized before launch and the derived correction is verified with cold-sky calibration data. Finally, long-term drift is discovered in all channels with 1-K amplitude and 100-day time constant. Nonetheless, it is adeptly corrected using an exponential model.

  16. Topical cyclone rainfall characteristics as determined from a satellite passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Adler, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Data from the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR-5) were used to calculate latent heat release and other rainfall parameters for over 70 satellite observations of 21 tropical cyclones in the tropical North Pacific Ocean. The results indicate that the ESMR-5 measurements can be useful in determining the rainfall characteristics of these storms and appear to be potentially useful in monitoring as well as predicting their intensity. The ESMR-5 derived total tropical cyclone rainfall estimates agree favorably with previous estimates for both the disturbance and typhoon stages. The mean typhoon rainfall rate (1.9 mm h(-1)) is approximately twice that of disturbances (1.1 mm h(-1)).

  17. Observations of oceanic surface-wind fields from the Nimbus-7 microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. R.; Geyser, J. E.; Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Brightness temperatures from the five-frequency dual-polarized scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus 7 have been used to obtain surface wind fields over the ocean. The satellite-derived wind field for 1200Z, Feb. 19, 1979, in the eastern North Pacific has been compared with an operationally generated surface-wind analysis field. Previous point comparisons at selected locations have indicated that satellite winds are accurate to 3 m/sec. The results, although of a preliminary nature, indicate that SMMR-derived winds may be used to determine large-scale wind fields over the ocean, particularly in areas of strong wind gradients such as found in cyclonic systems.

  18. Noncosmological signal contributions to the COBE DMR anisotropy maps. [Differential Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Loewenstein, K.; Cheng, E. S.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) data for evidence of noncosmological source contributions. The DMR maps are cross-correlated with maps of rich clusters, extragalactic IRAS sources, HEAO 1 A-2 X-ray emission, and 5 GHz radio sources. We limit the rms contributions from these sources on a 7 deg angular scale to less than 10 micro-K (95 percent confidence level) in the DMR maps, although the LMC probably contributes about 50 micro-K to a limited region of the sky. Thus, our previous interpretation that the fluctuations in the COBE DMR data are most likely due to cosmic fluctuations at the surface of last scattering remains intact. The Comptonization parameter for hot electrons traced by rich clusters is limited to delta(y) less than 2 x 10 exp -6 (95 percent confidence level) averaged over the 7 deg DMR beam.

  19. The correction of aberrations computed in the aperture plane of multifrequency microwave radiometer antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical/numerical approach to identifying and correcting the aberrations introduced by a general displacement of the feed from the focal point of a single offset paraboloid antenna used in deployable radiometer systems is developed. A 15 meter reflector with 18 meter focal length is assumed for the analysis, which considers far field radiation pattern quality, focal region fields, and aberrations appearing in the aperture plane. The latter are obtained by ray tracing in the transmit mode and are expressed in terms of optical notation. Attention is given to the physical restraints imposed on corrective elements by real microwave systems and to the intermediate near field aspects of the problem in three dimensions. The subject of wave fronts and caustics in the receive mode is introduced for comparative purposes. Several specific examples are given for aberration reduction at eight beamwidths of scan at a frequency of 1.414 GHz.

  20. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  1. The Effect of Sea-Surface Sun Glitter on Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple model for the microwave brightness temperature of sea surface Sun glitter is presented. The model is an accurate closeform approximation for the fourfold Sun glitter integral. The model computations indicate that Sun glitter contamination of on orbit radiometer measurements is appreciable over a large swath area. For winds near 20 m/s, Sun glitter affects the retrieval of environmental parameters for Sun angles as large as 20 to 25 deg. The model predicted biases in retrieved wind speed and sea surface temperature due to neglecting Sun glitter are consistent with those experimentally observed in SEASAT SMMR retrievals. A least squares retrieval algorithm that uses a combined sea and Sun model function shows the potential of retrieving accurate environmental parameters in the presence of Sun glitter so long as the Sun angles and wind speed are above 5 deg and 2 m/s, respectively.

  2. The development of a stepped frequency microwave radiometer and its application to remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The design, development, application, and capabilities of a variable frequency microwave radiometer are described. This radiometer demonstrated the versatility, accuracy, and stability required to provide contributions to the geophysical understanding of ocean and ice processes. A closed-loop feedback method was used, whereby noise pulses were added to the received electromagnetic radiation to achieve a null balance in a Dicke switched radiometer. Stability was achieved through the use of a constant temperature enclosure around the low loss microwave front end. The Dicke reference temperature was maintained to an absolute accuracy of 0.1 K using a closed-loop proportional temperature controller. A microprocessor based digital controller operates the radiometer and records the data on computer compatible tapes. This radiometer exhibits an absolute accuracy of better than 0.5 K when the sensitivity is 0.1 K. The sensitivity varies between 0.0125 K and 1.25 K depending upon the bandwidth and integration time selected by the digital controller. Remote sensing experiments were conducted from an aircraft platform and the first radiometeric mapping of an ocean polar front; exploratory experiments to measure the thickness of lake ice; first discrimination between first year and multiyear ice below 10 GHz; and the first known measurements of frequency sensitive characteristics of sea ice.

  3. Detection of the Zeeman effect in atmospheric O2 using a ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Murk, Axel; Larsson, Richard; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the Zeeman effect on stratospheric O2 using ground-based microwave radiometer measurements. The Zeeman effect is a phenomenon which occurs when an external magnetic field interacts with a molecule or an atom of total electron spin different from zero. Such an interaction will split an original energy level into several sub-levels [1]. In the atmosphere, oxygen is an abundant molecule which in its ground electronic state has a permanent magnetic dipole moment coming from two parallel electron spins. The interaction of the magnetic dipole moment with the Earth magnetic field leads to a Zeeman splitting of the O2 rotational transitions which polarizes the emission spectra. A special campaign was carried out in order to measure this effect in the oxygen emission line centered at 53.07 GHz in Bern (Switzerland). The measurements were possible using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectrometer with 1 GHz of band width to measure the whole oxygen emission line centered at 53.07 GHz and a narrow spectrometer (4 MHz) to measure the center of the line with a very high resolution (1 kHz). Both a fixed and a rotating mirror were incorporated to the TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) radiometer in order to be able to measure under different observational angles. This new configuration allowed us to change the angle between the observational path and the Earth magnetic field direction. The measured spectra showed a clear polarized signature when the observational angles were changed evidencing the Zeeman effect in the oxygen molecule. In addition, simulations carried out with the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) [2] allowed us to verify the microwave measurements showing a very good agreement between model and measurements. The incorporation of this effect to the forward model will allow to extend the temperature retrievals beyond 50 km. This improvement in the forward model will be very useful for the assimilation of brightness temperatures in

  4. Global Oceanic Precipitation: A Joint View by TOPEX and the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ge; Chapron, Bertrand; Tournadre, Jean; Katsaros, Kristina; Vandemark, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission offers the first opportunity to observe rain cells over the ocean by a dual-frequency radar altimeter (TOPEX) and simultaneously observe their natural radiative properties by a three-frequency radiometer (TOPEX microwave radiometer (TMR)). This work is a feasibility study aimed at understanding the capability and potential of the active/passive TOPEX/TMR system for oceanic rainfall detection. On the basis of past experiences in rain flagging, a joint TOPEX/TMR rain probability index is proposed. This index integrates several advantages of the two sensors and provides a more reliable rain estimate than the radiometer alone. One year's TOPEX/TMR data are used to test the performance of the index. The resulting rain frequency statistics show quantitative agreement with those obtained from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), while qualitative agreement is found for other regions of the world ocean. A recent finding that the latitudinal frequency of precipitation over the Southern Ocean increases steadily toward the Antarctic continent is confirmed by our result. Annual and seasonal precipitation maps are derived from the index. Notable features revealed include an overall similarity in rainfall pattern from the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Indian Oceans and a general phase reversal between the two hemispheres, as well as a number of regional anomalies in terms of rain intensity. Comparisons with simultaneous Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) multisatellite precipitation rate and COADS rain climatology suggest that systematic differences also exist. One example is that the maximum rainfall in the ITCZ of the Indian Ocean appears to be more intensive and concentrated in our result compared to that of the GPCP. Another example is that the annual precipitation produced by TOPEX/TMR is constantly higher than those from GPCP and COADS in the extratropical regions of the

  5. Statistics and topology of the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year sky maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Tenorio, L.; Banday, A. J.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    We use statistical and topological quantities to test the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) first-year sky maps against the hypothesis that the observed temperature fluctuations reflect Gaussian initial density perturbations with random phases. Recent papers discuss specific quantities as discriminators between Gaussian and non-Gaussian behavior, but the treatment of instrumental noise on the data is largely ignored. The presence of noise in the data biases many statistical quantities in a manner dependent on both the noise properties and the unknown cosmic microwave background temperature field. Appropriate weighting schemes can minimize this effect, but it cannot be completely eliminated. Analytic expressions are presented for these biases, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the best strategy for determining cosmologically interesting information from noisy data. The genus is a robust discriminator that can be used to estimate the power-law quadrupole-normalized amplitude, Qrms-PS, independently of the two-point correlation function. The genus of the DMR data is consistent with Gaussian initial fluctuations with Qrms-PS = (15.7 +/- 2.2) - (6.6 +/- 0.3)(n - 1) micro-K, where n is the power-law index. Fitting the rms temperature variations at various smoothing angles gives Qrms-PS = 13.2 +/- 2.5 micro-K and n = 1.7(+0.3(-0.6)). While consistent with Gaussian fluctuations, the first year data are only sufficient to rule out strongly non-Gaussian distributions of fluctuations.

  6. Snow stratigraphic heterogeneity within ground-based passive microwave radiometer footprints: implications for emission modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandells, M.; Rutter, N.; Derksen, C.; Langlois, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Montpetit, B.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Royer, A.; Toose, P.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing of snow mass remains a challenging area of research. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation is sensitive to snow mass, but is also affected by contrasts in the dielectric properties of the snow. Although the argument that errors from simple algorithms average out at large scales has been used to justify current retrieval methods, it is not obvious why this should be the case. This hypothesis needs to be tested more rigorously. A ground-based field experiment was carried out to assess the impact of sub-footprint snow heterogeneity on microwave brightness temperature, in Churchill, Canada in winter in early 2010. Passive microwave measurements of snow were made using sled-mounted radiometers at 75cm intervals over a 5m transect. Measurements were made at horizontal and vertical polarizations at frequencies of 19 and 37 GHz. Snow beneath the radiometer footprints was subsequently excavated, creating a snow trench wall along the centrepoints of adjacent footprints. The trench wall was carefully smoothed and photographed with a near-infrared camera in order to determine the positions of stratigraphic snow layer boundaries. Three one-dimensional vertical profiles of snowpack properties (density and snow specific surface area) were taken at 75cm, 185cm and 355cm from the left hand side of the trench. These profile measurements were used to derive snow density and grain size for each of the layers identified from the NIR image. Microwave brightness temperatures for the 2-dimensional map of snow properties was simulated with the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) model at 1cm intervals horizontally across the trench. Where each of five ice lenses was identified in the snow stratigraphy, a decrease in brightness temperature was simulated. However, the median brightness temperature simulated across the trench was substantially higher than the observations, of the order of tens of Kelvin, dependent on frequency and polarization. In order to understand and

  7. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  8. Microwave Properties of Ice-Phase Hydrometeors for Radar and Radiometers: Sensitivity to Model Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Benjamin T.; Petty, Grant W.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    A simplied framework is presented for assessing the qualitative sensitivities of computed microwave properties, satellite brightness temperatures, and radar reflectivities to assumptions concerning the physical properties of ice-phase hydrometeors. Properties considered included the shape parameter of a gamma size distribution andthe melted-equivalent mass median diameter D0, the particle density, dielectric mixing formula, and the choice of complex index of refraction for ice. We examine these properties at selected radiometer frequencies of 18.7, 36.5, 89.0, and 150.0 GHz; and radar frequencies at 2.8, 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0 GHz consistent with existing and planned remote sensing instruments. Passive and active microwave observables of ice particles arefound to be extremely sensitive to the melted-equivalent mass median diameter D0 ofthe size distribution. Similar large sensitivities are found for variations in the ice vol-ume fraction whenever the geometric mass median diameter exceeds approximately 1/8th of the wavelength. At 94 GHz the two-way path integrated attenuation is potentially large for dense compact particles. The distribution parameter mu has a relatively weak effect on any observable: less than 1-2 K in brightness temperature and up to 2.7 dB difference in the effective radar reflectivity. Reversal of the roles of ice and air in the MaxwellGarnett dielectric mixing formula leads to a signicant change in both microwave brightness temperature (10 K) and radar reflectivity (2 dB). The choice of Warren (1984) or Warren and Brandt (2008) for the complex index of refraction of ice can produce a 3%-4% change in the brightness temperature depression.

  9. Global Climate Monitoring with the Eos Pm-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called "Aqua") in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-11 satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM[l and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-11 AMSR). The ADEOS-11 AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The U.S. Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Further information about AMSR-E can be obtained at http://www.jzhcc.msfc.nasa.Vov/AMSR.

  10. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project. VI - Spacecraft, scientific instruments, and launching rocket. Part 3 - The electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, Thomas T.; Yamasaki, Hiromichi

    1990-01-01

    The two microwave radiometers for TRMM are designed to measure thermal microwave radiation upwelling from the earth. The Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) scans from 50 deg to the left through nadir to 50 deg to the right in 78 steps with no moving mechanical parts in a band centered at 19.35 GHz. The TRMM concept uses the radar to develop a climatology of rain-layer thickness which can be used for the interpretation of the radiometer data over a swath wider than the radar. The ESMR data are useful for estimating rain intensity only over an ocean background. The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), which scans conically with three dual polarized channels at 19, 37, and 85 GHz and a single polarized channel at 22 GHz, provides a wider range of rainfall intensities. The SSM/I spins about an axis parallel to the local spacecraft vector and 128 uniformly spaced samples of the 85 GHz data are taken on each scan over a 112-deg scan region simultaneously with 64 samples of the other frequencies.

  11. The Capability of Microwave Radiometers In Retrieving Soil Moisture Profiles Using A Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macelloni, G.; Paloscia, S.; Santi, E.; Tedesco, M.

    Hydrological models require the knowledge of land surface parameters like soil mois- ture and snow properties with a large spatial distribution and high temporal frequency. Whilst conventional methods are unable to satisfy the constraints of space and time estimation of these parameters, the use of remote sensing data represents a real im- provement. In particular the potential of data collected by microwave radiometers at low frequencies to extract soil moisture has been clearly demonstrated in several pa- pers. However, the penetration power into the soil depends on frequency and, whereas L-band is able to estimate the moisture of a relatively thick soil layer, higher frequen- cies are only sensitive to the moisture of soil layer closer to the surface. This remark leads to the hypothesis that multifrequency observations could be able to retrieve a soil moisture profile. In several experiments carried out both on agricultural fields and on samples of soil in a tank, by using the IROE multifrequency microwave radiometers, the effect of moisture and surface roughness on different frequencies was studied. From this experiments the capability of L-band in measuring the moisture of a soil layer of several centimeters, in the order of the wavelength, was confirmed, as well the sensitivity to the moisture of the first centimeters layer at C- and X-bands, and the one of the very first layer of smooth soil at Ka-band. Using an electromagnetic model (Integral Equation Model, IEM) the brightness temperatures as a function of the in- cidence angle were computed at 1.4, 6, 10, and 37 GHz for different soil moisture profiles and different surface roughness. A particular consideration was dedicated to the latter parameter, since, especially at Ka band, surface roughness strongly affects the emission and masks the effect of moisture. Different soil moisture profiles have been tested: increasing and decreasing with depth and also constant for sandy and sandy-loam soils. After this

  12. Rock infromation of the moon revealed by multi-channel microwave radiometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guo-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Chun; Chan, Kwing Lam; Xu, Ao-Ao; This work is supported by Science and Technology Development Fund in Macao SAR 048/2012/A2 and 039/2013/A2, and the NSFC program (41490633). The CE data was supported by the Key Laboratory of Lunar and Deep Space Exploration (2013DP173157), National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.

    2016-10-01

    Rock abundance on lunar surface is an important consideration for understanding the physical properties of the Moon. With the deeper penetration power of the microwave, data from Chang'E (CE) multichannel (3.0-, 7.8-, 19.35-, and 37-GHz) microwave radiometer (MRM) are used to constrain the rock distribution on the Moon. The contrasting thermo-physical properties between rocks and regolith fines cause multiple brightness temperature (TB) to be present within the field of view of CE microwave data. But these variations could be easily masked by the more significant effect of ilmenite on TB, especially in the mare regions which are rich in ilmenite.To highlight the rock effect in TB, the diurnal TB difference, which has the effect of enlarging the TB difference caused by the rock abundance and reducing the absolute error of the CE microwave data, is considered here. The rock information in TB data is distinguished from the ilmenite effect by comparing the diurnal TB difference with a statistical TB model of the mare regions which are relatively low in rock abundance. The employed statistical TB model is a polynomial fitting formula between the selected CE TB data from mare regions and the corresponding TiO2 content data from Clementine UVVIS data. The correlation coefficients of the polynomial fit between TB and TiO2 content are 0.94 at lunar daytime and 0.84 at lunar nighttime, respectively. This polynomial fit forms an approximated relationship between the TiO2 content and TB when rock abundance is zero, with a standard error determined from the regression procedure.Based on the TiO2 map retrieved from Clementine UVVIS data, the TB map that is deflated to a lower TiO2 content shows a distribution trend similar to the rock abundance map retrieved by LRO data, except for the mare regions at the nearside of the Moon. The bigger diurnal TB difference in the mare regions could be either caused by the rich ilmenite rocks or the smaller rocks which cannot be recognized by

  13. Microwave backscatter and emission observed from Shuttle Imaging Radar B and an airborne 1.4 GHz radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schiue, J. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Engman, E. T.; Mo, T.; Lawrence, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A soil moisture experiment conducted with the Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) is reported. SIR-B operated at 1.28 GHz provided the active microwave measurements, while a 4-beam pushbroom 1.4 GHz radiometer gave the complementary passive microwave measurements. The aircraft measurements were made at an altitude of 330 m, resulting in a ground resolution cell of about 100 m diameter. SIR-B ground resolution from 225 km was about 35 m. More than 150 agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California were examined in the experiment. The effect of surface roughness height on radar backscatter and radiometric measurements was studied.

  14. Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps

    SciTech Connect

    Lineweaver, Charles Howe

    1994-08-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than ~20° is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9σ, > 10σ and > 18σ above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60° due to the 60° separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60° is 0.45%$+0.18\\atop{-0.14}$ of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  15. Snow stratigraphic heterogeneity within ground-based passive microwave radiometer footprints: Implications for emission modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Nick; Sandells, Mel; Derksen, Chris; Toose, Peter; Royer, Alain; Montpetit, Benoit; Langlois, Alex; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional measurements of snowpack properties (stratigraphic layering, density, grain size, and temperature) were used as inputs to the multilayer Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) microwave emission model at a centimeter-scale horizontal resolution, across a 4.5 m transect of ground-based passive microwave radiometer footprints near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Snowpack stratigraphy was complex (between six and eight layers) with only three layers extending continuously throughout the length of the transect. Distributions of one-dimensional simulations, accurately representing complex stratigraphic layering, were evaluated using measured brightness temperatures. Large biases (36 to 68 K) between simulated and measured brightness temperatures were minimized (-0.5 to 0.6 K), within measurement accuracy, through application of grain scaling factors (2.6 to 5.3) at different combinations of frequencies, polarizations, and model extinction coefficients. Grain scaling factors compensated for uncertainty relating optical specific surface area to HUT effective grain size inputs and quantified relative differences in scattering and absorption properties of various extinction coefficients. The HUT model required accurate representation of ice lenses, particularly at horizontal polarization, and large grain scaling factors highlighted the need to consider microstructure beyond the size of individual grains. As variability of extinction coefficients was strongly influenced by the proportion of large (hoar) grains in a vertical profile, it is important to consider simulations from distributions of one-dimensional profiles rather than single profiles, especially in sub-Arctic snowpacks where stratigraphic variability can be high. Model sensitivity experiments suggested that the level of error in field measurements and the new methodological framework used to apply them in a snow emission model were satisfactory. Layer amalgamation showed that a three

  16. Push broom microwave radiometer observations of surface soil moisture in Monsoon '90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T.; Jackson, T. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Roberts, R.; Parry, R.; Goodrich, D. C.; Amer, S. A.; Weltz, M. A.

    1994-05-01

    The push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR) was flown on six flights of the NASA C-130 to map the surface soil moisture over the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch experimental watershed in southeastern Arizona. The PBMR operates at a wavelength of 21 cm and has four horizontally polarized beams which cover a swath of 1.2 times the aircraft altitude. By flying a series of parallel flight lines it was possible to map the microwave brightness temperature (TB), and thus the soil moisture, over a large area. In this case the area was approximately 8 by 20 km. The moisture conditions ranged from very dry, <2% by volume, to quite wet, >15%, after a heavy rain. The rain amounts ranged from less than 10 mm to more than 50 mm over the area mapped with the PBMR. With the PBMR we were able to observe the spatial variations of the rain amounts and the temporal variation as the soil dried. The TB values were registered to a Universal Transverse Mercator grid so that they could be compared to the rain gage readings and to the ground measurements of soil moisture in the 0- to 5-cm layer. The decreases in TB were well correlated with the rainfall amounts, R2 = 0.9, and the comparison of Tg with soil moisture was also good with an R2 of about 0.8. For the latter, there was some dependence of the relation on location, which may be due to soil or vegetation variations over the area mapped. The application of these data to runoff forecasts and flux estimates will be discussed.

  17. Statistics and topology of the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year sky maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Tenorio, L.; Banday, A. J.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    We use statistical and topological quantities to test the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) first-year sky maps against the hypothesis that the observed temperature fluctuations reflect Gaussian initial density perturbations with random phases. Recent papers discuss specific quantities as discriminators between Gaussian and non-Gaussian behavior, but the treatment of instrumental noise on the data is largely ignored. The presence of noise in the data biases many statistical quantities in a manner dependent on both the noise properties and the unknown cosmic microwave background temperature field. Appropriate weighting schemes can minimize this effect, but it cannot be completely eliminated. Analytic expressions are presented for these biases, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the best strategy for determining cosmologically interesting information from noisy data. The genus is a robust discriminator that can be used to estimate the power-law quadrupole-normalized amplitude, Q(sub rms-PS), independently of the two-point correlation function. The genus of the DMR data is consistent with Gaussian initial fluctuations with Q(sub rms-PS) = (15.7 +/- 2.2) - (6.6 +/- 0.3)(n - 1) micro-K, where n is the power-law index. Fitting the rms temperature variations at various smoothing angles gives Q(sub rms-PS) = 13.2 +/- 2.5 micro-K and n = 1.7(sup (+0.3) sub (-0.6)). While consistent with Gaussian fluctuations, the first year data are only sufficient to rule out strongly non-Gaussian distributions of fluctuations.

  18. The New Version of Brightness Temperature Product of Microwave Radiometer AMSR2 onboard GCOM-W1 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takashi; Imaoka, Keiji; Kasahara, Marehito

    2015-04-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission 1st - Water) satellite on 17 May 2012 (UT). The main mission of the GCOM-W1 satellite is to monitor the global water cycle, for which it has onboard the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR2). The AMSR2 has multifrequency microwave receivers, and like many other satellite-borne microwave radiometers currently in orbit, its multifrequency feedhorns share a single rotating antenna dish. Because AMSR2 is designed to make a sharp antenna beam for each frequency, the FOV (field of view) size of each frequency differs substantially from one another: the higher the frequency, the smaller the FOV size. Therefore, the multifrequency data (brightness temperature, TB) represent responses of areas quite different from one another, even if the multifrequency TB values are obtained by the same measurement. Lack of consideration of the difference in FOV sizes will be an important reason for the deterioration of the accuracy of geophysical values retrieved from multifrequency TB values. To solve this problem, we can consider to replicate a large FOV of low-target frequency by adequately summing small FOV of high-source frequency spreading within it. One way to achieve this is with the Backus-Gilbert (BG) method, and there have been many studies related to this issue. The BG method provides a way to calculate the intensities for small-source FOVs to replicate a large-target FOV as accurately as possible. TB values that correspond to source FOVs (source TB values) are averaged using these intensities as weighting coefficients. Thus, the TB synthesized from the source TB values, i.e., the weighted mean of the source TB values becomes equivalent to the source frequency's TB measured by a target FOV. The source frequency's synthesized TB and the target frequency's TB enable us to evaluate more accurately the difference in the microwave emission characteristics between the two

  19. Attitude angle effects on Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer radiances and geophysical parameter retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, Daniel S.; Han, Daesoo

    1989-01-01

    The attitude of the Nimbus-7 spacecraft has varied significantly over its lifetime. A summary of the orbital and long-term behavior of the attitude angles and the effects of attitude variations on Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures is presented. One of the principal effects of these variations is to change the incident angle at which the SMMR views the Earth's surface. The brightness temperatures depend upon the incident angle sensitivities of both the ocean surface emissivity and the atmospheric path length. Ocean surface emissivity is quite sensitive to incident angle variation near the SMMR incident angle, which is about 50 degrees. This sensitivity was estimated theoretically for a smooth ocean surface and no atmosphere. A 1-degree increase in the angle of incidence produces a 2.9 C increase in the retrieved sea surface temperature and a 5.7 m/sec decrease in retrieved sea surface wind speed. An incident angle correction is applied to the SMMR radiances before using them in the geophysical parameter retrieval algorithms. The corrected retrieval data is compared with data obtained without applying the correction.

  20. Comments on the statistical analysis of excess variance in the COBE differential microwave radiometer maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Tenorio, L.; Lineweaver, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Lubin, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic anisotrophy produces an excess variance sq sigma(sub sky) in the Delta maps produced by the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) on cosmic background explorer (COBE) that is over and above the instrument noise. After smoothing to an effective resolution of 10 deg, this excess sigma(sub sky)(10 deg), provides an estimate for the amplitude of the primordial density perturbation power spectrum with a cosmic uncertainty of only 12%. We employ detailed Monte Carlo techniques to express the amplitude derived from this statistic in terms of the universal root mean square (rms) quadrupole amplitude, (Q sq/RMS)(exp 0.5). The effects of monopole and dipole subtraction and the non-Gaussian shape of the DMR beam cause the derived (Q sq/RMS)(exp 0.5) to be 5%-10% larger than would be derived using simplified analytic approximations. We also investigate the properties of two other map statistics: the actual quadrupole and the Boughn-Cottingham statistic. Both the sigma(sub sky)(10 deg) statistic and the Boughn-Cottingham statistic are consistent with the (Q sq/RMS)(exp 0.5) = 17 +/- 5 micro K reported by Smoot et al. (1992) and Wright et al. (1992).

  1. Evolution of Mesoscale Convective System over the South Western Peninsular India: Observations from Microwave Radiometer and Simulations using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Sijikumar, S.; Renju, R.; Tinu, K. A.; Raju, Suresh C.

    2012-07-01

    Meso-scale Convective Systems (MCS) are important in view of their large cumulous build-up, vertical extent, short horizontal extent and associated thundershowers. The Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) over the equatorial coastal station Thiruvanathapuram (Trivandrum, 8.55oN, 76.9oE), has been utilized to understand the genesis of Mesoscale convective system (MCS), that occur frequently during the pre-monsoon season. Examination of the measurement of relative humidity, temperature and cloud liquid water measurements, over the zenith and two scanning elevation angles (15o) viewing both over the land and the sea respectively revealed that the MCS generally originate over the land during early afternoon hours, propagate seawards over the observational site and finally dissipate over the sea, with accompanying rainfall and latent heat release. The simulations obtained using Advanced Research-Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model effectively reproduces the thermodynamical and microphysical properties of the MCS. The time duration and quantity of rainfall obtained by the simulations also well compared with the observations. Analysis also suggests that wind shear in the upper troposphere is responsible for the growth and the shape of the convective cloud.

  2. Initial results in the development of a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; Kao, Michael; Tanner, Alan B.; Swift, Calvin T.; Griffis, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    A radiometer that measures the complex correlation of the voltage from pairs of antennas at many different baselines is being developed. Each baseline produces a sample point in the Fourier transform of the scene, and a map of the scene is obtained after all measurements have been made by inverting the transform. A substantial reduction in the antenna collecting area required compared to a conventional imaging radiometer can be obtained in this manner. An aircraft prototype being developed is a hybrid which uses real aperture antennas to obtain resolution along-track (stick antennas) and uses aperture synthesis to obtain resolution across-track. The prototype was flight-tested aboard the NASA P-3 in June 1988. During this flight a map was made of the Delmarva Peninsula south of NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. This initial map shows the major land/water features and compares very favorably with a Landsat image of the area, suggesting a bright outlook for the development of this technique in the future.

  3. Water Vapor Radiometer for ALMA: Optical Design and Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednichenko, S.; Emrich, A.; Peacocke, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atacama Large Millimeter wave Array (ALMA) is being built at a high altitude Atacama Desert in Chile. It will consist of 50 12m telescopes with heterodyne instruments to cover a large frequency range from about 30GHz to nearly 1THz. In order to facilitate the interferometer mode of operation all receivers have to be phase synchronized. It will be accomplished by phase locking of all local oscillators from a single reference source. However, a noticeable part of the phase error is caused as the signal propagates through the Earth atmosphere. Since this effect originates from the fluctuations of water vapors, it can be accounted for by carefully measuring the spectral width of one of water vapor resonance absorption lines. This will be done with a submillimeter heterodyne radiometer, Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR). WVR will measure the sky brightness temperature in the beam path of every telescope across the 183GHz water line with a spectral resolution of about 1GHz. Accuracy of the calculated optical delay is determined by the combination of the radiometric accuracy of the WVR and of the errors originated in the WVR illumination of the telescope. We will describe major challenges in the design of the WVR to comply with the stringent requirements set to the WVR. Several approaches to simulate the quasioptical waveguide which brings the signal from the telescope's subreflector to the mixer horn, were used: fundamental mode Gaussian beam propagation, combined ray tracing with diffraction effects (using package ZEMAX), and a full vector electromagnetic simulations (using GRASP). The computational time increases rapidly from the first method to the last one. We have found that ZEMAX results are quite close to the one from GRASP, however obtained with nearly instant computation, which allows multiple iterations during system optimization. The beam pattern of the WVR and of WVR with the optical Relay (used to bring the signal from the telescope's main axis to the WVR input

  4. Global measurements of sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric water content from satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Swanson, L.

    1983-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) was launched on the Seasat and Nimbus 7 satellites in 1978. The SMMR has the ability to measure sea surface temperature and wind speed with the aid of microwaves. In addition, the instrument was designed to measure water vapor and cloud liquid water with better spatial resolution than previous microwave radiometers, and to make sea-ice measurements with higher precision. A description is presented of the results of global analyses of sea surface temperature, wind speed, water vapor, and cloud liquid water, taking into account data provided by the SMMR on the Seasat satellite. It is found that the SMMR data show good self-consistency, and can usefully measure global distributions of sea surface temperatures, surface winds, water vapor, and cloud liquid water.

  5. Chang'E Microwave Radiometer Data Calibration with LRO Diviner Data and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Ken; Hu, Guo-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Chun; This work is supported by BNU-HKBU United International College Research Grant R201626, Zhuhai Premier Discipline Enhancement Grant code: R1050, and Science and Technology Development Fund in Macao SAR 039/2013/A2

    2016-10-01

    Following usual practice in microwave remote sensing, raw data from multi-channel microwave radiometers (MR) onboard the Chinese Chang'E lunar obiters (CE1 & CE2) were acquired as observed antenna voltages, which were then calibrated and converted to brightness temperatures (TB) by a two-point calibration procedure. While the CE cold calibration antenna is supposed to point to the deep space and taking data for the cold reference point in the two-point calibration scheme, in reality, it picked up undesirable thermal microwave radiation from the lunar surface. Thus the "cold" reference point is not exactly the 2.7K cosmic background assumed and this affects the quality of the calibration.In this work, the small but puzzling differences between the two sets of Level 2C MR data released for CE1 & 2 are attributed to the difference in orbital altitudes between CE1 & 2. This leads to the different degrees of contamination to the cold antenna on CE1 & 2 by thermal radiations from the lunar surface, which showed up as persistent lower night-time TB values in the Level 2C CE2 dataset.We proposed a machine learning approach applied directly to pre-Level 2C data in the voltages to TB convertion process. Since all the antenna voltage data as well as the high temperature referencing point in the calibration procedure are directly measurable, optimized regression algorithms have been employed to determine the effective low temperature referencing points and obtain a single set of statistical consistent TB by combining raw data from CE1 & 2, due to the fact that seasonal variations are less than resolution of the CE MR data from low to medium latitudes.Finally, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner IR data are used as constraints on the boundary condition of the top layer regolith temperature to obtain a consistent sub-surface temperature profile, from which the measured CE MR data can be computed through multi-layer radiation transfer model. This step removes most of

  6. A TRMM Microwave Radiometer Rain Rate Estimation Method with Convective and Stratiform Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Weinman, J. A.; Dalu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer brightness temperature data in the 85 GHz channel (T85) reveal distinct local minima (T85min) in a regional map containing a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). This is because of relatively small footprint size (approximately 5.5 km) and strong extinction properties in this channel of the TMI. A map of surface rain rate for that region, deduced from simultaneous measurements made by the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the TRMM satellite, reveals that these T85(sub min), produced by scattering, correspond to local PR rain maxima. Utilizing the PR rain rate map as a guide, we infer empirically from TMI data the presence of three different kinds of thunderstorms or Cbs. These Cbs are classified as young, mature, and decaying types, and are assumed to have a scale of about 20 km on the average. Two parameters are used to classify these three kinds of Cbs based on the T85 data: a) the magnitude of scattering depression deduced from local T85(sub min) and b) the mean horizontal gradient of T85 around such minima. Knowing the category of a given Cb, we can estimate the rain rate associated with it. Such estimation is done with the help of relationships linking T85min to rain rate in each Cb type. Similarly, a weak background rain rate in all the areas where T85 is less than 260 K is deduced with another relationship linking T85 to rain rate. In our rain retrieval model, this background rain constitutes stratiform rain where the Cbs are absent. Initially, these relationships are optimized or tuned utilizing the PR and TMI data of a few MCS events. After such tuning, the model is applied to independent MCS cases. The areal distribution of light (1-10 mm/hr), moderate (10-20 mm/hr), and intense (>= 20 mm/hr) rain rates are retrieved satisfactorily. Accuracy in the estimates of the light, moderate, and intense rain areas and the mean rain rates associated with such areas in these independent MCS

  7. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important element for weather and climate prediction, hydrological sciences, and applications. Hence, measurements of this hydrologic variable are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes, ecosystem functions, and the linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles (Srivastava et al. 2013). The retrieval of soil moisture depends not only on parameterizations in the retrieval algorithm but also on the soil dielectric mixing models used (Behari 2005). Although a number of soil dielectric mixing models have been developed, testing these models for soil moisture retrieval has still not been fully explored, especially with SMAP-like simulators. The main objective of this work focuses on testing different dielectric models for soil moisture retrieval using the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) ground-based L-band simulator developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and George Washington University (O'Neill et al., 2006). The ComRAD system was deployed during a field experiment in 2012 in order to provide long active/passive measurements of two crops under controlled conditions during an entire growing season. L-band passive data were acquired at a look angle of 40 degree from nadir at both horizontal & vertical polarization. Currently, there are many dielectric models available for soil moisture retrieval; however, four dielectric models (Mironov, Dobson, Wang & Schmugge and Hallikainen) were tested here and found to be promising for soil moisture retrieval (some with higher performances). All the above-mentioned dielectric models were integrated with Single Channel Algorithms using H (SCA-H) and V (SCA-V) polarizations for the soil moisture retrievals. All the ground-based observations were collected from test site-United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) OPE3, located a few miles away from NASA GSFC. Ground truth data were collected using a theta probe and in situ sensors which were then used for validation. Analysis

  8. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) Data Processing and Development of Water Vapor Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, L. Aron

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the final report of the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) Data Processing and Development of Water Vapor Retrieval Algorithms. Volumes of radiometric data have been collected using airborne MIR measurements during a series of field experiments since May 1992. Calibrated brightness temperature data in MIR channels are now available for studies of various hydrological parameters of the atmosphere and Earth's surface. Water vapor retrieval algorithms using multichannel MIR data input are developed for the profiling of atmospheric humidity. The retrieval algorithms are also extended to do three-dimensional mapping of moisture field using continuous observation provided by airborne sensor MIR or spaceborne sensor SSM/T-2. Validation studies for water vapor retrieval are carried out through the intercomparison of collocated and concurrent measurements using different instruments including lidars and radiosondes. The developed MIR water vapor retrieval algorithm is capable of humidity profiling under meteorological conditions ranging from clear column to moderately cloudy sky. Simulative water vapor retrieval studies using extended microwave channels near 183 and 557 GHz strong absorption lines indicate feasibility of humidity profiling to layers in the upper troposphere and improve the overall vertical resolution through the atmosphere.

  9. Spectroscopy underlying microwave remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a spectroscopist's view on the problem of recovery of the atmosphere humidity profile using modern microwave radiometers. Fundamental equations, including the description of their limitations, related to modeling of atmospheric water vapor absorption are given. A review of all reported to date experimental studies aimed at obtaining corresponding numerical parameters is presented. Best estimates of these parameters related to the Voigt (Lorentz, Gross, Van Vleck - Weisskopf and other equivalent) profile based modeling of the 22- and 183-GHz water vapor diagnostic lines and to non-resonance absorption as well as corresponding uncertainties are made on the basis of their comparative analysis.

  10. Design and development of a multibeam 1.4 GHz pushbroom microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, R. F.; Hearn, C. P.; Wells, J. G.; Stanley, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a multiple beam, digital signal processing radiometer are discussed. The discussion includes a brief description of each major subsystem and an overall explanation of the hardware requirements and operation. A series of flight tests was conducted in which sea-truth sites, as well as an existing radiometer were used to verify the Pushbroom Radiometer performance. The results of these tests indicate that the Pushbroom Radiometer did meet the sensitivity design goal of 1.0 kelvin, and exceeded the accuracy requirement of 2.0 kelvin. Additional performance characteristics and test results are also presented.

  11. Integrating a Microwave Radiometer into Radar Hardware for Simultaneous Data Collection Between the Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This

  12. A Texture-Polarization Method for Estimating Convective/Stratiform Precipitation Area Coverage from Passive Microwave Radiometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Hong, Ye; Kummerow, Christian D.; Turk, Joseph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Observational and modeling studies have described the relationships between convective/stratiform rain proportion and the vertical distributions of vertical motion, latent heating, and moistening in mesoscale convective systems. Therefore, remote sensing techniques which can quantify the relative areal proportion of convective and stratiform, rainfall can provide useful information regarding the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in these systems. In the present study, two methods for deducing the convective/stratiform areal extent of precipitation from satellite passive microwave radiometer measurements are combined to yield an improved method. If sufficient microwave scattering by ice-phase precipitating hydrometeors is detected, the method relies mainly on the degree of polarization in oblique-view, 85.5 GHz radiances to estimate the area fraction of convective rain within the radiometer footprint. In situations where ice scattering is minimal, the method draws mostly on texture information in radiometer imagery at lower microwave frequencies to estimate the convective area fraction. Based upon observations of ten convective systems over ocean and nine systems over land, instantaneous 0.5 degree resolution estimates of convective area fraction from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM TMI) are compared to nearly coincident estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR). The TMI convective area fraction estimates are slightly low-biased with respect to the PR, with TMI-PR correlations of 0.78 and 0.84 over ocean and land backgrounds, respectively. TMI monthly-average convective area percentages in the tropics and subtropics from February 1998 exhibit the greatest values along the ITCZ and in continental regions of the summer (southern) hemisphere. Although convective area percentages. from the TMI are systematically lower than those from the PR, monthly rain patterns derived from the TMI and PR rain algorithms are very similar

  13. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  14. Detection of Rain-on-Snow (ROS) Events Using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. M.; Brucker, L.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter months, the occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events can impact snow stratigraphy via generation of large scale ice crusts, e.g., on or within the snowpack. The formation of such layers significantly alters the electromagnetic response of the snowpack, which can be witnessed using space-based microwave radiometers. In addition, ROS layers can hinder the ability of wildlife to burrow in the snow for vegetation, which limits their foraging capability. A prime example occurred on 23 October 2003 in Banks Island, Canada, where an ROS event is believed to have caused the deaths of over 20,000 musk oxen. Through the use of passive microwave remote sensing, ROS events can be detected by utilizing observed brightness temperatures (Tb) from AMSR-E. Tb observed at different microwave frequencies and polarizations depends on snow properties. A wet snowpack formed from an ROS event yields a larger Tb than a typical dry snowpack would. This phenomenon makes observed Tb useful when detecting ROS events. With the use of data retrieved from AMSR-E, in conjunction with observations from ground-based weather station networks, a database of estimated ROS events over the past twelve years was generated. Using this database, changes in measured Tb following the ROS events was also observed. This study adds to the growing knowledge of ROS events and has the potential to help inform passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals or snow cover properties in polar regions.

  15. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  16. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; ...

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore » and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  17. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Han, D.; Won, H.-Y.; Morris, V.

    2014-09-01

    For a better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of the clear sky condition. It is designated as cloud free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm a cloud free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully screened out by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are screened out by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for 6 months, from January 2013 to June 2013. The overall proportion correct is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of failures occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not detect, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  18. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, V.

    2015-02-01

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  19. Forecast indices from a ground-based microwave radiometer for operational meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, D.; Nelson, M.; Güldner, J.; Ware, R.

    2015-01-01

    Today, commercial microwave radiometer profilers (MWRPs) are robust and unattended instruments providing real-time, accurate atmospheric observations at ~ 1 min temporal resolution under nearly all weather conditions. Common commercial units operate in the 20-60 GHz frequency range and are able to retrieve profiles of temperature, vapour density, and relative humidity. Temperature and humidity profiles retrieved from MWRP data are used here to feed tools developed for processing radiosonde observations to obtain values of forecast indices (FIs) commonly used in operational meteorology. The FIs considered here include K index, total totals, KO index, Showalter index, T1 gust, fog threat, lifted index, S index (STT), Jefferson index, microburst day potential index (MDPI), Thompson index, TQ index, and CAPE (convective available potential energy). Values of FIs computed from radiosonde and MWRP-retrieved temperature and humidity profiles are compared in order to quantitatively demonstrate the level of agreement and the value of continuous FI updates. This analysis is repeated for two sites at midlatitude, the first one located at low altitude in central Europe (Lindenberg, Germany) and the second one located at high altitude in North America (Whistler, Canada). It is demonstrated that FIs computed from MWRPs well correlate with those computed from radiosondes, with the additional advantage of nearly continuous updates. The accuracy of MWRP-derived FIs is tested against radiosondes, taken as a reference, showing different performances depending upon index and environmental situation. Overall, FIs computed from MWRP retrievals agree well with radiosonde values, with correlation coefficients usually above 0.8 (with few exceptions). We conclude that MWRP retrievals can be used to produce meaningful FIs, with the advantage (with respect to radiosondes) of nearly continuous updates.

  20. Forecast indices from ground-based microwave radiometer for operational meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, D.; Nelson, M.; Güldner, J.; Ware, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today, commercial microwave radiometers profilers (MWRP) are robust and unattended instruments providing real time accurate atmospheric observations at ~ 1 min temporal resolution under nearly all-weather conditions. Common commercial units operate in the 20-60 GHz frequency range and are able to retrieve profiles of temperature, vapour density, and relative humidity. Temperature and humidity profiles retrieved from MWRP data are used here to feed tools developed for processing radiosonde observations to obtain values of forecast indices (FI) commonly used in operational meteorology. The FI considered here include K index, Total Totals, KO index, Showalter index, T1 Gust, Fog Threat, Lifted Index, S Index (STT), Jefferson Index, MDPI, Thompson Index, TQ Index, and CAPE. Values of FI computed from radiosonde and MWRP-retrieved temperature and humidity profiles are compared in order to quantitatively demonstrate the level of agreement and the value of continuous FI updates. This analysis is repeated for two sites at midlatitude, the first one located at low altitude in Central Europe (Lindenberg, Germany), while the second one located at high altitude in North America (Whistler, Canada). It is demonstrated that FI computed from MWRP well correlate with those computed from radiosondes, with the additional advantage of nearly continuous update. The accuracy of MWRP-derived FI is tested against radiosondes, taken as a reference, showing different performances depending upon index and environmental situation. Overall, FI computed from MWRP retrievals agree well with radiosonde values, with correlation coefficients usually above 0.8 (with few exceptions). We conclude that MWRP retrievals can be used to produce meaningful FI, with the advantage (with respect to radiosondes) of nearly continuous update.

  1. RTTOV-gb - adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer a new capability to provide continuous observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer. Thus, they are potential candidates to supplement radiosonde network and satellite data to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through a variational assimilation of their data. However in order to assimilate MWR observations, a fast radiative transfer model is required and such a model is not currently available. This is necessary for going from the model state vector space to the observation space at every observation point. The fast radiative transfer model RTTOV is well accepted in the NWP community, though it was developed to simulate satellite observations only. In this work, the RTTOV code has been modified to allow for simulations of ground-based upward-looking microwave sensors. In addition, the tangent linear, adjoint, and K-modules of RTTOV have been adapted to provide Jacobians (i.e., the sensitivity of observations to the atmospheric thermodynamical state) for ground-based geometry. These modules are necessary for the fast minimization of the cost function in a variational assimilation scheme. The proposed ground-based version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, has been validated against accurate and less time-efficient line-by-line radiative transfer models. In the frequency range commonly used for temperature and humidity profiling (22-60 GHz), root-mean-square brightness temperature differences are smaller than typical MWR uncertainties (˜ 0.5 K) at all channels used in this analysis. Brightness temperatures (TBs) computed with RTTOV-gb from radiosonde profiles have been compared with nearly simultaneous and co-located ground-based MWR observations. Differences between simulated and measured TBs are below 0.5 K for all channels except for the water vapor band, where most of the uncertainty comes from instrumental errors. The Jacobians calculated with the K-module of RTTOV

  2. Investigation of antenna pattern constraints for passive geosynchronous microwave imaging radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Skofronick, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress by investigators at Georgia Tech in defining the requirements for large space antennas for passive microwave Earth imaging systems is reviewed. In order to determine antenna constraints (e.g., the aperture size, illumination taper, and gain uncertainty limits) necessary for the retrieval of geophysical parameters (e.g., rain rate) with adequate spatial resolution and accuracy, a numerical simulation of the passive microwave observation and retrieval process is being developed. Due to the small spatial scale of precipitation and the nonlinear relationships between precipitation parameters (e.g., rain rate, water density profile) and observed brightness temperatures, the retrieval of precipitation parameters are of primary interest in the simulation studies. Major components of the simulation are described as well as progress and plans for completion. The overall goal of providing quantitative assessments of the accuracy of candidate geosynchronous and low-Earth orbiting imaging systems will continue under a separate grant.

  3. Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

    2012-11-01

    More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g. antenna beam width, receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the earth and refractivity) on the scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases as differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are not so important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable. The impact of the antenna beam width is higher than the receiver bandwidth, but, for V-band where they are of similar importance. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapor, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapor are associated with the beam width errors.

  4. Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

    2013-05-01

    More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g., antenna beam width and receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the Earth and vertical gradient of refractive index) on scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases. These biases are estimated using differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are less important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable at these frequencies. The biases caused by omitting the antenna beam width in measurement simulations are larger than those caused by omitting the receiver bandwidth, except for V-band where the bandwidth may be more important in the vicinity of absorption peaks. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapour, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapour are associated with the beam width errors.

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  6. Implementation of an orographic/nonorographic rainfall classification scheme in the GSMaP algorithm for microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Munehisa K.; Shige, Shoichi

    2015-09-01

    We incorporate an orographic/nonorographic rainfall classification scheme into the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation algorithm for passive microwave radiometers. It improves rainfall estimation over the entire Asian region. However, low verification scores over the United States and Mexico result because vertical profiles of rainfall over the Sierra Madre Mountains are high even for orographic rainfall conditions. In this region, lightning activity is vigorous, with large amounts of solid particles such as graupels, occurring with strong convections. Hence, the orographic/nonorographic rainfall classification scheme is switched off for regions where strong lightning activity occurs in the rainfall type database. The revised zonal mean rainfall amounts obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager are now in better agreement with those from the version 7 of the TRMM Precipitation Radar over the United States and Mexico, as well as Asia.

  7. User's guide for the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) CELL-ALL tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cu, C. C.; Han, D.; Kim, S. T.; Gloersen, P.

    1988-01-01

    The SMMR instrument onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite has been in operation since October 1978. It provided global coverage of passive microwave observations at 6.6, 10.7, 18, 21, and 37 GHz. The oberved brightness temperature can be used to retrieve geophysical parameters, principally sea surface temperature, atmospheric water vapor and liquid water content over oceans, sea ice concentration, and snow cover over land. The SMME CELL-ALL Tape contains earth-located calibrated brightness temperature data which have been appropriately binned into cells of various grid sizes, allowing intercomparisons of observations made at different frequencies (with corresponding different footprint sizes). This user's guide describes the operation of the instrument, the flow of the data processing the calibration procedure, and the characteristics of the calibrated brightness temperatures and how they are binned. Detailed tape specifications and lists of available data are also provided.

  8. Microwave radiometer measurement of tidally induced salinity changes off the Georgia coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. M.; Blanton, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-synoptic survey of tidally induced salinity changes off the Georgia coast was performed by using a L band microwave radiomater onboard a NASA aircraft. Salinity maps were obtained for ebb and flood conditions in order to define the salinity distributions near rivers and sounds and major changes that occur from ebb flow to flood flow. The Savannah River plume dominated the salinity regime and extended out from the Savannah River mouth about 12 km during ebb tidal conditions. The plume merged into a band of low salinity water extending along the Georgia-South Carolina coast which was produced by the many river sources of freshwater entering the coastal waters. The changes in salinity observed offshore of the river plume area were consistent with estimates of the changes that would occur over a typical tidal excursion perpendicular to the observed gradient.

  9. Cosmic temperature fluctuations from two years of COBE differential microwave radiometers observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A. J.; Wright, E. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Weiss, R.; Smoot, G. F.; Meyer, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The first two years of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are analyzed and compared with our previously published first year results. The results are consistent, but the addition of the second year of data increases the precision and accuracy detected CMB temperature fluctuations. The 2 yr 53 GHz data are characterized by rms temperature fluctuations of (delta-T)(sub rms) (7 deg) = 44 +/- 7 micro-K and (delta-T)(sub rms) (10 deg) = 30.5 +/- 2.7 micro-K at 7 deg and 10 deg angular resolution, respectively. The 53 x 90 GHz cross-correlation amplitude at zero lag is C(0)(sup 1/2) = 36 +/- 5 micro-K (68% CL) for the unsmoothed (7 deg resolution) DMR data. We perform a likelihood analysis of the cross-correlation function, with Monte Carlo simulations to infer biases of the method, for a power-law model of initial density fluctuations, P(k) proportional to R(exp n). The Monte Carlo simulations indicate that derived estimates of n are biased by +0.11 +/- 0.01, while the subset of simulations with a low quadrupole (as observed) indicate a bias of +0.31+/- 0.04. Derived values for 68% confidence intervals are given corrected (and not corrected) for our estimated biases. Including the quadrupole anisotropy, the most likely quadrupole-normalized amplitude is Q(sub rms-PS) = 14.3(sup + 5.2 sub -3.3) micro-K (12.8(sup + 5.2 sub -3.3) micro-K0 with a spectral index n = 1.42(sup + 0.49 sub -0.55)(n = 1.53(sup + 0.49 sub -0.55). With n fixed to 1.0 the most likely amplitude is 18.2 +/- 11.5 micro-K (17.4 +/- 1.5 micro-K). The marginal likelihood of n is 1.42 +/- 0.37 (1.53 +/- 0.37). Excluding the quadrupole anisotropy, the most likely quadrupole-normalized amplitude is Q(sub rms-PS) = 17.4(sup + 7.5 sub -5.2) micro-K (15.8(sup + 7.5 sub -5.2) micro-K) with a spectral index n = 1.11(sup + 0.60 sub -0.55) (n = 1.22(sup + 0.60 sub -0.55). With n fixed to 1.0 the most likely

  10. Cosmic temperature fluctuations from two years of COBE differential microwave radiometers observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A. J.; Wright, E. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Weiss, R.; Smoot, G. F.; Meyer, S. S.; Mather, J. C.; Lubin, P.; Loewenstein, K.; Lineweaver, C.; Keegstra, P.; Kaita, E.; Jackson, P. D.; Cheng, E. S.

    1994-12-01

    The first two years of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are analyzed and compared with our previously published first year results. The results are consistent, but the addition of the second year of data increases the precision and accuracy detected CMB temperature fluctuations. The 2 yr 53 GHz data are characterized by rms temperature fluctuations of (delta-T)rms (7 deg) = 44 +/- 7 micro-K and (delta-T)rms (10 deg) = 30.5 +/- 2.7 micro-K at 7 deg and 10 deg angular resolution, respectively. The 53 x 90 GHz cross-correlation amplitude at zero lag is C(0)1/2 = 36 +/- 5 micro-K (68% CL) for the unsmoothed (7 deg resolution) DMR data. We perform a likelihood analysis of the cross-correlation function, with Monte Carlo simulations to infer biases of the method, for a power-law model of initial density fluctuations, P(k) proportional to Rn. The Monte Carlo simulations indicate that derived estimates of n are biased by +0.11 +/- 0.01, while the subset of simulations with a low quadrupole (as observed) indicate a bias of +0.31+/- 0.04. Derived values for 68% confidence intervals are given corrected (and not corrected) for our estimated biases. Including the quadrupole anisotropy, the most likely quadrupole-normalized amplitude is Qrms-PS = 14.3+5.2-3.3 micro-K (12.8+5.2-3.3 micro-K0 with a spectral index n = 1.42+0.49-0.55 (n = 1.53+0.49-0.55. With n fixed to 1.0 the most likely amplitude is 18.2 +/- 11.5 micro-K (17.4 +/- 1.5 micro-K). The marginal likelihood of n is 1.42 +/- 0.37 (1.53 +/- 0.37). Excluding the quadrupole anisotropy, the most likely quadrupole-normalized amplitude is Qrms-PS = 17.4+7.5-5.2 micro-K (15.8+7.5-5.2 micro-K) with a spectral index n = 1.11+0.60-0.55 (n = 1.22+0.60-0.55. With n fixed to 1.0 the most likely amplitude is 18.6 +/- 1.6 micro-K (18.2 +/- 1.6 micro-K). The marginal likelihood of n is 1.11 +/- 0.40 (1.22 +/- 0.40). Our best

  11. Some features observed by the L-band push broom microwave radiometer over the Konza Prairie during 1985-1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1995-12-01

    Airborne L-band radiometric measurements were conducted over the Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas, in the summers of 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1989 to study the relationship among surface microwave emission, soil moisture, and vegetation cover. The annual surface treatments that were applied to the watersheds in the experimental area appeared to show a significant impact on the surface microwave emission. A watershed that was burned every year showed a better sensitivity to soil moisture variation than those burned less frequently. This feature persisted even though the radiometric measurements were made over those watersheds that were burned in the same year. It was concluded that the burning process might not completely remove a thatch layer of efficient microwave absorption, which was developed through years of accumulation of senescent vegetation. Results from the analysis of these radiometric data sets also suggest the need of an adequate estimation of vegetation biomass in order to obtain a reliable retrieval of surface soil moisture from L-band radiometric measurements. On the basis of the data acquired from the 1987 and 1989 field campaigns, the push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR) measurements are likely to give errors of the order of ±0.065 g/cm3 in surface soil moisture estimation if there are no measurements of vegetation biomass. Measurements of vegetation biomass to an accuracy of ±0.46 kg/m2 improve the corresponding PBMR estimation of surface soil moisture to an accuracy of ±0.032 g/cm3.

  12. Comparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with lidar, radiosonde and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The importance of the knowledge of the temperature structure in the atmosphere has been widely recognized. Temperature is a key parameter for dynamical, chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere. The cooling of the stratosphere is an indicator for climate change as it provides evidence of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing just like surface warming ( [1] and references therein). However, our understanding of the observed stratospheric temperature trend and our ability to test simulations of the stratospheric response to emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances remains limited. Stratospheric long-term datasets are sparse and obtained trends differ from one another [1]. Therefore it is important that in the future such datasets are generated. Different techniques allow to measure stratospheric temperature profiles as radiosonde, lidar or satellite. The main advantage of microwave radiometers against these other instruments is a high temporal resolution with a reasonable good spatial resolution. Moreover, the measurement at a fixed location allows to observe local atmospheric dynamics over a long time period, which is crucial for climate research. TEMPERA (TEMPERature RAdiometer) is a newly developed ground-based microwave radiometer designed, built and operated at the University of Bern. The instrument and the retrieval of temperature profiles has been described in detail in [2]. TEMPERA is measuring a pressure broadened oxygen line at 53.1 GHz in order to determine stratospheric temperature profiles. The retrieved profiles of TEMPERA cover an altitude range of approximately 20 to 45 km with a vertical resolution in the order of 15 km. The lower limit is given by the instrumental baseline and the bandwidth of the measured spectrum. The upper limit is given by the fact that above 50 km the oxygen lines are splitted by the Zeeman effect in the terrestrial magnetic field. In this study we present a comparison of stratospheric

  13. Microwave signatures of snow and fresh water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T. T.; Gloersen, P.; Meier, M. F.; Frank, D.; Dirmhirn, I.

    1973-01-01

    During March of 1971, the NASA Convair 990 Airborne Observatory carrying microwave radiometers in the wavelength range 0.8 to 21 cm was flown over dry snow with different substrata: Lake ice at Bear Lake in Utah; wet soil in the Yampa River Valley near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; and glacier ice, firm and wet snow on the South Cascade Glacier in Washington. The data presented indicate that the transparency of the snow cover is a function of wavelength. False-color images of microwave brightness temperatures obtained from a scanning radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm demonstrate the capability of scanning radiometers for mapping snowfields.

  14. Radiometer Testbed Development for SWOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon; Gaier, Todd; Dawson, Douglas; Harding, Dennis; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Conventional altimeters include nadir looking colocated 18-37 GHz microwave radiometer to measure wet tropospheric path delay. These have reduced accuracy in coastal zone (within 50 km from land) and do not provide wet path delay over land. The addition of high frequency channels to Jason-class radiometer will improve retrievals in coastal regions and enable retrievals over land. High-frequency window channels, 90, 130 and 166 GHz are optimum for improving performance in coastal region and channels on 183 GHz water vapor line are ideal for over-land retrievals.

  15. Retrieving cloud ice water content and geometrical thickness from microwave and infrared radiometric observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.-L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are presented and their application illustrated for analysis of remotely sensed data collected with an aircraft carrying a multispectral cloud radiometer and an advanced microwave moisture sounder. The instruments were used on NASA high altitude flights to perform cloud field experiments. Sample IR and microwave brightness temperature data are provided as functions of the ice water path and of the ice water content. Quantitative models are described for deriving the cloud ice (or liquid) water content and the cloud geometric thickness from the radiometric data.

  16. RTTOV-gb - Adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is the single most important under-sampled part of the atmosphere. According to the WMO Statement Of Guidance For Global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), temperature and humidity profiles (in cloudy areas) are among the four critical atmospheric variables not adequately measured in the PBL. Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) provide temperature and humidity profiles in both clear- and cloudy-sky conditions with high temporal resolution and low-to-moderate vertical resolution, with information mostly residing in the PBL. Ground-based MWR offer to bridge this observational gap by providing continuous temperature and humidity information in the PBL. The MWR data assimilation into NWP models may be particularly important in nowcasting and severe weather initiation. The assimilation of thermodynamic profiles retrieved from MWR data has been recently experimented, but a way to possibly increase the impact is to directly assimilate measured radiances instead of retrieved profiles. The assimilation of observed radiances in a variational scheme requires the following tools: (i) a fast radiative transfer (RT) model to compute the simulated radiances at MWR channels from the NWP model fields (ii) the partial derivatives (Jacobians) of the fast radiative transfer model with respect to control variables to optimize the distances of the atmospheric state from both the first guess and the observations. Such a RT model is available from the EUMETSAT NWPSAF (Numerical Weather Prediction Satellite Application Facility) and well accepted in the NWP community: RTTOV. This model was developed for nadir-viewing passive visible, infrared, and microwave satellite radiometers, spectrometers and interferometers. It has been modified to handle ground-based microwave radiometer observations. This version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, provides the tools needed to exploit ground-based upward looking MWR brightness temperatures into NWP variational data

  17. First meeting of the Working Group on the Shuttle Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (SMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The working group agreed that the first (primary) objective should be the determination of methods for the accurate measurement of total rain water and total cloud water with passive microwave methods. There was no argument on the points concerning nonlinear relationships between T sub B and rain rate (R) over the range of important rain rates (half of oceanic rainfall occurs at rates greater than 15 mm h-1), such that variations in rain rate within a footprint lead to an incorrect measurement of the average rate for that footprint, and one cannot determine the characteristics of the sensed rain area. This is especially true near 18 GHz, where the dynamic range above 15 mm h-1 is very small because this frequency does not clearly fall in either a scattering regime or emissive regime at these wavelengths. It is also not clear whether very low frequency (emissive) techniques will be the best at measuring rain processes, or high frequency (scattering) techniques, where precipitation-size ice plays a major role in the signal attenuation. It is still not known what signal of rain is at certain rates on an observational basis because of the many different conditions that can exist within a single satellite observed footprint.

  18. Comparison of 2.8- and 21-cm microwave radiometer observations over soils with emission model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, W. J.; Schmugge, T.; Paris, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    An airborne experiment was conducted under NASA auspices to test the feasibility of detecting soil moisture by microwave remote sensing techniques over agricultural fields near Phoenix, Arizona at midday of April 5, 1974 and at dawn of the following day. Extensive ground data were obtained from 96 bare, sixteen hectare fields. Observations made using a scanning (2.8 cm) and a nonscanning (21 cm) radiometer were compared with the predictions of a radiative transfer emission model. It is shown that (1) the emitted intensity at both wavelengths correlates best with the near surface moisture, (2) surface roughness is found to more strongly affect the degree of polarization than the emitted intensity, (3) the slope of the intensity-moisture curves decreases in going from day to dawn, and (4) increased near surface moisture at dawn is characterized by increased polarization of emissions. The results of the experiment indicate that microwave techniques can be used to observe the history of the near surface moisture. The subsurface history must be inferred from soil physics models which use microwave results as boundary conditions.

  19. Assimilation of humidity and temperature observations retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometers into a convective-scale NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caumont, Olivier; Vincendon, Béatrice; Cimini, Domenico; Löhnert, Ulrich; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bleisch, René; Buffa, Franco; Enrico Ferrario, Massimo; Haefele, Alexander; Huet, Thierry; Madonna, Fabio; Pace, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and humidity retrievals from an international network of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) have been collected to assess the potential of their assimilation into a convective-scale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. Thirteen stations over a domain encompassing the western Mediterranean basin were considered for a time period of forty-one days in autumn, when heavy-precipitation events most often plague this area. Prior to their assimilation, MWR data were compared to very-short-term forecasts. Observation-minus-background statistics revealed some biases, but standard deviations were comparable to that obtained with radiosondes. The MWR data were then assimilated in a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) data assimilation system through the use of a rapid update cycle. A set of sensitivity experiments allowed assessing extensively the impact of the assimilation of temperature and humidity profiles, both separately and jointly. The respective benefit of MWR data and radiosonde data on analyses and forecasts was also investigated.

  20. Retrieval of ocean surface parameters from the scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Wilheit, T.T.; Chang, E.; Gatlin, J.; Greaves, J.; Han, D.; Krupp, B.M.; Milman, A.S.

    1984-03-01

    Sea-surface temperature retrievals have been tested on 2 months of Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data. Using the prelaunch versions of the instrument calibration and geophysical parameter retrieval algorithms the initial results were poor. Improved algorithms produced substantially better results. It appears that at least for the night-Southern Hemisphere portion of the Nimbus-7 orbit, a rms measurement accuracy of 1.45/sup 0/C has been achieved. Similar tests with wind speed retrievals yield an accuracy of 2.7 m/s rms with no substantial differences between day and night measurements but limited by availability of surface observations to the Northern Hemisphere. Moreover, it appears that the retrieved wind speed is more nearly related to the square of the wind observed at the surface than to the wind itself.

  1. Five-band microwave radiometer system for non-invasive measurement of brain temperature in new-born infants: system calibration and its feasibility.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Kouno, Y; Hashizume, A; Hirata, H; Hand, J W; Okita, Y; Mizushina, S

    2004-01-01

    Recent simulation studies have shown that a technique of multi-frequency microwave radiometry is feasible for non-invasive measurement of deep brain temperatures in the new-born infants. A five-band microwave radiometer system has been developed, and its operation in a normal electromagnetic environment is checked. Five receivers operating with a waveguide antenna and at center frequencies of 1.2, 1.65, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 GHz (0.4 GHz bandwidth) are calibrated using a temperature-controlled water-bath. Temperature resolutions obtained for each receiver are 0.183, 0.273, 0.148, 0.108 and 0.118 K, respectively. A temperature retrieval simulation based on these resolutions and the previously proposed algorithm shows that the confidence interval, as produced by thermal noise, is 0.62 K for the retrieved central brain temperature. If the conductivity of brain is estimated wrong by 10 %, this will result in an error of 0.3-0.4 K. The result of this work is encouraging for realization of radiometric measurement of temperature profile in a baby's head.

  2. Design of an L-Band Microwave Radiometer with Active Mitigation of Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, Steven W.; Hampson, G. A.; Johnson, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    For increased sensitivity in L-band radiometry, bandwidths on the order of 100 MHz are desirable. This will likely require active countermeasures to mitigate RFI. In this paper, we describe a new radiometer which coherently samples 100 MHz of spectrum and applies real-time RFI mitigation techniques using FPGAs. A field test of an interim version of this design in a radio astronomy observation corrupted by radar pulses is described.

  3. A general analysis of the impact of digitization in microwave correlation radiometers.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Park, Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a general framework to analyze the effects on correlation radiometers of a generic quantization scheme and sampling process. It reviews, unifies and expands several previous works that focused on these effects separately. In addition, it provides a general theoretical background that allows analyzing any digitization scheme including any number of quantization levels, irregular quantization steps, gain compression, clipping, jitter and skew effects of the sampling period.

  4. CHARM: A CubeSat Water Vapor Radiometer for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Boon; Mauro, David; DeRosee, Rodolphe; Sorgenfrei, Matthew; Vance, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Ames Research Center (ARC) are partnering in the CubeSat Hydrometric Atmospheric Radiometer Mission (CHARM), a water vapor radiometer integrated on a 3U CubeSat platform, selected for implementation under NASA Hands-On Project Experience (HOPE-3). CHARM will measure 4 channels at 183 GHz water vapor line, subsets of measurements currently performed by larger and more costly spacecraft (e.g. ATMS, AMSU-B and SSMI/S). While flying a payload that supports SMD science objectives, CHARM provides a hands-on opportunity to develop technical, leadership, and project skills. CHARM will furthermore advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the 183 GHz receiver subsystem from TRL 4 to TRL 6 and the CubeSat 183 GHz radiometer system from TRL 4 to TRL 7.

  5. Emissivity measurements in thin metallized membrane reflectors used for microwave radiometer sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Cravey, Robin L.; Scherner, Michael J.; Hearn, Chase P.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with electromagnetic losses in metallized films used for inflatable reflectors. An inflatable membrane is made of tough elastic material such as Kapton, and it is not electromagnetically reflective by design. A film of conducting metal is added to the membrane to enhance its reflective properties. Since the impetus for use of inflatables for spacecraft is the light weight and compact packaging, it is important that the metal film be as thin as possible. However, if the material is not conductive or thick enough, the radiation due to the emissivity of the reflector could be a significant part of the radiation gathered by the radiometer. The emissivity would be of little consequence to a radar or solar collector; but for a radiometer whose signal is composed of thermal radiation, this contribution could be severe. Bulk properties of the metal film cannot be used to predict its loss. For this reason, a program of analysis and measurement was undertaken to determine the emissivities of a number of candidate metallized film reflectors. This paper describes the three types of measurements which were performed on the metallized thin films: (1) a network analyzer system with an L-band waveguide; (2) an S-band radiometer; and (3) a network analyzer system with a C-band antenna free-space transmission system.

  6. Effects of corn stalk orientation and water content on passive microwave sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, P. E.; Blanchard, B. J.; Wang, J. R.; Gould, W. I.; Jackson, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted utilizing artificial arrangements of plant components during the summer of 1982 to examine the effects of corn canopy structure and plant water content on microwave emission. Truck-mounted microwave radiometers at C (5 GHz) and L (1.4 GHz) band sensed vertically and horizontally polarized radiation concurrent with ground observations of soil moisture and vegetation parameters. Results indicate that the orientation of cut stalks and the distribution of their dielectric properties through the canopy layer can influence the microwave emission measured from a vegetation/soil scene. The magnitude of this effect varies with polarization and frequency and with the amount of water in the plant, disappearing at low levels of vegetation water content. Although many of the canopy structures and orientations studied in this experiment are somewhat artificial, they serve to improve understanding of microwave energy interactions within a vegetation canopy and to aid in the development of appropriate physically based vegetation models.

  7. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  8. Atmospheric water parameters in mid-latitude cyclones observed by microwave radiometry and compared to model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.; Hammarstrand, Ulla; Petty, Grant W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing and experimental algorithms for various parameters of atmospheric water content such as integrated water vapor, cloud water, precipitation, are used to examine the distribution of these quantities in mid latitude cyclones. The data was obtained from signals given by the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) and compared with data from the nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) for North Atlantic cyclones. The potential of microwave remote sensing for enhancing knowledge of the horizontal structure of these storms and to aid the development and testing of the cloud and precipitation aspects of limited area numerical models of cyclonic storms is investigated.

  9. Precipitation observed over the South China Sea by the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer during Winter Monex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1990-01-01

    Mesoscale cloud clusters near the northwestern coast of Borneo were observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on three occasions during the Winter Monsoon Experiment in December 1978. A nondimensional form of the SMMR 37 GHz polarization difference is introduced and used to identify regions of precipitation, and these are compared with visible and infrared imagery from the GMS-1 geostationary satellite. For two of the three cloud cluster cases, quantitative comparisons are made between nearly simultaneous SMMR observations and reflectivity observations made by the MIT WR-73 digital weather radar at Bintulu. Though limited in scope, these represent the first known direct comparisons between digital radar-derived rain parameters and satellite passive microwave observations of near-equatorial precipitation. SMMR 37 GHz observations are found to be much better indicators of fractional coverage of each SMMR footprint by rain than of average rain rate within the footprint. Total area coverage by precipitation is estimated for all three clusters using this result.

  10. Profiling atmospheric water vapor by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.; Szejwach, G.; Gesell, L. H.; Nieman, R. A.; Niver, D. S.; Krupp, B. M.; Gagliano, J. A.; King, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended kalman-Bucy filter was implemented and applied for the water vapor retrieval. The results show great promise in atmospheric water vapor profiling by microwave radiometry heretofore not attainable at lower frequencies.

  11. Thermal behavior of regolith at cold traps on the moon's south pole: Revealed by Chang'E-2 microwave radiometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guangfei; Li, Xiongyao; Wang, Shijie

    2016-03-01

    The long-term stability of water ice at cold traps depends on subsurface temperature and regolith thermophysical properties. Based on Chang'E-2 microwave radiometer data, we have inverted attenuation coefficient, thermal gradient and instantaneous temperature profiles at permanently shaded craters (Cabeus, Haworth and Shoemaker) on the Moon's south pole. The nonuniformity of the inverted attenuation coefficient within the craters reflects the inhomogeneous thermophysical properties of regolith. In addition, thermal gradient decreased significantly from the crater walls to the bottoms, which may be caused by scattered sunlight, internal heat flux and earthshine effect. Considering continuous supplement of water ice (with volumetric fraction 0-10%) at cold traps, it changes subsurface thermophysical properties but has little effect on thermal gradient. We also assumed that abundant ice (10%) mixed with regolith, the inversion results showed that the maximum difference of diurnal temperatures between "wet" and dry regolith were no more than 0.5 K. That is, the effect of water ice on subsurface thermal behavior can be neglected.

  12. Observations of frozen skin of southern ocean from multifrequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) onboard oceansat - 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, N.; Bhandari, S.; Dash, M.; Pandey, P.; Khare, N.

    Encircling the Antarctic, Southern Ocean connects all the three oceans of the world with fastest current system found anywhere in the world. The region is thermally very stable and is covered with ice, which has a strong seasonal variability. The sea ice pulsates annually with seasonal migration varying from 4 million square kilometer to 20 million square kilometer during summer and winter respectively. This has strong influence on energy balance of the ocean-ice-atmosphere system, and hence on atmospheric general circulation affecting weather and climate. Sea ice also works as an insulator thus inhibiting the energy flux between ocean and atmosphere. It also influences the ecosystem of the southern ocean, which has rich fish resources with global economic values such as krill and tooth fish. During winter Krill survives on algae found at the under side of the sea ice. The southern ocean is known to have high nutrition but low concentration of chlorophyll-a, which is a proxy of the phytoplankton. It is now understood that iron is the limiting factor as has been shown by various iron fertilization experiments. Passive microwave radiometry from space has been extensively used for the study of sea ice types and concentration in the Arctic and the Antarctic regions. Since late 1970s, data from SMMR and SSM/I have been used to study trends in sea ice extent and area. We have further extended the above studies by using data from OCEANSAT - 1 MSMR. The data, acquired at 18 GHz (H) with 50 kilometer resolution and having a swath of 1360 kilometer and a repeat cycle of 2 days, was processed to generate the brightness temperature maps over the Antarctica for a period of 2 years and the results were analyzed in conjunction with those obtained earlier (since 1978) through the study of SMMR and SSM/I data. Besides strong seasonal variability, our analysis shows an increasing trend in the sea ice extent during the recent years and the rate appears to be accelerating contrary to

  13. Design Data Collection with Skylab Microwave Radiometer-Scatterometer S-193, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Observations with S-193 have provided radar design information for systems to be flown on spacecraft, but only at 13.9 GHz and for land areas over the United States and Brazil plus a few other areas of the world for which this kind of analysis was not made. Observations only extended out to about 50 deg angle of incidence. The value of a sensor with such a gross resolution for most overland resource and status monitoring systems seems marginal, with the possible exception of monitoring soil moisture and major vegetation variations. The complementary nature of the scatterometer and radiometer systems was demonstrated by the correlation analysis. Although radiometers must have spatial resolutions dictated by antenna size, radars can use synthetic aperture techniques to achieve much finer resolutions. Multiplicity of modes in the S-193 sensors complicated both the system development and its employment. An attempt was made in the design of the S-193 to arrange optimum integration times for each angle and type of measurement. This unnecessarily complicated the design of the instrument, since the gains in precision achieved in this way were marginal. Either a software-controllable integration time or a set of only two or three integration times would have been better.

  14. Classification of Baltic Sea ice types by airborne multifrequency microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurvonen, L.; Hallikainen, M.

    1996-11-01

    An airborne multifrequency radiometer (24, 34, 48, and 94 GHz, vertical polarization) was used to investigate the behavior of the brightness temperature of different sea ice types in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea). The measurements and the main results of the analysis are presented. The measurements were made in dry and wet conditions (air temperature above and below 0 C). The angle of incidence was 45{degree} in all measurements. The following topics are evaluated: (a) frequency dependency of the brightness temperature of different ice types, (b) the capability of the multifrequency radiometer to classify ice types for winter navigation purposes, and (c) the optimum measurement frequencies for mapping sea ice. The weather conditions had a significant impact on the radiometric signatures of some ice types (snow-covered compact pack ice and frost-covered new ice); the impact was the highest at 94 GHz. In all cases the overall classification accuracy was around 90% (the kappa coefficient was from 0.86 to 0.96) when the optimum channel combination (24/34 GHz and 94 GHz) was used.

  15. Requirements of space-borne microwave radiometers for detecting soil moisture contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H.-H. K.; Burke, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    A multilayer radiative transfer model for predicting the relationship between soil moisture content and microwave emission is summarized. Attention is also given to the performance of various microwave sensors for soil moisture retrieval; here, the requirements of a satellite sensor system for monitoring large-scale soil moisture conditions are discussed. These requirements are presented in terms of (1) the wavelength, (2) atmospheric contamination, (3) polarization, (4) frequency of observation, and (5) spatial resolution. Each parameter is discussed in terms of microwave response. Previous aircraft data with extensive ground truth information are used to support the theories proposed. Trade-offs between the parameters and an optimum sensor system for space monitoring soil moisture information are discussed.

  16. Five-band microwave radiometer system for noninvasive brain temperature measurement in newborn babies: Phantom experiment and confidence interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, T.; Hirata, H.; Hand, J. W.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.; Mizushina, S.

    2011-10-01

    Clinical trials of hypothermic brain treatment for newborn babies are currently hindered by the difficulty in measuring deep brain temperatures. As one of the possible methods for noninvasive and continuous temperature monitoring that is completely passive and inherently safe is passive microwave radiometry (MWR). We have developed a five-band microwave radiometer system with a single dual-polarized, rectangular waveguide antenna operating within the 1-4 GHz range and a method for retrieving the temperature profile from five radiometric brightness temperatures. This paper addresses (1) the temperature calibration for five microwave receivers, (2) the measurement experiment using a phantom model that mimics the temperature profile in a newborn baby, and (3) the feasibility for noninvasive monitoring of deep brain temperatures. Temperature resolutions were 0.103, 0.129, 0.138, 0.105 and 0.111 K for 1.2, 1.65, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 GHz receivers, respectively. The precision of temperature estimation (2σ confidence interval) was about 0.7°C at a 5-cm depth from the phantom surface. Accuracy, which is the difference between the estimated temperature using this system and the measured temperature by a thermocouple at a depth of 5 cm, was about 2°C. The current result is not satisfactory for clinical application because the clinical requirement for accuracy must be better than 1°C for both precision and accuracy at a depth of 5 cm. Since a couple of possible causes for this inaccuracy have been identified, we believe that the system can take a step closer to the clinical application of MWR for hypothermic rescue treatment.

  17. Arctic sea ice concentrations from special sensor microwave imager and advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Fowler, C.; Maslanik, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly coincident data from the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to compute and compare Arctic sea ice concentrations for different regions and times of the year. To help determine overall accuracies and to highlight sources of differences between passive microwave, optical wavelength, and thermal wavelength data, ice concentrations are estimated using two operational SSM/I ice concentration algorithms and with visible- and thermal-infrared wavelength AVHRR data. All algorithms capture the seasonal patterns of ice growth and melt. The ranges of differences fall within the general levels of uncertainty expected for each method and are similar to previous accuracy estimates. The estimated ice concentrations are all highly correlated, with uniform biases, although differences between individual pairs of observations can be large. On average, the NASA Team algorithm yielded 5% higher ice concentrations than the Bootstrap algorithm, while during nonmelt periods the two SSM/I algorithms agree to within 0.5%. These seasonal differences are consistent with the ways that the 19-GHz and 37-GHz microwave channels are used in the algorithms. When compared to the AVHRR-derived ice concentrations, the Team-algorithm results are more similar on average in terms of correlation and mean differences. However, the Team algorithm underestimates concentrations relative to the AVHRR output by 6% during cold months and overestimates by 3% during summer. Little seasonal difference exists between the Bootstrap and AVHRR results, with a mean difference of about 5%. Although the mean differences are less between the SSM/I-derived concentrations and concentrations estimated using AVHRR channel 1, the correlations appear substantially better between the SSM/I data and concentrations derived from AVHRR channel 4, particularly for the Team algorithm output.

  18. Stray light effects in above-water remote-sensing reflectance from hyperspectral radiometers.

    PubMed

    Talone, Marco; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Ansko, Ilmar; Banks, Andrew Clive; Kuusk, Joel

    2016-05-20

    Stray light perturbations are unwanted distortions of the measured spectrum due to the nonideal performance of optical radiometers. Because of this, stray light characterization and correction is essential when accurate radiometric measurements are a necessity. In agreement with such a need, this study focused on stray light correction of hyperspectral radiometers widely applied for above-water measurements to determine the remote-sensing reflectance (RRS). Stray light of sample radiometers was experimentally characterized and a correction algorithm was developed and applied to field measurements performed in the Mediterranean Sea. Results indicate that mean stray light corrections are appreciable, with values generally varying from -1% to +1% in the 400-700 nm spectral region for downward irradiance and sky radiance, and from -1% to +4% for total radiance from the sea. Mean corrections for data products such as RRS exhibit values that depend on water type varying between -0.5% and +1% in the blue-green spectral region, with peaks up to 9% in the red in eutrophic waters. The possibility of using one common stray light correction matrix for the analyzed class of radiometers was also investigated. Results centered on RRS support such a feasibility at the expense of an increment of the uncertainty typically well below 0.5% in the blue-green and up to 1% in the red, assuming sensors are based on spectrographs from the same production batch.

  19. Amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle as observed by thermal infrared and microwave radiometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key input to physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, and global measurements of LST are provided by many satellite platforms. Passive microwave (MW) observations offer an alternative to conventional thermal infrared (TIR) LST retri...

  20. Using Passive Microwaves for Open Water Monitoring and Flood Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinussa, R.; Johnson, F.; Sharma, A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest and severest natural disasters that society faces is floods. An important component that can help in reducing the impact of floods is satellite remote sensing as it allows for consistent monitoring and obtaining catchment information in absence of physical contact. Nowadays, passive microwave remote sensing observations are available in near real time (NRT) with a couple of hours delay from the actual sensing. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is a multi-frequency passive microwave sensor onboard the Global Change Observation Mission 1 - Water that was launched in May 2012. Several of these frequencies have a high sensitivity to the land surface and they also have the capacity to penetrate clouds. These advantages come at the cost of the relatively coarse spatial resolution (footprints range from ~5 to ~50 km) which in turn allows for global monitoring. A relatively simple methodology to monitor the fraction of open water from AMSR2 observations is presented here. Low frequency passive microwave observations have sensitivity to the land surface but are modulated by overlying signals from physical temperature and vegetation cover. We developed a completely microwave based artificial neural network supported by physically based components to monitor the fraction of open water. Three different areas, located in China, Southeast Asia and Australia, were selected for testing purposes and several different characteristics were examined. First, the overall performance of the methodology was evaluated against the NASA NRT Global Flood Mapping system. Second, the skills of the various different AMSR2 frequencies were tested and revealed that artificial contamination is a factor to consider. The different skills of the tested frequencies are of interest to apply the methodology to alternative passive microwave sensors. This will be of benefit in using the numerous multi-frequency passive microwaves sensors currently observing our Earth

  1. Phased array feed design technology for Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuman, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the potential and limitations of phased array antennas in space-based geophysical precision radiometry is described. Mathematical models exhibiting the dependence of system and scene temperatures and system sensitivity on phased array antenna parameters and components such as phase shifters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) are developed. Emphasis is given to minimum noise temperature designs wherein the LNA's are located at the array level, one per element or subarray. Two types of combiners are considered: array lenses (space feeds) and corporate networks. The result of a survey of suitable components and devices is described. The data obtained from that survey are used in conjunction with the mathematical models to yield an assessment of effective array antenna noise temperature for representative geostationary and low Earth orbit systems. Practical methods of calibrating a space-based, phased array radiometer are briefly addressed as well.

  2. Alternative Beam Efficiency Calculations for a Large-aperture Multiple-frequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The fundamental definition of beam efficiency, given in terms of a far field radiation pattern, was used to develop alternative definitions which improve accuracy, reduce the amount of calculation required, and isolate the separate factors composing beam efficiency. Well-known definitions of aperture efficiency were introduced successively to simplify the denominator of the fundamental definition. The superposition of complex vector spillover and backscattered fields was examined, and beam efficiency analysis in terms of power patterns was carried out. An extension from single to dual reflector geometries was included. It is noted that the alternative definitions are advantageous in the mathematical simulation of a radiometer system, and are not intended for the measurements discipline where fields have merged and therefore lost their identity.

  3. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved what makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s-1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen what makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the used techniques for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using MonteCarlo simulations. Finally, a first time series of 11 months of zonal wind measurements over Bern (46°57

  4. Development of UHF radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. M.; Blume, H. J. C.; Cross, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    A wideband multifrequency UHF radiometer was initially developed to operate in the 500 to 710 MHz frequency range for the remote measurement of ocean water salinity. However, radio-frequency interference required a reconfiguration to operate in the single-frequency radio astronomy band of 608 to 614 MHz. Details of the radiometer development and testing are described. Flight testing over variable terrain provided a performance comparison of the UHF radiometer with an L-band radiometer for remote sensing of geophysical parameters. Although theoretically more sensitive, the UHF radiometer was found to be less desirable in practice than the L-band radiometer.

  5. In-situ Microwave Brightness Temperature Variability from Ground-based Radiometer Measurements at Dome C in Antarctica Induced by Wind-formed Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royer, A.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Brucker, L.; Fily, M..

    2014-01-01

    Space-borne microwave radiometers are among the most useful tools to study snow and to collect information on the Antarctic climate. They have several advantages over other remote sensing techniques: high sensitivity to snow properties of interest (temperature, grain size, density), subdaily coverage in the polar regions, and their observations are independent of cloud conditions and solar illumination. Thus, microwave radiometers are widely used to retrieve information over snow-covered regions. For the Antarctic Plateau, many studies presenting retrieval algorithms or numerical simulations have assumed, explicitly or not, that the subpixel-scale heterogeneity is negligible and that the retrieved properties were representative of whole pixels. In this presentation, we investigate the spatial variations of brightness temperature over arange of a few kilometers in the Dome C area (Antarctic Plateau).

  6. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  7. Development of the Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud ICE (TWICE) Millimeter- and Sub-millimeter Wave Radiometer Instrument for 6U-Class Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, S. C.; Kangaslahti, P.; Schlecht, E.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Ogut, M.; Padmanabhan, S.; Cofield, R.; Chahat, N.; Brown, S. T.; Jiang, J. H.; Deal, W.; Zamora, A.; Leong, K.; Shih, S.; Mei, G.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of upper-tropospheric water vapor and cloud ice at a variety of local times are critically needed to provide information not currently available from microwave sensors in sun-synchronous orbits. Such global measurements would enable increasingly accurate cloud and moisture simulations in global circulation models, improving both climate predictions and knowledge of their uncertainty. In addition, this capability would address the need for measurements of cloud ice particle size distribution and water content in both clean and polluted environments. Complementary measurements of aerosol pollution would allow investigation of its effects on cloud properties and climate. This is particularly important since the uncertainty in the aerosol effect on climate is at least four times as great as the uncertainty in greenhouse gas effects. To address this unmet need, a collaborative team among Colorado State University, Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Northrop Grumman Corporation is developing and fabricating the Tropospheric Water and Cloud ICE (TWICE) radiometer instrument. TWICE is designed with size, mass, power consumption and downlink data rate compatible with deployment aboard a 6U-Class nanosatellite. TWICE is advancing the state of the art of spaceborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave radiometers by transitioning from Schottky mixer-based front ends to InP HEMT MMIC low-noise amplifier front ends, substantially reducing the radiometer's mass, volume and power consumption. New low-noise amplifiers and related front-end components are being designed and fabricated by JPL and Northrop Grumman based on InP HEMT MMIC technology up to 670 GHz. The TWICE instrument will provide 16 radiometer channels, including window frequencies near 240, 310 and 670 GHz to perform ice particle sizing and determine total ice water content, as well as four sounding channels each near 118 GHz for temperature sounding and near 183 GHz and 380 GHz for water vapor sounding

  8. LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

    2013-04-01

    The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite

  9. The beam filling error in the Nimbus 5 electronically scanning microwave radiometer observations of Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; North, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of rain rates retrieved from the Nimbus 5 electronically scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperatures and observed from shipboard radars during the Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) phase I shows that the beam filling error is the major source of discrepancy between the two. When averaged over a large scene (the GATE radar array, 400 km in diameter), the beam filling error is quite stable, being 50 percent of the observed rain rate. This suggests the simple procedure of multiplying retrieved rain rates by 2 (correction factor). A statistical model of the beam filling error is developed by envisioning an idealized instrument field-of-view that encompasses an entire gamma distribution of rain rates. A modeled correction factor near 2 is found for rain rate and temperature characteristics consistent with GATE conditions. The statistical model also suggests that the correction factor varies from 1.5 to 2.5 for suppressed to enhanced tropical convective regimes, and decreases to 1.5 as the freezing level and average depth of the rain column decreases to 2.5 km.

  10. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Shie, Chung-Lin; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1-QR) in regions of precipitation. The TMI heating algorithm (TRAIN) is calibrated, or "trained" using relatively accurate estimates of heating based upon spaceborne Precipitation Radar (PR) observations collocated with the TMI observations over a one-month period. The heating estimation technique is based upon a previously described Bayesian methodology, but with improvements in supporting cloud-resolving model simulations, an adjustment of precipitation echo tops to compensate for model biases, and a separate scaling of convective and stratiform heating components that leads to an approximate balance between estimated vertically-integrated condensation and surface precipitation. Estimates of Q1-QR from TMI compare favorably with the PR training estimates and show only modest sensitivity to the cloud-resolving model simulations of heating used to construct the training data. Moreover, the net condensation in the corresponding annual mean satellite latent heating profile is within a few percent of the annual mean surface precipitation rate over the tropical and subtropical oceans where the algorithm is applied. Comparisons of Q1 produced by combining TMI Q1-QR with independently derived estimates of QR show reasonable agreement with rawinsonde-based analyses of Q1 from two field campaigns, although the satellite estimates exhibit heating profile structure with sharper and more intense heating peaks than the rawinsonde estimates. 2

  11. Feasibility Study of Graphite Epoxy Antenna for a Microwave Limb Sounder Radiometer (MLSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of a feasibility study to design graphite epoxy antenna reflectors for a jet propulsion laboratory microwave limb sounder instrument (MLSR). Two general configurations of the offset elliptic parabolic reflectors are presented that will meet the requirements on geometry and reflector accuracy. The designs consist of sandwich construction for the primary reflectors, secondary reflector support structure and cross-tie members between reflector pairs. Graphite epoxy materials of 3 and 6 plies are used in the facesheets of the sandwich. An aluminum honeycomb is used for the core. A built-in adjustment system is proposed to reduce surface distortions during assembly. The manufacturing and environmental effects are expected to result in surface distortions less than .0015 inch and pointing errors less than .002 degree.

  12. A feasibility study of a microwave water vapor measurement from a space probe along an occultation path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longbothum, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor measurements were taken using the microwave lines at 22 GHz (22.235 GHz) and 183 GHz (183.31 GHz). The resonant cross sections for both the 22 GHz and the 183 GHz lines were used to model the optical depth of atmospheric water vapor. The range of optical depths seen by a microwave radiometer through the earth's limb was determined from radiative transfer theory. Radiometer sensitivity, derived from signal theory, was compared with calculated optical depths to determine the maximum height to which water vapor can be measured using the following methods: passive emission, passive absorption, and active absorption. It was concluded that measurements using the 22 GHz line are limited to about 50 km whereas the 183 GHz line enables measurements up to and above 100 km for water vapor mixing ratios as low as 0.1 ppm under optimum conditions.

  13. Interaction of oil with sea ice. Appendix 4. The Bering Sea ice cover during March 1979: comparison of surface and satellite data with the Nimbus-7 smmr (scanning multichannel microwave radiometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.; McNutt, S.L.; Cavalieri, D.J.; Gloersen, P.

    1982-01-01

    During March 1979, field operations were carried out in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Bering Sea. This report presents the results of a comparison between surface and aircraft observations, and images from the Tiros-N satellite, with ice concentrations derived from the microwave radiances of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer.

  14. PHOCUS radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, O.; Murtagh, D.; Belitsky, V.

    2012-06-01

    PHOCUS - Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer Mesosphere is a Swedish sounding rocket experiment, launched in July 2011, with the main goal of investigating the upper atmosphere in the altitude range 50-110 km. This paper describes the SondRad instrument in the PHOCUS payload, a radiometer comprising two frequency channels (183 GHz and 557 GHz) aimed at exploring the water vapour concentration distribution in connection with the appearance of noctilucent (night shining) clouds. The design of the radiometer system has been done in a collaboration between Omnisys Instruments AB and the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD) at Chalmers University of Technology where Omnisys was responsible for the overall design, implementation, and verification of the radiometers and backend, whereas GARD was responsible for the radiometer optics and calibration systems. The SondRad instrument covers the water absorption lines at 183 GHz and 557 GHz. The 183 GHz channel is a side-looking radiometer, while the 557 GHz radiometer is placed along the rocket axis looking in the forward direction. Both channels employ sub-harmonically pumped Schottky mixers and Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FFTS) backends with 67 kHz resolution. The radiometers include novel calibration systems specifically adjusted for use with each frequency channel. The 183 GHz channel employs a continuous wave CW pilot signal calibrating the entire receiving chain, while the intermediate frequency chain (the IF-chain) of the 557 GHz channel is calibrated by injecting a signal from a reference noise source through a directional coupler. The instrument collected complete spectra for both the 183 GHz and the 557 GHz with 300 Hz data rate for the 183 GHz channel and 10 Hz data rate for the 557 GHz channel for about 60 s reaching the apogee of the flight trajectory and 100 s after that. With lossless data compression using variable resolution over the spectrum, the data set was

  15. PHOCUS radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, O.; Murtagh, D.; Belitsky, V.

    2012-01-01

    PHOCUS - Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer Mesosphere is a Swedish sounding rocket experiment, launched in July 2011, with the main goal of investigating the upper atmosphere in the altitude range 50-110 km. This paper describes the SondRad instrument in the PHOCUS payload, the radiometer comprising two frequency channels, 183 GHz and 557 GHz, aimed at exploring the water vapour concentration distribution in connection with the appearance of noctilucent (night shining) clouds. The design of the radiometer system has been done in a collaboration between Omnisys Instruments AB and the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD) at Chalmers University of Technology where Omnisys was responsible for the overall design, implementation, and verification of the radiometers and backend whereas GARD was responsible for the radiometer optics and calibration systems. The SondRad instrument covers the water absorption lines at 183 GHz and 557 GHz. The 183 GHz channel is a side-looking radiometer while the 557 GHz radiometer is placed along the rocket axis looking in the forward direction. Both channels employ sub-harmonically pumped Schottky mixers and FFT spectrometer backends with 67 kHz resolution. The radiometers include novel calibration systems specifically adjusted for use with each frequency channel. The 183 GHz channel employs a CW-pilot signal calibrating the entire receiving chain while the IF-chain of the 557 GHz channel is calibrated by injecting a signal from a reference noise source through a directional coupler. The instrument collected complete spectra for both the 183 GHz and the 557 GHz with 300 Hz data rate for the 183 GHz channel and 10 Hz data rate for the 557 GHz channel for about 60 s reaching the apogee of the flight trajectory and 100 s after that. With lossless data compression using variable resolution over the spectrum, the data set was reduced to 2 × 12 MByte. The first results indicate that the instrument has

  16. High-Latitude Galactic Emission in the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer 2 Year Sky Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, A.; Banday, A. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Hinshaw, G.; Reach, W. T.

    1996-03-01

    We cross-correlate the COBE6 DMR 2 year sky maps with spatial templates from long-wavelength radio surveys and the far-infrared COBE DIRBE maps. We place an upper limit on the spectral index of synchrotron radiation βsynch < -2.9 between 408 MHz and 31.5 GHz. We obtain a statistically significant cross-correlation with the DIRBE maps, whose dependence on the DMR frequencies indicates a superposition of dust and free-free emission. The high-latitude dust emission (|b| > 30°) is well fitted by a single dust component with temperature T = 18+3-7 K and emissivity ν ∝ (υ/ν0)β with β = 1.9+3.0-0.5. The free-free emission is spatially correlated with the dust on angular scales larger than the 70 DMR beam, with rms variations 5.3±1.8 μK at 53 GHz and angular power spectrum p ∝ l-3. If this correlation persists to smaller angular scales, free-free emission should not be a significant contaminant to measurements of the cosmic microwave anisotropy at degree angular scales for frequencies above 20 GHz.

  17. Millimeter radiometer system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Swanson, P. N.

    1989-01-01

    JPL has had a large amount of experience with spaceborne microwave/millimeter wave radiometers for remote sensing. All of the instruments use filled aperture antenna systems from 5 cm diameter for the microwave Sounder Units (MSU), 16 m for the microwave limb sounder (MLS) to 20 m for the large deployable reflector (LDR). The advantages of filled aperture antenna systems are presented. The requirements of the 10 m Geoplat antenna system, 10 m multified antenna, and the MLS are briefly discussed.

  18. Influence of (FeO + TiO2) abundance on the thermal emission from the lunar regolith using Chang'E-2 microwave radiometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhiguo; Ping, Jinsong; Xu, Yi; Cai, Zhanchuan; Zheng, Yongchun

    Abstract:The microwave radiometer data obtained from Chang’E-2 mission (CELMS data) has provided new opportunity to study the influence of the (FeO+TiO2) abundance on the microwave thermal emission of the lunar regolith. In this paper, the radiative transfer simulation is employed to study the change of the brightness temperature with (FeO+TiO2) abundance at different frequencies and surface temperature. The (FeO+TiO2) abundance are derived from Clementine UV-VIS data and the samples from Apollo, Luna and Surveyor projects. The simulation results along the Equator indicate that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance has strong impact on the microwave thermal emission of the lunar regolith. However, the data along the Longitude 0° shows that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance is not the dominant influential factor of the microwave thermal emission of the lunar regolith. Specifically, the abnormal brightness temperature at 160°W (Unnamed crater), 138°W (Crater Vavilov), 125°W (Crater Hertzsprung), 116°E (Crater Abul Wáfa), 119°E (Crater Heron), 130°E (Crater Catena Gregory) and 140°E (Crater Catena Mendeleev) shows that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance is not the only influential factor for the observed brightness temperature. In addition, the correlations between the four-channel brightness temperature and the (FeO+TiO2) abundance in Apollo landing site and along the Equator both indicate that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance is slightly decreasing with depth. The research is essential for the inversion of the lunar regolith parameters with the microwave radiometer data from Chang’E satellites. Keywords: lunar regolith, microwave thermal emission, CELMS data, (FeO+TiO2) abundance

  19. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pazmany, Andrew

    2006-11-09

    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  20. Uncertainties of ground-based microwave radiometer retrievals in zenith and off-zenith observations under snow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wengang; Xu, Guirong; Liu, Yuanyuan; Yan, Guopao; Li, Dejun; Wang, Shengbo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is to investigate the uncertainties of microwave radiometer (MWR) retrievals in snow conditions and also explore the discrepancies of MWR retrievals in zenith and off-zenith observations. The MWR retrievals were averaged in a ±15 min period centered at sounding times of 00:00 and 12:00 UTC and compared with radiosonde observations (RAOBs). In general, the MWR retrievals have a better correlation with RAOB profiles in off-zenith observations than in zenith observations, and the biases (MWR observations minus RAOBs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) between MWR and RAOB are also clearly reduced in off-zenith observations. The biases of temperature, relative humidity, and vapor density decrease from 4.6 K, 9 %, and 1.43 g m-3 in zenith observations to -0.6 K, -2 %, and 0.10 g m-3 in off-zenith observations, respectively. The discrepancies between MWR retrievals and RAOB profiles by altitude present the same situation. Cases studies show that the impact of snow on accuracies of MWR retrievals is more serious in heavy snowfall than in light snowfall, but off-zenith observation can mitigate the impact of snowfall. The MWR measurements become less accurate in snowfall mainly due to the retrieval algorithm, which does not consider the effect of snow, and the accumulated snow on the top of the radome increases the signal noise of MWR measurements. As the snowfall drops away by gravity on the sides of the radome, the off-zenith observations are more representative of the atmospheric conditions for RAOBs.

  1. Performance test of the synergetic use of simulated lidar and microwave radiometer observations for mixing-layer height detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Umar; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Crewell, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    There are several instruments and methods to retrieve the atmospheric Mixing Layer Height (MLH). However, none of these instruments or methods can measure the development of the MLH under all atmospheric conditions. For example, aerosol signatures measured by backscatter lidars can be used to determine the MLH but this approach is reasonable only when the atmosphere is well-mixed. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) derived profiles have low vertical resolution and cannot resolve fine structures in the boundary layer, especially, at higher altitudes. Here we propose a method which combines data from a ground-based lidar and a MWR, in simulated as well as real measurements scenarios, to overcome these limitations. The method works by fitting an erf-like transition model function to the section of range-corrected lidar backscatter signal. The section of the lidar backscatter signal for fitting the model function is obtained by incorporating the MWR estimates of MLH along with their uncertainties. The fitting is achieved by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The proposed approach, by exploiting the synergy between the two instruments, enables to detect MLH with original vertical and temporal resolutions. Test cases combining simulated data for a co-located lidar-ceilometer and a MWR are presented. The simulated data is obtained from the Dutch Atmospheric Large Eddy Simulation (DALES) model for boundary layer studies. Doppler wind lidar along with radiosondes (whenever available) data is used to assess the quality of the synergetic MLH estimates. Data from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) campaign at Jülich, Germany is used to test the proposed method.

  2. Snow parameters from Nimbus-6 electrically scanned microwave radiometer. [(ESMR-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, G.; Edgerton, A. T.

    1977-01-01

    Two sites in Canada were selected for detailed analysis of the ESMR-6/ snow relationships. Data were analyzed for February 1976 for site 1 and January, February and March 1976 for site 2. Snowpack water equivalents were less than 4.5 inches for site 1 and, depending on the month, were between 2.9 and 14.5 inches for site 2. A statistically significant relationship was found between ESMR-6 measurements and snowpack water equivalents for the Site 2 February and March data. Associated analysis findings presented are the effects of random measurement errors, snow site physiolography, and weather conditions on the ESMR-6/snow relationship.

  3. A Broadband Microwave Radiometer Technique at X-band for Rain and Drop Size Distribution Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiometric brightess temperatures below about 12 GHz provide accurate estimates of path attenuation through precipitation and cloud water. Multiple brightness temperature measurements at X-band frequencies can be used to estimate rainfall rate and parameters of the drop size distribution once correction for cloud water attenuation is made. Employing a stratiform storm model, calculations of the brightness temperatures at 9.5, 10 and 12 GHz are used to simulate estimates of path-averaged median mass diameter, number concentration and rainfall rate. The results indicate that reasonably accurate estimates of rainfall rate and information on the drop size distribution can be derived over ocean under low to moderate wind speed conditions.

  4. Soil moisture retrievals from the WindSat spaceborne polarimetric microwave radiometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface soil moisture plays an important role in many water- and energy-balanced related studies. It is an important parameter in several applications, such as numerical weather predictions, global change modelling, forecasting of surface runoff and modelling of evaporation. Soil moisture is conside...

  5. Validation of brightness and physical temperature from two scanning microwave radiometers in the 60 GHz O2 band using radiosonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Haefele, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we address the assessment of the tropospheric performance of a new temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) at 60 GHz. With this goal, an intercomparison campaign was carried out at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss in Payerne (Switzerland). The brightness temperature and the tropospheric temperature were assessed by means of a comparison with simultaneous and collocated radiosondes that are launched twice a day at this station. In addition, the TEMPERA performances are compared with the ones from a commercial microwave radiometer (HATPRO), which has some different instrumental characteristics and uses a different inversion algorithm. Brightness temperatures from both radiometers were compared with the ones simulated using a radiative transfer model and atmospheric profiles from radiosondes. A total of 532 cases were analyzed under all weather conditions and evidenced larger brightness temperature deviations between the two radiometers and the radiosondes for the most transparent channels. Two different retrievals for the TEMPERA radiometer were implemented in order to evaluate the effect of the different channels on the temperature retrievals. The comparison with radiosondes evidenced better results very similar to the ones from HATPRO, when the eight more opaque channels were used. The study shows the good performance of TEMPERA to retrieve temperature profiles in the troposphere. The inversion method of TEMPERA is based on the optimal estimation method. The main advantage of this algorithm is that there is no necessity for radiosonde information to achieve good results in contrast to conventional methods as neural networks or lineal regression. Finally, an assessment of the effect of instrumental characteristics as the filter response and the antenna pattern on the brightness temperature showed that they can have an important impact on the most transparent channels.

  6. New dual-frequency microwave technique for retrieving liquid water path over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeter, M. N.; Vivekanandan, J.

    2006-08-01

    We present and demonstrate a new methodology for retrieving liquid water path over land using satellite-based microwave observations. As input, the technique exploits Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) brightness temperature polarization-difference signals at 37 and 89 GHz. Regression analysis performed on model simulations indicates that over variable atmospheric and surface conditions these polarization-difference signals can be simply parameterized in terms of the surface emissivity polarization-difference (Δɛ), surface temperature, liquid water path (LWP), and precipitable water vapor (PWV). By exploiting the weak frequency dependence of Δɛ, a simple expression is obtained which enables fast and direct (noniterative) retrievals of LWP. The new methodology is demonstrated and validated using several months of AMSR-E observations over (1) the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States and (2) an area near Montreal, Canada, instrumented during the Alliance Icing Research Study II (AIRS II) field campaign. Comparisons are also made with MODIS LWP retrieval results for one scene over the SGP region. Retrieval results in clear-sky conditions indicate an uncertainty on the order of 0.06 mm, in agreement with theoretical estimates. In cloudy conditions, results using the new method are systematically smaller than results for both ground-based microwave radiometers and MODIS but are well correlated.

  7. A Statistical Comparison of Meteorological Data Types Derived from Deep Space Network Water Vapor Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Keihm, S.; Slobin, S.

    2015-11-01

    Water vapor radiometers measure the sky brightness along a path through the atmosphere. This sky brightness is a combination of the atmospheric "noise" temperature and the cosmic background. By removing the cosmic contribution, the remaining atmospheric noise temperature contribution can be used to infer atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature used in telecommunications link budgets. Water vapor radiometer (WVR) data also have been used to calibrate or experimentally characterize atmospheric error sources in phase data gathered from radio science and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments. A previous article reported on the comparison of atmospheric attenuation derived from WVR data with that estimated from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) models for the three Deep Space Network (DSN) sites. The focus of this current article is to examine and cross-compare the statistics of the meteorological data types (integrated precipitable water vapor, integrated liquid water content, and wet path delay) extracted from the WVR measurements for all three DSN sites. In this article, we will also compare some of the statistical estimates against those available using ITU models and prediction methods.

  8. Ice hydrometeor profile retrieval algorithm for high frequency microwave radiometers: application to the CoSSIR instrument during TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K. F.; Wang, J. R.; O'C Starr, D.; Heymsfield, G.; Li, L.; Tian, L.; Lawson, R. P.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Bansemer, A.

    2012-04-01

    A Bayesian algorithm to retrieve profiles of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice particle size (Dme), and relative humidity from millimeter-wave/submillimeter-wave radiometers is presented. The first part of the algorithm prepares an a priori file with cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of profiles of temperature, relative humidity, three ice particle parameters (IWC, Dme, distribution width), and two liquid cloud parameters. The a priori CDFs and EOFs are derived from CloudSat radar reflectivity profiles and associated ECMWF temperature and relative humidity profiles combined with three cloud microphysical probability distributions obtained from in situ cloud probes. The second part of the algorithm uses the CDF/EOF file to perform a Bayesian retrieval with a hybrid technique that uses Monte Carlo integration (MCI) or, when too few MCI cases match the observations, uses optimization to maximize the posterior probability function. The very computationally intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method also may be chosen as a solution method. The radiative transfer model assumes mixtures of several shapes of randomly oriented ice particles, and here random aggregates of hexagonal plates, spheres, and dendrites are used for tropical convection. A new physical model of stochastic dendritic snowflake aggregation is developed. The retrieval algorithm is applied to data from the Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) flown on the ER-2 aircraft during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment in 2007. Example retrievals with error bars are shown for nadir profiles of IWC, Dme, and relative humidity, and nadir and conical scan swath retrievals of ice water path and average Dme. The ice cloud retrievals are evaluated by retrieving integrated 94 GHz backscattering from CoSSIR for comparison with the Cloud Radar System (CRS) flown on the same aircraft. The rms difference in

  9. Comparison of Relative Humidity obtained from SAPHIR on board Megha-Tropiques and Ground based Microwave Radiometer Profiler over an equatorial station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renju, Ramachandran Pillai; Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Mathew, Nizy; Raju C, Suresh

    A comparison has been made between the SAPHIR on board Megha-Tropiques (MT) derived Relative Humidity (RH (%)) with that derived from a ground based multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) observations over an equatorial station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5(°) N and 76.9(°) E) for a one year period. As a first step, the validation of MRP has been made against the radiosonde for two years (2010 and 2011) during the Indian monsoon period July-September. This analysis shows a wet bias below 6 km and dry bias above. The comparison between the MRP and the MT derived RH has been made at five different altitudinal levels (0.75, 2.25, 4.0, 6.25 and 9.2 km range) strictly under clear sky condition. The regression analysis between the two reveals very good correlation (>0.8) in the altitudinal layer of 2.25 to 6.25 km. The differences between the two observations had also been explained interms of percentage of occurrence between MT and the MRP at each altitudinal layer. About 70-80% of the time, the difference in the RH is found to below 10% at first three layer. The RMSE of 2% is observed at almost all the height layers. The differences have been attributed to the different measurement and retrieval techniques involved in the ground based and satellite based measurements. Since MRP frequecy channels are not sensitive to small water vapor variabilities above 6 km, large differences are observed. Radiative Transfer computation for the channels of both MRP and SAPHIR will be carried out to understand the variabilities.

  10. Can liquid water profiles be retrieved from passive microwave zenith observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crewell, Susanne; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, D. D.

    2009-03-01

    The ability to determine the cloud boundaries and vertical distribution of cloud liquid water for single-layer liquid clouds using zenith-pointing microwave radiometers is investigated. Simulations are used to demonstrate that there is little skill in determining either cloud base or cloud thickness, especially when the cloud thickness is less than 500 m. It is also shown that the different distributions of liquid water content within a cloud with known cloud boundaries results in a maximum change in the brightness temperature of less than 1 K at the surface from 20 to 150 GHz, which is on the order of the instrument noise level. Furthermore, it is demonstrated using the averaging kernel that the number of degrees of freedom for signal (i.e., independent pieces of information) is approximately 1, which implies there is no information on vertical distribution of liquid water in the microwave observations.

  11. Evaluation of the dual differential radiometer for remote sensing of sediment and chlorophyll in turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The dual differential radiometer (DDR) was tested to determine its capability for measuring suspended sediment and chlorophyll in turbid waters. Measurements were obtained from a boat dock and from a helicopter with combinations of sample and reference filters with peak transmissions at various wavelengths. Water samples were taken concurrently and were analyzed for light scattering, particle count, and total chlorophyll. Least-squares estimates of the linear relationship between DDR output and the water parameters yielded correlation coefficients of less than 0.7. Under the turbid water conditions of the present tests, the DDR did not accurately measure either suspended sediment or chlorophyll. A precise knowledge of the spectral signatures of various pollutants might enable appropriate filters to be selected for tuning the DDR to monitor a particular pollutant.

  12. Airborne full polarization radiometry using the MSFC Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, Al J.; Kunkee, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures in both atmospheric and surface remote sensing have been long recognized by many investigators, particularly those studying SMMR and SSM/I data. Here, the large contrast between the first two Stokes' parameters (T(sub V) and T(sub H)) can be used for detection of sea ice, measurement of ocean surface wind speed, and measurement of cloud and water vapor opacity. High-resolution aircraft data from instruments such as the NASA/MSFC AMPR is crucial for verifying radiative transfer models and developing retrieval algorithms. Currently, the AMPR is outfitted with single-polarization channels at 10, 18, 37 and 85 GHz. To increase its utility, it is proposed that additional orthogonal linearly polarized channels be added to the AMPR. Since the AMPR's feedhorns are already configured for dual orthogonal linearly polarized modes, this would require only a duplication of the currently existing receivers. To circumvent the resulting polarization basis skew caused by the cross-track scanning mechanism, the technique of Electronic Polarization Basis Rotation is proposed to be implemented. Implementation of EPBR requires precise measurement of the third Stokes parameter and will eliminate polarization skew by allowing the feedhorn basis skew angle to be corrected in software. In addition to upgrading AMPR to dual polarization capability (without skew), the modifications will provide an opportunity to demonstrate EPBR on an airborne platform. This is a highly desirable intermediate step prior to satellite implementation.

  13. Estimation of soil water content in Mongolian grasslands using a spectral radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiyama, Ayako; Shimada, Sawahiko; Toyoda, Hiromichi; Yokohama, Michinari

    Harsh winter conditions, called dzud, experienced in Mongolia in recent years have caused significant damage to their livestock. Grassland deterioration resulting from soil water shortage coupled with the lack of precipitation during summer is one of the causative factors of this damage. Collecting grassland information over a wide area by satellite remote sensing is useful for spatial prediction of dzud. In this study, we conducted a fundamental experiment to estimate soil water content using a spectral radiometer (observed wavelength range, 302.9-1145.8 nm), which uses the same sensor as a satellite. Soil spectral reflectance was measured under open-air conditions using a spectral radiometer at the experiment station. The soil water content was controlled in several samples by adding water, and the spectral reflectance of the sample surface was measured. Four spectral bands were selected under the observed wavelength for application to the satellite data. The soil spectral reflectance was normalized by the sum of the reflectance values of each band. It was found that a normalized soil reflectance pattern changed to a flat pattern with a decrease in soil water content. Fujiwara et al. (1996) proposed a pattern decomposition method to decompose a mixed spectral reflectance pattern, e.g., land cover of soil and vegetation, into its respective parts. The decomposition coefficient for each pattern was calculated based on the mixed content of the reflectance patterns. In this study, a new spectral pattern, observed as a flat shape in the reflectance curve, was derived to extract the components of soil water content. Pattern decomposition was conducted using soil and flat model patterns, and their decomposition coefficients were calculated. The correlation between soil water content and the flat model pattern decomposition coefficient was calculated by regression analysis. To apply this method to field data, we conducted site investigations in Mongolian grasslands

  14. The natural oscillations in stratospheric ozone observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at the NDACC station Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Lorena; Hocke, Klemens; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Eckert, Ellen; von Clarmann, Thomas; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2016-08-01

    A multilinear parametric regression analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and interannual variations of stratospheric ozone profiles from the GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) microwave radiometer at Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E; 577 m). GROMOS takes part in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The study covers the stratosphere from 50 to 0.5 hPa (from 21 to 53 km) and extends over the period from January 1997 to January 2015. The natural variability was fitted during the regression analysis through the annual and semi-annual oscillations (AO, SAO), the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the solar activity cycle. Seasonal ozone variations mainly appear as an annual cycle in the middle and upper stratosphere and a semi-annual cycle in the upper stratosphere. Regarding the interannual variations, they are primarily present in the lower and middle stratosphere. In the lower and middle stratosphere, ozone variations are controlled predominantly by transport processes, due to the long lifetime of ozone, whereas in the upper stratosphere its lifetime is relatively short and ozone is controlled mainly by photochemistry. The present study shows agreement in the observed naturally induced ozone signatures with other studies. Further, we present an overview of the possible causes of the effects observed in stratospheric ozone due to natural oscillations at a northern midlatitude station. For instance regarding the SAO, we find that polar winter stratopause warmings contribute to the strength of this oscillation since these temperature enhancements lead to a reduction in upper stratospheric ozone. We have detected a strong peak amplitude of about 5 % for the solar cycle in lower stratospheric ozone for our 1.5 cycles of solar activity. Though the 11-year ozone oscillation above Bern is in phase with the solar cycle, we suppose that the strong amplitude is

  15. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  16. Comparison of data from the Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) with data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for terrestrial environmental monitoring - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Giddings, L.; Justice, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison between the microwave polarized difference temperature (MPDT) derived from 37 GHz band data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from near-infrared and red bands, from several empirical investigations are summarized. These indicate the complementary character of the two measures in environmental monitoring. Overall the NDVI is more sensitive to green leaf activity, whereas the MPDT appears also to be related to other elements of the above-ground biomass. Monitoring of hydrological phenomena is carried out much more effectively by the MPDT. Further work is needed to explain spectral and temporal variation in MPDT both through modelling and field experiments.

  17. Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor, liquid water and wind speed at the ocean surface by passive microwave techniques from the Nimbus-5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    The microwave brightness temperature measurements for Nimbus-5 electrically scanned microwave radiometer and Nimbus E microwave spectrometer are used to retrieve the atmospheric water vapor, liquid water and wind speed by a quasi-statistical retrieval technique. It is shown that the brightness temperature can be utilized to yield these parameters under various weather conditions. Observations at 19.35 GHz, 22.235 GHz and 31.4 GHz were input to the regression equations. The retrieved values of these parameters for portions of two Nimbus-5 orbits are presented. Then comparison between the retrieved parameters and the available observations on the total water vapor content and the surface wind speed are made. The estimated errors for retrieval are approximately 0.15 g/sq cm for water vapor content, 6.5 mg/sq cm for liquid water content and 6.6 m/sec for surface wind speed.

  18. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bisawas, Sayak K.; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; Black, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiement in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. Hurricane flights are expected for HIRAD in 2013 during HS3. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 hurricane flights, and hopefully results from hurricane flights in August and September 2013.

  19. A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perro, Christopher; Lesins, Glen; Duck, Thomas J.; Cadeddu, Maria

    2016-05-01

    A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval for the polar winter atmosphere is presented. The retrieval builds on the work of Miao et al. (2001) and Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), employing auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions and numerical optimization. It was tested using simulated and actual measurements from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) satellite instruments. Ground truth was provided by the G-band vapour radiometer (GVR) at Barrow, Alaska. For water vapour columns less than 6 kg m-2, comparisons between the retrieval and GVR result in a root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0.39 kg m-2 and a systematic bias of 0.08 kg m-2. These results are compared with RMS deviations and biases at Barrow for the retrieval of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), the AIRS and MIRS satellite data products, and the ERA-Interim, NCEP, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses. When applied to MHS measurements, the new retrieval produces a smaller RMS deviation and bias than for the earlier retrieval and satellite data products. The RMS deviations for the new retrieval were comparable to those for the ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses; however, the MHS retrievals have much finer horizontal resolution (15 km at nadir) and reveal more structure. The new retrieval can be used to obtain pan-Arctic maps of water vapour columns of unprecedented quality. It may also be applied to measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature 2 (SSM/T2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and Chinese MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) instruments.

  20. Remote Sensing Observatory Validation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E, Common Land Model, and Ground Based Data: Case Study in SMEX03 Little River Region, Georgia, U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal soil moisture estimation may be characterized by inter-comparisons among remotely sensed measurements, ground-based measurements, and land surface models. In this study, we compared soil moisture from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E (AMSR-E), ground-based measurements, and Soil-Vege...

  1. Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor, liquid water, and wind speed at the ocean surface by passive microwave techniques from the Nimbus 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    The microwave brightness temperature measurements for Nimbus 5 electrically scanned microwave radiometer (ESMR) and Nimbus-E microwave spectrometer (NEMS) are used to retrieve the atmospheric water vapor, liquid water, and wind speed by a quasi-statistical retrieval technique. It is shown that the brightness temperature can be utilized to yield these parameters under various weather conditions. Observations at 19.35, 22.235, and 31.4 GHz were input to the regression equations. The retrieved values of these parameters for portions of two Nimbus 5 orbits are presented. Then comparison between the retrieved parameters and the available observations on the total water vapor content and the surface wind speed are made.

  2. Modeling of tropospheric integrated water vapor content using GPS, radiosonde, radiometer, rain gauge, and surface meteorological data in a tropical region (French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, Jonathan; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Hopuare, Marania; Sichoix, Lydie; Fadil, Abdelali

    2012-11-01

    The integrated precipitable water vapor (IPW) is characterized by strong spatial and temporal variability, especially over tropical regions where the troposhere is not purely in hydrostatic equilibrium (convection). As an evidence, the survey of water vapor distibution as permanently as possible is an important issue and should serve as inputs for tropical climate modelling. In this paper, we present an estimation of the IPV from ground­ ba,.sed GPS receivers, which we compare to radiosondes and microwave radiometer. The data used here were collected in the vicinity of French Polynesia University site, during eight years from 2001 to 2008. In addition, we also include the IPW calculated using Era-Interim reanalyses (ECMWF). The main purpose of this paper is to highlight precision, qualities and limitations of each method available on the Island of Tahiti. During wet periods, the radiosondes vertical profiles of water vapor show an efficient mixing of water vapor between the the boundary layer (below trade winds inversion at Tahiti) and the free troposphere. Thus the rainy event detection allows to better constrain the validity range of a model of the vertical distribution of water vapor, which is based on a pseudo-adiabatic saturated evolution of the temperature.

  3. Wave number spectra from temperature-humidity infrared radiometer 6.7-micron water vapor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Stanford, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Wave number spectra from Nimbus 7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer 6.7-micron water vapor data are analyzed using series 4800 km long, in regions free of high clouds and frontal zones. In these regions, the brightness temperatures approximate temperatures on a water vapor isosteric (constant density) surface, rather than averages over a broad vertical layer. Power above the noise can be extracted down to wavelengths of about 60 km. Fitting the power spectrum versus horizontal wave number k to a k to the -nth power law for wavelengths from 60 to a few hundred kilometers gives slopes of n = 2.7 to 3.0, depending on the exact wave numbers that are fitted. Thunderstorms and convective cloud systems may constitute an energy source for the reverse energy cascade which produces a -5/3 spectral slope. The results suggest that when these features are not present, the enstrophy-cascading process that gives a -3 slope may govern the motion at scales smaller than it has heretofore been observed.

  4. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data Products for National Drought Monitor Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Drought effects are either direct or indirect depending on location, population, and regional economic vitality. Common direct effects of drought are reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat. Indirect impacts follow on the heels of direct impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. In the United States alone, drought is estimated to result in annual losses of between $6 - 8 billion. Recent sustained drought in the United States has made decision-makers aware of the impacts of climate change on society and environment. The eight major droughts that occurred in the United States between 1980 and 1999 accounted for the largest percentage of weather-related monetary losses. Monitoring drought and its impact that occurs at a variety of scales is an important government activity -- not only nationally but internationally as well. The NDMC (National Drought Mitigation Center) and the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) RMA (Risk Management Agency) have partnered together to develop a DM-DSS (Drought Monitoring Decision Support System). This monitoring system will be an interactive portal that will provide users the ability to visualize and assess drought at all levels. This candidate solution incorporates atmospherically corrected VIIRS data products, such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and Ocean SST (sea surface temperature), and AMSR-E soil moisture data products into two NDMC vegetation indices -- VegDRI (Vegetation Drought Response Index) and VegOUT (Vegetation Outlook) -- which are then input into the DM-DSS.

  5. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-06-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  6. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  7. Water vapor radiometer measurements of the tropospheric delay fluctuations at Goldstone over a full year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    One year of near-continuous water vapor radiometer (WVR) measurements at DSS 13 has provided a database for characterizing the Goldstone tropospheric delay properties in a statistical sense. The results have been expressed in terms of the Allan standard deviation of delay and compared to a previous model for Goldstone fluctuations and the specifications of the Cassini Gravitational Wave Experiment (GWE). The new WVR data indicate that average fluctuation levels at hour time scales or less are approximately 30 percent lower than the earlier Goldstone model predictions. At greater than 1 h time scales, the WVR indicated fluctuation levels are in closer agreement with the model, although noise floor limitations may be artificially raising the average WVR-derived atmospheric fluctuation levels at the longer time scales. When scaled to two-way Doppler tracking at 20 deg elevation, as will occur for the GWE, these results indicate that Goldstone winter tropospheric delay fluctuations will typically be a factor of 10 larger than the GWE requirements at 1000 s and a factor of 4 larger at 10,000 s.

  8. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  9. Microwave treatment of industrial waste water sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. At present the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time, and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space, and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kWh per gallon. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Waste Recycle Technology Task Force of this and various other approaches, concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort cofunded by EPRI and the AISI was successfully concluded in late 1994. Next a two phase program is being developed to commercialize the process. Phase 1 will demonstrate the technology in a large scale batch mode. Phase 2 will be a commercial scale continuous installation at a steel mill site projected for 1996.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  11. A 94/183 GHz aircraft radiometer system for Project Storm Fury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliano, J. A.; Stratigos, J. A.; Forsythe, R. E.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Welch, J. M.; Gallentine, D. O.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometer design suitable for use in NASA's WB-57F aircraft to collect data from severe storm regions was developed. The design recommended was a 94/183 GHz scanning radiometer with 3 IF channels on either side of the 183.3 GHz water vapor line and a single IF channel for a low loss atmospheric window channel at 94 GHz. The development and construction of the 94/183 GHz scanning radiometer known as the Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS) is presented. The radiometer scans the scene below the aircraft over an angle of + or - 45 degrees with the beamwidth of the scene viewed of approximately 2 degrees at 94 GHz and 1 degree at 183 GHz. The AMMS data collection system consists of a microcomputer used to store the radiometer data on the flight cartridge recorder, operate the stepper motor driven scanner, and collect housekeeping data such as thermistor temperature readings and aircraft time code.

  12. A 94/183 GHz aircraft radiometer system for Project Storm Fury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, J. A.; Stratigos, J. A.; Forsythe, R. E.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Welch, J. M.; Gallentine, D. O.

    1980-04-01

    A radiometer design suitable for use in NASA's WB-57F aircraft to collect data from severe storm regions was developed. The design recommended was a 94/183 GHz scanning radiometer with 3 IF channels on either side of the 183.3 GHz water vapor line and a single IF channel for a low loss atmospheric window channel at 94 GHz. The development and construction of the 94/183 GHz scanning radiometer known as the Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS) is presented. The radiometer scans the scene below the aircraft over an angle of + or - 45 degrees with the beamwidth of the scene viewed of approximately 2 degrees at 94 GHz and 1 degree at 183 GHz. The AMMS data collection system consists of a microcomputer used to store the radiometer data on the flight cartridge recorder, operate the stepper motor driven scanner, and collect housekeeping data such as thermistor temperature readings and aircraft time code.

  13. First continuous time series of tropical, mid-latitudinal and polar middle-atmospheric wind profile measurements with a ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, Rolf; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Murk, Axel; Eriksson, Patrick; Buehler, Stefan A.; Kivi, Rigel; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Duflot, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Wind is one of the key parameters for the characterisation of the atmosphere and the understanding of its dynamics. Despite this, no continuously operating instrument for wind measurements in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere existed so far. Aiming to contribute to the closing of this data gap by exploiting the potential of microwave radiometry the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Bern built a ground-based 142 GHz Doppler-spectro-radiometer with the acronym WIRA (WInd RAdiometer). WIRA is specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind and is sensitive to the altitude range between 35 and 70 km. The architecture of the radiometer is fairly compact what makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. The operational use of WIRA started in September 2010. Since a technical upgrade in autumn 2012 which drastically increased the signal to noise ratio of the instrument, the meridional component is permanently measured along with the zonal wind to get a full picture of the horizontal wind field. During the last year the wind retrieval algorithm has been entirely rebuilt and tested. It is now based on the optimal estimation technique (OEM) and uses an upgraded version of the ARTS/QPACK radiative transfer and inversion model. Time series of middle-atmospheric wind from measurement campaigns of 7 to 11 months duration at mid and high latitude sites (Bern, 46°57' N, 7°26' E; Sodankylä, 67°22' N, 26°38' E; Observatoire de Haute-Provence, 43°56' N, 5°43' E) have been obtained. In September 2013 WIRA was moved to Observatoire du Maïdo (21°04' S, 55°23' E) to study the dynamics of the tropical middle atmosphere. The measurements have been compared to the data from the ECMWF model. Generally good agreement has been found in the stratosphere, however systematic discrepancies exist in the mesosphere. At the

  14. Hydrogen Generation from the Dissociation of Water Using Microwave Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Ho Jung; Soo Ouk, Jang; Hyun Jong, You

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced by direct dissociation of water vapor, i.e., splitting water molecules by the electrons in water plasma at low pressure (<10-50 Torr) using microwave plasma discharge. This condition generates a high electron temperature, which facilitates the direct dissociation of water molecules. A microwave plasma source is developed, utilizing the magnetron of a microwave oven and a TE10 rectangular waveguide. The quantity of the generated hydrogen is measured using a residual gas analyzer. The electron density and temperature are measured by a Langmuir probe, and the neutral temperature is calculated from the OH line intensity.

  15. The scientific base of heating water by microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoǧan, Ender; ćiftçi, Muharrem

    2016-03-01

    This article is based on the master thesis [4] related to our invention which was published in World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2011/048506) as a microwave water heater. In the project, a prototype was produced to use microwave in industrial heating. In order to produce the prototype, the most appropriate material kind for microwave-water experiments was determined by a new energy loss rate calculation technique. This new energy loss calculation is a determinative factor for material permeability at microwave frequency band (1-100 GHz). This experimental series aim to investigate the rationality of using microwave in heating industry. Theoretically, heating water by microwave (with steady frequency 2.45 GHz) is analyzed from sub-molecular to Classical Mechanic results of heating. In the study, we examined Quantum Mechanical base of heating water by microwave experiments. As a result, we derived a Semi-Quantum Mechanical equation for microwave-water interactions and thus, Wien displacement law can be derived to verify experimental observations by this equation.

  16. Resolution Enhancement of Spaceborne Radiometer Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krim, Hamid

    2001-01-01

    Our progress over the last year has been along several dimensions: 1. Exploration and understanding of Earth Observatory System (EOS) mission with available data from NASA. 2. Comprehensive review of state of the art techniques and uncovering of limitations to be investigated (e.g. computational, algorithmic ...). and 3. Preliminary development of resolution enhancement algorithms. With the advent of well-collaborated satellite microwave radiometers, it is now possible to obtain long time series of geophysical parameters that are important for studying the global hydrologic cycle and earth radiation budget. Over the world's ocean, these radiometers simultaneously measure profiles of air temperature and the three phases of atmospheric water (vapor, liquid, and ice). In addition, surface parameters such as the near surface wind speed, the sea surface temperature, and the sea ice type and concentration can be retrieved. The special sensor microwaves imager SSM/I has wide application in atmospheric remote sensing over the ocean and provide essential inputs to numerical weather-prediction models. SSM/I data has also been used for land and ice studies, including snow cover classification measurements of soil and plant moisture contents, atmospheric moisture over land, land surface temperature and mapping polar ice. The brightness temperature observed by SSM/I is function of the effective brightness temperature of the earth's surface and the emission scattering and attenuation of the atmosphere. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) is a new instrument that will measure the earth radiation over the spectral range from 7 to 90 GHz. Over the world's ocean, it will be possible to retrieve the four important geographical parameters SST, wind speed, vertically integrated water vapor, vertically integrated cloud liquid water L.

  17. Monitoring snowpack properties by passive microwave sensors on board of aircraft and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.

    1980-01-01

    Snowpack properties such as water equivalent and snow wetness may be inferred from variations in measured microwave brightness temperatures. This is because the emerged microwave radiation interacts directly with snow crystals within the snowpack. Using vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures obtained from the multifrequency microwave radiometer (MFMR) on board a NASA research aircraft and the electrical scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 5, 6, and 7 satellites, linear relationships between snow depth or water equivalent and microwave brightness temperature were developed. The presence of melt water in the snowpack generally increases the brightness temperatures, which can be used to predict snowpack priming and timing of runoff.

  18. A comparison of sea ice parameters computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Landsat satellite imagery and from airborne passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Radebaugh, M.; Fowler, C. W.; Cavalieri, D.; Steffen, K.

    1991-01-01

    AVHRR-derived sea ice parameters from the Bering Sea are compared with those computed from nearly coincident (within 6 hr) Landsat MSS imagery and from the Aircraft Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (AMMR) flown on the NASA DC-8 in order to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of AVHRR-mapped sea-ice concentration and ice edge. Mean ice-concentration differences between AVHRR near-infrared (channel 2) and Landsat MSS data ranged from -0.8 to 1.8 percent with a mean value of 0.5 percent; rms differences ranged from 6.8 to 17.7 percent. Mean differences were larger for AVHRR thermal infrared (channel 4) ice concentrations ranging from -2.2 to 8.4 percent with rms differences from 8.6 to 26.8 percent. Mean differences between AVHRR channel 2 concentrations and the AMMR data ranged from -19.7 to 18.9 percent, while rms values went from 17.0 to 44.8 percent.

  19. A sky temperature survey at 19.2 GHz using a balloon borne Dicke radiometer for anisotropy tests of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, David A.

    A large area sky survey at a resolution of 3 degrees carried out with a balloon-borne Dicke radiometer using a liquid helium cooled ruby maser amplifier is described. The instrument and method of observation are described. The data from one flight of the instrument are analyzed to produce a map of sky temperature covering roughly declination -15 to +75 degrees and right ascension 7 to 23 h at a typical sensitivity of 1.5 mK per 3 degrees resolution element. The calibration of this map in terms of antenna temperature is accurate to 3 percent. Analysis of the sky map indicates that the components of the dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are (in thermodynamic temperature) Taux = -3.46 + or - 0.09 mK, Tauy = 0.41 + or - 0.07 mK, Tauz = -0.50 + or - 0.08 mK, implying that the magnitude is Tau = 3.52 + or - 0.08 mK and has its bright pole at alpha = 11 h 33 m + or - 6 m, delta + -8.2 deg + or - 1.5 deg (statistical errors). These data place an upper bound of delta T/T less than .0002 (95 percent confidence level) on anisotropy of the CMB other than the dipole at all angular scales greater than 3 degrees.

  20. Inversions of subsurface temperature and thermal diffusivity on the Moon based on high frequency of Chang'E-1 microwave radiometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guangfei; Li, Xiongyao; Wang, Shijie

    2016-09-01

    Thermal behavior of regolith reflects its thermophysical properties directly on the Moon. In this study, we employed the Fourier temperature model and inverted mean subsurface temperature and thermal diffusivity from high frequency of Chang'E-1 microwave radiometer data. The result showed that the mafic lunar mare endured higher thermal regime than that of feldspathic highland in a lunar cycle. As expected, the highland diffusivity with mean value 2.5 × 10-4 cm2/s is greater than the mean value 0.3 × 10-4 cm2/s of lunar mare. It indicated that the highland material responded more quickly than that of lunar mare to the changes of surface temperature in a diurnal day. In addition, thermal anomalous regions and hot/cold spots were also identified by diffusivity. For the thermal anomalous regions, Mare Tranquillitatis for example, with more contents of (FeO+TiO2), agglutinate and high maturity index corresponded to greater diffusivity (∼1.0 × 10-4 cm2/s) and is more sensitive to the variations of temperature than the neighboring Mare Serenitatis (∼0.3 × 10-4 cm2/s). Thus, inversion and comparison of regolith thermophysical properties can reveal more information of geological evolution on the Moon.

  1. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  2. Trend analysis of the 20-year time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-10-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) has been performing continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E, 577 m). GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) was added as a back end to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over 2 years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis was performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa (37.76 km), covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa (59 km).

  3. Trend analysis of the 20 years time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-06-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeterwave Ozone Spectrometer) performs continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland. GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a Fast-Fourier-Transform spectrometer (FFTS) has been added as backend to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over two years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from more than 20 years of stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis has been performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa, covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa.

  4. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; Black, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  5. Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil. Currently NASA's Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, RLEP-2, is planned to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection and extraction of water from the permanently frozen permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost has a high priority in the In-Situ Resource Utilization, ISRU, community for human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing would permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith permafrost simulant. Water is obtained in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil conditions below 0 C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

  6. Airborne Observation of Ocean Surface Roughness Variations Using a Combination of Microwave Radiometer and Reflectometer Systems: The Second Virginia Offshore (Virgo II) Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    katzberg (Snasa.gov Abstract—Airborne and satellite retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity ( SSS ) using L-band micronave radiometers requires accurate...combined an L-band micronave radiometer for retrieving SSS , with L- and S-band reflectometer systems for retrieving SSR descriptors including Mean Square...from the reflectometers to correct the brightness temperatures observed by the L-band radiometer, and produce more accurate SSS retrievals. Here we

  7. Using Microwaves for Extracting Water from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the Lunar Prospector remote sensing satellite provided evidence of relatively large hydrogen concentrations at the lunar poles and in particular concentrated in permanently shadowed craters. The scientific hypothesis is that the hydrogen is in the form of cryo-trapped water just under the surface of the soil. If true this would mean that an average of about 2% water ice is mixed with the lunar soil existing in the form of ice at cryogenic temperatures. For 5 years we have been investigating the use of microwaves for the processing of lunar soil. One of the early uses could be to use microwave energy to extract volatiles and in particular water from the lunar permafrost. Prototype experiments have shown that microwave energy at 2.45 GHz, as in consumer microwave ovens, will couple with and heat cryogenically cooled lunar soil permafrost simulant, resulting in the rapid sublimation of water vapor into the vacuum chamber. The water vapor has been collected on a cryogenic cold trap with high efficiency. The primary advantage of microwave processing is that the volatiles can be extracted in situ. Excavation would not be required. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements are being made of different lunar soil simulants and plans are to measure Apollo lunar soil at different frequencies and over a range of temperatures. The materials properties are being used to evaluate the heating of lunar soil and develop COMSOL models that can be used to evaluate different microwave extraction scenarios. With COMSOL the heating from cryogenic temperatures can be calculated and COMSOL will permit temperature dependent materials properties to be used during the heating process. Calculations at different microwave frequencies will allow the evaluation of the type of hardware that would be needed to most efficiently extract the water and other volatiles.

  8. Using Microwaves for Extracting Water from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William; Hepburn, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This disk contains 2 videos that accompanies the talk. Twenty years ago, the Lunar Prospector remote sensing satellite provided evidence of relatively large hydrogen concentrations at the lunar poles and in particular concentrated in permanently shadowed craters. The scientific hypothesis is that the hydrogen is in the form of cryo-trapped water just under the surface of the soil. If true this would mean that an average of about 2% water ice is mixed with the lunar soil existing in the form of ice at cryogenic temperatures. For 5 years we have been investigating the use of microwaves for the processing of lunar soil. One of the early uses could be to use microwave energy to extract volatiles and in particular water from the lunar permafrost. Prototype experiments have shown that microwave energy at 2.45 GHz, as in consumer microwave ovens, will couple with and heat cryogenically cooled lunar soil permafrost simulant, resulting in the rapid sublimation of water vapor into the vacuum chamber. The water vapor has been collected on a cryogenic cold trap with high efficiency. The primary advantage of microwave processing is that the volatiles can be extracted in situ. Excavation would not be required. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements are being made of different lunar soil simulants and plans are to measure Apollo lunar soil at different frequencies and over a range of temperatures. The materials properties are being used to evaluate the heating of lunar soil and develop COMSOL models that can be used to evaluate different microwave extraction scenarios. With COMSOL the heating from cryogenic temperatures can be calculated and COMSOL will permit temperature dependent materials properties to be used during the heating process. Calculations at different microwave frequencies will allow the evaluation of the type of hardware that would be needed to most efficiently extract the water and other volatiles. The 1st video shows the results of the COMSOL

  9. Using Microwaves for Extracting Water from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William; Hepburn, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This disk contains a video that accompanies the talk. Twenty years ago, the Lunar Prospector remote sensing satellite provided evidence of relatively large hydrogen concentrations at the lunar poles and in particular concentrated in permanently shadowed craters. The scientific hypothesis is that the hydrogen is in the form of cryo-trapped water just under the surface of the soil. If true this would mean that an average of about 2% water ice is mixed with the lunar soil existing in the form of ice at cryogenic temperatures. For 5 years we have been investigating the use of microwaves for the processing of lunar soil. One of the early uses could be to use microwave energy to extract volatiles and in particular water from the lunar permafrost. Prototype experiments have shown that microwave energy at 2.45 GHz, as in consumer microwave ovens, will couple with and heat cryogenically cooled lunar soil permafrost simulant, resulting in the rapid sublimation of water vapor into the vacuum chamber. The water vapor has been collected on a cryogenic cold trap with high efficiency. The primary advantage of microwave processing is that the volatiles can be extracted in situ. Excavation would not be required. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements are being made of different lunar soil simulants and plans are to measure Apollo lunar soil at different frequencies and over a range of temperatures. The materials properties are being used to evaluate the heating of lunar soil and develop COMSOL models that can be used to evaluate different microwave extraction scenarios. With COMSOL the heating from cryogenic temperatures can be calculated and COMSOL will permit temperature dependent materials properties to be used during the heating process. Calculations at different microwave frequencies will allow the evaluation of the type of hardware that would be needed to most efficiently extract the water and other volatiles. The video shows the partial results of the COMSOL

  10. Cross-correlation between the 170 GHz survey map and the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganga, Ken; Cheng, ED; Meyer, Stephan; Page, Lyman

    1993-01-01

    This letter describes results of a cross-correlation between the 170 GHz partial-sky survey, made with a 3.8 deg beam balloon-borne instrument, and the COBE DMR 'Fit Technique' reduced galaxy all-sky map with a beam of 7 deg. The strong correlation between the data sets implies that the observed structure is consistent with thermal variations in a 2.7 K emitter. A chi-square analysis applied to the correlation function rules out the assumption that there is no structure in either of the two maps. A second test shows that if the DMR map has structure but the 170 GHz map does not, the probability of obtaining the observed correlation is small. Further analyses support the assumption that both maps have structure and that the 170 GHz-DMR cross-correlation is consistent with the analogous DMR correlation function. Maps containing various combinations of noise and Harrison-Zel'dovich power spectra are simulated and correlated to reinforce the result. The correlation provides compelling evidence that both instruments have observed fluctuations consistent with anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background.

  11. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  12. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Validation Data Management at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, M. C.; Paserba, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) validation activity. NSIDC has designed and developed a web portal to data and information collected during NASA's AMSR-E Validation Program: (http://nsidc.org/data/amsr_validation/.) The AMSR-E validation experiments address three disciplines: soil moisture, rainfall and cryospheric validation campaigns. This poster describes all these experiments (past, present and future). NSIDC provides documentation, e.g., user guides, as well as metadata documents (DIFS) submitted to the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), for all the AMSR-E validation experiments. NSIDC further supports the validation activities by collaborating with the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) to provide scientists in the field (e.g., Arctic and Antarctic ship and flight campaigns) with quick, easy access to AMSR-E data for their validation experiments. NSIDC provides subsets of reformatted data in a manner most convenient to the validation scientists while they conduct their experiments. The AMSR-E is a mission instrument launched aboard NASA's Aqua Satellite on 4 May 2002. The Aqua mission provides a multi-disciplinary study of the Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and land processes and their relationship to global change. With six instruments aboard, the Aqua Satellite will travel in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit. NSIDC will archive and distribute all AMSR-E products, including Levels 1A, 2, and 3 data. Users can order Level-1A AMSR-E data beginning 19 June 2003 and Level-2A data beginning 01 September 2003. Other products will be available in March 2004.

  13. In search of water vapor on Jupiter: Laboratory measurements of the microwave properties of water vapor under simulated jovian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpowicz, Bryan M.; Steffes, Paul G.

    2011-03-01

    Detection and measurement of atmospheric water vapor in the deep jovian atmosphere using microwave radiometry has been discussed extensively by Janssen et al. (Janssen, M.A., Hofstadter, M.D., Gulkis, S., Ingersoll, A.P., Allison, M., Bolton, S.J., Levin, S.M., Kamp, L.W. [2005]. Icarus 173 (2), 447-453.) and de Pater et al. (de Pater, I., Deboer, D., Marley, M., Freedman, R., Young, R. [2005]. Icarus 173 (2), 425-447). The NASA Juno mission will include a six-channel microwave radiometer system (MWR) operating in the 1.3-50 cm wavelength range in order to retrieve water vapor abundances from the microwave signature of Jupiter (see, e.g., Matousek, S. [2005]. The Juno new frontiers mission. Tech. Rep. IAC-05-A3.2.A.04, California Institute of Technology). In order to accurately interpret data from such observations, nearly 2000 laboratory measurements of the microwave opacity of H2O vapor in a H2/He atmosphere have been conducted in the 5-21 cm wavelength range (1.4-6 GHz) at pressures from 30 mbars to 101 bars and at temperatures from 330 to 525 K. The mole fraction of H2O (at maximum pressure) ranged from 0.19% to 3.6% with some additional measurements of pure H2O. These results have enabled development of the first model for the opacity of gaseous H2O in a H2/He atmosphere under jovian conditions developed from actual laboratory data. The new model is based on a terrestrial model of Rosenkranz et al. (Rosenkranz, P.W. [1998]. Radio Science 33, 919-928), with substantial modifications to reflect the effects of jovian conditions. The new model for water vapor opacity dramatically outperforms previous models and will provide reliable results for temperatures from 300 to 525 K, at pressures up to 100 bars and at frequencies up to 6 GHz. These results will significantly reduce the uncertainties in the retrieval of jovian atmospheric water vapor abundances from the microwave radiometric measurements from the upcoming NASA Juno mission, as well as provide a clearer

  14. The Radiometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David P.

    1970-01-01

    The often observed and misunderstood phenomenon of movement of black and white vanes in toy radiometers under illumination is discussed in a generalized non-mathematical manner. Effects of light pressure, low gas density, friction, heat, and motion are illustrated. (JM)

  15. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  16. Data Fusion of SST from HY-2A Satellite Radiometer in China Sea and its Adjacent Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Jingsong; Zheng, Gang; Han, Guoqi; Ren, Lin; Wang, Juan

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on using data fusion method to solve the problem that the global sea is not seamlessly covered by the along-track sea surface temperature (SST) data of scanning microwave radiometer on board Haiyang-2A (HY-2A), which is the first ocean dynamic environment satellite of China launched on 16th August 2011. The procedure includes following steps. Firstly, the HY-2A SST data within 200 km of the coastline were identified and removed, the outliers of the HY-2A SST data and the background SST data were also identified and removed. Secondly, the HY-2A SST data were gridded, filtered and corrected. The background SST data were only filtered. Finally, the HY-2A SST data were merged into background SST data by the inverse distance weighted method. Next, the above procedure was tested in the ocean area on the southeast of China. The global 1-km sea surface temperature (G1SST) data were used as the reference data. The results of the procedure with and without the second step were made comparisons, and the results implied that the application of median filter and third-order polynomial curve fitting in the second step could help to improve performance of the merged SST data. The along-track SST data of HY-2A can be merged into OSTIA SST data successfully by the above procedure, and the gaps between tracks were filled up.

  17. Ice hydrometeor profile retrieval algorithm for high-frequency microwave radiometers: application to the CoSSIR instrument during TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K. F.; Wang, J. R.; O'C Starr, D.; Heymsfield, G.; Li, L.; Tian, L.; Lawson, R. P.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Bansemer, A.

    2012-09-01

    A Bayesian algorithm to retrieve profiles of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice particle size (Dme), and relative humidity from millimeter-wave/submillimeter-wave radiometers is presented. The first part of the algorithm prepares an a priori file with cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of profiles of temperature, relative humidity, three ice particle parameters (IWC, Dme, distribution width), and two liquid cloud parameters. The a priori CDFs and EOFs are derived from CloudSat radar reflectivity profiles and associated ECMWF temperature and relative humidity profiles combined with three cloud microphysical probability distributions obtained from in situ cloud probes. The second part of the algorithm uses the CDF/EOF file to perform a Bayesian retrieval with a hybrid technique that uses Monte Carlo integration (MCI) or, when too few MCI cases match the observations, uses optimization to maximize the posterior probability function. The very computationally intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method also may be chosen as a solution method. The radiative transfer model assumes mixtures of several shapes of randomly oriented ice particles, and here random aggregates of spheres, dendrites, and hexagonal plates are used for tropical convection. A new physical model of stochastic dendritic snowflake aggregation is developed. The retrieval algorithm is applied to data from the Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) flown on the ER-2 aircraft during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment in 2007. Example retrievals with error bars are shown for nadir profiles of IWC, Dme, and relative humidity, and nadir and conical scan swath retrievals of ice water path and average Dme. The ice cloud retrievals are evaluated by retrieving integrated 94 GHz backscattering from CoSSIR for comparison with the Cloud Radar System (CRS) flown on the same aircraft. The rms difference in

  18. Microwave profiling of snowpack free-water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.; Meier, M. F.; Smith, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A microwave system is proposed to measure the amount of liquid-phase water in a snowpack operating in the range of 1 to 10 GHz. Attenuation of the beam between source and receivers is produced by the water in the snow. The relationships of frequency, distance, and volume percent of water are calculated for an assumed detector sensitivity, together with the estimated cost of a representative system. A laboratory test is described that shows the attenuation for snow at maximum wetness at 9.35 GHz. A configuration is proposed that involves a vertical tube containing microwave and radioactive sources and another vertical tube containing microwave and gamma-ray detectors, so that density and wetness profiles are obtained simultaneously over essentially the same path.

  19. GPM Plans for Radiometer Intercalibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Stout, John; Chou, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    The international Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission led by NASA and JAXA is planned as a multi-radiometer constellation mission. A key mission component is the ability to intercalibrate the Tb from the partner constellation radiometers and create inter-calibrated, mission consistent Tc. One of the enabling strategies for this approach is the launching of a joint NASA/JAXA core satellite which contains a JAXA/NICT provided dual precipitation radar and a NASA provided Microwave Imaging passive radiometer. The observations from these instruments on the core satellite provide the opportunity to develop a transfer reference standard that can then be applied across the partner provided constellation radiometers that enables the creation of mission consistent brightness temperatures. The other aspect of the strategy is the development of a community consensus intercalibration algorithm that will be applied to the Tb observations from partner radiometers and create the best calibrated Tc. Also described is the development of the framework in which the inter-calibration is included in the final algorithm. A part of the latter effort has been the development of a generic, logical structure which can be applied across radiometer types and which guarantees the user community that key information for using Tc properly is recorded. Key

  20. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  1. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Theodore W.

    1994-01-01

    A broadband radiometer including (a) an optical integrating sphere having a enerally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample.

  2. The new Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for the cross-track scanning ATMS radiometer: description and verification study over Europe and Africa using GPM and TRMM spaceborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanò, Paolo; Panegrossi, Giulia; Casella, Daniele; Marra, Anna C.; Di Paola, Francesco; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development and evaluate the performance of a completely new version of the Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR v2), an algorithm based on a neural network approach, designed to retrieve the instantaneous surface precipitation rate using the cross-track Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) radiometer measurements. This algorithm, developed within the EUMETSAT H-SAF program, represents an evolution of the previous version (PNPR v1), developed for AMSU/MHS radiometers (and used and distributed operationally within H-SAF), with improvements aimed at exploiting the new precipitation-sensing capabilities of ATMS with respect to AMSU/MHS. In the design of the neural network the new ATMS channels compared to AMSU/MHS, and their combinations, including the brightness temperature differences in the water vapor absorption band, around 183 GHz, are considered. The algorithm is based on a single neural network, for all types of surface background, trained using a large database based on 94 cloud-resolving model simulations over the European and the African areas. The performance of PNPR v2 has been evaluated through an intercomparison of the instantaneous precipitation estimates with co-located estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) and from the GPM Core Observatory Ku-band Precipitation Radar (GPM-KuPR). In the comparison with TRMM-PR, over the African area the statistical analysis was carried out for a 2-year (2013-2014) dataset of coincident observations over a regular grid at 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. The results have shown a good agreement between PNPR v2 and TRMM-PR for the different surface types. The correlation coefficient (CC) was equal to 0.69 over ocean and 0.71 over vegetated land (lower values were obtained over arid land and coast), and the root mean squared error (RMSE) was equal to 1.30 mm h-1 over ocean and 1.11 mm h-1 over vegetated land. The results showed a

  3. A fast radiative transfer model for the assimilation of water vapor radiances from the Kalpana very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Randhir; Rayer, Peter; Saunders, Roger; Migliorini, Stefano; Brugge, Roger; O'Neill, Alan

    2009-04-01

    A fast radiative transfer model (RTM) to compute emitted infrared radiances for a very high resolution radiometer (VHRR), onboard the operational Indian geostationary satellite Kalpana has been developed and verified. This work is a step towards the assimilation of Kalpana water vapor (WV) radiances into numerical weather prediction models. The fast RTM uses a regression-based approach to parameterize channel-specific convolved level to space transmittances. A comparison between the fast RTM and the line-by-line RTM demonstrated that the fast RTM can simulate line-by-line radiances for the Kalpana WV channel to an accuracy better than the instrument noise, while offering more rapid radiance calculations. A comparison of clear sky radiances of the Kalpana WV channel with the ECMWF model first guess radiances is also presented, aiming to demonstrate the fast RTM performance with the real observations. In order to assimilate the radiances from Kalpana, a simple scheme for bias correction has been suggested.

  4. DESIGN OF MEDICAL RADIOMETER FRONT-END FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE.

    PubMed

    Klemetsen, O; Birkelund, Y; Jacobsen, S K; Maccarini, P F; Stauffer, P R

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of building a singleband Dicke radiometer that is inexpensive, small-sized, stable, highly sensitive, and which consists of readily available microwave components. The selected frequency band is at 3.25-3.75 GHz which provides a reasonable compromise between spatial resolution (antenna size) and sensing depth for radiometry applications in lossy tissue. Foreseen applications of the instrument are non-invasive temperature monitoring for breast cancer detection and temperature monitoring during heating. We have found off-the-shelf microwave components that are sufficiently small (< 5 mm × 5 mm) and which offer satisfactory overall sensitivity. Two different Dicke radiometers have been realized: one is a conventional design with the Dicke switch at the front-end to select either the antenna or noise reference channels for amplification. The second design places a matched pair of low noise amplifiers in front of the Dicke switch to reduce system noise figure.Numerical simulations were performed to test the design concepts before building prototype PCB front-end layouts of the radiometer. Both designs provide an overall power gain of approximately 50 dB over a 500 MHz bandwidth centered at 3.5 GHz. No stability problems were observed despite using triple-cascaded amplifier configurations to boost the thermal signals. The prototypes were tested for sensitivity after calibration in two different water baths. Experiments showed superior sensitivity (36% higher) when implementing the low noise amplifier before the Dicke switch (close to the antenna) compared to the other design with the Dicke switch in front. Radiometer performance was also tested in a multilayered phantom during alternating heating and radiometric reading. Empirical tests showed that for the configuration with Dicke switch first, the switch had to be locked in the reference position during application of microwave heating to avoid damage to the active components

  5. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q.

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  6. Liquid water content and precipitation characteristics of stratiform clouds as inferred from satellite microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J.A. ); Ardell, C.D. ); Tian, Lin )

    1990-09-20

    In this paper the authors present an analysis of the integrated liquid water content and precipitation characteristics of stratiform clouds using data from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) for January 1979, over the North Atlantic Ocean (40{degree}-60{degree}N). Concurrent analysis of the SMMR data with the US Air Force 3-Dimensional Nephanalysis (3DNEPH) allows the interpretation of the SMMR-derived liquid water paths and precipitation characteristics in terms of cloud type, cloud fraction, and cloud height. Combining the initialized analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting with the 3DNEPH enables vertical temperature and humidity profiles to be incorporated into the retrievals. The interpretation and presentation of results are guided by their implications for the parameterization of liquid water content of layer clouds in large-scale atmospheric models. The average liquid water paths for middle and low clouds were determined to be 115 and 102 g m{sup {minus}2}, respectively, with a maximum value of 1,070 g m{sup {minus}2}. Analysis of the liquid water path as a function of temperature showed that clouds with average temperature below 246 K had little liquid water and were inferred to be predominantly crystalline. Liquid water paths of 350 g m{sup {minus}2} and 500 g m{sup {minus}2} for middle and low clouds, respectively, were determined to be average thresholds for the onset of precipitation. Maximum rain rates for these clouds were determined to be 7 mm h{sup {minus}1}. The autoconversion of cloud water to rain water was determined to occur at a rate of 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}.

  7. 13 years time series of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone profiles measured by the NDACC microwave radiometer SOMORA over Switzerland: comparison to radiosonde and MLS/AURA satellite ozone profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard Barras, Eliane; Haefele, Alexander; Ruffieux, Dominique; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2014-05-01

    The microwave radiometer SOMORA measures ozone volume mixing ratio in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere since January 2000 with a time resolution of 30 min. The ozone vertical distribution is calculated from the measurement of the rotational emission line of ozone at 142.17 GHz. Ozone profiles are retrieved using ARTS/Qpack, a general environment for radiative transfer simulation and retrieval of ozone profiles based on the optimal estimation method (OEM) of Rodgers. SOMORA is an instrument of the NDACC.The measurement time series has been influenced by the upgrade from an acousto optical spectrometer (AOS) setup to a digital FFT spectrometer setup in 2010. The ozone profiles dataset measured by the AOS (2000-2010) and FFT spectrometer (since 2010) is then homogenized using one year parallel measurements by adding an altitude dependent offset to the AOS ozone profiles. The ozone profiles measured by AOS show a slightly better vertical resolution above 55 km than the ozone profiles measured by FFT due to the higher spectral resolution.The homogenized 13 years SOMORA time series has been validated against Payerne radiosonde (RS) ozone profiles, GROMOS microwave radiometer ozone profiles of Bern, another NDACC instrument, and MLS/AURA satellite simultaneous ozones profiles, and the results will be shown. For the whole period of respective common measurements, SOMORA ozone profiles are within 5% of Payerne RS, 15% of GROMOS and 10% of MLS ozone profiles.

  8. An Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J.; Racette, P.; Wang, J.; Crites, A.; Doiron, T.; Engler, C.; Lecha, J.; Powers, M.; Simon, E.; Triesky, M.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA Research Aircraft (ER-2) is discussed. The primary application of the CoSMIR is water vapor profile remote sensing. Four radiometers operating at 50 (three channels), 92, 150, and 183 (three channels) GHz provide spectral coverage identical to nine of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) high-frequency channels. Constant polarization-basis conical and cross-track scanning capabilities are achieved using an elevation-under-azimuth two-axis gimbals.

  9. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  10. Microwave remote sensing of hydrologic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    A perspective on the implementation of microwave sensors in future airborne and spaceborne observations of hydrologic parameters is presented. The rationale is based on a review of the status and future trends of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave research as applied to the remote sensing of soil moisture content, snowpack water equivalent, freeze/thaw boundaries, lake ice thickness, surface water area, and the specification of watershed runoff coefficients. Analyses and observations based on data acquired from ground based, airborne and spaceborne platforms, and an evaluation of advantages and limitations of microwave sensors are included.

  11. Microwave Spectrum of the Isopropanol-Water Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Griffin; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Microwave spectroscopy provides a unique opportunity to study model non-covalent interactions. Of particular interest is the hydrogen bonding of water, whose various molecular properties are influenced by both strong and weak intermolecular forces. More specifically, measuring the hydrogen bonded structures of water-alcohol dimers investigates both strong (OH ··· OH) and weak (CH ··· OH) hydrogen bond interactions. Recently, we have measured the pure rotational spectrum of the isopropanol-water dimer using chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW) between 8-18 GHz. Here, we present the spectrum of this dimer and elaborate on the structure's strong and weak hydrogen bonding.

  12. High Frequency PIN-Diode Switches for Radiometer Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Reising, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Internally calibrated radiometers are needed for ocean topography and other missions. Typically internal calibration is achieved with Dicke switching as one of the techniques. We have developed high frequency single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches in the form of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) that can be easily integrated into Dicke switched radiometers that utilize microstrip technology. In particular, the switches we developed can be used for a radiometer such as the one proposed for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Satellite Mission whose three channels at 92, 130, and 166 GHz would allow for wet-tropospheric path delay correction near coastal zones and over land. This feat is not possible with the current Jason-class radiometers due to their lower frequency signal measurement and thus lower resolution. The MMIC chips were fabricated at NGST using their InP PIN diode process and measured at JPL using high frequency test equipment. Measurement and simulation results will be presented.

  13. An evaluation of water vapor radiometer data for calibration of the wet path delay in very long baseline interferometry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, C. E.; Himwich, W. E.; Clark, T. A.; Ma, C.

    1991-01-01

    The internal consistency of the baseline-length measurements derived from analysis of several independent VLBI experiments is an estimate of the measurement precision. The paper investigates whether the inclusion of water vapor radiometer (WVR) data as an absolute calibration of the propagation delay due to water vapor improves the precision of VLBI baseline-length measurements. The paper analyzes 28 International Radio Interferometric Surveying runs between June 1988 and January 1989; WVR measurements were made during each session. The addition of WVR data decreased the scatter of the length measurements of the baselines by 5-10 percent. The observed reduction in the scatter of the baseline lengths is less than what is expected from the behavior of the formal errors, which suggest that the baseline-length measurement precision should improve 10-20 percent if WVR data are included in the analysis. The discrepancy between the formal errors and the baseline-length results can be explained as the consequence of systematic errors in the dry-mapping function parameters, instrumental biases in the WVR and the barometer, or both.

  14. Refraction of microwave signals by water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfinger, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    Tropospheric water vapor causes a refractive path length effect which is typically 5-10% of the 'dry' tropospheric effect and as large as several meters at elevation angles below 5 deg. The vertical water vapor profile is quite variable, and measurements of intensive atmospheric parameters such as temperature and humidity limited to the surface do not adequately predict the refractive effect. It is suggested that a water vapor refraction model that is a function of the amount of precipitable water alone can be successful at low elevation angles. From an extensive study of numerical ray tracings through radiosonde balloon data, such a model has been constructed. The model predicts the effect at all latitudes and elevation angles between 2 and 10 deg to an accuracy of better than 4% (11 cm at 3 deg elevation angle).

  15. Prototype Cryospheric Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radiometer (CESAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M.; Phelps, Norman L.; Riley, J. Thomas; Markus, Thorsten M.; Bland, Geoffrey L.; Ruf, Christopher; Lawrence, Roland W.; Reising, Steven C.; Pichel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Present satellite microwave radiometers typically have a coarse spatial resolution of several kilometers or more. This is only adequate only over homogenous areas. Significantly enhanced spatial resolution is critically important to reduce the uncertainty of estimated cryospheric parameters in heterogeneous and climatically-sensitive areas. Examples include: (1) dynamic sea ice areas with frequent lead and polynya developments and variable ice thicknesses, (2) mountainous areas that require improved retrieval of snow water equivalent, and (3) melting outlet glacier or ice shelf areas along the coast of Greenland and Antarctica. For these situations and many others, an Earth surface spot size of no more than 100 m is necessary to retrieve the information needed for significant new scientific progress, including the synthesis of field observations with satellite observations with high confidence.

  16. Interpretation of Nimbus-7 37 GHz microwave brightness temperature data in semi-arid southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, S. D.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    Monthly 37 GHz microwave polarization difference temperatures (MPDT) derived from the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) for southern Africa from 1979 to 1985 are compared with rainfall and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. MPDT rose sharply during a drought episode which occurred within the period included in the data. The rise was seen not only in the growing season, but also in the dry season MPDT when no actively photosynthetic, water-containing leaves are present. The results suggest that scattering of the emitted microwave radiation by dead and living vegetation is a more important factor than has previously been recognized.

  17. Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ω-τ zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

  18. A test of water vapor radiometer-based troposphere calibration using VLBI observations on a 21-kilometer baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R. P.; Teitelbaum, L. P.; Skjerve, L. J.; Keihm, S. J.; Walter, S. J.; Mahoney, M. J.; Treuhaft, R. N.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and water vapor radiometer (WVR) measurements on a 21 km baseline showed that calibration by WVRs removed a significant fraction of the effect of tropospheric delay fluctuations for these experiments. From comparison of the residual delay variations within scans and between scans, the total tropospheric contribution t the delay residuals for each of the three 5 to 20 hour sessions was estimated as 1, 17, and 10%, with the first value being uncertain. The observed improvement in rms residual delay from WVR calibration during these three sessions was 4, 16, and 2%, respectively. The improvement is consistent with the estimated 2 to 3 mm path delay precision of current WVRs. The VLBI measurements, of natural radio sources, were conducted in April and May 1993 at Goldstone, California. Dual-frequency (2.3 and 8.4 GHz) observations were employed to remove the effects of charged particles from the data. Measurements with co-pointed WVRs, located within 50 m of the axis of each antenna, were performed to test the ability of the WVRs to calibrate line-of-sight path delays. Factors that made WVR performance assessment difficult included (1) the fact that the level of tropospheric fluctuations was smaller than is typical for Goldstone during these experiments and (2) VLBI delay variations on longer time scales (i.e., over multiple scans) contained uncalibrated instrumental effects (probably a result of slow temperature variations in the VLBI hardware) that were larger than the tropospheric effects.

  19. The Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Jackson, D. M.; Adler, R. F.; Dod, L. R.; Shiue, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) is a new instrument being designed for studies of airborne passive microwave retrieval of tropospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation parameters. The MIR is a total-power cross-track scanning radiometer for use on either the NASA ER-2 (high-altitude) or DC-8 (medium altitude) aircraft. The current design includes millimeter-wave (MMW) channels at 90, 166, 183 +/- 1,3,7, and 220 GHz. An upgrade for the addition of submillimeter-wave (SMMW) channels at 325 +/- 1,3,7 and 340 GHz is planned. The nadiral spatial resolution is approximately 700 meters at mid-altitude when operated aboard the NASA ER-2. The MIR consists of a scanhead and data acquisition system, designed for installation in the ER-2 superpod nose cone. The scanhead will house the receivers (feedhorns, mixers, local oscillators, and preamplifiers), a scanning mirror, hot and cold calibration loads, and temperature sensors. Particular attention is being given to the characterization of the hot and cold calibration loads through both laboratory bistatic scattering measurements and analytical modeling. Other aspects of the MIR and the data acquisition system are briefly discussed, and diagrams of the location of the MIR in the ER-2 superpod nosecone and of the data acquisition system are presented.

  20. Statistics of Ku-band microwave response of the United States with a satellite borne radiometer/scatterometer. [scattering coefficient and brightness temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Ulaby, F. T.; Sobti, A.; Burton, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Skylab S-193 radiometer/scatterometer collected thousands of measurements of scattering coefficient and brightness temperature over various parts of the United States during the summer of 1973 at angles of incidence between vertical and about 45 deg. These measurements have been combined to produce histograms of the response at each of several angles within this range, and to establish average scattering coefficient vs angle curves with 10% and 90% exceedance levels as well. The variation of the radiometric measurements is primarily in the region from 255 K to 285 K, with very few measurements giving higher values, but a significant, though small, number giving values down to and even below 200 K. The scattering coefficient varies, for the mean, from about 0 db at 1 deg off vertical to a low in the neighborhood of -10 db at 45 deg. The variability of the scattering coefficient measurements with this coarse resolution sensor is surprisingly small. The number of distinguishable levels is slightly more for the scatterometer than for the radiometer, but the amount of variation in brightness temperature caused by the physical temperature of the ground is enough so that the scatterometer can be used to distinguish significantly more meaningful levels than the radiometer.

  1. Evaluation of Empirical Tropospheric Models Using Satellite-Tracking Tropospheric Wet Delays with Water Vapor Radiometer at Tongji, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miaomiao; Li, Bofeng

    2016-01-01

    An empirical tropospheric delay model, together with a mapping function, is commonly used to correct the tropospheric errors in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) processing. As is well-known, the accuracy of tropospheric delay models relies mainly on the correction efficiency for tropospheric wet delays. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of three tropospheric delay models, together with five mapping functions in wet delays calculation. The evaluations are conducted by comparing their slant wet delays with those measured by water vapor radiometer based on its satellite-tracking function (collected data with large liquid water path is removed). For all 15 combinations of three tropospheric models and five mapping functions, their accuracies as a function of elevation are statistically analyzed by using nine-day data in two scenarios, with and without meteorological data. The results show that (1) no matter with or without meteorological data, there is no practical difference between mapping functions, i.e., Chao, Ifadis, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1), Niell Mapping Function (NMF), and MTT Mapping Function (MTT); (2) without meteorological data, the UNB3 is much better than Saastamoinen and Hopfield models, while the Saastamoinen model performed slightly better than the Hopfield model; (3) with meteorological data, the accuracies of all three tropospheric delay models are improved to be comparable, especially for lower elevations. In addition, the kinematic precise point positioning where no parameter is set up for tropospheric delay modification is conducted to further evaluate the performance of tropospheric delay models in positioning accuracy. It is shown that the UNB3 model is best and can achieve about 10 cm accuracy for the N and E coordinate component while 20 cm accuracy for the U coordinate component no matter the meteorological data is available or not. This accuracy can be obtained by the Saastamoinen model only when meteorological data is

  2. Retrieving of atmospheric parameters from multi-GNSS in real time: Validation with water vapor radiometer and numerical weather model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Zus, Florian; Lu, Cuixian; Dick, Galina; Ning, Tong; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-07-01

    The multiconstellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (e.g., GPS, GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS), Galileo, and BeiDou) offers great opportunities for real-time retrieval of atmospheric parameters for supporting numerical weather prediction nowcasting or severe weather event monitoring. In this study, the observations from different GNSS are combined to retrieve atmospheric parameters based on the real-time precise point positioning technique. The atmospheric parameters, retrieved from multi-GNSS observations of a 180 day period from about 100 globally distributed stations, including zenith total delay, integrated water vapor, horizontal gradient, and slant total delay (STD), are analyzed and evaluated. The water vapor radiometer data and a numerical weather model, the operational analysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), are used to independently validate the performance of individual GNSS and also demonstrate the benefits of multiconstellation GNSS for real-time atmospheric monitoring. Our results show that the GLONASS and BeiDou have the potential capability for real-time atmospheric parameter retrieval for time-critical meteorological applications as GPS does, and the combination of multi-GNSS observations can improve the performance of a single-system solution in meteorological applications with higher accuracy and robustness. The multi-GNSS processing greatly increases the number of STDs. The mean and standard deviation of STDs between each GNSS and ECMWF exhibit a good stability as function of the elevation angle, the azimuth angle, and time, in general. An obvious latitude dependence is confirmed by a map of station specific mean and standard deviations. Such real-time atmospheric products, provided by multi-GNSS processing with higher accuracy, stronger reliability, and better distribution, might be highly valuable for atmospheric sounding systems, especially for nowcasting of extreme weather.

  3. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  4. Water vapor - The wet blanket of microwave interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The various techniques that utilize microwave interferometry could be employed to determine distances of several thousand kilometers with an accuracy of 1 cm or 2 cm. Such measurements would be useful to obtain new knowledge of earth dynamics, greater insight into fundamental astronomical constants, and the ability to accurately navigate a spacecraft in interplanetary flight. There is, however, a basic problem, related to the presence of tropospheric water vapor, which has to be overcome before such measurements can be realized. Differing amounts of water vapor over the interferometer stations cause errors in the differential time of arrival which is the principal observable quantity. Approaches for overcoming this problem are considered, taking into account requirements for water vapor calibration to support interferometric techniques.

  5. Time series analysis of ground-based microwave measurements at K- and V-bands to detect temporal changes in water vapor and temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Sibananda; Sahoo, Swaroop; Pandithurai, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based microwave measurements performed at water vapor and oxygen absorption line frequencies are widely used for remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor density and temperature profiles, respectively. Recent work has shown that Bayesian optimal estimation can be used for improving accuracy of radiometer retrieved water vapor and temperature profiles. This paper focuses on using Bayesian optimal estimation along with time series of independent frequency measurements at K- and V-bands. The measurements are used along with statistically significant but short background data sets to retrieve and sense temporal variations and gradients in water vapor and temperature profiles. To study this capability, the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) deployed a microwave radiometer at Mahabubnagar, Telangana, during August 2011 as part of the Integrated Ground Campaign during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX-IGOC). In this study, temperature profiles for the first time have been estimated using short but statistically significant background information so as to improve the accuracy of the retrieved profiles as well as to be able to detect gradients. Estimated water vapor and temperature profiles are compared with those taken from the reanalysis data updated by the Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to determine the range of possible errors. Similarly, root mean square errors are evaluated for a month for water vapor and temperature profiles to estimate the accuracy of the retrievals. It is found that water vapor and temperature profiles can be estimated with an acceptable accuracy by using a background information data set compiled over a period of 1 month.

  6. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  7. Low-level water vapor fields from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (VAS) split window channels at 11 and 12 microns. [visible infrared spin scan radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Uccellini, L.; Robinson, W.

    1982-01-01

    A series of high-resolution water vapor fields were derived from the 11 and 12 micron channels of the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) on GOES-5. The low-level tropospheric moisture content was separated from the surface and atmospheric radiances by using the differential adsorption across the 'split window' along with the average air temperature from imbedded radiosondes. Fields of precipitable water are presented in a time sequence of five false color images taken over the United States at 3-hour intervals. Vivid subsynoptic and mesoscale patterns evolve at 15 km horizontal resolution over the 12-hour observing period. Convective cloud formations develop from several areas of enhanced low-level water vapor, especially where the vertical water vapor gradient relatively strong. Independent verification at radiosonde sites indicates fairly good absolute accuracy, and the spatial and temporal continuity of the water vapor features indicates very good relative accuracy. Residual errors are dominated by radiometer noise and unresolved clouds.

  8. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates From WindSat and MODIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of soil moisture content by microwave remote sensing is important for quantifying the global energy, water and biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation water content (VWC, kg m-2) is one of the important parameters for retrieval of soil moisture using passive microwave radiometers. Liquid w...

  9. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S. K.; Cecil, D.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Sahawneh, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Morris, M.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Black, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an airborne passive microwave radiometer designed to provide high resolution, wide swath imagery of surface wind speed in tropical cyclones from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. Wind speed and rain rate images from HIRAD's first field campaign (GRIP, 2010) are presented here followed, by a discussion on the performance of the newly installed thermal control system during the 2012 HS3 campaign. The paper ends with a discussion on the next generation dual polarization HIRAD antenna (already designed) for a future system capable of measuring wind direction as well as wind speed.

  10. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... What Can Consumers Do to Avoid Super-Heated Water? Follow the precautions and recommendations found in the ...

  11. Water - The key to global change. [of weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A.

    1988-01-01

    The role of water in processes of global change is discussed. The importance of water in global warming, the loss of biological diversity, the activity of the El Nino southern oscillation, and the melting of polar ice are examined. Plans for a mission to measure tropical rainfall using a two frequency radar, a visible/IR radiometer and a passive microwave radiometer are noted. The way in which global change is affected by changes in patterns of available water is considered.

  12. Microwave heating of water, ice, and saline solution: molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motohiko; Sato, Motoyasu

    2007-01-21

    In order to study the heating process of water by the microwaves of 2.5-20 GHz frequencies, the authors have performed molecular dynamics simulations by adopting a nonpolarizable water model that has fixed point charges on a rigid-body geometry. All runs are started from the equilibrated states derived from the I(c) ice with given density and temperature. In the presence of microwaves, the molecules of liquid water exhibit rotational motion whose average phase is delayed from the microwave electric field. Microwave energy is transferred to the kinetic and intermolecular energies of water, where one-third of the absorbed microwave energy is stored as the latter energy. The water in ice phase is scarcely heated by microwaves because of the tight hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Dilute salt water is significantly more heated than pure water because of the field-induced motion of salt ions, especially that of large-size ions, by the microwave electric field and energy transfer to water molecules by collisions.

  13. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD): Instrument Status and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher; Bailey, M. C.; Gross, Steven; Hood, Robbie; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative radiometer which offers new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) [Uhlhorn and Black, 2004]. The HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer (STAR) technology [Ruf et al., 1988]. This sensor operates over 4-7 GHz, where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometer [Bettenhausen et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2006]. HIRAD incorporates a new and unique array antenna design along with several technologies successfully demonstrated by the Lightweight Rain Radiometer instrument [Ruf et al., 2002; Ruf and Principe, 2003]. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean winds and rain in hurricane conditions. Accurate observations of surface ocean vector winds (OVW) with high spatial and temporal resolution are required for understanding and predicting tropical cyclones. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative architecture which offers new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone (TC) ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer (STAR) technology combined with a a unique array antenna design. The overarching design concept of HIRAD is to combine the multi-frequency C-band observing strategy of the SFMR with STAR technology to

  14. Interpretation of observed microwave signatures from ground dual polarization radar and space multi frequency radiometer for the 2011 Grímsvötn volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, M.; Vulpiani, G.; Cimini, D.; Picciotti, E.; Marzano, F. S.

    2013-07-01

    The important role played by ground-based microwave weather radars for the monitoring of volcanic ash clouds has been recently demonstrated. The potential of microwaves from satellite passive and ground-based active sensors to estimate near-source volcanic ash cloud parameters has been also proposed, though with little investigation of their synergy and the role of the radar polarimetry. The goal of this work is to show the potentiality and drawbacks of the X-band Dual Polarization radar measurements (DPX) through the data acquired during the latest Grímsvötn volcanic eruptions that took place on May 2011 in Iceland. The analysis is enriched by the comparison between DPX data and the observations from the satellite Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and a C-band Single Polarization (SPC) radar. SPC, DPX, and SSMIS instruments cover a large range of the microwaves spectrum, operating respectively at 5.4, 3.2, and 0.16-1.6 cm wavelengths. The multi-source comparison is made in terms of Total Columnar Concentration (TCC). The latter is estimated from radar observables using the "Volcanic Ash Radar Retrieval for dual-Polarization X band systems" (VARR-PX) algorithm and from SSMIS brightness temperature (BT) using a linear BT-TCC relationship. The BT-TCC relationship has been compared with the analogous relation derived from SSMIS and SPC radar data for the same case study. Differences between these two linear regression curves are mainly attributed to an incomplete observation of the vertical extension of the ash cloud, a coarser spatial resolution and a more pronounced non-uniform beam filling effect of SPC measurements (260 km far from the volcanic vent) with respect to the DPX (70 km from the volcanic vent). Results show that high-spatial-resolution DPX radar data identify an evident volcanic plume signature, even though the interpretation of the polarimetric variables and the related retrievals is not always straightforward, likely due to the

  15. First extended validation of satellite microwave liquid water path with ship-based observations of marine low clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painemal, David; Greenwald, Thomas; Cadeddu, Maria; Minnis, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We present the first extended validation of satellite microwave (MW) liquid water path (LWP) for low nonprecipitating clouds, from four operational sensors, against ship-borne observations from a three-channel MW radiometer collected along ship transects over the northeast Pacific during May-August 2013. Satellite MW retrievals have an overall correlation of 0.84 with ship observations and a bias of 9.3 g/m2. The bias for broken cloud scenes increases linearly with water vapor path and remains below 17.7 g/m2. In contrast, satellite MW LWP is unbiased in overcast scenes with correlations up to 0.91, demonstrating that the retrievals are accurate and reliable under these conditions. Satellite MW retrievals produce a diurnal cycle amplitude consistent with ship-based observations (33 g/m2). Observations taken aboard extended ship cruises to evaluate not only satellite MW LWP but also LWP derived from visible/infrared sensors offer a new way to validate this important property over vast oceanic regions.

  16. Retrieval of Ocean Surface Windspeed and Rainrate from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Brightness Temperature Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Sayak K.; Jones, Linwood; Roberts, Jason; Ruf, Christopher; Ulhorn, Eric; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne synthetic aperture passive microwave radiometer capable of wide swath imaging of the ocean surface wind speed under heavy precipitation e.g. in tropical cyclones. It uses interferometric signal processing to produce upwelling brightness temperature (Tb) images at its four operating frequencies 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz [1,2]. HIRAD participated in NASA s Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission during 2010 as its first science field campaign. It produced Tb images with 70 km swath width and 3 km resolution from a 20 km altitude. From this, ocean surface wind speed and column averaged atmospheric liquid water content can be retrieved across the swath. The column averaged liquid water then could be related to an average rain rate. The retrieval algorithm (and the HIRAD instrument itself) is a direct descendant of the nadir-only Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer that is used operationally by the NOAA Hurricane Research Division to monitor tropical cyclones [3,4]. However, due to HIRAD s slant viewing geometry (compared to nadir viewing SFMR) a major modification is required in the algorithm. Results based on the modified algorithm from the GRIP campaign will be presented in the paper.

  17. Adding constraints by in situ informations to optimal estimation retrievals of tropospheric water vapour profiles from microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleisch, R.; Kämpfer, N.

    2012-11-01

    The optimal estimation method is a widely used method to invert species profiles from spectra observed by a microwave radiometer. The classical retrieval is constrained by the a priori profile and the corresponding covariance matrix, which is a “soft” constraining of the retrieved profile to a certain range of values. However, in some cases a “hard” constraining of the profile to a fixed value known from other measurements would be desirable.This work presents an approach to introduce such “hard” retrieval constraints (fixed-points) into optimal estimation retrievals by adapting the a priori covariance matrix.Its application is tested on the example of the retrieval of tropospheric water vapour volume mixing ratio (vmr) profiles from spectra of the MIAWARA radiometer operated by the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern. Thereby the cloud base height is one candidate to deliver a fixed-point, as the corresponding vmr value can be determined by assuming a relative humidity of 100%.As a test, the approach is applied to spectra simulated from balloon soundings. The cloud base height is derived from these same balloon soundings. The results show a significant improvement of the retrieval performance for all cases with liquid clouds except for fog.Afterwards the approach is also applied to real MIAWARA data. Thereby the measurements of a ceilometer and an infrared sensor (both installed close to the instrument) are used to derive a fixed-point.In principle, the application on real data also works. However the retrieval performance is limited, because we are currently not able to determine the vmr value at fixed-point altitude with suitable precision. The cloud base temperature, needed for the calculation of the vmr value at fixed-point altitude, is determined indirectly from measurements of an infrared sensor attached to the instruments or by for example interpolating data from ECMWF-reanalysis. In both cases the precision is not very high, with

  18. Water Vapor Radiometer-Global Positioning System Comparison Measurements and Calibration of the 20 to 32 Gigahertz Tropospheric Water Vapor Absorption Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keihm, S. J.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Liljegren, J.

    2000-10-01

    Collocated measurements of opacity (from water vapor radiometer (WVR) brightness temperatures) and wet path delay (from ground-based tracking of Global Positions System (GPS) satellites) are used to constrain the model of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 20 to 32 GHz band. A differential approach is presented in which the slope of opacity-versus-wet delay data is used as the absorption model constraint. This technique minimizes the effects of radiometric calibration errors and oxygen model uncertainties in the derivation of a best-fit vapor absorption model. A total of approximately 5 months of data were obtained from two experiment sites. At the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, three independent WVRs provided near-continuous opacity measurements over the interval from July through September 1998. At NASA's Goldstone tracking station in the California desert, two WVRs obtained opacity data over the September through October 1997 interval. At both sites, a GPS receiver and surface barometer obtained the data required for deriving the zenith wet delays over the same time frames. Measured values of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope parameter were obtained at four WVR frequencies (20.7, 22.2, 23.8, and 31.4 GHz) and compared with predictions of three candidate absorption models referenced in the recent literature. With one exception, all three models provide agreement within approximately 5 percent of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope measurements at all WVR frequencies at both sites. One model provides agreement for all channels at both sites to the 2 to 3 percent level. This accuracy is sufficient to meet the requirements of the tropospheric calibration system now being deployed at Goldstone to support the Cassini Gravitational Wave Experiment.

  19. Infrared and Microwave Spectra of Ne-WATER Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xunchen; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; Hou, Dan; Li, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The binary complex of rare gas atom and water is an ideal model to study the anisotropic potential energy surface of van der Waals interaction and the large amplitude motion. Although Xe-H_2O, Kr-H_2O, Ar-H_2O, Ar-D_2O and even Ne-D_2O complexes were studied by microwave or high resolution infrared spectroscopy, the lighter Ne-H_2O complex has remained unidentified. In this talk, we will present the theoretical and experimental investigation of the Ne-H_2O complex. A four-dimension PES for H_2O-Ne which only depended on the intramolecular (Q2) normal-mode coordinate of H2O monomer was calculated in this work to determine the rovibrational energy levels and mid-infrared transitions. Aided with the calculated transitions, we were able to assigned the high resolution mid-infrared spectra of both 20Ne-H_2O and 22Ne-H_2O complexes that are generated with a pulsed supersonic molecular beam in a multipass direct absorption spectrometer equiped with an external cavity quantum cascade laser at 6 μm. Several bands of both para and ortho Ne-H2O were assigned and fitted using the Hamiltonian with strong Coriolis and angular-radical coupling terms. The predicted groud state energy levels are then confirmed by the J=1-0 and J=2-1 transitions measurement using a cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer.

  20. Microwave Radiometer Observations of Snowpack Properties and Comparison of U.S. Japanese Results. [Hokkaido, Japan and Vermont and North Dakota test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave data collected by field experiments over Vermont and Hokkaido and Nimbus-7 SMMR over North Dakota and Hokkaido were studied. The measured 37 GHz brightness temperatures show considerable effect of volume scattering by snow grains. The 37 GHz brightness for a new snowpack with average grain radius of 0.25 mm is generally about 40 K higher than the naturally compacted pack with average grain radius of 0.4 mm. The scattering effect is much less distinct for the 6.6 GHz. However, the layering effect is much stronger at the longer wavelength. For 10.7 and 18 GHz, the effect of layering and scattering vary due to different combinations of internal snow grain distribution and layering structures. Over the Hokkaido test site, the SMMR data are too coarse for the snow field. A better spatial resolution is required to study these snow fields.

  1. Dielectric constants of soils at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, F. E.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    A knowledge of the complex dielectric constant of soils is essential in the interpretation of microwave airborne radiometer data of the earth's surface. Measurements were made at 37 GHz on various soils from the Phoenix, Ariz., area. Extensive data have been obtained for dry soil and soil with water content in the range from 0.6 to 35 percent by dry weight. Measurements were made in a two arm microwave bridge and results were corrected for reflections at the sample interfaces by solution of the parallel dielectric plate problem. The maximum dielectric constants are about a factor of 3 lower than those reported for similar soils at X-band frequencies.

  2. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions.

  3. Comparison of tropospheric integrated water vapor content by using GPS, radiosonde, radiometer data and models for the tropical Island of Tahiti (French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, J.; Barriot, J.; Fadil, A.; Sichoix, L.

    2011-12-01

    The integrated precipitable water (IPW) in the troposphere can be subject to strong spatial and temporal variations, in particular over tropical zones. The IPW is estimated at the Geodetic Tahiti Observatory site from GPS, radiosonde, radiometer measurements. 8 years (2001-2008) of GPS observations at the IGS THTI station are processed with the GIPSY-OASIS II software package following the precise point positioning (PPP) mode. We compare the IPW of the permanent GPS data with those derived from the collocated radiometer and radiosonde data. The Global Forecast System (GFS) model which covers the entire globe with one degree latitude and longitude grid spacing, is then used to obtain the IPW at the same site. The meteorological surface data (pressure, temperature and relative humidity) also help to compute the IPW by using the Saastamoinen model. Finally, the analysis of the correlation between all these IPW estimates leads us to re-adjust the Saastamoinen parameters such that correction coefficients now better constrain the tropospheric model.

  4. Radiant Temperature Nulling Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A self-calibrating nulling radiometer for non-contact temperature measurement of an object, such as a body of water, employs a black body source as a temperature reference, an optomechanical mechanism, e.g., a chopper, to switch back and forth between measuring the temperature of the black body source and that of a test source, and an infrared detection technique. The radiometer functions by measuring radiance of both the test and the reference black body sources; adjusting the temperature of the reference black body so that its radiance is equivalent to the test source; and, measuring the temperature of the reference black body at this point using a precision contact-type temperature sensor, to determine the radiative temperature of the test source. The radiation from both sources is detected by an infrared detector that converts the detected radiation to an electrical signal that is fed with a chopper reference signal to an error signal generator, such as a synchronous detector, that creates a precision rectified signal that is approximately proportional to the difference between the temperature of the reference black body and that of the test infrared source. This error signal is then used in a feedback loop to adjust the reference black body temperature until it equals that of the test source, at which point the error signal is nulled to zero. The chopper mechanism operates at one or more Hertz allowing minimization of l/f noise. It also provides pure chopping between the black body and the test source and allows continuous measurements.

  5. Passive microwave observations of thunderstorms from high-altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Fulton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    A high-altitude (20 km) aircraft made overflights of severe and nonsevere Midwest thunderstorms in the central and southeast U.S. during 2 separate experiments. Down-looking instruments on the aircraft are the imaging Multi-Channel Cloud Radiometer with channels in the visible, IR, and near IR, and two passive microwave instruments, the imaging Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder at 92 (atmospheric window) and 183 GHz (centered on a water vapor line) and the 45 deg foward-of-nadir Multi-Channel Precipitation Radiometer at the 18 and 37 GHz window channels. Over land, the 92 GHz frequency distinguishes quite well the precipitating region from the nonprecipitating anvil region. The interpretation of the microwave measurements is complicated by differences in the cloud microphysics between different climatic regions.

  6. 1/ f-Type noise in a total power radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybulev, P. G.; Dugin, M. V.; Berlin, A. B.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; Kratov, D. V.; Udovitskiy, R. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    We report the experimental results of a study of the sources of 1/ f α type noise (hereafter referred to as 1/ f-type noise for the sake of brevity) in a total power radiometer. We find this noise to have two main sources in the radiometer: microwave amplifiers and the square-law diode detector with a Schottky barrier. We present methods for a substantial reduction of 1/ f-type noise, which allow total power radiometer measurements to be performed with nominal sensitivity on time scales of up to 10 seconds. The sensitivity of the total power radiometer on time scales up to 100 seconds remains higher than that of a Dicke switched radiometer.

  7. Global Comparison of Microwave and Optical Cloud Liquid Water Path Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappan, S.; Horváth, Á.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed one year of spatially and temporally matched microwave and optical cloud liquid water path (CLWP) estimates from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. Specifically, microwave CLWPs were produced by the Wentz algorithm, while optical CLWPs were parameterized from MODIS cloud optical thickness and droplet effective radius. We considered both the operational MODIS estimates assuming vertically homogeneous clouds and an adiabatic cloud model, which reduces operational values by approximately 17%. We then systematically investigated differences between AMSR-E and MODIS CLWP retrievals in warm oceanic clouds as a function of a variety of factors such as cloud fraction, geographic location, effective radius profile, cloud temperature, and rain rate. When all cloud fractions were considered, AMSR-E CLWPs tended to overestimate operational MODIS CLWPs with corresponding global annual means of 58 g/m2 and 40 g/m2, respectively, the rms difference was 42 g/m2, and the datasets were only moderately correlated with a coefficient of 0.71. Global monthly means showed similar AMSR-E overestimations of 15-25 g/m2. These results were due to a high bias in microwave retrievals, which rapidly increased with decreasing cloud fraction. This AMSR-E overestimation in broken cloud fields is not yet fully understood; however, we found a positive microwave bias in cloud-free scenes too, which was a strong function of surface wind speed and column water vapor amount, indicating possible shortcomings in the surface emission parameterization and gaseous absorption models of the Wentz algorithm. In strictly overcast cases, the datasets were significantly better correlated with a coefficient of 0.83, but now operational MODIS retrievals were on average 16% larger than AMSR-E values. The global annual means were 91 g/m2 and 108 g/m2 for AMSR-E and MODIS

  8. The Correlation Radiometer - A New Application in MM-Wave Total Power Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a 180 GHz correlation radiometer suitable for remote sensing. The radiometer provides continuous comparisons between a the observed signal and a reference load to provide stable radiometric baselines. The radiometer was assembled and tested using parts from the GeoSTAR-II instrument and is fully compatible with operation in a synthetic aperture radiometer or as a standalone technology for use in microwave sounding and imaging. This new radiometer was tested over several days easily demonstrating the required 6 hour stability requirement for observations of mean brightness temperature for a geostationary instrument.

  9. Use of microwave radiation in separating emulsions and dispersions of hydrocarbons and water

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, N.O.

    1986-04-15

    A method is described for enhancing the separation of hydrocarbon and water from an emulsion or dispersion thereof comprising the steps of subjecting the emulsion or dispersion to microwave radiation in the range of one millimeter to 30 centimeters and heating the microwave irradiated emulsion or dispersion to a separating temperature using conventional heating means. A method is also described for enhancing the separation of hydrocarbon and water from from dispersion or emulsion thereof in the presence of chemical deemulsifiers comprising the steps of contacting the dispersion or emulsion and chemical deemulsifiers with microwave energy before heating the emulsion or dispersion to a separating temperature using conventional heating means.

  10. Sensitivity of Forward Radiative Transfer Model on Spectroscopic Assumptions and Input Geophysical Parameters at 23.8 GHz and 183 GHz Channels and its Impact on Inter-calibration of Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, S.; Jones, W. L.; Ebrahimi, H.; Chen, R.; Payne, V.; Kroodsma, R.

    2014-12-01

    The first step in radiometric inter-calibration is to ascertain the self-consistency and reasonableness of the observed brightness temperature (Tb) for each individual sensor involved. One of the widely used approaches is to compare the observed Tb with a simulated Tb using a forward radiative transfer model (RTM) and input geophysical parameters at the geographic location and time of the observation. In this study we intend to test the sensitivity of the RTM to uncertainties in the input geophysical parameters as well as to the underlying physical assumptions of gaseous absorption and surface emission in the RTM. SAPHIR, a cross track scanner onboard Indo-French Megha-Tropique Satellite, gives us a unique opportunity of studying 6 dual band 183 GHz channels at an inclined orbit over the Tropics for the first time. We will also perform the same sensitivity analysis using the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) 23 GHz and five 183 GHz channels. Preliminary analysis comparing GDAS and an independent retrieved profile show some sensitivity of the RTM to the input data. An extended analysis of this work using different input geophysical parameters will be presented. Two different absorption models, the Rosenkranz and the MonoRTM will be tested to analyze the sensitivity of the RTM to spectroscopic assumptions in each model. Also for the 23.8 GHz channel, the sensitivity of the RTM to the surface emissivity model will be checked. Finally the impact of these sensitivities on radiometric inter-calibration of radiometers at sounding frequencies will be assessed.

  11. Assessing the utility of passive microwave data for Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimation in the Sutlej River Basin of the northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T.; Bookhagen, B.; Dozier, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1978, space based passive microwave (PM) radiometers have been used to comprehensively measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a global basis. The ability of PM radiometers to directly measure SWE at high temporal frequencies offers some distinct advantages over optical remote sensors. Nevertheless, in mountainous terrain PM radiometers often struggle to accurately measure SWE because of wet snow, saturation in deep snow, forests, depth hoar and stratigraphy, variable relief, and subpixel heterogeneity inherent in large pixel sizes. The Himalaya, because of their high elevation and high relief—much above tree line—offer an opportunity to examine PM products in the mountains without the added complication of trees. The upper Sutlej River basin— the third largest Himalayan catchment—lies in the western Himalaya. The river is a tributary of the Indus River and seasonal snow constitutes a substantial part of the basin's hydrologic budget. The basin has a few surface stations and river gauges, which is unique for the region. As such, the Sutlej River basin is a good location to analyze the accuracy and effectiveness of the current National Snow and Ice Data Center's (NSIDC) standard AMSR-E/Aqua Daily SWE product in mountainous terrain. So far, we have observed that individual pixels can "flicker", i.e. fluctuate from day to day, over large parts of the basin. We consider whether this is an artifact of the algorithm or whether this is embedded in the raw brightness temperatures themselves. In addition, we examine how well the standard product registers winter storms, and how it varies over heavily glaciated pixels. Finally, we use a few common measures of algorithm performance (precision, recall and accuracy) to test how well the standard product detects the presence of snow, using optical imagery for validation. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of PM imagery in the mountains will help to clarify the technology's limits.

  12. The Free Jet Microwave Spectrum of 2-PHENYLETHYLAMINE-WATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melandri, Sonia; Giuliano, B. Michela; Maris, Assimo; Caminati, Walther

    2009-06-01

    2-Phenylethylamine (PEA) is the parent structure for a variety of important compounds including dopamine, tyrosine, anphetamine and adrenaline. Due to the flexibility of the side chain, the conformational hypersurface of the isolated molecule contains several minima at relatively low energy. The conformational surface was studied by various spectroscopic and theoretical techniques and four of the five stable conformers were detected. The most stable conformers observed in isolated conditions are those in which the methylene side chain is folded into a gauche structure and the amino hydrogen is oriented towards the aromatic ring to form a weakly hydrogen bonded structure, while in the less stable conformers the amino group is in the anti position, thus the energy difference between the gauche and anti conformers (ca 4 kJ mol^{-1}) represents the energy associated with this weak interaction. Since bioactive molecules can be found in different environments including aqueous media and rotational spectroscopy coupled with high level ab initio calculations gives the most detailed structural picture, we studied the free jet microwave spectrum of the adducts formed between PEA and water in the region 60-78 GHz. The dominant spectrum is that of the 1:1 adduct of PEA and water where PEA is in its most stable gauche conformation and the water molecole is bound to the nitrogen lone pair. The orientation of the water molecole is such that the oxygen atom is closest (ca 2.5 Å) and equidistant from the ring and chain hydrogen atoms. The experimental data were complemented by ab initio calculations at the MP2/6311++G** level of theory; several stable conformations of the PEA-W have been characterized and the observed structure corresponds to the global minimum. The bonding of water seems to affect only slightly the structure of isolated PEA and the main structural parameters of the flexible amino side chain remain basically unaltered. Some lines still remain unassigned in the

  13. Evaluation of dielectric mixing models for microwave soil moisture retrieval using data from the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) ground-based SMAP simulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture measurements are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes, ecosystem functions, and linkages between the Earth’s water, energy, and carbon cycles. The efficient retrieval of soil moisture depends on various factors in which soil dielectric mixing models are consi...

  14. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Martinec, J.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Vankatwijk, V.

    1988-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  15. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, Albert; Van Katwijk, Victor F.; Martinec, Jaroslav; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  16. DIRECT SYNTHESIS OF TERTIARY AMINES IN WATER USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct synthesis of tertiary amines is presented that proceeds expeditiously via N-alkylation of amines using alkyl halides in alkaline aqueous medium. This environmentally benign reaction is accelerated upon exposure to microwave irradiation resulting in shortened reaction tim...

  17. Preliminary results of passive microwave snow experiment during February and March 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Shiue, J. C.; Boyne, H.; Ellerbruch, D.; Counas, G.; Wittmann, R.; Jones, R.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to determine if remote microwave sensing of snowpack data could be used to predict runoff, thereby allowing more efficient management of the water supply. A four-frequency microwave radiometer system was attached to a truck-mounted aerial lift and was used to gather data on snowpacks at three different sites in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Ground truth data measurements (density, temperature, grain size, hardness, and free-liquid water content) were taken at each site corresponding to each microwave scan.

  18. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  19. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  20. AESMIR: A New NASA Airborne Microwave Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Hood, Robbie; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer under development by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it will perform dual-polarized imaging at all AMSR frequency bands (6.9 through 89 GHz) using only one sensor head/scanner package, providing an efficient solution for AMSR-type science applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precip, ocean winds, SST, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s and the Proteus. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high altitude microwave imaging.

  1. Investigation of the effects of summer melt on the calculation of sea ice concentration using active and passive microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Burns, Barbara A.; Onstott, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of ice surface melt on microwave signatures and errors in the calculation of sea ice concentration are examined, using active and passive microwave data sets from the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment aircraft flights in the Fram Strait region. Consideration is given to the possibility of using SAR to supplement passive microwave data to unambiguously discriminate between open water areas and ponded floes. Coincident active multichannel microwave radiometer and SAR measurements of individual floes are used to describe the effects of surface melt on sea ice concentration calculations.

  2. High solar intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are used to measure visible radiant energy and radiation intensities to 20 solar constants. Future investigations are planned for up to 100 solar constants. Radiometer is small, rugged, accurate and inexpensive.

  3. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2015-04-01

    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into

  4. Calibration and Image Reconstruction for the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher; Roberts, J. Brent; Biswas, Sayak; James, Mark W.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne passive microwave synthetic aperture radiometer designed to provide wide swath images of ocean surface wind speed under heavy precipitation and, in particular, in tropical cyclones. It operates at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz and uses interferometric signal processing to synthesize a pushbroom imager in software from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. HIRAD participated in NASA s Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission during Fall 2010 as its first science field campaign. HIRAD produced images of upwelling brightness temperature over a aprox 70 km swath width with approx 3 km spatial resolution. From this, ocean surface wind speed and column averaged atmospheric liquid water content can be retrieved across the swath. The calibration and image reconstruction algorithms that were used to verify HIRAD functional performance during and immediately after GRIP were only preliminary and used a number of simplifying assumptions and approximations about the instrument design and performance. The development and performance of a more detailed and complete set of algorithms are reported here.

  5. Influence of microwave heating on fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in water.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Dias, Jailson Cardoso; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Korn, Mauro; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes a study about the influence of microwave radiation using closed vessels on fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in aqueous media. The experiments were processed by heating water using PFA vessels and a microwave cavity oven, determining the anions by ion chromatography. The influence of the exposure time, the atmospheric composition, the kind of heating (water bath or microwave radiation) and the possible formation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. The limits of quantification for fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate were respectively of 0.17, 0.15, 0.55 and 0.57 μg L(-1), and precision, expressed as RSD, was <4% for all considered anions. The hydrogen peroxide was quantified by spectrophotometry, and the limit of quantification and precision were 24 μg L(-1) and <5% (n=10), respectively. The results demonstrate a significant increase in the anion concentration levels (between 63 and 89%) when microwave heating was used in comparison with heating by water bath. In addition, these changes observed can be mainly attributed to the species transfers, either between gaseous (atmospheric gases) and liquid (water) phases for nitrate, or between vessels walls and water for fluoride, chloride and sulfate. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide concentration higher than 45 μg L(-1) was determined when water was exposed to microwave radiation.

  6. Airborne microwave radiometric data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Results from the 1.5 cm, 19.35 GHz electrical scanning microwave radiometer which was once of the instruments used during the 1971 flight over Imperial Valley, California; Phoenix, Arizona; and Weslaco, Texas.

  7. Technique for Radiometer and Antenna Array Calibration with a Radiated Noise Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh; Laymon, Charles; Meyer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique to calibrate a microwave radiometer and antenna array system. This calibration technique uses a radiated noise source in addition to two calibration sources internal to the radiometer. The method accurately calibrates antenna arrays with embedded active devices (such as amplifiers) which are used extensively in active phased array antennas.

  8. Removal of caffeine from green tea by microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zaixiang; Er, Chaojuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Sun, Juntao

    2012-02-24

    In order to selectively remove caffeine from green tea, a microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction (MVIE) method was proposed. The effects of MVIE variables including extraction time, microwave power, and solvent to solid radio on the removal yield of caffeine and the loss of total phenolics (TP) from green tea were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: solvent (mL) to solid (g) ratio was 10:1, microwave extraction time was 6 min, microwave power was 350 W and 2.5 h of vacuum ice water extraction. The removal yield of caffeine by MVIE was 87.6%, which was significantly higher than that by hot water extraction, indicating a significant improvement of removal efficiency. Moreover, the loss of TP of green tea in the proposed method was much lower than that in the hot water extraction. After decaffeination by MVIE, the removal yield of TP tea was 36.2%, and the content of TP in green tea was still higher than 170 mg g(-1). Therefore, the proposed microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction was selective, more efficient for the removal of caffeine. The main phenolic compounds of green tea were also determined, and the results indicated that the contents of several catechins were almost not changed in MVIE. This study suggests that MVIE is a new and good alternative for the removal of caffeine from green tea, with a great potential for industrial application.

  9. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time.

  10. Retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius from Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yin B.; Vogelmann A.; Min Q.; Duan M.; Bartholomew M. J.; Turner D. D.

    2011-12-13

    A Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) was developed and deployed in a field test at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The TCRSR measures the forward-scattering lobe of the direct solar beam (i.e., the solar aureole) through an optically thin cloud (optical depth < 8). We applied the retrieval algorithm of Min and Duan (2005) to the TCRSR measurements of the solar aureole to derive simultaneously the cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud drop effective radius (DER), subsequently inferring the cloud liquid-water path (LWP). After careful calibration and preprocessing, our results indicate that the TCRSR is able to retrieve simultaneously these three properties for optically thin water clouds. Colocated instruments, such as the MultiFilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), and Microwave Radiometer (MWR), are used to evaluate our retrieval results. The relative difference between retrieved CODs from the TCRSR and those from the MFRSR is less than 5%. The distribution of retrieved LWPs from the TCRSR is similar to those from the MWR and AERI. The differences between the TCRSR-based retrieved DERs and those from the AERI are apparent in some time periods, and the uncertainties of the DER retrievals are discussed in detail in this article.

  11. Radiometer requirements for Earth-observation systems using large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Harrington, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements are defined for Earth observation microwave radiometry for the decade of the 1990's by using large space antenna (LSA) systems with apertures in the range from 50 to 200 m. General Earth observation needs, specific measurement requirements, orbit mission guidelines and constraints, and general radiometer requirements are defined. General Earth observation needs are derived from NASA's basic space science program. Specific measurands include soil moisture, sea surface temperature, salinity, water roughness, ice boundaries, and water pollutants. Measurements are required with spatial resolution from 10 to 1 km and with temporal resolution from 3 days to 1 day. The primary orbit altitude and inclination ranges are 450 to 2200 km and 60 to 98 deg, respectively. Contiguous large scale coverage of several land and ocean areas over the globe dictates large (several hundred kilometers) swaths. Radiometer measurements are made in the bandwidth range from 1 to 37 GHz, preferably with dual polarization radiometers with a minimum of 90 percent beam efficiency. Reflector surface, root mean square deviation tolerances are in the wavelength range from 1/30 to 1/100.

  12. Determination of water content in clay and organic soil using microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Matveenko, I. A.; Molokov, V. Yu; Vasilenko, Ye S.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the techniques of soil water content determination using microwave radiation. Its practical application would allow solving the problems of resource efficiency in geotechnical survey due to reduction of energy and resource intensity of laboratory analysis as well as its acceleration by means of decreasing labour intensity and, as a result, cost reduction. The article presents a detail analysis of approaches to soil water content determination and soil drying, considers its features and application. The study in soil of different composition, typical for Western Siberia including organic and organic-mineral ones, is a peculiarity of the given article, which makes it rather topical. The article compares and analyzes the results of the investigation into soil water content, which are obtained via conventional techniques and the original one developed by the authors, consisting in microwave drying. The authors also give recommendation on microwave technique application to dry soil.

  13. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  14. Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Isaac Ramos; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Camps, Adriano; Alvarez, Nereida Rodriguez; Hernandez, Juan Fernando Marchán; Domènech, Enric Valencia; Vernich, Carlos; de la Rosa, Sonia; Pantoja, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network. PMID:22454576

  15. Observations of cloud liquid water path over oceans: Optical and microwave remote sensing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Rossow, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Published estimates of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from satellite-measured microwave radiation show little agreement, even about the relative magnitudes of LWP in the tropics and midlatitudes. To understand these differences and to obtain more reliable estimate, optical and microwave LWP retrieval methods are compared using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) data. Errors in microwave LWP retrieval associated with uncertainties in surface, atmosphere, and cloud properties are assessed. Sea surface temperature may not produce great LWP errors, if accurate contemporaneous measurements are used in the retrieval. An uncertainty of estimated near-surface wind speed as high as 2 m/s produces uncertainty in LWP of about 5 mg/sq cm. Cloud liquid water temperature has only a small effect on LWP retrievals (rms errors less than 2 mg/sq cm), if errors in the temperature are less than 5 C; however, such errors can produce spurious variations of LWP with latitude and season. Errors in atmospheric column water vapor (CWV) are strongly coupled with errors in LWP (for some retrieval methods) causing errors as large as 30 mg/sq cm. Because microwave radiation is much less sensitive to clouds with small LWP (less than 7 mg/sq cm) than visible wavelength radiation, the microwave results are very sensitive to the process used to separate clear and cloudy conditions. Different cloud detection sensitivities in different microwave retrieval methods bias estimated LWP values. Comparing ISCCP and SSM/I LWPs, we find that the two estimated values are consistent in global, zonal, and regional means for warm, nonprecipitating clouds, which have average LWP values of about 5 mg/sq cm and occur much more frequently than precipitating clouds. Ice water path (IWP) can be roughly estimated from the differences between ISCCP total water path and SSM/I LWP for cold, nonprecipitating clouds. IWP in the winter hemisphere is about

  16. Juno Microwave Radiometer Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, N.; Chen, J.; Focardi, P.; Hodges, R.; Hughes, R.; Jakoboski, J.; Venkatesan, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Juno is a mission in the NASA New Frontiers Program with the goal of significantly improving our understanding of the formation and structure of Jupiter. This paper discusses the modeling and measurement of the two patch array antennas. An overview of the antenna architecture, design and development at JPL is provided, along with estimates of performance and the results of measurements.

  17. High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer for the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon T.; Lim, Boon H.; Tanner, Alan B.; Tanabe, Jordan M.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Denning, Richard F.; Stachnik, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging radiometers operating in the 50-183 GHz range for retrieving atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles from airborne platforms have been limited in the spatial scales of atmospheric structures that are resolved not because of antenna aperture size, but because of high receiver noise masking the small variations that occur on small spatial scales. Atmospheric variability on short spatial and temporal scales (second/ km scale) is completely unresolved by existing microwave profilers. The solution was to integrate JPL-designed, high-frequency, low-noise-amplifier (LNA) technology into the High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR), which is an airborne microwave sounding radiometer, to lower the system noise by an order of magnitude to enable the instrument to resolve atmospheric variability on small spatial and temporal scales. HAMSR has eight sounding channels near the 60-GHz oxygen line complex, ten channels near the 118.75-GHz oxygen line, and seven channels near the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. The HAMSR receiver system consists of three heterodyne spectrometers covering the three bands. The antenna system consists of two back-to-back reflectors that rotate together at a programmable scan rate via a stepper motor. A single full rotation includes the swath below the aircraft followed by observations of ambient (roughly 0 C in flight) and heated (70 C) blackbody calibration targets located at the top of the rotation. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to read the digitized radiometer counts and receive the reflector position from the scan motor encoder, which are then sent to a microprocessor and packed into data files. The microprocessor additionally reads telemetry data from 40 onboard housekeeping channels (containing instrument temperatures), and receives packets from an onboard navigation unit, which provides GPS time and position as well as independent attitude information (e.g., heading, roll, pitch, and yaw). The raw

  18. Aquarius Radiometer Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Dinnat, E. P.; de Matthaeis, P.; Utku, C.; Abraham, S.; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 as part of the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since being turned on in August of the same year. The initial map of sea surface salinity was released one month later (September) and the quality of the retrieval has continuously improved since then. The Aquarius radiometers include several special features such as measurement of the third Stokes parameter, fast sampling, and careful thermal control, and a combined passive/active instrument. Aquarius is working well and in addition to helping measure salinity, the radiometer special features are generating new results.

  19. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picard, Ghislain; Brucker, Ludovic; Roy, Alexandre; DuPont, FLorent; Champollion, Nicolas; Morin, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer).

  20. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Picard, Ghislain; Roy, Alexandre; Dupont, Florent; Fily, Michel; Royer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer), and is available at http:lgge.osug.frpicarddmrtml.

  1. Retrieval of the middle atmosphere temperature profile from ground-based microwave sounding data using synchronous measurements of tropospheric water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikovich, Mikhail; Mukhin, Dmitry; Shvetsov, Alexander; Karashtin, Dmitriy; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Thermal structure of middle atmosphere is a key factor in dynamics and photochemical balance. Presently it is obtained almost exclusively by remote sensing techniques. Satellite based microwave and infra-red radiometric sounding techniques are the most popular as they provide whole globe coverage. The cost of global coverage is low time resolution considering certain small geographic region. Ground based microwave sounding, on the contrary, may provide the high time resolution in a spatial point of interest. Studying of fast local atmospheric processes is an example of an application where the latter is preferable. Rescently ground based microwave sounding of the middle atmosphere temperature profile was realised for the first time (see [1], [2]). However our preliminary investigation has shown that inadequate knowledge of water vapour distribution in the troposphere may in some cases ruin the retrieval procedure rendering the results heavily biased. To overcome this drawback, a development of the method has been proposed: new receiver was incorporated into the radiometry complex, and new version of retrieval procedure was implemented. The development consists in binding together measurements of stratospheric thermal structure and tropospheric water vapour distributions. Both measurements are retrieved from microwave radiometric data: spectrum of atmospheric self-radiation is measured in (52.5-53.5) GHz and (22-31.4) GHz bands. In this report the improved retrieval procedure is described. It realizes Bayesian approach to treatment of ill-posed problems. The several versions on the algorithm using different parameterizations of the profiles and various prior constrains are presented. The work of the algorithm on simulated and real data is demonstrated. The real data was collected by radiometry complex installed in IAP RAS (Russia, Nizhniy Novgorod 56°20'N 44°00'E). 1. A. A. Shvetsov , L. I. Fedoseev, D. A. Karashtin, O. S. Bol'shakov, D. N. Mukhin, N. K. Skalyga

  2. In-situ calibration of the water vapor channel for multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer using collocated GPS, AERONET and meteorology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maosi; Zempila, Melina-Maria; Davis, John M.; King, Robert W.; Gao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The difficulty of in-situ calibration on the 940 nm channel of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) stems from the distinctive non-linear relationship between the amount of precipitable water vapor (PW) and its optical depth (i.e. curve of growth) compared to the counterpart of aerosols. Previous approaches, the modified Langley methods (MLM), require exact aerosol optical depth (AOD) values and a constant PW value at all points participating the regression. Instead, we propose a new method that substitutes the PW optical depth derived from collocated GPS zenith wet delay retrieval in conjunction with meteorology data and requires a constant AOD value at all points participating the regression. The main benefits of the new method include: (1) Aerosol stability is easier to fulfill than PW stability; (2) AOD stability could be inferred from adjacent channels (e.g. 672 and 870 nm) of MFRSR itself without measurements of a collocated AERONET sun photometer; and (3) When applicable, the time interval of GPS derived PW (i.e. 3 minutes) is more compatible with the MFRSR sampling interval (i.e. 3 minutes) than AERONET interpolated AOD (i.e. 15 minutes). Both MLM and the new method were applied to the MFRSR of USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program at the station in Billings, Oklahoma (active for 18 years so far) on July 28, 2015. The performances of the two methods are compared in order to assess their accuracy and the advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Applicaton of radiative transfer theory to microwave transmission medium calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    Precise determinations of the transmission medium loss and noise temperature contribution which are important to the performance characterization of low noise microwave receiving systems and thermal noise standards are discussed. Tropospheric loss is frequently inferred from microwave radiometer noise temperature measurements. Interpretation of these measurements requires an inversion of the radiative transfer integral equation. This is inconvenient even with computer techniques. Solutions of a rapidly convergent power series of the radiative transfer equations are presented. This solution is applicable to a low loss medium with either uniform or nonuniform loss distributions. A four layer atmosphere model is investigated to demonstrate the accuracy of the solution relative to the model. Applications include thermal noise standards and single- and dual-frequency water radiometers.

  4. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  5. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOEpatents

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gestin, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  6. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOEpatents

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Gestin, J.F.

    1994-08-02

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  7. Microwave-induced increase of water and conductivity in submaxillary salivary gland of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajczyk, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hypersalivation is an important mechanism for heat dissipation by animals without sweat glands. The water content and conductivity (at 20 kHz) in submaxillary salivary glands (SSG) and in other tissues were investigated in adult male rats exposed to microwaves (2880 MHz, 1.5 microsecond pulses at 1000 Hz) or to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. Eighty rats in one series were exposed, one at a time, for 30 min to microwaves producing a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.2, 6.3, 6.8, 8.4, 10.8 or 12.6 W/kg. Fifty rats were sham-exposed under similar environmental conditions. In the second series, ten rats were sham-exposed, 33 rats were exposed one at time, for 15, 30 or 60 min to microwaves at a SAR of 9.5 W/kg, and 32 rats were exposed for similar periods to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. In rats of the first series colonic temperatures were elevated significantly at a SAR of 4.2 W/kg, while SSG water content and conductivity increased significantly at SAR values of 6.3 W/kg and higher. In the second series of experiments increases in colonic temperature and SSG water content were greater after 15 and 30 min of microwave exposure than after exposure to heat. Also, SSG conductivity was significantly depressed by heat and significantly increased by microwaves after exposure for 15 or 30 min. The results support the hypothesis that water content and conductivity of SSG of rats can be used as a sensitive specific test of a microwave induced thermal response.

  8. Assimilation of Combined Microwave and Lightning Measurement in a Mesoscale Weather Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Dong-Eon; Weinman, James A.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent measurements of precipitation and integrated water vapor (IWV) distributions were retrieved from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometers. Lightning generates very low frequency (VLF) radio noise pulses called sferics. Those pulses propagate over large distances so that they can be continuously monitored with a sparse network of ground based radio receivers. Sferics data, tuned with intermittent spaceborne microwave radiometer data, were used to generate estimated rainfall that was assimilated into a mesoscale weather prediction model. Both continuous latent heating adjustment and a variational technique are applied as assimilation procedures to evaluate the impact of lightning observations on the forecast of an intense winter squall line over the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitivities to the assimilation of additional measurements such as IWV and sea surface temperature (SST), and measurement errors will also be discussed.

  9. Investigating the role of total precipitable water and leaf area index in the decoupling of passive microwave brightness temperatures over snow-covered regions of forested terrain in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow is a significant contributor to the Earth's hydrologic cycle, energy cycle, and climate system due to its control of mass and energy exchanges at the land surface. In order to better protect and preserve this vital natural resource, it is essential to first quantify how much snow exists as a function of both time and space. Unfortunately, existing space-based snow mass (e.g., snow water equivalent [SWE]) estimation algorithms relying on passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperature (Tb) observations can significantly underestimate SWE, particularly in densely-forested regions since forest cover tends to modulate the snow-related portion of the Tb signal as measured from space. Both the overlying vegetation and the overlying atmosphere can attenuate surface microwave emission while simultaneously emitting its own radiation towards the satellite. A Tb decoupling process is explored here via parameterization of atmospheric and forest transmissivity as a function of satellite-derived total precipitable water (TPW) and leaf area index (LAI), respectively. This study also explores the sensitivity of the decoupled multi-frequency, multi-polarization Tb to different LAI retrieval algorithms. Preliminary results suggest the choice of LAI retrieval algorithm significantly affects the efficacy of the Tb decoupling procedure over snow-covered land, and therefore, an accurate representation of LAI as measured from space is integral for improved estimation of regional SWE using space-based passive microwave radiometers.

  10. Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    •Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water •CRADA’s with the private companies, CEM corporation and VeruTEK Technologies •Green Chemistry principles are accommodated via multi-faceted approach. Learning from nature- using na...

  11. Monitoring System for Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Ground-Based Multi-Band Radiometer: Meteorological Application of Radio Astronomy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, T.; Araki, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Kominami, K.; Tajima, O.

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution estimation of thermodynamic properties in the atmosphere can help to predict and mitigate meteorological disasters, such as local heavy rainfall and tornadic storms. For the purposes of short-term forecasting and nowcasting of severe storms, we propose a novel ground-based measurement system, which observes the intensity of atmospheric radiation in the microwave range. Our multi-band receiver system is designed to identify a rapid increase in water vapor before clouds are generated. At frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz, our system simultaneously measures water vapor as a broad absorption peak at 22 GHz as well as cloud liquid water. Another band at 50-60 GHz provides supplementary information from oxygen radiation to give vertical profiles of physical temperature. For the construction of this cold receiver system, novel technologies originally developed for observations of cosmic microwave background radiation were applied. The input atmospheric signal is amplified by a cold low-noise amplifier maintained below 10 K, while the spectrum of this amplified signal is measured using a signal analyzer under ambient conditions. The cryostat also contains a cold black body at 40 K to act as a calibration signal. This calibration signal is transported to each of the receivers via a wire grid. We can select either the atmospheric signal or the calibration signal by changing the orientation of this wire. Each receiver can be calibrated using this setup. Our system is designed to be compact (<1 m3), with low power consumption (˜ 1.5 kW). Therefore, it is easy to deploy on top of high buildings, mountains, and ship decks.

  12. Inversion of multiwavelength radiometer measurements by three-dimensional filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkranz, P. W.; Baumann, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing data from satellites typically have three dimensions: scan position, spacecraft position, and wavelength. Inversion of the radiometric data to infer geophysical parameters is a filtering problem in which the dimension of wavelength (or channel number) is transformed into a dimension of geophysical parameters, and the most general solution is a three-dimensional filter. Linear filters have the advantages of computational speed and easily described transfer functions; but often the measurements are nonlinear functions of the parameters to be inferred. To the extent that the nonlinear inversion problem is overdetermined, it can be modeled by a critically determined linear problem. As an example, inversion of Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data by means of a three-dimensional Wiener Filter is described. Atmospheric water vapor content, rain liquid water content, surface wind speed and surface temperature are the parameters inferred from the measurements. Nonprecipitating liquid water and water vapor scale height are also modeled but not retrieved. The a priori statistics on which the filter is trained have the effect of governing the selection of a trade-off point of noise as a function of resolution (in all three retrieval dimensions).

  13. Optical fiber sensor for germicidal microwave plasma UV lamps for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, E.; Al-Shamma'a, A.; Lucas, J.

    2001-05-01

    Low-pressure mercury lamps are commonly used for germicidal applications such as water and wastewater sterilization. The germicidal effect is due to the emission of light at 254 nm, which leads to the destruction of most waterborne bacteria. The Microwave Plasma UV Lamp (MPUVL) is a new technology for generating a high intensity UV light. A Fluorescent Optical Fiber based sensor is presented which is used for monitoring the output of a high power microwave UV light source and its control. This sensor is a fiber which has had its cladding removed and been coated with a phosphor doped polymer.

  14. MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd

    2007-01-01

    A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase

  15. New and rapid analytical procedure for water content determination: microwave accelerated Dean-Stark.

    PubMed

    Veillet, Sébastien; Tomao, Valérie; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2009-01-26

    Development of new procedures in analytical chemistry is currently increasingly focussed on reducing the time, cost and energy to carry out routine analyses. The conventional Dean-Stark (CDS) distillation to determine the water content is one of the most commonly used analytical methods and uses large amounts of solvent and energy. A new microwave accelerated Dean-Stark (MADS) distillation is presented as an alternative procedure. Microwaves were applied to a mixture of toluene, Weflon stir bar and olives, and the corresponding water was collected in a Dean-Stark receiver. This procedure permits fast and efficient determination of the water content of olives. Reliability and reproducibility were evaluated using statistical analyses. Different matrices were then used with MADS and the results were compared to CDS. Water determination from olives with MADS was better than that with CDS in terms of energy saving, rapidity (10 min versus 120 min), reproducibility, and cleanliness.

  16. Improvement of coal water slurry property through coal physicochemical modifications by microwave irradiation and thermal heat

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Yanchang Li; Jianzhong Liu; Kefa Cen

    2008-07-15

    To improve the coal water slurry (CWS) property made from Chinese Shenhua coal with high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, microwave irradiation and thermal heat were employed to modify the coal physicochemical property. Microwave irradiation reduces the inherent moisture and reforms the oxygenic function groups, while it decreases the total specific surface area. Thermal heat markedly decreases the inherent moisture, volatile, and oxygen contents, while it dramatically increases the total specific surface area. Therefore, microwave irradiation gives a higher CWS concentration and a better rheological behavior than thermal heat, while it remarkably reduces the operation time and energy consumption. The maximum CWS concentration given by microwave irradiation at 420 W for 60 s is 62.14%, which is not only higher than that of 60.41% given by thermal heat at 450{sup o}C for 0.5 h but also higher than the initial 58.23%. Meanwhile, the minimum shear stress given by microwave irradiation is 36.4 Pa at the shear rate of 100 s{sup -1}, which is not only lower than that of 42.4 Pa given by thermal heat but also lower than the initial 79.8 Pa. The minimum unit energy consumption of 0.115 kWh/(kg of coal) and electricity cost of 4.6 U.S. $/(ton of coal) for CWS concentration promotion by 1% are obtained at 420 W for 20 s in the microwave oven. The unit energy consumptions for CWS concentration promotion and inherent moisture removal by thermal heat are, respectively, 214 and 22.5 times higher than those by microwave irradiation, while the energy use efficiencies are on the converse. 27 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The effect of residual water on antacid properties of sucralfate gel dried by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Alessandro; Losi, Elena; Colombo, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Sonvico, Fabio; Baroni, Daniela; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Gaia; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2006-01-20

    The aim of this work was to study the acid neutralization characteristics of microwave-dried sucralfate gel in relation to the water content and physical structure of the substance. Several dried sucralfate gels were compared with humid sucralfate gel and sucralfate nongel powder in terms of neutralization rate and buffering capacity. Humid sucralfate gel and microwave-dried gel exhibited antacid effectiveness. In particular, the neutralization rate of dried gel powders was inversely related to the water content: as the water content of dried powders decreased, the acid reaction rate linearly increased. The relationship was due to the different morphology of dried sucralfate gels. In fact, the porosity of the dried samples increased with the water reduction. However, the acid neutralization equivalent revealed that the dried sucralfate gel became more resistant to acid attack in the case of water content below 42%. Then, the microwave drying procedure had the opposite effect on the reactivity of the aluminum hydroxide component of dried sucralfate gel powders, since the rate of the reaction increased whereas the buffering capacity decreased as the amount of water was reduced.

  18. A Compact L-band Radiometer for High Resolution sUAS-based Imaging of Soil Moisture and Surface Salinity Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Stachura, M.; Dai, E.; Elston, J.; McIntyre, E.; Leuski, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the long electrical wavelengths required along with practical aperture size limitations the scaling of passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and salinity from spaceborne low-resolution (~10-100 km) applications to high resolution (~10-1000 m) applications requires use of low flying aerial vehicles. This presentation summarizes the status of a project to develop a commercial small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) hosting a microwave radiometer for mapping of soil moisture in precision agriculture and sea surface salinity studies. The project is based on the Tempest electric-powered UAS and a compact L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer developed specifically for extremely small and lightweight aerial platforms or man-portable, tractor, or tower-based applications. Notable in this combination are a highly integrated sUAS/radiometer antenna design and use of both the upwelling emitted signal from the surface and downwelling cold space signal for precise calibration using a unique lobe-differencing correlating radiometer architecture. The system achieves a spatial resolution comparable to the altitude of the UAS above the surface while referencing upwelling measurements to the constant and well-known background temperature of cold space. The radiometer has been tested using analog correlation detection, although future builds will include infrared, near-infrared, and visible (red) sensors for surface temperature and vegetation biomass correction and digital sampling for radio frequency interference mitigation. This NASA-sponsored project is being developed for commercial application in cropland water management (for example, high-value shallow root-zone crops), landslide risk assessment, NASA SMAP satellite validation, and NASA Aquarius salinity stratification studies. The system will ultimately be capable of observing salinity events caused by coastal glacier and estuary fresh water outflow plumes and open ocean rainfall events.

  19. Non-invasive assessment of leaf water status using a dual-mode microwave resonator.

    PubMed

    Dadshani, Said; Kurakin, Andriy; Amanov, Shukhrat; Hein, Benedikt; Rongen, Heinz; Cranstone, Steve; Blievernicht, Ulrich; Menzel, Elmar; Léon, Jens; Klein, Norbert; Ballvora, Agim

    2015-01-01

    The water status in plant leaves is a good indicator for the water status in the whole plant revealing stress if the water supply is reduced. The analysis of dynamic aspects of water availability in plant tissues provides useful information for the understanding of the mechanistic basis of drought stress tolerance, which may lead to improved plant breeding and management practices. The determination of the water content in plant tissues during plant development has been a challenge and is currently feasible based on destructive analysis only. We present here the application of a non-invasive quantitative method to determine the volumetric water content of leaves and the ionic conductivity of the leaf juice from non-invasive microwave measurements at two different frequencies by one sensor device. A semi-open microwave cavity loaded with a ceramic dielectric resonator and a metallic lumped-element capacitor- and inductor structure was employed for non-invasive microwave measurements at 150 MHz and 2.4 Gigahertz on potato, maize, canola and wheat leaves. Three leaves detached from each plant were chosen, representing three developmental stages being representative for tissue of various age. Clear correlations between the leaf- induced resonance frequency shifts and changes of the inverse resonator quality factor at 2.4 GHz to the gravimetrically determined drying status of the leaves were found. Moreover, the ionic conductivity of Maize leaves, as determined from the ratio of the inverse quality factor and frequency shift at 150 MHz by use of cavity perturbation theory, was found to be in good agreement with direct measurements on plant juice. In conjunction with a compact battery- powered circuit board- microwave electronic module and a user-friendly software interface, this method enables rapid in-vivo water amount assessment of plants by a handheld device for potential use in the field.

  20. The Radiometer Atmospheric Cubesat Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, B.; Bryk, M.; Clark, J.; Donahue, K.; Ellyin, R.; Misra, S.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Statham, S.; Steinkraus, J.; Lightsey, E. G.; Fear, A.; Francis, P.; Kjellberg, H.; McDonald, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing the Radiometer Atmospheric CubeSat Experiment (RACE) since 2012, which consists of a water vapor radiometer integrated on a 3U CubeSat platform. RACE will measure 2 channels of the 183 GHz water vapor line, and will be used to validate new low noise amplifier (LNA) technology and a novel amplifier based internal calibration subsystem. The 3U spacecraft is provided by the University of Texas at Austin's Satellite Design Laboratory. RACE will advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the 183 GHz receiver subsystem from TRL 4 to TRL 6 and a CubeSat 183 GHz radiometer system from TRL 4 to TRL 7. Measurements at 183 GHz are used to retrieve integrated products and vertical profiles of water vapor. Current full scale satellite missions that can utilize the technology include AMSU, ATMS, SSMIS and Megha-Tropiques. The LNAs are designed at JPL, based on a 35 nm indium phosphide (InP) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT) technology developed by Northrop Grumman. The resulting single chip LNAs require only 25 mW of power. Current pre-launch instrument performance specifications include an RF gain of over 30 dB and a room noise figure of < 9.5 dB. The noise figure is dominated by the insertion loss of the Dicke switch which at these frequencies are > 5dB. If a coupler based calibration system is shown to be sufficient, future receiver systems will have noise figures < 4 dB. The gain and noise figure variation over temperature is approximately 0.55 dB/K. The NEDT of the system is < 1K, and on orbit performance is expected to improve due to the thermal environment. The current system is configured for direct detection to reduce power consumption by eliminating the need for a local oscillator. A 2012 NASA CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) selection, RACE is manifested for launch on the Orbital 3 (Orb-3) mission scheduled for October 2014. RACE will be deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) by NanoRacks.

  1. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Swinbank, R.

    1995-03-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semiannual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapour are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the LIMS and SAGE II instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  2. The DC-8 Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Batelaan, Paul; Siegel, Peter; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade; Guldalian, John; Raz, Guy; Shea, James

    2000-01-01

    An airborne radiometer is being developed to demonstrate the capability of radiometry at submillimeter-wavelengths to characterize cirrus clouds. At these wavelengths, cirrus clouds scatter upwelling radiation from water vapor in the lower troposphere. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in scattering due to crystal size to be distinguished from changes in cloud ice content. Measurements at dual polarizations can also be used to constrain the mean crystal shape. An airborne radiometer measuring the upwelling submillimeter-wave flux should then able to retrieve both bulk and microphysical cloud properties. The radiometer is being designed to make measurements at four frequencies (183 GHz, 325 GHz, 448 GHz, and 643 GHz) with dual-polarization capability at 643 GHz. The instrument is being developed for flight on NASA's DC-8 and will scan cross-track through an aircraft window. Measurements with this radiometer in combination with independent ground-based and airborne measurements will validate the submillimeter-wave radiometer retrieval techniques. The goal of this effort is to develop a technique to enable spaceborne characterization of cirrus, which will meet a key climate measurement need. The development of an airborne radiometer to validate cirrus retrieval techniques is a critical step toward development of spaced-based radiometers to investigate and monitor cirrus on a global scale. The radiometer development is a cooperative effort of the University of Colorado, Colorado State University, Swales Aerospace, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is funded by the NASA Instrument Incubator Program.

  3. Stability and Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil (w/o) Emulsions Via Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, Abdurahman. H.; Rosli; Yunus, Mohd.

    Formation of emulsions during oil production and processing is a costly problem, both in terms of chemicals used and production losses. Experimental data are presented to show the influences of Triton X-100, Low sulphur Wax Residue (LSWR), Sorbitan monooleate (Span 83) and Sodium Dedocyl Sulphate (SDDS) on the stability and microwave demulsification of emulsions. It was found that emulsion stability was related to some parameters such as, the surfactant concentrations, water-oil phase ratio (10-90%), temperature and agitation speed. For economic and operational reasons, it is necessary to separate the water completely from the crude oils before transporting or refining them. In this regard, the present study found that microwave radiation method can enhance the demulsification of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions in a very short time compared to the conventional heating methods.

  4. Extraction of Water from Polar Lunar Permafrost with Microwaves - Dielectric Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 10 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. The dielectric properties of lunar soil will determine the hardware requirements for extraction processes. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured.

  5. The effect of microwave power and heating time pretreatment on biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Budiyono, Mardiani, Dini Tri

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of microwave pretreatment of fresh and dried water hyacinth on biogas production. The variations of microwave power levels are 240; 400; 560 and 800 W. The variations of microwave heating time are 5; 7 and 9 min. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth are used as control. The result of research showed that almost all pretreated water hyacinth produced biogas were higher compare tounpretreated water hyacinth. The maximum of biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinthwere obtained at 560 W for 7 min and 400 W for 7 min of microwave pretreatment. In this condition, pretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth resulted biogas production of 75,12 and 53,06 mL/g TS, respectively. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth produced biogas of 37,56 and 33,56 mL/g TS, respectively. The microwave pretreatment of water hyacinth improved biogas production. Microwave pretreatment had a positive impact on anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth.

  6. Separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions coming from palm oil mill process through microwave techniques.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Páez, Rocío; Catalá-Civera, José Manuel; García-Baños, Beatriz; Castillo, Edgar F; Bastos, Johanna M; Zambrano, Luz S

    2008-01-01

    The palm oil mills extraction process requires the separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions. For this purpose, the use of sedimentation and/or centrifugation techniques have been required until now. However, significant losses persist in different process flows and new methods are needed to further decrease them, such as methods based on electromagnetic waves application. In the study, emulsions obtained from two flow processes, namely press liquor stream (PL) and recovered stream of the centrifugal step (RC), were exposed to microwave radiation with different exposure times. In the case of the press liquor stream, different oil/water dilution ratios were also studied. The sedimentation speed and efficiency were studied for the irradiated samples and compared to those obtained for the same fluids with no radiation. Also, chromatographic tests were performed on the recovered oil to determine the effect on the oil quality after microwave radiation. The obtained results allow us to conclude that microwave exposure during periods below 1 minute lead to better sedimentation speed and efficiency. It was observed that microwaves facilitate the break of the charges and polarities balances in the emulsions at considerably lower temperatures than the corresponding in the conventional process, without affecting the recovered oil quality.

  7. Characterization of a Digital Microwave Radiometry System for Noninvasive Thermometry using Temperature Controlled Homogeneous Test Load

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K; Stauffer, P R; Maccarini, PF; Jacobsen, S; Sterzer, F

    2009-01-01

    Microwave radiometry has been proposed as a viable noninvasive thermometry approach for monitoring subsurface tissue temperatures and potentially controlling power levels of multielement heat applicators during clinical hyperthermia treatments. With the evolution of technology, several analog microwave radiometry devices have been developed for biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe a digital microwave radiometer with built-in electronics for signal processing and automatic self-calibration. Performance of the radiometer with an Archimedean spiral receive antenna is evaluated over a bandwidth of 3.7–4.2GHz in homogeneous and layered water test loads. Controlled laboratory experiments over the range of 30–50°C characterize measurement accuracy, stability, repeatability and penetration depth sensitivity. The ability to sense load temperature through an intervening water coupling bolus of 6mm thickness is also investigated. To assess clinical utility and sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), experiments are conducted inside standard clinical hyperthermia treatment rooms with no EM shielding. The digital radiometer provided repeatable measurements with 0.075°C resolution and standard deviation of 0.217°C for homogeneous and layered tissue loads at temperatures between 32–45°C. Within the 3.7–4.2GHz band, EM noise rejection was good other than some interference from overhead fluorescent lights in the same room as the radiometer. The system response obtained for ideal water loads suggests that this digital radiometer should be useful for estimating subcutaneous tissue temperatures under a 6mm waterbolus used during clinical hyperthermia treatments. The accuracy and stability data obtained in water test loads of several configurations support our expectation that single band radiometry should be sufficient for sub-surface temperature monitoring and power control of large multielement array superficial hyperthermia applicators. PMID

  8. High electric field effects on gigahertz dielectric properties of water measured with microwave microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunrong; Wang, Pingshan

    2010-05-01

    Silicon microstrip line devices with 260 nm planar microfluidic channels are fabricated and used to investigate water dielectric saturation effects. Microwave scattering parameter measurements are conducted from 1 to 16 GHz under different uniform dc electric fields. When the applied dc field is increased to approximately 1 MV/cm, the measured transmission coefficient S(21) is increased up to 18 dB, which indicates a large change in water dielectric properties. Extracted water permittivity (epsilon=epsilon'+jepsilon") shows that epsilon' and epsilon" are changed up to 70% and 50%, respectively.

  9. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  10. High resolution Microwave Spectrometer Sounder (HIMSS) instrument program. Appendix: TRMM study (an instrument for NASA's tropical rainfall measuring mission)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobl, E. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The TRMM (Tropical Rain Measuring Mission) Study shows the feasibility of a conically scanned, total power radiometer. The heritage of the TRMM radiometer is the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) flying for the Air Force DMSP.

  11. Steady state thermal radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loose, J. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A radiometer is described operating in a vacuum under steady state conditions. The front element is an aluminum sheet painted on the outer side with black or other absorptive material of selected characteristics. A thermocouple is bonded to the inner side of the aluminum sheet. That is backed by highly insulative layers of glass fiber and crinkled, aluminized Mylar polyester. Those layers are backed with a sturdy, polyester sheet, and the entire lamination is laced together by nylon cords. The device is highly reliable in that it does not drift out of calibration, and is significantly inexpensive.

  12. Portable Diagnostic Radiometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    noise. The single-throw-double-pole switch is usually realized with an electronically- switched , latching ferrite circulator; however, at these...R2. Dl, D2 and R2 are then displayed on the liquid crystal display. The Q lines are next set to switch the latching switches into the 800 MHz...operation is basically as follows: On start- up, the CPU resets the Q line (P1-6) which sets the latching switches (see Fig. 18) to the 4 GHz radiometer

  13. Microwave radiometry for cement kiln temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D; Wang, Lingyun; Ryza, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The maximum temperature inside a cement kiln is a critical operating parameter, but is often difficult or impossible to measure. We present here the first data that show a correlation between cement kiln temperature measured using a microwave radiometer and product chemistry over an eight-hour period. The microwave radiometer senses radiation in the 12-13 GHz range and has been described previously [Stephan and Pearce (2002), JMPEE 37: 112-124].

  14. Spectroscopic study of unique line broadening and inversion in low-pressure microwave generated water plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R. L.; Ray, P. C.; Mayo, R. M.; Nansteel, M.; Dhandapani, B.; Phillips, J.

    2005-12-01

    It was demonstrated that low pressure (˜0.2 torr) water vapor plasmas generated in a 10 mm inner diameter quartz tube with an Evenson microwave cavity show at least two features that are not explained by conventional plasma models. First, significant (gt2.5Å) hydrogen Balmer alpha line broadening, of constant width, up to 5 cm from the microwave coupler was recorded. Only hydrogen, and not oxygen, showed significant line broadening. This feature, observed previously in hydrogen-containing mixed gas plasmas generated with high voltage dc and rf discharges, was explained by some researchers as resulting from acceleration of hydrogen ions near the cathode. This explanation cannot apply to the line broadening observed in the (electrodeless) microwave plasmas generated in this work, particularly at distances as great as 5 cm from the microwave coupler. Second, inversion of the line intensities of both the Lyman and Balmer series, again at distances up to 5 cm from the coupler, were observed. The line inversion suggests the existence of a hitherto unknown source of pumping of the optical power in plasmas. Finally, it is notable that other aspects of the plasma including the OH* rotational temperature and low electron concentrations are quite typical of plasmas of this type.

  15. RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuble, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this technology is to provide improved calibration and measurement sensitivity to the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) radiometer. While RF switches have been used in the past to calibrate microwave radiometers, the switch used on SMAP employs several techniques uniquely tailored to the instrument requirements and passive remote-sensing in general to improve radiometer performance. Measurement error and sensitivity are improved by employing techniques to reduce thermal gradients within the device, reduce insertion loss during antenna observations, increase insertion loss temporal stability, and increase rejection of radar and RFI (radio-frequency interference) signals during calibration. The two legs of the single-pole double-throw reference switch employ three PIN diodes per leg in a parallel-shunt configuration to minimize insertion loss and increase stability while exceeding rejection requirements at 1,413 MHz. The high-speed packaged diodes are selected to minimize junction capacitance and resistance while ensuring the parallel devices have very similar I-V curves. Switch rejection is improved by adding high-impedance quarter-wave tapers before and after the diodes, along with replacing the ground via of one diode per leg with an open circuit stub. Errors due to thermal gradients in the switch are reduced by embedding the 50-ohm reference load within the switch, along with using a 0.25-in. (approximately equal to 0.6-cm) aluminum prebacked substrate. Previous spaceflight microwave radiometers did not embed the reference load and thermocouple directly within the calibration switch. In doing so, the SMAP switch reduces error caused by thermal gradients between the load and switch. Thermal issues are further reduced by moving the custom, highspeed regulated driver circuit to a physically separate PWB (printed wiring board). Regarding RF performance, previous spaceflight reference switches have not employed high-impedance tapers to improve

  16. Radio-frequency interference mitigating hyperspectral L-band radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Solheim, Frederick; Derksen, Chris; Watts, Tom; Royer, Alain; Walker, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Radio-frequency interference (RFI) can significantly contaminate the measured radiometric signal of current spaceborne L-band passive microwave radiometers. These spaceborne radiometers operate within the protected passive remote sensing and radio-astronomy frequency allocation of 1400-1427 MHz but nonetheless are still subjected to frequent RFI intrusions. We present a unique surface-based and airborne hyperspectral 385 channel, dual polarization, L-band Fourier transform, RFI-detecting radiometer designed with a frequency range from 1400 through ≈ 1550 MHz. The extended frequency range was intended to increase the likelihood of detecting adjacent RFI-free channels to increase the signal, and therefore the thermal resolution, of the radiometer instrument. The external instrument calibration uses three targets (sky, ambient, and warm), and validation from independent stability measurements shows a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.0 K for ambient and warm targets and 1.5 K for sky. A simple but effective RFI removal method which exploits the large number of frequency channels is also described. This method separates the desired thermal emission from RFI intrusions and was evaluated with synthetic microwave spectra generated using a Monte Carlo approach and validated with surface-based and airborne experimental measurements.

  17. Analysis of Anechoic Chamber Testing of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenigstein, David; Ruf, Chris; James, Mark; Simmons, David; Miller, Timothy; Buckley, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer System (HIRAD) is a new airborne passive microwave remote sensor developed to observe hurricanes. HIRAD incorporates synthetic thinned array radiometry technology, which use Fourier synthesis to reconstruct images from an array of correlated antenna elements. The HIRAD system response to a point emitter has been measured in an anechoic chamber. With this data, a Fourier inversion image reconstruction algorithm has been developed. Performance analysis of the apparatus is presented, along with an overview of the image reconstruction algorithm

  18. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989-2013) based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffler, M.; Lieberherr, G.; Wunderle, S.

    2015-02-01

    Lake water temperature (LWT) is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Consequently, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) lists LWT as an essential climate variable. Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years, offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT) data set for European water bodies in or near the Alps based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989-2013) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and MetOp-A) data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with ERA-interim reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs were extensively compared with in situ measurements from lakes with various sizes between 14 and 580 km2 and the resulting biases and RMSEs were found to be within the range of -0.5 to 0.6 K and 1.0 to 1.6 K, respectively. The upper limits of the reported errors could be rather attributed to uncertainties in the data comparison between in situ and satellite observations than inaccuracies of the satellite

  19. Recent Progresses of Microwave Marine Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin; Zheng, Gang; Wang, He; He, Shuangyan; Wang, Juan; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    It is presented in this paper the recent progresses of Dragon 3 Program (ID. 10412) in the field of microwave marine remote sensing including (1) ocean surface wind fields from full polarization synthetic aperture radars (SAR), (2) joint retrieval of directional ocean wave spectra from SAR and wave spectrometer, (3) error analysis on ENVISAT ASAR wave mode significant wave height (SWH) retrievals using triple collocation model, (4) typhoon observation from SAR and optical sensors, (5) ocean internal wave observation from SAR and optical sensors, (6) ocean eddy observation from SAR and optical sensors, (7) retrieval models of water vapor and wet tropospheric path delay for the HY-2A calibration microwave radiometer, (8) calibration of SWH from HY-2A satellite altimeter.

  20. GPM Microwave Imager Engineering Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, David; Krimchansky, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) Instrument is being developed by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) for the GPM program at NASA Goddard. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and more frequent precipitation measurements. The GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) will be used to make calibrated, radiometric measurements from space at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. GMI will be placed on the GPM Core Spacecraft together with the Dualfrequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The DPR is two-frequency precipitation measurement radar, which will operate in the Ku-band and Ka-band of the microwave spectrum. The Core Spacecraft will make radiometric and radar measurements of clouds and precipitation and will be the central element ofGPM's space segment. The data products from GPM will provide information concerning global precipitation on a frequent, near-global basis to meteorologists and scientists making weather forecasts and performing research on the global energy and water cycle, precipitation, hydrology, and related disciplines. In addition, radiometric measurements from GMI and radar measurements from the DPR will be used together to develop a retrieval transfer standard for the purpose of calibrating precipitation retrieval algorithms. This calibration standard will establish a reference against which other retrieval algorithms using only microwave radiometers (and without the benefit of the DPR) on other satellites in the GPM constellation will be compared.

  1. Miniature Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D. R.; Seely, J. F.; Bremer, J.; Jones, A. R.; Vest, R.; Sakdinawat, A.

    2015-12-01

    Free-standing zone plates for use in EUV solar radiometers have been fabricated using electron beam lithography and calibrated at the NIST SURF synchrotron facility. The radiometers that we are developing use zone plates (ZPs) to focus the total solar irradiance in narrow EUV spectral bands and measure it with negligible sensitivity to field angle and polarization, and with greater accuracy and greater long-term stability than radiometers that have alternative architectures. These radiometers are easy to accommodate on spacecraft due to their small size, low mass, low power requirements, low data rates, and modest pointing requirements. A proto-type instrument will be presented with performance characteristics and spacecraft resource requirements for hosting these new instruments. The compact size of the optical train make these zone plates attractive for small CubeSats. The robustness of the compact design makes these radiometers available for a large variety of applications.

  2. Multimode near-field microwave monitoring of free water content of skin and imaging of tissue.

    PubMed

    Lofland, S E; Mazzatenta, J D; Croman, J; Tyagi, S D

    2007-03-07

    We have used the near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) technique in the 1-10 GHz range to monitor the free water content of skin. The water content is interpreted from the measured dielectric properties of the epidermis. The finger skin was first hydrated by soaking in water at 37 degrees C for 30 min followed by monitoring of water content as the free water evaporated under ambient conditions. The same technique has also been employed to image a 1 cm x 1 cm sample of chicken skin. It has been shown that variations exist in the resonant frequencies and quality factors of tissue under varying physical parameters. The samples analysed were as-received and thermally dehydrated or damaged chicken tissue samples. We contrast between the dielectric properties with the optical images. We also discuss possible application of our imaging technique in clinical monitoring of the wound healing process.

  3. Microwave-assisted incorporation of silver nanoparticles in paper for point-of-use water purification

    PubMed Central

    Dankovich, Theresa A.

    2014-01-01

    This work reports an environmentally benign method for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in paper using microwave irradiation. Through thermal evaporation, microwave heating with an excess of glucose relative to the silver ion precursor yields nanoparticles on the surface of cellulose fibers within three minutes. Paper sheets were characterized by electron microscopy, UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity and silver release from the AgNP sheets were assessed for model Escherichia coli and Enterococci faecalis bacteria in deionized water and in suspensions that also contained with various influent solution chemistries, i.e. with natural organic matter, salts, and proteins. The paper sheets containing silver nanoparticles were effective in inactivating the test bacteria as they passed through the paper. PMID:25400935

  4. Water-soluble loratadine inclusion complex: analytical control of the preparation by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nacsa, A; Ambrus, R; Berkesi, O; Szabó-Révész, P; Aigner, Z

    2008-11-04

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients are poorly soluble in water. The rate-determining step of absorption is the dissolution of these drugs. Inclusion complexation with cyclodextrin derivatives can lead to improved aqueous solubility and bioavailability of pharmacons due to the formation of co-crystals through hydrogen-bonding between the components. Inclusion complexes of loratadine were prepared by a convenient new method involving microwave irradiation and the products were compared with those of a conventional preparation method. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the solubility and rate of dissolution of loratadine increased in both of the methods used. The interactions between the components were investigated by thermal analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared studies. The microwave treatment did not cause any chemical changes in the loratadine molecule.

  5. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD). An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. D.; McFarlane, S. A.; Riihimaki, L.; Shi, Y.; Lo, C.; Min, Q.

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  6. Resolution enhancement of multichannel microwave imagery from the Nimbus-7 SMMR for maritime rainfall analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, W. S.; Yeh, C. L.; Weinman, J. A.; Chin, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    A restoration of the 37, 21, 18, 10.7, and 6.6 GHz satellite imagery from the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) aboard Nimbus-7 to 22.2 km resolution is attempted using a deconvolution method based upon nonlinear programming. The images are deconvolved with and without the aid of prescribed constraints, which force the processed image to abide by partial a priori knowledge of the high-resolution result. The restored microwave imagery may be utilized to examined the distribution of precipitating liquid water in marine rain systems.

  7. Empirical studies of the microwave radiometric response to rainfall in the tropics and midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from quantitative comparisons between satellite microwave radiometer observations and digital radar observations of equatorial convective cloud clusters and midlatitude frontal precipitation. Simultaneous data from the Winter Monsoon Experiment digital radar and the SMMR for December 1978 are analyzed. It is found that the most important differences between the microwave response to rainfall in the equatorial tropics and to stratiform rain in oceanic midlatitude fronts is caused by the different spatial characteristics of stratiform and convective rainfall and by the different background brightness temperature fields associated with tropical and midlatitude levels of atmospheric water vapor.

  8. Characterization of a digital microwave radiometry system for noninvasive thermometry using a temperature-controlled homogeneous test load.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, K; Stauffer, P R; Maccarini, P F; Jacobsen, S; Sterzer, F

    2008-07-21

    Microwave radiometry has been proposed as a viable noninvasive thermometry approach for monitoring subsurface tissue temperatures and potentially controlling power levels of multielement heat applicators during clinical hyperthermia treatments. With the evolution of technology, several analog microwave radiometry devices have been developed for biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe a digital microwave radiometer with built-in electronics for signal processing and automatic self-calibration. The performance of the radiometer with an Archimedean spiral receive antenna is evaluated over a bandwidth of 3.7-4.2 GHz in homogeneous and layered water test loads. Controlled laboratory experiments over the range of 30-50 degrees C characterize measurement accuracy, stability, repeatability and penetration depth sensitivity. The ability to sense load temperature through an intervening water coupling bolus of 6 mm thickness is also investigated. To assess the clinical utility and sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), experiments are conducted inside standard clinical hyperthermia treatment rooms with no EM shielding. The digital radiometer provided repeatable measurements with 0.075 degrees C resolution and standard deviation of 0.217 degrees C for homogeneous and layered tissue loads at temperatures between 32-45 degrees C. Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, EM noise rejection was good other than some interference from overhead fluorescent lights in the same room as the radiometer. The system response obtained for ideal water loads suggests that this digital radiometer should be useful for estimating subcutaneous tissue temperatures under a 6 mm waterbolus used during clinical hyperthermia treatments. The accuracy and stability data obtained in water test loads of several configurations support our expectation that single band radiometry should be sufficient for sub-surface temperature monitoring and power control of large multielement array superficial

  9. Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

  10. Multiband radiometer for field research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, B. F.; Bauer, M. E.; Dewitt, D. P.; Silva, L. F.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1979-01-01

    A multiband radiometer for field research with 8 bands between 0.4 and 12.5 micrometers is described. The data acquisition system will record the results from the radiometer, a precision radiation thermometer, and ancillary sources. The radiometer and data handling systems will be adaptable to helicopter, truck, to tripod platforms; the system will also be suitable for portable hand-held operation. The general characteristics of this system are that it will be (1) inexpensive to acquire, maintain, and operate, (2) simple to calibrate, (3) complete with data handling hardware and software, and (4) well-documented for use by researchers.

  11. Radiometers Optimize Local Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Radiometrics Corporation, headquartered in Boulder, Colorado, engaged in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Glenn Research Center that resulted in a pencil-beam radiometer designed to detect supercooled liquid along flight paths -- a prime indicator