Science.gov

Sample records for micrurus fulvius equine

  1. Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) and mexican coral snake (Micruris species) antivenoms prevent death from United States coral snake (Micrurus fulvius fulvius) venom in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Michael S; Hill, Robert E; Havey, Joshua M; Bogdan, Gregory M; Dart, Richard C

    2003-01-01

    Wyeth-Ayerst has discontinued production of Antivenin (Micrurus fulvius). Currently, there is no other approved coral snake antivenom available in the United States. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled and blinded determination of the ability of a Mexican Micrurus (coral snake) antivenom and an Australian Notechis (tiger snake) antivenom to prevent lethality from a United States Micrurus fulvius fulvius venom in a mouse model. Venom dosing was based on an LD50 determined for this experiment. Our comparison groups included: (1) M. f. fulvius venom + Micrurus antivenom, (2) M. f. fulvius venom + Notechis antivenom, (3) M. f. fulvius venom + protein control, (4) 0.9% normal saline + protein control, (5) saline + Notechis antivenom, (6) saline + Micrurus antivenom. Venom dose was 5 times the determined LD50. The antivenom amounts were capable of neutralizing 10 times the venom injected (50 times the LD50). The LD50 of M. f. fulvius venom was determined to be 0.85 mg/kg. All mice in both antivenom test groups were protected from lethality for the entire 24-hour observation period. Six of the 7 mice in the venom test group died, with a survival time of 349 +/- 382 minutes (mean +/- s.d.) after the venom injection. All three groups of control mice survived the entire 24-hour observation period. Mexican Micrurus antivenom and Australian Notechis antivenom provide protection from lethality in mice envenomated with a United States M. f. filvius venom.

  2. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y; Romero-Piña, Mario E; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-03-26

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%-78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA₂ activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with (67)Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming.

  3. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y.; Romero-Piña, Mario E.; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V.; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  4. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake Micrurus fulvius and variability of select loci across populations and related species.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Meik, Jesse M; Ingrasci, Matthew J; Poole, Alexander W; de Koning, A P Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A; Parkinson, Christopher L; Smith, Eric N; Pollock, David D

    2012-11-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in nonmodel organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (approximately 7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake (Micrurus fulvius) and variability of select loci across populations and related species

    PubMed Central

    Castoe, Todd A.; Streicher, Jeffrey W.; Meik, Jesse M.; Ingrasci, Matthew J.; Poole, Alexander W.; de Koning, A.P. Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Smith, Eric N.; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in non-model organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (~7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus). PMID:22938699

  6. Purification and characterization of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the coral snake, Micrurus fulvius microgalbineus (Brown and Smith).

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Alagòn, A C; Fletcher, P L; Varela, M J; Juliá, J Z

    1979-01-01

    A phospholipase A2 was purified from the Mexican coral snake Micrurus fulvius microgalbieus (Brown and Smith). Gel filtration of the soluble crude venom on Sephadex g-50 resolved five fractions, of which fraction II had 98% of the total phospholipase activity. This fraction was rechromatographed on a CM-cellulose column that resolved eight fractions, four of which had an important phospholipase activity. The first fraction (II-1) was homogeneous by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and displayed a phospholipase specific activity of 920 units/mg of protein. The apparent molecular weight as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis was approx. 14000. The amino acid analysis revealed the presence of 119 amino acid residues, with 12 half-cystines. the N-terminal sequence was shown to be Ser-Leu-Leu-Asx-Phe-Lys-Asx-Met-Ile-Glu-Ser-Thr..., which is homologous with that of phospholipases from other snake venoms. PMID:475771

  7. The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) reveals high venom complexity in the intragenomic evolution of venoms.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; Aronow, Karalyn; Loyacano, Jacob; Rokyta, Darin R

    2013-08-02

    Snake venom is shaped by the ecology and evolution of venomous species, and signals of positive selection in toxins have been consistently documented, reflecting the role of venoms as an ecologically critical phenotype. New World coral snakes (Elapidae) are represented by three genera and over 120 species and subspecies that are capable of causing significant human morbidity and mortality, yet coral-snake venom composition is poorly understood in comparison to that of Old World elapids. High-throughput sequencing is capable of identifying thousands of loci, while providing characterizations of expression patterns and the molecular evolutionary forces acting within the venom gland. We describe the de novo assembly and analysis of the venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We identified 1,950 nontoxin transcripts and 116 toxin transcripts. These transcripts accounted for 57.1% of the total reads, with toxins accounting for 45.8% of the total reads. Phospholipases A(2) and three-finger toxins dominated expression, accounting for 86.0% of the toxin reads. A total of 15 toxin families were identified, revealing venom complexity previously unknown from New World coral snakes. Toxins exhibited high levels of heterozygosity relative to nontoxins, and overdominance may favor gene duplication leading to the fixation of advantageous alleles. Phospholipase A(2) expression was uniformly distributed throughout the class while three-finger toxin expression was dominated by a handful of transcripts, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that toxin divergence may have occurred following speciation. Positive selection was detected in three of the four most diverse toxin classes, suggesting that venom diversification is driven by recurrent directional selection. We describe the most complete characterization of an elapid venom gland to date. Toxin gene duplication may be driven by heterozygote advantage, as the frequency of polymorphic toxin loci was

  8. The Bold and the Beautiful: a Neurotoxicity Comparison of New World Coral Snakes in the Micruroides and Micrurus Genera and Relative Neutralization by Antivenom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daryl C; Dobson, James; Cochran, Chip; Dashevsky, Daniel; Arbuckle, Kevin; Benard, Melisa; Boyer, Leslie; Alagón, Alejandro; Hendrikx, Iwan; Hodgson, Wayne C; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-07-03

    Coral snake envenomations are well characterized to be lethally neurotoxic. Despite this, few multispecies, neurotoxicity and antivenom efficacy comparisons have been undertaken and only for the Micrurus genus; Micruroides has remained entirely uninvestigated. As the USA's supplier of antivenom has currently stopped production, alternative sources need to be explored. The Mexican manufacturer Bioclon uses species genetically related to USA species, thus we investigated the efficacy against Micrurus fulvius (eastern coral snake), the main species responsible for lethal envenomations in the USA as well as additional species from the Americas. The use of Coralmyn® coral snake antivenom was effective in neutralizing the neurotoxic effects exhibited by the venom of M. fulvius but was ineffective against the venoms of Micrurus tener, Micrurus spixii, Micrurus pyrrhocryptus, and Micruroides euryxanthus. Our results suggest that the Mexican antivenom may be clinically useful for the treatment of M. fulvius in the USA but may be of only limited efficacy against the other species studied.

  9. Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Bryan, Wendy; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-01-01

    Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a ‘venomics’ approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, ‘intermediate’ type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venoms. M. clarki venom was strongly cross-recognized and, accordingly, efficiently neutralized by an equine therapeutic antivenom against M. nigrocinctus, revealing their high antigenic similarity. Lethal activity for mice could be reproduced by a PLA2 venom fraction, but, unexpectedly, not by fractions corresponding to 3FTxs. The most abundant venom component, hereby named clarkitoxin-I, was identified as a short-chain (type I) 3FTx, devoid of lethal effect in mice, whose target remains to be defined. Its amino acid sequence of 66 residues shows high similarity with predicted sequences of venom gland transcripts described for M. fulvius, M. browni, and M. diastema. PMID:27164141

  10. Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Gabriela D; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D; Portaro, Fernanda C V; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2010-03-09

    Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms. Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms. These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the immunization scheme, with the inclusion of other venoms in the

  11. Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Gabriela D.; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms. Conclusion These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the

  12. First North American record of the Old World cylapine Fulvius subnitens (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from Virginia, with descriptions and a key to the U.S. species of Fulvius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first North American record for Fulvius subnitens Poppius is reported based on one specimen collected in southcentral Virginia. Fulvius anthocoroides, F. imbecilis, F. slateri, and F. subnitens are diagnosed and described, and color images of adults, updated distributions, a review of feeding h...

  13. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae), comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s) present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process. PMID:22248157

  14. Biochemical characterization of the Micrurus pyrrhocryptus venom.

    PubMed

    Dokmetjian, José Christian; Del Canto, Sergio; Vinzón, Sabrina; de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha Biscoglio

    2009-03-01

    Snake venom toxicity is the consequence of a combination of peptides and proteins whose identification and characterization are of great importance to understand envenomation and develop new clinical treatments. The Elapinae subfamily includes coral snakes whose bite causes mainly neurotoxic effects which disable muscle contraction and paralyse the heart as well as inhibit respiration. However, the structure-function relationship of venom toxins has been investigated only for a few species. We herein study biological aspects of the Micrurus pyrrhocryptus venom such as LD(50), hemorrhagic, necrotic, coagulant, myotoxic and hemolytic activity as well as the ability of venom components to compete with alpha-Bungarotoxin for the ligand-binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Besides, we report the determination of the molecular mass and N-terminal sequence of toxins including PLA2s, short, long and weak neurotoxins. The complete sequence of one of the short neurotoxins has also been obtained, this being the first sequence of an alpha-neurotoxin determined in the M. pyrrhocryptus venom and one of the few fully determined in members of the Micrurus genus.

  15. Primary structures and partial toxicological characterization of two phospholipases A2 from Micrurus mipartitus and Micrurus dumerilii coral snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-03-14

    Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLA2s have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, sequencing and partial functional characterization of two Micrurus PLA2s: MmipPLA2 from Micrurus mipartitus and MdumPLA2 from Micrurus dumerilii, two species of clinical importance in Colombia. MmipPLA2 consisted of 119 amino acid residues with a predicted pI of 8.4, whereas MdumPLA2 consisted of 117 residues with a pI of 5.6. Both PLA2s showed the conserved 'group I' cysteine pattern and were enzymatically active, although MdumPLA2 had higher activity. The two enzymes differed notably in their toxicity, with MmipPLA2 being highly lethal to mice and mildly myotoxic, whereas MdumPLA2 was not lethal (up to 3 μg/g body weight) but strongly myotoxic. MdumPLA2 displayed higher anticoagulant activity than MmipPLA2in vitro and caused more sustained edema in the mouse footpad assay. Neither of these enzymes was cytolytic to cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes. Based on their structural differences, the two enzymes were placed in separate lineages in a partial phylogeny of Micrurus venom PLA2s and this classification agreed with their divergent biological activities. Overall, these findings highlight the structural and functional diversity of Micrurus venom PLA2.

  16. Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Angulo, Yamileth; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    The proteome of the venom of Micrurus nigrocinctus (Central American coral snake) was analyzed by a "venomics" approach. Nearly 50 venom peaks were resolved by RP-HPLC, revealing a complex protein composition. Comparative analyses of venoms from individual specimens revealed that such complexity is an intrinsic feature of this species, rather than the sum of variable individual patterns of simpler composition. Proteins related to eight distinct families were identified by MS/MS de novo peptide sequencing or N-terminal sequencing: phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), three-finger toxin (3FTx), l-amino acid oxidase, C-type lectin/lectin-like, metalloproteinase, serine proteinase, ohanin, and nucleotidase. PLA(2)s and 3FTxs are predominant, representing 48 and 38% of the venom proteins, respectively. Within 3FTxs, several isoforms of short-chain α-neurotoxins as well as muscarinic-like toxins and proteins with similarity to long-chain κ-2 bungarotoxin were identified. PLA(2)s are also highly diverse, and a toxicity screening showed that they mainly exert myotoxicity, although some are lethal and may contribute to the known presynaptic neurotoxicity of this venom. An antivenomic characterization of a therapeutic monospecific M. nigrocinctus equine antivenom revealed differences in immunorecognition of venom proteins that correlate with their molecular mass, with the weakest recognition observed toward 3FTxs.

  17. Antinociceptive properties of Micrurus lemniscatus venom.

    PubMed

    Leite dos Santos, Gisele Graça; Casais e Silva, Luciana Lyra; Pereira Soares, Milena Botelho; Villarreal, Cristiane Flora

    2012-11-01

    The therapeutic potential of snake venoms for pain control has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, the antinociceptive effects of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MlV) were investigated in experimental models of pain. The antinociceptive activity of MIV was evaluated using the writhing, formalin, and tail flick tests. Mice motor performance was assessed in the rota rod and open field tests. In a screening test for new antinociceptive substances--the writhing test--oral administration of MlV (19.7-1600 μg/kg) produced significant antinociceptive effect. The venom (1600 μg/kg) also inhibited both phases of the formalin test, confirming the antinociceptive activity. The administration of MlV (1600 μg/kg) did not cause motor impairment in the rota rod and open field tests, which excluded possible non-specific muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the venom. The MIV (177-1600 μg/kg) also increases the tail flick latency response, indicating a central antinociceptive effect for the venom. In this test, the MlV-induced antinociceptive effect was long-lasting and higher than that of morphine, an analgesic considered the gold standard. In another set of experiments, the mechanisms involved in the venom-induced antinociception were investigated through the use of pharmacological antagonists. The MlV (1600 μg/kg) antinociceptive effect was prevented by naloxone (5 mg/kg), a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that this effect is mediated by activation of opioid receptors. In addition, the pre-treatment with the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP (1 mg/kg) blocked the venom antinociceptive effect, while the k-opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI (0.5 mg/kg) or the δ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (3 mg/kg) only partially reduced the venom-induced antinociception. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that oral administration of M. lemniscatus venom, at doses that did not induce any motor performance alteration, produced

  18. [A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica. The presence of a small specimen of the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (84 mm total length) in the stomach contents of an adult coral snake Micrurus alleni with 692 mm total length from the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica is reported. This eel was swallowed headfirst.

  19. Micrurus snake species: Venom immunogenicity, antiserum cross-reactivity and neutralization potential.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Gabriela D; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Marcelino, José Roberto; Lustoza da Luz, Ana Cristina; Teixeira da Rocha, Marisa Maria; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2016-07-01

    Micrurus snakebites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest a few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for these snake envenomations is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom. In Brazil, this antivenom is produced from horses that are immunized with a mixture of Micrurus corallinus and Micrurus frontalis venoms, which are snakes that inhabit the south and southeastern regions of the country. Previously, we demonstrated that the coral antivenom, which is used in human therapy, was not able to neutralize several of the toxic venom effects from some Micrurus species that inhabit the country, as measured by in vitro and in vivo assays. The present study aimed to investigate the immunogenic properties of Micrurus spp. venoms, as well as the cross-reactivity and neutralization potential of experimental monovalent and polyvalent sera that were produced in different animal species. The present data showed that Micrurus venoms exhibited the same immunogenicity pattern in the three utilized animal species and that the specific antisera presented a large cross-reactivity when analyzed with ELISA and Western blot assays. Nonetheless, these positive results were not well correlated with the neutralizing potential of the antisera. Thus, the establishment of a new antigenic mixture to produce novel more efficient therapeutic Micrurus antivenom is not a simple task. Further studies, particularly with the Micrurus lemniscatus, Micrurus altirostris and Micrurus surinamensis venoms, are necessary to establish new strategies for the production of antivenoms with broad neutralizing activity for the treatment of accidents involving coral snakes throughout the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic and biological characterization of the venom of the redtail coral snake, Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae), from Colombia and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2011-12-21

    Venoms of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus from Colombia and Costa Rica were analyzed by "venomics", a proteomic strategy to determine their composition. Proteins were separated by RP-HPLC, followed by SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, identification by MALDI or ESI tandem mass spectrometry, and assignment to known protein families by similarity. These analyses were complemented with a characterization of venom activities in vitro and in vivo. Proteins belonging to seven families were found in Colombian M. mipartitus venom, including abundant three-finger toxins (3FTx; ~60% of total proteins) and phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2); ~30%), with the remaining ~10% distributed among l-amino acid oxidase, P-III metalloproteinase, Kunitz-type inhibitor, serine proteinase, and C-type lectin-like families. The venoms of two M. mipartitus specimens from Costa Rica, also referred to as M. multifasciatus in some taxonomic classifications, were also analyzed. Both samples were highly similar to each other, and partially resembled the chromatographic and identity profiles of M. mipartitus from Colombia, although presenting a markedly higher proportion of 3FTxs (~83.0%) in relation to PLA(2)s (~8.2%), and a small amount of acetylcholinesterase, not detected in the venom from Colombia. An equine antivenom against the Central American coral snake, M. nigrocinctus, did not recognize venom components of M. mipartitus from Colombia or Costa Rica by enzyme-immunoassay. Four major components of Colombian M. mipartitus venom were isolated and partially characterized. Venomics of Micrurus species may provide a valuable platform for the rational design of immunizing cocktails to obtain polyspecific antivenoms for this highly diverse group of American elapids.

  1. Snake venomics of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis from the Caribbean region of Costa Rica reveals two divergent compositional patterns in New World elapids.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Vargas-Vargas, Nancy; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Protein composition, toxicity, and neutralization of the venoms of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis, two sympatric monadal coral snakes found in humid environments of the Caribbean region of Costa Rica, were studied. Proteomic profiling revealed that these venoms display highly divergent compositions: the former dominated by three-finger toxins (3FTx) and the latter by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Protein family abundances correlated with enzymatic and toxic characteristics of the venoms. Selective inhibition experiments showed that PLA2s play only a marginal role in the lethal effect of M. alleni venom, but have a major role in M. mosquitensis venom. Proteomic data gathered from other Micrurus species evidenced that the two divergent venom phenotypes are recurrent, and may constitute a general trend across New World elapids. Further, M. mosquitensis, but not M. alleni, venom contains PLA2-like/Kunitz-type inhibitor complex(es) that resemble the ASIC1a/2-activating MitTx heterodimeric toxin isolated from Micrurus tener venom. The evolutionary origin and adaptive relevance of the puzzling phenotypic variability of Micrurus venoms remain to be understood. An antivenom against the PLA2-predominant Micrurus nigrocinctus venom strongly cross-recognized and neutralized M. mosquitensis venom, but only weakly M. alleni venom.

  2. Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Pardal, Joseana Silva de Oliveira; Gadelha, Maria Apolônia da Costa; Rodrigues, Líliam da Silva; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. The second case showed just mild signs of envenomation caused by Micrurus filiformis. Both patients received specific Micrurus antivenom and were discharged without further complications. Coral snake bites are scarcely reported in the Amazon region and there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from extremely mild to those which may rapidly lead to death if the patient is not treated as soon as possible.

  3. Equine Piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  4. Envenoming by coral snakes (Micrurus) in Argentina, during the period between 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; De Titto, Ernesto; Dolab, Jorge Adrián; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Envenomation by coral snakes (Micrurus sp.) is one of the most dangerous injuries in America and it is considered as a serious medical emergency, however bites by these snakes appear to be rare. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical signs and antivenom use in Argentina during the period between 1979-2003. During this period of study 46 non-fatal Micrurus bites were reported. The majority of cases were men from 31 to 40 years old. Bites occurred primarily in spring and summer. Most cases were reported from the northeast and northwest provinces of the country. The bites were mostly located on hands or feet and occurred mostly during agricultural activities and so mainly involved farmers. Only four cases occurred as a result of handling snakes. The median time it took for antivenom to be administrated was 60 minutes after the bite, and the median number of vials applied was 2. Local pain was mentioned and edema was reported in 41% of patients. All patients recovered without sequelae. This study showed a low incidence of Micrurus bites and low severity of envenomation. However, although no deaths have been reported during the last 30 years, given the toxicity of the venom of Micrurus snakes, the risk of severe envenomation should be considered.

  5. Venomic analysis and evaluation of antivenom cross-reactivity of South American Micrurus species.

    PubMed

    Ciscotto, Paula H C; Rates, Breno; Silva, Daniel A F; Richardson, Michael; Silva, Luciano P; Andrade, Helida; Donato, Micheline F; Cotta, Giselle Agostini; Maria, Wany Selena; Rodrigues, Raquel J; Sanchez, Eladio; De Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M C

    2011-08-24

    Coral snakes from Micrurus genus are the main representatives of the Elapidae family in South America. However, biochemical and pharmacological features regarding their venom constituents remain poorly investigated. Here, venomic analyses were carried out aiming at a deeper understanding on the composition of M. frontalis, M. ibiboboca, and M. lemniscatus venoms. In the three venoms investigated, proteins ranging from 6 to 8 kDa (3FTx) and 12 to 14 kDa (PLA(2)) were found to be the most abundant. Also, the N-terminal sequences of four new proteins, purified from the M. lemniscatus venom, similar to 3FTx, PLA(2) and Kunitz-type protease inhibitor from other Micrurus and elapid venoms are reported. Cross-reactivity among different Micrurus venoms and homologous or heterologous antivenoms was carried out by means of 2D-electrophoresis and immunoblotting. As, expected, the heterologous anti-Elapid venom displayed the highest degree of cross-reactivity. Conversely, anti-M. corallinus reacted weakly against the tested venoms. In gel digestions, followed by mass spectrometry sequencing and similarity searching, revealed the most immunogenic protein families as similar to short and long neurotoxins, weak neurotoxins, PLA(2), β-bungarotoxin, venom protein E2, frontoxin III, LAO and C-type lectin. The implications of our results for the production of Micrurus antivenoms are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae) venom in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Dal Belo, Cháriston André; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alagón, Alejandro; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2014-01-17

    In this work, we have examined the neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Mexican coral snake) venom (MLV) in vertebrate isolated nerve-muscle preparations. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the MLV induced an irreversible concentration- and time-dependent (1-30 µg/mL) neuromuscular blockade, with 50% blockade occurring between 8 and 30 min. Muscle contractures evoked by exogenous acetylcholine were completely abolished by MLV, whereas those of KCl were also significantly altered (86% ± 11%, 53% ± 11%, 89% ± 5% and 89% ± 7% for one, three, 10 and 30 µg of venom/mL, respectively; n = 4; p < 0.05). In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, MLV (1-10 µg/mL) promoted a slight increase in the amplitude of twitch-tension (3 µg/mL), followed by neuromuscular blockade (n = 4); the highest concentration caused complete inhibition of the twitches (time for 50% blockade = 26 ± 3 min), without exhibiting a previous neuromuscular facilitation. The venom (3 µg/mL) induced a biphasic modulation in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs)/min, causing a significant increase after 15 min, followed by a decrease after 60 min (from 17 ± 1.4 (basal) to 28 ± 2.5 (t15) and 12 ± 2 (t60)). The membrane resting potential of mouse diaphragm preparations pre-exposed or not to d-tubocurarine (5 µg/mL) was also significantly less negative with MLV (10 µg/mL). Together, these results indicate that M. laticollaris venom induces neuromuscular blockade by a combination of pre- and post-synaptic activities.

  7. Neuromuscular Activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae) Venom in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Dal Belo, Cháriston André; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alagón, Alejandro; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have examined the neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Mexican coral snake) venom (MLV) in vertebrate isolated nerve-muscle preparations. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the MLV induced an irreversible concentration- and time-dependent (1–30 µg/mL) neuromuscular blockade, with 50% blockade occurring between 8 and 30 min. Muscle contractures evoked by exogenous acetylcholine were completely abolished by MLV, whereas those of KCl were also significantly altered (86% ± 11%, 53% ± 11%, 89% ± 5% and 89% ± 7% for one, three, 10 and 30 µg of venom/mL, respectively; n = 4; p < 0.05). In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, MLV (1–10 µg/mL) promoted a slight increase in the amplitude of twitch-tension (3 µg/mL), followed by neuromuscular blockade (n = 4); the highest concentration caused complete inhibition of the twitches (time for 50% blockade = 26 ± 3 min), without exhibiting a previous neuromuscular facilitation. The venom (3 µg/mL) induced a biphasic modulation in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs)/min, causing a significant increase after 15 min, followed by a decrease after 60 min (from 17 ± 1.4 (basal) to 28 ± 2.5 (t15) and 12 ± 2 (t60)). The membrane resting potential of mouse diaphragm preparations pre-exposed or not to d-tubocurarine (5 µg/mL) was also significantly less negative with MLV (10 µg/mL). Together, these results indicate that M. laticollaris venom induces neuromuscular blockade by a combination of pre- and post-synaptic activities. PMID:24445448

  8. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA₂ Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-06-07

    The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1-3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1-2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA₂ dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms.

  9. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA2 Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1–3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1–2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA2 dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms. PMID:27338473

  10. Equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Gabriele A

    2014-12-01

    For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage influenza viruses to dogs also challenges the horse's status as a dead-end host. This article reviews recent developments in the epidemiology and evolution of equine influenza virus. In addition, the clinical presentation of equine influenza infection, diagnostic techniques, and vaccine recommendations are briefly summarized.

  11. Venoms of Micrurus coral snakes: Evolutionary trends in compositional patterns emerging from proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Fernández, Julián; Sasa, Mahmood; Pla, Davinia; Vargas, Nancy; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Sanz, Libia; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Núñez, Vitelbina; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Alagón, Alejandro; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-11-01

    The application of proteomic tools to the study of snake venoms has led to an impressive growth in the knowledge about their composition (venomics), immunogenicity (antivenomics), and toxicity (toxicovenomics). About one-third of all venomic studies have focused on elapid species, especially those of the Old World. The New World elapids, represented by coral snakes, have been less studied. In recent years, however, a number of venomic studies on Micrurus species from North, Central, and South America have been conducted. An overview of these studies is presented, highlighting the emergence of some patterns and trends concerning their compositional, functional, and immunological characteristics. Results gathered to date, encompassing 18 out of the approximately 85 species of Micrurus, reveal a dichotomy of venom phenotypes regarding the relative abundance of the omnipresent phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and 'three-finger' toxins (3FTx): a group of species express a PLA2-predominant venom composition, while others display a 3FTx-predominant compositional pattern. These two divergent toxin expression phenotypes appear to be related to phylogenetic positions and geographical distributions along a North-South axis in the Americas, but further studies encompassing a higher number of species are needed to assess these hypotheses. The two contrasting phenotypes also show correlations with some toxic functionalities, complexity in the diversity of proteoforms, and immunological cross-recognition patterns. The biological significance for the emergence of a dichotomy of venom compositions within Micrurus, in some cases observed even among sympatric species that inhabit relatively small geographic areas, represents a puzzling and challenging area of research which warrants further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of Brazilian coral snakes, Micrurus altirostris and M. corallinus.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de L M; Silva, Débora A; Ho, Paulo L; Leitão-de-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Sanz, Libia; Foguel, Débora; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Calvete, Juan J

    2011-08-24

    The venom proteomes of Micrurus altirostris and M. corallinus were analyzed by combining snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic surveys. In both coral snake species, 3FTx and PLA(2) were the most abundant and diversified toxin families. 33 different 3FTxs and 13 PLA(2) proteins, accounting respectively for 79.5% and 13.7% of the total proteins, were identified in the venom of M. altirostris. The venom of M. corallinus comprised 10 3FTx (81.7% of the venom proteome) and 4 (11.9%) PLA(2) molecules. Transcriptomic data provided the full-length amino acid sequences of 18 (M. altirostris) and 10 (M. corallinus) 3FTxs, and 3 (M. altirostris) and 1 (M. corallinus) novel PLA(2) sequences. In addition, venom from each species contained single members of minor toxin families: 3 common (PIII-SVMP, C-type lectin-like, L-amino acid oxidase) and 4 species-specific (CRISP, Kunitz-type inhibitor, lysosomal acid lipase in M. altirostris; serine proteinase in M. corallinus) toxin classes. The finding of a lipase (LIPA) in the venom proteome and in the venom gland transcriptome of M. altirostris supports the view of a recruitment event predating the divergence of Elapidae and Viperidae more than 60 Mya. The toxin profile of both M. altirostris and M. corallinus venoms points to 3FTxs and PLA(2) molecules as the major players of the envenoming process. In M. altirostris venom, all major, and most minor, 3FTxs display highest similarity to type I α-neurotoxins, suggesting that these postsynaptically acting toxins may play the predominant role in the neurotoxic effect leading to peripheral paralysis, respiratory arrest, and death. M. corallinus venom posesses both, type I α-neurotoxins and a high-abundance (26% of the venom proteome) protein of subfamily XIX of 3FTxs, exhibiting similarity to bucandin from Malayan krait, Bungarus candidus, venom, which enhances acetylcholine release presynaptically. This finding may explain the presynaptic neurotoxicity of M. corallinus venom

  13. Biological characterization of the Amazon coral Micrurus spixii snake venom: Isolation of a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Terra, Angelo L C; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Monteiro, José Roniele N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Gallacci, Márcia; Barros, Neuza B; Nicolete, Roberto; Teles, Carolina B G; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-09-01

    The Micrurus genus is the American representative of Elapidae family. Micrurus spixii is endemic of South America and northern states of Brazil. Elapidic venoms contain neurotoxins that promote curare-mimetic neuromuscular blockage. In this study, biochemical and functional characterizations of M. spixii crude venom were performed and a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2 called MsPLA2-I was isolated. M. spixii crude venom caused severe swelling in the legs of tested mice and significant release of creatine kinase (CK) showing its myotoxic activity. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 1.24 μg/mL) was also observed, along with antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which are unprecedented for Micrurus venoms. MsPLA2-I with a Mr 12,809.4 Da was isolated from the crude venom of M. spixii. The N-terminal sequencing of a fragment of 60 amino acids showed 80% similarity with another PLA2 from Micrurus altirostris. This toxin and the crude venom showed phospholipase activity. In a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, M. spixii venom and MsPLA2-I induced the blockage of both direct and indirect twitches. While the venom presented a pronounced myotoxic activity, MsPLA2-I expressed a summation of neurotoxic activity. The results of this study make M. spixii crude venom promising compounds in the exploration of molecules with microbicidal potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coral snake bites (Micrurus spp.) in Brazil: a review of literature reports.

    PubMed

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Vieira, Ronan José; Rodrigues, Cinthia K; Zannin, Marlene; Da Silva, Nelson J; Casais-e-Silva, Luciana L; Hyslop, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    In the Americas, the main representatives of the family Elapidae are coral snakes of the genus Micrurus, of which 33 species are in Brazil. They are the smallest cause of venomous snakebite in Brazil. We analyzed literature reports of coral snake bites in Brazil from 1867 to 2014, and provide a brief review of case series and reports of coral snake bites in the Americas in general. Only reports with clinical descriptions of envenomation were included. The variables recorded included identification of the offending snake, patient's age, sex, bite site, clinical manifestations, treatment, including antivenom and anticholinesterase drugs, and general evolution of the cases. 30 published reports describing bites caused by Micrurus spp. in Brazil were identified and involved 194 distinct cases. Since no information on the clinical manifestations was available in 44 cases, the analysis was restricted to 25 reports (150 cases). Most patients were from southern (61.3%; primarily Santa Catarina state, 60%) and southeastern (20%) Brazil and were male (70.7%), with a median age of 27 years (interquartile interval = 18 to 40 years). The offending snakes were described in 59 cases (M. corallinus 36, M. frontalis 12, M. lemniscatus 5, M. hemprichi 2, M. filiformis 1, M. ibiboboca 1, M. spixii 1 and M. surinamensis 1); in 22 cases only the genus (Micrurus spp.) was reported. Of the 143 cases in which the bite site was recorded, most involved the hands (46.2%) and feet (26.6%). The main clinical features were local numbness/paresthesia (52.7%), local pain (48%), palpebral ptosis (33.3%), dizziness (26.7%), blurred vision (20.7%), weakness (20%), slight local edema (16%), erythema (16%), dysphagia (14.7%), dyspnea (11.3%), inability to walk (10.7%), myalgia (9.3%), salivation (8%) and respiratory failure (4.3%). Fang marks were described in 47.3% of cases and 14% of bites were classified as asymptomatic. A slight increase in total blood creatine kinase was reported in 3 children

  15. Equine Arteritis Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  16. Local effects induced by venoms from five species of genus Micrurus sp. (coral snakes).

    PubMed

    Barros, A C; Fernandes, D P; Ferreira, L C; Dos Santos, M C

    1994-04-01

    Venoms from five species of Micrurus (coral snakes) from Brazil (Amazonas State) were tested for the following effects: edematogenic, myotoxic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) detection. None of the venoms tested presented coagulant activity. The presence of PLA2 was detected by ELISA in the venoms of M. spixii, M. averyi and M. lemniscatus. The myotoxicity was estimated by the increase in the serum creatine kinase level and by histological analysis. All venoms, except that from M. surinamensis, induced intense edematogenic and myotoxic effects. The venom of M. averyi showed hemorrhagic activity which was confirmed by histopathological analysis. This is the first evidence of such an effect by coral snake venom.

  17. Biological and molecular properties of yellow venom of the Amazonian coral snake Micrurus surinamensis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabiana da Rocha; Noronha, Maria das Dores Nogueira; Lozano, Jorge Luis Lopez

    2017-01-01

    The coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, which is widely distributed throughout Amazonia, has a neurotoxic venom. It is important to characterize the biological and molecular properties of this venom in order to develop effective antitoxins. Toxins from the venom of M. surinamensis were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their neurotoxic effects in vivo were evaluated. Most proteins in the venom had masses < 14kDa, low phospholipase A2 activity, and no proteolytic activity. The toxins inhibited the coagulation cascade. The venom had neurotoxic effects in mice, with a median lethal dose upon intravenous administration of 700 µg/kg. Immunogenic studies revealed abundant cross-reactivity of antielapidic serum with 14kDa toxins and limited cross-reactivity with toxins < 10kDa. These results indicate that antielapidic serum against M. surinamensis venom has weak potency (0.35mg/ml) in mice.

  18. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Da Silva, Nelson Jorge Jr; Pires, Matheus Godoy; Zaher, Hussam; Prudente, Ana Lúcia Da Costa

    2015-06-24

    We described a new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus from the region of Tabatinga and Leticia, along the boundaries of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. The new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: absence of a pale nuchal collar; black cephalic-cap extending from rostral to firstdorsal scale and enclosing white tipped prefrontal scales; upper half of first to four supralabials and postoculars black; tricolor body coloration, with 27-31 black rings bordered by narrower white rings and 27-31 red rings; tail coloration similar to body, with alternating black rings bordered by irregular narrow white rings, red rings of the same width as the black rings; ventral scales 205-225; subcaudal scales 39-47.

  19. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  20. Marketing your equine practice.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner.

  1. Applied equine genetics

    PubMed Central

    FINNO, C. J.; BANNASCH, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing of the domestic horse and subsequent advancements in the field of equine genomics have led to an explosion in the development of tools for mapping traits and diseases and evaluating gene expression. The objective of this review is to discuss the current progress in the field of equine genomics, with specific emphasis on assembly and analysis of the reference sequence and subsequent sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare; the genomic tools currently available to researchers and their implications in genomic investigations in the horse; the genomics of Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits; the genomics of performance traits and considerations regarding genetic testing in the horse. The whole-genome sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare has provided additional variants within the equine genome that extend past single nucleotide polymorphisms to include insertions/deletions and copy number variants. Equine single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have allowed for the investigation of both simple and complex genetic traits while DNA microarrays have provided a tool for examining gene expression across various tissues and with certain disease conditions. Recently, next-generation sequencing has become more affordable and both whole-genome DNA sequencing and transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing are methodologies that are being applied to equine genomic research. Research in the field of equine genomics continues to expand rapidly as the cost of genotyping and sequencing decreases, resulting in a need for quality bioinformatics software and expertise to appropriately handle both the size and complexity of these data. PMID:24802051

  2. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  3. Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes of 3FTx and PLA(2) toxins from Micrurus corallinus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Castro, K L; Duarte, C G; Ramos, H R; Machado de Avila, R A; Schneider, F S; Oliveira, D; Freitas, C F; Kalapothakis, E; Ho, P L; Chávez-Olortegui, C

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a strategy to identify B-cell epitopes on four different three finger toxins (3FTX) and one phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Micrurus corallinus snake venom. 3FTx and PLA2 are highly abundant components in Elapidic venoms and are the major responsibles for the toxicity observed in envenomation by coral snakes. Overlapping peptides from the sequence of each toxin were prepared by SPOT method and three different anti-elapidic sera were used to map the epitopes. After immunogenicity analysis of the spot-reactive peptides by EPITOPIA, a computational method, nine sequences from the five toxins were chemically synthesized and antigenically and immunogenically characterized. All the peptides were used together as immunogens in rabbits, delivered with Freund's adjuvant for a first cycle of immunization and Montanide in the second. A good antibody response against individual synthetic peptides and M. corallinus venom was achieved. Anti-peptide IgGs were also cross-reactive against Micrurus frontalis and Micrurus lemniscatus crude venoms. In addition, anti-peptide IgGs inhibits the lethal and phospholipasic activities of M. corallinus crude venom. Our results provide a rational basis to the identification of neutralizing epitopes on coral snake toxins and show that their corresponding synthetic peptides could improve the generation of immuno-therapeutics. The use of synthetic peptide for immunization is a reasonable approach, since it enables poly-specificity, low risk of toxic effects and large scale production.

  4. Equine learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2007-09-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for

  5. Antiherpetic Drugs in Equine Medicine.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Lara K

    2017-04-01

    Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Other antiherpetic drugs are promising but require further investigation. Several topical drugs are also empirically used in the therapy of equine viral keratitis.

  6. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  7. Standing equine sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Barakzai, Safia Z; Dixon, Padraic M

    2014-04-01

    Trephination of the equine sinuses is a common surgical procedure in sedated standing horses. Standing sinus flap surgery has become increasingly popular in equine referral hospitals and offers several advantages over sinusotomy performed under general anesthesia, including reduced patient-associated risks and costs; less intraoperative hemorrhage, allowing better visualization of the operative site; and allows surgeons to take their time. Other minimally invasive surgical procedures include sinoscopic surgery, balloon sinuplasty, and transnasal laser sinonasal fenestration. Despite the procedure used, appropriate indications for surgery, good patient selection, and familiarity with regional anatomy and surgical techniques are imperative for good results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  9. Equine recurrent uveitis: Human and equine perspectives.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando; Stylianides, Amira; McGowan, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp. Microbial factors and genetic predisposition to the disease may provide clues as to why the horse appears so susceptible to this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the immunology and genetics of ERU, compare the disease in horses with autoimmune anterior uveitis in humans, and discuss potential reasons for the increased prevalence in the horse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Equine grass sickness.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Equine keratomycosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shinya; Hobo, Seiji; Ode, Hirotaka; Niwa, Hidekazu; Moriyama, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    To describe the incidence, clinical progress, visual outcome, and laboratory findings of equine keratomycosis in Japan.  Retrospective study of the medical records of horses clinically and mycologically diagnosed with keratomycosis at the Equine Hospitals of the Japan Racing Association from 2005 to 2011. The diagnosis of keratomycosis was confirmed in eight horses (40.0% of the 20 horses with infectious keratitis from which fungi and/or bacteria were isolated). Fungi recovered from corneal swabs were identified as Aspergillus flavus (4), Aspergillus niger (1), Fusarium solani (1), and Mortierella wolfii (2). All horses were treated medically with topical antifungals, and one horse was also treated surgically. The median of treatment period was 40 days. Two horses were rendered blind in the affected eye and the others retained vision. Equine keratomycosis comprises a considerable portion of infectious keratitis in Japan, and the causative fungi that we isolated had been isolated previously from horses with keratomycosis in other regions with the exception of M. wolfii. Culture and cytological examination of corneal lesions should be immediately performed on eyes with signs of keratitis, particularly on those not improving with antibacterial medication, as early initiation of aggressive antifungal treatment tended to result in better outcome and shorter treatment period. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Cloning of an unusual natriuretic peptide from the South American coral snake Micrurus corallinus.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Soares, M B; Maack, T; Gimenez, I; Puorto, G; Furtado, M F; Raw, I

    1997-11-15

    In the course of cloning abundant cDNAs from the South American coral snake Micrurus corallinus venom gland, we characterized a cDNA coding for a putative natriuretic peptide. All the natural natriuretic peptides described so far, possess a ring structure composed of 17 amino acids formed through an S-S bridge which is extended at the N-terminus by few to several amino acids and may be extended at the C-terminus, usually 4-7 amino acids. In contrast, the M. corallinus natriuretic peptide presents several distinct features: (a) the proform of the deduced natriuretic peptide displays an unusual C-terminus extension. This implies that the mature peptide has a long C-terminal tail or it is further extensively processed to result in the mature natriuretic peptide with the expected 4-7 amino-acid extension. (b) the deduced natriuretic peptide presents an unusual internal Cys within the ring structure. This raises the possibility of natriuretic peptides with a smaller ring structure. (c) the putative natriuretic peptide is flanked by two homologous peptides of unknown function. In addition, an analogous peptide was synthesized and assayed on perfused rat kidney, showing a dose-dependent response in urinary volume and sodium excretion. Moreover, northern-blot studies showed that M. corallinus natriuretic peptide transcripts were highly expressed in venom glands, but they were not detectable in other tissues like heart and brain, suggesting a main role for this M. corallinus natriuretic peptide in the venom gland or in the envenomation by this coral snake's bite.

  13. Neurotoxic envenoming by South American coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus helleri): case report from eastern Ecuador and review.

    PubMed

    Manock, Stephen R; Suarez, German; Graham, David; Avila-Aguero, María L; Warrell, David A

    2008-11-01

    A man bitten by a large coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus helleri) in the Amazon basin of Ecuador developed persistent excruciating pain in the bitten arm. On admission to hospital less than 30 min later, he had a polymorphonuclear leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia and mildly prolonged prothrombin time/partial thromboplastin time. Not until 14 h after the bite did he develop the first signs of neurotoxicity. Despite treatment with specific antivenom 50 h after the bite, he required oxygen for respiratory failure 60 h, and 6 h of mechanical ventilation 72 h, after the bite. Over the next 38 h, he required two further intubations and periods of assisted ventilation before being airlifted to a tertiary referral hospital. Complications included bacterial pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchial obstruction by mucus plugs and mild rhabdomyolysis. He was discharged from hospital 15 days after the bite with persistent limb weakness and urinary incontinence but eventually recovered. The interesting and unusual features of this case (severe local pain, very slow evolution of neurotoxic envenoming, persistent thrombocytopenia and mild coagulopathy) are discussed in the context of what is known of the composition of Micrurus venoms and the small clinical literature on envenoming from their bites.

  14. Proteomic analysis of the venom from the fish eating coral snake Micrurus surinamensis: novel toxins, their function and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Batista, Cesar V F; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Pando, Victoria; Villa-Hernandez, Oscar; Zavaleta-Martínez-Vargas, Alfonso; Salas-Arruz, Maria C; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Becerril, Baltazar; Possani, Lourival D

    2008-05-01

    The protein composition of the soluble venom from the South American fish-eating coral snake Micrurus surinamensis surinamensis, here abbreviated M. surinamensis, was separated by RP-HPLC and 2-DE, and their components were analyzed by automatic Edman degradation, MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS. Approximately 100 different molecules were identified. Sixty-two components possess molecular masses between 6 and 8 kDa, are basically charged molecules, among which are cytotoxins and neurotoxins lethal to fish (Brachidanios rerio). Six new toxins (abbreviated Ms1-Ms5 and Ms11) were fully sequenced. Amino acid sequences similar to the enzymes phospholipase A2 and amino acid oxidase were identified. Over 20 additional peptides were identified by sequencing minor components of the HPLC separation and from 2-DE gels. A functional assessment of the physiological activity of the six toxins was also performed by patch clamp using muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor assays. Variable degrees of blockade were observed, most of them reversible. The structural and functional data obtained were used for phylogenetic analysis, providing information on some evolutionary aspects of the venom components of this snake. This contribution increases by a factor of two the total number of alpha-neurotoxins sequenced from the Micrurus genus in currently available literature.

  15. Maintaining Coral Snakes (Micrurus nigrocinctus, Serpentes: Elapidae) for venom production on an alternative fish-based diet.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Danilo; Rodríguez, Santos; Arias, Jazmín; Solano, Gabriela; Bonilla, Fabián; Gómez, Aarón

    2012-09-01

    American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable. The development of a diet based on fish is compared to the wild diet based on colubrid snakes, and assessed in terms of gain in body weight rate (g/week), longevity (weeks), venom yield (mg/individual), venom median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and venom chromatographic profiles. The animals fed with the fish-based diet gained more weight, lived longer, and produced similar amount of venom whose biological and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of venom collected from specimens fed with the wild diet. This fish-based diet appears to be suitable (and preferable to the wild diet) to supply the nutritional requirements of a Micrurus nigrocinctus snake collection for the production of antivenom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The neuromuscular activity of Micrurus pyrrhocryptus venom and its neutralization by commercial and specific coral snake antivenoms

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Thiago Magalhães; de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2011-01-01

    The neuromuscular activity ofMicrurus pyrrochryptus venom was studied in chick biventer cervicis (BC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations. The venom (0.5-50μg/ml) caused irreversible, time- and concentration-dependent blockade, with BC being more sensitive than PND (50% blockade with 10μg/ml in 22±;3min and 62±4min, respectively; mean±SEM, n=6; p<0.05). In BC preparations, venom (0.5μg/ml) progressively abolished ACh-induced contractures, whereas contractures to exogenous KCl and muscle twitches in curarized preparations were unaffected. The venom neither altered creatine kinase release (venom: 25.8±1.75IU/l vs control: 24.3±2.2IU/l, n=6, after 120min), nor it caused significant muscle damage (50μg of venom/ml vs control: 3.5±0.8% vs 1.1±0.7% for PND; 4.3±1.5% vs 1.2±0.5% for BC, n=5). The venom had low PLA2 activity. Neurotoxicity was effectively neutralized by commercial Micrurus antivenom and specific antivenom. These findings indicate that M. pyrrhocryptus venom acts postsynaptically on nicotinic receptors, with no significant myotoxicity. PMID:21858249

  17. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  18. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Howe, Daniel K; MacKay, Robert J; Reed, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) can be caused by either of 2 related protozoan parasites, Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi, although S. neurona is the most frequent etiologic pathogen. Horses are commonly infected, but clinical disease occurs infrequently; the factors influencing disease occurrence are not well understood. Risk factors for the development of EPM include the presence of opossums and prior stressful health-related events. Attempts to reproduce EPM experimentally have reliably induced antibody responses in challenged horses but have not consistently produced acute neurologic disease. Diagnosis and options for treatment of EPM have improved over the past decade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Update on equine allergies.

    PubMed

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.

  20. Transcriptomic basis for an antiserum against Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) venom

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Luciana I; Ho, Paulo L; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inacio de LM

    2009-01-01

    Background Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) is a tropical forest snake belonging to the family Elapidae. Its venom shows a high neurotoxicity associated with pre- and post-synaptic toxins, causing diaphragm paralysis, which may result in death. In spite of a relatively small incidence of accidents, serum therapy is crucial for those bitten. However, the adequate production of antiserum is hampered by the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of venom from a small snake with demanding breeding conditions. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of this venom and to uncover possible immunogens for an antiserum, we generated expressed sequences tags (ESTs) from its venom glands and analyzed the transcriptomic profile. In addition, their immunogenicity was tested using DNA immunization. Results A total of 1438 ESTs were generated and grouped into 611 clusters. Toxin transcripts represented 46% of the total ESTs. The two main toxin classes consisted of three-finger toxins (3FTx) (24%) and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) (15%). However, 8 other classes of toxins were present, including C-type lectins, natriuretic peptide precursors and even high-molecular mass components such as metalloproteases and L-amino acid oxidases. Each class included an assortment of isoforms, some showing evidence of alternative splicing and domain deletions. Five antigenic candidates were selected (four 3FTx and one PLA2) and used for a preliminary study of DNA immunization. The immunological response showed that the sera from the immunized animals were able to recognize the recombinant antigens. Conclusion Besides an improvement in our knowledge of the composition of coral snake venoms, which are very poorly known when compared to Old World elapids, the expression profile suggests abundant and diversified components that may be used in future antiserum formulation. As recombinant production of venom antigens frequently fails due to complex disulfide arrangements, DNA immunization may be a

  1. Pathogenesis of myonecrosis induced by coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Arroyo, O.; Chaves, F.; Lomonte, B.; Cerdas, L.

    1986-01-01

    The mode by which coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom affects skeletal muscle was studied using a combined approach. The venom induced early functional and structural alterations in the plasma membrane of muscle cells, suggesting that sarcolemma is the primary site of action of this venom. This was shown by the presence of wedge-shaped ('delta') lesions at the periphery of the cells, as well as by focal disruptions in the continuity of plasma membrane as early as 15 min after envenomation. After this initial alteration the rest of the organelles were severely affected. Myofilaments were hypercontracted leaving, as a consequence, areas of overstretched myofibrils as well as empty spaces. Eventually, myofilaments formed dense, clumped masses in which the striated structure was totally lost. At 24 h, myofilaments were still disorganized but they presented a more hyaline and homogeneous appearance. As early as 15 and 30 min mitochondria were swollen; later, by I, 3 and 24 h, they showed further alterations such as the presence of dense intracristal spaces and vesiculated cristae, as well as disruption in the integrity of their membranes. Sarcoplasmic reticulum was dilated and disorganized into many small vesicles randomly distributed throughout the cellular space. Moreover, the venom induced a rapid decrease in muscle levels of creatine and creatine-kinase (CK) and a calcium influx. Since the rates of efflux of creatine and CK were similar, it is suggested that the lesions produced in the membrane are large enough to allow the escape of these two molecules. As corroboration of the severe myotoxic effect, envenomated mice excreted reddish urine containing large quantities of myoglobin. Skeletal muscle cells are more susceptible to the action of the venom than erythrocytes, since coral snake venom induced only a mild direct haemolytic effect in vitro and haemolysis is not a significant effect in vivo. M. nigrocinctus venom induced a drastic increase in plasma

  2. Advances in equine dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Baratt, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Although diagnostic images can be obtained with traditional rare-earth film-screen combinations, digital radiography (DR) has enhanced the ability of the general practitioner to obtain diagnostic radiographs of the equine head. With the widespread availability of DR in equine practices, the practitioner can more readily learn the correct positioning for the various projections of the equine head that are used to evaluate the dentition and sinuses. Digital systems provide rapid processing of the image, enabling the practitioner to correct positioning errors and retake the image without significant delay.

  3. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management.

  5. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  6. A new species of triadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus Wagler, 1824 (Serpentes: Elapidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pires, Matheus Godoy; Da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia Da Costa; Filho, Gentil Alves Pereira; Zaher, Hussam

    2014-06-05

    The genus Micrurus comprises 123 currently recognized taxa (species and subspecies) that are traditionally arranged in four species groups diagnosable mainly by color pattern characteristics. Here, we describe a new species of triadal coral snake from northeastern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from other sympatric triadal congeners (M. lemniscatus carvalhoi, M. ibiboboca and M. brasiliensis) mainly by the entirely black parietals and by a suite of external characters and hemipenial morphology. The new species appears to be restricted to tropical ombrophilous lowland coastal forests of northeastern Brazil and all recently collected specimens are known to occur in small forest patches surrounded by periurban environment, which calls for an urgent evaluation on its conservation status.

  7. Ophthalmology in equine ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Ann E

    2012-04-01

    Equine practitioners examine patient eyes on a daily basis. Indications range from inspection of normal anatomy to treatment of traumatized eyes to workups of sight threatening inflammatory or neoplastic ocular conditions. Assessment of equine eyes requires practitioners to take time to create a good "exam room" in the field and administer appropriate restraint, sedation and/or regional anesthesia to facilitate thorough examination. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of equine eye problems requires skill in ocular surface staining and cytology, and basic proficiency in standing surgery. Expertise in digital photography optimizes client education and case management. As some equine eye problems benefit from intense medical treatment or advanced surgical care, practitioners should be familiar with the options offered at specialty centers, and recognize cases that would benefit from referral. Finally, blindness is not uncommon in horses. Practitioners can counsel clients that own blind horses on the best options for managing sight loss.

  8. Integrative characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus dumerilii (Elapidae) from Colombia: Proteome, toxicity, and cross-neutralization by antivenom.

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno

    2016-03-16

    In Colombia, nearly 2.8% of the 4200 snakebite accidents recorded annually are inflicted by coral snakes (genus Micrurus). Micrurus dumerilii has a broad distribution in this country, especially in densely populated areas. The proteomic profile of its venom was here studied by a bottom-up approach combining RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Venom proteins were assigned to eleven families, the most abundant being phospholipases A2 (PLA2; 52.0%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx; 28.1%). This compositional profile shows that M. dumerilii venom belongs to the 'PLA2-rich' phenotype, in the recently proposed dichotomy for Micrurus venoms. Enzymatic and toxic venom activities correlated with protein family abundances. Whole venom induced a conspicuous myotoxic, cytotoxic and anticoagulant effect, and was mildly edematogenic and proteolytic, whereas it lacked hemorrhagic activity. Some 3FTxs and PLA2s reproduced the lethal effect of venom. A coral snake antivenom to Micrurus nigrocinctus demonstrated significant cross-recognition of M. dumerilii venom proteins, and accordingly, ability to neutralize its lethal effect. The combined compositional, functional, and immunological data here reported for M. dumerilii venom may contribute to a better understanding of these envenomings, and support the possible use of anti-M. nigrocinctus coral snake antivenom in their treatment. Coral snakes represent a highly diversified group of elapids in the New World, with nearly 70 species within the genus Micrurus. Owing to their scarce yields, the biochemical composition and toxic activities of coral snake venoms have been less well characterized than those of viperid species. In this work, an integrative view of the venom of M. dumerilii, a medically relevant coral snake from Colombia, was obtained by a combined proteomic, functional, and immunological approach. The venom contains proteins from at least eleven families, with a predominance of phospholipases A2 (PLA2), followed by three

  9. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  10. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-06

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  11. Isolation, characterization, cloning and expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from the venom of the Mexican coral snake Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; López-Vera, Estuardo; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Smith, Eric N; Zamudio, Fernando; de Roodt, Adolfo R; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    A new member of short chain α-neurotoxic protein family from venom of the Mexican coral snake, Micrurus laticollaris, was characterized. This protein, named MlatA1, possesses 61 amino acids with 8 conserved cysteine residues, sharing 30-91% sequence identity with other fully sequenced Micrurus toxins. MlatA1 (LD50i.v. = 0.064 mg/kg) antagonizes with both fetal and adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as well as α-7 neuronal nAChR in a dose-dependent way. Specific rabbit anti-Mlat serum (titer higher than 18,000) does not show any protective ability against this toxin, nevertheless it was able to recognize protein bands in six out of twelve Micrurus venoms showing the existence of two distinct antigenic groups for α-neurotoxins in North American coral snakes species. The MlatA1 gene was cloned and used to produce recombinant toxin (rMlatA1) that was recognized by rabbit anti-native toxin but was depleted of toxic activity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  13. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  14. Equine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Bauder, B; Thalhammer, J; Nowotny, N; Kolodziejek, J; Herout, N; Fürst, S; Weissenböck, H

    2001-04-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder with fatal outcome in humans. It has also been described in some animal species; this is the first report of NCL in equines. Three horses showed developmental retardation, slow movements and loss of appetite at the age of six months. Neurological symptoms, as well as visual failure in one case, were noticed at the age of 1 year. Due to slowly progressing deterioration, euthanasia was indicated 1.5 years after onset of conspicuous behavior. At necropsy, slight flattening of the gyri and discoloring of the brain was noticed. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic, autofluorescent material in the perikarya of neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord. Identical material was found in neurons of retina, submucous and myenteric ganglia, as well as in glial cells. Immunohistochemistry, using antiserum against subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, showed positive signals in neurons and glial cells. Electron microscopical studies revealed fingerprint profiles mixed with rectilinear structures in markedly enlarged lysosomes of neurons and renal tubules, and rectilinear structures mixed with curvilinear bodies in macrophages and lymphocytes of lymph nodes. Thus, our study presents the first occurrence of lysosomal storage disease in horses, further characterized by immunohistochemical and electron microscopical investigations as NCL.

  15. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Fenner, W R

    1987-08-01

    The neurologic form of EHV-1 infection appears to be the result of central nervous system infarction caused by vasculitis, which is initiated in endothelial cells of small blood vessels. The etiologic agent is equine herpesvirus-1, subtype 1. There is some evidence to suggest that the neurologic form of the disease actually results from reactivation of a previous infection. Whether the vasculitis that causes the central nervous system injury is the direct result of the infection or an immune response to the infection has not been determined. The clinical signs are rapid in onset, nonprogressive, and many horses may improve. The diagnosis must often remain tentative, particularly in horses that recover, because there is no single reliable confirmatory test. The prognosis is generally good, although recovery may be slow and incomplete. Supportive therapy is essential, and administration of corticosteroids may be useful. There is no specific therapy for the virus or for the vasculitis. Currently no vaccine can be claimed to protect against the central nervous system form of the disease. Vaccination is recommended, however, to reduce the incidence of respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death on the farm. Repeated vaccination is necessary to maintain presumably protective antibody concentrations. Vaccination every 3 to 4 months may decrease the incidence of EHV-1 infection on the farm and therefore may indirectly prevent the occurrence of the neurologic form of the disease.

  16. A Review of Equine Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery in the human was first identified in mid 900's. The procedure as is more commonly practiced now was first reported in 1912. There have been many advances and new techniques developed in the past 100 years. Equine laparoscopy, was first reported in the 1970's, and similarly has undergone much transformation in the last 40 years. It is now considered the standard of care in many surgical techniques such as cryptorchidectomy, ovariectomy, nephrosplenic space ablation, standing abdominal exploratory, and many other reproductive surgeries. This manuscript describes the history of minimally invasive surgery, and highlights many of the techniques that are currently performed in equine surgery. Special attention is given to instrumentation, ligating techniques, and the surgical principles of equine minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23762585

  17. Equine corneal surgery and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Denis, Heidi M

    2004-08-01

    Corneal disease is common in equine ophthalmology and requires vigilant monitoring and appropriate therapy to optimize the outcome. Many equine corneal diseases, particularly those that progress rapidly, may benefit from surgical intervention. These include descemetoceles, deep corneal lacerations and ulcers, corneal perforation/iris prolapse, ulcerative keratitis, corneal stromal abscesses, and corneoscleral neoplasia. Indications for corneal transplantation include optical, tectonic, therapeutic, and cosmetic purposes. Corneal transplantation is most often implemented in equine patients for tectonic and therapeutic reasons when a cornea is compromised by corneal stromal abscess, iris prolapse, or neoplasia. This article provides an outline of when to consider surgical intervention for corneal disease, the procedures available and expected outcomes, and how appropriate early surgical intervention can dramatically improve the end result.

  18. Equine cloning: applications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vanderwall, Dirk K; Woods, Gordon L; Roser, Janet F; Schlafer, Donald H; Sellon, Debra C; Tester, David F; White, Kenneth L

    2006-01-01

    Cloning is one of several new assisted reproductive techniques being developed for clinical use in the equine industry. Potential uses of equine cloning include: (1) the preservation of genetics from individual animals that would otherwise not be able to reproduce, such as geldings; (2) the preservation of genetic material of endangered and/or exotic species, such as the Mongolian wild horse (Przewalski's horse); and (3) because of the companion animal role that horses fill for some individuals, it is likely that some horse owners will have individual animals cloned for emotional fulfillment. Although equine cloning has been successful, like other species, it remains a very inefficient process (<3% success). In most species, the inefficiency of cloning results from a high incidence of embryonic, fetal and/or placental developmental abnormalities that contribute to extremely high rates of embryonic loss, abortion and stillbirths throughout gestation and compromised neonatal health after birth. The present review describes some of the ultrasonographic, endocrinological and histopathological characteristics of successful (produced viable offspring) and unsuccessful (resulted in pregnancy failure) cloned equine (mule and horse) pregnancies we have produced. A total of 21 cloned mule pregnancies were established using fetal fibroblast cells, whereas a total of seven cloned horse pregnancies were established using adult cumulus cells. Three of the cloned mule conceptuses were carried to term, resulting in the birth of three healthy clones. This information adds to an accumulating body of knowledge about the outcome of cloned equine pregnancies, which will help to establish when, and perhaps why, many cloned equine pregnancies fail.

  19. National Equine Forum: Taking up the reins on equine issues.

    PubMed

    2015-04-04

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum, where one of the main themes was the horse industry and government. The forum, held in London on March 5, was attended by more than 200 people with a connection to the equestrian industry. Lord de Mauley, parliamentary undersecretary of state for natural environment and science at Defra, set the course of the proceedings.

  20. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    MacKay, R J; Granstrom, D E; Saville, W J; Reed, S M

    2000-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the parasite life cycle, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of EPM are reviewed. The NAHMS Equine '98 study and a controlled retrospective study from The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine identified a number of risk factors associated with development of the disease. The national annual incidence of EPM was 1% or less depending on the primary use of the animals. Increased disease risk was associated with age (1-5 and > 13 years of age), season (lowest in winter months and increasing with ambient temperature), previous stressful events, the presence of opossums, the use of nonsurface water drinking systems, and failure to restrict wildlife access to feed. Horses that received treatment were 10 times more likely to improve, and those that improved were 50 times more likely to survive. A number of recent studies confirmed that horses can be experimentally infected with S. neurona; however, large numbers of sporocysts are apparently necessary to achieve infection, and clinical signs and abnormal CNS histology are only seen inconsistently. Results suggest that CNS infection and positive CSF immunoblot findings may be transient phenomena among naturally infected horses. Although immunosuppression may be involved in the development of EPM, some element of the immune response seems to be necessary for the development of clinical signs. Use of the standard immunoblot test for the detection of anti-S. neurona antibodies in CSF continues to provide the most useful adjunct to a detailed neurologic examination for the diagnosis of EPM. Test sensitivity and specificity were 89% in 295 horses euthanatized because of neurologic disease, of which 123 were confirmed cases of EPM. The PPV was 85%, and the NVP was 92%. A number of promising new EPM treatments are under investigation. In addition to standard SDZ/PYR therapy, toltrazuril, ponazuril, diclazuril, and NTZ have shown promise as

  1. Lemnitoxin, the major component of Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom, is a myotoxic and pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Casais-E-Silva, Luciana L; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Lebrun, Ivo; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-08-22

    The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin. This PLA2 is antigenically related to M. nigrocinctus nigroxin, Notechis scutatus notexin, Pseudechis australis mulgotoxin, and Pseudonaja textilis textilotoxin, as demonstrated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Lemnitoxin is highly selective in its targeting of cells, being cytotoxic for differentiated myotubes in vitro and muscle fibers in vivo, but not for undifferentiated myoblasts or endothelial cells. Lemnitoxin is not lethal after intravenous injection at doses up to 2μg/g in mice, evidencing its lack of significant neurotoxicity. Lemnitoxin displays anticoagulant effect on human plasma and proinflammatory activity also, as it induces paw edema and mast cell degranulation. Thus, the results of this work demonstrate that Lemnitoxin is a potent myotoxic and proinflammatory class I PLA2.

  2. Molecular cloning and structural modelling of gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitors from Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus snakes.

    PubMed

    Picelli, Carina G; Borges, Rafael J; Fernandes, Carlos A H; Matioli, Fabio M; Fernandes, Carla F C; Sobrinho, Juliana C; Holanda, Rudson J; Ozaki, Luiz S; Kayano, Anderson M; Calderon, Leonardo A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2017-10-01

    Phospholipases A2 inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. This work aimed to identify and characterize two PLIs from Amazonian snake species, Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus. Liver tissues RNA of specimens from each species were isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using PCR primers based on known PLIγ gene sequences, followed by cloning and sequencing of amplified fragments. Sequence similarity studies showed elevated identity with inhibitor PLIγ gene sequences from other snake species. Molecular models of translated inhibitors' gene sequences resemble canonical three finger fold from PLIγ and support the hypothesis that the decapeptide (residues 107-116) may be responsible for PLA2 inhibition. Structural studies and action mechanism of these PLIs may provide necessary information to evaluate their potential as antivenom or as complement of the current ophidian accident treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  4. RNA extraction from equine samples for equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-01-01

    The primary goals of this chapter are to discuss common viral RNA isolation and purification methods that are routinely used by various diagnostic laboratories, to highlight the advantages and drawbacks of each method, and to identify the most suitable and reliable method to increase the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR assays for the detection of equine influenza virus (EIV) in clinical specimens. Our experiences and review of literature show that magnetic bead-based nucleic extraction methods (manual and automatic) work well for isolation and purification of EIV RNA from nasal swab specimens. Furthermore, most of the information presented in this chapter could be directly applicable to isolation and purification of nucleic acids (both DNA and RNA) from other equine clinical samples.

  5. Surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendez, Andrés; Viel, Laurent; Hewson, Joanne; Doig, Paul; Carman, Susy; Chambers, Thomas; Tiwari, Ashish; Dewey, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in Ontario. For this purpose, from October 2003 to October 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in Ontario. Sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (AE1-H7N7), equine influenza 2 (AE2-H3N8), equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV1 and EHV4), and equine rhinitis A and B (ERAV and ERBV). Overall, the cause-specific morbidity rate of equine influenza virus in the respiratory outbreaks was 56.5% as determined by the single radial hemolysis (SRH) test. The AE2-H3N8 was isolated from 15 horses in 5 outbreaks. A 4-fold increase in antibody levels or the presence of a high titer against ERAV or ERBV was observed in 10 out of 13 outbreaks in which AE2-H3N8 was diagnosed as the primary cause of disease. In conclusion, AE2-H3N8 was found to be an important contributor to equine respiratory viral disease. Equine rhinitis A and B (ERAV and ERBV) represented an important component in the equine respiratory disease of performing horses. PMID:21197227

  6. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-07

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  7. Ethics in equine practice economics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Terry D

    2009-12-01

    Ethics is a valuable standard for the structure of equine practice. It relies on sound moral character, beginning with the leaders in the practice. The leadership in each practice regularly needs to review its role in promoting ethical standards. This is not new information but deserves to be revisited with emphasis at this particular time in our society. Nothing less than commitment to grass root stability offers any hope to reverse those actions.

  8. Feeding behavior and venom toxicity of coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus (Serpentes: Elapidae) on its natural prey in captivity.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, Aldo H; Bolaños, Federico; Gutiérrez, José María

    2004-08-01

    The feeding behavior and venom toxicity of the coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus (Serpentes: Elapidae) on its natural prey in captivity were investigated. Coral snakes searched for their prey (the colubrid snake Geophis godmani) in the cages. Once their preys were located, coral snakes stroke them with a rapid forward movement, biting predominantly in the anterior region of the body. In order to assess the role of venom in prey restraint and ingestion, a group of coral snakes was 'milked' in order to drastically reduce the venom content in their glands. Significant differences were observed between snakes with venom, i.e., 'nonmilked' snakes, and 'milked' snakes regarding their behavior after the bite. The former remained hold to the prey until paralysis was achieved, whereas the latter, in the absence of paralysis, moved their head towards the head of the prey and bit the skull to achieve prey immobilization by mechanical means. There were no significant differences in the time of ingestion between these two groups of coral snakes. Susceptibility to the lethal effect of coral snake venom greatly differed in four colubrid species; G. godmani showed the highest susceptibility, followed by Geophis brachycephalus, whereas Ninia psephota and Ninia maculata were highly resistant to this venom. In addition, the blood serum of N. maculata, but not that of G. brachycephalus, prolonged the time of death of mice injected with 2 LD(50)s of M. nigrocinctus venom, when venom and blood serum were incubated before testing. Subcutaneous injection of coral snake venom in G. godmani induced neurotoxicity and myotoxicity, without causing hemorrhage and without affecting heart and lungs. It is concluded that (a) M. nigrocinctus venom plays a role in prey immobilization, (b) venom induces neurotoxic and myotoxic effects in colubrid snakes which comprise part of their natural prey, and (c) some colubrid snakes of the genus Ninia present a conspicuous resistance to the toxic action of M

  9. Characterization of a new muscarinic toxin from the venom of the Brazilian coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Daniel Coelho; de Medeiros, Wyara Aparecida Araújo; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho; Lebrun, Ivo; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes

    2011-12-19

    We have isolated a new muscarinic protein (MT-Mlα) from the venom of the Brazilian coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus. This small protein, which had a molecular mass of 7,048Da, shared high sequence homology with three-finger proteins that act on cholinergic receptors. The first 12 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence were determined to be: Leu-Ile-Cys-Phe-Ile-Cys-Phe-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ala-His. The MT-Mlα was able to displace the [(3)H]QNB binding in the hippocampus of rats. The binding curve in competition experiments with MT-Mlα was indicative of two types of [(3)H]QNB-binding site with pK(i) values of 9.08±0.67 and 6.17±0.19, n=4, suggesting that various muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes may be the target proteins of MT-Mlα. The MT-Mlα and the M(1) antagonist pirenzepine caused a dose-dependent block on total [(3)H]inositol phosphate accumulation induced by carbachol. The IC(50) values for MT-Mlα and pirenzepine were, respectively, 33.1 and 2.26 nM. Taken together, these studies indicate that the MT-Mlα has antagonist effect on mAChRs in rat hippocampus. The results of the present study show, for the first time, that mAChRs function is drastically affected by MT-Mlα since it not only has affinity for mAChRs but also has the ability to inhibit mAChRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  11. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  12. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  13. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  14. Equine influenza diagnosis: sample collection and transport.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    In horses, presumptive diagnosis of equine influenza is commonly made on the basis of clinical signs. This alone is insufficient for confirmation of equine influenza, because other equine infectious respiratory diseases can in some degree have similar clinical presentations. Surveillance and control of equine influenza also necessitate detection of subclinical cases. Effective diagnosis of equine influenza virus infection is critically dependent on obtaining adequate specimens of virus-containing respiratory secretions for testing. These specimens are also valuable as sources for isolation of virus strains for antigenic characterization and potential inclusion in vaccines. Both nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs are employed in horses. These differ little in their invasiveness, but nasopharyngeal swabs typically yield more virus than nasal swabs and are superior diagnostic specimens. Methods for obtaining nasopharyngeal swab specimens are described.

  15. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  16. VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN MAN

    PubMed Central

    Casals, J.; Curnen, Edward C.; Thomas, Lewis

    1943-01-01

    A filterable agent was isolated from the blood and from washings of the upper respiratory passages of a young laboratory worker during a mild, acute, febrile illness. This agent was identified as a strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Circulating specific complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies not present in sera withdrawn during the acute phase of illness were demonstrated in sera obtained during convalescence. A fellow laboratory worker who became similarly ill simultaneously also developed during convalescence specific circulating antibodies not present prior to illness. PMID:19871301

  17. Preparation of equine isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bakala, A; Karlik, W; Wiechetek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this study a detailed description of the equine hepatocyte isolation procedure is presented. Livers were obtained from horses slaughtered at the local slaughterhouse. For blood removal and liver preservation the following steps are suggested: perfusion with the oxygenated HBSS (0-2 degrees C, with continuous flow of 500-800 ml/min for 3-6 min), protection from ischemia injury by flushing with ice-cold University of Wisconsin Solution (UW, flow rate of 500-800 ml/min), and finally immersion of the liver lobe in UW solution (2 degrees C) during its transport to the laboratory. For equine isolated hepatocyte preparation a "three-step" perfusion procedure was elaborated: rewarming, chelating and collagenase perfusion. We found optimal cell yield and viability under the following conditions: rewarming with UW (38 degrees C) for 8-14 min, chelating with calcium free Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS, 38 degrees C) supplemented with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis[beta-aminoethyl esther]-N,N,N'N'-tetracetic acid at the flow rate of 450 ml/min for 6 min and enzymatic digestion with HBSS supplemented with 0.1% collagenase at 38 degrees C and 450 ml/min flow rate for 8-27 min. These conditions consistently generated cell harvests of 21 x 10(6)+/-4.86 cells/g of perfused liver tissue with viability of 82.7%+/-10.2.

  18. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  19. Equine influenza - surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Ann; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jenny

    2010-11-01

    Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory virus of horses because it is highly contagious and has the potential to disrupt major equestrian events. Equine influenza (EI) can be controlled by vaccination but it has been demonstrated repeatedly in the field that antigenic drift impacts on vaccine efficacy. EI surveillance maintains awareness of emergence and international spread of antigenic variants. It not only serves as an early warning system for horse owners, trainers and veterinary clinicians but is fundamental to influenza control programmes based on vaccination. Data on outbreaks of EI and strain characterisation is reviewed annually by an Expert Surveillance Panel (ESP) including representatives from OIE and WHO. This panel makes recommendations on the need to update vaccines based on analysis of evidence of disease in well vaccinated horses, antigenic changes, genetic changes and when possible, experimental challenge data. However, the disparity in the level of surveillance and virus collection in different countries results in potentially biased information about the relative prevalence of different viruses. There is a need for increased surveillance on a global level and a greater awareness of the benefits of updating the vaccines. The vaccine companies have traditionally been slow to respond to the ESP recommendations. Veterinary clinicians have a major role to play in purchasing vaccines with epidemiologically relevant strains and promoting their benefits to their clients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.

  1. A Heterologous Multiepitope DNA Prime/Recombinant Protein Boost Immunisation Strategy for the Development of an Antiserum against Micrurus corallinus (Coral Snake) Venom

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Henrique Roman; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola M.; Novo, Juliana Branco; Castro, Karen; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A.; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Envenoming by coral snakes (Elapidae: Micrurus), although not abundant, represent a serious health threat in the Americas, especially because antivenoms are scarce. The development of adequate amounts of antielapidic serum for the treatment of accidents caused by snakes like Micrurus corallinus is a challenging task due to characteristics such as low venom yield, fossorial habit, relatively small sizes and ophiophagous diet. These features make it difficult to capture and keep these snakes in captivity for venom collection. Furthermore, there are reports of antivenom scarcity in USA, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality, with patients needing to be intubated and ventilated while the toxin wears off. The development of an alternative method for the production of an antielapidic serum, with no need for snake collection and maintenance in captivity, would be a plausible solution for the antielapidic serum shortage. Methods and Findings In this work we describe the mapping, by the SPOT-synthesis technique, of potential B-cell epitopes from five putative toxins from M. corallinus, which were used to design two multiepitope DNA strings for the genetic immunisation of female BALB/c mice. Results demonstrate that sera obtained from animals that were genetically immunised with these multiepitope constructs, followed by booster doses of recombinant proteins lead to a 60% survival in a lethal dose neutralisation assay. Conclusion Here we describe that the genetic immunisation with a synthetic multiepitope gene followed by booster doses with recombinant protein is a promising approach to develop an alternative antielapidic serum against M. corallinus venom without the need of collection and the very challenging maintenance of these snakes in captivity. PMID:26938217

  2. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    PubMed

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  4. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  5. Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus M. J. TURELL,1 M. L...the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus...enzootic vector of EEEV in this region. KEY WORDS Peru, eastern equine encephalitis virus, transmission, mosquito Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV

  6. Biomarkers for equine joint injury and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Frisbie, David D; Little, Christopher B; Clegg, Peter D; Peffers, Mandy J; Karsdal, Morten A; Ekman, Stina; Laverty, Sheila; Slayden, Richard A; Sandell, Linda J; Lohmander, L Stefan; Kraus, Virginia B

    2017-09-16

    We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript. The most recent information from work in equine and human osteoarthritic biomarkers was accumulated, including the use of personalized healthcare to stratify OA phenotypes, transcriptome analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries in the human knee. The spectrum of "wet" biomarker assays that are antibody based that have achieved usefulness in both humans and horses, imaging biomarkers and the role they can play in equine and human OA was discussed. Prediction of musculoskeletal injury in the horse remains a challenge, and the potential usefulness of spectroscopy, metabolomics, proteomics, and development of biobanks to classify biomarkers in different stages of equine and human OA were reviewed. The participants concluded that new information and studies in equine musculoskeletal biomarkers have potential translational value for humans and vice versa. OA is equally important in humans and horses, and the welfare issues associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in horses add further emphasis to the need for good validated biomarkers in the horse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  8. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  9. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  10. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  11. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  12. Fifty years of the British Equine Veterinary Association as a facilitator of progress in equine clinical science.

    PubMed

    Silver, I A; Jeffcott, L B; Rossdale, P D

    2011-09-01

    The British Equine Veterinary Association (BEVA) was established in 1961 and launched the Equine Veterinary Journal (EVJ) in 1968. This review outlines some of the major advances in equine science and practice that have occurred in that time and the role played by the Journal in facilitating those developments. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Serological survey of equine viral diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Pagamjav, Ochir; Kobayashi, Keiko; Murakami, Hironobu; Tabata, Yuji; Miura, Yasuo; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    Three hundred sera were collected from horses in various parts of Mongolia in 2007 and seroepidemiological surveys for several equine viruses performed on them. Equid herpesvirus 1 and equine rhinitis A virus were prevalent, and equine arteritis virus and equid herpesvirus 3 were detected over a wide area though their rates of antibody-positivity were not high. Equine infectious anemia was distributed locally. The rates of horses antibody-positive for Japanese encephalitis virus and equine influenza virus were low, but these were detected. Bovine coronavirus antibodies were detected at a high rate, but it was not clear whether they were due to horse coronavirus.

  14. Recent advances in equine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dawson, F L

    1977-01-01

    Mares rarely ovulate in winter; ovulation is induced by increase in daylight length. Ova accumulate in the oviducts of unserved mares. During pregnancy, corpora lutea accumulate; all regress together at mid pregnancy. Plasma progesterone levels rise and oestrogen levels fall towards the end of pregnancy. Methods are available for early termination of pregnancy and for induction of parturition. Pregnancy can be diagnosed efficiently by rectal examination, and by immunological assay of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin. Service at the foal heat is associated with an increased prevalence of early embryonic death; twinning is the commonest single cause of abortion. Spontaneous prolonged dioestrus is common in summer but may be effectively treated. Bacterial endometritis may result mainly from secondary pathogenic activity by organisms of the normal uterine flora; diagnosis by endometrial smear examination is accurate and methods of treatment have improved. The virus of horse pox has been identified, and the occurrence of equine infection with Mycoplasma has been confirmed. In the male, recent work has emphasized that reproductive function is seasonal. The presence or absence of an undescended testis can now be accurately determined.

  15. Epidemiological study of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Xuan, Xuenan; Battsetseg, Badgar; Igarashi, Ikuo; Battur, Banzragch; Batsukh, Zayat; Bayambaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2005-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia, a country in which the disease occurs epidemically in different climatic conditions. Antibodies to Babesia equi and B. caballi were determined in serum samples of 254 pastured horses in different locations of Mongolia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigens. One hundred and eighty-five (72.8%) and 102 (40.1%) of all serum samples were positive for B. equi and B. caballi infections, respectively. In addition, 78 (30.7%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread in Mongolia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis in different geographic regions in Mongolia.

  16. Equine influenza--a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, A; Newton, J R

    2013-11-29

    To date, equine influenza outbreaks have been reported all over the world with the exception of a small number of island nations including New Zealand and Iceland. Influenza is endemic in Europe and North America and is considered to be of potentially major economic significance to the equine industry worldwide. The importation of subclinically infected vaccinated horses, and inadequate quarantine procedures have resulted in several major outbreaks in susceptible populations for example, in Australia (2007) when more than 76,000 horses on over 10,000 properties were reported as infected. This review summarises the current understanding of, and recent research on, equine influenza, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, management and prevention. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques are discussed as are the merits of different vaccination regimes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerosol therapy in the equine species.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Inhalation therapy plays an increasing role in the management of equine respiratory disorders. This alternative to systematic treatment permits a high concentration of medication to act locally while minimizing side effects and residues. In human medicine, literature in this field is prolific and continuously renewed, whereas in veterinary medicine, applications of aerosol therapy are less extensive. This review considers the principles of action of the different types of devices used for inhalation, i.e., nebulization, metered-dose inhalation and dry powder inhalation, describes the technical and practical requirements for their use in the equine species and considers the advantages and disadvantages of each inhalation device. The pharmacological agents currently administered to horses by inhalation are also discussed. Perspectives of aerosol therapy in the equine species, including aerosols already used in human medicine and their potential applications for horses are described.

  18. Advanced imaging in equine dental disease.

    PubMed

    Selberg, Kurt; Easley, Jeremiah T

    2013-08-01

    Dental and sinus disorders are relatively common and of major clinical importance in equine medicine. Advanced diagnostic imaging has become an integral part of equine veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging has progressed the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of dental- and sinus-related diseases. As a clinician, it is important to realize the value of advanced diagnostic imaging. Although computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are both significantly more expensive compared with other diagnostic tools, the financial cost of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment can often result in higher overall costs.

  19. Introduction to Equine Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine M; Cottriall, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy, or PT) can be broadly defined as the restoration of movement and function and includes assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. This review outlines the history, definition, and regulation of PT, followed by the core scientific principles of PT. Because musculoskeletal physiotherapy is the predominant subdiscipline in equine PT, encompassing poor performance, back pain syndromes, other musculoskeletal disorders, and some neuromuscular disorders, the sciences of functional biomechanics, neuromotor control, and the sensorimotor system in the spine, pelvis, and peripheral joints are reviewed. Equine PT also may involve PT assessment and treatment of riders.

  20. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  1. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    PubMed

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  2. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  3. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′)2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′)2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′)2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′)2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV. PMID:27999340

  4. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  5. Mipartoxin-I, a novel three-finger toxin, is the major neurotoxic component in the venom of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Núñez, Vitelbina; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Lomonte, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    The major venom component of Micrurus mipartitus, a coral snake distributed from Nicaragua to northern South America, was characterized biochemically and functionally. This protein, named mipartoxin-I, is a novel member of the three-finger toxin superfamily, presenting the characteristic cysteine signature and amino acid sequence length of the short-chain, type-I, α-neurotoxins. Nevertheless, it varies considerably from related toxins, with a sequence identity not higher than 70% in a multiple alignment of 67 proteins within this family. Its observed molecular mass (7030.0) matches the value predicted by its amino acid sequence, indicating lack of post-translational modifications. Mipartoxin-I showed a potent lethal effect in mice (intraperitoneal median lethal dose: 0.06 μg/g body weight), and caused a clear neuromuscular blockade on both avian and mouse nerve-muscle preparations, presenting a post-synaptic action through the cholinergic nicotinic receptor. Since mipartoxin-I is the most abundant (28%) protein in M. mipartitus venom, it should play a major role in its toxicity, and therefore represents an important target for developing a therapeutic antivenom, which is very scarce or even unavailable in the regions where this snake inhabits. The structural information here provided might help in the preparation of a synthetic or recombinant immunogen to overcome the limited venom availability.

  6. Exploration of immunoglobulin transcriptomes from mice immunized with three-finger toxins and phospholipases A2 from the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus

    PubMed Central

    Engmark, Mikael; Clouser, Christopher; Timberlake, Sonia; Vigneault, Francois; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Here, we employ high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) transcriptome of mice immunized with a three-finger toxin and a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus. Although exploratory in nature, our indicate results showed that only low frequencies of mRNA encoding IgG isotypes, the most relevant isotype for therapeutic purposes, were present in splenocytes of five mice immunized with 6 doses of the two types of toxins over 90 days. Furthermore, analysis of Ig heavy chain transcripts showed that no particular combination of variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments had been selected in the immunization process, as would be expected after a strong humoral immune response to a single antigen. Combined with the titration of toxin-specific antibodies in the sera of immunized mice, these data support the low immunogenicity of three-finger toxins and phospholipases A2found in M. nigrocinctusvenoms, and highlight the need for future studies analyzing the complexity of antibody responses to toxins at the molecular level. PMID:28149694

  7. Exploration of immunoglobulin transcriptomes from mice immunized with three-finger toxins and phospholipases A2 from the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Andreas H; Engmark, Mikael; Clouser, Christopher; Timberlake, Sonia; Vigneault, Francois; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Here, we employ high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) transcriptome of mice immunized with a three-finger toxin and a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus. Although exploratory in nature, our indicate results showed that only low frequencies of mRNA encoding IgG isotypes, the most relevant isotype for therapeutic purposes, were present in splenocytes of five mice immunized with 6 doses of the two types of toxins over 90 days. Furthermore, analysis of Ig heavy chain transcripts showed that no particular combination of variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments had been selected in the immunization process, as would be expected after a strong humoral immune response to a single antigen. Combined with the titration of toxin-specific antibodies in the sera of immunized mice, these data support the low immunogenicity of three-finger toxins and phospholipases A2 found in M. nigrocinctusvenoms, and highlight the need for future studies analyzing the complexity of antibody responses to toxins at the molecular level.

  8. Medical records in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Susan H

    2009-12-01

    Quality medical records are the cornerstone of successful equine veterinary practice. The scope and integrity of the information contained in a practice's medical records influence the quality of patient care and client service and affect liability risk, practice productivity, and overall practice value.

  9. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  10. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  11. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  12. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  13. Gender shifts in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Marsha L; Sabo, Carol

    2009-12-01

    This article examines gender shifts in equine veterinary practice. A significant gender compensation gap continues across the spectrum of professions, including veterinary medicine. Many styles of practice serve the disparate and sometimes conflicting goals of financial well-being, patient care, and physical family presence.

  14. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  15. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Lam, Alice D; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins.

  16. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  17. New hosts for equine herpesvirus 9.

    PubMed

    Schrenzel, Mark D; Tucker, Tammy A; Donovan, Taryn A; Busch, Martin D M; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-10-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

  18. New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tammy A.; Donovan, Taryn A.; Busch, Martin D.M.; Wise, Annabel G.; Maes, Roger K.; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy’s zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders. PMID:18826828

  19. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intensively managed farm in the mid-western plain and in working horses at two locations in central plains of the state. The resistant allele (r) frequency in cyathostomins was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Vindhyan and Tarai and Bhabar zones of Uttar Pradesh. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistant allele (r) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cyathostomins of intensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.35) as compared to extensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.22). The widespread prevalence of benzimidazole resistant alleles in equine cyathostomins in Uttar Pradesh, India, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  20. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome.

    PubMed

    Hestand, Matthew S; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Coleman, Stephen J; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons.

  1. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons. PMID:26107351

  2. Neutralization of two North American coral snake venoms with United States and Mexican antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Lopez-Johnston, Juan C; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C

    2008-02-01

    Elapid snakes throughout the world are considered very lethal, containing neurotoxic venoms that affect the nervous system. When humans are envenomated it is considered a serious medical emergency, and antivenom is the main form of treatment considered, in spite of the fact that some patients may only survive under intensive therapy treatment such as respiratory support. Coral snakes are part of the family Elapidae and envenomations by these snakes are very low (<2% of total snakebites) in most countries from southeastern United States to Argentina. In the United States, there are only two species of coral snakes of medical importance that belong to the Micrurus genera: Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Eastern coral snake) and Micrurus tener tener (Texas coral snake). In 2006, Wyeth pharmaceutical notified customers that the production of the North American coral snake antivenin (NACSA) in the US was discontinued and adequate supplies were available to meet historical needs through the end of October 2008; and therefore, it is of utmost important to consider other antivenoms as alternatives for the treatment of coral snake envenoming. One logical alternative is the coral snake antivenom, Coralmyn, produced by the Mexican company, Bioclon. In order to compare neutralization between NACSA and Coralmyn antivenoms with the North American coral snake venoms, the venom lethal doses (LD(50)) and antivenom effective doses (ED(50)) were determined in 18-20 g, female, BALB/c mice. Additionally, venom comparisons were determined through a non-reduced SDS-PAGE for M.f.fulvius, M.t.tener and the Mexican coral snake venom, Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus. Coralmyn antivenom was able to effectively neutralize three LD(50) doses of all venom from both M.t.tener and M.f.fulvius, while Wyeth antivenom only neutralized M.f.fulvius venom and was not effective in neutralizing three LD(50) doses of M.t.tener venom. Coralmyn is effective in the neutralization of both clinically important

  3. Reproduction of Venezulean Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus at Low Ionic Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-28

    AD/A-006 206 REPRODUCTION OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS AT LOW IONIC STRENGTH T.M. Sokolova, et al Army Medical Research Institute of... Reproduction of Venezuelan equine encephalo- Translation myelitis virus at low ionic strength 6. PERFORM4ING ORG. REPORT NU14BER II!LTT, 0491 7. AUTHOR(a... REPRODUCTION OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS AT LOW IONIC STRFNGTH Article by T. M. Sokolova, I. B. Tazulakhova, S. S. Grigoryan and F. I. e v

  4. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  5. Pasture nonstructural carbohydrates and equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Longland, Annette C; Byrd, Bridgett M

    2006-07-01

    Fresh forages constitute a majority of the diet for many horses and ponies that graze on pastures during the growing season in many parts of the world. Grasses generally predominate in such pastures, with varying proportions of legumes. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) (simple sugars, starch, and fructan) can induce laminitis experimentally, and NSC can accumulate to >400 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in pasture grasses. In this article we discuss the environmental factors affecting NSC accumulation in pastures and estimate the potential daily intakes of pasture NSC by grazing horses. We also discuss strategies for both reducing the NSC content of pastures and management practices that can help reduce intakes of pasture NSC by equines at risk of developing laminitis. This study reveals the importance of accurate forage analysis in the development of feeding regimens for equines at risk of laminitis.

  6. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  7. Ocular immunology in equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A

    2008-09-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a disease with high prevalence and relevance for the equine population, since it results in blindness. Over the last decade, important advancements have been made in our understanding of the underlying immune responses in this disease. ERU is mediated by an autoaggressive Th1 response directed against several retinal proteins. Interphotoreceptor-retinoid binding protein (IRBP) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) are capable to induce ERU-like disease in experimental horses, with the unique possibility to activate relapses in a well-defined manner. Further, proteomic evidence now suggests that retinal Mueller glial cells (RMG) may play a fatal role in uveitic disease progression by directly triggering inflammation processes through the expression and secretion of interferon-gamma. Ongoing relapses in blind eyes can be associated with stable expression of the major autoantigens in ERU retinas. This review briefly summarizes the most significant developments in uveitis immune response research.

  8. International Equine Ophthalmology Consortium (IEOC) Symposium.

    PubMed

    Gilger, B C; Brooks, D E

    2009-07-01

    This first IEOC symposium met its goals of gathering a group of leading equine ophthalmology clinicians and researchers to identify the challenges of the field. To facilitate collaboration, notes from round-table discussions, including the ideas and plans that were discussed are being complied and will be distributed to the attendees. Development of an IEOC membership organisation and website was discussed and supported by the group in an effort further to advance the science of equine ophthalmology. To present results from the collaborations made at this first IEOC meeting, an IEOC mini-symposium will be held at the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists Annual Meeting in Chicago Illinois, on 6th November 2009. The second annual IEOC symposium will be held in Vienna, Austria on 4th and 5th June 2010.

  9. Equine monoclonal antibodies recognize common epitopes on variants of equine infectious anaemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, L E; O'Rourke, K I; Mason, P H; McGuire, T C

    1990-01-01

    Equine-murine xenohybridoma cells were produced using SP2/0 murine myeloma cells and splenic lymph node cells obtained from horses infected with 10(6) TCID50 of single cloned variants of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV). The xenohybridomas secreted equine IgG monoclonal antibodies reactive with EIAV in enzyme immunoassays employing purified virus. Seven antibodies were studied in detail. They bound to viral glycoproteins (gp90 or gp45) in radioimmunoprecipitation assays, and reacted with homologous EIAV as well as five other cloned variants of EIAV. When evaluated against a single cloned variant of EIAV (EIAV-WSU5), two antibodies bound to different epitopes on gp90. The five remaining antibodies reacted with the same or overlapping epitopes on gp45. None of the antibodies exhibited viral neutralizing activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:1703988

  10. Purification and characterization of tenerplasminin-1, a serine peptidase inhibitor with antiplasmin activity from the coral snake (Micrurus tener tener) venom

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Jeilyn; Ibarra, Carlos; Salazar, Ana M.; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G.C.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Perales, Jonás; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2015-01-01

    A plasmin inhibitor, named tenerplasminin-1 (TP1), was isolated from Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) venom. It showed a molecular mass of 6542 Da, similarly to Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitors. The amidolytic activity of plasmin (0.5 nM) on synthetic substrate S-2251 was inhibited by 91% following the incubation with TP1 (1 nM). Aprotinin (2 nM) used as the positive control of inhibition, reduced the plasmin amidolytic activity by 71%. Plasmin fibrinolytic activity (0.05 nM) was inhibited by 67% following incubation with TP1 (0.1 nM). The degradation of fibrinogen chains induced by plasmin, trypsin or elastase was inhibited by TP1 at a 1:2, 1:4 and 1:20 enzyme:inhibitor ratio, respectively. On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of crude Mtt venom on fibrinogen chains, previously attributed to metallopeptidases, was not abolished by TP1. The tPA-clot lysis assay showed that TP1 (0.2 nM) acts like aprotinin (0.4 nM) inducing a delay in lysis time and lysis rate which may be associated with the inhibition of plasmin generated from the endogenous plasminogen activation. TP1 is the first serine protease plasmin-like inhibitor isolated from Mtt snake venom which has been characterized in relation to its mechanism of action, formation of a plasmin:TP1 complex and therapeutic potential as anti-fibrinolytic agent, a biological characteristic of great interest in the field of biomedical research. They could be used to regulate the fibrinolytic system in pathologies such as metastatic cancer, parasitic infections, hemophilia and other hemorrhagic syndromes, in which an intense fibrinolytic activity is observed. PMID:26419785

  11. Equine recurrent uveitis: new methods of management.

    PubMed

    Gilger, Brian C; Michau, Tammy Miller

    2004-08-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is one of the most common causes of blindness in horses. Until recently, treatment of this condition consisted only of symptomatic therapy, typically with steroidal and nonsteroidal medications. A better understanding of the disease process(es) has permitted new medical and surgical therapies that have recently been described. This article highlights clinical features of ERU, the causes of ERU, and new management and treatment options for horses with ERU.

  12. Recombinant equine interleukin-1β induces putative mediators of articular cartilage degradation in equine chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tung, J. T.; Fenton, J. I.; Arnold, C.; Alexander, L.; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V.; Venta, P. J.; Peters, T. L.; Orth, M. W.; Richardson, D. W.; Caron, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-1 is considered a central mediator of cartilage loss in osteoarthritis in several species, however an equine recombinant form of this cytokine is not readily available for in vitro use in equine osteoarthritis research. Equine recombinant interleukin-1β was cloned and expressed and its effects on the expression and activity of selected chondrocytic proteins implicated in cartilage matrix degradation were characterized. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods were used to amplify the entire coding region of the equine IL-1β mRNA, which was cloned into an expression vector, expressed in E. coli, and purified using a Ni2+ chromatographic method. The effects of the recombinant peptide on chondrocyte gene expression were determined by Northern blotting using RNA from equine chondrocyte cultures hybridized to probes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP 1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2). Effects on selected mediators of cartilage degradation (nitrite concentrations and MMP activity) were determined using conditioned medium from reIL-1β-treated equine cartilage explant cultures. A recombinant peptide of approximately 21 kd was obtained. Northern blotting analyses revealed a marked up-regulation of expression of all MMPs, TIMP 1, and COX 2 in mRNA from treated chondrocytes. Furthermore, cartilage explants exposed to reIL-1β had augmented collagenase/gelatinase and stromelysin activities as well as increased concentration of nitrite in conditioned media. The development of a biologically active, species-specific IL-1β provides a valuable tool in the study of osteoarthritis pathophysiology and its treatment in horses. PMID:11858644

  13. Equine Models of Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Fortier, Lisa A.; Frisbie, David D.; Nixon, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee and ankle are common, and a number of different methods have been developed in an attempt to improve their repair. Clinically, there are 2 distinct aims of cartilage repair: 1) restoration of joint function and 2) prevention or at least delay of the onset of osteoarthritis. These goals can potentially be achieved through replacement of damaged or lost articular cartilage with tissue capable of functioning under normal physiological environments for an extended period, but limitations of the final repair product have long been recognized and still exist today. Screening of potential procedures for human clinical use is done by preclinical studies using animal models. This article reviews equine chondral defect models that have been recently recognized to have specific advantages for translation into human articular cartilage regeneration. Defect models in the femoropatellar, femorotibial, and tibiotalar joints have been developed. The horse provides the closest approximation to humans in terms of articular cartilage and subchondral bone thickness, and it is possible to selectively leave the entire calcified cartilage layer or completely remove it. The defect on the equine medial femoral condyle emulates medial femoral condylar lesions in humans. Other advantages of the equine model include an ability to use an arthroscope to create lesions and perform second-look arthroscopies, the large lesion size allowing for more tissue for evaluation, and the ability to have controlled exercise and test the ability of the repair to cope with athletic exercise as well as institute rehabilitation regimens. PMID:26069590

  14. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  15. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  16. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  17. Equine hepacivirus persistent infection in a horse with chronic wasting.

    PubMed

    Elia, G; Lanave, G; Lorusso, E; Parisi, A; Trotta, A; Buono, R; Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2017-10-01

    Equine hepacivirus is the closest homologue of hepatitis C virus. Limited data on the clinical features of this infection are available. We report the identification of a horse with high-titre viremia by equine hepacivirus. Over a 15-month follow-up, the clinical signs and the viremic status persisted, suggesting a chronic evolution. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  19. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  20. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  1. Propagation of equine infectious anemia virus in horse cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Grădinaru, D A; Stirbu, C; Păltineanu, D; Mironescu, D; Manolescu, N

    1981-01-01

    The Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus was adapted to cell cultures by 7 passages in horse leukocytes and 14 passages in fetal equine dermal and kidney cells. The virus was made evident by electron microscopy and immunodiffusion tests with antigens prepared from culture fluids.

  2. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  3. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  4. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  5. Essential considerations for equine oral examination, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert A; Lewis, John R; Reiter, Alexander M; Lundström, Torbjörn S

    2011-01-01

    Equine dentistry should no longer be thought of as art over science. To be an effective equine dental clinician requires considerable investment in knowledge beyond the basic veterinary degree. It requires current scientific dental knowledge and adherence to the fundamental principles of medicine, dentistry, and surgery. Knowledge and principles will provide clinicians with the necessary information to make more evidence-based decisions as the scientific literature continues to evolve. Diagnosis and therapy should be seen as journeys with a destination, keeping in mind the values of the Hippocratic oath. Equine dentistry no longer needs to be seen as hard physical work with considerable risk to all involved. There is a demand for providers of equine dental care to be appropriately trained veterinarians and for veterinarians to further develop the science of equine dentistry. The rewards to the horse, client, and clinician are likely to be evident to those who make the investment.

  6. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for equine prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, J.F.; Chang, Y.S.; Papkoff, H.; Li, C.H.

    1984-04-01

    A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for equine prolactin, suitable for measuring prolactin concentrations in serum of horses. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation averaged 6.9 and 15.4%, respectively, for five doses of hormone. Cross-reactivity with other mammalian and nonmammalian prolactins and growth hormones was less than 20 and 0.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with equine growth hormone was less than 0.07%. Equine serum and pituitary extracts showed parallel dilution-response curves with equine prolactin. The percentage recovery of exogenous equine prolactin in serum was 89%. Preliminary analysis of several physiological samples (stallions, pregnant, and nonpregnant mares) yielded values from 0.6 to 12.0 ng/ml.

  7. Equine cellular therapy--from stall to bench to bedside?

    PubMed

    Burk, Janina; Badylak, Stephen F; Kelly, Jeremy; Brehm, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Pioneering clinical stem cell research is being performed in the horse, a recipient of cutting edge veterinary medicine as well as a unique animal model, paving the way for human medical applications. Although demonstrable progress has been made on the clinical front, in vitro characterization of equine stem cells is still in comparatively early stages. To translate the promising results of clinical stem cell therapy in the horse, advances must be made in the characterization of equine stem cells. Aiming to improve communication between veterinarians and other natural scientists, this review gives an overview of veterinary "bedside" achievements, focusing on stem cell therapies in equine orthopedics as well as the current state of in vitro characterization of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

  8. Selection of peptides for serological detection of equine infectious anemia.

    PubMed

    Santos, E M; Cardoso, R; Souza, G R L; Goulart, L R; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Reis, J K P

    2012-08-13

    Equine infectious anemia caused by equine infectious anemia virus is an important disease due to its high severity and incidence in animals. We used a phage display library to isolate peptides that can be considered potential markers for equine infectious anemia diagnosis. We selected peptides using IgG purified from a pool comprised of 20 sera from animals naturally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. The diagnostic potential of these peptides was investigated by ELISA, Western blot and dot blot with purified IgG and serum samples. Based on the results, we chose a peptide mimetic for glycoprotein gp45 epitopes of equine infectious anemia virus, with potential for use as an antigen in indirect diagnostic assays. Synthesis of this peptide has possible applications for the development of new diagnostic tools for this disease.

  9. Latent equine herpesvirus-1 in trigeminal ganglia and equine idiopathic headshaking.

    PubMed

    Aleman, M; Pickles, K J; Simonek, G; Madigan, J E

    2012-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia or neuropathic pain has been regarded as a putative cause of idiopathic headshaking in horses. Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection and resultant postherpetic pain have been suggested as a possible cause of such neuropathic pain. To determine the presence of EHV-1 in the trigeminal ganglia of horses with idiopathic headshaking. Nineteen horses: control (n = 11, 9 geldings, 2 mares, median age 11 years) and headshaking (n = 8, all geldings, median age 11.5 years) horses were sourced from the equine research herd and caseload at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Prospective study to determine the presence of EHV-1 latency in trigeminal ganglia of horses with idiopathic headshaking by real-time PCR detection of the glycoprotein B (gB) gene and the DNA polymerase (ORF 30) gene of EHV-1 in the absence of detectable late structural protein gene (gB gene) mRNA. Control horses were used for comparison. A house keeping gene (equine GAPDH) and positive and negative samples for EHV-1 were used for quality control. All samples from control horses and 7 of 8 headshaking horses were negative for EHV-1. One headshaking horse tested positive for a single copy of EHV-1 gene. This study does not support a role for EHV-1 infection and presumed postherpetic pain in the etiopathogenesis of equine headshaking. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review.

    PubMed

    Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Issel, C J

    2013-11-29

    A detailed description of equine infectious anemia virus and host responses to it are presented. Current control and eradication of the infection are discussed with suggestions for improvements to increase their effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Restriction of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus by Equine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perković, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene. PMID:19458006

  12. Restriction of equine infectious anemia virus by equine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perković, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

    2009-08-01

    The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene.

  13. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  14. Endothelin mediated contraction of equine laminar veins.

    PubMed

    Keen, J A; Hillier, C; McGorum, B C; Nally, J E

    2008-07-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) may be a key mediator in the pathogenesis of laminitis, but endothelin-mediated responses in the venous microcirculation of the equine foot have yet to be fully characterised. To characterise the response of equine laminar veins to ET-1 and evaluate the ET-1 receptor subtypes that mediate this response. Small veins (150-500 microns) draining the equine digital laminae from healthy horses and ponies subjected to euthanasia at an abattoir were investigated using wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for ET-1 in the presence of ETA (BQ123) and ETB (BQ788) receptor antagonists, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker. The selective ETB receptor agonist BQ3020 was investigated alone and following incubation with L-NAME, with or without BQ788. Endothelin-1 contraction of laminar veins was significantly inhibited by BQ123 but not by BQ788. In the presence of L-NAME, sensitivity of laminar veins to ET-1 was enhanced 4-fold, and further addition of BQ788 did not alter this increased sensitivity. BQ3020 induced no venoconstriction; however, in the presence of L-NAME, it caused contraction of veins with approximately 30% of the efficacy of ET-1. The action of BQ3020 in the presence of L-NAME was abolished by BQ788. Both ETA and ETB receptors are involved in the net tonic response to ET-1 in normal laminar veins. A population of ETB receptors may be present on the vascular endothelium and on smooth muscle of laminar veins, and the action of ET-1 at these 2 sites is likely to be approximately equal and opposite. Our results clarify the function of the ET-1 receptor subtypes in laminar veins from healthy horses. Further study of ET-1 receptors in laminitic horses is therefore warranted.

  15. Bovine and equine peritubular and intertubular dentin.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Telser, A; Lux, E; Cai, Z

    2014-09-01

    Dentin contains 1-2μm diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (∼200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30μm thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ∼0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ∼0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ∼0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD.

  16. Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y; Haddow, Andrew D; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2013-08-22

    The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.).

  17. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  18. Expression of endothelin in equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Katwa, L C; Johnson, P J; Ganjam, V K; Kreeger, J M; Messer, N T

    1999-05-01

    Biosynthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictor yet identified, is increased following myocardial infarction (MI) in man. Pathological events which occur in the connective tissues of the equine hoof during laminitis are similar in some respects, to changes occurring in the myocardial connective tissues following MI in man. The objective of this study was to determine whether ET-1 expression in connective tissues obtained from the hoof of laminitic horses is increased compared with tissues obtained from healthy horses. Expression of ET-1 in connective tissues of the equine hoof was measured following tissue extraction from 3 groups of horses: horses in which acute laminitis had been induced by the administration of starch; chronically foundered horses; nonlaminitic horses. The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from all laminitic horses (1573.0 +/- 392.8 pg/g of tissue; n = 10) was increased when compared with tissues obtained from nonlaminitic horses (392.5 +/- 117.4 pg/g of tissue; n = 5) (P<0.05). The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from the experimentally induced, acute laminitic horses (1043.6 +/- 254.4 pg/g of tissue; n = 7) and from the spontaneously affected, chronic laminitic horses (2808.3 +/- 878.6 pg/g of tissue; n = 3) was increased compared with the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from the chronic laminitic horses was greater than that of the experimentally induced, acute laminitic group (P<0.05). It is suggested that the data provide a strong argument that increased ET-1 expression in the connective tissues of the equine hoof represent a potentially important and hitherto unrecognised component of the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether inhibitors of ET-1 converting enzyme or antagonists of ET-1 receptors might be useful in the treatment

  19. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Masini, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an approach in which horses are an integral part of the therapeutic process. This article provides an overview of EAP, including a brief historical perspective, key definitions, and review of pertinent literature. Benefits of the approach are presented, from the standpoint of field observations, client self-reports, and formal research articles. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this article is intended to help non-EAP practitioners become more familiar with the approach. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Infection control in equine critical care settings.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    There is a recognizable standard of practice for infection control in veterinary medicine. Effort must be given to control and prevention of infectious disease transmission within a facility and among animal populations. In the critical care setting, patients typically have a high degree of systemic illness and immune compromise, are commonly subjected to invasive procedures and placement of indwelling devices, and frequently receive antimicrobials and gastric protectants. Every equine critical care unit is distinctive in its physical and operational features and the types of patients that are managed. Infection control programs must therefore be tailored to each facility's needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

    2014-04-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia.

  3. ANTIGENIC VARIANTS OF EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Casals, Jordi

    1964-01-01

    A study by hemagglutination-inhibition test showed that 19 strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus grouped themselves in two main types, which have been designated North American and South American. The former consists of ten strains from the eastern half of the United States, from Massachusetts to Florida; Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and, subject to confirmation, Thailand. The South American type comprises nine strains from Panama, Trinidad, British Guiana, Brazil, and Argentina. The strains were isolated from different natural hosts over a period of 30 years. PMID:14151098

  4. Carriers of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Coggins, L

    1984-02-01

    Presently available data continue to support the idea that once a horse is infected with equine infectious anemia virus it remains infected indefinitely. Infection may not always be demonstrated by inoculation of plasma, serum, or whole blood transfusions into susceptible recipients, but transfusions of fresh whole blood will be infective in at least 95% of the horses testing positive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test. For detection of infectivity in a small percentage of inapparent carriers, it appears necessary to inoculate washed leukocytes collected over a period of time.

  5. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutics for Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; Tobin, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. Affected horses routinely present with progressive and asymmetrical neurologic deficits. The diagnosis relies on the presence of neurologic signs, ruling out other neurologic disorders, and the detection of intrathecally derived antibodies to either S neurona and/or N hughesi. Recommended treatment is use of an FDA-approved anticoccidial drug formulation. Medical and supportive treatment is provided based on the severity of neurologic deficits and complications. This article focuses on recent data related to diagnosis, pharmacologic treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Compounding of Veterinary Drugs for Equine Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott D; Moffitt, Krysta; Wiebe, Valerie

    2017-04-01

    Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored.

  8. Biochemical characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus tener and comparative biological activities in the mouse and a reptile model.

    PubMed

    Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; de Roodt, Adolfo; López-Vera, Estuardo; Alagón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the venom components that could play a relevant role during envenomation caused by the coral snake Micrurus tener, through its biochemical characterization as well as the analysis of its effects on a murine model. Furthermore, it aimed to evaluate crude venom, in addition to its components, for possible specificity of action on a natural prey model (Conopsis lineata). The toxicity of the crude venom (delivered subcutaneously) showed a significant difference between the Median Lethal Dose (LD₅₀) in mice (4.4 μg/g) and in Conopsis lineata (12.1 μg/g) that was not observed when comparing the Median Paralyzing Dose (PD₅₀) values (mice = 4.7 μg/g; snakes = 4.1 μg/g). These results are evidence that the choice of study model strongly influences the apparent effects of crude venom. Moreover, based on the observed physical signs in the animal models, it was concluded that the most important physical effect caused by the venom is flaccid paralysis, which facilitates capture and subduing of prey regardless of whether it is alive; death is a logical consequence of the lack of oxygenation. Venom fractionation using a C18 reverse phase column yielded 35 fractions from which 16.6% caused paralysis and/or death to both animal models, 21.9% caused paralysis and/or death only to C. lineata and 1.6% were murine specific. Surprisingly, the diversity of snake-specific fractions did not reflect a difference between the PD₅₀s of the crude venom in mice and snakes, making it impossible to assume some type of specificity for either of the study models. Finally, the great diversity and abundance of fractions with no observable effect in snakes or mice (42.7%) suggested that the observed lethal fractions are not the only relevant toxic fractions within the venom and emphasized the possible relevance of interaction between components to generate the syndrome caused by the venom as a whole.

  9. Infectious causes of equine respiratory disease on Ontario standardbred racetracks.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Thorsen, J; Barnum, D A; Mitchell, W R; Ingram, D G

    1977-01-01

    Upper respiratory disease has been a serious problem in Standardbred horses on racetracks in Ontario, with outbreaks occurring once or twice annually in late winter and early spring seasons. To determine the causes of these epidemics, a 3-year investigation was carried out in which nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained at intervals from apparently healthy horses and from horses suffering from upper respiratory disease. The nasal swabs were used to isolate bacteria and viruses. The serum samples were examined for the presence and level of antibodies to equine influenza viruses and equine herpesvirus 1. None of the bacteria isolated were associated with the outbreaks of disease. Equine herpesvirus 2 was isolated 72 times from both diseased and apparently healthy horses. Equine herpesvirus 1 was isolated 10 times from horses with respiratory disease, both during and between epidemics. Influenza equine/1 virus was isolated seven times and influenza equine/2 was isolated once during severe outbreaks of upper respiratory disease. Serological evidence confirmed that influenza viruses were the causes of the major epidemics, with the equine/1 strain being involved most often. PMID:192757

  10. Abortion due to equine herpesvirus in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Weiblen, R; Rabuske, M; Rebelatto, M C; Nobre, V M; Canabarro, T F

    1994-06-01

    We report an outbreak of abortion due to equine herpesvirus (EHV) in 5 mares between 9 and 11 months of gestation, from a herd of 22 Thoroughbred mares. Equine herpesvirus was isolated from extracts of the liver, spleen and thymus but not from the lungs of a 9-month fetus grown in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells. The virus was identified by electron microscopy, where virus particles could be seen in the nucleus of infected cells, and by the fluorescent antibody technique with polyclonal antibodies against the whole virus. Anamnesis, necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology, and virology data suggest that the abortions reported in this paper were due to equine herpesvirus.

  11. Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Burns, Teresa A

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly.

  12. The equine practitioner-farrier relationship: building a partnership.

    PubMed

    Moyer, William; O'Grady, Stephen E; Werner, Harry W

    2012-04-01

    The importance of hoof care in maintaining the health and soundness of a horse cannot be overstated. The aphorism, “No foot, no horse” still holds true. For equine ambulatory practitioners, the time devoted to a thorough understanding of the equine digit and it’s care is well worth the investment. The effort devoted to developing good relationships with individuals who will likely be responsible for implementing the changes suggested as a result of that understanding will be rewarded many times over in the course of the equine ambulatory practitioner’s career.

  13. Equine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and their applications for infectivity and neutralization studies of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Raabe, M R; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    1998-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been shown to infect cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. These primary cells are intrinsically difficult to obtain, to purify and to culture in vitro for extended periods of time. As a result, most in vitro studies concerning this lentivirus make use of primary equine fibroblasts or transformed canine or feline cell lines. We describe methods that yield reproducibly pure cultures of equine blood monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The in vitro differentiation of these cells into mature equine macrophage was verified using various cytochemical staining methods. The equine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) cultures were found to replicate cell-adapted and field strains of EIAV more efficiently than cultures of fully differentiated equine splenic macrophage. Having established reproducible and fully differentiated cultures of equine macrophage, in vitro assays of virus infectivity and serum neutralization were developed using the in vivo target cell of EIAV. These procedures, while developed for the EIAV system, should be equally useful for in vitro cultures of other macrophage-tropic pathogens of horses.

  14. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    PubMed

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  15. Giant crystals inside mitochondria of equine chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, S; Rentenberger, C; Thiel, K; Schädl, B; Grunwald, I; Ponomarev, I; Marlovits, St; Meyer, Ch; Barnewitz, D

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports for the first time the presence of giant crystals in mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. These structures show dark contrast in TEM images as well as a granular substructure of regularly aligned 1-2 nm small units. Different zone axes of the crystalline structure were analysed by means of Fourier transformation of lattice-resolution TEM images proving the crystalline nature of the structure. Elemental analysis reveals a high content of nitrogen referring to protein. The outer shape of the crystals is geometrical with an up to hexagonal profile in cross sections. It is elongated, spanning a length of several micrometres through the whole cell. In some chondrocytes, several crystals were found, sometimes combined in a single mitochondrion. Crystals were preferentially aligned along the long axis of the cells, thus appearing in the same orientation as the chondrocytes in the tissue. Although no similar structures have been found in the cartilage of any other species investigated, they have been found in cartilage repair tissue formed within a mechanically stimulated equine chondrocyte construct. Crystals were mainly located in superficial regions of cartilage, especially in joint regions of well-developed superficial layers, more often in yearlings than in adult horses. These results indicate that intramitochondrial crystals are related to the high mechanical stress in the horse joint and potentially also to the increased metabolic activity of immature individuals.

  16. Characterization of arginase expression by equine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Martin, James G; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Neutrophils are the predominant cells recruited in the airways of horses suffering from heaves. These cells have been shown to express arginase in some species. The metabolism of l-arginine is thought to be involved in chronic inflammation, and airway obstruction and remodeling. The aim of this study was to assess the expression, regulation, activity, and functional role of arginase isoforms in equine neutrophils. Arginase I, arginase II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) expression were assessed in resting and stimulated (IL-4, LPS/fMLP, PMA; 5 and 18 h) blood neutrophils using quantitative PCR. Arginase expression was also studied by Western blot and enzyme activity assay. The effect of nor-NOHA (1mM), a specific arginase inhibitor, was assessed on arginase activity in vitro and ex vivo on neutrophil's inflammatory gene expression and viability. Results showed that equine neutrophils constitutively express arginase isoform 2, ODC and OAT. Neutrophil ex vivo stimulation did not induce arginase I or influence arginase II mRNA expression. Ex vivo inhibition of arginase activity by nor-NOHA had no effect on neutrophils inflammatory gene expression induced by LPS/fMLP (5h) but significantly reversed the cell loss observed after this stimulation.

  17. Functional modelling of an equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome provides experimental confirmation and functional annotation of equine genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Bright, L A; Mujahid, N; Nanduri, B; McCarthy, F M; Costa, L R R; Burgess, S C; Swiderski, C E

    2011-08-01

    The equine genome sequence enables the use of high-throughput genomic technologies in equine research, but accurate identification of expressed gene products and interpreting their biological relevance require additional structural and functional genome annotation. Here, we employ the equine genome sequence to identify predicted and known proteins using proteomics and model these proteins into biological pathways, identifying 582 proteins in normal cell-free equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We improved structural and functional annotation by directly confirming the in vivo expression of 558 (96%) proteins, which were computationally predicted previously, and adding Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for 174 proteins, 108 of which lacked functional annotation. Bronchoalveolar lavage is commonly used to investigate equine respiratory disease, leading us to model the associated proteome and its biological functions. Modelling of protein functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified carbohydrate metabolism, cell-to-cell signalling, cellular function, inflammatory response, organ morphology, lipid metabolism and cellular movement as key biological processes in normal equine BALF. Comparative modelling of protein functions in normal cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage proteomes from horse, human, and mouse, performed by grouping GO terms sharing common ancestor terms, confirms conservation of functions across species. Ninety-one of 92 human GO categories and 105 of 109 mouse GO categories were conserved in the horse. Our approach confirms the utility of the equine genome sequence to characterize protein networks without antibodies or mRNA quantification, highlights the need for continued structural and functional annotation of the equine genome and provides a framework for equine researchers to aid in the annotation effort.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  3. The transition from veterinary school to equine practice.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Katherine S

    2009-12-01

    The transition from veterinary school to equine practice can be challenging. This article provides suggestions and advice for new graduates in areas that include internships, associate positions, financial considerations, balancing personal and professional responsibilities, mentorship, continuing education, and professionalism.

  4. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    .... Others asked that the definition be expanded to include equines moving to auctions specifically. These... During Commercial Transportation to Slaughter,'' J. Anim. Sci. 77:2925-2933; Temple Grandin, Livestock...

  5. Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Baier, Margaret E Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of children who participated in a non-equine intervention (N = 8). Parents noted significant improvements in their child's physical, emotional and social functioning following the first 6 weeks of EAA. The children participating in the non-equine program also demonstrated improvement in behavior, but to a lesser degree. The favorable outcome of this study lends support for continuation of programs utilizing EAA in the treatment of children with ASD.

  6. Autism and Equine-Assisted Interventions: A Systematic Mapping Review.

    PubMed

    McDaniel Peters, B Caitlin; Wood, Wendy

    2017-07-21

    This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies, with reported improvements in behavior, social interaction, and communication. Four types of equine-assisted therapies were identified across 8 studies, with reported improvements in motor control and self-care. Different approaches to therapeutic riding and hippotherapy, the most studied interventions, were evident. While this literature reflected early scientific development, it offered broad proof of concept that equine-assisted interventions can benefit children and adolescents with autism. Promising outcomes support continued investigation focused on standardization, appropriateness, and efficacy.

  7. Identification of multiple equine infectious anemia antigens by immunodiffusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1975-10-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) cell antigens prepared from infected equine spleen, equine leukocyte cultures or a persistently infected equine dermis cell line contained at least two serologically reacting components. For convenience one component was designated as soluble antigen (SA) and the other as cell-associated antigen (CAA). The SA appeared as a single component when it was prepared from EIA virus precipitated from infectious tissue culture fluid with polyethylene glycol and ether treated but it was mixed with CAA when the source was infected cells. Cytolytic or mechanical disruption of infected cells appeared to accelerate the release of CAA. Reaction to each component could be identified in double and radial immunodiffusion tests by increasing the concentrations of SA in a two-component antigenic mixture. The CAA component does not appear to affect the value of the immunodiffusion test as a diagnostic aid.

  8. Controlling equine influenza: Traditional to next generation serological assays.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Rebecca; Scott, Simon D; Daly, Janet M

    2016-05-01

    Serological assays provide an indirect route for the recognition of infectious agents via the detection of antibodies against the infectious agent of interest within serum. Serological assays for equine influenza A virus can be applied for different purposes: diagnosing infections; subtyping isolates; surveillance of circulating strains; and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines before they reach the market. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and single radial haemolysis (SRH) assays are most commonly used in the equine field. This review outlines how both these assays together with virus neutralization (VN) and ELISA are performed, interpreted and applied for the control of equine influenza, giving the limitations and advantages of each. The pseudotyped virus neutralization assay (PVNA) is also discussed as a promising prospect for the future of equine influenza virus serology.

  9. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  10. Update of inactivated equine influenza vaccine strain in Japan

    PubMed Central

    GAMOH, Koichiro; NAKAMURA, Shigeyuki

    2017-01-01

    Japan established a vaccine selection system, in which a committee evaluates veterinary influenza vaccines to determine if the vaccine should be updated. In 2013, it was concluded that the present equine influenza vaccine strains did not have to be updated, but clade 2 (Fc2) viruses of the Florida sublineage should be included. We collected three Fc2 viruses as candidates and conducted comparative tests. Results indicated that A/equine/Carlow/2011 (H3N8) is not suitable, because of its unstable antigenic characteristics. A comparison between A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) (Richmond/07) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) (Yokohama/10) in eggs showed that they shared equal growth properties. Immunogenicity test in mice showed that Yokohama/10 induced higher HI antibody titers than Richmond/07. Therefore, we concluded that Yokohama/10 was the most suitable strain. PMID:28163276

  11. Noncytopathic Replication of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicons in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M.; Frolov, Ilya

    2005-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5′ untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions, and the ability to cause CPE in tissue culture does not necessarily correlate with pathogenesis and strongly depends on the sequence of viral nonstructural proteins. PMID:15919912

  12. Detection of equine herpesvirus 3 in equine skin lesions by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kleiboeker, Steven B; Chapman, Rodney K

    2004-01-01

    During a recent breeding season, ulcerative, pustular skin lesions were observed on the external genitalia of 2 mares and 1 stallion within a small herd. Based on the location and description of the skin lesions plus the clinical history, equine coital exanthema, caused by equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV3), was the primary differential diagnosis. Scrapings of skin lesions from the perineum of 2 mares were submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Virus isolation was attempted by inoculation of several cell lines of equine origin, but no cytopathic agent was detected. The skin scrapings were processed for DNA extraction, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed for herpesvirus DNA polymerase and DNA-packaging protein (terminase) genes using nested, degenerate primers targeted to conserved regions of the herpesvirus genome. Products of the expected sizes were generated for both assays, and subsequent nucleotide sequencing of the amplification products established that EHV3 had been detected in DNA extracted from the skin lesions. Detection of EHV3 was confirmed using an EHV3-specific PCR assay targeted to the gC gene. Using the novel EHV3 nucleotide sequence identified in this report, a sensitive and specific PCR assay targeted to the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene was developed.

  13. Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M; Frolov, Ilya

    2005-06-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5' untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions, and the ability to cause CPE in tissue culture does not necessarily correlate with pathogenesis and strongly depends on the sequence of viral nonstructural proteins.

  14. Risk factors for owner-reported occurrence of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the US equine population.

    PubMed

    Morley, P S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Benedict, K M; Saville, W J A; Voelker, L D; Wagner, B A

    2008-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious and often fatal neurologic disease of horses, but few studies have investigated risk factors. To evaluate operation- and individual-level factors associated with likelihood of the occurrence of EPM. Data were collected as part of a study of the US equine industry from 1,178 operations representing 83.9% of horses and 51.6% of operations with > or =3 horses in 28 states. Probability-based sampling was used to enroll representative operations in a cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect information regarding health and management of horses. A nested case-control study was used to investigate risk factors among individual horses. Interview data were combined with climate data, human population density, and opossum regional ecology categories. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to identify risk factors for the occurrence of EPM. Owners reported that 95% of EPM cases included in this study were diagnosed by veterinarians. Variables associated with EPM occurrence on premises included opossum regional ecology, reported exposure to small wildlife, climate, terrain, housing, choice of bedding material, method of storing feeds, equine stocking density, and primary use of horses. Among individual horses, age was most strongly associated with disease risk. Associations also were identified with sex, breed, primary use, and participation in competitions. Because the risk of EPM occurrence on operations is closely tied to factors that impact exposure to opossums, their feces, and their environment, controlling these exposures may be important in preventing the occurrence of EPM.

  15. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Kawamoto, Adelia Hiroko Nagamori; Alves, Rosely Cabette Barbosa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses. PMID:24878995

  16. Advances in equine computed tomography and use of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Sarah M

    2012-12-01

    Advances in equine computed tomography have been made as a result of improvements in software and hardware and an increasing body of knowledge. Contrast media can be administered intravascularly or intrathecally. Contrast media is useful to differentiate between tissues of similar density. Equine computed tomography can be used for many different clinical conditions, including lameness diagnosis, fracture identification and characterization, preoperative planning, and characterization of skull diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research and Preparation of an Equine Heptavalent Botulinal Antitoxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Equine Heptavalent Botulinal Antitoxin". Hyperimmune plasma was obtained by plasmapheresis of two Army horses : a thoroughbred, First Flight, and a black...4x1. II. Materials and Methods A. Immunization of Horses For the purpose of producing equine heptavalent botulInum antitoxin, two horses were...Minnesota these horses were fed specially formulated high protein grain pellets and also a daily ration of hay. Routine health care maintainance, including

  18. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus from Infected Horse Serum

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideo; Yoshino, Tomoo; Ushimi, Chuzo

    1974-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus was purified from infected horse serum samples. Electron microscope observation on negatively stained preparations of purified virus showed roughly spherical particles sized between 100 and 200 nm in diameter. In disrupted particles, an envelope was visible but no internal structure could be resolved. Since the purified virus fraction had a strong antigenic activity to antiserum in immunodiffusion reaction, these particles are thought to be the causative virus of equine infectious anemia. Images PMID:4372175

  20. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  1. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  2. Therapeutic potential of Pirfenidone for treating equine corneal scarring.

    PubMed

    Fink, Michael K; Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Tandon, Ashish; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Pirfenidone (PFD) in the treatment of equine corneal fibrosis using an in vitro model. Healthy donor equine corneas were collected and used to generate primary equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) by growing cultures in minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Equine corneal myofibroblasts (ECMs), used as a model of equine corneal fibrosis, were produced by growing ECF cultures in serum-free medium containing transforming growth factor β1 (1 ng/mL). Trypan blue viability assays and changes in ECF morphology were utilized to determine the optimal PFD dose for this in vitro model. Trypan blue viability, phase-contrast microscopy, and TUNEL assays were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of PFD. Scratch and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effect of PFD on cellular migration and proliferation. Real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were employed to determine the efficacy of PFD to inhibit ECM formation in vitro. Topical PFD application at 200 μg/mL successfully decreased αSMA expression when compared to the TGFβ1 only treatment group (P < 0.01). PFD application ≤ 200 μg/mL did not affect ECF phenotype or cellular viability and did not result in significant cytotoxicity. Pirfenidone safely and effectively inhibits TGFβ1-induced equine corneal fibrosis in vitro. In vivo studies are warranted. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Isolation and cultivation of equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Dylan G.; Giuliano, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Ajay; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish an in vitro model for the investigation of equine corneal wound healing. To accomplish this goal, a protocol to isolate and culture equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts was developed. Animal material Equine corneal buttons were aseptically harvested from healthy research horses undergoing humane euthanasia for reasons unrelated to this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed prior to euthanasia by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist to ensure that all samples were harvested from horses free of anterior segment disease. Procedure Equine corneal stroma was isolated using mechanical techniques and stromal sub-sections were then cultured. Customized media at different culture conditions was used to promote growth and differentiation of corneal stromal cells into keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Results Cell culture techniques were successfully used to establish a method for the isolation and culture of equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical staining for alpha-smooth muscle and F-actin was used to definitively differentiate the three cell types. Conclusion Equine corneal stromal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts can be predictably isolated and cultured in vitro using this protocol. PMID:20149174

  4. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Go, Yun Young; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Bailey, Ernest; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-01-13

    Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from <3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain Bucyrus at 4°C was significantly higher in HEK-EqCXCL16 cells than nontransfected HEK-293T cells. Finally, the results demonstrated that EAV preferentially infects subpopulations of horse CD14(+) monocytes expressing EqCXCL16 and that infection of these cells is significantly reduced by pretreatment with Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb. The collective data from this study provide confirmatory evidence that the transmembrane form of EqCXCL16 likely plays a major role in EAV host cell entry processes, possibly acting as a primary receptor molecule for this virus. Outbreaks of EVA can be a source of significant economic loss for the equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a critical role in EVA

  5. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Bailey, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from <3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain Bucyrus at 4°C was significantly higher in HEK-EqCXCL16 cells than nontransfected HEK-293T cells. Finally, the results demonstrated that EAV preferentially infects subpopulations of horse CD14+ monocytes expressing EqCXCL16 and that infection of these cells is significantly reduced by pretreatment with Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb. The collective data from this study provide confirmatory evidence that the transmembrane form of EqCXCL16 likely plays a major role in EAV host cell entry processes, possibly acting as a primary receptor molecule for this virus. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EVA can be a source of significant economic loss for the equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a

  6. Equine amplification and virulence of subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses isolated during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican epizootics.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salazar, Dante; Estrada-Franco, José G; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Aronson, Judith F; Weaver, Scott C

    2003-02-01

    To assess the role of horses as amplification hosts during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootics, we subcutaneously infected 10 horses by using four different equine isolates. Most horses showed little or no disease and low or nonexistent viremia. Neurologic disease developed in only 1 horse, and brain histopathologic examination showed meningeal lymphocytic infiltration, perivascular cuffing, and focal encephalitis. Three animals showed mild meningoencephalitis without clinical disease. Viral RNA was detected in the brain of several animals 12-14 days after infection. These data suggest that the duration and scope of the recent Mexican epizootics were limited by lack of equine amplification characteristic of previous, more extensive VEE outbreaks. The Mexican epizootics may have resulted from the circulation of a more equine-neurotropic, subtype IE virus strain or from increased transmission to horses due to amplification by other vertebrate hosts or transmission by more competent mosquito vectors.

  7. Equine Amplification and Virulence of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses Isolated during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican Epizootics

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Dante; Estrada-Franco, José G.; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Aronson, Judith F.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of horses as amplification hosts during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootics, we subcutaneously infected 10 horses by using four different equine isolates. Most horses showed little or no disease and low or nonexistent viremia. Neurologic disease developed in only 1 horse, and brain histopathologic examination showed meningeal lymphocytic infiltration, perivascular cuffing, and focalencephalitis. Three animals showed mild meningoencephalitis without clinical disease. Viral RNA was detected in the brain of several animals 12-14 days after infection. These data suggest that the duration and scope of the recent Mexican epizootics were limited by lack of equine amplification characteristic of previous, more extensive VEE outbreaks. The Mexican epizootics may have resulted from the circulation of a more equine-neurotropic, subtype IE virus strain or from increased transmission to horses due to amplification by other vertebrate hosts or transmission by more competent mosquito vectors. PMID:12603985

  8. Sero-surveillance of equine infectious anemia virus in equines in India during more than a decade (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Kumar, Rajender; Virmani, Nitin; Shanmugasundaram, Karuppusamy; Pandey, Shashti B; Kant, Ravi; Singh, Birendra K; Singh, Raj K

    2013-12-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a retroviral infection of horses. Horses infected by EIA virus (EIAV) become inapparent carriers that remain asymptomatic for the remainder of their life span and serve as infection source to other horses. In this study, agar gel immunodiffusion test and ELISA were used to investigate the presence of antibodies to EIAV in equines. A total of 67,042 equine serum samples from 19 states and two union territories were tested during April 1999 to September 2012. The results revealed that none of the animals were positive for antibodies to EIAV from 1999 to December 2009. However, two EIAV sero-positive cases one each from indigenous and thoroughbred equines were detected in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Occurrence of EIA after a long gap of 11 years is indicative of reemergence of EIA in India which warrants concerted efforts in nationwide surveillance and monitoring for detection and elimination of EIAV carrier animals to prevent EIA outbreak.

  9. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  10. A review of equine dental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Dacre, I

    2005-03-01

    Equine dentistry is a very important but until recently rather neglected area of equine practice, with many horses suffering from undiagnosed, painful dental disorders. A thorough clinical examination using a full mouth speculum is a pre-requisite to performing any equine dental procedure. Common incisor disorders include: prolonged retention of deciduous incisors, supernumerary incisors and overjet--the latter usually accompanied by cheek teeth (CT) overgrowths. Overjet can be surgically corrected, but perhaps should not be in breeding animals. In younger horses, traumatically fractured incisors with pulpar exposure may survive by laying down tertiary dentine. Loss or maleruption of incisors can cause uneven occlusal wear that can affect mastication. Idiopathic fractures and apical infection of incisors are rare. The main disorder of canine teeth is the development of calculus of the lower canines, and occasionally, developmental displacements and traumatic fractures. The main indications for extraction of "wolf teeth" (Triadan 05s) are the presence of displaced or enlarged wolf teeth, or their presence in the mandible. Developmental abnormalities of the CT include; rostral positioning of the upper CT rows in relation to the lower CT rows--with resultant development of focal overgrowths on the upper 06s and the lower 11s. Displaced CT develop overgrowths on unopposed aspects of the teeth and also develop periodontal disease in the inevitable abnormal spaces (diastemata) that are present between displaced and normal teeth. Diastemata of the CT due to excessive developmental spacing between the CT or to inadequate compression of the CT rows is a common but under diagnosed problem in many horses and causes very painful periodontal disease and quidding. Supernumerary CT mainly occur at the caudal aspect of the CT rows and periodontal disease commonly occurs around these teeth. Eruption disorders of CT include prolonged retention of remnants of deciduous CT ("caps

  11. A survey of equine oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James; Waldner, Cheryl; Grier, Candace; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-01-01

    Dental abnormalities in horses can lead to weight-loss, poor performance, pain, behavioral abnormalities, and illness. Despite this impact, the occurrence and type of dental disease in horse populations is infrequently reported in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey of horses presented for slaughter at a processing plant in Western Canada was to measure the prevalence of equine oral abnormalities, examine associations between the most common abnormalities, and consider the relationship between the age of horse and types of abnormalities observed. The horses used in this research consisted of a variety of ages, breeds, body conditions, and origins. Horses ranged in age from 18-months to 30-years (median = 11-years). The most common oral pathologies included sharp edges, buccal abrasions, calculus, lingual ulcers, gingival recession, periodontal pockets, ramps, and waves. Several types of pathology were strongly associated with other dental disorders. The prevalence of periodontal pockets, gingival recession, and waves was highest in older horses.

  12. Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis.

    PubMed

    Staszyk, Carsten; Bienert, Astrid; Kreutzer, Robert; Wohlsein, Peter; Simhofer, Hubert

    2008-12-01

    A poorly described, painful disorder of incisor and canine teeth, variably causing periodontitis, with resorptive or proliferative changes of the calcified dental tissues, has recently been documented in aged horses. No plausible aetiopathogenesis for this syndrome has been recorded. Eighteen diseased teeth from eight horses were examined grossly and microscopically and showed the presence of odontoclastic cells by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. A chronological sequence of odontoclastic resorption followed by hypercementosis was demonstrated and, consequently, the term equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is proposed for this disorder. EOTRH shares many features with similar dental syndromes described in humans and cats. An aetiological hypothesis proposes mechanical stress of the periodontal ligament as the initiating factor.

  13. Equine sweating and anhidrosis Part 2: anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David McEwan; Elder, Hugh Y; Bovell, Douglas L

    2007-02-01

    The condition of anhidrosis is described in this review, and the latest theories on the causal factors are explored. The evidence supports the hypothesis that anhidrosis is an inappropriate response to prolonged climatic stress (generally combined heat and high humidity), which can be evoked in a small (approximately 10 +/- 5%) proportion of the equine population. It is caused by gradual failure of the glandular secretory cell processes, initiated by desensitization and subsequent down-regulation of the cell receptors as a result of continued adrenaline-driven hyperactivity. It progresses through secretory failure and culminates in gradual, probably irreversible, glandular dedifferentiation and ultimate degeneration. There is a need for considerably more research on the secretory and transcriptional processes to document the changes arising within the glandular secretory mechanism as a prelude to development of a corrective treatment.

  14. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries.

  15. Metabolic causes of equine exercise intolerance.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1996-12-01

    Metabolic causes of exercise intolerance can be subtle and difficult to document in horses. Because of increased metabolic rate in exercising muscle, most metabolic causes of exercise intolerance are clinically manifested by muscle abnormalities such as ER. Newer causes of ER are being documented by current research and are summarized in the article on muscular causes of equine exercise intolerance. Endocrine causes of exercise intolerance have been poorly documented, but recent work has shown the detrimental effects of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance in horses. Many metabolic manifestations of exercise intolerance are cumulative in heat exhaustion; prevention by veterinary monitoring is the best treatment, followed by cold water bathing and oral or intravenous fluid and electrolyte replacement. Several ergogenic aids have been proposed and marketed for use in horses, but each has its own problems and few have been shown clearly to have positive effects on performance.

  16. Equine recurrent uveitis: the European viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Spiess, B M

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has always been and still is an important disease with a significant impact on the horse industry in Europe, with a prevalence of 8-10%. The need to understand and manage the disease has spurred the development of veterinary ophthalmology in general, although the aetiology of the disease remains the subject of intense discussion. It is most probably an autoimmune disease triggered, at least in Europe, in the majority of cases by Leptospira spp. The therapy of ERU has evolved over the centuries from various methods of bloodletting to rational medical therapy using mydriatics and steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to surgical therapies, such as vitrectomy or implantation of cyclosporin-releasing devices. In Europe, pars plana vitrectomy in horses testing positive for Leptospira spp. appears to be the most successful form of therapy at the present time.

  17. Biochemical studies on equine infectious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Palomba, E; Martone, F; Meduri, A; Vaccaro, A; Damiani, N

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (E.I.A.) in Campania [at Naples and Aversa (Caserta)]; it was diagnosed by clinical, pathological and serological examinations (Coggins test). Using the serum of 45 horses with E.I.A. and 11 healthy horses (controls), numerous investigations were carried out on: enzymes, intrinsic coagulation factors, lipids and other substances. The results obtained were very interesting and show that in this disease there are significant increases in many enzymes (LDH, LAP, gamma-GT, CPK, PK and ALD) and copper. Insignificant increases were found in other enzymes (SDH, GLDH, MDH, ICDH, AIP, lysozyme, cholinesterase, GOT and GPT) and also intrinsic coagulation factors, lipid substances (total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, triglycerides) and glucose. LDH-1-isoenzyme remains unchanged, whilst AcP decreases slightly.

  18. Prepurchase examination in ambulatory equine practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Harry W

    2012-04-01

    Prepurchase examination provides a significant opportunity for veterinarians to offer an important professional service to the equine industry. When the service is performed competently and ethically, prospective buyers and sellers will recommend the examining veterinarian to fellow horse owners and professionals. To become comfortable with and skilled at performing prepurchase examinations, a veterinarian must understand the operational challenges associated with this service-and master them. Veterinarians performing prepurchase examinations should address the needs and manage the expectations of the prospective buyer, treat the seller and all parties with professional courtesy, be familiar with the intended use of the horse, competently perform a thorough physical examination, and pay close attention to the medical record and report. Communicate clearly with all parties before, during, and after the examination. Feedback from staff and colleagues is critical to improving and refining the services offered. The veterinarian should work with staff to evaluate the processes used to deliver the prepurchase examination experience to clients and consult with mentors who are skilled in performing these services. Sharing your ideas for improving prepurchase examination with equine colleagues is a service to the veterinary profession and to the horse. Performing a prepurchase examination in the way described may sound like a "tall order," but once patient care and service goals have been established, staff has been trained, and the process has been defined-the challenges become opportunities. The rewards include satisfied clients, reduced liability risk, increased profitability, and the satisfaction of having performed an interesting, valuable task to the best of one’s abilities.

  19. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    PubMed

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  20. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in Lusitano horses.

    PubMed

    Finno, C J; Higgins, R J; Aleman, M; Ofri, R; Hollingsworth, S R; Bannasch, D L; Reilly, C M; Madigan, J E

    2011-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a neurodegenerative disorder that has been previously associated with low vitamin E concentrations. To describe the clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic features of EDM in a group of related Lusitano horses. Fifteen Lusitano horses. Neurologic examinations were conducted, and serum vitamin E concentrations were measured. Three neurologically abnormal horses were further evaluated by ophthalmologic examination, electroretinography, electroencephalography, muscle and nerve biopsies, and post-mortem examination. Six horses appeared neurologically normal, 6 were neurologically abnormal, and 3 had equivocal gait abnormalities. Abnormal horses demonstrated ataxia and paresis. An inconsistent menace response was noted in 4 neurologically abnormal horses and in 1 horse with equivocal findings. All horses had low serum vitamin E concentrations (<1.5 ppm). Ophthalmologic examinations, electroretinograms, electroencephalograms, and muscle and peripheral nerve biopsies were unremarkable in 3 neurologically abnormal horses. At necropsy, major neuropathological findings in these horses were bilaterally symmetric, severe, neuro axonal degeneration in the gracilis, cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus nuclei and bilaterally symmetric axonal loss and demyelination mainly in the dorsolateral and ventromedial tracts of the spinal cord. A diagnosis of EDM was made based on these findings. Pedigree analysis identified 2 sires among the affected horses. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes ataxia and, in severe cases, paresis, in young Lusitano horses. The disease appears to have a genetic basis, and although vitamin E deficiency is a common finding, low serum vitamin E concentrations also may occur in apparently unaffected related individuals. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  2. Equine tetherin blocks retrovirus release and its activity is antagonized by equine infectious anemia virus envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism.

  3. A new understanding of oral and dental pathology of the equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Casey, Miriam

    2013-08-01

    Equine dental disease has a high prevalence. Because of developmental, functional, and anatomic differences, limited inference can be made from brachydont dental pathology to that of equine cheek teeth. This article reviews the pathology of equine cheek teeth and their associated oral tissues, with specific information on periodontitis, pulpitis, maxillary infundibular changes, dental fractures, dental overgrowths, mucosal ulceration, and the regenerative capacity of equine teeth.

  4. Development of a Genetically-Engineered Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-13

    necrosis. We have evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant vaccinia/VEE virus vaccine (TC-5A) to protect horses against challenge with equine virulent...of horse vaccinees with equine virulent VEE virus 71-180 and vaccinia viruses ........ 27 7. ELISA cross-reactivity of sera from immunized equines ...antibodies in equines after immuniza- tion with TC-83, TC-5A and wild-type vaccinia viruses . .40 5. Body temperature of horses immunized with TC-5A (A

  5. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Thomas G; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben D; Betts, Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs. PMID:17537254

  6. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Koch, Thomas G; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben D; Betts, Dean H

    2007-05-30

    There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5 degrees C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  7. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  8. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine carcasses...

  9. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stephanie; Barsova, Jekaterina; Campos, Isabel; Frampton, Arthur R

    2016-08-30

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. Strains of EHV-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral DNA polymerase (nucleotide A2254>G2254: amino acid N752→D752) are isolated from EHM afflicted horses at higher frequencies than EHV-1 strains that do not harbor this mutation. Due to the correlation between the DNA Pol mutation and EHM disease, EHV-1 strains that contain the mutation have been designated as neurologic. In this study, we measured virus replication, cell to cell spread efficacy, and host inflammatory responses in equine endothelial cells infected with 12 different strains of EHV-1. Two strains, T953 (Ohio 2003) (neurologic) and Kentucky A (KyA) (non-neurologic), have well described disease phenotypes while the remaining strains used in this study are classified as neurologic or non-neurologic based solely on the presence or absence of the DNA pol mutation, respectively. Results show that the neurologic strains do not replicate better or spread more efficiently in endothelial cells. Also, the majority of the host inflammatory genes were modulated similarly regardless of EHV-1 genotype. Analyses of host gene expression showed that a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, as well as CCL5, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently up-regulated in endothelial cells infected with each EHV-1 strain. The identification of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells that are modulated by EHV-1 provides further insight into the factors that contribute to the immunopathology observed after infection and may also reveal new targets for disease intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TAKEHANA, Kazushige; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  11. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to equine CD16.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Leela E; Harman, Rebecca M; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F

    2012-04-15

    The low-affinity Fc receptor CD16 plays a central role in the inflammatory and innate immune responses of many species, but has not yet been investigated in the horse. Using the predicted extracellular region of equine CD16 expressed as a recombinant fusion protein with equine IL-4 (rIL-4/CD16), we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize equine CD16. Nine mAbs were chosen for characterization based upon recognition of CD16, but not IL-4, in ELISA. All nine mAbs recognized full-length, cell-surface CD16 expressed as a GFP fusion protein by CHO cells, but not the closely related Fc receptor CD32 expressed in the same system. In flow cytometric analysis with equine peripheral leukocytes, the mAbs labeled cells in the granulocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte populations in a pattern consistent with other species. Monocytes that were strongly labeled with CD16 mAb 9G5 were also positive for the LPS receptor CD14. Cytospins made with peripheral leukocytes were immunohistochemically labeled and showed mAb recognition of primarily mononuclear cells. ELISA revealed that the nine mAbs can be grouped into three patterns of epitope recognition. These new antibodies will serve as useful tools in the investigation of equine immune responses and inflammatory processes.

  12. Eastern equine encephalitis in Tennessee: 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Moody, Erin E; Lewokzco, Kenneth; Huddleston, Dora B; Huang, Junjun; Rowland, Meghan E; Wilson, Ron; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2012-05-01

    Human and equine outbreaks caused by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) typically occur in North America adjacent to coastal wetlands associated with the presence of Culiseta melanura (Coquillet) mosquitoes. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is an emerging disease in Tennessee, as the first records of equine disease began in 2002. In 2006 we trapped and tested mosquitoes for EEEV at hardwood swamps in western Tennessee that were at the epicenter of a multi-equine outbreak in fall of 2005. Additionally, the Tennessee Valley Authority tested mosquito pools collected in Tennessee swamps from 2000 to 2007 for the presence of arboviruses. Two pools of EEEV positive Culex erraticus (Dyer and Knab) mosquitoes were found (one each in 2003 and 2004) in a county adjacent to where the 2005 outbreak occurred. In 2008, another EEE outbreak involving multiple horses occurred in West Tennessee. A brain specimen was collected from a horse during this outbreak and the first isolate of EEEV from Tennessee was obtained. In total, 74,531 mosquitoes collected from 2000 to 2008 were tested via polymerase chain reaction and VecTest for EEEV. The traditional enzootic vector, Cs. melanura, was found in low numbers at all collection sites. Cx. erraticus, however, was consistently found in high numbers and was the only mosquito species in which EEEV was detected. We suggest that EEE transmission may be maintained by Cx. erraticus in a nontraditional cycle. We discuss the importance of a nontraditional cycle from the perspective of EEEV adaptation and emergence.

  13. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    PubMed

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  14. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease.

  15. Prognosis and impact of equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gerding, J C; Gilger, B C

    2016-05-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a leading cause of vision loss in horses. To assess the prognosis and impact of ERU on affected horses and their owners by evaluating the signalment, treatment and outcome (including the loss of use, vision assessment and economic loss). Retrospective impact study. Medical records of horses presenting to the North Carolina State University Veterinary Health Complex (NCSU-VHC) with ERU between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, ophthalmic examination findings, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. Owner questionnaires were completed regarding vision, job/role, monetary value, diagnostic and treatment costs, concurrent illness and outcomes. Records of 224 horses (338 eyes) with ERU were reviewed. There was an overrepresentation of Appaloosas (54; 24.1%), Hanoverians (11; 4.9%) and other Warmbloods (13; 5.8%). Ninety-six eyes (28.4%) were diagnosed as blind and 38 eyes (11.2%) with glaucoma on initial evaluation. Leptospirosis titres of serum and/or aqueous humour were obtained in 88 horses and were positive in 40 horses (45.5%), with L. pomona being the most frequently isolated serovar. Globe loss at the NCSU-VHC occurred in 41 ERU eyes (12.1% of total). Owner questionnaires were evaluated in 194 horses (86.6%) and 91 horses (46.9%) were reported blind in the affected eye(s). Fifty-seven horses (29.4%) did not return to their previous role, while 61 (31.4%) performed at a reduced level. Equine recurrent uveitis decreased the monetary value of 164 horses. Twenty-nine horses (14.9%) were euthanised and 37 (19.1%) underwent change in ownership as a direct result of ERU. The impact of ERU is attributed to the high frequency of blindness, globe loss and loss of function. Euthanasia and change of ownership are common sequelae to the progressive nature of ERU. These factors, along with financial costs of the disease, have a significant impact on affected horses and their owners. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Fallen stock data: An essential source of information for quantitative knowledge of equine mortality in France.

    PubMed

    Tapprest, J; Morignat, E; Dornier, X; Borey, M; Hendrikx, P; Ferry, B; Calavas, D; Sala, C

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiological purposes. In France, data from rendering plants are centralised in the Fallen Stock Data Interchange database (FSDI), managed by the French Ministry of Agriculture, while individual equine data are centralised in the French equine census database, SIRE, managed by the French horse and riding institute (IFCE). To evaluate whether the combined use of the FSDI and SIRE databases can provide representative and accurate quantitative information on mortality for the French equine population and to propose enhancements of these databases to improve the quality of the resulting demographic information. Descriptive study. Mortality ratios for the French equine population were calculated per year between 2011 and 2014 and temporal variations in equine mortality modelled during the same period. Survival analyses were performed on a sample of equines traceable in both the FSDI and SIRE databases. Estimates of the annual mortality ratios varied from 3.02 to 3.40% depending on the years. Survival rates of equines 2-years-old and over differed according to breed categories with the highest median age at death for the ponies. The weekly description of mortality highlighted marked seasonality of deaths whatever the category of equines. Modelling temporal variations in equine mortality also brought to light excess mortality. Insufficient traceability of equines between the two databases. The FSDI database provided an initial approach to equine death ratios on a national scale and an original description of temporal variations in mortality. Improvement in the traceability of equines between the FSDI and SIRE databases is needed to enable their combined use, providing a representative description of equine longevity and a more detailed description of temporal variations in mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  17. The characterization of equine herpes virus-1-infected cell polypeptides recognized by equine lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, C G; Ledger, N; Edington, N

    1988-01-01

    Ponies, without evidence of previous exposure to Equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1), were experimentally infected with EHV-1 subtype 2 and investigated for lymphocyte transformation to virus-infected cell polypeptides, as shown by separation with gel electrophoresis. Animals made significant responses to Western blot fractions that corresponded to molecular weights of approximately 30,000, 40,000-45,000, 60,000-65,000, 80,000-95,000 and 100,000-140,000 MW. These molecular weight ranges correlated with the positions of major EHV-1 subtype 2 glycoproteins that were found at migration distances approximating to 137,000, 111,000, 90,000, 65,000 and 47,000 MW. Responses were also made to a subset of similar points on the subtype 1 profile. Hyperimmune equine serum precipitated numerous infected-cell proteins of both subtypes; in particular the recognition of polypeptides with MW of 142,000, 132,000, 114,000, and 46,000 was in agreement with the mitogenic responses. Labelling with 125I indicated that immunoprecipitated greater than 250,000, 182,000, 142,000, 132,000, 75,000, 46,000 and 32,000/34,000 MW products were exposed on the surface of infected cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2832309

  18. The characterization of equine herpes virus-1-infected cell polypeptides recognized by equine lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bridges, C G; Ledger, N; Edington, N

    1988-02-01

    Ponies, without evidence of previous exposure to Equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1), were experimentally infected with EHV-1 subtype 2 and investigated for lymphocyte transformation to virus-infected cell polypeptides, as shown by separation with gel electrophoresis. Animals made significant responses to Western blot fractions that corresponded to molecular weights of approximately 30,000, 40,000-45,000, 60,000-65,000, 80,000-95,000 and 100,000-140,000 MW. These molecular weight ranges correlated with the positions of major EHV-1 subtype 2 glycoproteins that were found at migration distances approximating to 137,000, 111,000, 90,000, 65,000 and 47,000 MW. Responses were also made to a subset of similar points on the subtype 1 profile. Hyperimmune equine serum precipitated numerous infected-cell proteins of both subtypes; in particular the recognition of polypeptides with MW of 142,000, 132,000, 114,000, and 46,000 was in agreement with the mitogenic responses. Labelling with 125I indicated that immunoprecipitated greater than 250,000, 182,000, 142,000, 132,000, 75,000, 46,000 and 32,000/34,000 MW products were exposed on the surface of infected cells.

  19. Equine lentivirus, comparative studies on four serological tests for the diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Bürki, F; Rossmanith, W; Rossmanith, E

    1992-11-01

    Serological diagnosis of equine infectious anemia is of necessity group-reactive, i.e. based on viral core protein p26, because viral envelope components as well as the host's immune response to them undergo rapid antigenic change. Since 1970 the agar gel-immunodiffusion test ("Coggins-test") has been the diagnostic method of choice. Recently, ELISA tests have been introduced for faster and theoretically more sensitive serodiagnosis, while Western blots have been used to clarify doubtful results obtained in Coggins-tests. A commercial competitive ELISA was found to give practically equivalent results to the Coggins-test. The sensitivity of this market product is intentionally kept marginal in order to avoid false-positive "reactor horses". Another commercial ELISA, non-competitive, gave inconsistent results, creating great turmoil among horse owners when falsely positive. Caution is also indicated when interpreting Western blots. Sera of strongly positive horses gave as many as eleven bands, of medium positives fewer bands, and of the weakest reactors solely the p26 band. Single p26 banding was, however, also encountered in 5% healthy horses, in two of them consistently over time, which are accordingly considered non-specific. In order to be interpreted as positive, a Western blot for this equine lentivirus must band with its core protein plus at least one glycoprotein, similar to the recommended criterion for a positive reading of serum samples from AIDS patients.

  20. Differential susceptibility of equine and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells to equine herpesvirus 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, R; Kimura, T; Nakamura, K; Ochiai, K; Okazaki, K; Wada, R; Umemura, T

    2006-04-01

    Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) shows endotheliotropism in the central nervous system (CNS) of infected horses. However, infection of endothelial cells has not been observed in the CNS of infected mice. To explore the basis for this difference in endotheliotropism, we compared the susceptibility of equine brain microvascular endothelial cells (EBMECs) and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) to EHV-1 infection. The kinetics of viral growth in EBMECs was typical of a fully productive infection whereas viral infection in MBMECs seemed to be nonproductive. Immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-EHV-1 polyclonal antibody demonstrated viral antigen in infected EBMECs, but not infected MBMECs. EHV-1 immediate early (IE), early (ICP0), and late (gB, gD and gK) transcripts were expressed in infected EBMECs. However, none of these genes was detected in infected MBMECs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Electron microscopic examination at the stage of viral entry showed that viral particles were present within uncoated vesicles in the cytoplasm of EBMECs, but absent from those of MBMECs. These results suggest that viral entry is an important determinant of the susceptibility of EBMECs and MBMECs to EHV-1 infection.

  1. Equine herpesvirus-1 suppresses type-I interferon induction in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2015-10-15

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. EHV-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. Like other herpes viruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. Some herpes viruses down-regulate the type-I interferon (IFN) response to infection, but such activity has not been described for EHV-1. Here, in an in vitro system utilizing an established equine endothelial cell line, we studied the temporal effect on IFN-β responses following infection with the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1. Results show that after an early induction of IFN-β, the virus actively shut down further production of IFN-β and this was correlated with expression of the viral late genes. Expression of the IFN response factor viperin, a marker of host cell type-I IFN responses, was also suppressed by T953 virus infection. EHV-1-mediated suppression of host type-I IFN responses may play an important role in EHV-1 pathogenesis and the mechanism of this, presumably involving a viral late gene product, warrants investigation.

  2. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  3. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  4. Histopathological findings in equine sinonasal disorders.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, W H; Clarke, C J; Dixon, P M

    1999-07-01

    Biopsies collected from 79 referred cases of equine sinonasal disease, including 27 horses with primary sinusitis, 10 with secondary dental sinusitis, 19 with sinus cysts, 11 with progressive ethmoid haematomata (PEH), 4 with false nostril epidermal inclusion cysts, 4 with sinonasal polyps, 3 with sinonasal mycosis and from 2 control animals were examined histologically. Observations were made on epithelial type and integrity, cellular inflammatory response, fibroplasia and presence of potential pathogens. Chronic inflammatory changes including mucosal thickening, ulceration and significant fibroplasia, were found in the sinus mucosa with most sinus disorders, similar to those found in human chronic sinusitis. Bacteria were variably present on sinusitis mucosae but their aetiological significance was unclear. The presence of apparently irreversible changes including fibroplasia in some of these sinusitis cases may explain their poor or delayed response to treatment. Sinus cysts had histological similarities to human mucocoeles. Progressive ethmoid haematomata showed recent and older haemorrhage, as did sinus cysts (and occasionally some chronic sinusitis sections), but support for a common aetiology between sinus cysts and PEH was absent.

  5. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  6. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  7. Outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in Florida.

    PubMed

    Short, Michael A; Clark, Carol K; Harvey, John W; Wenzlow, Nanny; Hawkins, Ian K; Allred, David R; Knowles, Donald P; Corn, Joseph L; Grause, Juanita F; Hennager, Steven G; Kitchen, Diane L; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L

    2012-03-01

    A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was hospitalized in Ocala, Fla, because of lethargy, fever, anorexia, and swelling of distal aspects of the limbs. A tentative diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis (EP) was made on the basis of examination of a blood smear. The case was reported to the Florida State Veterinarian, and infection with Babesia equi was confirmed. The subsequent investigation included quarantine and testing of potentially exposed horses for B equi and Babesia caballi infections, tick surveillance, and owner-agent interviews. 210 horses on 25 premises were tested for infection with EP pathogens. Twenty B equi-infected horses on 7 premises were identified; no horses tested positive for B caballi. Seven horses, including the index case, had clinical findings consistent with EP Dermacentor variabilis was considered the only potential tick vector for B equi collected, and all D variabilis specimens tested negative for Babesia organisms via PCR assay. Results of the epidemiological investigation suggested that B equi was spread by use of shared needles and possibly blood transfusions. All horses that tested positive were involved in nonsanctioned Quarter Horse racing, and management practices were thought to pose substantial risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Final outcome of B equi-infected horses was euthanasia, death from undetermined causes, or shipment to a US federal research facility. This investigation highlights the importance of collaboration between private veterinary practitioners, state veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and regulatory officials in the recognition, containment, and eradication of foreign animal disease.

  8. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons

    PubMed Central

    Padaliya, N. R.; Ranpariya, J. J.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C. B.; Barvalia, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. Materials and Methods: USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. Results: The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm2) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. Conclusion: USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses. PMID:27047074

  9. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR.

  10. [The surgical therapy of equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Werry, H; Gerhards, H

    1992-04-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequently encountered cause of eye problems and blindness in horses. Classic treatment of ERU includes mydriatics, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite vigorous topical and systemic treatment, however, in many cases, the prognosis for preserving vision remains poor. Experiences with surgical treatment of chronic endogenous uveitis in human patients have shown that vision-impairing axial opacities in the vitreous body can be removed by pars plana vitrectomy, and that a considerable decrease in the frequency and severity of uveitic relapses results. So far, 11 eyes of 10 horses were subjected to vitrectomy. All horses had suffered from 3 or more uveitic attacks and had a hazy vitreous. In all cases, at discharge from the clinic, the vitreous chamber was less hazy compared to preoperative findings. At follow-up examinations, 8 eyes (8/10) had normal i.o. pressure, and 2 (2/10) had subnormal i.o. pressure and the vitreous chambers were clear or contained only small floaters. Uveitic attacks had not been observed in the operated eyes. Postoperative complications included fibrinous, or fibrinous-haemorrhagic exudate in the anterior chamber of all eyes, and in one eye, a minor haemorrhage in the vitreous chamber. Our preliminary results indicate that pars plana vitrectomy assuring proper case selection and accurate surgical technique, may contribute to improvement of vision and may delay the progression of uveitic complications in horses.

  11. Petrographic and geochemic evaluation of equine enteroliths.

    PubMed

    Hassel, D M; Schiffman, P S; Snyder, J R

    2001-03-01

    To characterize the texture, mineralogic features, and chemical features of enteroliths obtained from horses. Enteroliths from 13 horses with colic. Enteroliths were harvested from 13 horses that underwent ventral midline celiotomy for treatment of colic or necropsy because of colonic obstruction and rupture caused by enteroliths. Dietary and environmental history were determined via questionnaires or evaluation of medical records. In 7 horses that underwent surgical treatment for enterolithiasis, samples of colonic contents were obtained via an enterotomy in the pelvic flexure. Colonic concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) were determined. Enteroliths were analyzed via electron microprobe analysis and X-ray diffraction. Enteroliths varied widely regarding degree of porosity, presence and distribution of radiating texture, and composition and size of the central nidus. A distinct concentric banding was identifiable in all enteroliths. Struvite was the predominant component of all enteroliths, although Mg vivianite was identified in 5 enteroliths, and there were variable quantities of Na, S, K, and Ca in the struvite within enteroliths. Despite an abundance of Ca in colonic fluids, Mg-phosphate minerals were preferentially formed, compared with Ca-phosphates (apatite), in equine enteroliths. Enteroliths comprise 2 major Mg phosphates: struvite and Mg vivianite. There is wide variability in macrotexture and ionic concentrations between and within enteroliths.

  12. Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, J M

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date summary of the signs, diagnosis, treatment, and implications of equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. The review encompasses all original articles published between 1986 and early 1993. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is the result of a genetic mutation in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; most affected horses are heterozygotes. The classical signs are muscle fasciculation, spasm, and weakness associated with hyperkalemia. However, these signs are only rarely observed in affected horses. Potential sequelae to attacks are abrasions and involuntary recumbency; these problems are not specific for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, but they occur more frequently in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis-affected horses. It is also likely that hyperkalemic periodic paralysis results in greater muscle mass. There are suggestions that homozygotes may be more severely affected and show signs of upper respiratory obstruction as foals. The practitioner needs to be aware of the tests for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and their limitations, so that he can properly diagnose this condition. The industry has the difficult problem of deciding whether or not testing should be mandatory and the fate of positive horses. Images Figure 2. PMID:8050073

  13. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS.

  14. Treatment of equine onchocerciasis with ivermectin paste.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, C C; Holdsworth, P A; Kelly, W R; Meacham, C S; Sheahan, B

    1986-05-01

    A single oral dose of ivermectin paste was administered to 12 horses with dermatitis and clinical signs typical of onchocerciasis. Two of the horses also had lesions of Queensland itch. Microfilarias of Onchocerca cervicalis were identified in fresh, macerated, skin biopsies from the neck, brisket or umbilical regions of all horses and microfilarias of O. gutturosa from the neck of 2. Eight of the horses developed skin reactions 4 to 24 h after the administration of the ivermectin, notably weals over the neck, shoulders and flanks and pitting oedema of the ventral midline and intermandibular space. Regression of the onchocerciasis lesions was evident within 7 days of treatment and affected skin had returned to normal within 3 months. The lesions of Queensland itch were not affected by the ivermectin treatment. Microfilarias were present in biopsies of skin, particularly in the superficial dermis, before treatment, but were absent from all skin biopsies taken one week after treatment. In some horses transient skin sensitivity reactions developed. Microfilarias began to reappear in the biopsies of some of the horses 2 months after treatment. It is concluded that the oral paste formulation of ivermectin, although not effective against adult onchocerca, is useful for the therapeutic control of microfilarias in the skin lesions of equine onchocerciasis.

  15. Eastern equine encephalitis: a classical case.

    PubMed

    Baig, Basarat; Mehta, Tapan; Khalid, Nauman; Chhabra, Lovely

    2014-10-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old man with rapidly deteriorating acute meningoencephalitis, finally diagnosed as eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). The course and timing in this patient are quite characteristic. EEE is an arthropod borneviral illness in which the mosquito serves as the vector. It is amongst the most severe of the arbovirus encephalitides and has a high mortality and morbidity. In nonfatal cases, residual neurological deficits are often severe and permanent. North American lineage of EEE is mainly found in the northeast especially along the coastal areas. EEE is primarily found in horses and other domestic mammals that remain outdoors nocturnally. In humans, symptoms range from nonspecific constitutional features to catastrophic neurological sequelae including death. Hyponatremia and increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count are independent predictors of poor outcomes. Diagnosis is suggestive by demonstrating IgM antibody in blood or CSF samples and can be confirmed by other serologic assay including immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Measures recommended by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) for prevention include using repellents, protective clothing, screens, and eradication of mosquito breeding areas. EEE remains without cure and prevention is the best medicine.

  16. Virulence determinants of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Susan L; Fuller, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that rapidly Induces disease in experimentally infected horses. Because EIAV infection and replication is centered on the monocyte/macrophage and has a pronounced acute disease stage, it is a useful model system for understanding the contribution of monocyte/macrophages to other lentivirus-induced diseases. Genetic mapping studies utilizing chimeric proviruses in which parental viruses are acutely virulent or avirulent have allowed the identification of important regions that influence acute virulence. U3 regions in the viral LTR, surface envelope (SU) protein and the accessory S2 gene strongly influence acute disease expression. While the chimeric proviruses provide insight into genes or genome regions that affect viral pathogenesis, it is then necessary to further dissect those regions to focus on specific virus-host mechanisms that lead to disease expression. The V6 region of the viral env protein is an example of one identified region that may interact with the ELR-1 receptor in an important way and we are currently identifying S2 protein motifs required for disease expression.

  17. Equine infectious anemia: prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Issel, C J; McManus, J M; Hagius, S D; Foil, L D; Adams, W V; Montelaro, R C

    1990-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia has been managed in most countries by the imposition of testing and quarantine regulations. In the United States, about 700,000 of the more than 7,000,000 horses are tested annually. As long as the status of greater than 90% of the horse population remains unknown and horses are transported and congregate in a relatively unrestricted manner, EIA will continue to exact its toll. Therefore, it is incumbent on the scientific community to continue to develop and refine practical and sensitive diagnostic tests for EIA which will be used in an expanding market, to reduce the number of untested horses and to increase the accuracy of test results. Under ideal conditions, EIA can spread rapidly in a localized population with potentially devastating results. Although strict adherence to sanitary regulations will minimize the likelihood of epizootics, the existence of a large reservoir of untested horses with occasional contact with uninfected test-negative horses will ensure the continued transmission of EIAV. The change of this transmission occurring as a result of human intervention can be eliminated but it is not possible to eliminate the threat posed by blood feeding insects. If these "chance encounters" between an untested EIAV infected horse and a test-negative horse occur under field conditions where horse flies are abundant and the proximate distance between the horses is minimal, transmission is efficient if the quantity of EIAV in the blood of the donor horse is high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  19. The potential and limitations of quantitative electromyography in equine medicine.

    PubMed

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Franssen, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses the scope of using (quantitative) electromyography (EMG) in diagnosing myopathies and neuropathies in equine patients. In human medicine, many EMG methods are available for the diagnosis, pathophysiological description and evaluation, monitoring, or rehabilitation of patients, and some of these techniques have also been applied to horses. EMG results are usually combined with other neurophysiological data, ultrasound, histochemistry, biochemistry of muscle biopsies, and clinical signs in order to provide a complete picture of the condition and its clinical course. EMG technology is commonly used in human medicine and has been subject to constant development and refinement since its introduction in 1929, but the usefulness of the technique in equine medicine is not yet widely acknowledged. The possibilities and limitations of some EMG applications for equine use are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  1. Survey on the subject of equine Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Gall, Yvonne; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-05-01

    According to the results of a questionnaire on equine Lyme borreliosis addressing veterinarians in Germany, the existence of the disease was confirmed by more than half of the 118 participants. Practitioners who regarded Borrelia burgdorferi as a pathogen of horses seemed to be more sensitized in terms of the number of annually diagnosed cases as well as the frequency of occurrence of tick infestation with equine patients or prophylactic treatments against ectoparasites by horse owners. Chronically poor performance and diverse orthopaedic problems were the clinical symptoms most often leading to a Lyme borreliosis suspicion. The tentative diagnoses were predominantly confirmed by serology. Antibiotics (and anti-inflammatory agents) were mainly used for therapy. Whereas horse owners repeatedly asked for examination of their horses, and some veterinarians asserted equine Lyme borreliosis to be an underestimated problem in the horse population, others stated the disease was often enough misdiagnosed.

  2. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  3. Tools for the diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-France; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Respiratory disorders are among the most common problems leading horse owners to seek veterinary attention. Accurate diagnosis of these conditions allows for proper treatment to be instituted, much to the benefit of the patient and satisfaction of the client. As an introduction to this issue on equine respiratory disorders, we review some of the tools that are available to equine veterinarians for the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination, radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, techniques for sampling the respiratory tract, hematology, blood gas analysis, respiratory mechanics, and some modern diagnostic tools are briefly covered.

  4. The importance of therapeutic farriery in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Harry W

    2012-08-01

    For an equine practice to offer therapeutic farriery as a professional service, that service must be founded in individual competence and cooperation between veterinarian and farrier. Inadequate farriery education and experience may result in substandard or even contraindicated therapeutic farriery prescriptions and farrier care. Within continuing education for equine practitioners, excellent opportunities to advance one's understanding of and clinical competence in therapeutic farriery are increasingly available. It is the obligation of the veterinarian to acquire and maintain a working understanding of both basic and therapeutic farriery to work effectively with the farrier and offer a valid service to the client.

  5. Cloning, expression and biological activity of equine interleukin (IL)-5.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, F M; Vandergrifft, E; Bailey, S R; Sepulveda, M F; Goode, N T; Horohov, D W

    2003-09-15

    The cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5 stimulates eosinophil differentiation, activation and survival and can prime these cells, increasing the response to other mediators. In view of its many effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disease in man. Here we report the cloning of equine IL-5 and expression of the recombinant protein by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The cloned cDNA sequence consisted of 405 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 135 amino acids. There is >85% identity with feline, bovine, ovine, canine, and human IL-5 sequences at the nucleotide and protein level. Supernatants containing equine IL-5 were also examined for biological activity. CHO supernatant containing equine recombinant (eqr) IL-5, like the human ortholog (hrIL-5), induced concentration dependent equine eosinophil adherence to autologous serum-coated plastic (9.7+/-1.5% with a 1:100 dilution of eqrIL-5 and 9.1+/-1.6% adherence with 1 nM hrIL-5; n = 4). The eqr protein also caused concentration dependent superoxide production (11.9+/-2.4 nmol (reduced cytochrome (cyt) C)/10(6) cells at a 1:50 dilution, n = 4). In contrast, hrIL-5 only caused significant superoxide production when diluted in conditioned CHO medium, an effect that was inhibited by the anti-human mAb, TRFK5 (4.4+/-0.3 versus 0.3+/-0.4 nmol/10(6) cells for 0.5 nM hrIL-5 in the presence of the isotype matched IgG1 control (10 microM) and TRFK5 (10 microM), respectively). TRFK5 also significantly inhibited hrIL-5 induced adherence at concentrations of 0.3 microg/ml and above but had no significant inhibitory effect on either superoxide or adherence caused by eqrIL-5. These results demonstrate that equine IL-5 expressed by CHO cells stimulates equine eosinophils, suggesting that this cytokine could play a role in eosinophil recruitment and activation in equine allergic disease. The anti-human and murine moAb TRFK5 does not appear to recognise the equine protein.

  6. The equine antitoxins supply system for biological poisons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kiyohito; Takahashi, Motohide; Tomita, Motowo

    2003-10-01

    Recently, the equine antitoxin supply in Japan has sharply decreased; then it is apparent that a stable supply produced solely by private industry cannot be relied upon. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, purchases vaccines and equine antitoxins from manufacturers who could not otherwise independently provide an adequate antitoxin supply to hospitals. This supply system is called the 'Kokuyu vaccine system.' Under this system, MHLW purchases, stores and distributes vaccines and antitoxins to hospitals. This system has worked efficiently and effectively so far and may be a good model for establishing a stable antitoxin supply system in other countries.

  7. Neuropathic changes in equine laminitis pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; Viñuela-Fernandez, Ignacio; Eager, Rachel A; Delaney, Ada; Anderson, Heather; Patel, Anisha; Robertson, Darren C; Allchorne, Andrew; Sirinathsinghji, Eva C; Milne, Elspeth M; MacIntyre, Neil; Shaw, Darren J; Waran, Natalie K; Mayhew, Joe; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M

    2007-12-05

    Laminitis is a common debilitating disease in horses that involves painful disruption of the lamellar dermo-epidermal junction within the hoof. This condition is often refractory to conventional anti-inflammatory analgesia and results in unremitting pain, which in severe cases requires euthanasia. The mechanisms underlying pain in laminitis were investigated using quantification of behavioural pain indicators in conjunction with histological studies of peripheral nerves innervating the hoof. Laminitic horses displayed consistently altered or abnormal behaviours such as increased forelimb lifting and an increased proportion of time spent at the back of the box compared to normal horses. Electron micrographic analysis of the digital nerve of laminitic horses showed peripheral nerve morphology to be abnormal, as well as having reduced numbers of unmyelinated (43.2%) and myelinated fibers (34.6%) compared to normal horses. Sensory nerve cell bodies innervating the hoof, in cervical, C8 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), showed an upregulated expression of the neuronal injury marker, activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) in both large NF-200-immunopositive neurons and small neurons that were either peripherin- or IB4-positive. A significantly increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was also observed in myelinated afferent neurons. These changes are similar to those reported in other neuropathic pain states and were not observed in the C4 DRG of laminitic horses, which is not associated with innervation of the forelimb. This study provides novel evidence for a neuropathic component to the chronic pain state associated with equine laminitis, indicating that anti-neuropathic analgesic treatment may well have a role in the management of this condition.

  8. Ultrafiltration of equine digital lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Collins, Simon N; van Eps, Andrew W; Allavena, Rachel E; Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    There are no experimentally validated pharmacological means of preventing laminitis; however, locally acting pharmaceutical agents with the potential to prevent laminitis have been identified. Demonstrating therapeutic drug concentrations in lamellar tissue is essential for evaluating the efficacy of these agents. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique for repeatedly sampling lamellar interstitial fluid. A technique for placing ultrafiltration probes was developed in vitro using 15 cadaver limbs. Subsequently, lamellar ultrafiltration probes were placed in one forelimb in six living horses. Interstitial fluid was collected continuously from the probes as ultrafiltrate for 4 (n = 4) or 14 days (n = 2). The rate of ultrafiltrate collection was calculated every 12 h. Biochemical analyses were performed on ultrafiltrate collected on night 1 (12-24 h post-implantation) and night 4 (84-96 h post-implantation). Sections surrounding the probe and control tissue from the contralateral limb were harvested, stained with H&E and Masson's trichrome and scored based on the tissue response to the probe. Ultrafiltration probes were placed in the lamellar tissue in all six horses. Ultrafiltrate was collected from these probes at 55 (30-63) μL/h (median [interquartile range]). Fluid production decreased significantly with time from night 3 onwards (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in the constituents of the ultrafiltrate between nights 1 and 4 (P > 0.05). The technique was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ultrafiltration can be used to sample equine digital lamellar interstitial fluid, and has potential for measuring lamellar drug levels.

  9. Envelope Determinants of Equine Lentiviral Vaccine Protection

    PubMed Central

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Ezzelarab, Corin; Cook, Sheila J.; Chong, Liu; Horohov, David; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Lentiviral envelope (Env) antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study identified a significant, inverse, linear correlation between vaccine efficacy and increasing divergence of the challenge virus Env gp90 protein compared to the vaccine virus gp90. The report demonstrated approximately 100% protection of immunized ponies from disease after challenge by virus with a homologous gp90 (EV0), and roughly 40% protection against challenge by virus (EV13) with a gp90 13% divergent from the vaccine strain. In the current study we examine whether the protection observed when challenging with the EV0 strain could be conferred to animals via chimeric challenge viruses between the EV0 and EV13 strains, allowing for mapping of protection to specific Env sequences. Viruses containing the EV13 proviral backbone and selected domains of the EV0 gp90 were constructed and in vitro and in vivo infectivity examined. Vaccine efficacy studies indicated that homology between the vaccine strain gp90 and the N-terminus of the challenge strain gp90 was capable of inducing immunity that resulted in significantly lower levels of post-challenge virus and significantly delayed the onset of disease. However, a homologous N-terminal region alone inserted in the EV13 backbone could not impart the 100% protection observed with the EV0 strain. Data presented here denote the complicated and potentially contradictory relationship between in vitro virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. The study highlights the importance of structural conformation for immunogens and emphasizes the need for

  10. Prospective study of progeny of inapparent equine carriers of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Issel, C J; Adams, W V; Foil, L D

    1985-05-01

    Progeny of a band of horses, positive by the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for equine infectious anemia (EIA) antibody, were observed through their weaning over a 4-year period. Sentinels (AGID test-negative) were allowed to mingle with EIA-infected mares and their foals in pasture situations in an area with high populations of potential vectors. Of 27 adult sentinels, 8 (30%) seroconverted in annual rates ranging from 0% to 75%. In contrast, only 2 of 31 (6%) foals weaned became infected. Difference in infection rates between adult sentinels and foals was significant (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Possible explanations for differences included protective value of colostral immunity and differences in attractiveness to blood feeding vectors. Detectable colostral immunity to EIA virus in the AGID test persisted for 25 to 195 days, with a mean of 124 days.

  11. Concurrent vaccination against equine influenza and equine herpesvirus - a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Sarah; Sanchez Higgins, Maria Jose; Johnson, Gillian; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2016-09-01

    There is a lack of information concerning concurrent administration of vaccines against equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV-1/4). The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the concurrent use of EIV and EHV-1/4 vaccines in Thoroughbred racehorses on their humoral immune response to EIV. This study was carried out on a population of 30 horses using an inactivated whole-virus EIV vaccine and an inactivated EHV-1/4 vaccine. Horses were randomly allocated to vaccination group A or B. Horses in group A were vaccinated against EIV and EHV-1/4 2 weeks apart. Horses in group B were vaccinated against EIV and EHV-1/4 on the same day. Whole-blood samples were collected on the day of vaccination and 2 weeks and 6 weeks post-vaccination. Antibody levels against EIV and EHV-1/4 were measured using the single radial haemolysis and serum neutralisation test, respectively. The pattern of EIV antibody response post-vaccination was similar for both groups. Highest EIV antibody levels were recorded 2 weeks post-vaccination, and a significant decrease in antibody level was observed 4 weeks later. Horses in group B demonstrated a significantly higher EIV antibody response post-vaccination. Overall, there was no significant difference in EHV-1/4 antibody response between the two groups post-vaccination. In this study, concurrent vaccination against EIV and EHV-1/4 increased the response to EIV and did not compromise the humoral immune response to EHV-1/4. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  13. Pigment retinopathy in warmblood horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and equine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Kaese, Heather J; Miller, Andrew D; Gianino, Giuliana; Divers, Thomas; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    A pigment retinopathy has been reported in adult horses with equine motor neuron disease (EMND) arising from chronic α-tocopherol (α-TP) deficiency. A pigment retinopathy has not been identified in horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM) that affects genetically susceptible young horses with α-TP deficiency. The objective of this report is to describe, for the first time, a pigment retinopathy in a family of α-TP-deficient Warmbloods (WB) with clinically apparent NAD/EDM or EMND. Twenty-five WB horses from one farm underwent complete neurologic and ophthalmic examinations and serum α-TP concentrations were assessed. Two of the most severely ataxic horses were euthanized and postmortem examinations performed. Alpha-TP deficiency was widespread on this farm (22 of 25 horses). Eleven of 25 horses were clinically normal (age range 2-12 years), one had signs of EMND (6 years of age), 10 had signs of ataxia consistent with NAD/EDM (1-10 years), and two of these were postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND. A pigment retinopathy characterized by varying amounts of granular dark pigment in the tapetal retina was observed in four clinically apparent NAD/EDM horses (two postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND) and one horse with clinical signs of EMND. A pigment retinopathy can be present in young α-TP-deficient Warmblood horses with clinical signs of EMND as well as those with signs of NAD/EDM. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Proteomic alteration of equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Cheng; Liu, Hai-Fang; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; Li, Yi-Jing; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Similar to the well-studied viruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another member of the Lentivirus genus in the family Retroviridae. Previous studies revealed that interactions between EIAV and the host resulted in viral evolution in pathogenicity and immunogenicity, as well as adaptation to the host. Proteomic analysis has been performed to examine changes in protein expression and/or modification in host cells infected with viruses and has revealed useful information for virus-host interactions. In this study, altered protein expression in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs, the principle target cell of EIAV in vivo) infected with the EIAV pathogenic strain EIAV(DLV34) (DLV34) was examined using 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled with the iTRAQ labeling technique. The expression levels of 210 cellular proteins were identified to be significantly upregulated or downregulated by infection with DLV34. Alterations in protein expression were confirmed by examining the mRNA levels of eight selected proteins using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and by verifying the levels of ten selected proteins using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Further analysis of GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-Pathway enrichment demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are primarily related to the biological processes of oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding, RNA splicing, and ubiquitylation. Our results can facilitate a better understanding of the host response to EIAV infection and the cellular processes required for EIAV replication and pathogenesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.

    PubMed

    Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M; Lowe, John; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Joint injections are commonly used in equine practice for diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders. Performing joint injections is hence an essential skill for equine practitioners. However, opportunities for veterinary students to practice this skill are often scarce in veterinary curricula. The aim of this study was to design and validate an equine joint injection simulator. We hypothesized that the simulator will enhance student ability and confidence in performing joint injections. The simulator was constructed around an equine forelimb skeleton with soft tissues rebuilt using building foam and rubber bands. An electrical circuit including a buzzer, a battery, wire wool in the joints, and a hypodermic needle at the end of the cable was incorporated. If the students placed the needle into the joint correctly, instant auditory feedback was provided by the buzzer. To validate the simulator, 45 veterinary students were allocated to three groups: cadaver limb, textbook, or simulator. Students' ability to perform joint injections was tested and students' opinions were evaluated with a questionnaire. The proportion of students performing a metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint injection correctly was significantly higher in the cadaver (93%) and simulator (76%) groups compared to the textbook group (50%). There was no significant difference between groups for performing a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection correctly. Students rated the learning experience with the cadaver and simulator group high and with the textbook group low. The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback.

  16. Complement-induced equine neutrophil adhesiveness and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Slauson, D O; Skrabalak, D S; Neilsen, N R; Zwahlen, R D

    1987-05-01

    Equine neutrophils (PMN) were isolated from citrated normal blood by density gradient separation on Ficoll-Hypaque to greater than 96% purity and 98% viability and an average of 3.78 x 10(7) PMN/ml. The agonist C5a des Arg was used in serial dilutions of whole zymosan-activated equine plasma (ZAP) or was partially purified from ZAP by column chromatography. Purified equine PMN exhibited rapid aggregation following incubation with C5a des Arg which was further dependent on the availability of divalent cations, especially Mg++. The microfilament disruptive agent cytochalasin B (5 micrograms/50 microliters) greatly augmented aggregation responses to C5a des Arg. Subaggregating doses of C5a des Arg promoted PMN adhesiveness as assayed on 0.5 x 10 cm borosilicate glass columns containing a 2.0 cm bed of Sephadex G-25. This C5a des Arg-induced increased adhesiveness was inhibitable by prior incubation of the PMN with either non-steroidal (0.065 M phenylbutazone) or steroidal (0.005 M dexamethasone) anti-inflammatory agents. Ultrastructural studies correlated well with functional assays and revealed marked organelle-free lamellipodia formation without PMN-PMN contact at subaggregating doses of the agonist and progressive PMN-PMN contact at aggregating doses. Equine PMN are responsive to C5a des Arg, and induced adhesiveness responses can be manipulated by anti-inflammatory agents.

  17. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  18. The folding-unfolding transition of equine lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haezebrouck, P.; Van Dael, H.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed study of the chemical and thermal unfolding transition of equine lysozyme in the presence and in the absence of Ca 2+ gives evidence for a two-step unfolding process. The pretransition can be related to the transfer of exposed Trp groups to the protein interior.

  19. Identification of multiple equine infectious anemia antigens by immunodiffusion reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1975-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) cell antigens prepared from infected equine spleen, equine leukocyte cultures or a persistently infected equine dermis cell line contained at least two serologically reacting components. For convenience one component was designated as soluble antigen (SA) and the other as cell-associated antigen (CAA). The SA appeared as a single component when it was prepared from EIA virus precipitated from infectious tissue culture fluid with polyethylene glycol and ether treated but it was mixed with CAA when the source was infected cells. Cytolytic or mechanical disruption of infected cells appeared to accelerate the release of CAA. Reaction to each component could be identified in double and radial immunodiffusion tests by increasing the concentrations of SA in a two-component antigenic mixture. The CAA component does not appear to affect the value of the immunodiffusion test as a diagnostic aid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 4c. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b. PMID:169969

  20. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Timothy J.; Dixon, Padraic M.; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

  1. The role of inflammation and matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Silvia; Giannuzzi, Diana; Mantovani, Roberto; Castagnaro, Massimo; Falomo, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Equine endometriosis is a multifactorial disease considered to be a major cause of equine infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of histomorphological grading for biopsy-like samples compared to entire uterine wall samples, to examine the association between the degree of endometriosis with animal age, and to investigate the role of inflammation in endometriosis and the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometrium. Histomorphological lesions in 35 uterine samples were examined while comparing biopsy-like samples and entire-wall samples. Seventeen uterine samples were stained with antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-2. The morphologic evaluation results of the biopsy-like tissue and entire-wall samples were significantly correlated. Endometriosis in older mares (>12 years of age) was more severe than in young mares (2~4 years of age), confirming the positive correlation between animal age and disease severity, while inflammation was poorly related to the degree of endometriosis. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in stromal cells, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were both found in stromal and glandular epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in MMPs expression between the two groups (young vs. old mares). Additional studies on the activity of MMPs could further define the role of these enzymes in equine endometriosis. PMID:22705739

  2. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  3. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Archer, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. PMID:27694545

  4. Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding.

    PubMed

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Knowles, Toby G; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior. Thirdly, the word welfare had negative connotations, and for some, good welfare was achieved through avoidance of negative states. Finally, interviewees discussed incidents that occurred in their own familiar contexts but suggested that these were not welfare problems. Evidence indicated that the ways in which equine stakeholders understood the concept of welfare might have been acting as a barrier to the alleviation of some equine welfare problems. There is a need for strategies aimed at improving equine welfare to consider stakeholder constructs of welfare and the ways in which these constructs are generated and acted upon.

  5. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Timothy J; Dixon, Padraic M; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone.

  6. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip J.; Lopes, Marco A.; Perry, Sonja C.; Lanter, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces) may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut. PMID:27846295

  7. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis: state-of-the-art].

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, M; Alekseev, V V; Lipnitskiĭ, A V

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides the currently available data on the global prevalence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), its epidemiology, clinical picture, and specific prevention in human beings. It also discussed the problem of potential use of the causative agent of VEE as a subject of bioterrorism.

  8. Equine motor neuron disease in 2 horses from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Husulak, Michelle L.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Gabadage, Kamal; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Marqués, Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Two horses from Saskatchewan were presented with signs of sweating, muscle fasciculations, weight loss, and generalized weakness. The horses were diagnosed with equine motor neuron disease (EMND), by histological assessment of a spinal accessory nerve or sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy. This is the first report of EMND in western Canada. PMID:27429468

  9. Role of intrathecal tetanus antitoxin (equine) in tetanus neonatorum.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Goyal, B B; Singh, D P

    1989-01-01

    The present study includes 50 cases of tetanus neonatorum who were given 200 IU of tetanus antitoxin (equine) intrathecally once only and 500 IU intravenously daily for 3 consecutive days. Nutrition was provided with intravenous drip containing dextrose and other electrolytes. The overall mortality was 78%. It appears that the course of the disease remains unaltered with intrathecal tetanus antitoxin in tetanus neonatorum.

  10. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. Eastern equine encephalitis in moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Vermont.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Berl, Erica

    2012-10-01

    During fall 2010, 21 moose (Alces americanus) sera collected in northeastern Vermont were screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. Six (29%) were antibody positive. This is the first evidence of EEEV activity in Vermont, and the second report of EEEV antibodies in moose.

  12. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  13. Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report an outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in southern Texas, USA. Infection prevalence reached 100% in some areas (292 positive horses). Amblyomma cajennense was the predominant tick and experimentally transmitted Theileria equi to a uninfected horse. We suggest transmission by this tick species...

  14. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  15. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  16. Equine motor neuron disease in 2 horses from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Husulak, Michelle L; Lohmann, Katharina L; Gabadage, Kamal; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Marqués, Fernando J

    2016-07-01

    Two horses from Saskatchewan were presented with signs of sweating, muscle fasciculations, weight loss, and generalized weakness. The horses were diagnosed with equine motor neuron disease (EMND), by histological assessment of a spinal accessory nerve or sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy. This is the first report of EMND in western Canada.

  17. Epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western Algeria in 2011.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Hue, E; Fortier, C; Morilland, E; Legrand, L; Hans, A; Pronost, S

    2017-08-01

    An episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western Algeria (Tiaret province) between February and March 2011, affecting a large population of horses. Nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. The prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). One, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swabs of 90 of 100 horses (90%) and the detection rate of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) were 2%, 14%, 90% and 75%, respectively. Equine influenza virus and equine arteritis virus were not detected in any samples. Among the 90 infected horses, 70 were co-infected with EHV-2 and EHV-5 and 14 others were co-infected with EHV-4, EHV-2 and EHV-5. The present study shows a positivity rate of 97.3% for EHV-5 in young horses aged <3years; a finding which decreased with age. Viral load of EHV-5 was significantly higher in <3years whereas no effect of age was observed with EHV-2. The study shows that equine herpesviruses 1, 2, 4 and 5 are endemic in horse populations from Algeria as detected for the first time by qPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of equine nuclear transfer oocytes: methods and timing of treatment in relation to nuclear remodeling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Love, Linda B; Westhusin, Mark E; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Early development of embryos produced by transfer of equine nuclei to bovine cytoplasts is superior to that of intraspecies equine nuclear transfer embryos. This may be related to differences in chromatin remodeling or efficiency of activation between the two oocyte types. The pattern of donor nucleus remodeling was examined in equine-equine and equine-bovine reconstructed oocytes. Chromosome condensation occurred in equine cytoplasts by 2 h but was not seen in bovine cytoplasts until 4 h. We investigated the effect of activation of equine-equine reconstructed oocytes at <30 min or at 2 h after reconstruction. Four activation treatments were evaluated at each time point: injection of sperm extract alone, or in combination with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), cytochalasin B, or 1% dimethylsulphoxide. There was no significant difference in normal cleavage rate or average nucleus number of embryos between equine oocytes activated <30 min or at 2 h after reconstruction. The combination of 6-DMAP with sperm extract significantly (P < 0.01) improved cleavage rate compared with the other three treatments. Activation with sperm extract and 6-DMAP 2 h after donor nucleus injection gave the highest cleavage (79%) and the highest cleavage with normal nuclei (40%). Sperm extract and 6-DMAP also effectively activated oocytes parthenogenetically, yielding 83% cleavage and 73% cleavage with normal nuclei. These results indicate that although nuclear remodeling occurs rapidly in equine cytoplasts, early activation does not improve embryonic development after reconstruction.

  19. Selective therapy in equine parasite control--application and limitations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Pfister, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2014-05-28

    Since the 1960s equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent anthelmintic treatments often applied with frequent intervals year-round. However, increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum are now forcing the equine industry to change to a more surveillance-based treatment approach to facilitate a reduction in treatment intensity. The principle of selective therapy has been implemented with success in small ruminant parasite control, and has also found use in horse populations. Typically, egg counts are performed from all individuals in the population, and those exceeding a predetermined cutoff threshold are treated. Several studies document the applicability of this method in populations of adult horses, where the overall cyathostomin egg shedding can be controlled by only treating about half the horses. However, selective therapy has not been evaluated in foals and young horses, and it remains unknown whether the principle is adequate to also provide control over other important parasites such as tapeworms, ascarids, and large strongyles. One recent study associated selective therapy with increased occurrence of Strongylus vulgaris. Studies are needed to evaluate potential health risks associated with selective therapy, and to assess to which extent development of anthelmintic resistance can be delayed with this approach. The choice of strongyle egg count cutoff value for anthelmintic treatment is currently based more on tradition than science, and a recent publication illustrated that apparently healthy horses with egg counts below 100 eggs per gram (EPG) can harbor cyathostomin burdens in the range of 100,000 luminal worms. It remains unknown whether leaving such horses untreated constitutes a potential threat to equine health. The concept of selective therapy has merit for equine strongyle control, but several questions remain as it has not been fully scientifically evaluated. There is a great need for new and

  20. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  1. NEUTRALIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN CORAL SNAKE VENOMS WITH UNITED STATES AND MEXICAN ANTIVENOMS

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elda E.; Lopez-Johnston, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Elapid snakes throughout the world are considered very lethal containing neurotoxic venoms that affect the nervous system. When humans are envenomated it is considered a serious medical emergency, and antivenom is the main form of treatment considered, in spite of the fact that some patients may only survive under intensive therapy treatment such as respiratory support. Coral snakes are part of the family Elapidae and envenomations by these snakes are very low (< 2% of total snakebites) in most countries from southeastern United States to Argentina. In the United States there are only two species of coral snakes of medical importance which belong to the Micrurus genera: Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Eastern coral snake) and M. tener tener (Texas coral snake). In 2006, Wyeth pharmaceutical notified customers that the production of the North American Coral Snake Antivenin (NACSA) in the U.S. was discontinued and adequate supplies were available to meet historical needs through the end of October 2008; and therefore, it is of utmost important to consider other antivenoms as alternatives for the treatment of coral snake envenoming. One logical alternative is the coral snake antivenom, Coralmyn, produced by the Mexican company, Bioclon. In order to compare neutralization between NACSA and Coralmyn antivenoms with the North American coral snake venoms, the venom lethal doses (LD50) and antivenom effective doses (ED50) were determined in 18–20 g, female, BALB/c mice. Additionally, venom comparisons were determined through a non reduced SDS-PAGE for M. f. fulvius, M. t. tener and the Mexican coral snake venom, M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus. Coralmyn antivenom was able to effectively neutralize 3 LD50 doses of all venom from both M. t. tener and M. f. fulvius, while Wyeth antivenom only neutralized M. f. fulvius venom and was not effective in neutralizing 3 LD50 doses of M. t. tener venom. Coralmyn is effective in the neutralization of both clinically important coral snake

  2. Detection of Leptospira interrogans DNA and antigen in fixed equine eyes affected with end-stage equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jacqueline W; Galle, Laurence E; Kleiboeker, Steve B; Turk, James R; Schommer, Susan K; Dubielizig, Richard R; Mitchell, William J; Moore, Cecil P; Giuliano, Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequent cause of blindness in horses worldwide. Leptospira has been implicated as an etiologic agent in some cases of ERU and has been detected in fresh ocular tissues of affected horses. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Leptospira antigen and DNA in fixed equine ocular tissues affected with end-stage ERU. Sections of eyes from 30 horses were obtained. Controls included 1) 10 normal equine eyes and 2) 10 equine eyes with a nonrecurrent form of uveitis. The experimental group consisted of 10 eyes diagnosed with ERU based on clinical signs and histologic lesions. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with an array of rabbit anti-Leptospira polyclonal antibodies. DNA extractions were performed by using a commercial kit designed for fixed tissue. Real-time PCR analysis was completed on extracted DNA. The target sequence for PCR was designed from alignments of available Leptospira 16S rDNA partial sequences obtained from GenBank. Two of 10 test samples were positive for Leptospira antigen by immunohistochemical assay. Zero of 20 controls were positive for Leptospira antigen. All test samples and controls were negative for Leptospira DNA by real-time PCR analysis. Leptospira was detected at a lower frequency than that previously reported for fresh ERU-affected aqueous humor and vitreous samples. Leptospira is not frequently detectable in fixed ocular tissues of horses affected with ERU when using traditional immunohistochemical and real-time PCR techniques.

  3. Unraveling the Equine Lymphocyte Proteome: Differential Septin 7 Expression Associates with Immune Cells in Equine Recurrent Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Degroote, Roxane L.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Amann, Barbara; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease. PMID:24614191

  4. Unraveling the equine lymphocyte proteome: differential septin 7 expression associates with immune cells in equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Degroote, Roxane L; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2014-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease.

  5. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S.; Nasir, L.

    2008-04-10

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.

  6. North American coral snake antivenin for the neutralization of non-native elapid venoms in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Richardson, William H; Tanen, David A; Tong, Tri C; Betten, David P; Carstairs, Shaun D; Williams, Saralyn R; Cantrell, Frank L; Clark, Richard F

    2006-02-01

    North American coral snake antivenin (CSAV; Wyeth Antivenin [Micrurus fulvius], equine origin) is approved for the treatment of coral snake envenomations in the United States. The coral snake is the only elapid that is native to North America, but envenomations from non-native elapids are occurring more commonly in this country. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of CSAV in the neutralization of two exotic elapid envenomations: Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Dendroaspis polylepsis (black mamba). A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection was employed. Venom potency was determined in preliminary dosing studies. Study animals then were divided into five groups: 1) N. naja venom + CSAV, 2) N. naja venom + 0.9% normal saline (NS), 3) D. polylepsis venom + CSAV, 4) D. polylepsis venom + NS, and 5) CSAV + NS. The venom dose was chosen to be twice the estimated LD50. The amount of CSAV injected was ten times the amount necessary for neutralization of a 2 x LD50 dose of M. f. fulvius venom in a murine model. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact and log-rank testing to compare survival rates and times. Preliminary studies estimated the venom LD50 to be 2.58 mg/kg and 0.45 mg/kg, respectively, for the N. naja and D. polylepsis. A significant difference was shown in comparison of survival times between CSAV-venom groups and normal saline-venom groups despite all animals in both treatment and control arms dying. Animals receiving CSAV and N. naja venom survived (mean +/- SD) 24.4 +/- 3.0 minutes, versus 17.8 +/- 1.3 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001), whereas those receiving CSAV and D. polylepsis venom survived 203.8 +/- 37.0 minutes versus 130.0 +/- 42.6 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001). All animals in the CSAV + NS group survived to the conclusion of the study. When premixed with venom, CSAV increased survival time in a murine model of intraperitoneal N. naja and D. polylepsis venom injection

  7. Molecular Strategy for the Construction of a Genetically Engineered Vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    AD-A236 920 MOLECULAR STRATEGY FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED VACCINE FOR VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS FINAL REPORT ROBERT...89-C-9089 engineered vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus 62787A 3M162787A871 AD Robert Edward Johnston WUDA318408 Nancy Lee Davis...multiple mutants were more attenuated than those containing a single attenuating Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) full-length clones; In vitro

  8. Intranasal Location and Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Equine Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kupke, Alexandra; Wenisch, Sabine; Failing, Klaus; Herden, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines, or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g., horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of five adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein and doublecortin (DCX) expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropomyosin receptor kinase A was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine types a and b were located differently within the nose and

  9. VIRUS-SPECIFIC POLYSOMES IN CELLS INFECTED WITH THE VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, *RIBOSOMES, *TISSUE CULTURE CELLS, RIBOSOMES, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ARBOVIRUSES, VIRUSES, NUCLEIC ACIDS, BIOSYNTHESIS, USSR, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE.

  10. Serosurveillance for equine infectious anaemia in the Ardahan province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Harun; Ozan, Emre

    2010-12-01

    Equine infectious anaemia is a retroviral infection of horses. All infected horses, including those that are asymptomatic, become carriers and are infectious for life. In this study, blood samples of all equines in the province of Ardahan were collected. The material consisted of 8,947 equines, including 8,769 horses and 178 donkeys, from Ardahan province in northeastern Turkey. Blood was collected from all horses and donkeys and the sera were analysed for the presence of antibodies to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results revealed that none of the horses and donkeys were positive for antibodies to EIAV.

  11. Whole genomic analyses of equine group A rotaviruses from Japan: evidence for bovine-to-equine interspecies transmission and reassortment events.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Taniguchi, Koki; Aida, Satoru; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-10-25

    Equine group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of severe diarrhea in foals. The whole genomes of only six common and three unusual equine RVA strains have been analyzed so far. To date, there are no reports on whole genomic analyses of equine RVAs from Asian countries. We report here the whole genomic analyses of three common (strains RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/BI/1981/G3P[12], RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/HH-22/1989/G3P[12] and RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/CH-3/1987/G14P[12]) and an unusual (RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/OH-4/1982/G6P[5]) equine RVA strains isolated from diarrheic foals in Japan. Strains BI, HH-22 and CH-3 shared a largely conserved genotype constellation (G3/G14-P[12]-I2/I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7) with each other and with those of common equine RVAs from other continents. Phylogenetically, most of the genes of BI, HH-22 and CH-3 were closely related to those of other common equine RVAs. On the other hand, the NSP2 genes of BI and CH-3 formed a distinct lineage, and were distantly related to the other, major equine RVA cluster within the NSP2-N2 genotype. The NSP4 gene of HH-22 appeared to originate from possible reassortment events involving common equine RVAs and co-circulating bovine or bovine-like equine RVAs, revealing the presence of a bovine RVA-like NSP4 gene on a typical equine RVA genetic backbone. All the 11 gene segments of the unusual equine RVA strain OH-4 were found to be more closely related to those of bovine and bovine-like human RVAs than to those of other RVAs, providing the first conclusive evidence for artiodactyl(likely bovine)-to-equine interspecies transmission events. Taken together, these observations provided important insights into the genetic diversity of equine RVAs.

  12. Antimicrobial drug concentrations and sampling techniques in the equine lung.

    PubMed

    Winther, Lotte

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of antimicrobial drugs in the equine lung is important in designing optimal dosage regimens for the treatment of lower airway infections. Several studies in horses and other species have shown that the pharmacokinetics of a drug in the lung cannot necessarily be predicted by its behaviour in plasma, and influencing factors include the class of drug, the animal species and the chosen sampling technique. This review provides a description of the target site for bacterial lower airway infections and describes the penetration of antibiotics into lung matrices. It also offers an overview of published equine pulmonary pharmacokinetic studies and considers the different sampling methods used and the influence existing methodological problems can have on the interpretation of data. An awareness of these factors is important in establishing optimal dosage regimes to treat lower airway infections in horses.

  13. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    PubMed

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  14. Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Medina, Gladys; Vasquez, Clovis; Coffey, Lark L.; Wang, Eryu; Suárez, Alexander; Biord, Hernán; Salas, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    Five years after the apparent end of the major 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic/epidemic, focal outbreaks of equine encephalitis occurred in Carabobo and Barinas States of western Venezuela. Virus isolates from horses in each location were nearly identical in sequence to 1995 isolates, which suggests natural persistence of subtype IC VEE virus (VEEV) strains in a genetically stable mode. Serologic evidence indicated that additional outbreaks occurred in Barinas State in 2003. Field studies identified known Culex (Melanoconion) spp. vectors and reservoir hosts of enzootic VEEV but a dearth of typical epidemic vectors. Cattle serosurveys indicated the recent circulation of enzootic VEEV strains, and possibly of epizootic strains. Persistence of VEEV subtype IC strains and infection of horses at the end of the rainy season suggest the possibility of an alternative, cryptic transmission cycle involving survival through the dry season of infected vectors or persistently infected vertebrates. PMID:16485478

  15. A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination. PMID:26344892

  16. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  17. Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; David Wilson, W; Madigan, John E; Ferraro, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM), although a relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms or boarding stables. Although outbreaks of EHM have been recognized for centuries in domestic horse populations, many aspects of this disease remained poorly characterized. In recent years, an improved understanding of EHM has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks and veterinary hospitals throughout North America and Europe. These outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature of EHV-1 and have prompted a re-evaluation of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, preventative measures and biosecurity protocols for the disease. This review concentrates on these and other selected, clinically relevant aspects of EHM.

  18. Molecular biological characterization of equine surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Hospes, R; Hospes, B I L; Reiss, I; Bostedt, H; Gortner, L

    2002-12-01

    In the following, we describe the isolation and sequencing of the equine surfactant protein A (Sp-A) as found in both the cDNA and the genomic DNA. We found a length of the cDNA sequence of 747 bp (base pairs), in translation into amino acids of 248. Compared with the known molecular biological facts about Sp-A in other species, the cDNA sequence obtained showed highest homology with that of sheep (85.01%). The genomic DNA of equine Sp-A, as in other species, includes three introns. There were no hints for the existence of two different Sp-A genes. These results should form the basis for a better understanding of respiratory failure in foals and adult horses, and also lead to further studies on this item.

  19. Minor constituents of sabulous material in equine urine.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Espiñeira, M; Escolar, E; Bellanato, J; Rodriguez, M

    1996-05-01

    The secondary constituents accompanying calcite and vaterite (crystalline forms of calcium carbonate) in the sabulous deposits from 140 vesical samples and one renal sample of equine urine were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Apatitic calcium phosphate, present in 12 per cent of the samples, generally appeared in the form of spherulites with smooth and rough surfaces. Calcium sulphate, clearly detected by IR in 12.7 per cent of the samples, did not have a characteristic structure under SEM, although EDX detected sulphur in the samples. Amorphous silica was observed in one case and had a nodular appearance. Organic fibres were not as common as might have been expected in equine urinary deposits.

  20. Evaluation of antigen detection kits for diagnosis of equine influenza.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether five rapid antigen detection kits for human influenza could be used for the diagnosis of equine influenza (EI). Limiting dilution analyses showed that Directigen Flu A+B and ESPLINE INFLUENZA A&B-N had the highest sensitivities to equine-2 influenza viruses (EIVs) among the kits investigated. From the results of virus detection in nasal swabs taken from horses infected with EIV, these two kits could produce positive results in reasonable agreement with those obtained by virus isolation or RT-PCR, suggesting that these kits could be useful for rapid diagnosis of EI in the field. However, from the viewpoint of specificity for EIV, Espline seems to be superior to Directigen.

  1. A high throughput screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine and human urine and equine plasma.

    PubMed

    Steel, Rohan; Timms, Mark; Levina, Vita; Vine, John

    2014-09-01

    The Dermorphins are a family of peptides that act as potent agonists of the opioid μ receptor. Originally identified as a seven amino acid peptide on the skin of the South American Phyllomedusa frog, peptide chemists have since developed a large number of Dermorphin variants, many with superior opioid activity to the original peptide. Dermorphins are unique among the peptide opioid agonists as they appear to have a limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier, producing effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is this ability of Dermorphins to provide central anaesthesia after intravenous or subcutaneous administration that allows their use as analogues of the opioid class of drugs. Recently, illicit use of the Dermorphin peptide in the racing industry has shown the need for an analytical method to control the use of these peptides. We present a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine urine and plasma with limits of detection down to 5 pg/mL. The peptide extraction technique is also suitable for use in human urine.

  2. Effect of dehydration prior to cryopreservation of large equine embryos.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; McCue, P M; Squires, E L; Seidel, G E

    2009-08-01

    Cryopreservation of equine embryos>300microm in diameter results in low survival rates using protocols that work well for smaller equine embryos. These experiments tested the potential benefit of incorporating a dehydration step prior to standard cryopreservation procedures. Forty-six, day 7-8, grade 1, equine embryos 300-1350microm in diameter were subjected to one of the following treatments: (A) 2 min in 0.6M galactose, 10min in 1.5M glycerol, slow freeze (n=21); (B) 10min in 1.5M glycerol, slow freeze (n=15); (C) 2min in 0.6M galactose, 10min in 1.5M glycerol, followed by exposure to thaw solutions, then culture medium (n=5); (D) transferred directly to culture medium (n=5). Frozen embryos were thawed and subjected to a three-step cryoprotectant removal. Five embryos from each treatment were evaluated morphologically after 24 and 48h culture (1=excellent, 5=degenerate/dead). All treatments had at least 4/5 embryos with a quality score >or=3 at these time points except treatment B (2/5 at 24h, 1/5 at 48h). Subsequent embryos from treatment A (n=16) or B (n=10) were matched in sets of two for size and treatment, thawed, and immediately transferred in pairs to 13 recipients. Only two recipient mares were pregnant; one received two 400microm embryos from treatment A, and the other one 400 and one 415microm embryo from treatment B. There was no advantage of incorporating a 2min dehydration step into the cryopreservation protocol for large equine embryos.

  3. Veterinary and Equine Science Students’ Interpretation of Horse Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Gee, Erica; Martinez, Audrey; Bolwell, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary We assessed first-year veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students interpretation of expressive horse behaviours. Previous experience with horses appeared to influence the students’ perception of the horses’ behaviour. Qualitative assessments of horse behaviour may be a useful tool for assessing students’ knowledge of horse behaviour. Abstract Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses’ welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students’ interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses. The students (N = 127) were shown six short video clips and asked to select the most applicable terms, from a pre-determined list, to describe the behavioural expression of each individual horse. A wide variation of terms were selected by students and in some situations of distress, or situations that may be dangerous or lead to compromised welfare, apparently contradictory terms were also selected (happy or playful) by students with less experience with horses. Future studies should consider the use of Qualitative Behavioural Analysis (QBA) and free-choice profiling to investigate the range of terms used by students to describe the expressive demeanour and arousal levels of horses. PMID:28809810

  4. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  5. Cryptococcal pneumonia and abortion in an equine fetus.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, P C; Filkins, M

    1992-11-15

    Cryptococcus neoformans was the causative agent of pneumonia in a 9-month-old equine fetus aborted by a healthy American Paint mare. Endometritis was diagnosed on biopsy, and vaginal specimens obtained for culture were Cryptococcus-positive 1 month following abortion but not 5 months after abortion. Infection resolved without treatment between 1 and 5 months after abortion, and the mare was bred the following year and delivered a live premature foal without evidence of Cryptococcus infection.

  6. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Catherine L; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 10(3) MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine.

  7. A database survey of equine tumours in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Knowles, E J; Tremaine, W H; Pearson, G R; Mair, T S

    2016-05-01

    Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify background factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the background of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross-sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982-December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify background factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. There were 964 cases included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred cross and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/Arab cross had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/Cob cross had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data inform clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  8. A questionnaire study of equine gastrointestinal parasite control in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Stratford, C H; Lester, H E; Morgan, E R; Pickles, K J; Relf, V; McGorum, B C; Matthews, J B

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in equine gastrointestinal nematodes is a threat to equine health and welfare. Detailed knowledge of anthelmintic use and parasite control methods is a prerequisite to identification of potential risk factors for resistance. To identify parasite control practices employed by equine owners in Scotland and investigate management factors associated with anthelmintic resistance. Questionnaire study of equine parasite control in Scotland. Questionnaires were available electronically, distributed at a conference and mailed to clients. Key areas explored included general background, grazing management, anthelmintic treatment practices and use of diagnostic tests. A total of 193 responses detailing information on parasite control programmes of 993 equids were analysed. Moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin or related combination products were the most commonly administered anthelmintics in the preceding 12 months. Treatments licensed for use against cyathostomin encysted larvae and tapeworms were administered by 80% and 90% of respondents, respectively. This was often achieved through indiscriminate use of MOX and MOX-praziquantel products. Faecal egg count (FEC) analysis had been performed on 62% of yards and regular use of FECs reduced annual anthelmintic treatment frequency. Veterinarians had the greatest influence on control practices. While 40% of respondents believed that they practised targeted dosing, this was not associated with delaying treatment beyond the egg reappearance period of the anthelmintic used. Responses indicated increasing veterinary involvement and use of FECs. The majority of respondents administered anthelmintics licensed against cyathostomin encysted larvae and tapeworms. However, responses suggested that owners did not understand the definition of 'targeted' dosing regimens. The high frequency of MOX use represents a potential risk factor for macrocyclic lactone resistance. As veterinarians were the most influential factor in

  9. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  10. Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Stack, J Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N

    2013-04-01

    Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites.

  11. Overview of the 2007 Australian outbreak of equine influenza.

    PubMed

    Webster, W R

    2011-07-01

    In August 2007 equine influenza (EI) was diagnosed in Australia's horse population following the failure to contain infection in quarantine after the importation of one or more infected horses. The response had many unique features, and addressed financial, social, economic, human and animal health, trade and recovery issues. The outbreak and the associated control measures had a vast impact on individual horse owners, the horse industry and associated sectors in both infected and uninfected states.

  12. Hematopoiesis In The Equine Fetal Liver Suggests Immune Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Battista, JM; Tallmadge, RL; Stokol, T; Felippe, MJB

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how the equine fetus prepares its pre-immune humoral repertoire for an imminent exposure to pathogens in the neonatal period, particularly how the primary hematopoietic organs are equipped to support B cell hematopoiesis and immunoglobulin (Ig) diversity. We demonstrated that the liver and the bone marrow at approximately 100 days of gestation (DG) are active sites of hematopoiesis based on the expression of signature mRNA (c-KIT, CD34, IL7R, CXCL12, IRF8, PU.1, PAX5, NOTCH1, GATA1, CEBPA) and protein markers (CD34, CD19, IgM, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD11b, CD172A) of hematopoietic development and leukocyte differentiation molecules, respectively. To verify Ig diversity achieved during the production of B cells, V(D)J segments were sequenced in primary lymphoid organs of the equine fetus and adult horse, revealing that similar heavy chain VDJ segments and CDR3 lengths were most frequently used independent of life stage. In contrast, different lambda light chain segments were predominant in equine fetal compared to adult stage and, surprisingly, the fetus had less restricted use of variable gene segments to construct the lambda chain. Fetal Igs also contained elements of sequence diversity, albeit to a smaller degree than that of the adult horse. Our data suggest that the B cells produced in the liver and bone marrow of the equine fetus generate a wide repertoire of pre-immune Igs for protection, and the more diverse use of different lambda variable gene segments in fetal life may provide the neonate an opportunity to respond to a wider range of antigens at birth. PMID:25179685

  13. Susceptibility of two turtle species to eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Anderson, C R

    1980-10-01

    Two species of turtle collected in southern New England were inoculated subcutaneously with eastern equine encephalitis virus. The spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata) developed viremia and neutralizing antibody after exposure to 3 logs or more of virus. Viremia was not detected in the eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), and neutralizing antibody was detected in only 1 of 15 inoculated C. picta; however, since pre-inoculation serum was not obtained from this animal, the possibility of natural infection cannot be eliminated.

  14. In vivo confocal microscopy of equine fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Irby, Nita L; Kim, Sung G

    2011-01-01

    To describe in vivo corneal confocal microscopy of horses with fungal keratitis and correlate findings with clinical, histopathological, and microbiological evaluations of clinical cases and an ex vivo experimental equine fungal keratitis model. A total of 12 horses with naturally-acquired fungal keratitis and ex vivo equine corneas experimentally infected with clinical fungal isolates. Horses with naturally-acquired fungal keratitis were examined with a modified Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and Rostock Cornea Module. Confocal microscopy images of clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Candida albicans were obtained by examination of in vitro cultures and experimentally infected ex vivo equine corneas. Non-specific in vivo corneal confocal microscopic findings in horses with fungal keratitis included leukocyte infiltrates, activated keratocytes, anterior stromal dendritic cell infiltrates, and vascularization. Linear, branching, hyper-reflective structures that were 2-6 μm in width and 200 to >400 μm in length were detected in all horses with filamentous fungal keratitis. Round to oval hyper-reflective structures that were 2-8 μm in diameter were detected in a horse with yeast fungal keratitis. The in vivo confocal microscopic appearance of the organisms was consistent with fungal morphologies observed during examination of in vitro cultures and infected ex vivo equine corneas. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid and non-invasive method of diagnosing fungal keratitis in the horse. This imaging technique is useful for both ulcerative and non-ulcerative fungal keratitis, and is particularly advantageous for confirming the presence of fungi in deep corneal stromal lesions. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P450 aromatase in equine gonads.

    PubMed

    Almadhidi, J; Seralini, G E; Fresnel, J; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1995-06-01

    Estrogens are the major steroids produced by equine gonads. To identify the cells responsible for estrogen synthesis, an antiserum against purified equine testicular cytochrome P450 aromatase was produced in rabbits. The reactivity and specificity of the antiserum were assessed by ELISA, immunoblot analysis, and immunoneutralization studies. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that in the male gonad, cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was localized in the interstitial tissue, whereas, under the experimental conditions used, the Sertoli and germ cells did not show any specific staining. In the ovary, the granulosa cells of small follicles exhibited faint immunofluorescent staining for P450arom and the granulosa cells of large, viable more follicles showed a high degree of immunoreactivity. In the corpus luteum, all the luteinized cells showed immunoreactivity. No immunoreactivity was detected in other cells of small and large viable follicles. Immunolocalization of P450arom in the equine testicular Leydig cells and in ovarian granulosa and luteinized cells indicates that these cells have the ability to metabolize androgens to estrogens and possibly to catechol estrogens.

  17. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Rabyia; Taku, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Badroo, Gulzaar Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A) gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi. PMID:28246441

  18. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines.

    PubMed

    Javed, Rabyia; Taku, A K; Sharma, R K; Badroo, Gulzaar Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A) gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G. From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi.

  19. A scientific background for skeletal muscle conditioning in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Rivero, J-L L

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of any conditioning programme in athletic horses is to improve performance by inducing physiological changes within the animal's body. Equine skeletal muscles have a considerable potential to adapt during training and these adaptations have important physiological implications that influence stamina, strength and speed. Although there is an extensive specialized literature in this regard, scientific based muscle conditioning methods have not been introduced sufficiently in the equine sport practice. After a brief synopsis of both equine muscle exercise physiology and muscular adaptations to training, including their physiological significance, this review focuses on specific training programmes that induce muscular adaptations in athletic horses. The article addresses the following principal question: what kind of stimuli for what kind of muscular adaptations? The experimental data are discussed separately for racehorses (thoroughbreds, trotters and endurance horses) and sport horses (dressage, show jumpers and carriage). Finally, published results about the influence of relevant training parameters (such as intensity, duration and type of exercise) on muscular responses are discussed, as well as those concerning overtraining and detraining. The article closes with some concluding remarks on importance of their application in practice.

  20. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Kummer, M; Lischer, C; Ohlerth, S; Vargas, J; Auer, J

    2004-11-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PX, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually.

  1. Equine pastern vasculitis: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Psalla, Dimitra; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Stoffel, Michael H; Chiers, Koen; Gaschen, Véronique; Doherr, Marcus G; Gerber, Vincent; Welle, Monika M

    2013-11-01

    Equine pastern vasculitis is clinically challenging and the underlying aetiopathogenesis is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to establish histopathological criteria for pastern vasculitis, to look for an underlying cause, to investigate whether the histopathological lesions are associated with a distinct clinical picture, to assess if and how the clinical picture varies, and to determine the treatment response. Skin biopsies and clinical data from 20 horses with a diagnosis of vasculitis of the distal extremities were investigated and histology was compared to biopsies from healthy horses. It was concluded that intramural inflammatory cells, leukocytoclasia with nuclear dust, thickening and oedema of the vessel walls, and microhaemorrhages are highly specific histological findings in equine pastern vasculitis. Based on the feedback from the clinicians, the lesions were mostly seen on the lateral and medial aspects of un-pigmented legs. Lesions in white skin were characterised by exudation and crusts, whereas those in pigmented skin were alopecic and characterised by scaling. The response to treatment was poor and the prognosis guarded. No association was found between any of the histopathological findings and a distinct clinical picture. An underlying cause of equine pastern vasculitis could not be identified. Considering the large number of confounding factors, the causative agents are difficult to identify, but may involve drugs or a hypersensitivity reactions to yet unknown antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Veterinary and Equine Science Students' Interpretation of Horse Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica; Martinez, Audrey; Bolwell, Charlotte

    2017-08-15

    Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses' welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students' interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses. The students (N = 127) were shown six short video clips and asked to select the most applicable terms, from a pre-determined list, to describe the behavioural expression of each individual horse. A wide variation of terms were selected by students and in some situations of distress, or situations that may be dangerous or lead to compromised welfare, apparently contradictory terms were also selected (happy or playful) by students with less experience with horses. Future studies should consider the use of Qualitative Behavioural Analysis (QBA) and free-choice profiling to investigate the range of terms used by students to describe the expressive demeanour and arousal levels of horses.

  3. Culture and characterisation of equine peripheral blood mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Spaas, Jan H; De Schauwer, Catharina; Cornillie, Pieter; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Soom, Ann; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of orthopaedic injuries in horses has been reported, no official guidelines exist that classify a particular cell as an equine MSC. Given the limited characterisation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived equine MSCs in particular, this study aimed to provide more detailed information in relation to this cell type. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from equine PB samples and colony forming unit (CFU) assays as well as population doubling times (PDTs) (from P(0) to P(10)) were performed. Two types of colonies, 'fingerprint' and dispersed, could be observed based on macroscopic and microscopic features. Moreover, after an initial lag phase (as indicated by a negative PDT at P(0) to P(1)) the MSCs divided rapidly as indicated by a positive PDT at all further passages. Immunophenotyping was carried out with trypsin- as well as with accutase-detached MSC to evaluate potential trypsin-sensitive epitope destruction on particular antigens. Isolated MSC were positive for CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105, and negative for CD45, CD79α, MHC II and a monocyte/macrophage marker, irrespective of the cell detaching agent used. Trilineage differentiation of the MSCs towards osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes was confirmed using a range of histochemical stains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utility of an Equine Clinical Skills Course: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Bruce W; Danielson, Jared A

    Recent publications have revealed inadequacies in the veterinary training of future equine practitioners. To help address this problem, a 2-week Equine Clinical Skills course was designed and implemented to provide fourth-year veterinary students with opportunities to have hands-on experience with common equine clinical skills using live animals and cadavers. Alumni and employers of alumni were surveyed to determine whether or not students participating in the course were more competent performing clinical skills during their first year post-graduation than those who had not participated in the course. Students who participated in the course were also surveyed before and after completing the course to determine whether or not their self-assessed skills improved during the course. Alumni who had taken the course rated their ability to perform the clinical skills more highly than alumni who had not taken the course. Similarly, students participating in the course indicated that they were significantly more able to perform the clinical skills after the course than when it began. Employers did not indicate a difference between the clinical skills of those who had taken the course and those who had not. Because this study involved a limited number of respondents from one institution, further studies should be conducted to replicate these findings and determine their generalizability.

  5. MENINGOENCEPHALITIS AND PNEUMONITIS DUE TO WESTERN EQUINE VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Ichelson, David L.

    1956-01-01

    In a series of 20 cases here presented in a study of Western equine encephalitis, only ten were conclusively proven by serological or histopathological methods, while the other ten were presumptively cases of that disease. Involvement of the spinal cord was of relatively low incidence. In only one case of four in which autopsy was done could the Western equine virus be demonstrated in the cerebral tissues. There was a rather high incidence of involvement of the respiratory tree. A high proportion of patients had complaints referable to the respiratory tract. Physical signs denoting disease of both the upper and lower respiratory tract, x-ray evidence showing bronchial and pulmonary involvement, and autopsy evidence of bronchopneumonia were noted frequently. All patients had fever as well as symptoms and physical signs of central nervous system disease. Differential diagnosis posed many interesting and challenging problems. The clinical features were those of meningoencephalitis and never a “flu-like” syndrome, although in several of the cases diagnosis could not be made with certainty for several days, until meningeal signs developed, and usually the patients were treated with one or several antibiotics during that time. In all cases in which a neutralization test for the Western equine virus was done, the result was either positive or inconclusive. Results of complement fixation tests were significant in only six cases. In seven of 13 cases in which x-ray films of the chest were made, streaks of increased density were noted. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:18732027

  6. The use of equine influenza pseudotypes for serological screening.

    PubMed

    Scott, Simon; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Ferrara, Francesca; Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Eva; Daly, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Standard assays used for influenza serology present certain practical issues, such as inter-laboratory variability, complex protocols and the necessity for handling certain virus strains in high biological containment facilities. In an attempt to address this, avian and human influenza HA pseudotyped retroviruses have been successfully employed in antibody neutralization assays. In this study we generated an equine influenza pseudotyped lentivirus for serological screening. This was achieved by co-transfection of HEK293T cells with plasmids expressing the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of an H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus strain, HIV gag-pol and firefly luciferase reporter genes and harvesting virus from supernatant. In order to produce infective pseudotype particles it was necessary to additionally co-transfect a plasmid encoding the TMPRSS2 endoprotease to cleave the HA. High titre pseudotype virus (PV) was then used in PV antibody neutralization assays (PVNAs) to successfully distinguish between vaccinated and non-vaccinated equines. The sera were also screened by single radial haemolysis (SRH) assay. There was a 65% correlation between the results of the two assays, with the PVNA assay appearing slightly more sensitive. Future work will extend the testing of the PVNA with a larger number of serum samples to assess sensitivity/specificity, inter/intra-laboratory variability and to define a protective titre.

  7. Intra- and interhost evolutionary dynamics of equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Daly, Janet; Elton, Debra; Jervis, Carley; Mumford, Jennifer A; Newton, Richard; Parrish, Colin R; Hoelzer, Karin; Dougan, Gordon; Parkhill, Julian; Lennard, Nicola; Ormond, Doug; Moule, Sharon; Whitwham, Andrew; McCauley, John W; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Holmes, Edward C; Grenfell, Bryan T; Wood, James L N

    2010-07-01

    Determining the evolutionary basis of cross-species transmission and immune evasion is key to understanding the mechanisms that control the emergence of either new viruses or novel antigenic variants with pandemic potential. The hemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza A viruses is a critical host range determinant and a major target of neutralizing antibodies. Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a significant pathogen of the horse that causes periodical outbreaks of disease even in populations with high vaccination coverage. EIV has also jumped the species barrier and emerged as a novel respiratory pathogen in dogs, canine influenza virus. We studied the dynamics of equine influenza virus evolution in horses at the intrahost level and how this evolutionary process is affected by interhost transmission in a natural setting. To this end, we performed clonal sequencing of the hemagglutinin 1 gene derived from individual animals at different times postinfection. Our results show that despite the population consensus sequence remaining invariant, genetically distinct subpopulations persist during the course of infection and are also transmitted, with some variants likely to change antigenicity. We also detected a natural case of mixed infection in an animal infected during an outbreak of equine influenza, raising the possibility of reassortment between different strains of virus. In sum, our data suggest that transmission bottlenecks may not be as narrow as originally perceived and that the genetic diversity required to adapt to new host species may be partially present in the donor host and potentially transmitted to the recipient host.

  8. Anatomical location and culture of equine corneal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hidekazu; Kasashima, Yoshinori; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Wada, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    To identify morphologically the locations of equine corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) and to culture these cells. We studied the eyes of 12 adult thoroughbred horses. Eye tissues were immunostained for two positive stem cell markers (p63, CK14) and one negative marker (CK3) to identify the locations of CESCs, so we could compare their immunostaining patterns with those of human stem cells previously reported. We compared the proliferation rates and morphological features of epithelial cells isolated from the corneal limbus and central cornea. Undifferentiated cells expressing the same immunostaining pattern as human CESCs were present in the equine corneal limbus. Cultured epithelial cells isolated from the limbus expressed the same immunostaining pattern that CESCs show histologically, but cells isolated from the central cornea did not proliferate and could not be evaluated. Equine CESCs were localized in the epithelial basal layer of the corneal limbus, where melanocytes reside. They could be cultured without loss of their undifferentiated nature. When collecting such stem cells, it may be useful to harvest and culture corneal epithelial tissues in the limbus where melanocytes serve as an indicator of the collecting area. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Equine cortical bone exhibits rising R-curve fracture mechanics.

    PubMed

    Malik, C L; Stover, S M; Martin, R B; Gibeling, J C

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies of the fracture properties of cortical bone have suggested that the fracture toughness increases with crack length, which is indicative of rising R-curve behavior. Based on this indirect evidence and the similarity of bone to ceramic matrix composites, we hypothesized that bone would exhibit rising R-curve behavior in the transverse orientation and that the characteristics of the R-curves would be regionally dependent within the cortex due to variations in bone microstructure and toughening mechanisms. To test these hypotheses, we conducted R-curve experiments on specimens from equine third metacarpal bones using standard fracture mechanics testing methods. Compact type specimens from the dorsal and lateral regions in the middle of the diaphysis were oriented for crack propagation transverse to the longitudinal axis of the bone. The test results demonstrate that equine cortical bone exhibits rising R-curve behavior during transverse crack propagation as hypothesized. Statistical analyses of the crack growth initiation toughness, K0, the peak toughness, Kpeak, and the crack extension at peak toughness, deltaa, revealed significant regional differences in these characteristics. Specifically, the lateral cortex displayed higher crack growth initiation and peak toughnesses. The dorsal cortex exhibited greater crack extension at the peak of crack growth resistance. Scanning electron microscopy revealed osteon pullout on fracture surfaces from the dorsal cortex and but not in the lateral cortex. Taken together, the significant differences in R-curves and the SEM fractography indicate that the fracture mechanisms acting in equine cortical bone are regionally dependent.

  10. 1,5 iodonaphthyl Azide Inactivated V3526 Protects against Aerosol Challenge with Virulent Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    1 1,5 iodonaphthyl Azide-Inactivated V3526 Protects against Aerosol Challenge with Virulent Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus . Paridhi...UNCLASSIFIED 2 Abstract: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus. There is no licensed vaccine for prophylaxis...Introduction: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine development has been marred by failure of inactivated vaccines to develop efficient

  11. Vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for equine-virulent subtype IE strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Eleanor R; Weaver, Scott C

    2010-06-01

    The mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus is a proven vector of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE in Central America. It has been shown to be highly susceptible to infection by this subtype, and conversely to be highly refractory to infection by other VEEV subtypes. During the 1990s in southern coastal Mexico, two VEE epizootics in horses were attributed to subtype IE VEEV. These outbreaks were associated with VEEV strains with an altered infection phenotype for the epizootic mosquito vector, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus. To determine the infectivity for the enzootic vector, Culex taeniopus, mosquitoes from a recently established colony were orally exposed to VEEV strains from the outbreak. The equine-virulent strains exhibited high infectivity and transmission potential comparable to a traditional enzootic subtype IE VEEV strain. Thus, subtype IE VEEV strains in Chiapas are able to efficiently infect enzootic and epizootic vectors and cause morbidity and mortality in horses.

  12. Vector Competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for Equine-Virulent Subtype IE Strains of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus is a proven vector of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE in Central America. It has been shown to be highly susceptible to infection by this subtype, and conversely to be highly refractory to infection by other VEEV subtypes. During the 1990s in southern coastal Mexico, two VEE epizootics in horses were attributed to subtype IE VEEV. These outbreaks were associated with VEEV strains with an altered infection phenotype for the epizootic mosquito vector, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus. To determine the infectivity for the enzootic vector, Culex taeniopus, mosquitoes from a recently established colony were orally exposed to VEEV strains from the outbreak. The equine-virulent strains exhibited high infectivity and transmission potential comparable to a traditional enzootic subtype IE VEEV strain. Thus, subtype IE VEEV strains in Chiapas are able to efficiently infect enzootic and epizootic vectors and cause morbidity and mortality in horses. PMID:20519599

  13. Replication kinetics of neurovirulent versus non-neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 strains in equine nasal mucosal explants.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, S; Gryspeerdt, A C; Steukers, L; Duchateau, L; Osterrieder, N; Van de Walle, G R; Nauwynck, H J

    2010-08-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the causative agent of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, of which outbreaks are reported with increasing frequency throughout North America and Europe. This has resulted in its classification as a potentially emerging disease by the US Department of Agriculture. Recently, it was found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the viral DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) at aa 752 (N-->D) is associated with the neurovirulent potential of EHV-1. In the present study, equine respiratory mucosal explants were inoculated with several Belgian isolates typed in their ORF30 as D(752) or N(752), to evaluate a possible difference in replication in the upper respiratory tract. In addition, to evaluate whether any observed differences could be attributed to the SNP associated with neurovirulence, the experiments were repeated with parental Ab4 (reference neurovirulent strain), parental NY03 (reference non-neurovirulent strain) and their N/D revertant recombinant viruses. The salient findings were that EHV-1 spreads plaquewise in the epithelium, but plaques never cross the basement membrane (BM). However, single EHV-1-infected cells could be observed below the BM at 36 h post-inoculation (p.i.) for all N(752) isolates and at 24 h p.i. for all D(752) isolates, and were identified as monocytic cells and T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the number of infected cells was two to five times higher for D(752) isolates compared with N(752) isolates at every time point analysed. Finally, this study showed that equine respiratory explants are a valuable and reproducible model to study EHV-1 neurovirulence in vitro, thereby reducing the need for horses as experimental animals.

  14. Development of an equine-tropic replication-competent lentivirus assay for equine infectious anemia virus-based lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Farley, Daniel C; Bannister, Richard; Leroux-Carlucci, Marie A; Evans, Nerys E; Miskin, James E; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2012-10-01

    The release of lentiviral vectors for clinical use requires the testing of vector material, production cells, and, if applicable, ex vivo-transduced cells for the presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). Vectors derived from the nonprimate lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been directly administered to patients in several clinical trials, with no toxicity observed to date. Because EIAV does not replicate in human cells, and because putative RCLs derived from vector components within human vector production cells would most likely be human cell-tropic, we previously developed an RCL assay using amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a surrogate positive control and human cells as RCL amplification/indicator cells. Here we report an additional RCL assay that tests for the presence of theoretical "equine-tropic" RCLs. This approach provides further assurance of safety by detecting putative RCLs with an equine cell-specific tropism that might not be efficiently amplified by the human cell-based RCL assay. We tested the ability of accessory gene-deficient EIAV mutant viruses to replicate in a highly permissive equine cell line to direct our choice of a suitable EIAV-derived positive control. In addition, we report for the first time the mathematical rationale for use of the Poisson distribution to calculate minimal infectious dose of positive control virus and for use in monitoring assay positive/spike control failures in accumulating data sets. No RCLs have been detected in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant RCL assays to date, further demonstrating that RCL formation is highly unlikely in contemporary minimal lentiviral vector systems.

  15. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF). EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5). In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5) and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease. PMID:23009194

  16. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  17. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  18. Neuro-Immune Mechanisms in Response to Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 125 (HTLV- 1 ) Tax: Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and...1987), Visna virus (Stowring et al., 1985), Borna virus (Carbone et al., 1991), as well as Human Immunodeficiency virus type- 1 (Tornatore et al., 1994...nick end labeling VEE Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus VSV Vesicular stomatitis virus WEE Western equine encephalitis virus 1 CHAPTER 1

  19. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official inspection legend required by § 316.12 or § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed horse...

  20. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official inspection legend required by § 316.12 or § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed horse...

  1. Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys.

    PubMed

    Rivas, J; Neira, V; Mena, J; Brito, B; Garcia, A; Gutierrez, C; Sandoval, D; Ortega, R

    2017-09-17

    A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new virus and South African asinine strains diverged at least 100 years from equine EAV strains. The results indicate that asinine strains belonged to a different EAV genotype. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  3. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  4. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  5. Behaviour of equine influenza virus in a naïve population: a practitioner's perspective.

    PubMed

    Major, D A; Jones, B

    2011-07-01

    We describe the behaviour of equine influenza (EI) virus infection in a naïve population as observed by equine veterinary practitioners. The clinical signs displayed by infected horses and the highly contagious nature of the disease are discussed, as well as the treatment and management of infected horses.

  6. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  7. Antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza in the Republic of Korea in 2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bo-Hye; Yang, Sunjoo; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Ye-Jin; Song, Jae-Young; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-11-01

    In this study, antibody responses after equine influenza vaccination were investigated among 1,098 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza viruses, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08 (H3N8), were used as antigens in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 91.7% (geometric mean antibody levels (GMT), 56.8) and 93.6% (GMT, 105.2) for A/equine/South Africa/4/03 and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08, respectively. Yearlings and two-year-olds in training exhibited lower positive rates (68.1% (GMT, 14) and 61.7% (GMT, 11.9), respectively, with different antigens) than average. Horses two years old or younger may require more attention in vaccination against equine influenza according to the vaccination regime, because they could be a target of the equine influenza virus.

  8. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  9. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  10. Different in vitro metabolism of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone by human and equine aromatases.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, S; Dintinger, T; Dehennin, L; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1993-06-01

    The ability of human and equine placental microsomes to aromatize 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MNT) was studied. Kinetic analysis indicates that MNT shares the androgen-binding site of human and equine placental microsomal aromatases. Human placental microsomal estrogen synthetase had about a 2.5-fold higher relative affinity for MNT than the equine placental enzyme (KiMNT/Km androstenedione of 32 versus 87). However, MNT was not metabolized by human placental microsomes, whereas it was very actively metabolized by equine placental microsomes. Further studies using purified equine cytochrome P-450arom indicated that the presence of a 7 alpha-methyl group and the absence of a C19 methyl group did not impair its conversion by the purified enzyme. The product of this reaction was separated and identified as 7 alpha-methylestradiol by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  11. Stereolithographic biomodeling of equine ovary based on 3D serial digitizing device

    PubMed Central

    Kakusho, Nobunori; Yamazawa, Kenji; Hirano, Yuuko; Nambo, Yasuo; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2009-01-01

    The 3D internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) was applied to the equine ovary, which possesses peculiar structural characteristics. Stereolithography was applied to make a life-sized model by means of data obtained from 3D-ISM. Images from serially sliced surfaces contributed to a successful 3D reconstruction of the equine ovary. Photopolymerized resin models of equine ovaries produced by stereolithography can clearly show the internal structure and spatial localizations in the ovary. The understanding of the spatial relationship between the ovulation fossa and follicles and/or corpora lutea in the equine ovary was a great benefit. The peculiar structure of the equine ovary could be thoroughly observed and understood through this model. PMID:19461213

  12. Molecular evolution of the six internal genes of H5N1 equine influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Shehab, Gaber M; Abu-Elsaad, Abdel-Aziz S

    2011-07-01

    Phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of the six internal genes of an equine H5N1 influenza A virus isolated in Egypt on 2009 were analyzed using direct sequencing. All of the internal genes of the equine H5N1 strain showed a genetic pattern potentially related to Eurasian lineages. Variable dendrogram topologies revealed an absence of reassortment in the equine strain while confirming its close relatedness to other Egyptian H5N1 strains from human and avian species. The equine strain is characterized by a variety of amino acid substitutions in six internal proteins compared to the available Egyptian H5N1 strains. Interestingly, the equine strain displayed amino acids in the PB2, PA, M2 and NS2 proteins that are unique among the available H5N1 sequences in the flu database, and their potential effect on virulence needs to be further investigated.

  13. Substrate Specificity of Equine and Human Influenza A Virus Sialidase to Molecular Species of Sialic Acid.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Unuma, Saori; Kawagishi, Sawako; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Takano, Maiko; Yoshino, Hiroki; Minami, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Most equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) show strong binding to glycoconjugates containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Therefore, the progeny of equine IAV is thought to be released from the infected cell surface through removal of sialic acids by the viral sialidase. In the present study, equine IAV sialidases showed significantly lower substrate affinity than that of human IAV sialidases to artificial and natural Neu5Gc-conjugated substrates. The substrate specificity of equine IAV sialidases is in disagreement with their binding specificity to molecular species of sialic acid. The results suggest that substrate specificity of equine IAV sialidase for Neu5Ac, rather than for Neu5Gc, is important for an advantage at the early infection stage and the process of progeny virus release from the surface of infected cells.

  14. An evidence-based approach to clinical questions in the practice of equine neurology.

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, Jérôme

    2007-08-01

    The practice of equine neurology has special challenges posed by the size of the animal being examined. Many diagnostic procedures routinely used in small animal practice are unsafe when applied to the equine patient or unavailable to the equine practitioner. Therefore, astute observation is the mainstay of making a neuroanatomic diagnosis, and detailed evidence on the deficits present may be difficult to obtain. Because clinical observation can sometimes be ambiguous and somewhat subjective, it is even more important to approach equine neurology from an evidence-based point of view. Here, such an approach is outlined for the diagnosis of cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), one of the most common noninfectious causes of equine neurologic disease. This article is an attempt to summarize all aspects of making a diagnosis of CVCM on the basis of signalment, clinical examination, ancillary diagnostic tests, and pathologic examination. Each of these considerations has inherent limitations regarding diagnostic accuracy, which are discussed.

  15. Effects of weather and landscape on the equine West Nile virus infection risk in Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiming

    2015-11-04

    The West Nile virus (WNv) continues to be a public health concern in North America. Dry weather appears to increase human WNv infection risks, but it is uncertain whether dry weather conditions exert similar effects on the corresponding equine WNv infection. This study assessed the effects of precipitation of the previous year and land cover diversity on the equine WNv risk of Mississippi, USA, at the county level in the year 2002 using Bayesian hierarchical models. The risk estimated for 2002 was found to be inversely related to annual precipitation of the preceding year. Equine WNv risks were lower with greater land cover diversity probably due to the diluting effects of biodiversity. Correlation between the equine and human WNv risks was positive but relatively low. Dry weather conditions of the previous year might reduce mosquito competitors and predators and subsequently increase mosquito abundances and equine WNv risks in agricultural areas with low biodiversity.

  16. Equine infectious anemia virus resists the antiretroviral activity of equine APOBEC3 proteins through a packaging-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Hal P; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Oaks, J Lindsay; Carpenter, Susan; Cullen, Bryan R

    2008-12-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), uniquely among lentiviruses, does not encode a vif gene product. Other lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), use Vif to neutralize members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of intrinsic immunity factors that would otherwise inhibit viral infectivity. This suggests either that equine cells infected by EIAV in vivo do not express active A3 proteins or that EIAV has developed a novel mechanism to avoid inhibition by equine A3 (eA3). Here, we demonstrate that horses encode six distinct A3 proteins, four of which contain a single copy of the cytidine deaminase (CDA) consensus active site and two of which contain two CDA motifs. This represents a level of complexity previously seen only in primates. Phylogenetic analysis of equine single-CDA A3 proteins revealed two proteins related to human A3A (hA3A), one related to hA3C, and one related to hA3H. Both equine double-CDA proteins are similar to hA3F and were named eA3F1 and eA3F2. Analysis of eA3F1 and eA3F2 expression in vivo shows that the mRNAs encoding these proteins are widely expressed, including in cells that are natural EIAV targets. Both eA3F1 and eA3F2 inhibit retrotransposon mobility, while eA3F1 is a potent inhibitor of a Vif-deficient HIV-1 mutant and induces extensive editing of HIV-1 reverse transcripts. However, both eA3F1 and eA3F2 are weak inhibitors of EIAV. Surprisingly, eA3F1 and eA3F2 were packaged into EIAV and HIV-1 virions as effectively as hA3G, although only the latter inhibited EIAV infectivity. Moreover, all three proteins bound both the HIV-1 and EIAV nucleocapsid protein specifically in vitro. It therefore appears that EIAV has evolved a novel mechanism to specifically neutralize the biological activities of the cognate eA3F1 and eA3F2 proteins at a step subsequent to virion incorporation.

  17. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Equine APRIL and its Expression Analysis During the Adipogenic Differentiation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cell In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haitao; Bi, Xiaolin; Cao, Fang; Zhu, Cuicui; Liu, Hongzhen; Song, Jinyun; Ma, Lei; Ma, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Dongwei; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Xinzhou; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-10-01

    A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily. It shares two receptors with B-cell activating factor (BAFF), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). Herein, the equine APRIL was identified from equine adipose-derived stem cell (ASC), and the protein expression of APRIL and its related molecules were detected during the adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC in vitro. The equine APRIL gene was located on chromosome 11, spans 1852 base pairs (bp). Its open reading frame covers 753 bp, encoding a 250-amino acid protein with the typical TNF structure domain. During the two weeks' adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC, although the protein expression of APRIL and TACI had an insignificant change, that of BCMA increased significantly. Moreover, with the addition of recombinant protein His6-sAPRIL, a reduced differentiation of equine ASC toward adipocyte was detected. These results may provide the basis for investigating the role of APRIL in ASC adipogenic differentiation.

  19. Contrasting modes and tempos of venom expression evolution in two snake species.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; McGivern, James J; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species.

  20. Comparison of platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Caitlin M; Werre, Stephen R; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2015-04-01

    (1) To compare the performance of 4 platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates and (2) to evaluate the ability of the Magellan platelet rich plasma (PRP) system to concentrate equine platelets. Experimental study to assess method agreement. Adult mixed breed horses (n = 32). Acid citrate dextrose-A anti-coagulated whole blood was collected and PRP produced using the Magellan system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Platelets were quantified using 4 counting methods: optical scatter (Advia 2120), impedance (CellDyn 3700), hand counting, and fluorescent antibody flow cytometry. Platelet concentrations were compared using Passing and Bablok regression analyses and mixed model ANOVA. Significance was set at P < .05. Platelet concentrations measured in identical PRP samples were consistently higher for the Advia 2120 than the CellDyn 3700. Systematic and proportional biases were observed between these 2 automated methods when analyzed by regression analysis of the larger sample size. No bias (systematic or proportional) was observed among any of the other counting methods. Despite the bias detected between the 2 automated systems, there were no significant differences on average among the 4 counting methods evaluated, based on the ANOVA. The Magellan system consistently generated high platelet concentrations as well as higher than expected WBC concentrations. The Magellan system delivered desirably high platelet concentrations; however, WBC concentrations may be unacceptably high for some orthopedic applications. All 4 platelet counting methods tested were equivalent on average and therefore suitable for quantifying platelets in equine PRP used for clinical applications. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Evaluation of equine oocyte developmental competence using polarized light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bertero, A; Ritrovato, F; Evangelista, F; Stabile, V; Fortina, R; Ricci, A; Revelli, A; Vincenti, L; Nervo, T

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe in vitro-matured equine oocytes with an objective computerized technique that involves the use of a polarized light microscope (PLM) in addition to the subjective morphological evaluation obtained using a classic light microscope (LM). Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 922) were subjected to different in vitro maturation times (24, 36 or 45 h), however, only 36-h matured oocytes were analyzed using CLM. The 36-h matured oocytes that reached maturity were parthenogenetically activated to evaluate the quality and meiotic competence. Average maturation percentages per session in groups 1, 2 and 3 (24-, 36- and 45-h matured oocytes respectively) were 29.31 ± 13.85, 47.01 ± 9.90 and 36.62 ± 5.28%, whereas the average percentages of immature oocytes per session were 28.78 ± 20.17, 7.83 ± 5.51 and 22.36 ± 8.39% respectively. The zona pellucida (ZP) birefringent properties were estimated and correlated with activation outcome. ZP thickness and retardance of the inner layer of the zona pellucida (IL-ZP) were significantly increased in immature oocytes compared with mature oocytes (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 respectively). The comparison between parthenogenetically activated and non-activated oocytes showed a significant increase in the area and thickness of the IL-ZP in parthenogenetically activated oocytes (P < 0.01). These results show that the 36-h in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol allowed equine oocytes to reach maturity, and PLM observation of ZP can be used to distinguish mature and immature oocytes as well as activated and non-activated oocytes. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Equine Clinical Genomics: A Clinician’s Primer

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Margaret Mary; Brooks, Samantha A.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The objective of this review is to introduce equine clinicians to the rapidly evolving field of clinical genomics with a vision of improving the health and welfare of the domestic horse. For fifteen years a consortium of veterinary geneticists and clinicians has worked together under the umbrella of The Horse Genome Project. This group, encompassing 22 laboratories in 12 countries, has made rapid progress, developing several iterations of linkage, physical and comparative gene maps of the horse with increasing levels of detail. In early 2006, the research was greatly facilitated when the U.S. National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health added the horse to the list of mammalian species scheduled for whole genome sequencing. The genome of the domestic horse has now been sequenced and is available to researchers worldwide in publicly accessible databases. This achievement creates the potential for transformative change within the horse industry, particularly in the fields of internal medicine, sports medicine and reproduction. The genome sequence has enabled the development of new genome-wide tools and resources for studying inherited diseases of the horse. To date, researchers have identified eleven mutations causing ten clinical syndromes in the horse. Testing is commercially available for all but one of these diseases. Future research will probably identify the genetic bases for other equine diseases, produce new diagnostic tests and generate novel therapeutics for some of these conditions. This will enable equine clinicians to play a critical role in ensuring the thoughtful and appropriate application of this knowledge as they assist clients with breeding and clinical decision-making. PMID:20840582

  3. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃.

  4. Equine performance genes and the future of doping in horseracing.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Tessa; Baoutina, Anna; Hamilton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses. Gene doping, the misuse of gene therapies for performance enhancement, is predicted to be the next phase of doping faced by horseracing. The risk of gene doping to human sports has been recognised for almost 15 years, and the introduction of the first gene doping detection tests for doping control in human athletes is imminent. Gene doping is also a threat to horseracing, but there are currently no methods to detect it. Efficient and accurate detection methods need to be developed to deter those looking to use gene doping in horses and to maintain the integrity of the sport. Methods developed for human athletes could offer an avenue for detection in racehorses. Development of an equine equivalent test will first require identification of equine genes that will likely be targeted by gene doping attempts. This review focuses on genes that have been linked to athletic performance in horses and, therefore, could be targeted for genetic manipulation. The risks associated with gene doping and approaches to detect gene doping are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Altering equine corneal fibroblast differentiation through Smad gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Marlo, Todd L; Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Tripathi, Ratnakar; Sharma, Ajay; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2017-07-06

    To explore the impact of equine corneal fibroblast (ECF) to myofibroblast (ECM) differentiation by altering the expression of the Smad genes either individually or in combination. Specifically, we sought to examine the ECF differentiation after (a) silencing of Smad2, 3, and 4 profibrotic genes individually and (b) overexpression of antifibrotic Smad7 gene and in a combination with pro- and antifibrotic Smad genes. Equine corneal fibroblast primary cultures were generated as previously described. ECFs were transfected with individual plasmids which silenced gene expression of either Smad2, 3, or 4 or in combination with a plasmid overexpressing Smad7 using Lipofectamine 2000™ or Lipofectamine BLOCK-iT™. Smad-transfected clones were then exposed to TGF-β1 to induce differentiation to myofibroblasts. Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR techniques quantified levels of ECF differentiation to ECM by measuring alpha smooth muscle actin, a known marker of ECM transdifferentiation. Silencing of individual Smad2, 3, or 4 genes or overexpression of Smad7 showed significant inhibition of ECF transdifferentiation (73-83% reduction). Silencing of Smad2 showed the greatest inhibition of ECF transdifferentiation in (a) and was therefore utilized for the combination gene transfer testing. The combination gene transfer consisting of Smad7 overexpression and Smad2 silencing attenuated ECF differentiation significantly; however, the level was not significant compared to the overexpression of Smad7 individually. Using gene transfer technology involving profibrotic Smad silencing, antifibrotic Smad overexpression or its combination is a novel strategy to control TGF-β1-mediated fibrosis in equine fibroblasts. Combination gene therapy was not better than single gene therapy in this study. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Decorin-PEI nanoconstruct attenuates equine corneal fibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kevin S; Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Ajay; Tandon, Ashish; Rodier, Jason T; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2014-05-01

    To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) using green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene, (ii) whether PEI nanoparticle-mediated decorin (DCN) gene therapy could be used to inhibit fibrosis in the equine cornea using an in vitro model. Polyethylenimine-DNA nanoparticles were prepared at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N-P) ratio of 15 by mixing 22 kDa linear PEI and a plasmid encoding either GFP or DCN. ECFs were generated from donor corneas as previously described. Initially, GFP was introduced into ECFs using PEI nanoparticles to confirm gene delivery, then DCN was introduced to evaluate for antifibrotic effects. GFP gene delivery was confirmed with real-time qPCR and ELISA. Changes in fibrosis after DCN therapy were quantified by measuring α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Cytotoxicity was determined by evaluating cell morphology, cellular viability, and TUNEL assay. Polyethylenimine-green fluorescent protein-treated cultures showed 2.2 × 10(4) GFP plasmid copies/μg of cellular DNA and 2.1 pg of GFP/100 μL of lysate. PEI-DCN delivery significantly attenuated TGFβ-induced transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts (2-fold decrease of αSMA mRNA; P = 0.05) and significant inhibition of αSMA (49 ± 14.2%; P < 0.001) in immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting were found. Furthermore, PEI-DNA nanoparticle delivery did not alter cellular phenotype at 24 h and cellular viability was maintained. Twenty-two kilo dalton Polyethylenimine nanoparticles are safe and effective for equine corneal gene therapy in vitro. PEI-mediated DCN gene delivery is effective at inhibiting TGFβ-mediated fibrosis in this model. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Incorporating oral photography and endoscopy into the equine dental examination.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Stephen S; Easley, Jack

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the significant features and use of digital cameras, intraoral cameras, and oral endoscopes in equine dental practice. Although system features believed to be important have been listed, specific system recommendations have been omitted, since each veterinarian must individually determine the best system to meet practice clinical needs and budget. Veterinarians are encouraged to thoroughly research not only the camera/endoscope purchase but also the capabilities of the entire system, the compatibility of the system with different computer software programs, the reputation and service policies of the manufacturers, and references from other colleagues.

  9. Isolation and characterization of equine native MSC populations.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cristina L; Sheldrake, Tara A; Mesquita, Simone P; Pesántez, Juan J; Menghini, Timothy; Dawson, Lucy; Péault, Bruno; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-04-18

    In contrast to humans in which mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapies are still largely in the clinical trial phase, MSCs have been used therapeutically in horses for over 15 years, thus constituting a valuable preclinical model for humans. In human tissues, MSCs have been shown to originate from perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells, which are identified by the presence of the cell surface markers CD146 and CD34, respectively. In contrast, the origin of MSCs in equine tissues has not been established, preventing the isolation and culture of defined cell populations in that species. Moreover, a comparison between perivascular CD146(+) and CD34(+) cell populations has not been performed in any species. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify adventitial cells (CD34(+)) and pericytes (CD146(+)) and to determine their localization in relation to MSCs in equine tissues. Isolation of CD34(+) (CD34(+)/CD146(-)/CD144(-)/CD45(-)) and CD146(+) (CD146(+)/CD34(-)/CD144(-)/CD45(-)) cell fractions from equine adipose tissue was achieved by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The isolated cell fractions were cultured and analyzed for the expression of MSC markers, using qPCR and flow cytometry, and for the ability to undergo trilineage differentiation. Angiogenic properties were analyzed in vivo using a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Both CD34(+) and CD146(+) cells displayed typical MSC features, namely growth in uncoated tissue culture dishes, clonal growth when seeded at low density, expression of typical MSC markers, and multipotency shown by the capacity for trilineage differentiation. Of note, CD146(+) cells were distinctly angiogenic compared with CD34(+) and non-sorted cells (conventional MSCs), demonstrated by the induction of blood vessels in a CAM assay, expression of elevated levels of VEGFA and ANGPT1, and association with vascular networks in cocultures with endothelial cells, indicating that CD146(+) cells maintain a pericyte

  10. MRI findings in eastern equine encephalitis: the "parenthesis" sign.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Joshua P; Kannabiran, Suma; Burbank, Heather N

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) presented to a tertiary referral center. Both subjects' brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintensities including linear areas of hyperintensity in the external and internal capsules with sparing of the lentiform nuclei. Single case reports of imaging findings in EEE exist with nonspecific patterns of abnormality. We propose that this "( ) parentheses sign" on T2 or FLAIR imaging may distinguish EEE from other processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New concepts in standing advanced diagnostic equine imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Erin G; Werpy, Natasha M

    2014-04-01

    This article addresses the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) as applied to the standing equine patient. This discussion includes the logistics, advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of imaging a standing horse. In addition, a brief review is given of the physics of these modalities as applied in clinical practice, and the currently available hardware and software required by these techniques for image acquisition and artifact reduction. The appropriate selection of clinical cases for standing MRI and CT is reviewed, focusing on cases that are capable of undergoing standing surgeries following lesion diagnosis.

  12. Equine recurrent uveitis--a spontaneous horse model of uveitis.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Pompetzki, Dirk; Altmann, Frank; Raith, Albert; Schmalzl, Thomas; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an autoimmune disease that occurs with a high prevalence (10%) in horses. ERU represents the only reliable spontaneous model for human autoimmune uveitis. We already identified and characterized novel autoantigens (malate dehydrogenase, recoverin, CRALBP) by analyzing the autoantibody-binding pattern of horses affected by spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) to the retinal proteome. CRALBP also seems to be relevant to human autoimmune uveitis. Proteomic screening of vitreous and retinal samples from ERU diseased cases in comparison to healthy controls has led to the identification of a series of differentially regulated proteins, which are functionally linked to the immune system and the maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier.

  13. Equine recurrent uveitis: the viewpoint from the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilger, B C

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a common disease in horses in the USA. There have been many advances in the treatment of ERU; however, frequent misdiagnosis of ERU occurs in cases of primary corneal or uveal disease. It is critical to remember that primary uveitis (i.e. one bout of inflammation) is a different disease to ERU, which is an immune mediated recurrent uveitis. Standard symptomatic anti-inflammatory therapy is effective to control most cases of ERU; however, some horses require advanced therapy, such as placement of drug delivery devices or removal of the vitreous, when they fail to respond to the standard therapy.

  14. Characterization of amyloid in equine recurrent uveitis as AA amyloid.

    PubMed

    Ostevik, L; de Souza, G A; Wien, T N; Gunnes, G; Sørby, R

    2014-01-01

    Two horses with chronic uveitis and histological lesions consistent with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) were examined. Microscopical findings in the ciliary body included deposits of amyloid lining the non-pigmented epithelium, intracytoplasmic, rod-shaped, eosinophilic inclusions and intraepithelial infiltration of T lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body of one horse confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils (9-11 nm in diameter) consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive labelling for AA amyloid and mass spectrometry showed the amyloid to consist primarily of serum amyloid A1 in both cases. The findings suggest that localized, intraocular AA amyloidosis may occur in horses with ERU.

  15. Purification and characterization of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Matheka, H D; Coggins, L; Shively, J N; Norcross, N L

    1976-01-01

    EIA virus was purified from equine fetal kidney cell cultures by PEG-precipitation, two sucrose-gradient sedimentations (5-30 per cent) and (25 to 60 per cent) centrifugation, using the immunodiffusion test to follow the procedure. Purified EIA virus had a density (20 degrees C) of 1.162 and a sedimentation constant of S20w=656. electron microscopy revealed a particle of about 100 nm in diameter with a very flexible but usually spherical shape. The dense core may be at various locations inside the membrane bound particle.

  16. Efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes.

    PubMed

    Olsen, G H; Turell, M J; Pagac, B B

    1997-04-01

    An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC), Laurel, Maryland (USA), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if EEE immunization protected whooping cranes (Grus americana). Based on seroconversion of 31% of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. As there were no deaths in these birds, the EEE vaccination program appeared to be efficacious in this whooping crane population.

  17. Biological Characterization of Rev Variation in Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Belshan, Michael; Harris, Matthew E.; Shoemaker, Anne E.; Hope, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Sequence analysis identified significant variation in the second exon of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) rev. Functional analysis indicated that limited amino acid variation in Rev significantly altered the export activity of the protein but did not affect Rev-dependent alternative splicing. EIAV Rev can mediate export through two independent cis-acting Rev-responsive elements (RREs), and differences among Rev variants were more pronounced when both RREs were present. Variation in Rev may be an important mechanism for regulation of virus replication in vivo and may contribute to changes in clinical disease. PMID:9557734

  18. Infrared digital imaging of the equine anterior segment.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Richard J; Clode, Alison B; Gilger, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    Ocular photographs are an increasingly important method of documenting lesions for inclusion in medical records, teaching purposes, and research. Availability of affordable high-quality digital imaging equipment has allowed for enhanced capture of desired images because of immediate on-camera viewing and editing. Conversion of the standard digital camera sensor to one that is sensitive to infrared light (i.e. > 760 nm < 1 mm wavelength) can be done inexpensively. In the equine eye, advantages of infrared digital photography include increased contrast of anterior segment images, identification and monitoring of pigmentary changes, and increased visualization of the anterior segment through a cloudy or edematous cornea.

  19. Experimental Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection of the Bovine

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Thomas E.; Johnson, Karl M.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of four dairy cows (Bos taurus) were infected subcutaneously with the epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEE) strains MF-8 and San Pelayo, respectively. Animals experienced no clinical illness, but all developed significant neutropenia. Virus was recovered once each from the blood of three animals but did not exceed 102.2 SMICLD50 (Suckling mouse intracerebral lethal dose50)/ml. Specific neutralizing antibodies appeared in the serum of all animals, but there were no significant differences in titers against different naturally occurring VEE subtypes. Dairy cattle thus appear to play no role in virus transmission during VEE epizootics but may serve as retrospective immunological sentinels of virus activity. PMID:4564396

  20. Characterization of isolates of equine infectious anemia virus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tigre, Dellane Martins; Brandão, Camila Fonseca Lopes; de Paula, Fabiana Lopes; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Campos, Gubio Soares; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2017-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia is an important infectious disease that affects equids worldwide. Control of the disease is currently based on detection of anti-p26 EIAV by Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID). In this work, 62 animals were examined by AGID and nested-PCR using primers for the gag gene. Fifty-three samples (85.5%) were positive by nested-PCR, whereas only 33 samples (53%) were positive for AGID. Fifteen amplicons obtained by nested-PCR were sequenced and the aligned results subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The analysis suggests that the Brazilian EIAV form a cluster with WSU5, EIAVUK and Wyoming strains from United States.

  1. Persistent thrombocytopenia in a case of equine infectious anemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N D; Carter, G K

    1991-09-15

    Persistent thrombocytopenia was detected in a horse with equine infectious anemia (EIA). The thrombocytopenia was considered to be immune-mediated, developing secondary to infection with EIA virus. Epistaxis, petechial hemorrhages, subcutaneous hematomas, and edema resolved after treatment with corticosteroids; however, the owners requested that the mare by euthanatized because of infection with EIA virus. Although clinical signs attributable to immune-mediated thrombocytopenia may resolve with appropriate treatment, horses with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia secondary to EIA have a guarded to grave prognosis, because of the risk of recurrence and transmission of the EIA virus.

  2. Studies on equine infectious anemia virus transmission by insects.

    PubMed

    Issel, C J; Foil, L D

    1984-02-01

    There are several factors involved in the mechanical transmission of equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus by insects. Large hematophagous insects, especially tabanids, which feed from extravascular sites (ie, pool feeding) appear to be the most efficient vectors. The biology of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of the vectors are important variables that have been overlooked in the mechanical transmission of pathogens like EIA virus. The biology, population levels, and diversity of the vectors, in addition to the clinical status and proximity of EIA virus-infected horses maintained with susceptible animals are all important variables that contribute to EIA virus transmission in nature.

  3. Equine Welfare Assessment: Exploration of British Stakeholder Attitudes Using Focus-Group Discussions.

    PubMed

    Horseman, Susan V; Hockenhull, Jo; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    The equine industry in Great Britain has not been subject to the same pressures as the farming industry to engage with welfare assessment, but this may change as concern about equine welfare increases. Stakeholder attitudes toward welfare assessment may impact the implementation of welfare assessment practices. Focus-group discussions regarding welfare assessment were conducted with 6 equine stakeholder groups: leisure horse owners (caregivers; n = 4), grooms (n = 5), veterinary surgeons (n = 3), welfare scientists (n = 4), welfare charity workers (n = 5), and professional riders (n = 4). Three themes emerged from the discussions: (a) Participants predominantly interpreted welfare assessment as a means of identifying and correcting poor welfare in an immediate way; (b) participants believed that horse welfare varied over time; and (c) attributes of the assessor were viewed as an important consideration for equine welfare assessment. The views of equine industry members give insight into the value welfare assessments may have to the industry and how equine welfare assessment approaches can achieve credibility within the industry and increase the positive impact of welfare assessments on equine welfare.

  4. Assessment of fallen equine data in France and their usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Tapprest, Jackie; Borey, Marion; Dornier, Xavier; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ferry, Bénédicte; Sala, Carole

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiology purposes. Several European projects based on the exploitation of data from rendering plants have been developed to improve livestock surveillance. Similar data are available for equines in France but have never been studied to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of the French Ministry of Agriculture's Fallen Stock Data Interchange (FSDI) database to provide quantitative mortality information on the French equine population. The quality of FSDI equine data from 2011 to 2014 was assessed using complementary data registered in the French equine census database, SIRE. Despite a perfectible quality, the FSDI database proved to be a valuable source for studying the basal patterns of mortality over time in the French equine population as illustrated by the spatial representation of the number of deaths. However, improvements in the FSDI database are needed, in particular regarding the registration of animal identification numbers, in order to detail equine mortality for epidemiology purposes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M

    2006-09-09

    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  6. Report of the First International Workshop on Equine Leucocyte Antigens, Cambridge, UK, July 1991.

    PubMed

    Kydd, J; Antczak, D F; Allen, W R; Barbis, D; Butcher, G; Davis, W; Duffus, W P; Edington, N; Grünig, G; Holmes, M A

    1994-07-01

    The First International Workshop on Equine Leucocyte Antigens was organized and convened for the purposes of identifying immunologically relevant cell surface molecules of equine leucocytes and establishing a system of nomenclature for those molecules. Participating members of the workshop represented the majority of laboratories world-wide engaged in the tasks of production and characterization of equine leucocyte and lymphocyte markers using monoclonal antibodies. The workshop confirmed the identification of several equine CD molecules described previously by individual laboratories, and in addition recognized antibodies identifying new CD molecules. The workshop also succeeded in fostering co-operation between laboratories around the world which study equine immunobiology. Equine CD molecules identified by the current battery of monoclonal antibodies include EqCD2, EqCD4, EqCD5, EqCD8, EqCD11a/18, EqCD13 and EqCD44. Other antibodies are markers for MHC class I and class II molecules, for B cells, granulocytes, macrophages, T cell subsets distinct from those defined by CD4 and CD8, and other sub-populations of horse leucocytes that do not have obvious counterparts in humans, rodents, or other species. Despite the progress made in the first workshop, there are still substantial gaps in the armory of reagents available to study equine leucocyte biology, and further definition of the structure, function, and genetics of the antigens identified by the workshop clusters (WC1, WC2 etc.) and other molecules of immunological importance will be a goal of future workshops. The study of equine immunobiology and resistance to disease also urgently requires the development of tools to study equine immunoglobulins and cytokines, and these needs will provide ample scope for future studies.

  7. Venezuelan equine encephalitis vaccination survey in Arizona and New Mexico, 1972.

    PubMed

    Moore, R M; Moulthrop, J I; Sather, G E; Holmes, C L; Parker, R L

    1977-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in 1972 to determine the immunization status of equines along the Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico borders. Interviews with horse owners were conducted along roads selected at random in the counties of Santa Cruz and Yuma, Ariz., and in Dona Ana County, N. Mex. At least 450 horse owners in each county were asked about the vaccination status of their animals, and information was taken on 1,260 animals. Blood specimens were obtained from every third equine, regardless of stated vaccination status, and tested for the presence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) neutralization antibodies. Serum samples were collected from 446 equines in the 3-county area; only 227 (50.7 percent) had both a history of VEE vaccination in 1971 (including 20 vaccinated in 1972) and serum neutralization antibody against VEE. Of the remaining 220 with no detectable neutralization antibody to VEE, 197 (89.5 percent) had a history of VEE vaccination in 1971 (including 5 revaccinated in 1972), 14 (6.4 percent) had no history of vaccination, and 9 (4.1 percent) had an unknown vaccination status. Eighty-two percent (160 of 1971) of the equines with a history of VEE vaccination and presence of dectectable WEE or EEE antibodies, or both, had no detectable levels of VEE antibody. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the presence of WEE or EEE antibodies, or both, may suppress the development of dectable vaccine-induced VEE antibody response in the equine. As a result of this investigation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as an added precaution, recommended the revaccination of equines in areas of the United States bordering Mexico.

  8. Live temperature-sensitive equine influenza virus vaccine: generation of the virus and efficacy in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Brundage-Anguish, L J; Holmes, D F; Hosier, N T; Murphy, B R; Massicott, J G; Appleyard, G; Coggins, L

    1982-05-01

    Temperature-sensitive (ts) reassortants of an equine influenza virus, subtype A-1, were produced by mating a human influenza ts donor virus with an equine influenza A/Cornell/16/74 wild-type virus and by isolating a ts reassortant virus possessing the equine hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens. Two equine its reassortant clones, 8B1 and 71A1, were produced which had an in vitro shutoff temperature for plaque formation of 38 and 37 C, respectively. The human ts donor virus had ts mutation(s) on the polymerase 3 (P3) and nucleoprotein genes so that a ts equine reassortant virus could have either or both of these ts genes. It was found by complementation analysis that reassortant clone 8B1 had a ts lesion on the P3 gene and clone 71A1 had ts lesions on the nucleoprotein and P3 genes. An analysis of the parental origin of the genes in each ts equine reassortant virus indicated that clone 8B1 received 6 of its 8 genes and clone 71A1, 3 of its 8 from the equine parent virus, the remainder genes being from the human ts donor virus. The growth of both clones was restricted in the lungs of hamsters, but similar to that of the equine wild-type virus in the nasal turbinates. Each virus isolate obtained from the hamster's lungs or nasal turbinates retained the ts phenotype. These findings form the basis for further evaluation of the equine ts reassortant viruses for their level of attenuation and immunogenicity in horses.

  9. Mice transgenic for equine cyclin T1 and ELR1 are susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Du, Cheng; Ma, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Li, Yun-Fei; He, Xi-Jun; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Meng, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-28

    As a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) protein superfamily, equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1) has been shown to be expressed in various equine cells that are permissive for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) replication. The EIAV Tat protein (eTat) activates transcription initiated at the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter through a unique mechanism that requires the recruitment of the equine cyclin T1 (eCT1) cofactor into the viral TAR RNA target element. In vitro studies have demonstrated that mouse fibroblast cell lines (e.g., NIH 3T3 cells) that express the EIAV receptor ELR1 and eCT1 support the productive replication of EIAV. Therefore, we constructed transgenic eCT1- and ELR1-expressing mice to examine whether they support in vivo EIAV replication. For the first time, we constructed mice transgenic for ELR1 and eCT1. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis confirmed that ELR1 and eCT1 were expressed in the transgenic mouse tissues, particularly in the intestines, spleen and lymph nodes. Consistent with the results of EIAV infection in NIH 3T3 cells expressing ELR1 and eCT1, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from the transgenic mice could support EIAV replication. More importantly, this virus could infect and replicate in mouse blood monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDMs). Macrophages are the principle target cell of EIAV in its natural hosts. Furthermore, after the transgenic mice were inoculated with EIAV, the virus could be detected not only in the plasma of the circulating blood but also in multiple organs, among which, the spleen and lymph nodes were the predominant sites of EIAV replication. Finally, we found that consistent with high viral replication levels, the relevant pathological changes occurred in the spleen and lymph nodes. Our results show that mice transgenic for ELR1 and eCT1 are susceptible to EIAV infection and replication. Further, EIAV infection can cause

  10. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of the depth of the equine hard palate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rebecca Gay; Lowder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Equine behavioral problems and loss of optimum performance have been associated with musculoskeletal injury and, more recently, dental disease. Injuries to a horse's tongue and bars of the mandible due to bitting have been documented. However, another point of contact of the bit, the hard palate, has thus far been virtually ignored. The objective of the study was to determine if there was a significant range associated with the depth of the equine hard palate and if this range was associated with a certain breed, age, or sex of the horse. Oral examinations were performed on 52 horses and a measurement of the hard palate was taken. The study group was comprised of 27 mares, 24 geldings and 1 stallion. They were further divided into the age groups: 3-5 years (3), > 5-10 years (18), > 10-15 years (19), and > 15 years (12). Lastly, the groups were divided into the following breed categories: Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, and Other. Analyses revealed that palate depth has a broad range that is not associated with any breed, age, or sex. Normal reference ranges were established for the data and suggests that the hard palate should be considered and measured when choosing a bit. Further research is necessary to determine which bits are best suited for each palate depth.

  12. Characterization of genetic variability of Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A.; ...

    2016-04-07

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broadmore » panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Lastly, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.« less

  13. Characterization of genetic variability of Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A.; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C.; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-04-07

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Lastly, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.

  14. Equine pythiosis: report in crossed bred (Criole Venezuelan) horses.

    PubMed

    Salas, Y; Márquez, A; Canelón, J; Perazzo, Y; Colmenárez, V; López, J A

    2012-12-01

    Pythium insidiosum is a pathogenic oomycete known since 1890 that causes pythiosis in mammals. In this report, seven P. insidiosum isolates were recovered from Venezuelan horses and were characterized. The strains were recovered from biopsied tissues and kunkers collected from granulomatous masses located on the hind limb and from a nodular lesion in the left upper eyelid, which decrease the ability of the horses to be used for working purposes. The methods used to identify P. insidiosum isolates were based on the production of sporangia and zoospores, histopathology and PCR assay. To further characterize these strains, portions of the 18S rRNA genes of the seven isolates were sequenced. The sequences showed high homology to previously described P. insidiosum DNA sequences available in GenBank. Similar studies based on the morphological, histological and molecular data identified the etiological agent in samples of granulomatous lesions in these equines as P. insidiosum. In America, the infection has been diagnosed more frequently in equines of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and the United States of America.

  15. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Daiki; YAMASAKI, Atsushi; MATSUZAKI, Shouta; SUNAGA, Takafumi; FUJIKI, Makoto; TOKUNAGA, Satoshi; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue. PMID:27330399

  16. [Equine exudative canker: an (auto-)immune disease?].

    PubMed

    Jongbloets, A M C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Meeus, P J H M; Back, W

    2005-02-15

    Equine canker is a chronic, hyperplastic, exudative pododermatitis affecting one or more feet. Although many causes and treatments have been suggested, the cause of the disease is still unknown and most probably multifactorial. Local treatments include radical surgical debridement of the diseased hoof tissue and application of caustic substances, antibiotics, and pressure bandaging. Nevertheless, the number of recurrences is high (45%). This article presents a 3-year-old New Forest pony-cross mare in which all horny structures (frogs, coronets, spurs, chestnuts) of all feet were affected. Bacteriological and fungal cultures of the frogs were found negative for the pathogens tested. Papilloma virus was not found. Clinical findings raised the hypothesis that the non-specific hyperplastic inflammation of these horn-like structures might have been caused by an (auto-)immune reaction. On the basis of the clinical findings, the pony was treated with surgical debridement of the frogs of a diagonal pair of feet and oral administration of prednisolone (1 mg/kg sid). The frogs, coronets, spurs, and chestnuts of all four feet healed completely within 8 weeks, thus making an (auto-)immune reaction more likely. In conclusion, this case report raised the hypothesis that an aspecific, hyperplastic inflammation of all four feet ('equine canker') and other horny structures may be caused by an (auto-)immune reaction, and that corticosteroids (prednisolone 1 mg/kg sid per os) are effective as treatment.

  17. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of a second equine rotavirus serotype.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Y; Wyatt, R G; Greenberg, H B; Kalica, A R; Flores, J; Kapikian, A Z

    1983-01-01

    A rotavirus designated strain H-2 was isolated in primary African green monkey kidney cells from a foal with diarrhea. This cell culture-adapted strain was found to be similar, if not identical, to simian rotavirus (strains MMU18006 and SA-11) and canine rotavirus (strain CU-1) and, in addition, demonstrated a one-way antigenic relationship with five human rotavirus strains (P, B, no. 14, no. 15, and YO) of the third human rotavirus serotype by the plaque reduction neutralization test. This is the fifth example of an animal rotavirus which shares serotypic specificity with a human rotavirus. The H-2 strain is distinct from the H-1 strain (Y. Hoshino et al., J. Clin. Microbiol., in press) of equine rotavirus not only in serotypic specificity by neutralization but also in subgroup specificity, hemagglutinating activity, and RNA electrophoretic migration pattern, thus establishing the existence of a second equine rotavirus serotype. This H-2 isolate is also distinct by neutralization from three other human rotavirus serotypes, 1 (Wa), 2 (DS-1), and 4 (St. Thomas no. 4), as well as bovine (NCDV), and porcine (OSU) rotaviruses. Images PMID:6309657

  18. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid-The Clever Caper.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Carey, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2017-09-29

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that is vectored by mosquitos and cycled in rodents. It can cause disease in equines and humans characterized by a febrile illness that may progress into encephalitis. Like the capsid protein of other viruses, VEEV capsid is an abundant structural protein that binds to the viral RNA and interacts with the membrane-bound glycoproteins. It also has protease activity, allowing cleavage of itself from the growing structural polypeptide during translation. However, VEEV capsid protein has additional nonstructural roles within the host cell functioning as the primary virulence factor for VEEV. VEEV capsid inhibits host transcription and blocks nuclear import in mammalian cells, at least partially due to its complexing with the host CRM1 and importin α/β1 nuclear transport proteins. VEEV capsid also shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is susceptible to inhibitors of nuclear trafficking, making it a promising antiviral target. Herein, the role of VEEV capsid in viral replication and pathogenesis will be discussed including a comparison to proteins of other alphaviruses.

  19. Structures of bovine, equine and leporine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Bujacz, Anna

    2012-10-01

    Serum albumin first appeared in early vertebrates and is present in the plasma of all mammals. Its canonical structure supported by a conserved set of disulfide bridges is maintained in all mammalian serum albumins and any changes in sequence are highly correlated with evolution of the species. Previous structural investigations of mammalian serum albumins have only concentrated on human serum albumin (HSA), most likely as a consequence of crystallization and diffraction difficulties. Here, the crystal structures of serum albumins isolated from bovine, equine and leporine blood plasma are reported. The structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined at 2.47 Å resolution, two crystal structures of equine serum albumin (ESA) were determined at resolutions of 2.32 and 2.04 Å, and that of leporine serum albumin (LSA) was determined at 2.27 Å resolution. These structures were compared in detail with the structure of HSA. The ligand-binding pockets in BSA, ESA and LSA revealed different amino-acid compositions and conformations in comparison to HSA in some cases; however, much more significant differences were observed on the surface of the molecules. BSA, which is one of the most extensively utilized proteins in laboratory practice and is used as an HSA substitute in many experiments, exhibits only 75.8% identity compared with HSA. The higher resolution crystal structure of ESA highlights the binding properties of this protein because it includes several bound compounds from the crystallization solution that provide additional structural information about potential ligand-binding pockets.

  20. Molecular detection of equine trypanosomes in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Salim, Bashir; Bakheit, Mohammed Ahmed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-03-01

    Equine trypanosomosis (ET) is a protozoan disease affecting equines in many parts of the world. We examined 509 samples collected from geographically distinct regions in eastern, central and western Sudan to estimate the endemicity of ET using the generic ITS1-PCR diagnostic methods. Results revealed that horses and donkeys were infected by Trypanosoma brucei subgroup, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma congolense. The prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. was higher in horses (12.7%, n=393) than in donkeys (3.4%, n=116). The highest prevalence was observed in South Darfur State (19.3%, n=202), followed by Kassala State (15.1%, n=86), Gadaref State (3.7%, n=82), and Khartoum State (2.6%, n=76). No trypanosomes were detected in the 63 samples collected from North Kurdofan State. We report for the first time the presence of T. simiae and T. congolense in horses in the Sudan. This study should alert veterinary services, authorized bodies to take action toward ET by undertaking countrywide epidemiological studies of the disease and adopting control strategies.

  1. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine in equine liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A.; Portier, C. J.; Thormann, W.; Theurillat, R.; Mevissen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has to be considered for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of ketamine. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine was investigated in equine microsomes in vitro. Concentration curves were constructed over time, and enzyme activity was determined for different substrate concentrations using equine liver and lung microsomes. The concentrations of R/S-ketamine and R/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. A two-phase model based on Hill kinetics was used to analyze the biotransformation of R/S-ketamine into R/S-norketamine and, in a second step, into R/S-downstream metabolites. In liver and lung microsomes, levels of R-ketamine exceeded those of S-ketamine at all time points and S-norketamine exceeded R-norketamine at time points below the maximum concentration. In liver and lung microsomes, significant differences in the enzyme velocity (Vmax) were observed between Sand R-norketamine formation and between Vmax of S-norketamine formation when S-ketamine was compared to S-ketamine of the racemate. Our investigations in microsomal reactions in vitro suggest that stereoselective ketamine biotransformation in horses occurs in the liver and the lung with a slower elimination of S-ketamine in the presence of R-ketamine. Scaling of the in vitro parameters to liver and lung organ clearances provided an excellent fit with previously published in vivo data and confirmed a lung first-pass effect. PMID:19000264

  2. Challenges in detecting substances for equine anti-doping.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, A G; Kioukia-Fougia, N; Kiousi, P; Kioussi, M; Tsivou, M

    2017-01-14

    The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well known in racing and other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which are generally based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques. Of major concern in horseracing is the absence of a single organization regulating the anti-doping framework; instead of this, individual racing authorities provide rules and regulations often resulting in variations in the applied doping control programmes of different countries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature (approximately from 2012 to mid-2016) to highlight the numerous and diverse challenges faced in doping control of racing and equestrian sports, including the detection of designer drugs (anabolic steroids or stimulants) and of other emerging prohibited substances, such as peptides and noble gases in horse urine and plasma. Moreover, the application of 'omics' techniques (especially of metabolomics) deserves attention for establishing possible fingerprints of drug abuse as well as the evolution of instrumental analysis resulting a powerful ally in the fight against doping in equine sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.

  4. Drug contamination of the equine racetrack environment: a preliminary examination.

    PubMed

    Barker, S A

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical technology now make it feasible to detect and confirm exceptionally low concentrations (pg to fg/mL) of drugs and their metabolites in equine biological fluids. These new capabilities complicate the regulatory interpretation of drug positives and bring into question the fair application of medication rules. Such approaches and policies are further complicated by the possibility that drug positives may arise from contamination of the equine environment on the backstretch of the race track. This manuscript provides data demonstrating that the general environment of the backstretch in which horses live is contaminated with therapeutic drugs and drugs of human origin. The major contaminants are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, phenylbutazone and naproxen, present in the soil in stalls, on stall surfaces, in the dust that circulates and in the lagoon waters that accumulate on the backstretch. The presence of caffeine and cotinine suggest other possible vectors for contamination by humans. Concentrations of these compounds as well as their frequency of occurrence are provided.

  5. Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M

    2015-09-01

    Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  7. Chaetomiaceae Fungi, Novel Pathogens of Equine Neurotropic Phaeohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Quinci; Meason-Smith, Courtney; Dieterly, Alexandra; Gomez, Gabriel; Porter, Brian F; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-09-01

    Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques. Seven cases were evaluated by histopathology. Panfungal PCR targeting the ribosomal RNA large subunit coding region and the noncoding internal transcribed spacer-2 region was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of affected brain, and the resulting sequences were queried against published fungal genomes. Affected animals ranged from 8 to 22 years of age and presented with neurologic signs. Macroscopic lesions within affected brains included multifocal hemorrhage, focal swelling of the thalamus with red and yellow discoloration, and focal cerebral malacia. Major histologic findings included multifocal discrete foci of necrosis, neutrophilic to granulomatous inflammation, vasculitis, and intralesional fungal hyphae variably affecting the cerebrum, thalamus, and brainstem. DNA sequences in 4 cases showed > 98% homology with species within the Chaetomiaceae family, including Acrophialophora fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Chaetomium strumarium. Histomorphologically, Chaetomiaceae fungi were 7 to 10 μm wide, septate, parallel walled, and nonpigmented, with dichotomous branching in affected horses. This case series is the first report of equine mycotic encephalitis caused by members of the Chaetomiaceae family, previously reported as rare emerging pathogens in humans.

  8. Stemness Signature of Equine Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Morteza; Parham, Abbas; Dehghani, Hesam; Mehrjerdi, Hossein Kazemi

    2017-01-01

    Background Application of competent cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in equine athletes is increasingly needed. Moreover, similarities of horse and human in size, load and types of joint injuries, make horse as a good model for MSCs therapy studies. This study was designed to isolate and characterize stemness signature of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Methods BM of three mares was aspirated and the mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated using density gradient. The primary MNCs were cultured and analyzed after tree passages (P3) for growth characteristics, differentiation potentials, and the expression of genes including CD29, CD34, CD44, CD90, CD105, MHC-I, MHC-II and pluripotency related genes (Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2, SSEA-1, -3, -4) using RT-PCR or immunocytochemistry techniques. Results The isolated cells in P3 were adherent and fibroblast-like in shape with doubling times of 78.15 h. Their clonogenic capacity was 8.67±4% and they were able to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Cells showed expression of CD29, CD44, CD90, MHC-I and Sox-2 while no expression for CD34, MHC-II, CD105, and pluripotency stemness markers was detected. Conclusions In conclusion, data showed that isolated cells have the basic and minimal criteria for MSCs, however, expressing only one pluripotency gene (sox-2). PMID:28222255

  9. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  10. The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, R. Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  11. Histopathological features of equine superficial, nonhealing, corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Julie E; Clode, Alison B; Borst, Luke B; Gilger, Brian C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate corneal changes associated with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers in horses via common histopathological stains. Retrospective study. Twenty-four horses diagnosed with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulceration. The medical records of horses evaluated at North Carolina State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital (NCSU-VTH) from 2005 to 2011, diagnosed with a chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcer and treated with superficial keratectomy (SK) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were superficial corneal ulceration, no cellular infiltration via slit-lamp biomicroscopy, no microorganisms evident on corneal cytology, and acquisition of samples for aerobic bacterial and common fungal cultures. Corneal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically for the presence or absence of a nonadherent epithelial 'lip', epithelial dysmaturity, intraepithelial inflammatory cells, an acellular hyaline zone in the anterior stroma, and stromal inflammatory cells, fibrosis and vascularization. In the majority of analyzed samples, epithelial cells adjacent to the ulcerated site showed nonadherence to the basement membrane and dysmaturity. Intraepithelial inflammatory cell infiltration was uncommon. Histopathological features of an anterior stromal hyaline zone, intrastromal inflammation, fibrosis and vascularization were variably present. The most consistent histopathological characteristics of equine chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers include epithelial nonadherence, epithelial dysmaturity and mild to moderate stromal inflammation; however, one set of histopathological characteristics does not definitively define this syndrome in horses. Additionally, the anterior stromal acellular hyaline zone commonly cited in canine spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCED) is not a consistent finding in equine corneas. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Design complexity and fracture control in the equine hoof wall.

    PubMed

    Kasapi, M A; Gosline, J M

    1997-06-01

    Morphological and mechanical studies were conducted on samples of equine hoof wall to help elucidate the relationship between form and function of this complex, hierarchically organized structure. Morphological findings indicated a dependence of tubule size, shape and helical alignment of intermediate filaments (IFs) within the lamellae on the position through the wall thickness. The plane of the intertubular IFs changed from perpendicular to the tubule axis in the inner wall to almost parallel to the tubule axis in the outer wall. Morphological data predicted the existence of three crack diversion mechanisms which might prevent cracks from reaching the sensitive, living tissues of the hoof: a mid-wall diversion mechanism of intertubular material to inhibit inward and upward crack propagation, and inner- and outer-wall diversion mechanisms that prevent inward crack propagation. Tensile and compact tension fracture tests were conducted on samples of fully hydrated equine hoof wall. Longitudinal stiffness decreased from 0.56 to 0.30 GPa proceeding inwardly, whereas ultimate (maximum) properties were constant. Fracture toughness parameters indicated that no compromise results from the declining stiffness, with J-integral values ranging from 5.5 to 7.8 kJ m-2 through the wall thickness; however, highest toughness was found in specimens with cracks initiated tangential to the wall surface (10.7 kJ m-2). Fracture paths agreed with morphological predictions and further suggested that the wall has evolved into a structure capable of both resisting and redirecting cracks initiated in numerous orientations.

  13. Equine schlafen 11 restricts the production of equine infectious anemia virus via a codon usage-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Sun, Liu-Ke; Zhu, Dan-Tong; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Human schlafen11 is a novel restriction factor for HIV-1 based on bias regarding relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Here, we report the cloning of equine schlafen11 (eSLFN11) and the characteristics of its role in restricting the production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus similar to HIV-1. Overexpression of eSLFN11 inhibited EIAV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous eSLFN11 by siRNA enhanced the release of EIAV from its principal target cell. Notably, although eSLFN11 significantly suppressed expression of viral Gag protein and EIAV release into the culture medium, the levels of intracellular viral early gene proteins Tat and Rev and viral genomic RNA were unaffected. Coincidently, similar altered patterns of codon usage bias were observed for both the early and late genes of EIAV. Therefore, our data suggest that eSLFN11 restricts EIAV production by impairing viral mRNA translation via a mechanism that is similar to that employed by hSLFN11 for HIV-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Equine herpesvirus-1 infection disrupts interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) signaling pathways in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. EHV-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and EHM in horses. Like other herpesviruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion including suppression of type-I interferon (IFN) production in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Previously we have shown that the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1 inhibits type-I IFN production in EECs and this is mediated by a viral late gene product. But the mechanism of inhibition was not known. Here we show that T953 strain infection of EECs induced degradation of endogenous IRF-3 protein. This in turn interfered with the activation of IRF-3 signaling pathways. EHV-1 infection caused the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that inhibition of type-I IFN production is probably due to interference in IRF-3 and not NF-κB signal transduction.

  15. Sensitivity of the VecTest antigen assay for eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Nasci, Roger S; Gottfried, Kristy L; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Ryan, Jeffrey R; Emmerich, Eva; Davé, Kirti

    2003-12-01

    VecTest assays for detecting eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) antigen in mosquito pools were evaluated to determine their sensitivity and specificity by using a range of EEE, WEE, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE), and West Nile virus (WN) dilutions as well as individual and pooled mosquitoes containing EEE or WEE. The EEE test produced reliable positive results with samples containing > or = 5.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of EEE/ml, and the WEE test produced reliable positive results with samples containing > or = 4.7 log10 PFU WEE/ml. Both assays detected the respective viral antigens in single virus-positive mosquitoes and in pools containing a single positive mosquito and 49 negative specimens. The SLE and WN assays also contained on the dipsticks accurately detected their respective viruses. No evidence was found of cross reaction or false positives in any of the tests. The VecTest assays were less sensitive than the EEE- and WEE-specific TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Vero cell plaque assay, but appear to be useful for detecting arboviruses in mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance programs.

  16. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Thomas G.; Berg, Lise C.; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread experimental and empirical commercial use. A better understanding of equine stem cell biology and concepts is needed in order to develop and evaluate rational clinical applications in the horse. Controlled, well-designed studies of the basic biologic characteristics and properties of these cells are needed to move this new equine research field forward. Stem cell research in the horse has exciting equine specific and comparative perspectives that will most likely benefit the health of horses and, potentially, humans. PMID:19119371

  17. Eating disorders and equine therapy: a nurse's perspective on connecting through the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Dezutti, Joyce E

    2013-09-01

    Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of hypericin for photodynamic therapy of equine sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Martens, A; de Moor, A; Waelkens, E; Merlevede, W; De Witte, P

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the photodynamic compound, hypericin, in the treatment of equine sarcoids was evaluated. The in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using three equine cell lines and the observed phototoxic effect was comparable to that on different highly sensitive human cell lines and significantly influenced by the energy density used although independent of the cell type. The in vivo antitumoural action of photodynamic therapy using hypericin was evaluated on three equine sarcoids in a donkey. Four intratumoural injections were given and the tumours were illuminated daily during 25 days. An 81% reduction in tumour volume was obtained at the end of therapy and 2 months later, a 90% reduction was observed. Further experimental work should be performed, but these results suggest that photodynamic therapy using hypericin has a potential for the non-invasive treatment of equine sarcoids.

  19. A high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map of equine chromosome 4q12-q22.

    PubMed

    Dierks, C; Mömke, S; Drögemüller, C; Leeb, T; Chowdhary, B P; Distl, O

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we present a comprehensive 5000-rad radiation hybrid map of a 40-cM region on equine chromosome 4 (ECA4) that contains quantitative trait loci for equine osteochondrosis. We mapped 29 gene-associated sequence tagged site markers using primers designed from equine expressed sequence tags or BAC clones in the ECA4q12-q22 region. Three blocks of conserved synteny, showing two chromosomal breakpoints, were identified in the segment of ECA4q12-q22. Markers from other segments of HSA7q mapped to ECA13p and ECA4p, and a region of HSA7p was homologous to ECA13p. Therefore, we have improved the resolution of the human-equine comparative map, which allows the identification of candidate genes underlying traits of interest.

  20. [Equine influenza in Chile (1963-1992): a possible human case].

    PubMed

    Berríos, Patricio

    2005-03-01

    In Chile equine influenza has been strongly related to continental epizootics. First outbreak was described in 1963; main outbreaks were reported in 1977, 1985 and 1992. Equine influenza virus was isolated in three opportunities: H7N7 (A/equi/1/Santiago, Chile/1977); H3N8 (A/equi/2/Santiago, Chile/1985) and H3N8 (A/equi/2/Quillota, Chile/1992). The most serious outbreak was caused by strain H7N7 in 1977. Since 1992 equine influenza has not been reported in our country. In 1973 was described a case of influenza and seroconversion in a human being related with horses suffering a respiratory distress diagnosed as equine influenza; unfortunately the isolated virus was not typed.

  1. Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009.

    PubMed

    de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Iamamoto, Keila; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Achkar, Samira Maria; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Ono, Ekaterina Durymanova; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Carnieli, Pedro; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Macedo, Carla Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.

  2. Assessment of antigenic difference of equine influenza virus strains by challenge study in horses.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio; Gildea, Sarah; Cullinane, Ann

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported that horse antiserum against the Japanese equine influenza vaccine virus, A/equine/La Plata/1993 (LP93) exhibited reduced cross-neutralization against some Florida sublineage Clade (Fc) 2 viruses, for example, A/equine/Carlow/2011 (CL11). As a result, Japanese vaccine manufacturers will replace LP93 with A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10, Fc2). To assess the benefit of updating the vaccine, five horses vaccinated with inactivated Y10 vaccine and five vaccinated with inactivated LP93 were challenged by exposure to a nebulized aerosol of CL11. The durations of pyrexia (≥38.5°C) and other adverse clinical symptoms experienced by the Y10 group were significantly shorter than those of the LP93 group. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  5. Efficacy of fibrinogen/thrombin-coated equine collagen patch in controlling lymphatic leaks.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Padalino, Massimo A; Barzon, Elisa; Stellin, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    We report the use of fibrinogen/thrombin-coated equine collagen patch (Tachosil(®) ) as a sealant agent in six patients who underwent heart surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) and developed an intraoperative lymphatic leakage detected at the time of surgery. The use of fibrinogen/thrombin-coated equine collagen patch proved to be safe and effective in preventing the development of postoperative chylothorax.

  6. The secretory mechanisms in equine platelets are independent of cytoskeletal polymerization and occur through membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunso, L; Segura, D; Monreal, L; Escolar, G; White, J G; Diaz-Ricart, M

    2010-01-01

    Studies in animal models are useful to understand the basic mechanisms involved in hemostasis and the functional differences among species. Ultrastructural observations led us to predict differences in the activation and secretion mechanisms between equine and human platelets. The potential mechanisms involved have been comparatively explored in the present study. Equine and human platelets were activated with thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and collagen (20 µg/ml), for 90 seconds, and samples processed to evaluate: i) ultrastructural changes, by electron microscopy, ii) actin polymerization and cytoskeletal assembly, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and iii) specific molecules involved in activation and secretion, by western blot. In activated human platelets, centralization of granules, cytoskeletal assembly and fusion of granules with the open canalicular system were observed. In activated equine platelets, granules fused together forming an organelle chain that fused with the surface membrane and released its content directly outside the platelets. Human platelets responded to activation with actin polymerization and the assembly of other contractile proteins to the cytoskeleton. These events were almost undetectable in equine platelets. When exploring the involvement of the synaptosomal-associated protein-23 (SNAP-23), a known regulator of secretory granule/plasma membrane fusion events, it was present in both human and equine platelets. SNAP-23 was shown to be more activated in equine platelets than human platelets in response to activation, especially with collagen. Thus, there are significant differences in the secretion mechanisms between human and equine platelets. While in human platelets, activation and secretion of granules depend on mechanisms of internal contraction and membrane fusion, in equine platelets the fusion mechanisms seem to be predominant.

  7. In search for cross-reactivity to immunophenotype equine mesenchymal stromal cells by multicolor flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    De Schauwer, Catharina; Piepers, Sofie; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Demeyere, Kristel; Hoogewijs, Maarten K; Govaere, Jan L J; Braeckmans, Kevin; Van Soom, Ann; Meyer, Evelyne

    2012-04-01

    During recent years, cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are reported in equine veterinary medicine with increasing frequency. In most cases, the isolation and in vitro differentiation of equine MSC are described, but their proper immunophenotypic characterization is rarely performed. The lack of a single marker specific for MSC and the limited availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for equine MSC in particular, strongly hamper this research. In this study, 30 commercial mAbs were screened with flow cytometry for recognizing equine epitopes using the appropriate positive controls to confirm their specificity. Cross-reactivity was found and confirmed by confocal microscopy for CD45, CD73, CD79α, CD90, CD105, MHC-II, a monocyte marker, and two clones tested for CD29 and CD44. Unfortunately, none of the evaluated CD34 clones recognized the equine epitopes on positive control endothelial cells. Subsequently, umbilical cord blood-derived undifferentiated equine MSC of the fourth passage of six horses were characterized using multicolor flow cytometry based on the selected nine-marker panel of both cell surface antigens and intracytoplasmatic proteins. In addition, appropriate positive and negative controls were included, and the viable single cell population was analyzed by excluding dead cells using 7-aminoactinomycin D. Isolated equine MSC of the fourth passage were found to be CD29, CD44, CD90 positive and CD45, CD79α, MHC-II, and a monocyte marker negative. A variable expression was found for CD73 and CD105. Successful differentiation towards the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineage was used as additional validation. We suggest that this selected nine-marker panel can be used for the adequate immunophenotyping of equine MSC. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    infected animals and humans [1-3]. The related alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) also...viruses [4] and experimental studies in animals have demonstrated that all three alphaviruses are infectious by the aerosol route and are considered a...associ- ated with EEEV infection are the most severe of any alphavirus , with an estimated mortality rate in humans of 30% for the North American strains

  9. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  10. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  11. Equine infectious anemia prevalence in feral donkeys from Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernanda G; Cook, R Frank; Naves, João H F; Oliveira, Cairo H S; Diniz, Rejane S; Freitas, Francisco J C; Lima, Joseney M; Sakamoto, Sidnei M; Leite, Rômulo C; Issel, Charles J; Reis, Jenner K P

    2017-05-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although the virus infects all members of the Equidae the vast majority of studies have been conducted in horses (Equus caballus) with comparatively little information available for other equid species. Brazil has one of the most abundant donkey (E. asinus) populations of any nation although the economic importance of these animals is declining as transportation becomes increasingly mechanized. As a result, considerable numbers of donkeys especially in the Northeast of the country have been released and allowed pursue an almost feral existence. Consequently, this large and growing population constitutes a significant risk as a reservoir for the maintenance and transmission of important equine infectious diseases such as glanders and equine arteritis virus in addition to EIAV. This study examines the prevalence of EIA in a semi-wild donkey population from Mossoró city, in Northeast Brazil, using AGID followed by cELISA, rgp90 ELISA and immunoblot (IB). Serum samples were collected from 367 donkeys without obvious EIA clinical signs. Subsequent testing revealed seropositive rates of 1.6% (6/367) in officially approved AGID tests, 3.3% (12/367) in cELISA and 14.4% (53/367) in the rgp90 ELISA. However, 88.7% (47/53) of the rgp90 ELISA positive samples were almost certainly false reactions because they failed to react with two or more antigens in IB. Consequently, the rpg90 ELISA has a similar sensitivity to AGID with donkey serum samples. Such high false positive rates have not been observed previously with serum samples from horses. Another highly significant finding is that 56.9% (33/58) of the donkey serum samples tested in IB had reactivity to EIAV p26 only. Although this could result from recent infection with the virus, it has been found that in some equids p26 only reactivity persists for extensive periods of time suggesting exposure to antigens

  12. Prediction of equine risk of West Nile virus infection based on dead bird surveillance.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rhonda Sue; Foppa, Ivo M

    2006-01-01

    Since the introduction of West Nile Virus (WNV) to the United States in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary WNV infection has been an issue of debate. We utilized South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine WNV infection on a county level. We adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association between WNV-positive dead bird counts and mammalian WNV risk. We found a strong positive association between avian risk of WNV death and subsequent equine mortality due to WNV in South Carolina even after adjusting for human population density. Sensitivity of dead bird surveillance as a predictor of future equine WNV risk was far superior to mosquito surveillance (95% vs. 9.5%, respectively). A Poisson regression model of the equine WNV rate as a function of WNV-positive dead bird rate, adjusting for population density and taking into account effect modification by population density shows a good fit with the data. Unlike most previous studies, we control for potential confounding of the dead, WNVpositive bird-equine WNV infection association by human population density. Yet, the positive association between dead bird surveillance and equine WNV risk remains strong and statistically significant, indicating that dead bird surveillance remains a valuable tool of WNV surveillance.

  13. Frequency of equine laminitis: a systematic review with quality appraisal of published evidence.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Claire E; Collins, Simon N; Verheyen, Kristien L P; Richard Newton, J

    2011-09-01

    Equine laminitis is a highly debilitating disease of the foot. Despite its perceived importance, epidemiological characteristics are poorly understood and the true frequency of the disease remains unclear. The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess previous research to identify publications which provide the best evidence of the frequency of naturally-occurring equine laminitis. A systematic review of English language publications was conducted using MEDLINE (1950-2010), CAB Direct (1910-2010) and IVIS (1997-2010). Additional publications were included by searching bibliographies. Search terms included laminitis, equine, frequency, prevalence and incidence. Studies that allowed frequency estimations to be made for naturally-occurring equine laminitis were included. Information was extracted using predefined data fields, including 13 study quality indicators. Sixty-nine publications were appraised. Ten were considered to provide the most reliable information, estimating the frequency of equine laminitis ranging from 1.5% to 34%. Previous publications estimating laminitis frequency were generally poor quality. Laminitis frequency varied across publications however the publications included in this review focussed on many of the different underlying laminitis aetiologies and comparison of the frequencies between groups would be inappropriate. High-quality evidence-based studies are needed to estimate the true disease frequency in different equine populations.

  14. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions.

  15. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of equine influenza virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Liping; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Gang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Guibin; Liu, Cuiyun; Xiang, Wenhua

    2011-07-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (EIV), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the A/equine/Xingjiang/2007 (H3N8) nucleoprotein (NP). Immunoglobulin G antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using EIV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4), equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), resulting in only EIV specimens yielding a strong signal. A minimal concentration of 50 ng/ml EIV protein was detected in Nonidet P40-treated virus preparations. Virus from the nasal swabs of equines infected experimentally were detected from days 3 to 7 post-infection using this AC-ELISA, with results confirmed by virus isolation and multi reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Both H3N8 and H7N7 EIV subtypes were AC-ELISA positive, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of all EIV subtypes.

  16. Attenuation of equine influenza viruses through truncations of the NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Michelle; Zamarin, Dmitriy; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Cullinane, Ann; Chambers, Thomas; Palese, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Equine influenza is a common disease of the horse, causing significant morbidity worldwide. Here we describe the establishment of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system for equine influenza virus. Utilizing this system, we generated three mutant viruses encoding carboxy-terminally truncated NS1 proteins. We have previously shown that a recombinant human influenza virus lacking the NS1 gene (delNS1) could only replicate in interferon (IFN)-incompetent systems, suggesting that the NS1 protein is responsible for IFN antagonist activity. Contrary to previous findings with human influenza virus, we found that in the case of equine influenza virus, the length of the NS1 protein did not correlate with the level of attenuation of that virus. With equine influenza virus, the mutant virus with the shortest NS1 protein turned out to be the least attenuated. We speculate that the basis for attenuation of the equine NS1 mutant viruses generated is related to their level of NS1 protein expression. Our findings show that the recombinant mutant viruses are impaired in their ability to inhibit IFN production in vitro and they do not replicate as efficiently as the parental recombinant strain in embryonated hen eggs, in MDCK cells, or in vivo in a mouse model. Therefore, these attenuated mutant NS1 viruses may have potential as candidates for a live equine influenza vaccine.

  17. Fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of equine skin disease and the epidemiology of equine skin cytology submissions in a western Canadian diagnostic laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zachar, Erin K.; Burgess, Hilary J.; Wobeser, Bruce K.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is commonly used to diagnose skin disease in companion animals, but its use in horses appears to be infrequent. Equine veterinarians in western Canada were surveyed to determine their opinions about FNA and 15 years of diagnostic submissions were used to compare the perceived to actual value of FNA in the diagnosis of skin disease in horses. Practitioners viewed FNA as quick, easy, economical, and minimally invasive. However, most veterinarians rarely chose to use FNA due to a perception that sample quality and diagnostic yield were poor and there was a narrow range of diseases the technique could diagnose. Analysis of the FNA cytology samples from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory showed a wide variety of equine skin disease conditions, but the frequency of non-diagnostic results was significantly higher in equine submissions compared to those from dogs and cats. PMID:27247463

  18. Retrospective Analysis of the Equine Influenza Virus A/Equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) Isolated in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Sayatov, Marat; Strochkov, Vitaliy; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Sultankulova, Kulaysan

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan) in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe. The absence of antibodies to this subtype EI virus (EIV) in recent research confirms its disappearance as of the 1990s when the antibodies were last found in unvaccinated horses. PMID:27517962

  19. Detection of West Nile Virus and other common equine viruses in three locations from the Leeward Islands, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Jeon, Isaac; Loftis, Amanda; Leslie, Teresa; Marchi, Silvia; Sithole, Fortune; Beck, Cecile; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Zientara, Stephan; Hans, Aymeric; Issel, Charles J

    2017-10-01

    Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study. We used 180 equine serum samples, 140 from horses and 40 from donkeys in St. Kitts, Nevis, and Sint Eustatius, collected between 2006 and 2015 that were tested with ELISA kits and virus neutralization (for WNV and EVA). Combining ELISA with virus neutralization testing, 25 (13.8%) equine sera were WNV positive (a mixture of indigenous and imported equines) and 3 sera (1.6%) showed doubtful results. For EHV-1, 41 equines (23.7%), mean age 6.7 years, were seropositive. For EHV-4, 138 equines were found seropositive (82.8%), mean age 6.3 years. For EI, 49 equines (27.2%), mean age 7.5 years, were seropositive on ELISA, some previously vaccinated horses. No antibodies against EAV were found on virus neutralization testing, although one animal (0.6%), was EAV positive on ELISA. All samples were EIAV negative. The seroprevalence for EHV-1 and EHV-4 is similar to other parts of the world. For the first time in the study location serologic evidence of antibodies against WNV and EI is reported. This was found in both indigenous and imported animals, highlighting the need for developing proper surveillance plans based on complementary methods of virus detection. Further studies will be needed to define the prevalence, rates of transmission, characterize local virus strains, and study their impact on these populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of equine solar penetration wounds.

    PubMed

    del Junco, Carolina I Urraca; Mair, Tim S; Powell, Sarah E; Milner, Peter I; Font, Alex F; Schwarz, Tobias; Weaver, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features, signalment, clinical history and outcome of 55 horses with a penetrating sole injury were evaluated. Our aim was to describe MR imaging findings within the hoof capsule, assess the utility of the technique and give recommendations for the optimal MR imaging protocol to evaluate such injuries. Data from five equine hospitals were analyzed retrospectively. The tract was more likely to be visualized in animals scanned within the first week postinjury. There was no significant predisposition based on breed, age, or gender. T2*W transverse sequences were the most useful for assessment of solar penetrations due to their orientation perpendicular to the deep digital flexor tendon, the reduced scanning time, and the T2* capability of enhancing magnetic susceptibility caused by hemorrhage.

  2. Advances in the treatment of diseased equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, Henry

    2013-08-01

    The last decade has seen a number of studies that have illuminated our knowledge of hypsodont dental disease and re-examined some of the traditionally performed practices. In addition there has been a major interest in routine preventative dentistry and non-traumatic treatments. These have highlighted some potential risks of the use of modern tools when applied to traditional techniques. This has also led to a reflective review of equine dentistry with the emphasis on attempting to preserve and salvage dental and periodontal tissues, with minimal trauma. In addition, precise imaging and instrumentation have facilitated minimally invasive techniques in conscious sedated horses, and there is renewed interest in comparative dentistry leading to trials with restorative techniques that are practiced in other species.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Florida

    PubMed Central

    White, Gregory S.; Pickett, Brett E.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Johnson, Amelia G.; Ottendorfer, Christy; Stark, Lillian M.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) of any state in the United States and is the only state with year-round transmission of EEEV. To further understand the viral population dynamics in Florida, the genome sequence of six EEEV isolates from central Florida were determined. These data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the EEEV genome from viruses isolated in Florida. The sequence of these polymorphic regions was then determined for 18 additional Florida isolates collected in four geographically distinct regions over a 20-year period. Phylogenetic analyses of these data suggested a rough temporal association of the Florida isolates, but no clustering by region or by source of the isolate. Some clustering of northeastern isolates with Florida isolates was seen, providing support for the hypothesis that Florida serves as a reservoir for the periodic introduction of EEEV into the northeastern United States. PMID:21540379

  4. Competency of Reptiles and Amphibians for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    White, Gregory; Ottendorfer, Christy; Graham, Sean; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is endemic throughout most of the eastern United States. Although it is transmitted year round in Florida, transmission elsewhere is seasonal. The mechanism that enables EEEV to overwinter in seasonal foci remains obscure. In previous field studies, early season EEEV activity was detected in mosquito species that feed primarily upon ectothermic hosts, suggesting that reptiles and amphibians might represent overwintering reservoir hosts for EEEV. To determine if this might be possible, two commonly fed upon amphibian and reptile species were evaluated as hosts for the North American subtype I strain of EEEV. Neither amphibian species was a competent host. However, circulating viremias were detected in both reptile species examined. Hibernating infected garter snakes remained viremic after exiting hibernation. These data suggest that snakes may represent an overwintering host for North American EEEV. PMID:21896798

  5. Four cases of equine motor neuron disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Naoki; IMAMURA, Yui; SEKIYA, Akio; ITOH, Megumi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses. Although lack of vitamin E is speculated to be a contributory factor for development of EMND, no significant improvement was observed following administration of vitamin E. PMID:27703407

  6. Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; de Pue, Bonnie; Kaiser, Lana

    2011-01-01

    We compared anteroposterior and mediolateral range of motion and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) on the horse's back between riders without disabilities and riders with cerebral palsy. An electronic pressure mat was used to track COP movements beneath the saddle in 4 riders without disabilities and 4 riders with cerebral palsy. Comparisons between rider groups were made using the Mann-Whitney test (p < .05). The two rider groups differed significantly in anteroposterior range of COP motion, mediolateral range of COP motion, and mediolateral COP velocity. Anteroposterior COP velocity did not differ between groups. The results suggest that measurements of COP range of motion and velocity are potentially useful for monitoring changes in balance as an indicator of core stability during equine-assisted activities.

  7. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Saville, W J; Reed, S M; Granstrom, D E; Speer, C A

    2001-02-26

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurological disease of horses in the Americas. The protozoan most commonly associated with EPM is Sarcocystis neurona. The complete life cycle of S. neurona is unknown, including its natural intermediate host that harbors its sarcocyst. Opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris) are its definitive hosts. Horses are considered its aberrant hosts because only schizonts and merozoites (no sarcocysts) are found in horses. EPM-like disease occurs in a variety of mammals including cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, and Southern sea otters. Cats can act as an experimental intermediate host harboring the sarcocyst stage after ingesting sporocysts. This paper reviews information on the history, structure, life cycle, biology, pathogenesis, induction of disease in animals, clinical signs, diagnosis, pathology, epidemiology, and treatment of EPM caused by S. neurona.

  8. Identification and genetic characterization of equine hepaciviruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Lanave, Gianvito; Lorusso, Eleonora; Parisi, Antonio; Cavaliere, Nicola; Patruno, Giovanni; Terregino, Calogero; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2017-08-01

    Viruses similar to human hepatitis C virus, hepaciviruses, have been identified in various animal species. Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is the closest relative of human hepaciviruses. Although detected worldwide, information on EqHV epidemiology, genetic diversity and pathogenicity is still limited. In this study we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of EqHV in Italian equids. The RNA of EqHV was detected in 91/1932 sera (4.7%) whilst it was not detectable in 134 donkey sera screened by a TaqMan-based quantitative assay. Upon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of genomic portions located in the NS5B, 5'UTR and NS3 genes, the Italian EqHV strains segregated into two distinct clades that are also co-circulating globally, without apparent geographic restrictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunodiffusion Studies of Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideo; Ushimi, Chuzo

    1971-01-01

    Antigenicity of purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus was examined by immunodiffusion against sera obtained from horses experimentally infected with EIA virus. The purified virus reacted with the infected horse serum, and virus-specific precipitating antibody was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was found that purified EIA virus reacted against the serum of horses infected with all strains of EIA virus which were antigenically different from one another. From the result, group-specific components of the virus rather than strain-specific ones were considered to be involved in the reaction. Serological reactivity was lost by adding antiserum from the infected horse to the antigen. The precipitating antibody usually appeared in the serum 1 to 2 weeks after the first febrile attack of EIA and remained for a longer period. Some characteristics of the purified antigen and specificity of the reaction for EIA are described. Images PMID:16557982

  10. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    White, Gregory; Ottendorfer, Christy; Graham, Sean; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is endemic throughout most of the eastern United States. Although it is transmitted year round in Florida, transmission elsewhere is seasonal. The mechanism that enables EEEV to overwinter in seasonal foci remains obscure. In previous field studies, early season EEEV activity was detected in mosquito species that feed primarily upon ectothermic hosts, suggesting that reptiles and amphibians might represent overwintering reservoir hosts for EEEV. To determine if this might be possible, two commonly fed upon amphibian and reptile species were evaluated as hosts for the North American subtype I strain of EEEV. Neither amphibian species was a competent host. However, circulating viremias were detected in both reptile species examined. Hibernating infected garter snakes remained viremic after exiting hibernation. These data suggest that snakes may represent an overwintering host for North American EEEV.

  11. [The radiologic image of the normal equine tarsus].

    PubMed

    Dahn, M; Ueltschi, G

    1989-01-01

    Normal radiographs of hocks were analyzed for 270 horses (3 views for each hock). They were mainly from young and sound horses. For such animals, the mean number of abnormalities found was 2 to 4.5 for each picture. The mean dimension of certain tarsal bones was measured; geldings had greater bones than mares. An increase of reactions at the origin of the M. interosseus was seen with the age. It was possible to demonstrate that Medichrome films increase the number of discrete abnormalities to be found; this is of particular value for purchase examinations of young horses. The direction of the central beam (angle) is important in order to get symmetrical pictures; a minimal change in this angle can show or hide discrete abnormalities. A description of the normal radiographic anatomy of the equine hock, and its principal variations, is given.

  12. Experimental infection of wading birds with eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Crans, W J; Caccamise, D F; McNelly, J; Kirk, L J; Mitchell, C J; Calisher, C H

    1995-10-01

    To study the susceptibility of wading birds to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus and to determine their potential as reservoir or amplifying hosts, fledgling glossy ibises (Plegadis falcinellus) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) were captured in New Jersey (USA) and shipped to Colorado (USA) where they were experimentally inoculated with EEE virus. All 16 snowy egrets and 14 (93%) of 15 of the glossy ibises inoculated became viremic with moderate titers, and all survivors developed neutralizing antibody. Six ibises and two egrets died during the first week after inoculation, and EEE virus was isolated from the tissues of three birds. Our experimental results support field evidence about the relative involvement of glossy ibises and snowy egrets in the epizootiology of EEE virus in New Jersey.

  13. Transmission of equine infectious anemia virus by Tabanus fuscicostatus.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J A; Adams, W V; Wilson, B H; Issel, C J; Roth, E E

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical transmission of equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus by Tabanus fuscicostatus was investigated. In 1 of 7 transmission trials, a single horsefly transmitted EIA virus from an acutely infected pony to a susceptible pony. Groups of horseflies isolated for 3, 10, or 30 minutes before refeeding transmitted EIA virus, whereas those isolated for 4 or 24 hours did not. Data from field studies indicate that the home range or flight distance of horseflies may exceed 4 miles. That information together with our observations suggest that segregation of infected horses (usually defined as at least 200 yards from susceptible horses) as a control measure for EIA may not be an adequate safeguard against transmission in areas where horseflies are numerous.

  14. Human Hendra Virus Encephalitis Associated with Equine Outbreak, Australia, 2008

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Brad; Smith, Greg; Slinko, Vicki; Allen, George; Smith, Ina; Moore, Frederick; Taylor, Carmel; Kung, Yu-Hsin; Field, Hume

    2010-01-01

    A recent Hendra virus outbreak at a veterinary clinic in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, involved 5 equine and 2 human infections. In contrast to previous outbreaks, infected horses had predominantly encephalitic, rather than respiratory, signs. After an incubation period of 9–16 days, influenza-like illnesses developed in the 2 persons before progressing to encephalitis; 1 died. Both patients were given ribavirin. Basal serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels were 10–13 mg/L after intravenous administration and 6 mg/L after oral administration (isolate 90% inhibitory concentration 64 mg/L). Both patients were exposed to infected horses, 1 during the late incubation period in a horse. The attack rate for veterinary clinic staff exposed to infected horses was 10%. An isolate from this outbreak showed genetic heterogeneity with isolates from a concurrent, but geographically remote, outbreak and from previous outbreaks. Emergence of Hendra virus is a serious medical, veterinary, and public health challenge. PMID:20113550

  15. Testosterone metabolism of equine single CYPs of the 3A subfamily compared to the human CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, S; Büchi, M; Zielinski, J; Peduto, N; Mevissen, M

    2017-02-24

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are responsible for the phase I metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Knowledge of single CYPs and their substrates is important for drug metabolism, helps to predict adverse effects and may prevent reduced drug efficacy in polypharmacy. In this study, three equine isoenzymes of the 3A subfamily, the equine flavoprotein NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and the cytochrome b5 (CYB5) were cloned, sequenced and heterologously expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Testosterone, the standard compound for characterization of the human CYP3A4, was used to characterize the newly expressed equine CYPs. The metabolite pattern was similar in equine and the human CYPs, but the amounts of metabolites were isoform-dependent. All equine CYPs produced 2-hydroxytestosterone (2-OH-TES), a metabolite never described in equines. The main metabolite of CYP3A4 6β-hydroxytestosterone (6β-OH-TES) was measured in CYPs 3A95 and 3A97 with levels close to the detection limit. Ketoconazole inhibited 2-OH-TES in the human CYP3A4 and the equine CYP3A94 and CYP3A97 completely, whereas a 70% inhibition was found in CYP3A95. Testosterone 6β- and 2-hydroxylation was significantly different in the equine CYPs compared to CYP3A4. The expression of single equine CYPs allows characterizing drug metabolism and may allow prevention of drug-drug interactions.

  16. Duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Heldens, J G; Kersten, A J; Weststrate, M W; van den Hoven, R

    2001-11-01

    An adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (Group A). The first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. The third was administered 6 months later. Another group of foals (Group B) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (EHV) vaccine (EHV1.4) vaccine. Antibody responses to the equine influenza (single radial haemolysis; SRH) and tetanus (ToBi ELISA) components of the vaccines were examined from first vaccination until 1 year after the third vaccination. The influenza components of the combination vaccine induced high antibody titres at two weeks after the second vaccination whereafter titres declined until the time of the third vaccination. After the third vaccination, the titres rose rapidly again to remain high for at least 1 year. Antibody titres against tetanus peaked only after the third vaccination but remained high enough to offer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Foals vaccinated with monovalent EHV1.4 remained seronegative for influenza and tetanus throughout the study. Four and a half months after the third vaccination of groups A and B, a third group of animals was vaccinated twice with monovalent EHV1.4 vaccine 4 weeks apart (Group C). Two weeks after the administration of the second dose in the later group, all groups (A, B, C and an unvaccinated control group D) were challenged with EHV-4. Vaccinated foals (Group A, B, C) showed a clear reduction of clinical symptoms and virus excretion after EHV-4 challenge compared with the unvaccinated control foals. No difference could be demonstrated among the vaccinated groups, suggesting that the combination vaccine protects as well as the monovalent vaccine. In EHV1.4-vaccinated foals both antigenic fractions induced clear protection up to 6 months after vaccination (9). It can

  17. The Transcriptome of Equine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacholewska, Alicja; Drögemüller, Michaela; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Lanz, Simone; Hamza, Eman; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Marti, Eliane; Gerber, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Complete transcriptomic data at high resolution are available only for a few model organisms with medical importance. The gene structures of non-model organisms are mostly computationally predicted based on comparative genomics with other species. As a result, more than half of the horse gene models are known only by projection. Experimental data supporting these gene models are scarce. Moreover, most of the annotated equine genes are single-transcript genes. Utilizing RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) the experimental validation of predicted transcriptomes has become accessible at reasonable costs. To improve the horse genome annotation we performed RNA-seq on 561 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 85 Warmblood horses. The mapped sequencing reads were used to build a new transcriptome assembly. The new assembly revealed many alternative isoforms associated to known genes or to those predicted by the Ensembl and/or Gnomon pipelines. We also identified 7,531 transcripts not associated with any horse gene annotated in public databases. Of these, 3,280 transcripts did not have a homologous match to any sequence deposited in the NCBI EST database suggesting horse specificity. The unknown transcripts were categorized as coding and noncoding based on predicted coding potential scores. Among them 230 transcripts had high coding potential score, at least 2 exons, and an open reading frame of at least 300 nt. We experimentally validated 9 new equine coding transcripts using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Our results provide valuable detailed information on many transcripts yet to be annotated in the horse genome. PMID:25790166

  18. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Vitulo, Nicola; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including

  19. [Control of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) (Acari: Ixodidae) on equines].

    PubMed

    Bello, Ana Cristina P De P; Da Cunha, Arildo P; Leite, Romário C; Oliveira, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Antônio Cândido C L; Domingues, Luisa N; De Freitas, Carolina Maria V; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C

    2008-09-01

    This trial evaluated control practices of Anocentor nitens on equines, using spraying devices and application of acaricide paste formulation in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March of 2008 and the evaluations had been divided in the following stages: Phase 1--out/03 mar/04 and Phases 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, correspondents to the month's periods until março/08. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify infestation levels. From abr/04 to mar/06 was implanted a schedule of acaricide sprayings every seven days and divided in two series. The first one beginning in April 2004 and the second beginning in July, both using six sprayings treatments with pyrethroid chemical base--cypermethrin 0,015%, plus topical treatments applied monthly in the auricular pavilions (powder acaricide). From abril/06 to março/08 was carried out similar schedule treatments, each two months, using an experimental acaricide paste in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. Phases 2 and 3 did not showed reduction of the parasitic loads of A. nitens compared to the control period. Whereas in Phases 4 and 5 registered significant reduction compared control period and also with the results of Phases 2 and 3, characterizing the effectiveness of the treatment with the acaricide paste formulation. Results demonstrated of A. nitens populations present in the nasal diverticulum are important in the maintenance of the infestations on equines, and necessary attention to this anatomical structure when controlling ticks.

  20. Histological and histochemical characterisation of the equine soft palate muscles.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, C S; Hahn, C N; Dixon, P M

    2010-07-01

    Dysfunction of the muscles is implicated in the pathogenesis of intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) in exercising horses. The histological features of normal equine soft palate muscles have not been previously described. To describe the histological and morphometric features of normal equine soft palate muscles. The palatinus, palatopharyngeus, levator veli palatini and tensor veli palatini muscles of 6 Thoroughbred type horses were examined histologically and histochemically to assess their general morphology, fibre-type distribution and mean fibre diameter. The muscles of all 6 specimens showed very similar characteristics, including a low proportion of type 1 muscle fibres in the 4 different muscles examined, with the 3 muscles innervated by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus (i.e. palatopharyngeus, palatinus and levator veli palatini) having significantly fewer (P<0.005) type 1 muscle fibres compared to the tensor veli palatini. The mean fibre diameters were significantly (P<0.05) smaller in type 1 than type 2 fibres in all muscles except the palatinus. Considerable variability in mean fibre size diameter was evident in all muscles examined, with type 1 fibres in the levator veli palatini and rostral fasciculus of the palatopharyngeus and both fibre types in the caudal fasciculus of the palatopharyngeus having the most marked variation, with coefficients of variation >250 and the latter also having high levels of endomysial connective tissue. The palatinus had least variation in fibre size. Morphological characterisation of the normal soft palate muscles may provide reference values for future comparative studies with samples obtained from horses with palatal dysfunction. The palatinus appears to be the best muscle to histologically examine for evidence of muscle abnormality.