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Sample records for micrurus fulvius equine

  1. Hemostatic and toxinological diversities in venom of Micrurus tener tener, Micrurus fulvius fulvius and Micrurus isozonus coral snakes.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana M; Vivas, Jeilyn; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Ibarra, Carlos; Gil, Amparo; Carvajal, Zoila; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Navarrete, Luis F; Guerrero, Belsy

    2011-07-01

    The coral snake Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) from the Elapidae family inhabits the southwestern United States and produces severe cases of envenomations. Although the majority of Mtt venom components are neurotoxins and phospholipase A₂s, this study demonstrated, by SDS-PAGE and molecular exclusion chromatography (MEC), that these venoms also contain high-molecular-weight proteins between 50 and 150 kDa that target the hemostatic system. The biological aspects of other Micrurus venoms were also studied, such as the LD₅₀s of Micrurus isozonus (from 0.52 to 0.61 mg/kg). A pool from these venoms presented a LD₅₀ of 0.57 mg/kg, Micrurus f. fulvius (Mff) and Mtt had LD₅₀s of 0.32 and 0.78 mg/kg, respectively. These venoms contained fibrino(geno)lytic activity, they inhibited platelet aggregation, as well as factor Xa and/or plasmin-like activities. M. isozonus venoms from different Venezuelan geographical regions inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation (from 50 to 68%). Micrurus tener tener venom from the United States was the most active with a 95.2% inhibitory effect. This venom showed thrombin-like activity on fibrinogen and human plasma. Fractions of Mtt showed fibrino(geno)lytic activity and inhibition on plasmin amidolytic activity. Several fractions degraded the fibrinogen Aα chains, and fractions F2 and F7 completely degraded both fibrinogen Aα and Bβ chains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on thrombin-like and fibrino(geno)lytic activity and plasmin or factor Xa inhibitors described in Micrurus venoms. Further purification and characterization of these Micrurus venom components could be of therapeutic use in the treatment of hemostatic disorders.

  2. Lymphatic route of transport and pharmacokinetics of Micrurus fulvius (coral snake) venom in sheep.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, D; Jiménez, L; Romero, C; Vergara, I; Calderón, A; Benard, M; Bernas, M J; Rilo, H; de Roodt, A; D' Suze, G; Witte, M H; Boyer, L; Alagón, A

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of the lymphatic system to the absorption and systemic bioavailability of Micrurus fulvius venom after subcutaneous (SC) administration was assessed using a central lymph-cannulated sheep model. Micrurus fulvius venom was administered either by intravenous bolus (IV) or subcutaneous injection (SC) in 12 sheep with and without thoracic duct cannulation and drainage. Venom concentration in serum and lymph was determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in samples collected over a 6-hour period and in tissues harvested at the end of the experiment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by a non-compartmental analysis. In the lymphatic cannulated group, over the 6 hours after the venom was administered, 69% of administered dose was accounted for in blood (45%) and lymph (25%). Negligible levels of venom were detected in organs and urine implying that the steady state observed after SC administration is maintained by a slow absorption process. Comparison of kinetics of the thoracic duct cannulated and non-cannulated groups showed that lymphatic absorption contributed in an important way to maintenance of this steady state. These results show that the limiting process in the pharmacokinetics of Micrurus fulvius venom following SC administration is absorption, and that the lymphatic system plays a key role in this process.

  3. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y; Romero-Piña, Mario E; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%-78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA₂ activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with (67)Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  4. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y.; Romero-Piña, Mario E.; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V.; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  5. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake (Micrurus fulvius) and variability of select loci across populations and related species

    PubMed Central

    Castoe, Todd A.; Streicher, Jeffrey W.; Meik, Jesse M.; Ingrasci, Matthew J.; Poole, Alexander W.; de Koning, A.P. Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Smith, Eric N.; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in non-model organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (~7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus). PMID:22938699

  6. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake Micrurus fulvius and variability of select loci across populations and related species.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Meik, Jesse M; Ingrasci, Matthew J; Poole, Alexander W; de Koning, A P Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A; Parkinson, Christopher L; Smith, Eric N; Pollock, David D

    2012-11-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in nonmodel organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (approximately 7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus).

  7. Thousands of microsatellite loci from the venomous coralsnake Micrurus fulvius and variability of select loci across populations and related species.

    PubMed

    Castoe, Todd A; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Meik, Jesse M; Ingrasci, Matthew J; Poole, Alexander W; de Koning, A P Jason; Campbell, Jonathan A; Parkinson, Christopher L; Smith, Eric N; Pollock, David D

    2012-11-01

    Studies of population genetics increasingly use next-generation DNA sequencing to identify microsatellite loci in nonmodel organisms. There are, however, relatively few studies that validate the feasibility of transitioning from marker development to experimental application across populations and species. North American coralsnakes of the Micrurus fulvius species complex occur in the United States and Mexico, and little is known about their population structure and phylogenetic relationships. This absence of information and population genetics markers is particularly concerning because they are highly venomous and have important implications on human health. To alleviate this problem in coralsnakes, we investigated the feasibility of using 454 shotgun sequences for microsatellite marker development. First, a genomic shotgun library from a single individual was sequenced (approximately 7.74 megabases; 26,831 reads) to identify potentially amplifiable microsatellite loci (PALs). We then hierarchically sampled 76 individuals from throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex and examined whether PALs were amplifiable and polymorphic. Approximately half of the loci tested were readily amplifiable from all individuals, and 80% of the loci tested for variation were variable and thus informative as population genetic markers. To evaluate the repetitive landscape characteristics across multiple snakes, we also compared microsatellite content between the coralsnake and two other previously sampled snakes, the venomous copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and Burmese python (Python molurus). PMID:22938699

  8. Characterization of the lower-molecular-mass fraction of venoms from Dendroaspis jamesoni kaimosae and Micrurus fulvius using capillary-electrophoresis electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J R; Tomer, K B

    1995-11-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and selected ion-monitoring mass-spectrometric (SIM-MS) detection has been used to provide as much information as possible about the lower molecular-mass fraction (peptides of molecular masses up to 8500 Da) of the venoms of Dendroaspis jamesoni kaimosae (Jameson's Mamba) and Micrurus fulvius (Eastern Coral Snake). Method development was based on the venom of D. jamesoni kaimosae, which contains some previously described peptides, with subsequent application to the completely unknown venom of M. fulvius. CE-ESI-SIM-MS provides a rapid and extremely sensitive method for the detection and molecular-mass determination of peptides present in venoms. It has been utilized to provide molecular masses and thus, by inference, confirmation of the peptide compositions for those toxins which have been previously described in the literature. Our methodology indicates the presence of 83 peptides in the venom of D. jamesoni kaimosae and 49 peptides in the venom of M. fulvius in the molecular-mass range 6000-8500 Da.

  9. Intravascular hemolysis induced by the venom of the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in a mouse model: identification of directly hemolytic phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Arce-Bejarano, Ruth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-11-01

    Intravascular hemolysis has been described in envenomings by the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in dogs. An experimental model of intravascular hemolysis was developed in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection of M. fulvius venom. Within one hr, there was prominent hemolysis, associated with a drastic drop in hematocrit, morphological alterations of erythrocytes, hemoglobinemia, and hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin was identified in urine by mass spectrometry. Histological sections of kidney revealed abundant hyaline casts, probably corresponding to hemoglobin. This effect was abrogated by p-bromophenacyl bromide, indicating that it is caused by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). A monospecific anti-Micrurus nigrocinctus antivenom neutralized hemolytic activity in vivo. When tested in vitro with erythrocytes of various species, a clear difference in susceptibility was observed. Mouse and dog erythrocytes showed the highest susceptibility, whereas human and rabbit erythrocytes were not affected at the experimental conditions tested. The higher susceptibility of dog and mouse erythrocytes correlates with a high ratio of phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin in erythrocyte plasma membrane. When mouse erythrocytes were subjected to mechanical stress, after incubation with venom, hemolysis increased significantly, suggesting that both phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA2s and mechanical stress associated with rheological factors are likely to contribute to cell lysis in vivo. Several PLA2s isolated from this venom reproduced the hemolytic effect, and the complete amino acid sequence of one of them (fraction 17), which also induces myotoxicity, is reported. Since very few PLA2s inducing intravascular hemolysis have been described from snake venoms, this enzyme is a valuable tool to identify the structural determinants of hemolytic activity. The mouse model described in this study may be useful to explore the pathophysiology of intravascular hemolysis.

  10. The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) reveals high venom complexity in the intragenomic evolution of venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Snake venom is shaped by the ecology and evolution of venomous species, and signals of positive selection in toxins have been consistently documented, reflecting the role of venoms as an ecologically critical phenotype. New World coral snakes (Elapidae) are represented by three genera and over 120 species and subspecies that are capable of causing significant human morbidity and mortality, yet coral-snake venom composition is poorly understood in comparison to that of Old World elapids. High-throughput sequencing is capable of identifying thousands of loci, while providing characterizations of expression patterns and the molecular evolutionary forces acting within the venom gland. Results We describe the de novo assembly and analysis of the venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We identified 1,950 nontoxin transcripts and 116 toxin transcripts. These transcripts accounted for 57.1% of the total reads, with toxins accounting for 45.8% of the total reads. Phospholipases A2 and three-finger toxins dominated expression, accounting for 86.0% of the toxin reads. A total of 15 toxin families were identified, revealing venom complexity previously unknown from New World coral snakes. Toxins exhibited high levels of heterozygosity relative to nontoxins, and overdominance may favor gene duplication leading to the fixation of advantageous alleles. Phospholipase A2 expression was uniformly distributed throughout the class while three-finger toxin expression was dominated by a handful of transcripts, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that toxin divergence may have occurred following speciation. Positive selection was detected in three of the four most diverse toxin classes, suggesting that venom diversification is driven by recurrent directional selection. Conclusions We describe the most complete characterization of an elapid venom gland to date. Toxin gene duplication may be driven by heterozygote advantage, as the frequency of

  11. Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Bryan, Wendy; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-01-01

    Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a ‘venomics’ approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, ‘intermediate’ type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venoms. M. clarki venom was strongly cross-recognized and, accordingly, efficiently neutralized by an equine therapeutic antivenom against M. nigrocinctus, revealing their high antigenic similarity. Lethal activity for mice could be reproduced by a PLA2 venom fraction, but, unexpectedly, not by fractions corresponding to 3FTxs. The most abundant venom component, hereby named clarkitoxin-I, was identified as a short-chain (type I) 3FTx, devoid of lethal effect in mice, whose target remains to be defined. Its amino acid sequence of 66 residues shows high similarity with predicted sequences of venom gland transcripts described for M. fulvius, M. browni, and M. diastema. PMID:27164141

  12. Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Bryan, Wendy; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-05-05

    Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a 'venomics' approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, 'intermediate' type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venoms. M. clarki venom was strongly cross-recognized and, accordingly, efficiently neutralized by an equine therapeutic antivenom against M. nigrocinctus, revealing their high antigenic similarity. Lethal activity for mice could be reproduced by a PLA₂ venom fraction, but, unexpectedly, not by fractions corresponding to 3FTxs. The most abundant venom component, hereby named clarkitoxin-I, was identified as a short-chain (type I) 3FTx, devoid of lethal effect in mice, whose target remains to be defined. Its amino acid sequence of 66 residues shows high similarity with predicted sequences of venom gland transcripts described for M. fulvius, M. browni, and M. diastema.

  13. Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Bryan, Wendy; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-01-01

    Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a 'venomics' approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, 'intermediate' type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venoms. M. clarki venom was strongly cross-recognized and, accordingly, efficiently neutralized by an equine therapeutic antivenom against M. nigrocinctus, revealing their high antigenic similarity. Lethal activity for mice could be reproduced by a PLA₂ venom fraction, but, unexpectedly, not by fractions corresponding to 3FTxs. The most abundant venom component, hereby named clarkitoxin-I, was identified as a short-chain (type I) 3FTx, devoid of lethal effect in mice, whose target remains to be defined. Its amino acid sequence of 66 residues shows high similarity with predicted sequences of venom gland transcripts described for M. fulvius, M. browni, and M. diastema. PMID:27164141

  14. Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Gabriela D.; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms. Conclusion These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the

  15. Development of immunoassays for determination of circulating venom antigens during envenomations by coral snakes (Micrurus species).

    PubMed

    Amuy, E; Alape-Girón, A; Lomonte, B; Thelestam, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1997-11-01

    A reverse agglutination assay and two capture enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) for the quantitative determination of Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus venom antigens in fluids were developed using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies and a cocktail of three monoclonal antibodies. The lower detection limit was 0.3 mg/ml for the reverse agglutination assay and 4 ng/ml for the capture ELISAs. The optical densities of both ELISAs correlated very well with venom concentrations in the range 4-333 ng/ml (r = 0.99). The ability of these assays to detect venoms of several medically important Micrurus species was studied. Besides detecting homologous venom, both ELISAs were also useful to quantitate venom from M. fulvius, M. dumerilii carinicauda and M. alleni. Using biotinylated polyclonal antibodies, M. n. nigrocinctus venom antigens were detected in sera or plasma from rabbits and mice during experimental envenomations with lethal and sublethal venom doses. The assays described in this work are promising tests to estimate the severity of poisoning in envenomations by the most important coral snakes of North and Central America.

  16. Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Angulo, Yamileth; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    The proteome of the venom of Micrurus nigrocinctus (Central American coral snake) was analyzed by a "venomics" approach. Nearly 50 venom peaks were resolved by RP-HPLC, revealing a complex protein composition. Comparative analyses of venoms from individual specimens revealed that such complexity is an intrinsic feature of this species, rather than the sum of variable individual patterns of simpler composition. Proteins related to eight distinct families were identified by MS/MS de novo peptide sequencing or N-terminal sequencing: phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), three-finger toxin (3FTx), l-amino acid oxidase, C-type lectin/lectin-like, metalloproteinase, serine proteinase, ohanin, and nucleotidase. PLA(2)s and 3FTxs are predominant, representing 48 and 38% of the venom proteins, respectively. Within 3FTxs, several isoforms of short-chain α-neurotoxins as well as muscarinic-like toxins and proteins with similarity to long-chain κ-2 bungarotoxin were identified. PLA(2)s are also highly diverse, and a toxicity screening showed that they mainly exert myotoxicity, although some are lethal and may contribute to the known presynaptic neurotoxicity of this venom. An antivenomic characterization of a therapeutic monospecific M. nigrocinctus equine antivenom revealed differences in immunorecognition of venom proteins that correlate with their molecular mass, with the weakest recognition observed toward 3FTxs.

  17. Biological and enzymatic activities of Micrurus sp. (Coral) snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Alessandra L; Marcussi, Silvana; Silveira, Lucas B; Borja-Oliveira, Caroline R; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Amara, Susan; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Giglio, José R; Arantes, Eliane C; Soares, Andreimar M

    2005-01-01

    The venoms of Micrurus lemniscatus carvalhoi, Micrurus frontalis frontalis, Micrurus surinamensis surinamensis and Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus were assayed for biological activities. Although showing similar liposome disrupting and myotoxic activities, M. frontalis frontalis and M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus displayed higher anticoagulant and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. The latter induced a higher edema response within 30 min. Both venoms were the most toxic as well. In the isolated chick biventer cervicis preparation, M. lemniscatus carvalhoi venom blocked the indirectly elicited twitch-tension response (85+/-0.6% inhibition after a 15 min incubation at 5 microg of venom/mL) and the response to acetylcholine (ACh; 55 or 110 microM), without affecting the response to KCl (13.4 mM). In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, the venom (5 microg/mL) produced a complete inhibition of the indirectly elicited contractile response after 50 min incubation and did not affect the contractions elicited by direct stimulation. M. lemniscatus carvalhoi inhibited 3H-L-glutamate uptake in brain synaptosomes in a Ca2+-, but not time, dependent manner. The replacement of Ca2+ by Sr2+ and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) (EGTA), or alkylation of the venom with p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), inhibited 3H-L-glutamate uptake. M. lemniscatus carvalhoi venom cross-reacted with postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxins short-chain (antineurotoxin-II) and long-chain (antibungarotoxin) antibodies. It also cross-reacted with antimyotoxic PLA2 antibodies from M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus (antinigroxin). Our results point to the need of catalytic activity for these venoms to exert their neurotoxic activity efficiently and to their components as attractive tools for the study of molecular targets on cell membranes.

  18. [A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    A fish prey found in the coral snake Micrurus alleni (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica. The presence of a small specimen of the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (84 mm total length) in the stomach contents of an adult coral snake Micrurus alleni with 692 mm total length from the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica is reported. This eel was swallowed headfirst.

  19. Proteomic and biological characterization of the venom of the redtail coral snake, Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae), from Colombia and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2011-12-21

    Venoms of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus from Colombia and Costa Rica were analyzed by "venomics", a proteomic strategy to determine their composition. Proteins were separated by RP-HPLC, followed by SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, identification by MALDI or ESI tandem mass spectrometry, and assignment to known protein families by similarity. These analyses were complemented with a characterization of venom activities in vitro and in vivo. Proteins belonging to seven families were found in Colombian M. mipartitus venom, including abundant three-finger toxins (3FTx; ~60% of total proteins) and phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2); ~30%), with the remaining ~10% distributed among l-amino acid oxidase, P-III metalloproteinase, Kunitz-type inhibitor, serine proteinase, and C-type lectin-like families. The venoms of two M. mipartitus specimens from Costa Rica, also referred to as M. multifasciatus in some taxonomic classifications, were also analyzed. Both samples were highly similar to each other, and partially resembled the chromatographic and identity profiles of M. mipartitus from Colombia, although presenting a markedly higher proportion of 3FTxs (~83.0%) in relation to PLA(2)s (~8.2%), and a small amount of acetylcholinesterase, not detected in the venom from Colombia. An equine antivenom against the Central American coral snake, M. nigrocinctus, did not recognize venom components of M. mipartitus from Colombia or Costa Rica by enzyme-immunoassay. Four major components of Colombian M. mipartitus venom were isolated and partially characterized. Venomics of Micrurus species may provide a valuable platform for the rational design of immunizing cocktails to obtain polyspecific antivenoms for this highly diverse group of American elapids.

  20. Neuromuscular activity of the venoms of the Colombian coral snakes Micrurus dissoleucus and Micrurus mipartitus: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Renjifo, Camila; Smith, Eric N; Hodgson, Wayne C; Renjifo, Juan M; Sanchez, Armando; Acosta, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jairo H; Riveros, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The venoms of coral snakes (genus Micrurus) are known to induce a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. While some studies have investigated their potential human effects, little is known about their mechanism of action in terms of the ecological diversity and evolutionary relationships among the group. In the current study we investigated the neuromuscular blockade of the venom of two sister species Micrurus mipartitus and Micrurus dissoleucus, which exhibit divergent ecological characteristics in Colombia, by using the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. We also undertook a phylogenetic analysis of these species and their congeners, in order to provide an evolutionary framework for the American coral snakes. The venom of M. mipartitus caused a concentration-dependant inhibition (3-10 μg/ml) of nerve-mediated twitches and significantly inhibited contractile responses to exogenous ACh (1 mM), but not KCl (40 mM), indicating a postsynaptic mechanism of action. The inhibition of indirect twitches at the lower venom dose (3 μg/ml) showed to be triphasic and the effect was further attenuated when PLA2 was inhibited. M. dissoleucus venom (10-50 μg/ml) failed to produce a complete blockade of nerve-mediated twitches within a 3 h time period and significantly inhibited contractile responses to exogenous ACh (1 mM) and KCl (40 mM), indicating both postsynaptic and myotoxic mechanisms of action. Myotoxic activity was confirmed by morphological studies of the envenomed tissues. Our results demonstrate a hitherto unsuspected diversity of pharmacological actions in closely related species which exhibit divergent ecological characteristics; these results have important implications for both the clinical management of Coral snake envenomings and the design of Micrurus antivenom.

  1. Micrurus snake species: Venom immunogenicity, antiserum cross-reactivity and neutralization potential.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Gabriela D; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Marcelino, José Roberto; Lustoza da Luz, Ana Cristina; Teixeira da Rocha, Marisa Maria; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2016-07-01

    Micrurus snakebites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest a few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for these snake envenomations is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom. In Brazil, this antivenom is produced from horses that are immunized with a mixture of Micrurus corallinus and Micrurus frontalis venoms, which are snakes that inhabit the south and southeastern regions of the country. Previously, we demonstrated that the coral antivenom, which is used in human therapy, was not able to neutralize several of the toxic venom effects from some Micrurus species that inhabit the country, as measured by in vitro and in vivo assays. The present study aimed to investigate the immunogenic properties of Micrurus spp. venoms, as well as the cross-reactivity and neutralization potential of experimental monovalent and polyvalent sera that were produced in different animal species. The present data showed that Micrurus venoms exhibited the same immunogenicity pattern in the three utilized animal species and that the specific antisera presented a large cross-reactivity when analyzed with ELISA and Western blot assays. Nonetheless, these positive results were not well correlated with the neutralizing potential of the antisera. Thus, the establishment of a new antigenic mixture to produce novel more efficient therapeutic Micrurus antivenom is not a simple task. Further studies, particularly with the Micrurus lemniscatus, Micrurus altirostris and Micrurus surinamensis venoms, are necessary to establish new strategies for the production of antivenoms with broad neutralizing activity for the treatment of accidents involving coral snakes throughout the country.

  2. Micrurus snake species: Venom immunogenicity, antiserum cross-reactivity and neutralization potential.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Gabriela D; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Marcelino, José Roberto; Lustoza da Luz, Ana Cristina; Teixeira da Rocha, Marisa Maria; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2016-07-01

    Micrurus snakebites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest a few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for these snake envenomations is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom. In Brazil, this antivenom is produced from horses that are immunized with a mixture of Micrurus corallinus and Micrurus frontalis venoms, which are snakes that inhabit the south and southeastern regions of the country. Previously, we demonstrated that the coral antivenom, which is used in human therapy, was not able to neutralize several of the toxic venom effects from some Micrurus species that inhabit the country, as measured by in vitro and in vivo assays. The present study aimed to investigate the immunogenic properties of Micrurus spp. venoms, as well as the cross-reactivity and neutralization potential of experimental monovalent and polyvalent sera that were produced in different animal species. The present data showed that Micrurus venoms exhibited the same immunogenicity pattern in the three utilized animal species and that the specific antisera presented a large cross-reactivity when analyzed with ELISA and Western blot assays. Nonetheless, these positive results were not well correlated with the neutralizing potential of the antisera. Thus, the establishment of a new antigenic mixture to produce novel more efficient therapeutic Micrurus antivenom is not a simple task. Further studies, particularly with the Micrurus lemniscatus, Micrurus altirostris and Micrurus surinamensis venoms, are necessary to establish new strategies for the production of antivenoms with broad neutralizing activity for the treatment of accidents involving coral snakes throughout the country. PMID:27045363

  3. Snake venomics of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis from the Caribbean region of Costa Rica reveals two divergent compositional patterns in New World elapids.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Vargas-Vargas, Nancy; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Protein composition, toxicity, and neutralization of the venoms of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis, two sympatric monadal coral snakes found in humid environments of the Caribbean region of Costa Rica, were studied. Proteomic profiling revealed that these venoms display highly divergent compositions: the former dominated by three-finger toxins (3FTx) and the latter by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Protein family abundances correlated with enzymatic and toxic characteristics of the venoms. Selective inhibition experiments showed that PLA2s play only a marginal role in the lethal effect of M. alleni venom, but have a major role in M. mosquitensis venom. Proteomic data gathered from other Micrurus species evidenced that the two divergent venom phenotypes are recurrent, and may constitute a general trend across New World elapids. Further, M. mosquitensis, but not M. alleni, venom contains PLA2-like/Kunitz-type inhibitor complex(es) that resemble the ASIC1a/2-activating MitTx heterodimeric toxin isolated from Micrurus tener venom. The evolutionary origin and adaptive relevance of the puzzling phenotypic variability of Micrurus venoms remain to be understood. An antivenom against the PLA2-predominant Micrurus nigrocinctus venom strongly cross-recognized and neutralized M. mosquitensis venom, but only weakly M. alleni venom.

  4. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  5. Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Pardal, Joseana Silva de Oliveira; Gadelha, Maria Apolônia da Costa; Rodrigues, Líliam da Silva; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. The second case showed just mild signs of envenomation caused by Micrurus filiformis. Both patients received specific Micrurus antivenom and were discharged without further complications. Coral snake bites are scarcely reported in the Amazon region and there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from extremely mild to those which may rapidly lead to death if the patient is not treated as soon as possible.

  6. Envenoming by coral snakes (Micrurus) in Argentina, during the period between 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; De Titto, Ernesto; Dolab, Jorge Adrián; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Envenomation by coral snakes (Micrurus sp.) is one of the most dangerous injuries in America and it is considered as a serious medical emergency, however bites by these snakes appear to be rare. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical signs and antivenom use in Argentina during the period between 1979-2003. During this period of study 46 non-fatal Micrurus bites were reported. The majority of cases were men from 31 to 40 years old. Bites occurred primarily in spring and summer. Most cases were reported from the northeast and northwest provinces of the country. The bites were mostly located on hands or feet and occurred mostly during agricultural activities and so mainly involved farmers. Only four cases occurred as a result of handling snakes. The median time it took for antivenom to be administrated was 60 minutes after the bite, and the median number of vials applied was 2. Local pain was mentioned and edema was reported in 41% of patients. All patients recovered without sequelae. This study showed a low incidence of Micrurus bites and low severity of envenomation. However, although no deaths have been reported during the last 30 years, given the toxicity of the venom of Micrurus snakes, the risk of severe envenomation should be considered.

  7. Venomic analysis and evaluation of antivenom cross-reactivity of South American Micrurus species.

    PubMed

    Ciscotto, Paula H C; Rates, Breno; Silva, Daniel A F; Richardson, Michael; Silva, Luciano P; Andrade, Helida; Donato, Micheline F; Cotta, Giselle Agostini; Maria, Wany Selena; Rodrigues, Raquel J; Sanchez, Eladio; De Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M C

    2011-08-24

    Coral snakes from Micrurus genus are the main representatives of the Elapidae family in South America. However, biochemical and pharmacological features regarding their venom constituents remain poorly investigated. Here, venomic analyses were carried out aiming at a deeper understanding on the composition of M. frontalis, M. ibiboboca, and M. lemniscatus venoms. In the three venoms investigated, proteins ranging from 6 to 8 kDa (3FTx) and 12 to 14 kDa (PLA(2)) were found to be the most abundant. Also, the N-terminal sequences of four new proteins, purified from the M. lemniscatus venom, similar to 3FTx, PLA(2) and Kunitz-type protease inhibitor from other Micrurus and elapid venoms are reported. Cross-reactivity among different Micrurus venoms and homologous or heterologous antivenoms was carried out by means of 2D-electrophoresis and immunoblotting. As, expected, the heterologous anti-Elapid venom displayed the highest degree of cross-reactivity. Conversely, anti-M. corallinus reacted weakly against the tested venoms. In gel digestions, followed by mass spectrometry sequencing and similarity searching, revealed the most immunogenic protein families as similar to short and long neurotoxins, weak neurotoxins, PLA(2), β-bungarotoxin, venom protein E2, frontoxin III, LAO and C-type lectin. The implications of our results for the production of Micrurus antivenoms are discussed.

  8. Neuromuscular Activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae) Venom in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Dal Belo, Cháriston André; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alagón, Alejandro; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have examined the neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Mexican coral snake) venom (MLV) in vertebrate isolated nerve-muscle preparations. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the MLV induced an irreversible concentration- and time-dependent (1–30 µg/mL) neuromuscular blockade, with 50% blockade occurring between 8 and 30 min. Muscle contractures evoked by exogenous acetylcholine were completely abolished by MLV, whereas those of KCl were also significantly altered (86% ± 11%, 53% ± 11%, 89% ± 5% and 89% ± 7% for one, three, 10 and 30 µg of venom/mL, respectively; n = 4; p < 0.05). In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, MLV (1–10 µg/mL) promoted a slight increase in the amplitude of twitch-tension (3 µg/mL), followed by neuromuscular blockade (n = 4); the highest concentration caused complete inhibition of the twitches (time for 50% blockade = 26 ± 3 min), without exhibiting a previous neuromuscular facilitation. The venom (3 µg/mL) induced a biphasic modulation in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs)/min, causing a significant increase after 15 min, followed by a decrease after 60 min (from 17 ± 1.4 (basal) to 28 ± 2.5 (t15) and 12 ± 2 (t60)). The membrane resting potential of mouse diaphragm preparations pre-exposed or not to d-tubocurarine (5 µg/mL) was also significantly less negative with MLV (10 µg/mL). Together, these results indicate that M. laticollaris venom induces neuromuscular blockade by a combination of pre- and post-synaptic activities. PMID:24445448

  9. Neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae) venom in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Dal Belo, Cháriston André; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alagón, Alejandro; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2014-01-17

    In this work, we have examined the neuromuscular activity of Micrurus laticollaris (Mexican coral snake) venom (MLV) in vertebrate isolated nerve-muscle preparations. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, the MLV induced an irreversible concentration- and time-dependent (1-30 µg/mL) neuromuscular blockade, with 50% blockade occurring between 8 and 30 min. Muscle contractures evoked by exogenous acetylcholine were completely abolished by MLV, whereas those of KCl were also significantly altered (86% ± 11%, 53% ± 11%, 89% ± 5% and 89% ± 7% for one, three, 10 and 30 µg of venom/mL, respectively; n = 4; p < 0.05). In mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, MLV (1-10 µg/mL) promoted a slight increase in the amplitude of twitch-tension (3 µg/mL), followed by neuromuscular blockade (n = 4); the highest concentration caused complete inhibition of the twitches (time for 50% blockade = 26 ± 3 min), without exhibiting a previous neuromuscular facilitation. The venom (3 µg/mL) induced a biphasic modulation in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs)/min, causing a significant increase after 15 min, followed by a decrease after 60 min (from 17 ± 1.4 (basal) to 28 ± 2.5 (t15) and 12 ± 2 (t60)). The membrane resting potential of mouse diaphragm preparations pre-exposed or not to d-tubocurarine (5 µg/mL) was also significantly less negative with MLV (10 µg/mL). Together, these results indicate that M. laticollaris venom induces neuromuscular blockade by a combination of pre- and post-synaptic activities.

  10. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  11. Equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions.

  12. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  13. Applied equine genetics

    PubMed Central

    FINNO, C. J.; BANNASCH, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing of the domestic horse and subsequent advancements in the field of equine genomics have led to an explosion in the development of tools for mapping traits and diseases and evaluating gene expression. The objective of this review is to discuss the current progress in the field of equine genomics, with specific emphasis on assembly and analysis of the reference sequence and subsequent sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare; the genomic tools currently available to researchers and their implications in genomic investigations in the horse; the genomics of Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits; the genomics of performance traits and considerations regarding genetic testing in the horse. The whole-genome sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare has provided additional variants within the equine genome that extend past single nucleotide polymorphisms to include insertions/deletions and copy number variants. Equine single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have allowed for the investigation of both simple and complex genetic traits while DNA microarrays have provided a tool for examining gene expression across various tissues and with certain disease conditions. Recently, next-generation sequencing has become more affordable and both whole-genome DNA sequencing and transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing are methodologies that are being applied to equine genomic research. Research in the field of equine genomics continues to expand rapidly as the cost of genotyping and sequencing decreases, resulting in a need for quality bioinformatics software and expertise to appropriately handle both the size and complexity of these data. PMID:24802051

  14. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA₂ Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-06-07

    The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1-3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1-2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA₂ dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms.

  15. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA₂ Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1-3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1-2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA₂ dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms. PMID:27338473

  16. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA2 Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1–3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1–2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA2 dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms. PMID:27338473

  17. Snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of Brazilian coral snakes, Micrurus altirostris and M. corallinus.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de L M; Silva, Débora A; Ho, Paulo L; Leitão-de-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Sanz, Libia; Foguel, Débora; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Calvete, Juan J

    2011-08-24

    The venom proteomes of Micrurus altirostris and M. corallinus were analyzed by combining snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic surveys. In both coral snake species, 3FTx and PLA(2) were the most abundant and diversified toxin families. 33 different 3FTxs and 13 PLA(2) proteins, accounting respectively for 79.5% and 13.7% of the total proteins, were identified in the venom of M. altirostris. The venom of M. corallinus comprised 10 3FTx (81.7% of the venom proteome) and 4 (11.9%) PLA(2) molecules. Transcriptomic data provided the full-length amino acid sequences of 18 (M. altirostris) and 10 (M. corallinus) 3FTxs, and 3 (M. altirostris) and 1 (M. corallinus) novel PLA(2) sequences. In addition, venom from each species contained single members of minor toxin families: 3 common (PIII-SVMP, C-type lectin-like, L-amino acid oxidase) and 4 species-specific (CRISP, Kunitz-type inhibitor, lysosomal acid lipase in M. altirostris; serine proteinase in M. corallinus) toxin classes. The finding of a lipase (LIPA) in the venom proteome and in the venom gland transcriptome of M. altirostris supports the view of a recruitment event predating the divergence of Elapidae and Viperidae more than 60 Mya. The toxin profile of both M. altirostris and M. corallinus venoms points to 3FTxs and PLA(2) molecules as the major players of the envenoming process. In M. altirostris venom, all major, and most minor, 3FTxs display highest similarity to type I α-neurotoxins, suggesting that these postsynaptically acting toxins may play the predominant role in the neurotoxic effect leading to peripheral paralysis, respiratory arrest, and death. M. corallinus venom posesses both, type I α-neurotoxins and a high-abundance (26% of the venom proteome) protein of subfamily XIX of 3FTxs, exhibiting similarity to bucandin from Malayan krait, Bungarus candidus, venom, which enhances acetylcholine release presynaptically. This finding may explain the presynaptic neurotoxicity of M. corallinus venom

  18. Equine cricoid cartilage densitometry.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, E; Poteet, B; Cohen, N

    1993-01-01

    The density of the cricoid cartilage from 29 equine larynges collected from an abattoir was determined by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). Densities of the right and left cricoid cartilages were highly correlated. No correlation was found between age of the horse and the density of the cricoid cartilage. PMID:8269372

  19. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  20. Biological characterization of the Amazon coral Micrurus spixii snake venom: Isolation of a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Terra, Angelo L C; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Monteiro, José Roniele N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Gallacci, Márcia; Barros, Neuza B; Nicolete, Roberto; Teles, Carolina B G; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-09-01

    The Micrurus genus is the American representative of Elapidae family. Micrurus spixii is endemic of South America and northern states of Brazil. Elapidic venoms contain neurotoxins that promote curare-mimetic neuromuscular blockage. In this study, biochemical and functional characterizations of M. spixii crude venom were performed and a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2 called MsPLA2-I was isolated. M. spixii crude venom caused severe swelling in the legs of tested mice and significant release of creatine kinase (CK) showing its myotoxic activity. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 1.24 μg/mL) was also observed, along with antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which are unprecedented for Micrurus venoms. MsPLA2-I with a Mr 12,809.4 Da was isolated from the crude venom of M. spixii. The N-terminal sequencing of a fragment of 60 amino acids showed 80% similarity with another PLA2 from Micrurus altirostris. This toxin and the crude venom showed phospholipase activity. In a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, M. spixii venom and MsPLA2-I induced the blockage of both direct and indirect twitches. While the venom presented a pronounced myotoxic activity, MsPLA2-I expressed a summation of neurotoxic activity. The results of this study make M. spixii crude venom promising compounds in the exploration of molecules with microbicidal potential.

  1. Bites by coral snakes (Micrurus spp.) in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Hyslop, Stephen; Vieira, Ronan José; Toledo, Adriana Safioli; Madureira, Paulo Roberto; de Capitani, Eduardo Mello

    2006-01-01

    Coral snakes (Micrurus spp.) are the main representatives of the Elapidae in South America. However, bites by these snakes are uncommon. We retrospectively reviewed the data from 11 individuals bitten by coral snakes over a 20-year period; four were confirmed (snake brought for identification) and seven were highly suspected (neuromuscular manifestations) cases of elapid envenoming. The cases were classified as dry-bite (n = 1, caused by M. lemniscatus; did not receive antivenom), mild (n = 2, local manifestations with no acute myasthenic syndrome; M. frontalis and Micrurus spp.), moderate (n = 5, mild myasthenia) or severe (n = 3, important myasthenia; one of them caused by M. frontalis). The main clinical features upon admission were paresthesia (local, n = 9; generalized, n = 2), local pain (n = 8), palpebral ptosis (n = 8), weakness (n = 4) and inability to stand up (n = 3). No patient developed respiratory failure. Antivenom was used in ten cases, with mild early reactions occurring in three. An anticholinesterase drug was administered in the three severe cases, with a good response in two. No deaths were observed. Despite the high toxicity of coral snake venoms, the prognosis following envenoming is good. In serious bites by M. frontalis or M. lemniscatus, the venom of which acts postsynaptically, anticholinesterases may be useful as an ancillary measure if antivenom is unavailable, if there is a delay in obtaining a sufficient amount, or in those patients given the highest recommended doses of antivenom without improvement of the paralysis or with delayed recovery.

  2. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  3. [Reproductive cycles of the coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, A; Cerdas, L

    1988-11-01

    The coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus has two reproductive patterns in Costa Rica. Specimens of the Pacific population (M. n. nigrocinctus) mate during the early dry season (November, January). Oviposition takes place in February and March; the mean number of eggs was 7.9 (5-14) in this population. Births occur between April and June after 47-81 days of incubation. The total length of neonates is 168-212 mm, and the weight is 1.2-2.0 g. Specimens of the Atlantic population (M. n. mosquitensis) seem to have an extended breeding season. Oviposition in this subspecies was observed in March and June; the mean number of eggs was 6.7 (5-8). Births take place in May and August, after two months of incubation. Neonates have 173-189 mm in total length and 1.9-2.4 g in mass. Adult females are longer than males, especially in M. n. mosquitensis.

  4. Local effects induced by venoms from five species of genus Micrurus sp. (coral snakes).

    PubMed

    Barros, A C; Fernandes, D P; Ferreira, L C; Dos Santos, M C

    1994-04-01

    Venoms from five species of Micrurus (coral snakes) from Brazil (Amazonas State) were tested for the following effects: edematogenic, myotoxic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) detection. None of the venoms tested presented coagulant activity. The presence of PLA2 was detected by ELISA in the venoms of M. spixii, M. averyi and M. lemniscatus. The myotoxicity was estimated by the increase in the serum creatine kinase level and by histological analysis. All venoms, except that from M. surinamensis, induced intense edematogenic and myotoxic effects. The venom of M. averyi showed hemorrhagic activity which was confirmed by histopathological analysis. This is the first evidence of such an effect by coral snake venom.

  5. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Da Silva, Nelson Jorge Jr; Pires, Matheus Godoy; Zaher, Hussam; Prudente, Ana Lúcia Da Costa

    2015-06-24

    We described a new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus from the region of Tabatinga and Leticia, along the boundaries of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. The new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: absence of a pale nuchal collar; black cephalic-cap extending from rostral to firstdorsal scale and enclosing white tipped prefrontal scales; upper half of first to four supralabials and postoculars black; tricolor body coloration, with 27-31 black rings bordered by narrower white rings and 27-31 red rings; tail coloration similar to body, with alternating black rings bordered by irregular narrow white rings, red rings of the same width as the black rings; ventral scales 205-225; subcaudal scales 39-47.

  6. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  7. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  8. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus. PMID:24212707

  9. Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes of 3FTx and PLA(2) toxins from Micrurus corallinus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Castro, K L; Duarte, C G; Ramos, H R; Machado de Avila, R A; Schneider, F S; Oliveira, D; Freitas, C F; Kalapothakis, E; Ho, P L; Chávez-Olortegui, C

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a strategy to identify B-cell epitopes on four different three finger toxins (3FTX) and one phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Micrurus corallinus snake venom. 3FTx and PLA2 are highly abundant components in Elapidic venoms and are the major responsibles for the toxicity observed in envenomation by coral snakes. Overlapping peptides from the sequence of each toxin were prepared by SPOT method and three different anti-elapidic sera were used to map the epitopes. After immunogenicity analysis of the spot-reactive peptides by EPITOPIA, a computational method, nine sequences from the five toxins were chemically synthesized and antigenically and immunogenically characterized. All the peptides were used together as immunogens in rabbits, delivered with Freund's adjuvant for a first cycle of immunization and Montanide in the second. A good antibody response against individual synthetic peptides and M. corallinus venom was achieved. Anti-peptide IgGs were also cross-reactive against Micrurus frontalis and Micrurus lemniscatus crude venoms. In addition, anti-peptide IgGs inhibits the lethal and phospholipasic activities of M. corallinus crude venom. Our results provide a rational basis to the identification of neutralizing epitopes on coral snake toxins and show that their corresponding synthetic peptides could improve the generation of immuno-therapeutics. The use of synthetic peptide for immunization is a reasonable approach, since it enables poly-specificity, low risk of toxic effects and large scale production.

  10. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  11. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  12. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  13. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming. PMID:26897999

  14. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-01

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  15. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself.

  16. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself. PMID:10589473

  17. Equine conjunctival pseudotumors.

    PubMed

    Moore, C.P.; Grevan, V.L.; Champagne, E.S.; Collins, B.K.; Collier, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    Five horses presented with unilateral pink, smooth, nonulcerated conjunctival masses with histologic features characteristic of inflammatory pseudotumors, i.e. proliferative inflammatory lesions clinically resembling true neoplasia. Although causes for the inflammatory lesions were not determined, based on the presence histologically of mononuclear (predominantly lymphocytic) inflammatory cell infiltrates and the absence of infectious agents, parasites or foreign bodies, an immune-mediated pathogenesis was suspected. Affected horses ranged from 5 to 8 years of age with no apparent breed or sex predilection. Conjunctival lesions were nodular in two cases and relatively flat and more diffuse in three cases. Third eyelid lesions were present in three cases and two affected eyes had corneal involvement. Based on findings from these five cases, the prognosis for equine conjunctival pseudotumors appears to be good when lesions are treated by partial or complete surgical excision, local administration of anti-inflammatory agents, or a combination of surgery and anti-inflammatory therapy.

  18. Characterization of multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-binding proteins and phospholipases A2 from the venom of the coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus.

    PubMed

    Alape-Girón, A; Stiles, B; Schmidt, J; Girón-Cortes, M; Thelestam, M; Jörnvall, H; Bergman, T

    1996-02-12

    The presence of multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR)-binding proteins and phospholipases A2 was detected in the venom of a member of the Elapinae subfamily, Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus. Multi-step chromatographies were used to isolate four AchR-binding proteins (Mnn-9, Mnn-4, Mnn-3C and Mnn-1A) and five basic PLA2s (nigroxins A, B, C1, C2 and C3). The Micrurus AchR-binding proteins are antigenically and structurally related to short- and long-chain alpha-neurotoxins from Naja. The nigroxins are antigenically similar and constitute a new antigenic subclass of PLA(2)s. Nigroxins A and B are class I PLA(2)s, structurally more related to enzymes from Bungarinae than to those from Hydrophinae/Laticaudinae. These data contribute to clarify the relationships between Micrurus venom proteins and other elapid toxins and may be useful to improve the neutralizing efficiency of antivenoms.

  19. Action of Micrurus dumerilii carinicauda coral snake venom on the mammalian neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Francine G; Reali, Marielga; Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Fontana, Marcos D

    2002-02-01

    The venoms of coral snakes (mainly Micrurus species) have pre- and/or postsynaptic actions, but only a few of these have been studied in detail. We have investigated the effects of Micrurus dumerilii carinicauda coral snake venom on neurotransmission in rat isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle and chick biventer cervicis preparations stimulated directly or indirectly. M. d. carinicauda venom (5 or 10 microg/ml) produced neuromuscular blockade in rat (85-90% in 291.8+/-7.3 min and 108.3+/-13.8, respectively; n=5) and avian (95.0+/-2.0 min; 5 microg/ml, n=5) preparations. Neostigmine (5.8 microM) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (230 microM) partially reversed the venom-induced neuromuscular blockade in rat nerve-muscle preparations. In neither preparation did the venom depress the twitch response elicited by direct muscle stimulation. The contractures induced by acetylcholine in chick preparations were inhibited by the venom (95-100%; n=4; p<0.05). In rat preparations, the venom produced a progressive decrease in the amplitude of miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.ps control frequency=69.3+/-5.0/min and control amplitude=0.4+/-0.2 mV) until these were abolished. Neostigmine (5.8 microM) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (230 microM) partially antagonized this blockade of m.e.p.ps. The resting membrane potential was not altered with the venom (10 microg/ml). M. d. carinicauda venom produced dose-dependent morphological changes in indirectly stimulated mammal preparations. Twenty-five per cent of muscle fibers were affected by a venom concentration of 5 microg/ml, whilst 60.7% were damaged by 10 microg of venom/ml. In biventer cervicis preparations, the morphological changes were slower in onset and were generally characterized by undulating fibers and, to a lesser extent, by zones of disintegrating myofibrils. A venom concentration of 5 microg/ml damaged 52.2% of the fibers. These findings indicate that M. d. carinicauda venom has neurotoxic and myotoxic effects and that the

  20. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  1. The equine intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Weese, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    The equine intestinal tract contains a complex microbial population (microbiota) that plays an important role in health and disease. Despite the undeniable importance of a 'normal' microbiota, understanding of the composition and function of this population is currently limited. As methods to characterize the microbiota and its genetic makeup (the microbiome) have evolved, the composition and complexity of this population are starting to be revealed. As is befitting a hindgut fermenter, members of the Firmicutes phylum appear to predominate, yet there are significant populations of numerous other phyla. The microbiome appears to be profoundly altered in certain disease states, and better understanding of these alterations may offer hope for novel preventive and therapeutic measures. The development and increasing availability of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methods offer a revolution in microbiome evaluation and it is likely that significant advances will be made in the near future. Yet, proper use of these methods requires further study of basic aspects such as optimal testing protocols, the relationship of the fecal microbiome to more proximal locations where disease occurs, normal intra- and inter-horse variation, seasonal variation, and similar factors. PMID:22626511

  2. A Review of Equine Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery in the human was first identified in mid 900's. The procedure as is more commonly practiced now was first reported in 1912. There have been many advances and new techniques developed in the past 100 years. Equine laparoscopy, was first reported in the 1970's, and similarly has undergone much transformation in the last 40 years. It is now considered the standard of care in many surgical techniques such as cryptorchidectomy, ovariectomy, nephrosplenic space ablation, standing abdominal exploratory, and many other reproductive surgeries. This manuscript describes the history of minimally invasive surgery, and highlights many of the techniques that are currently performed in equine surgery. Special attention is given to instrumentation, ligating techniques, and the surgical principles of equine minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23762585

  3. Characterization of alpha-neurotoxin and phospholipase A2 activities from Micrurus venoms. Determination of the amino acid sequence and receptor-binding ability of the major alpha-neurotoxin from Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus.

    PubMed

    Rosso, J P; Vargas-Rosso, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Rochat, H; Bougis, P E

    1996-05-15

    New World elapids are coral snakes that belong to the genus Micrurus, and for which the venom biochemistry is mostly unknown. Analysis has been difficult because the coral snakes produce small quantities of venom. Clinical observations following bites show mainly neurotoxic effects. Experimentally, cardiotoxic, haemolytic and myotoxic activities are also reported. An experimental approach, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and specific assays for alpha-neurotoxin and phospholipase A2 activities, was conducted on milligram quantities of venoms from three Micrurus species from Costa Rica; M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus, M. alleni yatesi and M. multifasciatus. Neurotoxicity was determined by competition binding experiments with the Torpedo marmorata acetylcholine receptor. Phospholipase A2 activity was measured by fluorimetry using a pyrene lipid substrate. In this way, we purified and characterized seven alpha-neurotoxins, five phospholipases A2 and four toxin homologs. The amino acid sequence of the major alpha-neurotoxin from M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus venom was fully determined and compared to Old Word representatives. Distance matrix data were generated to set up phylogeny relationships among elapid short-chain alpha-neurotoxins, which proved to be in accordance with the taxonomic classification and geographical distribution of snake species.

  4. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  5. Cloning of an unusual natriuretic peptide from the South American coral snake Micrurus corallinus.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Soares, M B; Maack, T; Gimenez, I; Puorto, G; Furtado, M F; Raw, I

    1997-11-15

    In the course of cloning abundant cDNAs from the South American coral snake Micrurus corallinus venom gland, we characterized a cDNA coding for a putative natriuretic peptide. All the natural natriuretic peptides described so far, possess a ring structure composed of 17 amino acids formed through an S-S bridge which is extended at the N-terminus by few to several amino acids and may be extended at the C-terminus, usually 4-7 amino acids. In contrast, the M. corallinus natriuretic peptide presents several distinct features: (a) the proform of the deduced natriuretic peptide displays an unusual C-terminus extension. This implies that the mature peptide has a long C-terminal tail or it is further extensively processed to result in the mature natriuretic peptide with the expected 4-7 amino-acid extension. (b) the deduced natriuretic peptide presents an unusual internal Cys within the ring structure. This raises the possibility of natriuretic peptides with a smaller ring structure. (c) the putative natriuretic peptide is flanked by two homologous peptides of unknown function. In addition, an analogous peptide was synthesized and assayed on perfused rat kidney, showing a dose-dependent response in urinary volume and sodium excretion. Moreover, northern-blot studies showed that M. corallinus natriuretic peptide transcripts were highly expressed in venom glands, but they were not detectable in other tissues like heart and brain, suggesting a main role for this M. corallinus natriuretic peptide in the venom gland or in the envenomation by this coral snake's bite.

  6. The neuromuscular activity of Micrurus pyrrhocryptus venom and its neutralization by commercial and specific coral snake antivenoms

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Thiago Magalhães; de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2011-01-01

    The neuromuscular activity ofMicrurus pyrrochryptus venom was studied in chick biventer cervicis (BC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations. The venom (0.5-50μg/ml) caused irreversible, time- and concentration-dependent blockade, with BC being more sensitive than PND (50% blockade with 10μg/ml in 22±;3min and 62±4min, respectively; mean±SEM, n=6; p<0.05). In BC preparations, venom (0.5μg/ml) progressively abolished ACh-induced contractures, whereas contractures to exogenous KCl and muscle twitches in curarized preparations were unaffected. The venom neither altered creatine kinase release (venom: 25.8±1.75IU/l vs control: 24.3±2.2IU/l, n=6, after 120min), nor it caused significant muscle damage (50μg of venom/ml vs control: 3.5±0.8% vs 1.1±0.7% for PND; 4.3±1.5% vs 1.2±0.5% for BC, n=5). The venom had low PLA2 activity. Neurotoxicity was effectively neutralized by commercial Micrurus antivenom and specific antivenom. These findings indicate that M. pyrrhocryptus venom acts postsynaptically on nicotinic receptors, with no significant myotoxicity. PMID:21858249

  7. The neuromuscular activity of Micrurus pyrrhocryptus venom and its neutralization by commercial and specific coral snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Thiago Magalhães; de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2011-01-01

    The neuromuscular activity ofMicrurus pyrrochryptus venom was studied in chick biventer cervicis (BC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations. The venom (0.5-50μg/ml) caused irreversible, time- and concentration-dependent blockade, with BC being more sensitive than PND (50% blockade with 10μg/ml in 22±;3min and 62±4min, respectively; mean±SEM, n=6; p<0.05). In BC preparations, venom (0.5μg/ml) progressively abolished ACh-induced contractures, whereas contractures to exogenous KCl and muscle twitches in curarized preparations were unaffected. The venom neither altered creatine kinase release (venom: 25.8±1.75IU/l vs control: 24.3±2.2IU/l, n=6, after 120min), nor it caused significant muscle damage (50μg of venom/ml vs control: 3.5±0.8% vs 1.1±0.7% for PND; 4.3±1.5% vs 1.2±0.5% for BC, n=5). The venom had low PLA(2) activity. Neurotoxicity was effectively neutralized by commercial Micrurus antivenom and specific antivenom. These findings indicate that M. pyrrhocryptus venom acts postsynaptically on nicotinic receptors, with no significant myotoxicity. PMID:21858249

  8. Cloning and characterization of an alpha-neurotoxin-type protein specific for the coral snake Micrurus corallinus.

    PubMed

    Silveira de Oliveira, J; Rossan de Brandão Prieto da Silva, A; Soares, M B; Stephano, M A; de Oliveira Dias, W; Raw, I; Ho, P L

    2000-01-27

    During the cloning of abundant cDNAs expressed in the Micrurus corallinus coral snake venom gland, we cloned an alpha-neurotoxin homologue cDNA (nxh1). Two others isoforms were also cloned (nxh3 and nxh7, respectively). The nxh1 cDNA codes for a potential coral snake toxin with a signal peptide of 21 amino acids plus a predicted mature peptide with 57 amino acids. The deduced protein is highly similar to known toxic three-finger alpha-neurotoxins, with four deduced S-S bridges at the same conserved positions. This is the first cDNA coding for a three-finger related protein described so far for coral snakes. However, the predicted protein does not possess some of the important amino acids for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor interaction. This protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein that allowed the rapid purification of the recombinant protein. This protein was used to generate antibodies which recognized the recombinant protein in Western blot and also a single band present in the M. corallinus venom, but not in the venom of 10 other Micrurus species.

  9. Neurotoxic envenoming by South American coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus helleri): case report from eastern Ecuador and review.

    PubMed

    Manock, Stephen R; Suarez, German; Graham, David; Avila-Aguero, María L; Warrell, David A

    2008-11-01

    A man bitten by a large coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus helleri) in the Amazon basin of Ecuador developed persistent excruciating pain in the bitten arm. On admission to hospital less than 30 min later, he had a polymorphonuclear leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia and mildly prolonged prothrombin time/partial thromboplastin time. Not until 14 h after the bite did he develop the first signs of neurotoxicity. Despite treatment with specific antivenom 50 h after the bite, he required oxygen for respiratory failure 60 h, and 6 h of mechanical ventilation 72 h, after the bite. Over the next 38 h, he required two further intubations and periods of assisted ventilation before being airlifted to a tertiary referral hospital. Complications included bacterial pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchial obstruction by mucus plugs and mild rhabdomyolysis. He was discharged from hospital 15 days after the bite with persistent limb weakness and urinary incontinence but eventually recovered. The interesting and unusual features of this case (severe local pain, very slow evolution of neurotoxic envenoming, persistent thrombocytopenia and mild coagulopathy) are discussed in the context of what is known of the composition of Micrurus venoms and the small clinical literature on envenoming from their bites.

  10. Maintaining Coral Snakes (Micrurus nigrocinctus, Serpentes: Elapidae) for venom production on an alternative fish-based diet.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Danilo; Rodríguez, Santos; Arias, Jazmín; Solano, Gabriela; Bonilla, Fabián; Gómez, Aarón

    2012-09-01

    American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable. The development of a diet based on fish is compared to the wild diet based on colubrid snakes, and assessed in terms of gain in body weight rate (g/week), longevity (weeks), venom yield (mg/individual), venom median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and venom chromatographic profiles. The animals fed with the fish-based diet gained more weight, lived longer, and produced similar amount of venom whose biological and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of venom collected from specimens fed with the wild diet. This fish-based diet appears to be suitable (and preferable to the wild diet) to supply the nutritional requirements of a Micrurus nigrocinctus snake collection for the production of antivenom.

  11. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  12. Pathogenesis of myonecrosis induced by coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Arroyo, O.; Chaves, F.; Lomonte, B.; Cerdas, L.

    1986-01-01

    The mode by which coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom affects skeletal muscle was studied using a combined approach. The venom induced early functional and structural alterations in the plasma membrane of muscle cells, suggesting that sarcolemma is the primary site of action of this venom. This was shown by the presence of wedge-shaped ('delta') lesions at the periphery of the cells, as well as by focal disruptions in the continuity of plasma membrane as early as 15 min after envenomation. After this initial alteration the rest of the organelles were severely affected. Myofilaments were hypercontracted leaving, as a consequence, areas of overstretched myofibrils as well as empty spaces. Eventually, myofilaments formed dense, clumped masses in which the striated structure was totally lost. At 24 h, myofilaments were still disorganized but they presented a more hyaline and homogeneous appearance. As early as 15 and 30 min mitochondria were swollen; later, by I, 3 and 24 h, they showed further alterations such as the presence of dense intracristal spaces and vesiculated cristae, as well as disruption in the integrity of their membranes. Sarcoplasmic reticulum was dilated and disorganized into many small vesicles randomly distributed throughout the cellular space. Moreover, the venom induced a rapid decrease in muscle levels of creatine and creatine-kinase (CK) and a calcium influx. Since the rates of efflux of creatine and CK were similar, it is suggested that the lesions produced in the membrane are large enough to allow the escape of these two molecules. As corroboration of the severe myotoxic effect, envenomated mice excreted reddish urine containing large quantities of myoglobin. Skeletal muscle cells are more susceptible to the action of the venom than erythrocytes, since coral snake venom induced only a mild direct haemolytic effect in vitro and haemolysis is not a significant effect in vivo. M. nigrocinctus venom induced a drastic increase in plasma

  13. A new species of triadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus Wagler, 1824 (Serpentes: Elapidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pires, Matheus Godoy; Da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia Da Costa; Filho, Gentil Alves Pereira; Zaher, Hussam

    2014-06-05

    The genus Micrurus comprises 123 currently recognized taxa (species and subspecies) that are traditionally arranged in four species groups diagnosable mainly by color pattern characteristics. Here, we describe a new species of triadal coral snake from northeastern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from other sympatric triadal congeners (M. lemniscatus carvalhoi, M. ibiboboca and M. brasiliensis) mainly by the entirely black parietals and by a suite of external characters and hemipenial morphology. The new species appears to be restricted to tropical ombrophilous lowland coastal forests of northeastern Brazil and all recently collected specimens are known to occur in small forest patches surrounded by periurban environment, which calls for an urgent evaluation on its conservation status.

  14. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  15. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  16. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  17. Isolation, characterization, cloning and expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from the venom of the Mexican coral snake Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; López-Vera, Estuardo; Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Smith, Eric N; Zamudio, Fernando; de Roodt, Adolfo R; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    A new member of short chain α-neurotoxic protein family from venom of the Mexican coral snake, Micrurus laticollaris, was characterized. This protein, named MlatA1, possesses 61 amino acids with 8 conserved cysteine residues, sharing 30-91% sequence identity with other fully sequenced Micrurus toxins. MlatA1 (LD50i.v. = 0.064 mg/kg) antagonizes with both fetal and adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as well as α-7 neuronal nAChR in a dose-dependent way. Specific rabbit anti-Mlat serum (titer higher than 18,000) does not show any protective ability against this toxin, nevertheless it was able to recognize protein bands in six out of twelve Micrurus venoms showing the existence of two distinct antigenic groups for α-neurotoxins in North American coral snakes species. The MlatA1 gene was cloned and used to produce recombinant toxin (rMlatA1) that was recognized by rabbit anti-native toxin but was depleted of toxic activity.

  18. Equine diseases caused by known genetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Spier, Sharon J; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of equine genome maps by the equine genome community and the complete sequencing of the horse genome performed at the Broad Institute have accelerated the pace of genetic discovery. This review focuses on genetic diseases in the horse for which a mutation is currently known, including hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, severe combined immunodeficiency, overo lethal white syndrome, junctional epidermolysis bullosa, glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, malignant hyperthermia, hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia, and polysaccharide storage myopathy. Emphasis is placed on the prevalence, clinical signs, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease.

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Franco, José G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  20. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    PubMed

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  1. Frontoxins, three-finger toxins from Micrurus frontalis venom, decrease miniature endplate potential amplitude at frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Moreira, K G; Prates, M V; Andrade, F A C; Silva, L P; Beirão, P S L; Kushmerick, C; Naves, L A; Bloch, C

    2010-08-01

    Neurotoxicity is a major symptom of envenomation caused by Brazilian coral snake Micrurus frontalis. Due to the small amount of material that can be collected, no neurotoxin has been fully sequenced from this venom. In this work we report six new three-finger like toxins isolated from the venom of the coral snake M. frontalis which we named Frontoxin (FTx) I-VI. Toxins were purified using multiple steps of RP-HPLC. Molecular masses were determined by MALDI-TOF and ESI ion-trap mass spectrometry. The complete amino acid sequence of FTx II, III, IV and V were determined by sequencing of overlapping proteolytic fragments by Edman degradation and by de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of FTx I, II, III and VI predict 4 conserved disulphide bonds and structural similarity to previously reported short-chain alpha-neurotoxins. FTx IV and V each contained 10 conserved cysteines and share high similarity with long-chain alpha-neurotoxins. At the frog neuromuscular junction FTx II, III and IV reduced miniature endplate potential amplitudes in a time-and concentration-dependent manner suggesting Frontoxins block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  2. Antibody-mediated neutralization and binding-reversal studies on alpha-neurotoxins from Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus (coral snake) venom.

    PubMed

    Alape-Giron, A; Stiles, B G; Gutierrez, J M

    1996-03-01

    An ELISA based, non-radioactive acetylcholine receptor (AchR) binding assay was used to detect the alpha-neurotoxins present in Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus venom. Sera from horses hyperimmunized against M. nigrocinctus venom contain antibodies which inhibit the binding of M. n. nigrocinctus alpha-neurotoxins to AchR and reverse the binding of toxins already complexed with the receptor. This result supports the importance of using antivenom therapeutically in M. n. nigrocinctus envenomations even after the onset of neurological symptoms. M. nigrocinctus antivenoms cross-reacted in an ELISA with several elapid alpha-neurotoxins and inhibited the binding of Bungarus multicinctus alpha-bungarotoxin and Naja naja oxiana neurotoxin II to AchR in vitro, suggesting the presence of short-chain and long-chain alpha-neurotoxins in M. nigrocinctus venom. In vivo neutralization experiments with M. nigrocinctus antivenom demonstrate that M. nigrocinctus venom contains short-chain alpha-neurotoxin(s) which share common neutralizing epitope(s) with Naja naja oxiana neurotoxin II.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a basic phospholipase A2 homologue from Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) venom gland.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ursula Castro; Assui, Alessandra; da Silva, Alvaro Rossan de Brandão Prieto; de Oliveira, Jane Silveira; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2003-09-01

    During the cloning of abundant cDNAs expressed in the Micrurus corallinus coral snake venom gland, several putative toxins, including a phospholipase A2 homologue cDNA (clone V2), were identified. The V2 cDNA clone codes for a potential coral snake toxin with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues plus a predicted mature protein with 119 amino acid residues. The deduced protein is highly similar to known phospholipases A2, with seven deduced S-S bridges at the same conserved positions. This protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein that allowed the rapid purification of the recombinant protein. This protein was used to generate antibodies, which recognized the recombinant protein in Western blot. This antiserum was used to screen a large number of venoms, showing a ubiquitous distribution of immunorelated proteins in all elapidic venoms but not in the viperidic Bothrops jararaca venom. This is the first description of a complete primary structure of a phospholipase A2 homologue deduced by cDNA cloning from a coral snake.

  4. Lemnitoxin, the major component of Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom, is a myotoxic and pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Casais-E-Silva, Luciana L; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Lebrun, Ivo; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-08-22

    The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin. This PLA2 is antigenically related to M. nigrocinctus nigroxin, Notechis scutatus notexin, Pseudechis australis mulgotoxin, and Pseudonaja textilis textilotoxin, as demonstrated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Lemnitoxin is highly selective in its targeting of cells, being cytotoxic for differentiated myotubes in vitro and muscle fibers in vivo, but not for undifferentiated myoblasts or endothelial cells. Lemnitoxin is not lethal after intravenous injection at doses up to 2μg/g in mice, evidencing its lack of significant neurotoxicity. Lemnitoxin displays anticoagulant effect on human plasma and proinflammatory activity also, as it induces paw edema and mast cell degranulation. Thus, the results of this work demonstrate that Lemnitoxin is a potent myotoxic and proinflammatory class I PLA2. PMID:27282409

  5. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  6. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  7. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  8. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  9. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  10. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  11. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty. PMID:19945637

  12. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  13. Feeding behavior and venom toxicity of coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus (Serpentes: Elapidae) on its natural prey in captivity.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, Aldo H; Bolaños, Federico; Gutiérrez, José María

    2004-08-01

    The feeding behavior and venom toxicity of the coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus (Serpentes: Elapidae) on its natural prey in captivity were investigated. Coral snakes searched for their prey (the colubrid snake Geophis godmani) in the cages. Once their preys were located, coral snakes stroke them with a rapid forward movement, biting predominantly in the anterior region of the body. In order to assess the role of venom in prey restraint and ingestion, a group of coral snakes was 'milked' in order to drastically reduce the venom content in their glands. Significant differences were observed between snakes with venom, i.e., 'nonmilked' snakes, and 'milked' snakes regarding their behavior after the bite. The former remained hold to the prey until paralysis was achieved, whereas the latter, in the absence of paralysis, moved their head towards the head of the prey and bit the skull to achieve prey immobilization by mechanical means. There were no significant differences in the time of ingestion between these two groups of coral snakes. Susceptibility to the lethal effect of coral snake venom greatly differed in four colubrid species; G. godmani showed the highest susceptibility, followed by Geophis brachycephalus, whereas Ninia psephota and Ninia maculata were highly resistant to this venom. In addition, the blood serum of N. maculata, but not that of G. brachycephalus, prolonged the time of death of mice injected with 2 LD(50)s of M. nigrocinctus venom, when venom and blood serum were incubated before testing. Subcutaneous injection of coral snake venom in G. godmani induced neurotoxicity and myotoxicity, without causing hemorrhage and without affecting heart and lungs. It is concluded that (a) M. nigrocinctus venom plays a role in prey immobilization, (b) venom induces neurotoxic and myotoxic effects in colubrid snakes which comprise part of their natural prey, and (c) some colubrid snakes of the genus Ninia present a conspicuous resistance to the toxic action of M

  14. Neurotoxicity of Micrurus altirostris (Uruguayan coral snake) venom and its neutralization by commercial coral snake antivenom and specific antiserum raised in rabbits.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Valdemir Aparecido; Leite, Gildo Bernardo; Oliveira, Caroline Borja; Hyslop, Stephen; Furtado, Maria de Fatima Domingos; Simioni, Lea Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we studied the neuromuscular blockade caused by Micrurus altirostris venom (0.1-10 microg/mL) in indirect stimulated chick biventer cervicis and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and the ability of commercial antivenom (Instituto Butantan) and antiserum raised in rabbits to neutralize neurotoxicity and lethality in chicks and mice (LD(50) 0.042 and 0.255 mg/kg), injected i.m. and i.p., respectively, with venom (5 LD(50)):antivenom or antiserum mixtures (n = 6) of 1:1-1:2.5-1:5-1:10-1:20. The venom caused a complete and irreversible neuromuscular blockade in both preparations, inhibited the acetylcholine and carbachol contractures, without interfering on KCl response. The neuromuscular blockade was not Ca(2+) or temperature-dependent and did not affect the response to direct stimulation. Only a venom:antivenom or antiserum ratio of 1:20 neutralized the neuromuscular blockade in vitro and protected chicks and mice against 5 LD(50) of venom. Our results indicated that Micrurus altirostris venom interferes with postsynaptic neurotransmission and that commercial antivenom and rabbit antiserum have low efficacy in neutralizing the neurotoxicity and lethality of this venom.

  15. A comparison of in vitro methods for assessing the potency of therapeutic antisera against the venom of the coral snake Micrurus nigrocinctus.

    PubMed

    Alape-Girón, A; Miranda-Arrieta, K; Cortes-Bratti, X; Stiles, B G; Gutiérrez, J M

    1997-04-01

    Therapeutic antisera against Micrurus nigrocinctus venom were tested for protection against lethality, as well as for inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR)-binding and neutralization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities of the homologous venom. Protection against venom lethality did not correlate with inhibition of AchR-binding activity, whereas there was a significant correlation between antisera potency and inhibition of PLA2 activity (r = 0.82, n = 10, P < 0.02). Inhibition of PLA2 activity could be useful in assessing the protective efficacy of M. nigrocinctus antisera during antivenom production. Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus venom proteins were fractionated by cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S FPLC and fractions assayed for lethality, AchR-binding and PLA2 activities. Antisera were titrated by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) against a crude M. n. nigrocinctus venom, two FPLC lethal fractions containing AchR-binding activity, and two toxins purified from M. n. nigrocinctus venom. No correlation was found between protective efficacy and the ELISA titer against any of these antigens. Compared to other elapid venoms that contain few toxins as major components, M. n. nigrocinctus venom appears to be more complex and its lethal effect is likely to be due to the combined effect of several neurotoxins.

  16. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  17. Focus on equine practice at student symposium.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jordan

    2016-03-12

    Veterinary students with a particular interest in equine medicine and surgery gathered at Nottingham vet school recently to further their knowledge and skills in these areas. Jordan Sinclair, editor of the Journal of the Association of Veterinary Students, reports. PMID:26966303

  18. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  19. Evidence-based equine upper respiratory surgery.

    PubMed

    Beard, Warren L; Waxman, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the veterinary literature for various surgical procedures of the equine upper respiratory tract in an effort to evaluate the evidence supporting various therapies. This article focuses on the therapeutic benefit from more widely occurring conditions, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, arytenoid chondritis, and epiglottic entrapment.

  20. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  1. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  2. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intensively managed farm in the mid-western plain and in working horses at two locations in central plains of the state. The resistant allele (r) frequency in cyathostomins was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Vindhyan and Tarai and Bhabar zones of Uttar Pradesh. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistant allele (r) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cyathostomins of intensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.35) as compared to extensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.22). The widespread prevalence of benzimidazole resistant alleles in equine cyathostomins in Uttar Pradesh, India, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  3. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  4. International Equine Ophthalmology Consortium (IEOC) Symposium.

    PubMed

    Gilger, B C; Brooks, D E

    2009-07-01

    This first IEOC symposium met its goals of gathering a group of leading equine ophthalmology clinicians and researchers to identify the challenges of the field. To facilitate collaboration, notes from round-table discussions, including the ideas and plans that were discussed are being complied and will be distributed to the attendees. Development of an IEOC membership organisation and website was discussed and supported by the group in an effort further to advance the science of equine ophthalmology. To present results from the collaborations made at this first IEOC meeting, an IEOC mini-symposium will be held at the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists Annual Meeting in Chicago Illinois, on 6th November 2009. The second annual IEOC symposium will be held in Vienna, Austria on 4th and 5th June 2010.

  5. A Heterologous Multiepitope DNA Prime/Recombinant Protein Boost Immunisation Strategy for the Development of an Antiserum against Micrurus corallinus (Coral Snake) Venom

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Henrique Roman; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola M.; Novo, Juliana Branco; Castro, Karen; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A.; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Envenoming by coral snakes (Elapidae: Micrurus), although not abundant, represent a serious health threat in the Americas, especially because antivenoms are scarce. The development of adequate amounts of antielapidic serum for the treatment of accidents caused by snakes like Micrurus corallinus is a challenging task due to characteristics such as low venom yield, fossorial habit, relatively small sizes and ophiophagous diet. These features make it difficult to capture and keep these snakes in captivity for venom collection. Furthermore, there are reports of antivenom scarcity in USA, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality, with patients needing to be intubated and ventilated while the toxin wears off. The development of an alternative method for the production of an antielapidic serum, with no need for snake collection and maintenance in captivity, would be a plausible solution for the antielapidic serum shortage. Methods and Findings In this work we describe the mapping, by the SPOT-synthesis technique, of potential B-cell epitopes from five putative toxins from M. corallinus, which were used to design two multiepitope DNA strings for the genetic immunisation of female BALB/c mice. Results demonstrate that sera obtained from animals that were genetically immunised with these multiepitope constructs, followed by booster doses of recombinant proteins lead to a 60% survival in a lethal dose neutralisation assay. Conclusion Here we describe that the genetic immunisation with a synthetic multiepitope gene followed by booster doses with recombinant protein is a promising approach to develop an alternative antielapidic serum against M. corallinus venom without the need of collection and the very challenging maintenance of these snakes in captivity. PMID:26938217

  6. Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Masini, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an approach in which horses are an integral part of the therapeutic process. This article provides an overview of EAP, including a brief historical perspective, key definitions, and review of pertinent literature. Benefits of the approach are presented, from the standpoint of field observations, client self-reports, and formal research articles. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this article is intended to help non-EAP practitioners become more familiar with the approach. PMID:20873699

  7. Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Masini, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an approach in which horses are an integral part of the therapeutic process. This article provides an overview of EAP, including a brief historical perspective, key definitions, and review of pertinent literature. Benefits of the approach are presented, from the standpoint of field observations, client self-reports, and formal research articles. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this article is intended to help non-EAP practitioners become more familiar with the approach.

  8. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices. PMID:22165335

  9. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  10. Optimising vaccination strategies in equine influenza.

    PubMed

    Park, A W; Wood, J L N; Newton, J R; Daly, J; Mumford, J A; Grenfell, B T

    2003-06-20

    A stochastic model of equine influenza (EI) is constructed to assess the risk of an outbreak in a Thoroughbred population at a typical flat race training yard. The model is parameterised using data from equine challenge experiments conducted by the Animal Health Trust (relating to the latent and infectious period of animals) and also published data on previous epidemics (to estimate the transmission rate for equine influenza). Using 89 ponies, an empirical relationship between pre-challenge antibody and the probability of becoming infectious is established using logistic regression. Changes in antibody level over time are quantified using published and unpublished studies comprising 618 ponies and horses. A plausible Thoroughbred population is examined over the course of a year and the model is used to assess the risk of an outbreak of EI in the yard under the current minimum vaccination policy in the UK. The model is adapted to consider an alternative vaccination programme where the frequency of vaccination in older horses (2-year-olds and upwards) is increased. Model results show that this practical alternative would offer a significant increase in protection. Spread of infection between yards is also considered to ascertain the risk of secondary outbreaks.

  11. Novel vaccination approaches against equine alphavirus encephalitides.

    PubMed

    Carossino, Mariano; Thiry, Etienne; de la Grandière, Ana; Barrandeguy, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    The current production of inactivated vaccines for the prevention of equine alphavirus encephalitides caused by Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viruses (EEEV, WEEV, VEEV) involves the manipulation of large quantities of infectious viral particles under biosafety level 3 containment laboratories with the potential risk of transmission to the operators. Moreover, these vaccines are not capable of inducing a long-lasting immunity. Modified live vaccines, which were also attempted, maintain residual virulence and neurotropism, causing disease in both horses and humans. Therefore, the production of an efficacious second generation vaccine which could be used in the prevention of alphavirus infection without the need to manipulate infectious viral particles under high biocontainment conditions could be of great benefit for the worldwide horse industry. Furthermore, equine alphaviruses are considered as biological threat agents. Subunit, chimeric, gene-deleted live mutants, DNA and adenovirus-vectored alphavirus vaccines have been evaluated; such approaches are reviewed in this work. Climate changes, together with modifications in bird and vector ecology, are leading to the arise of emerging pathogens in new geographical locations, and these zoonotic New World arboviruses are gaining concern. Novel vaccine development does show a promising future for prevention of these infections in both horses and humans. PMID:24295803

  12. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  13. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  14. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  15. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  16. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  1. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for equine prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, J.F.; Chang, Y.S.; Papkoff, H.; Li, C.H.

    1984-04-01

    A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for equine prolactin, suitable for measuring prolactin concentrations in serum of horses. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation averaged 6.9 and 15.4%, respectively, for five doses of hormone. Cross-reactivity with other mammalian and nonmammalian prolactins and growth hormones was less than 20 and 0.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with equine growth hormone was less than 0.07%. Equine serum and pituitary extracts showed parallel dilution-response curves with equine prolactin. The percentage recovery of exogenous equine prolactin in serum was 89%. Preliminary analysis of several physiological samples (stallions, pregnant, and nonpregnant mares) yielded values from 0.6 to 12.0 ng/ml.

  2. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids. PMID:27234546

  3. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions. PMID:19945636

  4. Morphogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bykovsky, A. F.; Yershov, F. I.; Zhdanov, V. M.

    1969-01-01

    Morphogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was studied by means of electron microscopy. Virus-specific structures (factories, viroplasts) were found at early stages of infection; these structures were composed of fibrillar and cylindrical formations, aggregates of ribosomes, and viral nucleoids. The latter emerged from fibrillar and cylindrical structures. Aggregates of viral nucleoids were found in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the nuclei of virus-infected cells. Viral envelopes and mature virions were formed on the cell membranes and on the membranes of intracellular vacuoles. Anomalous forms of virions (both polygenomic and oligogenomic) were observed. Images PMID:5823233

  5. Adverse effects of equine rabies immune gobulin.

    PubMed

    Wilde, H; Chomchey, P; Prakongsri, S; Puyaratabandhu, P; Chutivongse, S

    1989-02-01

    Following a recently published prospective study of 485 recipients of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) manufactured by Pasteur Vaccins (Paris), this paper reports a study of 323 postexposure rabies patients receiving ERIG manufactured by the Swiss Vaccine and Serum Institute (Berna). It is concluded that there may be significant differences in adverse reaction rates, reflecting differing manufacturing or purification processes and protein content. Further studies of different ERIG products and of different lots of the same product are needed while ERIG remains an essential component of postexposure rabies treatment in developing countries.

  6. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions.

  7. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. PMID:26898963

  8. Equine rehabilitation therapy for joint disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mimi

    2005-12-01

    The principles of physical rehabilitation therapy can be applied to the horse to provide a reduction in discomfort and dysfunction associated with the various forms of joint disease. Physical agents,such as ice, heat, electricity, sound, light, magnetic fields, compression, and movement, can be used by the rehabilitation therapist to attempt to control pain, reduce swelling, and restore optimal movement and function in the affected joint. The equine therapist's attention is focused not only on the affected joint but on the body as a whole to manage secondary or compensatory problems.

  9. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  10. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection.

  11. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports. PMID:27420100

  12. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports. PMID:27420100

  13. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. PMID:27108172

  14. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J S; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T P; Benson, C L

    1996-04-01

    An immunohistochemical (IHC) assay was developed for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. All cases of EEE diagnosed at the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory from 1991 through 1994 were evaluated. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic examination of the brain and confirmatory virus, isolation. Sections of cerebrum from 26 equids and 5 birds were assessed by IHC. Histologically normal brain tissues from 2 horses and 1 pheasant and brain tissues from 2 cases of equine neurologic disease with diagnoses other than EEE served as negative controls. The IHC assay was based on standard streptavidin-biotin technology, using a commercially available kit and a monospecific polyclonal primary antibody preparation derived from murine ascitic fluid. Nineteen of 20 equids and all 5 birds positive by histopathology and virus isolation were positive for EEE virus antigen by IHC. Three equids with histologic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of EEE but negative by virus isolation also were negative for virus antigen by IHC. In 3 other equids, histopathology and IHC were positive for EEE, but virus isolation was not attempted because of contamination of the brain specimen. The IHC assay of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissues for EEE virus antigen is a rapid, effective test for confirming a histopathologic diagnosis of EEE, and assay results correlate well with virus isolation results.

  15. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles.

  16. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine tarsus.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Julia E; Redding, W Rich; Berry, Clifford; Smallwood, James E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed computed tomographic (CT) anatomic reference for the equine tarsus. CT examinations of the tarsal regions from four clinically and radiographically normal adult horses, which were euthanized for reasons not related to musculoskeletal disease, were included in the study. Limbs were removed at the level of midtibia, and 3-mm contiguous transverse CT images were obtained, starting at a level proximal to the tuber calcanei and continuing distally into the proximal metatarsus. Soft tissue and bone windows were used to image different anatomic features, including bones, joints, and various soft tissue components of the tarsus. Each transverse slice was compared with bone models and dissected specimens to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. The results of the study consist of nine CT images of the equine tarsus. Each image incorporates labeled soft tissue and bone-window images, a directional compass indicating cranial (Cr) or dorsal (D) and lateral (L), and a reconstructed scout image indicating the level through which the transverse slice was made. PMID:12718352

  17. Structural insight into equine lentivirus receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lei; Han, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-05-01

    Equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1) has been identified as a functional cellular receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Herein, recombinant ELR1 and EIAV surface glycoprotein gp90 were respectively expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, and purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) analyses indicated that both ELR1 and gp90 existed as individual monomers in solution and formed a complex with a stoichiometry of 1:1 when mixed. The structure of ELR1 was first determined with the molecular replacement method, which belongs to the space group P42 21 2 with one molecule in an asymmetric unit. It contains eight antiparallel β-sheets, of which four are in cysteine rich domain 1 (CRD1) and two are in CRD2 and CRD3, respectively. Alignment of ELR1 with HVEM and CD134 indicated that Tyr61, Leu70, and Gly72 in CRD1 of ELR1 are important residues for binding to gp90. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments further confirmed that Leu70 and Gly72 are the critical residues.

  18. Anesthesia of the critically ill equine patient.

    PubMed

    Cornick-Seahorn, Janyce

    2004-04-01

    There is a plethora of information regarding anesthetic management of horses; however, controlled studies of the critically ill equine patient are few. These patients should be managed like any equine anesthetic candidate but much more stringently:I. Preoperative evaluation and appropriate therapy may represent the difference between life and death during the intraoperative and recovery periods. 2. The anesthetic induction and maintenance protocol should be based on the individual situation of the veterinary facility and personnel("comfort zone"). 3. Appropriate monitoring and intraoperative supportive measures are essential. 4. The anesthetic period is a significant perturbation to homeostasis. Even if the horse seems to have done well (ie, as indicated by the cardiopulmonary values), a problem-free anesthetic period does not guarantee a successful recovery, and close monitoring should continue until the horse is ambulatory. 5. Critically ill patients are often in a negative energy balance. Supportive measures to ensure an adequate caloric intake, such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, facilitate healing and return of homeostasis.

  19. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J S; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T P; Benson, C L

    1996-04-01

    An immunohistochemical (IHC) assay was developed for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. All cases of EEE diagnosed at the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory from 1991 through 1994 were evaluated. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic examination of the brain and confirmatory virus, isolation. Sections of cerebrum from 26 equids and 5 birds were assessed by IHC. Histologically normal brain tissues from 2 horses and 1 pheasant and brain tissues from 2 cases of equine neurologic disease with diagnoses other than EEE served as negative controls. The IHC assay was based on standard streptavidin-biotin technology, using a commercially available kit and a monospecific polyclonal primary antibody preparation derived from murine ascitic fluid. Nineteen of 20 equids and all 5 birds positive by histopathology and virus isolation were positive for EEE virus antigen by IHC. Three equids with histologic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of EEE but negative by virus isolation also were negative for virus antigen by IHC. In 3 other equids, histopathology and IHC were positive for EEE, but virus isolation was not attempted because of contamination of the brain specimen. The IHC assay of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissues for EEE virus antigen is a rapid, effective test for confirming a histopathologic diagnosis of EEE, and assay results correlate well with virus isolation results. PMID:8744735

  20. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  1. Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Baier, Margaret E Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of children who participated in a non-equine intervention (N = 8). Parents noted significant improvements in their child's physical, emotional and social functioning following the first 6 weeks of EAA. The children participating in the non-equine program also demonstrated improvement in behavior, but to a lesser degree. The favorable outcome of this study lends support for continuation of programs utilizing EAA in the treatment of children with ASD. PMID:24526337

  2. Complete genome sequence of equine herpesvirus type 9.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Souichi

    2012-12-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 9 (EHV-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in Thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. Our previous report indicated that EHV-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. We determined the genome sequence of EHV-9. The genome has a length of 148,371 bp and all 80 of the open reading frames (ORFs) found in the genome of EHV-1. The nucleotide sequences of the ORFs in EHV-9 were 86 to 95% identical to those in EHV-1. The whole genome sequence should help to reveal the neuropathogenicity of EHV-9. PMID:23166237

  3. Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Baier, Margaret E Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of children who participated in a non-equine intervention (N = 8). Parents noted significant improvements in their child's physical, emotional and social functioning following the first 6 weeks of EAA. The children participating in the non-equine program also demonstrated improvement in behavior, but to a lesser degree. The favorable outcome of this study lends support for continuation of programs utilizing EAA in the treatment of children with ASD.

  4. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  5. Methocarbamol suspension for the treatment of rhabdomyolysis in equines.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Bobby N

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis in equines occurs in horses due to physical overexertion or underlying pathologic myopathy. Methocarbamol is a muscle relaxant that can be used in equines to treat symptoms associated with Rhabdomyolysis. Methocarbamol is available as a solution for injection but is not commercially available as an oral suspension. This article focuses on the treatment of Tying-up caused by overexertion, and details the treatment of Rhabdomyolysis with an oral suspension that was prepared for a veterinarian by a compounding pharmacist. PMID:24459784

  6. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Kawamoto, Adelia Hiroko Nagamori; Alves, Rosely Cabette Barbosa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses. PMID:24878995

  7. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:26898962

  8. Comparative study on the ability of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize lethal and myotoxic effects induced by Micrurus nigrocinctus (coral snake) venom.

    PubMed

    León, G; Stiles, B; Alape, A; Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M

    1999-08-01

    A comparative study was performed on the ability of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize lethal and myotoxic activities of Micrurus nigrocinctus venom. Both antivenoms were adjusted to a similar neutralizing potency in experiments where venom and antivenoms were preincubated prior to injection. No significant differences were observed between IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms concerning neutralization of lethal effect in rescue experiments, i.e., when antivenom was administered intravenously after envenomation. However, F(ab')2 antivenom was more effective in prolonging the time of death when subneutralizing doses were administered immediately after venom injection. Both products partially reversed the binding of M. nigrocinctus alpha-neurotoxins to acetylcholine receptor in vitro. The IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms effectively neutralized venom-induced myotoxicity when administered intravenously immediately after envenomation, although neutralization was poor if antivenom injections were delayed. Intramuscular injection of venom promoted diffusion of antivenom antibodies throughout muscle tissue, and F(ab')2 diffused to a higher extent than IgG molecules. Thus, despite the observation that F(ab')2 antivenom was more effective than IgG antivenom in prolonging the time of death when subneutralizing doses were administered immediately after envenomation, no major differences were observed in antivenom neutralization of lethal and myotoxic effects or in their capacity to reverse neurotoxin binding to the acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Mipartoxin-I, a novel three-finger toxin, is the major neurotoxic component in the venom of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Núñez, Vitelbina; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Lomonte, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    The major venom component of Micrurus mipartitus, a coral snake distributed from Nicaragua to northern South America, was characterized biochemically and functionally. This protein, named mipartoxin-I, is a novel member of the three-finger toxin superfamily, presenting the characteristic cysteine signature and amino acid sequence length of the short-chain, type-I, α-neurotoxins. Nevertheless, it varies considerably from related toxins, with a sequence identity not higher than 70% in a multiple alignment of 67 proteins within this family. Its observed molecular mass (7030.0) matches the value predicted by its amino acid sequence, indicating lack of post-translational modifications. Mipartoxin-I showed a potent lethal effect in mice (intraperitoneal median lethal dose: 0.06 μg/g body weight), and caused a clear neuromuscular blockade on both avian and mouse nerve-muscle preparations, presenting a post-synaptic action through the cholinergic nicotinic receptor. Since mipartoxin-I is the most abundant (28%) protein in M. mipartitus venom, it should play a major role in its toxicity, and therefore represents an important target for developing a therapeutic antivenom, which is very scarce or even unavailable in the regions where this snake inhabits. The structural information here provided might help in the preparation of a synthetic or recombinant immunogen to overcome the limited venom availability.

  10. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Bailey, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from <3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain Bucyrus at 4°C was significantly higher in HEK-EqCXCL16 cells than nontransfected HEK-293T cells. Finally, the results demonstrated that EAV preferentially infects subpopulations of horse CD14+ monocytes expressing EqCXCL16 and that infection of these cells is significantly reduced by pretreatment with Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb. The collective data from this study provide confirmatory evidence that the transmembrane form of EqCXCL16 likely plays a major role in EAV host cell entry processes, possibly acting as a primary receptor molecule for this virus. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EVA can be a source of significant economic loss for the equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a

  11. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  12. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  13. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a 'notifiable' disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication.

  14. Sensory receptors in the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Bowker, R M; Brewer, A M; Vex, K B; Guida, L A; Linder, K E; Sonea, I M; Stinson, A W

    1993-11-01

    Two types of sensory receptors were located in the equine foot, using anatomic techniques. Histologic examination of stained hoof sections revealed lamellated corpuscles in the hoof dermis, which had many of the morphologic characteristics of Pacinian corpuscles. These sensory receptors were restricted to the palmar (caudal) aspects of the solar dermis of the heel. A second type of receptor was detected by use of immunocytochemistry, indicating apparently naked nerve endings containing the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in skin, solar dermal tubules, and the digital cushion. This peptide is an example of a sensory neurotransmitter contained in dorsal root ganglion cells and is believed to exist only in unmyelinated sensory nerve fibers. These 2 morphologic structures may be used for detection of sensory stimuli, such as pressure (or vibratory senses) and pain, respectively, in horses during various locomotory gaits.

  15. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  16. Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Patricia V.; Greene, Ivorlyne P.; Coffey, Lark L.; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V.; Turell, Michael J.; O’Guinn, Monica L.; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B.; Watts, Douglas M.; Russell, Kevin L.; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C.; Klein, Terry A.; Dohm, David J.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin. PMID:15200823

  17. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  18. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries.

  19. Transport of equine ovaries for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, B I; Love, L B; Choi, Y H; Hinrichs, K

    2008-10-01

    Use of assisted reproduction to obtain foals from valuable mares post-mortem typically necessitates holding of ovaries during shipment to a laboratory. The present study evaluated whether holding ovaries briefly at a warm ( approximately 30 degrees C) temperature improves meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes, as determined after maturation in vitro and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Ovaries were packaged in pairs in insulated containers, and held either at 24 or 25-35 degrees C for 4h, followed by cooling. Ovaries in both treatments were held for either a short (mean, 7-7.4h) or long (mean, 20.6-20.7h) duration before oocyte recovery. Control ovaries were collected en masse at the abattoir. The ovary temperature in this treatment slowly decreased to approximately 27 degrees C; oocyte recovery was performed after 3.5-7h total holding. There was no effect of temperature on oocyte meiotic or developmental competence within either treatment time period. Oocytes in the short duration holding group had similar meiotic competence to controls, but had a significantly decreased rate (P<0.05) of blastocyst development. Oocytes in the long duration holding group had decreased (P<0.05) meiotic competence and blastocyst development compared to controls. These findings indicate that storage of equine ovaries for only 7h may decrease blastocyst development, and that longer storage reduces both rate of oocyte maturation and blastocyst development. Further work is needed to determine if there is a critical time before 7h post-mortem by which equine oocytes should be recovered to maximize developmental competence. PMID:17888596

  20. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  1. Diagnosis of equine influenza by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, J C; Coonrod, J D; Chambers, T M

    1994-01-01

    Influenza A is a common respiratory infection of horses, and rapid diagnosis is important for its detection and control. Sensitive detection of influenza currently requires viral culture and is not always feasible. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA produced by reverse transcription of equine influenza in stored nasal secretions, vaccines, and allantoic fluids. Primers directed at a target of 212 bp on conserved segment 7 (matrix gene) of human influenza A/Bangkok/1/79(H3N2) produced amplification products of appropriate size with influenza A/Equine/Prague/1/56 (H7N7), A/Equine/Miami/63 (H3N8), A/Equine/Kentucky/79 (H3N8), and A/Equine/Kentucky/2/91 (H3N8) in infected frozen allantoic fluids and in frozen extracts of nasal swabs of 2 horses with naturally acquired influenza. The products bound a 32P-labeled hybridization probe to an inner region of the target. Control samples, including nasal secretions from a horse infected with herpesvirus, were negative. In a prospective study, 2 ponies inhaled aerosols of influenza A/Equine/Kentucky/2/91 (H3N8), and thereafter supernatants of nasal swabs in transport medium were obtained daily for 10 days for culture and PCR. Amplification products were evaluated by size and binding of a 32P-labeled probe and also by dot-blotting and binding of a biotin-labeled probe. Culture detected influenza more consistently than did PCR in the first 2 days of infection, but PCR detected virus more often later in infection. Gels were the most sensitive, but radiometric and biotin-labeled probes gave specific results and were consistently positive from days 3-6. PCR is suitable for detection of equine influenza in clinical samples. PMID:8011780

  2. Neutralization of two North American coral snake venoms with United States and Mexican antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Lopez-Johnston, Juan C; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C

    2008-02-01

    Elapid snakes throughout the world are considered very lethal, containing neurotoxic venoms that affect the nervous system. When humans are envenomated it is considered a serious medical emergency, and antivenom is the main form of treatment considered, in spite of the fact that some patients may only survive under intensive therapy treatment such as respiratory support. Coral snakes are part of the family Elapidae and envenomations by these snakes are very low (<2% of total snakebites) in most countries from southeastern United States to Argentina. In the United States, there are only two species of coral snakes of medical importance that belong to the Micrurus genera: Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Eastern coral snake) and Micrurus tener tener (Texas coral snake). In 2006, Wyeth pharmaceutical notified customers that the production of the North American coral snake antivenin (NACSA) in the US was discontinued and adequate supplies were available to meet historical needs through the end of October 2008; and therefore, it is of utmost important to consider other antivenoms as alternatives for the treatment of coral snake envenoming. One logical alternative is the coral snake antivenom, Coralmyn, produced by the Mexican company, Bioclon. In order to compare neutralization between NACSA and Coralmyn antivenoms with the North American coral snake venoms, the venom lethal doses (LD(50)) and antivenom effective doses (ED(50)) were determined in 18-20 g, female, BALB/c mice. Additionally, venom comparisons were determined through a non-reduced SDS-PAGE for M.f.fulvius, M.t.tener and the Mexican coral snake venom, Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus. Coralmyn antivenom was able to effectively neutralize three LD(50) doses of all venom from both M.t.tener and M.f.fulvius, while Wyeth antivenom only neutralized M.f.fulvius venom and was not effective in neutralizing three LD(50) doses of M.t.tener venom. Coralmyn is effective in the neutralization of both clinically important

  3. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stephanie; Barsova, Jekaterina; Campos, Isabel; Frampton, Arthur R

    2016-08-30

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. Strains of EHV-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral DNA polymerase (nucleotide A2254>G2254: amino acid N752→D752) are isolated from EHM afflicted horses at higher frequencies than EHV-1 strains that do not harbor this mutation. Due to the correlation between the DNA Pol mutation and EHM disease, EHV-1 strains that contain the mutation have been designated as neurologic. In this study, we measured virus replication, cell to cell spread efficacy, and host inflammatory responses in equine endothelial cells infected with 12 different strains of EHV-1. Two strains, T953 (Ohio 2003) (neurologic) and Kentucky A (KyA) (non-neurologic), have well described disease phenotypes while the remaining strains used in this study are classified as neurologic or non-neurologic based solely on the presence or absence of the DNA pol mutation, respectively. Results show that the neurologic strains do not replicate better or spread more efficiently in endothelial cells. Also, the majority of the host inflammatory genes were modulated similarly regardless of EHV-1 genotype. Analyses of host gene expression showed that a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, as well as CCL5, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently up-regulated in endothelial cells infected with each EHV-1 strain. The identification of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells that are modulated by EHV-1 provides further insight into the factors that contribute to the immunopathology observed after infection and may also reveal new targets for disease intervention. PMID:27527764

  4. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  5. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease.

  6. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TAKEHANA, Kazushige; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  7. Purification and characterization of tenerplasminin-1, a serine peptidase inhibitor with antiplasmin activity from the coral snake (Micrurus tener tener) venom.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Jeilyn; Ibarra, Carlos; Salazar, Ana M; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Sánchez, Elda E; Perales, Jonás; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2016-01-01

    A plasmin inhibitor, named tenerplasminin-1 (TP1), was isolated from Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) venom. It showed a molecular mass of 6542Da, similarly to Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitors. The amidolytic activity of plasmin (0.5nM) on synthetic substrate S-2251 was inhibited by 91% following the incubation with TP1 (1nM). Aprotinin (2nM) used as the positive control of inhibition, reduced the plasmin amidolytic activity by 71%. Plasmin fibrinolytic activity (0.05nM) was inhibited by 67% following incubation with TP1 (0.1nM). The degradation of fibrinogen chains induced by plasmin, trypsin or elastase was inhibited by TP1 at a 1:2, 1:4 and 1:20 enzyme:inhibitor ratio, respectively. On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of crude Mtt venom on fibrinogen chains, previously attributed to metallopeptidases, was not abolished by TP1. The tPA-clot lysis assay showed that TP1 (0.2nM) acts like aprotinin (0.4nM) inducing a delay in lysis time and lysis rate which may be associated with the inhibition of plasmin generated from the endogenous plasminogen activation. TP1 is the first serine protease plasmin-like inhibitor isolated from Mtt snake venom which has been characterized in relation to its mechanism of action, formation of a plasmin:TP1 complex and therapeutic potential as anti-fibrinolytic agent, a biological characteristic of great interest in the field of biomedical research. They could be used to regulate the fibrinolytic system in pathologies such as metastatic cancer, parasitic infections, hemophilia and other hemorrhagic syndromes, in which an intense fibrinolytic activity is observed.

  8. Purification and characterization of tenerplasminin-1, a serine peptidase inhibitor with antiplasmin activity from the coral snake (Micrurus tener tener) venom

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Jeilyn; Ibarra, Carlos; Salazar, Ana M.; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G.C.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Perales, Jonás; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2015-01-01

    A plasmin inhibitor, named tenerplasminin-1 (TP1), was isolated from Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) venom. It showed a molecular mass of 6542 Da, similarly to Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitors. The amidolytic activity of plasmin (0.5 nM) on synthetic substrate S-2251 was inhibited by 91% following the incubation with TP1 (1 nM). Aprotinin (2 nM) used as the positive control of inhibition, reduced the plasmin amidolytic activity by 71%. Plasmin fibrinolytic activity (0.05 nM) was inhibited by 67% following incubation with TP1 (0.1 nM). The degradation of fibrinogen chains induced by plasmin, trypsin or elastase was inhibited by TP1 at a 1:2, 1:4 and 1:20 enzyme:inhibitor ratio, respectively. On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of crude Mtt venom on fibrinogen chains, previously attributed to metallopeptidases, was not abolished by TP1. The tPA-clot lysis assay showed that TP1 (0.2 nM) acts like aprotinin (0.4 nM) inducing a delay in lysis time and lysis rate which may be associated with the inhibition of plasmin generated from the endogenous plasminogen activation. TP1 is the first serine protease plasmin-like inhibitor isolated from Mtt snake venom which has been characterized in relation to its mechanism of action, formation of a plasmin:TP1 complex and therapeutic potential as anti-fibrinolytic agent, a biological characteristic of great interest in the field of biomedical research. They could be used to regulate the fibrinolytic system in pathologies such as metastatic cancer, parasitic infections, hemophilia and other hemorrhagic syndromes, in which an intense fibrinolytic activity is observed. PMID:26419785

  9. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  10. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS.

  11. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  12. Equine vaccine for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Ng, T; Hathaway, D; Jennings, N; Champ, D; Chiang, Y W; Chu, H J

    2003-01-01

    To meet the urgent need of controlling West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the equine population, we have developed a killed WNV vaccine. A dose titration study in horses was first conducted to evaluate serum neutralization antibody responses against WNV in these animals. Horses were vaccinated intramuscularly twice with the test vaccine at low, medium and high dose, three weeks apart. Serum samples were collected periodically and were measured for serum neutralizing antibody using a plaque reduction neutralization test. Significant increases in serum neutralizing antibody were detected in all three dosage groups 14 days post the second vaccination. Twelve months after the second vaccination, horses vaccinated with the medium dose of WNV vaccine and non-vaccinated control horses were experimentally challenged with WNV. Nine out of 11 (81.8%) controls developed viraemia after challenge while only one out of 19 (5.3%) vaccinates had transient viraemia, representing a 94% preventable fraction. In a separate study, the safety of the killed WNV vaccine was demonstrated under field conditions. A total of 648 horses, including 32 pregnant mares, were enrolled in the study. During the two weeks post vaccination period, no local or systemic adverse reactions were observed following 96% of the vaccinations administered while mild, transient injection site reactions were noted in a small number of horses. These results indicate that the killed WNV vaccine developed by Fort Dodge Animal Health is safe and efficacious.

  13. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  14. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  15. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  16. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of equine caspase-1 cDNA.

    PubMed

    Wardlow, S; Penha-Goncalves, M N; Argyle, D J; Onions, D E; Nicolson, L

    1999-01-01

    Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases which have important roles in activation of cytokines and in apoptosis. Caspase-1, or interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), promotes maturation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) by proteolytic cleavage of precursor forms to generate biologically active peptides. We report the cloning and sequencing of equine caspase-1 cDNA. Equine caspase-1 is 405 amino acids in length and has 72% and 63% identity to human and mouse caspase-1, respectively, at the amino acid level. Sites of proteolytic cleavage and catalytic activity as identified in human caspase-1, are conserved. PMID:10376217

  18. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of antibodies against equine herpesvirus 2 in equine sera.

    PubMed

    Fu, Z F; Denby, L; Lien, D H; Robinson, A J

    1987-11-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) in equine sera. The optimal conditions of antigen concentration, and serum and conjugate dilutions were established by chequerboard titrations. When the standard ELISA test was used for titration of test sera, it was found to give titres approximately 1500 times higher than those obtained in the virus neutralization (VN) test, and a correlation coefficient of 0.815 was obtained between these two tests on 42 equine sera. All the positive serum samples by the VN were also positive by the ELISA, and one negative serum in the former test was found to be positive in the latter. Under field conditions, the test also detected increases in antibody titres against EHV-2 in 13 out of 14 foals soon after these animals excreted the virus.

  19. Neuropathic changes in equine laminitis pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; Viñuela-Fernandez, Ignacio; Eager, Rachel A; Delaney, Ada; Anderson, Heather; Patel, Anisha; Robertson, Darren C; Allchorne, Andrew; Sirinathsinghji, Eva C; Milne, Elspeth M; MacIntyre, Neil; Shaw, Darren J; Waran, Natalie K; Mayhew, Joe; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M

    2007-12-01

    Laminitis is a common debilitating disease in horses that involves painful disruption of the lamellar dermo-epidermal junction within the hoof. This condition is often refractory to conventional anti-inflammatory analgesia and results in unremitting pain, which in severe cases requires euthanasia. The mechanisms underlying pain in laminitis were investigated using quantification of behavioural pain indicators in conjunction with histological studies of peripheral nerves innervating the hoof. Laminitic horses displayed consistently altered or abnormal behaviours such as increased forelimb lifting and an increased proportion of time spent at the back of the box compared to normal horses. Electron micrographic analysis of the digital nerve of laminitic horses showed peripheral nerve morphology to be abnormal, as well as having reduced numbers of unmyelinated (43.2%) and myelinated fibers (34.6%) compared to normal horses. Sensory nerve cell bodies innervating the hoof, in cervical, C8 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), showed an upregulated expression of the neuronal injury marker, activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) in both large NF-200-immunopositive neurons and small neurons that were either peripherin- or IB4-positive. A significantly increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was also observed in myelinated afferent neurons. These changes are similar to those reported in other neuropathic pain states and were not observed in the C4 DRG of laminitic horses, which is not associated with innervation of the forelimb. This study provides novel evidence for a neuropathic component to the chronic pain state associated with equine laminitis, indicating that anti-neuropathic analgesic treatment may well have a role in the management of this condition.

  20. Ultrafiltration of equine digital lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Collins, Simon N; van Eps, Andrew W; Allavena, Rachel E; Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    There are no experimentally validated pharmacological means of preventing laminitis; however, locally acting pharmaceutical agents with the potential to prevent laminitis have been identified. Demonstrating therapeutic drug concentrations in lamellar tissue is essential for evaluating the efficacy of these agents. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique for repeatedly sampling lamellar interstitial fluid. A technique for placing ultrafiltration probes was developed in vitro using 15 cadaver limbs. Subsequently, lamellar ultrafiltration probes were placed in one forelimb in six living horses. Interstitial fluid was collected continuously from the probes as ultrafiltrate for 4 (n = 4) or 14 days (n = 2). The rate of ultrafiltrate collection was calculated every 12 h. Biochemical analyses were performed on ultrafiltrate collected on night 1 (12-24 h post-implantation) and night 4 (84-96 h post-implantation). Sections surrounding the probe and control tissue from the contralateral limb were harvested, stained with H&E and Masson's trichrome and scored based on the tissue response to the probe. Ultrafiltration probes were placed in the lamellar tissue in all six horses. Ultrafiltrate was collected from these probes at 55 (30-63) μL/h (median [interquartile range]). Fluid production decreased significantly with time from night 3 onwards (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in the constituents of the ultrafiltrate between nights 1 and 4 (P > 0.05). The technique was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ultrafiltration can be used to sample equine digital lamellar interstitial fluid, and has potential for measuring lamellar drug levels. PMID:25439438

  1. Localization of influenza virus sialoreceptors in equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paola; Pedini, Vera

    2008-08-01

    This study was performed to identify the equine respiratory tract areas which express the specific receptor for equine influenza virus; findings may be useful to provide new ways to treat the infectious disease. The present work aims to visualize in situ the presence of sialoderivatives in the horse respiratory tract in order to localize sialoderivatives acting as influenza virus receptors. To this purpose, nasal mucosae, trachea, bronchus and lung parenchyma were removed from 8 mature horses of both sexes. We performed sialic acid characterization by means of mild and strong periodate oxidation and saponification, combined with lectin histochemistry and sialidase digestion, in addition to the direct evidentiation of sialic acid residues. No differences were shown between sexes. Sialic acid residues are present in the nasal mucous cell secretion, where they are linked to galactose by means of alpha2-3 linkage and are mainly C9 acetylated, and in the nasal and tracheal epithelial lining, where they are represented by periodate labile residues (alpha2-3)- and/or (alpha2-6)- linked to galactose. Specific receptors for equine influenza viruses are present at the nasal and tracheal epithelial lining cell coat levels, and in some trachea epithelial cells, but the horse possesses a preventive defence, which consists of the secretion of a mucous layer at nasal level, which could specifically inactivate the hemagglutinins of equine influenza virus; in addition, it expresses other sialoreceptors which can mask the influenza specific ones.

  2. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Register (72 FR 62798-62802, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0168) a proposed rule \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... indicate that the equine is able to bear weight on all four limbs, is able to walk unassisted, is not...

  3. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  4. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  5. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. PMID:25782709

  6. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Timothy J.; Dixon, Padraic M.; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

  7. The folding-unfolding transition of equine lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haezebrouck, P.; Van Dael, H.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed study of the chemical and thermal unfolding transition of equine lysozyme in the presence and in the absence of Ca 2+ gives evidence for a two-step unfolding process. The pretransition can be related to the transfer of exposed Trp groups to the protein interior.

  8. Eastern equine encephalitis in moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Vermont.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Berl, Erica

    2012-10-01

    During fall 2010, 21 moose (Alces americanus) sera collected in northeastern Vermont were screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. Six (29%) were antibody positive. This is the first evidence of EEEV activity in Vermont, and the second report of EEEV antibodies in moose.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  14. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis: state-of-the-art].

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, M; Alekseev, V V; Lipnitskiĭ, A V

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides the currently available data on the global prevalence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), its epidemiology, clinical picture, and specific prevention in human beings. It also discussed the problem of potential use of the causative agent of VEE as a subject of bioterrorism.

  15. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up.

  16. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  17. Microbiology of equine wounds and evidence of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Westgate, S J; Percival, S L; Knottenbelt, D C; Clegg, P D; Cochrane, C A

    2011-05-12

    Horse wounds have a high risk of becoming infected due to their environment. Infected wounds harbour diverse populations of microorganisms, however in some cases these microorganisms can be difficult to identify and fail to respond to antibiotic treatment, resulting in chronic non-healing wounds. In human wounds this has been attributed to the ability of bacteria to survive in a biofilm phenotypic state. Biofilms are known to delay wound healing, principally due to their recalcitrance towards antimicrobial therapies and components of the innate immune response. This study describes the presence of bacterial biofilms within equine wounds. Thirteen 8-mm diameter tissue samples were collected from (n=18) chronic wounds. Following histological staining, samples were observed for evidence of biofilms. Fifty one wounds and control skin sites were sampled using sterile swabs. Control skin sites were on the uninjured side of the horse at the same anatomical location as the wound. The isolated bacteria were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. The biofilm forming potential of all the isolated bacteria was determined using a standard crystal violet microtitre plate assay. Stained tissue samples provided evidence of biofilms within 61.5% (8 out of 13) equine wounds. In total 340 bacterial isolates were identified from all the equine wound and skin samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium were the most predominantly isolated bacterial species from equine wound and skin samples respectively. Staphylococcus was the most commonly isolated genus in both environments. Bacteria cultured from chronic and acute wounds showed significantly (P<0.05) higher biofilm forming potential than bacteria isolated from skin. This paper highlights preliminary evidence supporting the presence of biofilms and a high microbial diversity in equine chronic wounds. The presence of biofilms in equine wounds partly explains the reluctance of many lower limb wounds to heal. Non

  18. Biochemical characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus tener and comparative biological activities in the mouse and a reptile model.

    PubMed

    Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; de Roodt, Adolfo; López-Vera, Estuardo; Alagón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the venom components that could play a relevant role during envenomation caused by the coral snake Micrurus tener, through its biochemical characterization as well as the analysis of its effects on a murine model. Furthermore, it aimed to evaluate crude venom, in addition to its components, for possible specificity of action on a natural prey model (Conopsis lineata). The toxicity of the crude venom (delivered subcutaneously) showed a significant difference between the Median Lethal Dose (LD₅₀) in mice (4.4 μg/g) and in Conopsis lineata (12.1 μg/g) that was not observed when comparing the Median Paralyzing Dose (PD₅₀) values (mice = 4.7 μg/g; snakes = 4.1 μg/g). These results are evidence that the choice of study model strongly influences the apparent effects of crude venom. Moreover, based on the observed physical signs in the animal models, it was concluded that the most important physical effect caused by the venom is flaccid paralysis, which facilitates capture and subduing of prey regardless of whether it is alive; death is a logical consequence of the lack of oxygenation. Venom fractionation using a C18 reverse phase column yielded 35 fractions from which 16.6% caused paralysis and/or death to both animal models, 21.9% caused paralysis and/or death only to C. lineata and 1.6% were murine specific. Surprisingly, the diversity of snake-specific fractions did not reflect a difference between the PD₅₀s of the crude venom in mice and snakes, making it impossible to assume some type of specificity for either of the study models. Finally, the great diversity and abundance of fractions with no observable effect in snakes or mice (42.7%) suggested that the observed lethal fractions are not the only relevant toxic fractions within the venom and emphasized the possible relevance of interaction between components to generate the syndrome caused by the venom as a whole.

  19. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies. PMID:27466384

  20. Regenerative Medicine Approach to Reconstruction of the Equine Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Grevemeyer, Bernard; Bogdanovic, Lewis; Canton, Stephen; St. Jean, Guy; Cercone, Marta; Ducharme, Norm G.

    2014-01-01

    Airway obstruction is a common cause of poor performance in horses. Structural abnormalities (insufficient length, rigidity) can be a cause for the obstruction. Currently, there are a few effective clinical options for reconstruction of the equine larynx. A regenerative medicine approach to reconstruction may provide the capability to stabilize laryngeal structures and to encourage restoration of site-appropriate, functional, and host-derived tissue. The purpose of this study was the histopathological evaluation of (1) decellularization of equine (horse) laryngeal cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoids); (2) the host response to decellularized laryngeal cartilages implanted subcutaneously in a donkey model as a test of biocompatibility; and (3) the use of decellularized laryngeal cartilages in a clinically relevant pilot study in the horse larynx. Equine laryngeal cartilages were found to be sufficiently decellularized and were subsequently implanted subcutaneously in donkeys to test biocompatibility. After 4 weeks, the implanted cartilage was harvested. In the subcutaneous model, the samples did not elicit a rejection or foreign body type reaction and were judged suitable for implantation in a clinically relevant equine model. Implants were placed in the upper airway (arytenoids and epiglottis) of one horse. At 4 weeks, the implants were observed to remodel rapidly and were replaced by dense connective tissue with signs of new hyaline cartilage formation in the arytenoids and by connective tissue containing glandular structures and an epithelial covering in the epiglottis. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of a scaffold-based regenerative medicine approach to reconstruction of the equine upper airway; however, further studies investigating long-term integration, formation of new cartilage, and mechanical properties are needed. PMID:24160675

  1. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies.

  2. Death following coral snake bite in the United States--first documented case (with ELISA confirmation of envenomation) in over 40 years.

    PubMed

    Norris, Robert L; Pfalzgraf, Robert R; Laing, Gavin

    2009-05-01

    We report the first documented death due to a coral snake (Micrurus species) in the United States (U.S.) in over 40 years. The victim failed to seek medical care following the bite of an eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) and succumbed within hours. Post-mortem proof of envenomation was obtained using an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) developed specifically for this investigation. U.S. coral snakes are briefly reviewed in terms of their venom compositions, their clinical effects, and proper pre-hospital and hospital management. The clinical significance of the impending absence of commercially available antivenom for coral snake bites in the U.S. is highlighted.

  3. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S.; Nasir, L.

    2008-04-10

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.

  4. Intranasal Location and Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Equine Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kupke, Alexandra; Wenisch, Sabine; Failing, Klaus; Herden, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines, or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g., horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of five adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein and doublecortin (DCX) expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropomyosin receptor kinase A was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine types a and b were located differently within the nose and

  5. The anti-human CD21 antibody, BU33, identifies equine B cells.

    PubMed

    Mayall, S; Siedek, E; Hamblin, A S

    2001-01-01

    The number of antibodies for identifying equine B cells is small and the number that react with well-defined epitopes even smaller. The monoclonal antibody, BU33, which is directed against human CD21 (Complement Receptor 2; CR2) was shown to identify (1) follicular lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and spleen of three horses, and (2) a mean of 18 +/- 6% (SEM) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 horses. These findings indicate that the antibody identifies equine B cells and possibly equine CR2 or a related molecule. This study adds to the reagents available for equine research and diagnostic pathology.

  6. Effects of pentoxifylline on equine neutrophil function and flow properties.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, D J; Geor, R J; Burris, S M; Smith, C M

    1992-01-01

    Pentoxifylline has been reported to improve peripheral vascular circulation by altering the flow properties of blood. To determine if the hemorrheological effects of pentoxifylline were mediated by alterations in neutrophil function and/or flow properties, we evaluated the drug's effects on equine neutrophils in vitro. Pentoxifylline, at a concentration of 1 x 10(-1) M, but not at concentrations of 1 x 10(-6) M to 1 x 10(-2) M, markedly suppressed neutrophil superoxide production, zymosan phagocytosis and adherence to nylon wool. Pentoxifylline failed to improve neutrophil filterability through 3 mu polycarbonate filters at any concentration tested. We conclude that equine neutrophil function and flow properties are unlikely to be affected by pentoxifylline concentrations achievable in vivo. PMID:1335832

  7. Molecular biological characterization of equine surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Hospes, R; Hospes, B I L; Reiss, I; Bostedt, H; Gortner, L

    2002-12-01

    In the following, we describe the isolation and sequencing of the equine surfactant protein A (Sp-A) as found in both the cDNA and the genomic DNA. We found a length of the cDNA sequence of 747 bp (base pairs), in translation into amino acids of 248. Compared with the known molecular biological facts about Sp-A in other species, the cDNA sequence obtained showed highest homology with that of sheep (85.01%). The genomic DNA of equine Sp-A, as in other species, includes three introns. There were no hints for the existence of two different Sp-A genes. These results should form the basis for a better understanding of respiratory failure in foals and adult horses, and also lead to further studies on this item.

  8. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    PubMed

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in equine tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Dowling, P M; Ross, S; Woodbury, M; Boison, J O

    2008-02-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin has potential for treating bacterial respiratory tract infections in horses. A pharmacokinetic study evaluated the disposition of tilmicosin in the horse after oral (4 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (10 mg/kg) administration. Tilmicosin was not detected in equine plasma or tissues after oral administration at this dose. With s.c. injection, tilmicosin concentrations reached a maximum concentration of approximately 200 ng/mL in the plasma of the horses. Tilmicosin concentrations in plasma persisted with a mean residence time (MRT) of 19 h. Maximum tissue residue concentrations (C(max)) of tilmicosin measured in equine lung, kidney, liver and muscle tissues after s.c. administration were 2784, 4877, 1398, and 881 ng/g, respectively. The MRT of tilmicosin in these tissues was approximately 27 h. Subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin resulted in severe reactions at the injection sites.

  10. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  11. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Catherine L; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 10(3) MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine.

  12. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  13. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  14. Effect of Dehydration Prior to Cryopreservation of Large Equine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, JP; McCue, PM; Squires, EL; Seidel, GE

    2009-01-01

    Cryopreservation of equine embryos > 300 μm in diameter results in low survival rates using protocols that work well for smaller equine embryos. These experiments tested the potential benefit of incorporating a dehydration step prior to standard cryopreservation procedures. Forty-six, d 7–8, grade 1, equine embryos ≥ 400 μm in diameter were subjected to one of the following treatments: (A) 2-min in 0.6 M galactose, 10 min in 1.5 M glycerol, slow freeze (n=21); (B) 10 min in 1.5 M glycerol, slow freeze (n=15); (C) 2 min in 0.6 M galactose, 10 min in 1.5 M glycerol, followed by exposure to thaw solutions, then culture medium (n=5); (D) transferred directly to culture medium (n=5). Frozen embryos were thawed and subjected to a 3-step cryoprotectant removal. Five embryos from each treatment were evaluated morphologically after 24 and 48 h culture (1=excellent, 5=degenerate/dead). All treatments had at least 4/5 embryos with a quality score ≥ 3 at these time points except treatment B (2/5 at 24 h, 1/5 at 48 h). Subsequent embryos from treatment A (n=16) or B (n=10) were matched in sets of two for size and treatment, thawed, and immediately transferred in pairs to 13 recipients. Only two recipient mares were pregnant; one received two 400 μm embryos from treatment A, and the other one 400 μm and one 415 μm embryo from treatment B. There was no advantage of incorporating a 2 min dehydration step into the cryopreservation protocol for large equine embryos. PMID:19375416

  15. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, A; Nyman, G; Lundeberg, T; Drevemo, S

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2) in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334%) and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264%) and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature. PMID:16722304

  16. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  17. Characterization of discrete equine intestinal epithelial cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Kinnin, Leslie A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities with an emphasis on the stem cell niche constituents. SAMPLE Mucosal biopsy specimens from small and large intestines obtained from 12 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease or systemic disease. PROCEDURES Intestinal biopsy specimens were collected by sharp dissection immediately following euthanasia. Specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopic imaging to detect and characterize each epithelial cell type. Antibodies against protein biomarkers for cellular identification were selected on the basis of expression in other mammalian species. RESULTS Intestinal epithelial cell types were identified by means of immunostaining and morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Some differences in biomarker expression and antibody cross-reactivity were identified in equine tissue, compared with other species. However, each known type of mucosal epithelial cell was identified in equine tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The methodology used can enhance detection of stem cells and progenitor cells as well as postmitotic cell lineages in equine intestinal tissues. Results may have relevance to regenerative potential of intestinal mucosa and survival in horses with colic. PMID:25815577

  18. Development of an Equine-Tropic Replication-Competent Lentivirus Assay for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Based Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Richard; Leroux-Carlucci, Marie A.; Evans, Nerys E.; Miskin, James E.; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The release of lentiviral vectors for clinical use requires the testing of vector material, production cells, and, if applicable, ex vivo-transduced cells for the presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). Vectors derived from the nonprimate lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been directly administered to patients in several clinical trials, with no toxicity observed to date. Because EIAV does not replicate in human cells, and because putative RCLs derived from vector components within human vector production cells would most likely be human cell-tropic, we previously developed an RCL assay using amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a surrogate positive control and human cells as RCL amplification/indicator cells. Here we report an additional RCL assay that tests for the presence of theoretical “equine-tropic” RCLs. This approach provides further assurance of safety by detecting putative RCLs with an equine cell-specific tropism that might not be efficiently amplified by the human cell-based RCL assay. We tested the ability of accessory gene-deficient EIAV mutant viruses to replicate in a highly permissive equine cell line to direct our choice of a suitable EIAV-derived positive control. In addition, we report for the first time the mathematical rationale for use of the Poisson distribution to calculate minimal infectious dose of positive control virus and for use in monitoring assay positive/spike control failures in accumulating data sets. No RCLs have been detected in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant RCL assays to date, further demonstrating that RCL formation is highly unlikely in contemporary minimal lentiviral vector systems. PMID:23121195

  19. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses and equine arteritis virus in Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli ) from the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Kerstin; Wiik, Harald; Frölich, Kai; Ludwig, Hanns; East, Marion L

    2005-01-01

    A total of 51 sera from a migratory population of Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) were collected in the Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) between 1999 and 2001 to assess levels of exposure to equine herpesvirus types 1, 2, 4, 9 (EHV-1, -2, -4, -9), EHV-1 zebra isolate T965, and equine arteritis virus (EAV). Using virus-specific neutralizing antibody tests, seroprevalence was high for EHV-9 (60% of 45), moderate for EAV (24% of 51), and lower for the EHV-1-related zebra isolate (17% of 41), EHV-1 (14% of 49), and EHV-4 (2% of 50). No evidence for exposure to EHV-2 was found (0% of 51). The high level of exposure to EHV-9 is interesting because evidence of infection with this virus has not been previously described in any wild equine population. Although the epidemiology of EHV-9 in Burchell's zebras is presently unknown, our results suggest that in East Africa, this species may be a natural host of EHV-9, a neuropathogenic virus that was only recently isolated from captive Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in Japan. There is currently no evidence that EHV-9 induced mortality in Burchell's zebras in the Serengeti, but because of the reported virulence of this virus for more susceptible species such as Thomson's gazelles, viral transmission from infected zebras to ungulates may result in mortality. PMID:15827213

  20. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  1. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses and equine arteritis virus in Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli ) from the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Kerstin; Wiik, Harald; Frölich, Kai; Ludwig, Hanns; East, Marion L

    2005-01-01

    A total of 51 sera from a migratory population of Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) were collected in the Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) between 1999 and 2001 to assess levels of exposure to equine herpesvirus types 1, 2, 4, 9 (EHV-1, -2, -4, -9), EHV-1 zebra isolate T965, and equine arteritis virus (EAV). Using virus-specific neutralizing antibody tests, seroprevalence was high for EHV-9 (60% of 45), moderate for EAV (24% of 51), and lower for the EHV-1-related zebra isolate (17% of 41), EHV-1 (14% of 49), and EHV-4 (2% of 50). No evidence for exposure to EHV-2 was found (0% of 51). The high level of exposure to EHV-9 is interesting because evidence of infection with this virus has not been previously described in any wild equine population. Although the epidemiology of EHV-9 in Burchell's zebras is presently unknown, our results suggest that in East Africa, this species may be a natural host of EHV-9, a neuropathogenic virus that was only recently isolated from captive Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in Japan. There is currently no evidence that EHV-9 induced mortality in Burchell's zebras in the Serengeti, but because of the reported virulence of this virus for more susceptible species such as Thomson's gazelles, viral transmission from infected zebras to ungulates may result in mortality.

  2. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  3. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  4. Antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza in the Republic of Korea in 2013

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Eun-Ju; KIM, Bo-Hye; YANG, Sunjoo; CHOI, Eun-Jin; SHIN, Ye-Jin; SONG, Jae-Young; SHIN, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, antibody responses after equine influenza vaccination were investigated among 1,098 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza viruses, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08 (H3N8), were used as antigens in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 91.7% (geometric mean antibody levels (GMT), 56.8) and 93.6% (GMT, 105.2) for A/equine/South Africa/4/03 and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08, respectively. Yearlings and two-year-olds in training exhibited lower positive rates (68.1% (GMT, 14) and 61.7% (GMT, 11.9), respectively, with different antigens) than average. Horses two years old or younger may require more attention in vaccination against equine influenza according to the vaccination regime, because they could be a target of the equine influenza virus. PMID:26062436

  5. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  6. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  7. Effects of weather and landscape on the equine West Nile virus infection risk in Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiming

    2015-11-04

    The West Nile virus (WNv) continues to be a public health concern in North America. Dry weather appears to increase human WNv infection risks, but it is uncertain whether dry weather conditions exert similar effects on the corresponding equine WNv infection. This study assessed the effects of precipitation of the previous year and land cover diversity on the equine WNv risk of Mississippi, USA, at the county level in the year 2002 using Bayesian hierarchical models. The risk estimated for 2002 was found to be inversely related to annual precipitation of the preceding year. Equine WNv risks were lower with greater land cover diversity probably due to the diluting effects of biodiversity. Correlation between the equine and human WNv risks was positive but relatively low. Dry weather conditions of the previous year might reduce mosquito competitors and predators and subsequently increase mosquito abundances and equine WNv risks in agricultural areas with low biodiversity.

  8. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Equine APRIL and its Expression Analysis During the Adipogenic Differentiation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cell In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haitao; Bi, Xiaolin; Cao, Fang; Zhu, Cuicui; Liu, Hongzhen; Song, Jinyun; Ma, Lei; Ma, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Dongwei; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Xinzhou; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-10-01

    A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily. It shares two receptors with B-cell activating factor (BAFF), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). Herein, the equine APRIL was identified from equine adipose-derived stem cell (ASC), and the protein expression of APRIL and its related molecules were detected during the adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC in vitro. The equine APRIL gene was located on chromosome 11, spans 1852 base pairs (bp). Its open reading frame covers 753 bp, encoding a 250-amino acid protein with the typical TNF structure domain. During the two weeks' adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC, although the protein expression of APRIL and TACI had an insignificant change, that of BCMA increased significantly. Moreover, with the addition of recombinant protein His6-sAPRIL, a reduced differentiation of equine ASC toward adipocyte was detected. These results may provide the basis for investigating the role of APRIL in ASC adipogenic differentiation. PMID:27565870

  10. Cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Lehmann, Melissa; Luttmann, Werner; Marti, Eliane

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. IL-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. Function of IL-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. Our aim was to produce recombinant equine IL-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Equine IL-3 was cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. PBL of 19 healthy and 20 insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH)-affected horses were stimulated with Culicoides nubeculosus extract with or without IL-3. Sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured in supernatants by ELISA and mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) assessed in cell lysate by quantitative real-time PCR. Recombinant equine IL-3 (req-IL-3) had a dose dependent effect on sLT production by stimulated equine PBL and significantly increased IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP expression compared to non-primed cells. IL-3 priming significantly increased Culicoides-induced sLT production in IBH-affected but not in non-affected horses and was particularly effective in young IBH-affected horses (≤ 3 years). A functionally active recombinant equine IL-3 has been produced which will be useful for future immunological studies in horses. It will also allow improving the sensitivity of cellular in vitro tests for allergy diagnosis in horses. PMID:25530476

  11. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  12. Equine Clinical Genomics: A Clinician’s Primer

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Margaret Mary; Brooks, Samantha A.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The objective of this review is to introduce equine clinicians to the rapidly evolving field of clinical genomics with a vision of improving the health and welfare of the domestic horse. For fifteen years a consortium of veterinary geneticists and clinicians has worked together under the umbrella of The Horse Genome Project. This group, encompassing 22 laboratories in 12 countries, has made rapid progress, developing several iterations of linkage, physical and comparative gene maps of the horse with increasing levels of detail. In early 2006, the research was greatly facilitated when the U.S. National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health added the horse to the list of mammalian species scheduled for whole genome sequencing. The genome of the domestic horse has now been sequenced and is available to researchers worldwide in publicly accessible databases. This achievement creates the potential for transformative change within the horse industry, particularly in the fields of internal medicine, sports medicine and reproduction. The genome sequence has enabled the development of new genome-wide tools and resources for studying inherited diseases of the horse. To date, researchers have identified eleven mutations causing ten clinical syndromes in the horse. Testing is commercially available for all but one of these diseases. Future research will probably identify the genetic bases for other equine diseases, produce new diagnostic tests and generate novel therapeutics for some of these conditions. This will enable equine clinicians to play a critical role in ensuring the thoughtful and appropriate application of this knowledge as they assist clients with breeding and clinical decision-making. PMID:20840582

  13. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays. PMID:24713534

  14. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part V. Central nervous system pathology.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-11-01

    Evidence of long central nerve fibre degeneration (axonal spheroids) in the lateral cuneate nuclei was found in all eight Thoroughbreds affected clinically and subclinically with equine laryngeal hemiplegia, but in only one of six control animals. It was considered that these spheroids may signify a central nervous component of the disease process of laryngeal hemiplegia although until further investigations are performed no firm conclusions regarding the relationship of these findings with laryngeal hemiplegia could be made. Examination of the left and right nucleus ambiguus of clinical and subclinical laryngeal hemiplegic horses revealed no pathological alterations.

  15. Practical Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy for the General Equine Practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kaneps, Andris J

    2016-04-01

    Physical treatment and rehabilitation play major roles in recovery and maintenance of the equine athlete, and many therapeutic measures are accessible by the veterinarian in general practice. An accurate diagnosis of the condition undergoing treatment is a requirement, and measurable parameters obtained at diagnosis allows for quantification of treatment outcomes. Therapeutic modalities accessible to the general practicing veterinarian are reviewed. Mechanisms of action, indications, and treatment protocols of thermal therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, extracorporeal shock wave, and laser are discussed. Manipulative therapies, including stretching and use of core strengthening exercises and equipment, are outlined. PMID:26898959

  16. The Equine PeptideAtlas – a resource for developing proteomics-based veterinary research

    PubMed Central

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W.; Moritz, Robert L.; Bendixen, Emøke

    2015-01-01

    Progress in mass spectrometry-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides. The current release comprises 24,131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2 % at the peptide level and 1.4 % at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic data mining resource. The advantages of the Equine PeptideAtlas are demonstrated by examples of mining the contents for information on potential and well-known equine acute phase proteins, which have extensive general interest in the veterinary clinic. The extracted information will support further analyses, and emphasises the value of the Equine PeptideAtlas as a resource for the design of targeted quantitative proteomic studies. PMID:24436130

  17. The epitheliogenesis imperfecta locus maps to equine chromosome 8 in American Saddlebred horses.

    PubMed

    Lieto, L D; Cothran, E G

    2003-01-01

    Epitheliogenesis imperfecta (EI) is a hereditary junctional mechanobullous disease that occurs in newborn American Saddlebred foals. The pathological signs of epitheliogenesis imperfecta closely match a similar disease in humans known as Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa, which is caused by a mutation in one of the genes (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) coding for the subunits of the laminin 5 protein (laminin alpha3, laminin beta3 and laminin gamma2). The LAMA3 gene has been assigned to equine chromosome 8 and LAMB3 and LAMC2 have been mapped to equine chromosome 5. Linkage disequilibrium between microsatellite markers that mapped to equine chromosome 5 and equine chromosome 8 and the EI disease locus was tested in American Saddlebred horses. The allele frequencies of microsatellite alleles at 11 loci were determined for both epitheliogenesis imperfecta affected and unaffected populations of American Saddlebred horses by genotyping and direct counting of alleles. These were used to determine fit to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for control and EI populations using Chi square analysis. Two microsatellite loci located on equine chromosome 8q, ASB14 and AHT3, were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in affected American Saddlebred horses. In comparison, all of the microsatellite markers located on equine chromosome 5 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in affected American Saddlebred horses. This suggested that the EI disease locus was located on equine chromosome 8q, where LAMA3 is also located. PMID:14970704

  18. Assessment of fallen equine data in France and their usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Tapprest, Jackie; Borey, Marion; Dornier, Xavier; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ferry, Bénédicte; Sala, Carole

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiology purposes. Several European projects based on the exploitation of data from rendering plants have been developed to improve livestock surveillance. Similar data are available for equines in France but have never been studied to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of the French Ministry of Agriculture's Fallen Stock Data Interchange (FSDI) database to provide quantitative mortality information on the French equine population. The quality of FSDI equine data from 2011 to 2014 was assessed using complementary data registered in the French equine census database, SIRE. Despite a perfectible quality, the FSDI database proved to be a valuable source for studying the basal patterns of mortality over time in the French equine population as illustrated by the spatial representation of the number of deaths. However, improvements in the FSDI database are needed, in particular regarding the registration of animal identification numbers, in order to detail equine mortality for epidemiology purposes. PMID:26850545

  19. Environmental risk factors for equine West Nile virus disease cases in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Wittich, Courtney A; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2009-06-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) was first detected in the Texas equine population during June 2002. Infection has since spread rapidly across the state and become endemic in the equine population. Environmental risk factors associated with equine WNV attack rates in Texas counties during the period 2002 to 2004 were investigated. Equine WNV attack rates were smoothed using an empirical Bayesian model, because of the variability among county equine populations (range 46-9,517). Risk factors investigated included hydrological features (lakes, rivers, swamps, canals and river basins), land cover (tree, mosaic, shrub, herbaceous, cultivated and artificial), elevation, climate (rainfall and temperature), and reports of WNV-positive mosquito and wild bird samples. Estimated county equine WNV attack rate was best described by the number of lakes, presence of broadleaf deciduous forest, presence of cultivated areas, location within the Brazos River watershed, WNV-positive mosquito status and average temperature. An understanding of environmental factors that increase equine WNV disease risk can be used to design and target disease control programs.

  20. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article.

  1. Equine pythiosis: report in crossed bred (Criole Venezuelan) horses.

    PubMed

    Salas, Y; Márquez, A; Canelón, J; Perazzo, Y; Colmenárez, V; López, J A

    2012-12-01

    Pythium insidiosum is a pathogenic oomycete known since 1890 that causes pythiosis in mammals. In this report, seven P. insidiosum isolates were recovered from Venezuelan horses and were characterized. The strains were recovered from biopsied tissues and kunkers collected from granulomatous masses located on the hind limb and from a nodular lesion in the left upper eyelid, which decrease the ability of the horses to be used for working purposes. The methods used to identify P. insidiosum isolates were based on the production of sporangia and zoospores, histopathology and PCR assay. To further characterize these strains, portions of the 18S rRNA genes of the seven isolates were sequenced. The sequences showed high homology to previously described P. insidiosum DNA sequences available in GenBank. Similar studies based on the morphological, histological and molecular data identified the etiological agent in samples of granulomatous lesions in these equines as P. insidiosum. In America, the infection has been diagnosed more frequently in equines of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and the United States of America. PMID:22772508

  2. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens.

  3. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Otaki, M; Hayashi, Y; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, T; Torii, Y; Yokoyama, E; Azuma, R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7-99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  4. Isolation and characterization of equine microvascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bochsler, P N; Slauson, D O; Chandler, S K; Suyemoto, M M

    1989-10-01

    The use of cultured tissue has not yet become widespread in research involving equine disease, and this may be attributable in part to the scarcity of published reports concerning tissue culture methods for this species. We report here the isolation of equine microvascular endothelium (EMVE) from fresh omental tissue of horses and ponies. Fresh donor tissue was minced, subjected to collagenase digestion, and filtered. Cells were layered on 5% bovine serum albumin for gravity sedimentation, the bottom layer was collected, and the cells were plated onto fibronectin-coated flasks. Medium consisted of Dulbecco modified Eagle medium with 10% whole fetal bovine serum (wFBS) and 20 micrograms of endothelial cell growth supplement/ml. The EMVE grew readily in culture, had the cobblestone morphologic feature at confluence, stained positively for factor VIII-related antigen, and metabolized acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Fibroblast and smooth muscle cell contamination was minimal in primary cell cultures, which were successfully passed and maintained in culture for 3 to 5 serial passages, using various media and substrates. Preliminary studies were undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions with a range of variables: serum concentration, extracellular matrix components, and growth factors, Optimal conditions were achieved with a minimum of 10% wFBS, and with either fibronectin or laminin as extracellular matrix substrates. The EMVE grew adequately in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium plus 10% wFBS, and the added growth factors or serum supplements did not appear necessary for growth of EMVE.

  5. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 13 DNA in Equine Sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Michele; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Rodrigues, Wagner Borges; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Equine sarcoids are locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasms considered to be the most common skin tumors of horses worldwide. Bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 have typically been associated with sarcoids in equids. Investigations aiming to identify papillomavirus strains, aside from bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2, which might be associated with sarcoid lesions, have been lacking. The aim of this article is to report the identification of a third bovine papillomavirus type, bovine papillomavirus 13, associated with equine sarcoids. Six sarcoid lesions were collected from diverse anatomical sites on two horses from southern Brazil. To detect a broad spectrum of papillomavirus strains, eight degenerate primer pairs designed to detect conserved regions on the L1 and E1 genes were tested on the DNA samples. Direct sequencing was then performed on the obtained amplicons, and sequence identities were compared with sequences from all bovine papillomavirus types. The FAP59/FAP64, MY09/MY11, and AR-E1F2/AR-E1R4 sequences generated from the sarcoids were shown to present 99 to 100% identity with bovine papillomavirus 13, a new bovine papillomavirus type previously described in cattle. The results from this study suggest that there is a need to identify bovine papillomavirus type 13 and other papillomavirus strains that might be associated with sarcoids in diverse geographical areas; such investigations might establish the frequency of occurrence of this viral type in these common tumors of equids. PMID:23637294

  6. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Daiki; YAMASAKI, Atsushi; MATSUZAKI, Shouta; SUNAGA, Takafumi; FUJIKI, Makoto; TOKUNAGA, Satoshi; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue. PMID:27330399

  7. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype. PMID:27054586

  8. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  9. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  10. The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, R. Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  11. Characterization of genetic variability of Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A.; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C.; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-04-07

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broadmore » panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Lastly, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.« less

  12. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A.; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C.; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype. PMID:27054586

  13. Inheritance of equine sarcoid disease in Franches-Montagnes horses.

    PubMed

    Christen, Garance; Gerber, Vinzenz; Dolf, Gaudenz; Burger, Dominique; Koch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The mode of inheritance for susceptibility to equine sarcoid disease (ES) remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to analyse a large sample of the Franches-Montagnes (FM) horse population and investigate the heritability and mode of inheritance for susceptibility to ES. Horses were clinically examined for the presence of sarcoid tumours. A standardized examination protocol and client questionnaire were used and a pedigree- and subsequent segregation-analysis for the ES trait performed. To investigate the mode of inheritance, five models were evaluated and compared in a hierarchical way. The analyses reveal that variation in susceptibility to ES is best explained by a model incorporating polygenic variation. The possible effect of a major gene, such as specific equine leukocyte antigen alleles, is unlikely, but cannot be ruled-out entirely. The heritability of the phenotype on the observation scale for the trait 'affected with ES' was estimated to be 8%. A corrected value for the heritability on a liability scale was estimated at 21% and it is therefore possible to estimate breeding values for ES. The arguments against the practical implementation of an estimated breeding value in a multifactorial condition like ES are discussed.

  14. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.

  15. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  16. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine in equine liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A.; Portier, C. J.; Thormann, W.; Theurillat, R.; Mevissen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has to be considered for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of ketamine. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine was investigated in equine microsomes in vitro. Concentration curves were constructed over time, and enzyme activity was determined for different substrate concentrations using equine liver and lung microsomes. The concentrations of R/S-ketamine and R/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. A two-phase model based on Hill kinetics was used to analyze the biotransformation of R/S-ketamine into R/S-norketamine and, in a second step, into R/S-downstream metabolites. In liver and lung microsomes, levels of R-ketamine exceeded those of S-ketamine at all time points and S-norketamine exceeded R-norketamine at time points below the maximum concentration. In liver and lung microsomes, significant differences in the enzyme velocity (Vmax) were observed between Sand R-norketamine formation and between Vmax of S-norketamine formation when S-ketamine was compared to S-ketamine of the racemate. Our investigations in microsomal reactions in vitro suggest that stereoselective ketamine biotransformation in horses occurs in the liver and the lung with a slower elimination of S-ketamine in the presence of R-ketamine. Scaling of the in vitro parameters to liver and lung organ clearances provided an excellent fit with previously published in vivo data and confirmed a lung first-pass effect. PMID:19000264

  17. The approach to the equine dermatology case in practice.

    PubMed

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2012-04-01

    A logical and thorough clinical investigation should provide the best basis for the diagnosis of skin diseases. Where no diagnosis can be reached despite a full range of investigations, the clinician can justifiably attempt symptomatic treatment, but it is always better to focus treatment on a specific condition based on properly accumulated and tested clinical evidence. Unfortunately, in equine dermatology there are few text descriptions of the majority of the conditions encountered in practice. While a few diseases are well recognized, there is still little consensus on the best treatments for many of them. Individual veterinarians will have treatments that they rely on, but frequently the same treatment applied by another person inexplicably fails to work in the same way. In dermatology cases, there is no substitute for experience. Referencing to quality textbooks and to colleagues who might have encountered the condition before is often advisable. Unusual presentations are frequently encountered in horses. For example, there are many manifestations of the pemphigus group of diseases, and not all will have a clear diagnostic pathway. It is important to remember that the skin is one of the biggest organs in the body and yet little is known of its function and pathology! While there are many significant primary dermatologic conditions, there are also important systemic diseases that have more or less pathognomonic secondary dermatologic signs; this makes the proper clinical examination even more imperative. One of the biggest problems with equine dermatology is the dearth of scientific reports. Many experienced clinicians have much useful information, but this may never reach the rest of the profession. Also there are few useful reference textbooks dedicated to the equine species. Equine dermatology most likely suffers the most of all disciplines in this respect. As a result, every clinician is expected to reinvent the wheel! There is a need for publications and

  18. Equine herpesvirus-1 infection disrupts interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) signaling pathways in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. EHV-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and EHM in horses. Like other herpesviruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion including suppression of type-I interferon (IFN) production in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Previously we have shown that the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1 inhibits type-I IFN production in EECs and this is mediated by a viral late gene product. But the mechanism of inhibition was not known. Here we show that T953 strain infection of EECs induced degradation of endogenous IRF-3 protein. This in turn interfered with the activation of IRF-3 signaling pathways. EHV-1 infection caused the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that inhibition of type-I IFN production is probably due to interference in IRF-3 and not NF-κB signal transduction.

  19. Equine schlafen 11 restricts the production of equine infectious anemia virus via a codon usage-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Sun, Liu-Ke; Zhu, Dan-Tong; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Human schlafen11 is a novel restriction factor for HIV-1 based on bias regarding relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Here, we report the cloning of equine schlafen11 (eSLFN11) and the characteristics of its role in restricting the production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus similar to HIV-1. Overexpression of eSLFN11 inhibited EIAV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous eSLFN11 by siRNA enhanced the release of EIAV from its principal target cell. Notably, although eSLFN11 significantly suppressed expression of viral Gag protein and EIAV release into the culture medium, the levels of intracellular viral early gene proteins Tat and Rev and viral genomic RNA were unaffected. Coincidently, similar altered patterns of codon usage bias were observed for both the early and late genes of EIAV. Therefore, our data suggest that eSLFN11 restricts EIAV production by impairing viral mRNA translation via a mechanism that is similar to that employed by hSLFN11 for HIV-1. PMID:27200480

  20. Andrographolide Exerts Chondroprotective Activity in Equine Cartilage Explant and Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Induced MMP-2 Expression in Equine Chondrocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage erosion in degenerative joint diseases leads to lameness in affected horses. It has been reported that andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata inhibited cartilage matrix-degrading enzymes. This study aimed to explore whether this compound protects equine cartilage degradation in the explant culture model and to determine its effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression, a matrix-degrading enzyme, in equine chondrocyte culture. Equine articular cartilage explant culture was induced by 25 ng/mL interleukin-1β, a key inducer of cartilage degeneration, in cultures with or without andrographolide ranging from 10 to 50 μM. After 3–21 days, they were analyzed for the markers of cartilage degradation. It was found that interleukin-1β increased the release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronan from the explants into the culture media consistently with the decrease in uronic acid and collagen content in the cartilage explants. These catabolic effects were inhibited when cotreated with interleukin-1β and andrographolide. In primary equine chondrocytes, andrographolide suppressed interleukin-1β-induced MMP-2 mRNA expression and MMP-2 activity in the culture medium. These results confirmed the in vitro potent chondroprotective activities of this compound which were performed in cartilage explants and on a cellular level. These may indicate the application of andrographolide for therapeutic use in equine degenerative joint diseases. PMID:27379277

  1. Eating disorders and equine therapy: a nurse's perspective on connecting through the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Dezutti, Joyce E

    2013-09-01

    Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session.

  2. Eating disorders and equine therapy: a nurse's perspective on connecting through the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Dezutti, Joyce E

    2013-09-01

    Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session. PMID:23786240

  3. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Thomas G.; Berg, Lise C.; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread experimental and empirical commercial use. A better understanding of equine stem cell biology and concepts is needed in order to develop and evaluate rational clinical applications in the horse. Controlled, well-designed studies of the basic biologic characteristics and properties of these cells are needed to move this new equine research field forward. Stem cell research in the horse has exciting equine specific and comparative perspectives that will most likely benefit the health of horses and, potentially, humans. PMID:19119371

  4. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  5. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  6. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  7. Equine Viral Encephalomyelitis in Canada: A Review of Known and Potential Causes

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Delwyn P.; Little, Peter B.

    1987-01-01

    Rabies, equine herpesvirus type I, and eastern and western encephalomyelitis viruses, known causes of equine neurological disease, are reviewed with emphasis on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, and diagnosis. Several arboviruses known to be active in Canada and capable of producing neurological disease in humans (Powassan, St. Louis encephalitis, snowshoe hare, and Jamestown Canyon viruses) are discussed as potential causes of encephalomyelitis in horses. PMID:17422841

  8. Retrospective Analysis of the Equine Influenza Virus A/Equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) Isolated in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Sayatov, Marat; Strochkov, Vitaliy; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Sultankulova, Kulaysan

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan) in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe. The absence of antibodies to this subtype EI virus (EIV) in recent research confirms its disappearance as of the 1990s when the antibodies were last found in unvaccinated horses. PMID:27517962

  9. Retrospective Analysis of the Equine Influenza Virus A/Equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) Isolated in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Sayatov, Marat; Strochkov, Vitaliy; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Sultankulova, Kulaysan

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan) in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe. The absence of antibodies to this subtype EI virus (EIV) in recent research confirms its disappearance as of the 1990s when the antibodies were last found in unvaccinated horses. PMID:27517962

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009): temporal and spatial trends.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, Bidhan C; Gulati, Baldev R; Karuppusamy, Shanmugasundaram; Singh, Birendra K; Kumar Vaid, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Malik, Parveen; Khurana, Sandeep K; Singh, Jitender; Manuja, Anju; Dedar, Ramesh; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Chugh, Parmod K; Narwal, Partap S; Thankur, Vinod L N; Kaul, Rakesh; Kanani, Amit; Rautmare, Sunil S; Singh, Raj K

    2010-01-01

    Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples) before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s). The virus (H3N8) was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka), Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740) of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1074 (22.65%) samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8). PMID:21120800

  11. The Equine Endometrial Cup Reaction: A Fetomaternal Signal of Significance

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, D. F.; de Mestre, Amanda M.; Wilsher, Sandra; Allen, W. R.

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable feature of equine pregnancy is the development of the invasive trophoblast of the chorionic girdle and its formation of the gonadotrophin-secreting endometrial cup cells in early gestation. The details of this process have been revealed only slowly over the past century, since the first description of the endometrial cups in 1912. This centennial presents an opportunity to review the characteristics of the cells and molecules involved in this early, critical phase of placentation in the mare. The invasiveness of the chorionic girdle trophoblast appears to represent an atavistic attribute more commonly associated with the hemochorial placentae of primates and rodents but not with the more recently derived epitheliochorial placentae of the odd-toed ungulates. The nature of and raison d’etre for the strong fetal signals transmitted to the mare by the endometrial cup reaction, and her responses to these messages, are the subject of the present review. PMID:25387026

  12. Four cases of equine motor neuron disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Naoki; IMAMURA, Yui; SEKIYA, Akio; ITOH, Megumi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses. Although lack of vitamin E is speculated to be a contributory factor for development of EMND, no significant improvement was observed following administration of vitamin E. PMID:27703407

  13. Equine-facilitated psychotherapy with adult female survivors of abuse.

    PubMed

    Meinersmann, Krista M; Bradberry, Judy; Roberts, Florence Bright

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study examined the stories of 5 women who experienced abuse and participated in equine-facilitated psychotherapy (EFP) as part of their recovery. Anecdotal accounts support the effectiveness of EFP with women who have experienced abuse, but there is a lack of supporting research. This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of EFP in the treatment of women who have experienced abuse. Selection criteria included age, experience of abuse, participation in EFP, and ability to understand English. Data analysis identified four patterns in the participants' stories: I Can Have Power; Doing It Hands On, Horses as Co-Therapists, and Turned My Life Around. Overall, the participants' stories show that EFP can be an effective intervention for women who have experienced abuse. PMID:19133493

  14. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus transmission and effect on pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Aguilar, Patricia V; Coffey, Lark L; Gromowski, Gregory D; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C

    2006-08-01

    Quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. Titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood feeding. Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU). We also observed slightly lower early and late viremia titers in mice that were needle injected with 8 PFU, which represents the low end of the in vivo transmission range. No differences in survival were detected, regardless of the dose or infection route.

  15. Morphology of three strains of contagious equine metritis organism.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, P J; Brown, T M; Corwin, D; Hayes, S F; Olszewski, A; Todd, W J

    1985-01-01

    Examination of recently isolated cultures of three strains of Contagious Equine Metritis Organism grown on specially formulated, serum-free, clear typing medium revealed the presence of numerous colonial opacity variants. These colonies were prepared by a number of fixation and staining techniques and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Opaque and transparent phenotypes produced copious amounts of extracellular material compared with intermediate-opacity phenotypes which produced little or none. Also unique to intermediate colonies were numerous thin intercellular strands, which may represent pili or polymers of extracellular material. The presence of an unusual fibrillar layer (with similar electron density to the extracellular material) on the outer leaf of the outer membrane also was confirmed. A number of other ultrastructural features also were noted, including an epilayer, a thin nonmembranous layer which covered colonies and adjacent agar. Images PMID:3838532

  16. Naturally occurring eastern equine encephalitis in a Hampshire wether.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rudy W; Gill, Marjorie S; Poston, Rob P; Kim, Dae Young

    2005-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed (postmortem) in a sheep with clinical signs attributable to a central nervous system disease. The sheep was febrile and initially had front limb incoordination, which progressed to paralysis of both front and hind limbs during a course of 2 days. The sheep maintained an alert attitude with the ability to eat up to the time of euthanasia. The only clinical pathologic abnormalities were neutrophilia and lymphopenia without appreciable leukocytosis, a moderate hyperglycemia, and an elevated creatine kinase. Treatment included hydrotherapy for lowering body temperature, intravenous fluids, thiamine hydrochloride, tetanus antitoxin, antibiotics, and corticosteroids. The only gross lesion at the time of necropsy was a wet glistening surface of the brain (leptomeninges). Microscopically, there was severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, poliomyelitis, and polyradiculoneuritis with mild multifocal neutrophilic infiltration. The EEE virus was isolated from the brain, and subsequent fluorescent antibody testing for EEE was positive on cell culture.

  17. Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; de Pue, Bonnie; Kaiser, Lana

    2011-01-01

    We compared anteroposterior and mediolateral range of motion and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) on the horse's back between riders without disabilities and riders with cerebral palsy. An electronic pressure mat was used to track COP movements beneath the saddle in 4 riders without disabilities and 4 riders with cerebral palsy. Comparisons between rider groups were made using the Mann-Whitney test (p < .05). The two rider groups differed significantly in anteroposterior range of COP motion, mediolateral range of COP motion, and mediolateral COP velocity. Anteroposterior COP velocity did not differ between groups. The results suggest that measurements of COP range of motion and velocity are potentially useful for monitoring changes in balance as an indicator of core stability during equine-assisted activities.

  18. Generation of equine TSLP-specific antibodies and their use for detection of TSLP produced by equine keratinocytes and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Plattet, Philippe; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjörg; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Marti, Eliane

    2012-06-30

    Allergic horses react to innocuous environmental substances by activation of Th2 cells and production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. The mechanisms leading to Th2 differentiation are not well understood. In humans and mice, epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a central role in this process. Little is known about equine TSLP (eqTSLP) and its role in allergic diseases and our current knowledge is limited to the assessment of TSLP mRNA expression. In order to be able to study eqTSLP at the protein level, the aim of the present study was to produce recombinant eqTSLP protein and generate TSLP-specific antibodies. EqTSLP was cloned from a skin biopsy sample from a horse with chronic urticaria and eqTSLP protein was expressed in E.coli and in mammalian cells. Recombinant proteins were designed to include C-terminal Histag, which allowed subsequent purification and detection by Histag-specific Ab. Polyclonal and monoclonal eqTSLP-specific Ab were generated after immunization of mice with E.coli-expressed TSLP. Their specificity was tested by western blotting and ELISA. In addition, a commercially available polyclonal human TSLP-specific antibody was tested for cross-reactivity with eqTSLP. Expression of TSLP protein was confirmed by western blotting using Histag-specific Ab. E.coli-expressed TSLP appears as a band of ∼13 kDa, whereas mammalian cell-expressed TSLP showed several bands at 20-25 kDa, probably representing several glycosylation forms. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies generated in this study, as well as commercially available human TSLP-specific Ab reacted with both E.coli- and mammalian cell-expressed TSLP in western blotting and ELISA. A capture ELISA was established to quantitate TSLP in cell supernatants and validated using supernatants from primary equine keratinocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Increased TSLP concentrations were found after stimulation of keratinocytes with PMA+ionomycine and with

  19. RNA Sequencing of the Exercise Transcriptome in Equine Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as “nucleic acid binding” and “signal transduction activity” functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress

  20. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Vitulo, Nicola; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including

  1. [Control of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) (Acari: Ixodidae) on equines].

    PubMed

    Bello, Ana Cristina P De P; Da Cunha, Arildo P; Leite, Romário C; Oliveira, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Antônio Cândido C L; Domingues, Luisa N; De Freitas, Carolina Maria V; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C

    2008-09-01

    This trial evaluated control practices of Anocentor nitens on equines, using spraying devices and application of acaricide paste formulation in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March of 2008 and the evaluations had been divided in the following stages: Phase 1--out/03 mar/04 and Phases 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, correspondents to the month's periods until março/08. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify infestation levels. From abr/04 to mar/06 was implanted a schedule of acaricide sprayings every seven days and divided in two series. The first one beginning in April 2004 and the second beginning in July, both using six sprayings treatments with pyrethroid chemical base--cypermethrin 0,015%, plus topical treatments applied monthly in the auricular pavilions (powder acaricide). From abril/06 to março/08 was carried out similar schedule treatments, each two months, using an experimental acaricide paste in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. Phases 2 and 3 did not showed reduction of the parasitic loads of A. nitens compared to the control period. Whereas in Phases 4 and 5 registered significant reduction compared control period and also with the results of Phases 2 and 3, characterizing the effectiveness of the treatment with the acaricide paste formulation. Results demonstrated of A. nitens populations present in the nasal diverticulum are important in the maintenance of the infestations on equines, and necessary attention to this anatomical structure when controlling ticks.

  2. The Transcriptome of Equine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacholewska, Alicja; Drögemüller, Michaela; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Lanz, Simone; Hamza, Eman; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Marti, Eliane; Gerber, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Complete transcriptomic data at high resolution are available only for a few model organisms with medical importance. The gene structures of non-model organisms are mostly computationally predicted based on comparative genomics with other species. As a result, more than half of the horse gene models are known only by projection. Experimental data supporting these gene models are scarce. Moreover, most of the annotated equine genes are single-transcript genes. Utilizing RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) the experimental validation of predicted transcriptomes has become accessible at reasonable costs. To improve the horse genome annotation we performed RNA-seq on 561 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 85 Warmblood horses. The mapped sequencing reads were used to build a new transcriptome assembly. The new assembly revealed many alternative isoforms associated to known genes or to those predicted by the Ensembl and/or Gnomon pipelines. We also identified 7,531 transcripts not associated with any horse gene annotated in public databases. Of these, 3,280 transcripts did not have a homologous match to any sequence deposited in the NCBI EST database suggesting horse specificity. The unknown transcripts were categorized as coding and noncoding based on predicted coding potential scores. Among them 230 transcripts had high coding potential score, at least 2 exons, and an open reading frame of at least 300 nt. We experimentally validated 9 new equine coding transcripts using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Our results provide valuable detailed information on many transcripts yet to be annotated in the horse genome. PMID:25790166

  3. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  4. Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, U B; Hedges, J F; Nadler, S A; McCollum, W H; Timoney, P J; MacLachlan, N J

    1999-08-01

    An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions. PMID:10466790

  5. Equine peripheral blood-derived progenitors in comparison to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Jens; Nesic, Dobrila; Romero, Jose Diaz; Brehm, Walter; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Grogan, Shawn Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Fibroblast-like cells isolated from peripheral blood of human, canine, guinea pig, and rat have been demonstrated to possess the capacity to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of isolating pluripotent precursor cells from equine peripheral blood and compare them with equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used as a control for cell multipotency assessment. Venous blood (n = 33) and bone marrow (n = 5) were obtained from adult horses. Mononuclear cells were obtained by Ficoll gradient centrifugation and cultured in monolayer, and adherent fibroblast-like cells were tested for their differentiation potential. Chondrogenic differentiation was performed in serum-free medium in pellet cultures as a three-dimensional model, whereas osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were induced in monolayer culture. Evidence for differentiation was made via biochemical, histological, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction evaluations. Fibroblast-like cells were observed on day 10 in 12 out of 33 samples and were allowed to proliferate until confluence. Equine peripheral blood-derived cells had osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities comparable to cells derived from bone marrow. Both cell types showed a limited capacity to produce lipid droplets compared to human MSCs. This result may be due to the assay conditions, which are established for human MSCs from bone marrow and may not be optimal for equine progenitor cells. Bone marrow-derived equine and human MSCs could be induced to develop cartilage, whereas equine peripheral blood progenitors did not show any capacity to produce cartilage at the histological level. In conclusion, equine peripheral blood-derived fibroblast-like cells can differentiate into distinct mesenchymal lineages but have less multipotency than bone marrow-derived MSCs under the conditions used in this study.

  6. Cleavage site and Ectodomain of HA2 sub-unit sequence of three equine influenza virus isolated in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The equine influenza (EI) is an infectious and contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract of horses. Two outbreaks were notified in Morocco during 1997 and 2004 respectively in Nador and Essaouira. The aims of the present study concern the amino acids sequences comparison with reference strain A/equine/Miami/1963(H3N8) of the HA2 subunit including the cleavage site of three equine influenza viruses (H3N8) isolated in Morocco: A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8), A/equine/Essaouira/2/2004 (H3N8) and A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004 (H3N8). Results The obtained results demonstrated that the substitutions were located at Ectodomain (ED) and transmembrane domain (TD), and they have only one arginine in cleavage site (HA1-PEKQI-R329-GI-HA2). In the Ectodomain, the mutation N/154 2 /T deleted the NGT glycosylation site at position 154 for both strains A/equine/Essaouira/2/2004(H3N8) and A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004(H3N8). Except for mutation D/1602/Y of the A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8) strain, the other mutations were involved in non conserved sites. While the transmembrane domain (TM) of the strain A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004(H3N8) exhibits a substitution at residue C/199 2 /F. For the A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8) strain the HA2 shows a mutation at residue M/207 2 /L. Three Moroccan strains reveals a common substitution at the residue E/211 2 /Q located between transmembrane domain TM and the cytoplasmic domain (CD). Conclusion The given nature virulence of three Moroccan strains, the identified and reported mutations certainly played a permissive role of infection viral process. PMID:25016480

  7. Cloning and large-scale expansion of epitope-specific equine cytotoxic T lymphocytes using an anti-equine CD3 monoclonal antibody and human recombinant IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Littke, Matt H.; Leib, Steven R.; Davis, William C.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2007-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are involved in controlling intracellular pathogens in many species, including horses. Particularly, CTL are critical for the control of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus that infects horses world-wide. In humans and animal models, CTL clones are valuable for evaluating the fine specificity of epitope recognition, and for adoptive immunotherapy against infectious and neoplastic diseases. Cloned CTL would be equally useful for similar studies in the horse. Here we present the first analysis of a method to generate equine CTL clones. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from an EIAV-infected horse and stimulated with the EIAV Rev-QW11 peptide. Sorted CD8+ T cells were cloned by limiting dilution, and expanded without further antigen addition using irradiated PBMC, anti-equine CD3, and human recombinant IL-2. Clones could be frozen and thawed without detrimental effects, and could be subsequently expanded to numbers exceeding 2 × 109 cells. Flow cytometry of expanded clones confirmed the CD3+/CD8+ phenotype, and chromium release assays confirmed CTL activity. Finally, sequencing TCR beta chain genes confirmed clonality. Our results provide a reliable means to generate large numbers of epitope-specific equine CTL clones that are suitable for use in downstream applications, including functional assays and adoptive transfer studies. PMID:17498813

  8. Evidence of widespread natural recombination among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 but not among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Vaz, P K; Horsington, J; Hartley, C A; Browning, G F; Ficorilli, N P; Studdert, M J; Gilkerson, J R; Devlin, J M

    2016-03-01

    Recombination in alphaherpesviruses allows evolution to occur in viruses that have an otherwise stable DNA genome with a low rate of nucleotide substitution. High-throughput sequencing of complete viral genomes has recently allowed natural (field) recombination to be studied in a number of different alphaherpesviruses, however, such studies have not been applied to equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) or equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). These two equine alphaherpesviruses are genetically similar, but differ in their pathogenesis and epidemiology. Both cause economically significant disease in horse populations worldwide. This study used high-throughput sequencing to determine the full genome sequences of EHV-1 and EHV-4 isolates (11 and 14 isolates, respectively) from Australian or New Zealand horses. These sequences were then analysed and examined for evidence of recombination. Evidence of widespread recombination was detected in the genomes of the EHV-4 isolates. Only one potential recombination event was detected in the genomes of the EHV-1 isolates, even when the genomes from an additional 11 international EHV-1 isolates were analysed. The results from this study reveal another fundamental difference between the biology of EHV-1 and EHV-4. The results may also be used to help inform the future safe use of attenuated equine herpesvirus vaccines.

  9. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S.; Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M.; Zielinski, J.; Leeb, T.; Mevissen, M.; Schmitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  10. Structural Illumination of Equine MHC Class I Molecules Highlights Unconventional Epitope Presentation Manner That Is Evolved in Equine Leukocyte Antigen Alleles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shugang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Junya; Wu, Yanan; Gao, George Fu; Xia, Chun

    2016-02-15

    MHC class I (MHC I)-restricted virus-specific CTLs are implicated as critical components in the control of this naturally occurring lentivirus and in the protective immune response to the successfully applied attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine in the horse. Nevertheless, the structural basis for how the equine MHC I presents epitope peptides remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the binding of several equine infectious anemia virus-derived epitope peptides by the ability to refold recombinant molecules and by thermal stability, and then by determining the x-ray structure of five peptide-MHC I complexes: equine MHC class I allele (Eqca)-N*00602/Env-RW12, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-GW12, Eqca-N*00602/Rev-QW11, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-CF9, and Eqca-N*00601/Gag-GW12. Although Eqca-N*00601 and Eqca-N*00602 differ by a single amino acid, Eqca-N*00601 exhibited a drastically different peptide presentation when binding a similar CTL epitope, Gag-GW12; the result makes the previously reported function clear to be non-cross-recognition between these two alleles. The structures plus Eqca-N*00602 complexed with a 9-mer peptide are particularly noteworthy in that we illuminated differences in apparent flexibility in the center of the epitope peptides for the complexes with Gag-GW12 as compared with Env-RW12, and a strict selection of epitope peptides with normal length. The featured preferences and unconventional presentations of long peptides by equine MHC I molecules provide structural bases to explain the exceptional anti-lentivirus immunity in the horse. We think that the beneficial reference points could serve as an initial platform for other human or animal lentiviruses. PMID:26764037

  11. 77 FR 7588 - Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and Equines; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and... meeting entitled ``Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and Equines.'' The purpose of the... ruminants and equines. DATES: Date and Time: The public meeting will be held on March 5 and 6, 2012, from...

  12. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  13. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  14. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  15. Xenogenous fertilization of equine oocytes following recovery from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Wirtu, G; Bailey, T L; Chauhan, M S; Parker, N A; Dascanio, J J; Gwazdauskas, F C; Ley, W B

    2004-01-15

    The in vitro production (IVP) of equine embryos using currently available protocols has met limited success; therefore investigations into alternative approaches to IVP are justified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of xenogenous fertilization and early embryo development of in vitro matured (IVM) equine oocytes. Follicular aspirations followed by slicing of ovarian tissue were performed on 202 equine ovaries obtained from an abattoir. A total of 667 oocytes (3.3 per ovary) were recovered from 1023 follicles (recovery rate, 65%). Oocytes underwent IVM for 41 +/- 2 h (mean +/- S.D.), before being subjected to xenogenous gamete intrafallopian transfer (XGIFT). An average of 13 +/- 0.8 oocytes and 40x10(3) spermatozoa per oocyte were transferred into 20 oviducts of ewes. Fourteen percent of transferred oocytes (36/259) were recovered between 2 and 7 days post-XGIFT and 36% of those recovered displayed embryonic development ranging from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage. Fertilization following XGIFT was also demonstrated by the detection of zinc finger protein Y (ZFY) loci. Ligation of the uterotubal junction (UTJ), ovarian structures, or the duration of oviductal incubation did not significantly affect the frequency of embryonic development or recovery of oocytes/embryos after XGIFT. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced in a smaller non-equine species that is easier for handling. PMID:14662137

  16. Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica

    2006-06-01

    Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.

  17. Immunostimulatory Effects of the Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex BARODON on Equine Lymphocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Koo, HyeCheong; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Woo Kyung; Park, Young Kyung; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Kim, So Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Yoo, Byung Woo; Choi, Soo Il; Davis, William C.; Park, Yong Ho

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the anionic alkali mineral complex BARODON has an immunoenhancing effect on pigs as an adjuvant and as a nonspecific immunostimulant. Likewise, the equine immune system has been defined with various monoclonal antibodies specific to equine leukocyte differentiation antigens to determine the possibility of enhancing equine resistance to respiratory diseases and promoting other immunostimulatory effects with the application of BARODON. Compared with the control group, after 3 weeks of treatment, BARODON-treated groups showed higher proportions of cells (P < 0.05) expressing major histocompatibility complex class II and CD2, CD4+, CD4+ CD25+, CD8+, and CD8+ CD25+ T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and surface immunoglobulin M+ B lymphocytes in peripheral blood, as well as enhanced cell proliferative responses with phytohemagglutinin and increased phagocytic activity against Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus aureus strains with high antibiotic resistance, the bacteria frequently identified as etiologic agents of equine respiratory diseases at the Seoul Race Park in Seoul, Korea. This study shows that BARODON may act as an immunostimulator and can be an effective alternative to antimicrobial feed additives for nonspecific improvements in equine immune responses, particularly against respiratory diseases. PMID:16943344

  18. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  19. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Altier, Craig; Bischoff, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Acer rubrum (red maple), especially when wilted in the fall, cause severe oxidative damage to equine erythrocytes, leading to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Gallic acid and tannins from A. rubrum leaves have been implicated as the toxic compounds responsible for red maple toxicosis, but the mechanism of action and toxic principle(s) have not been elucidated to date. In order to investigate further how red maple toxicosis occurs, aqueous solutions of gallic acid, tannic acid, and ground dried A. rubrum leaves were incubated with contents of equine ileum, jejunum, cecum, colon, and liver, and then analyzed for the metabolite pyrogallol, as pyrogallol is a more potent oxidizing agent. Gallic acid was observed to be metabolized to pyrogallol maximally in equine ileum contents in the first 24 hr. Incubation of tannic acid and A. rubrum leaves, individually with ileum contents, produced gallic acid and, subsequently, pyrogallol. Ileum suspensions, when passed through a filter to exclude microbes but not enzymes, formed no pyrogallol, suggesting a microbial basis to the pathway. Bacteria isolated from ileum capable of pyrogallol formation were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, gallotannins and free gallic acid are present in A. rubrum leaves and can be metabolized by K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae found in the equine ileum to form pyrogallol either directly or through a gallic acid intermediate (gallotannins). Identification of these compounds and their physiological effects is necessary for the development of effective treatments for red maple toxicosis in equines.

  20. Factors affecting the ultrasonic properties of equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A; Fursey, G A; Birch, H L; Young, R D

    1996-01-01

    The velocity, attenuation and apparent backscattering coefficient of 6-11-MHz ultrasound were measured in three orthogonal directions in equine deep digital flexor (DDF) and superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons at 0 degree C. Ultrasonic measurements were examined for correlation with tendon water, collagen, DNA and glycosaminoglycans contents, determined by chemical analyses and with structure observed by scanning electron microscopy. The SDF tendon contained more water, more DNA (i.e., more cells), less collagen and less glycosaminoglycans and exhibited lower velocities and attenuations than the DDF tendon. Velocities were governed primarily by the adiabatic bulk modulus and density, perturbed by a highly direction-dependent rigidity. Ultrasound propagating across tendon generated frequency-independent backscattering which appeared to derive from the large interfaces between the fascicles, while along the fibres backscattering varied as f3.62 +/- 0.88 and appeared to derive from small structures such as collagen fibres. The mechanisms by which ultrasound is attenuated by tendon remain unknown.

  1. A dynamic transmission model of eastern equine encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Unnasch, Robert S.; Sprenger, Tonya; Katholi, Charles R.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is one of several arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) endemic to the United States. Interactions between arthropod (mosquito) vectors and avian amplification host populations play a significant role in the dynamics of arboviral transmission. Recent data have suggested the hypothesis that an increased rate of successful feeding on young-of-the-year (YOY) birds might play a role in the dynamics of EEEV transmission. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model to explore the effect of the interactions of the vectors and avian host populations on EEEV transmission. Sensitivity analyses conducted using this model revealed eleven parameters that were capable of disproportionately affecting the predicted level of EEEV infection in the vertebrate reservoir and vector populations. Of these, four parameters were related to the interaction of the vector with young-of-the-year birds. Furthermore, adult birds could not substitute for young-of-the-year in initiating and maintaining a predicted enzootic outbreak of EEEV. Taken together, the model predicted that young-of-the-year birds play a key role in establishing and maintaining enzootic outbreaks of EEEV. PMID:16501661

  2. Ceratohyoidectomy for treatment of equine temporohyoid osteoarthopathy (15 cases)

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Shem T.; Hardy, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 15 horses diagnosed with temporohyoid osteoarthopathy (THO) and treated by ceratohyoidectomy between 2004 and 2012. The presenting complaint, duration and nature of the clinical signs, additional diagnostic procedures, and complications were reviewed retrospectively. Long-term follow-up on horses was used to determine prognosis. All horses were diagnosed by guttural pouch endoscopy. Follow-up was available for 14 horses that survived to discharge. Eight of 10 horses that were used athletically prior to surgery returned to previous levels of use. Persisting clinical signs included mild facial nerve paralysis (3/14; 21.4%) or head tilt (6/14; 42.8%) but these were not functionally limiting. It was concluded that equine THO affects a wide range of breeds, disciplines, and ages of horses, and has a variety of presenting clinical signs most commonly associated with vestibular and facial nerves. Prognosis following ceratohyoidectomy is good for resolution of ataxia but some cranial nerve deficits may persist. PMID:25829558

  3. Equine infectious anemia in mules: virus isolation and pathogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, V; Papanastassopoulou, M; Psychas, V; Billinis, Ch; Koumbati, M; Vlemmas, J; Koptopoulos, G

    2003-08-29

    There appears to be a lack of information concerning responses of mules to natural infection or experimental inoculation with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). In the present study EIAV was isolated from mules, for the first time, and its pathogenicity in naturally infected and experimentally inoculated animals was investigated. Two naturally infected (A and B) and three EIAV free mules (C, D and E) were used for this purpose. Mule A developed clinical signs, whereas mule B remained asymptomatic until the end of the study. Mules C and D were each inoculated with 10ml of blood from mule A and developed signs of the disease; they were euthanatized or died at day 22 and 25 post-inoculation, respectively. Mule E served as a negative control. The virus was isolated from the plasma samples of mules with clinical signs of the disease (A, C and D), but not from the asymptomatic mule B. Both proviral DNA and viral RNA were amplified from blood and tissues of the infected animals by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Antibodies were not detected in the two experimentally infected mules until their natural death or euthanasia. Clinicopathological and laboratory findings showed that, in mules, EIAV produced clinical signs similar to those observed in horses and ponies. Nested PCR proved to be a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic method for the detection of EIAV, regardless of the disease stage.

  4. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  5. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa; Bartels, Else Marie

    2015-03-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reliably can be used to assess the condition of a horse's muscles in connection with health assessment, injury and both training and re-training. mfBIA measurements was carried out on 10 'hobby' horses and 5 selected cases with known anamnesis. Impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, centre frequency, membrane capacitance and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were measured. Platinum electrodes in connection with a conductance paste were used to accommodate the typical BIA frequencies and to facilitate accurate measurements. Use of mfBIA data to look into the effects of myofascial release treatment was also demonstrated. Our findings indicate that mfBIA provides a non-invasive, easily measurable and very precise assessment of the state of muscles in horses. This study also shows the potential of mfBIA as a diagnostic tool as well as a tool to monitor effects of treatment e.g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively. PMID:25656988

  6. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. PMID:24957845

  7. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

  8. Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D; Zyzak, M; Watts, D; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; Klein, T A; Jones, J W

    2008-07-01

    Mosquitoes were collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) that were isolated from mosquitoes captured within 20 km of Iquitos. When fed on hamsters or chickens with a viremia of 4105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of EEEV/ml, Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin, Aedesfulvus (Wiedemann), Psorophora albigenu (Peryassu), and Psorophoraferox (Von Humboldt) were susceptible to infection, whereas none of the Aedes serratus (Theobald), Culex vomerifer Komp, Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings, and Ferreira, Culex portesi Senevet and Abonnenc, or Culex coronator Dyar and Knab became infected, even though they fed on the same viremic blood sources. When these mosquito species fed on animals with viremias of approximately 10(8) PFU/ml, Cx. pedroi, Ae.II (Brazil-Peru) and a lineage III (Argentina-Panama) isolate of EEEV. This study, combined with the repeated isolation of strains of EEEV from Cx. pedroi captured in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, suggests that Cx. pedroi may be the primary enzootic vector of EEEV in this region.

  9. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  10. Questionnaire assessment of airway disease symptoms in equine barn personnel

    PubMed Central

    Svatek, Jessica; Maranda, Louise; Christiani, David; Ghio, Andrew; Nadeau, Jenifer; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Background People working in cattle, swine and poultry barns have a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. There is scant evidence regarding the respiratory health of humans working in horse barns, although it is well documented that stabled horses have a high prevalence of airway disease. Aims To determine whether people spending time in horse barns have a higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms than non-exposed controls. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from May 2005 to January 2006 to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in 82 barn-exposed subjects and 74 control subjects. Logistic regression and the chi-square test were used to analyse the data. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in the barn-exposed group (50%) versus the control group (15%). Exposure to horse barns, smoking and family history of asthma or allergies was independent risk factors for respiratory symptoms. High exposure to the horse barn yielded a higher odds ratio for self-reported respiratory symptoms (8.9). Conclusions Exposure to the equine barn is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Investigation of organic dust exposures, lung function and horse dander allergies in the barn-exposed group will be necessary to determine how best to protect the health of this group. PMID:19223434

  11. Quantitation of fluphenazine in equine serum following fluphenazine decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sara; Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Hurt, Laura; Simpson, Lindsay; Bishop, Jennifer; Folker-Calderon, Dawn; Negrusz, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Fluphenazine, a potent antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia in humans, is used in racehorses as a performance-enhancing drug, and for that reason it has been banned by the Association of Racing Commissioners International. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for detecting and quantitating fluphenazine in equine serum was developed and validated. The method was then employed to quantitate fluphenazine in serum samples collected from three study horses after intramuscular injection of fluphenazine decanoate. Stability testing showed that fluphenazine is stable in unextracted and processed samples as well as samples that have been subjected to up to three freeze-thaw cycles. The limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation of fluphenazine were determined to be 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. Precision was evaluated based on one-way analysis of variance of replicate quality control samples and was determined to be 27.2% at the 0.2 ng/mL level and 18.1% at the 2 ng/mL level. Bias was determined to be 0.55% at the 0.2 ng/mL level and 3.66% at the 2 ng/mL level. In two of three horses, fluphenazine was detected in serum up to 14 days post-administration. The highest detected concentration of fluphenazine in serum was 1.4 ng/mL.

  12. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control. PMID:24802183

  13. The role of working equines to livelihoods in current day campesino hill-slope communities in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Beltrán, Leon G; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Nava-Bernal, Eufemio Gabino; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-12-01

    Small-holder campesino agriculture is based on the diversified use of resources and off-farm work. Working equines have a multifunctional character and sustain the diversification of livelihoods having different values as assets or providing services. The objective was to identify the role of working equines in current diversification strategies in the livelihoods of campesino families in a hill-slope community in central Mexico within livelihoods analysis. Thirty-one variables related to ownership and use of working equines were analysed by cluster analysis and descriptive statistics contrasting the presence of equines in the diversification of livelihoods. Four groups were identified, determined mainly by age of farmer and number of family members who utilise equines. Results show these systems diversify in response to conditions of risk or to take advantage of opportunities, such that a balance is reached by resorting to off-farm activities without the total loss of components of the farming system. Two main situations were found in relation to working equines: the disappearance and change of functions of the large equines (mules), and the adaptation of small equines (donkeys) to the new conditions. It is concluded that there is a process of adaptation in hill-slope campesino farms such that large equines are less present in farms that have moved towards more diversification, but are kept in those farms less diversified. The use of equines for draught force in agricultural production and as pack animals continues, as is the presence of small livestock (sheep and poultry) irrespective of the context of the farm. PMID:21637993

  14. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  15. A method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rose, B V; Cabrera-Sharp, V; Firth, M J; Barrelet, F E; Bate, S; Cameron, I J; Crabtree, J R; Crowhurst, J; McGladdery, A J; Neal, H; Pynn, J; Pynn, O D; Smith, C; Wise, Z; Verheyen, K L P; Wathes, D C; de Mestre, A M

    2016-02-01

    Early pregnancy loss occurs in 6-10% of equine pregnancies making it the main cause of reproductive wastage. Despite this, reasons for the losses are known in only 16% of cases. Lack of viable conceptus material has inhibited investigations of many potential genetic and pathological causes. We present a method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies. Trophoblast cells from 18/30 (60%) failed equine pregnancies of gestational ages 14-65 days were successfully cultured in three different media, with the greatest growth achieved for cells cultured in AmnioChrome™ Plus. Genomic DNA of a suitable quality for molecular assays was also isolated from 29/30 of these cases. This method will enable future investigations determining pathologies causing EPL. PMID:26907389

  16. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  17. Virucidal effect of commercially available disinfectants on equine group A rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection.

  18. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D. )

    1988-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine {sup 125}I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease.

  19. Virucidal Effect of Commercially Available Disinfectants on Equine Group A Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    NEMOTO, Manabu; BANNAI, Hiroshi; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection. PMID:24681569

  20. Wheat germ agglutinin as a counterstain for immunofluorescence studies of equine hoof lamellae.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert K; Galantino-Homer, Hannah L

    2014-09-01

    Equine laminitis is a common, painful, debilitating condition of the hoof that is a leading cause of disability in horses, often necessitating euthanasia. The equine hoof represents an extreme evolutionary adaptation of an epidermal structure homologous to the human or murine nail units. Immunohistochemistry is frequently utilized in the study of the pathophysiology of laminitis. The complex, multilayered, extensively interdigitated epidermal-dermal lamellar interface renders precise interpretation of immunofluorescence localization difficult, especially when effective technique and reagents render non-reactive tissues completely dark. Fluorescent-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) selectively labels dermal extracellular matrix fibres and epidermal cell membranes in tissue sections of horse hoof lamellae, is compatible with indirect immunofluorescence and augments interpretation of indirect immunofluorescence antigen localization. The current report details the use of WGA as a rapid, simple, economical counterstain for immunofluorescence studies of the equine hoof and may have application to other complex epidermal tissue structures. PMID:25040657

  1. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Barba, Marta; Daly, Janet M

    2016-08-31

    Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  2. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Barba, Marta; Daly, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies. PMID:27589809

  3. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from Namibia.

    PubMed

    Borchers, K; Frölich, K

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (Equus zebra) from Namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (EHV-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and neutralization test (NT). Additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR) were employed for detection of EHV-1, -2 and -4 DNA. Equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by IFA in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained EHV-4 IFA antibodies. Sera with high IFA antibodies also were found to neutralize EHV-1 and -4. Furthermore, 20 zebras were EHV-2 seropositive by IFA, and one zebra had EHV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Equine herpesvirus-3 specific antibodies were not detected. We did not amplify EHV-1, -2 or -4 specific DNA sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes of the same zebras using type-specific nested PCR. EHV infections appear to be widespread in free-ranging zebras, as they are in domestic horses.

  4. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising.

  5. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A validation study.

    PubMed

    VanDierendonck, Machteld C; van Loon, Johannes P A M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the validation of two recently described pain scales, the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP), in horses with acute colic. A follow-up cohort study of 46 adult horses (n = 23 with acute colic; n = 23 healthy control horses) was performed for validation and refinement of the constructed scales. Both pain scales showed statistically significant differences between horses with colic and healthy control horses, and between horses with colic that could be treated conservatively and those that required surgical treatment or were euthanased. Sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (87% and 71%, respectively) and EQUUS-FAP (77% and 100%, respectively) and were not substantially influenced by applying weighting factors to the individual parameters. PMID:27687948

  6. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of five bisphosphonates in equine urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Wong, April S Y; Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are used in the management of skeletal disorder in humans and horses, with tiludronic acid being the first licensed veterinary medicine in the treatment of lameness associated with degenerative joint disease. Bisphosphonates are prohibited in horseracing according to Article 6 of the International Agreement on Breeding, Racing and Wagering (published by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities). In order to control the use of bisphosphonates in equine sports, an effective method to detect the use of bisphosphonates is required. Bisphosphonates are difficult-to-detect drugs due to their hydrophilic properties. The complexity of equine matrices also added to their extraction difficulties. This study describes a method for the simultaneous detection of five bisphosphonates, namely alendronic acid, clodronic acid, ibandronic acid, risedronic acid and tiludronic acid, in equine urine and plasma. Bisphosphonates were first isolated from the sample matrices by solid-phase extractions, followed by methylation with trimethylsilyldiazomethane prior to liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis using selective reaction monitoring in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The five bisphosphonates could be detected at low ppb levels in 0.5mL equine plasma or urine with acceptable precision, fast instrumental turnaround time, and negligible matrix interferences. The method has also been applied to the excretion study of tiludronic acid in plasma and urine collected from a horse having been administered a single dose of tiludronic acid. The applicability and effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of the presence of tiludronic acid in an overseas equine urine sample. To our knowledge, this is the first reported method in the successful screening and confirmation of five amino- and non-amino bisphosphonates in equine biological samples.

  7. Generation of functional neurons from feeder-free, keratinocyte-derived equine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Livesey, Matthew Robert; Wyllie, David J A; Proudfoot, Christopher; Whitelaw, Christopher Bruce Alexander; Hay, David Christopher; Donadeu, Francesc Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer unprecedented biomedical potential not only in relation to humans but also companion animals, particularly the horse. Despite this, attempts to generate bona fide equine embryonic stem cells have been unsuccessful. A very limited number of induced PSC lines have so far been generated from equine fibroblasts but their potential for directed differentiation into clinically relevant tissues has not been explored. In this study, we used retroviral vectors to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with comparatively high efficiency from equine keratinocytes. Expression of endogenous PSC markers (OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, NANOG, DNMT3B, and REX1) was effectively restored in these cells, which could also form in vivo several tissue derivatives of the three germ layers, including functional neurons, keratinized epithelium, cartilage, bone, muscle, and respiratory and gastric epithelia. Comparative analysis of different reprogrammed cell lines revealed an association between the ability of iPSCs to form well-differentiated teratomas and the distinct endogenous expression of OCT4 and REX1 and reduced expression of viral transgenes. Importantly, unlike in previous studies, equine iPSCs were successfully expanded using simplified feeder-free culture conditions, constituting significant progress toward future biomedical applications. Further, under appropriate conditions equine iPSCs generated cells with features of cholinergic motor neurons including the ability to generate action potentials, providing the first report of functional cells derived from equine iPSCs. The ability to derive electrically active neurons in vitro from a large animal reveals highly conserved pathways of differentiation across species and opens the way for new and exciting applications in veterinary regenerative medicine. PMID:24548115

  8. Contrasting modes and tempos of venom expression evolution in two snake species.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; McGivern, James J; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species.

  9. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P.; Winlove, C. Peter; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. × 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  10. Fluorescence of equine platelet tropomyosin labeled with acrylodan.

    PubMed

    Clark, I D; Burtnick, L D

    1988-02-01

    Equine platelet tropomyosin was labeled with the sulfhydryl-specific fluorescent reagent 6-acryloyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (acrylodan). The extent of labeling at 4 degrees C could be regulated between 0.5 and 1.3 acrylodans per tropomyosin chain by varying the reaction time from 1 to 4.5 h. Acrylodan-labeled platelet tropomyosin, AD-P-TM, was highly fluorescent, having an emission maximum near 518 nm on excitation at 365 nm. Steady-state measurements of polarization of the fluorescence of AD-P-TM in both low and high ionic strength solutions gave Perrin plots that exhibited sharp changes in slope near 50 degrees C, indicative of a sharp increase in mobility of the label at that temperature. This correlates with the melting temperature of the platelet tropomyosin coiled coil observed by circular dichroism [G. P. Côté, W. G. Lewis, M. D. Pato, and L. B. Smillie, (1978) FEBS Lett. 91, 237-241]. Perrin plots of carboxypeptidase A-treated platelet tropomyosin that was labeled with acrylodan after digestion resembled more closely those of acrylodan-labeled cardiac tropomyosin rather than those of AD-P-TM, suggesting that the observed emission arose from label at Cys-153 on each truncated platelet tropomyosin chain. In solutions containing 150 mM KCl and 5 mM MgCl2, addition of actin at up to a sixfold molar excess over AD-P-TM caused both the fluorescence emission intensities and fluorescence polarization values of samples to increase. In the presence of actin, the wavelength of maximal emission was shifted to shorter values by about 5 to 7 nm. These changes indicate that actin does bind to AD-P-TM and that the binding affects the environment of the label, both by making it more hydrophobic and by reducing the freedom of the label to tumble in solution.

  11. Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E; Fernandez, Rafael A; Bianco, María I; Sartori, Omar J; Piovano, María L; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T

    2011-11-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available.

  12. The role of IKKβ in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Moushimi; Voss, Kelsey; Sampey, Gavin; Senina, Svetlana; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Mueller, Claudius; Calvert, Valerie; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Carpenter, Calvin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Mogelsvang, Soren; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ(-/-) cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKKβ protein may be

  13. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida. PMID:23126615

  14. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available. PMID:21918119

  15. Enumeration of anaerobic bacterial microflora of the equine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mackie, R I; Wilkins, C A

    1988-09-01

    Samples from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, as well as from the cecum and colon, were obtained from 11 mature grass-fed horses. Viable counts of total culturable and proteolytic bacteria were made on habitat-simulating media containing 40% clarified ruminal fluid. The mean pHs in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were 6.32, 7.10, and 7.47, respectively; the mean pH decreased to 6.7 in the hindgut. The acetate concentration increased along the length of the small intestine and was the only volatile fatty acid present in this gut segment. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the hindgut were 85:10:3. Differences in bacterial counts on habitat-simulating media containing equine cecal fluid or clarified ruminal fluid were negligible. Bacterial counts showed a substantial population in the duodenum (ca. 2.9 x 10(6) per g [wet weight] of sample), and this increased to 29.0 x 10(6) in the jejunum and 38.4 x 10(6) in the ileum. Proteolytic bacteria formed a high proportion of the total culturable bacteria, especially in duodenal samples. Counts of proteolytic bacteria per gram (wet weight) of sample were 3.0 x 10(6), 15.6 x 10(6), and 22.0 x 10(6) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively. There was a close relationship between lumenal and mucosal bacterial counts, although actual values were lower in mucosal samples. The mucosal bacterial population in the duodenum was high relative to the lumenal population. Although the comparison of bacterial populations in the hindgut of the horse and white rhino was limited to a single animal, the results were of interest. Counts were higher in the cecum than in the colon for both the horse and the white rhino.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The Role of IKKβ in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Moushimi; Voss, Kelsey; Sampey, Gavin; Senina, Svetlana; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Mueller, Claudius; Calvert, Valerie; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Carpenter, Calvin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Mogelsvang, Soren; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ−/− cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKKβ protein may be

  17. The role of IKKβ in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Moushimi; Voss, Kelsey; Sampey, Gavin; Senina, Svetlana; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Mueller, Claudius; Calvert, Valerie; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Carpenter, Calvin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Mogelsvang, Soren; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ(-/-) cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKKβ protein may be

  18. Equine lamellar energy metabolism studied using tissue microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C; Underwood, C; Castro-Olivera, E M; Collins, S N; Allavena, R E; Richardson, D W; van Eps, A W

    2014-09-01

    Failure of lamellar energy metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Tissue microdialysis has the potential to dynamically monitor lamellar energy balance over time. The objectives of this study were to develop a minimally invasive lamellar microdialysis technique and use it to measure normal lamellar energy metabolite concentrations over 24 h. Microdialysis probes were placed (through the white line) into either the lamellar dermis (LAM) (n = 6) or the sublamellar dermis (SUBLAM) (n = 6) and perfused continuously over a 24 h study period. Probes were placed in the skin dermis (SKIN) for simultaneous comparison to LAM (n = 6). Samples were collected every 2 h and analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and glycerol concentrations. LAM was further compared with SUBLAM by simultaneous placement and sampling in four feet from two horses over 4 h. Horses were monitored for lameness, and either clinically evaluated for 1 month after probe removal (n = 4) or subjected to histological evaluation of the probe site (n = 10). There were no deleterious clinical effects of probe placement and the histological response was mild. Sample fluid recovery and metabolite concentrations were stable for 24 h. Glucose was lower (and lactate:glucose ratio higher) in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN (P < 0.05). Pyruvate was lower in SUBLAM than SKIN and urea was lower in LAM than SKIN (P < 0.05). These differences suggest lower perfusion and increased glucose consumption in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN. In conclusion, lamellar tissue microdialysis was well tolerated and may be useful for determining the contribution of energy failure in laminitis pathogenesis. PMID:24947715

  19. Cloning and expression of ADAM related metalloproteases in Equine Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Michael J.; Cousin, Hélène; Loftus, John P.; Johnson, Philip J.; Belknap, James K.; Gradil, Carlos M.; Black, Samuel J.; Alfandari, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Equine laminitis is a debilitating disease affecting the digital laminae that suspends the distal phalanx within the hoof. While the clinical progression of the disease has been well documented, the molecular events associated with its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. We have investigated the expression of genes coding for proteins containing a Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain (ADAM), as well as genes encoding the natural inhibitors of these enzymes (Tissue Inhibitor of MetalloProtease; TIMP) in horses with naturally acquired (acute, chronic and aggravated chronic cases collected in clinic) or experimentally-induced (black walnut extract and starch gruel models) laminitis using real time quantitative RT-PCR. Changes in expression of these enzymes and regulators may underlie the pathologic remodeling of lamellar tissue in laminitis. Genes encoding ADAMs involved in inflammation (ADAM-10 and ADAM-17), as well as those implicated in arthritis (ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5) were cloned, and the sequences used to generate specific oligonucleotide primers for the RT-qPCR experiments. Our results show that genes encoding ADAM-10 and 17 were not induced in most laminitic animals whereas ADAMTS-4 gene expression was strongly upregulated in practically all cases of experimentally induced and naturally acquired laminitis. The expression of MMP-9 and ADAMTS-5 was also increased in many of the laminitic horses. In addition, TIMP-2 gene expression was decreased in most laminitic horses, whereas expression of genes encoding other TIMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 was randomly increased or decreased in the various models. We conclude that elevated expression of lamellar ADAMTS-4 is a common feature of laminitis consistent with a central role of the gene product in the pathophysiology of laminitis. PMID:19131116

  20. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  1. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present.

  2. Equine travellers to the Olympic Games in Hong Kong 2008: a review of worldwide challenges to equine health, with particular reference to vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Herholz, C; Füssel, A-E; Timoney, P; Schwermer, H; Bruckner, L; Leadon, D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10-20 years have seen exponential growth in the volume of trade in horses and equine germplasm; and the extent of global horse movements has increased significantly in the last 4 years. In preparing for the transport of elite Olympic horses to Hong Kong in 2008, it will be very important to be as fully informed as possible of the disease situation in both the exporting and importing country, import and re-entry requirements, as well as having a vaccination strategy to protect against particular diseases. In this context the review describes the equine vector-borne disease situation in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America and provides estimates of the number of horse movements between these countries, as well as information on import requirements and vaccination strategies. PMID:18083666

  3. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  4. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; May, Maeva A; Peters, Sarah T; Metzger, Stephan M; Rosas, Cristina T; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-01-22

    Vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and equine influenza virus (EIV). Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant EHV-1 modified live virus vaccine (MLV) based on a recent abortogenic EHV-1 strain, NY03. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the MLV was tested in horses in an EHV-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent EHV-1 strain OH03. Induction of a robust EHV-1-specific immune response was observed. Upon challenge infection, vaccinated horses were partially protected against disease as demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical signs, nasal shedding and viremia levels. In addition, the NY03-based MLV was used to express the EIV H3 protein and immunogenicity was tested in horses. Expression of H3 was readily detected in NY03-H3-infected cells in vitro. Vaccination of horses resulted in the induction of a robust serological immune responses against two recent but genetically distinct EIV representatives, VA05 and NY-99, which were above the threshold predicted to be protective against development of clinical disease.

  5. Combined Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine Induces Durable and Cross-Protective Immune Responses against Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Pamela J.; Bakken, Russell R.; Barth, James F.; Lind, Cathleen M.; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Parker, Michael D.; Smith, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. IMPORTANCE Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the

  6. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  7. Does immunotherapy protect equines from reinfection by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum?

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E P; Marques, Luiz C; Zanette, Régis A; Jesus, Francielli P K; Santurio, Janio M

    2011-08-01

    A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

  8. Does Immunotherapy Protect Equines from Reinfection by the Oomycete Pythium insidiosum?▿

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos E. P.; Marques, Luiz C.; Zanette, Régis A.; Jesus, Francielli P. K.; Santurio, Janio M.

    2011-01-01

    A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

  9. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Bhardwaj, Rajinder Kumar; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%).

  10. Assessment of equine waste as a biomass resource in New York State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine operations may generate excessive quantities of biomass (manure and used bedding) that could either become a waste or a resource, especially when the biomass is developed as an alternative energy source. Using the generated biomass as a resource can involve a variety of approaches such as la...

  11. Working together to achieve the best outcomes for equine health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-03-19

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum where a key theme was the importance of collaboration and effective communication in achieving the best outcomes for the health and welfare of the horse and the future of equestrianism in the UK. PMID:26993448

  12. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease. PMID:26829861

  13. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  14. Effects of an Equine Assisted Activities Program on Youth with Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Tira

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a 10-week Equine Assisted Activities (EAA) program on special education students (aged 9 to 15) identified as Emotionally Disturbed (ED) who were enrolled in an alternative school. A control group of special education students receiving treatment-as-usual was included. The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children,…

  15. Equine Education Programs and Related Studies as Found in Colleges and Universities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmenter, Carol L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and scope of equine education programs being offered in the colleges and universities throughout the country and the attitudes of specialists toward these programs. The paper is organized into five major categories: (1) introduction, statement of purpose, design and scope of the study, and…

  16. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, A; Kasymbekov, Y; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Asanova, S; Zhumatov, K; Seidalina, A; Sayatov, M; Fereidouni, S R

    2014-09-01

    Equine influenza (EI) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. Since 2007 several outbreaks of EI have occurred in Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, India and western China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) isolates from Kazakhstan, A/equine/Almaty/26/2007 and A/equine/South Kazakhstan/236/12, were related to Florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to EIVs circulating in the same period in neighbouring countries. New outbreaks of EI during 2011 and 2012 in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries were caused by viruses of the same lineage. Genetic characterization of the viruses showed formation of a small EIV cluster with specific genetic signatures and continued evolution of this lineage in Central Asia between 2007 and 2012. The main genetic changes were observed in hemagglutinin gene without any antigenic drift. Although no vaccination policy was carried out in Kazakhstan, application of Florida clade 2-based vaccines is recommended.

  17. Owners' perception of the efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Sophie; Woodward, Ella; Dunkel, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    A retrospective questionnaire-based survey was used to determine the perceived efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids. In 49 horses with 74 sarcoids, 64 sarcoids responded either completely (n = 49) or partially (n = 15) while 10 did not respond or worsened. Sarcoids < 2 cm responded better to treatment (P < 0.001) than did larger sarcoids.

  18. Owners’ perception of the efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, Sophie; Woodward, Ella; Dunkel, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective questionnaire-based survey was used to determine the perceived efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids. In 49 horses with 74 sarcoids, 64 sarcoids responded either completely (n = 49) or partially (n = 15) while 10 did not respond or worsened. Sarcoids < 2 cm responded better to treatment (P < 0.001) than did larger sarcoids. PMID:24982522

  19. Metabolic syndrome: is equine disease comparable to what we know in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Ertelt, Antonia; Barton, Ann-Kristin; Schmitz, Robert R; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes similarities and differences between the metabolic syndromes in humans and equines, concerning the anatomy, symptoms, and pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, it discusses the structure and distribution of adipose tissue and its specific metabolic pathways. Furthermore, this article provides insights and focuses on issues concerning laminitis in horses and cardiovascular diseases in humans, as well as their overlap. PMID:24894908

  20. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  1. Effectiveness of a Standardized Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgi, Marta; Loliva, Dafne; Cerino, Stefania; Chiarotti, Flavia; Venerosi, Aldina; Bramini, Maria; Nonnis, Enrico; Marcelli, Marco; Vinti, Claudia; De Santis, Chiara; Bisacco, Francesca; Fagerlie, Monica; Frascarelli, Massimo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an equine-assisted therapy (EAT) in improving adaptive and executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined (children attending EAT, n = 15, control group n = 13; inclusion criteria: IQ > 70). Therapeutic sessions consisted in structured activities involving horses and…

  2. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  3. Glial cells missing homologue 1 is induced in differentiating equine chorionic girdle trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    de Mestre, Amanda M; Miller, Donald; Roberson, Mark S; Liford, Jenny; Chizmar, Lisay C; McLaughlin, Kristin E; Antczak, Douglas F

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify transcription factors associated with differentiation of the chorionic girdle, the invasive form of equine trophoblast. The expression patterns of five transcription factors were determined on a panel of conceptus tissues from early horse pregnancy. Tissues from Days 15 through 46 were tested. Eomesodermin (EOMES), glial cells missing homologue 1 (GCM1), heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 1 (HAND1), caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3) were detected in horse trophoblast, but the expression patterns for these genes varied. EOMES had the most restricted distribution, while DLX3 CDX2, and HAND1 were widely expressed. GCM1 seemed to increase in the developing chorionic girdle, and this was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR assays. GCM1 expression preceded a striking increase in expression of equine chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) in the chorionic girdle, and binding sites for GCM1 were discovered in the promoter region of the CGB gene. GCM1, CGB, and CGA mRNA were expressed preferentially in binucleate cells as opposed to uninucleate cells of the chorionic girdle. Based on these findings, it is likely that GCM1 has a role in differentiation and function of the invasive trophoblast of the equine chorionic girdle and endometrial cups. The equine binucleate chorionic girdle (CG) secreting trophoblast shares molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics with human syncytiotrophoblast and represents a model for studies of human placental function.

  4. Metabolic syndrome: is equine disease comparable to what we know in humans?

    PubMed

    Ertelt, Antonia; Barton, Ann-Kristin; Schmitz, Robert R; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-09-01

    This review summarizes similarities and differences between the metabolic syndromes in humans and equines, concerning the anatomy, symptoms, and pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, it discusses the structure and distribution of adipose tissue and its specific metabolic pathways. Furthermore, this article provides insights and focuses on issues concerning laminitis in horses and cardiovascular diseases in humans, as well as their overlap. PMID:24894908

  5. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMapp(TM) and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab')2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab')2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs.

  6. Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in a 14-year-old quarter horse stallion.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, T F

    2001-01-01

    A 14-year-old, quarter horse stallion was presented in lateral recumbency, unable to rise. Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy was diagnosed, based on presentation, clinical signs, and the ruling out of other possibilities. After initial rapid improvements, ataxia remained, as did chronic cystitis secondary to bladder paralysis. He was euthanized after 2 months. PMID:11265193

  7. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qiang; Tanaka, Yumiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Nambo, Yasuo; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2007-10-01

    To elucidate the relationship between steroidogenic hormones and developing adrenal glands, we investigated the immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained from three horses at 217, 225 and 235 days of gestation. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), human placental 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), porcine testicular 17alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and human placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom). Histologically, cortex and medulla cells were clearly observed in the three fetal adrenal gland tissue samples. P450scc and P450c17 were identified in cortex cells close to medulla cells and in some medulla cells in the fetal adrenal glands. P450arom was present in both cortex and medulla cells in the fetal adrenal glands. However, 3betaHSD was not found in any of the equine fetal adrenal gland tissue samples. These results suggest that equine fetal adrenal glands have the ability to synthesize androgen and estrogen, which may play an important physiological role in the development of equine fetal adrenal glands.

  8. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...

  9. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. Recently, S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especi...

  10. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  11. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  12. A novel group A rotavirus G serotype: serological and genomic characterization of equine isolate FI23.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, G F; Fitzgerald, T A; Chalmers, R M; Snodgrass, D R

    1991-01-01

    Equine rotavirus FI23 was shown to be prototypic of a novel G serotype, provisionally G14, by cross-neutralization and VP7 sequence determination. Although distinct, there are as few as six differing amino acid residues (92, 94, 96, 146, 147, and 221) in the VP7 antigenic regions of FI23 and G3 rotaviruses. PMID:1663521

  13. Comparative immunophenotyping of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: an approach toward a standardized definition.

    PubMed

    Paebst, Felicitas; Piehler, Daniel; Brehm, Walter; Heller, Sandra; Schroeck, Carmen; Tárnok, Attila; Burk, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Horses are an approved large animal model for therapies of the musculoskeletal system. Especially for tendon disease where cell-based therapy is commonly used in equine patients, the translation of achieved results to human medicine would be a great accomplishment. Immunophenotyping of equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains the last obstacle to meet the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) definition of human MSCs. Therefore, the surface antigen expression of CD 29, CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α, and MHC II in equine MSCs from adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and tendon tissue was analyzed using flow cytometry. Isolated cells from the different sources and donors varied in their expression pattern of MSC-defining antigens. In particular, CD 90 and 105 showed most heterogeneity. However, cells from all samples were robustly positive for CD 29 and CD 44, while being mostly negative for CD 73 and the exclusion markers CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α and MHC II. Furthermore, it was evident that enzymes used for cell detachment after in vitro-culture affected the detection of antigen expression. These results emphasize the need of standardization of MSC isolation, culturing, and harvesting techniques. As the equine MSCs did not meet all criteria the ISCT defined for human MSCs, further investigations for a better characterization of the cell type should be conducted.

  14. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  15. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out < in) and is not Na(+) dependent. Moreover, butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1.

  16. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  17. Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Larson, Maureen K; Plant, Thomas K; Sundholm-Tepper, Andrea; Payton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation). Influence of hair color; skin preparation, color, and thickness; and wavelength on energy penetration were assessed. RESULTS For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving of skin improved energy penetration. Light-colored skin allowed greatest energy penetration, followed by medium-colored skin and dark-colored skin. Greatest penetration of light-colored skin occurred with the 800-nm wavelength, whereas greatest penetration of medium- and dark-colored skin occurred with the 970-nm wavelength. As skin thickness increased, energy penetration of samples decreased. Only 1% to 20% and 0.1% to 4% of energy were absorbed by SDFTs and DDFTs, respectively, depending on skin color, skin thickness, and applied wavelength. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that most laser energy directed through equine skin was absorbed or scattered by the skin. To achieve delivery of energy doses known to positively affect cells in vitro to equine SDFTs and DDFTs, skin preparation, color, and thickness and applied wavelength must be considered. PMID:27580111

  18. Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Debbie Renee

    2001-07-01

    Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber

  19. Effectiveness of two systems for transporting equine semen.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, L

    1998-10-15

    The storage and transport of cooled, liquid semen is an effective way of facilitating the use of desirable stallions for breeding mares located on distant farms. The Equitainer System is the most widely used transport container and it has been shown that it is possible to ship semen in this container and obtain good conception rates. However, the cost of Equitainers is high, and stud-farms that ship large quantities of semen have tended to rely on cheaper alternatives, even though little documentation exists concerning their reliability, especially under extreme temperature conditions. Two different containers for transporting equine semen (the Equitainer and a styrofoam box) were compared in their effectiveness at maintaining semen quality (i.e. sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity) during 24 h of storage. The transport containers were stored at 2 different environmental temperatures, i.e., room temperature (20 degrees C) and 37 degrees C. Thirty-seven ejaculates from 10 Standardbred stallions (3 to 6 samples per stallion) were examined. Sperm function and plasma membrane integrity were assessed using a Mika Motion Analyzer and a fluorescein stain (Calcein AM/Ethidium homodimer) in fresh diluted semen that had been stored for 24 h at room temperature (20 degrees C). Another 18 ejaculates from 5 stallions were examined using methods described above, but the transport boxes were kept at a high environmental temperature (37 degrees C). After storage at room temperature, there was no significant difference in total sperm motility and frequency of spermatozoa with an intact plasma membrane between the 2 types of transport boxes. A significant difference was seen in linear sperm motility, with the Equitainer being the better container. However, a significant difference was also seen in average path velocity, with the styrofoam box being the better container. After storage at 37 degrees C, the Equitaner maintained semen quality better. A significant difference

  20. Ultrasonic imaging of equine ovarian follicles and corpora lutea.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J

    1988-08-01

    One of the most profound theriogenology applications of transrectal diagnostic ultrasonography in mares involves the imaging of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. The resolving capabilities (frequency) and quality of the scanner directly affect the minimal size of a structure that can be imaged and the quality of the image. High-frequency scanners (5 or 7.5 MHz) of good quality can image a 2-mm follicle and the corpus luteum throughout its functional life. A low-frequency scanner (3 or 3.5 MHz) can image a 6-mm follicle and the corpus luteum for several days after ovulation. Equine follicles are excellent subjects for transrectal imaging because they are large, filled with fluid, and readily accessible. Event the small follicles (less than 10 mm) can be diagnostically important in evaluating whether ovarian infertility has occurred and whether the follicles are responding to treatment for follicular stimulation. The large, preovulatory follicles are of special interest. Averaged over a group of 79 periods, the following significant changes were found in the preovulatory follicle: increasing diameter, shape change from spherical to pear-shaped or conical, and increasing thickness of the follicular wall. No significant changes were found in the echogenicity (gray-scale value) of the wall or fluid. In retrospect, the diameter of the follicle seemed as useful for predicting impending ovulation as any of the other ultrasound criteria. The occurrence of ovulation is readily detected by the disappearance of a large follicle that was present at a recent previous examination. In addition, the ovulation site on the day of ovulation is detectable. In one study, the site was correctly identified in 24 of 24 mares. A small amount of residual follicular fluid can sometimes (7 of 10 in one study) be detected at the site of ovulation. The residual fluid usually disappears over a period of 0.5 to 20 hours. Subsequently, the developing corpus luteum may form a central nonechogenic

  1. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of the Equine K+ Channel KV11.1 (Ether à Go-Go-Related/KCNH2 Gene) and the Regulatory Subunit KCNE2 from Equine Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Thomsen, Kirsten Brolin; Olander, Emma Rie; Hauser, Frank; Tejada, Maria de los Angeles; Poulsen, Kristian Lundgaard; Grubb, Soren; Buhl, Rikke; Calloe, Kirstine; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2015-01-01

    The KCNH2 and KCNE2 genes encode the cardiac voltage-gated K+ channel KV11.1 and its auxiliary β subunit KCNE2. KV11.1 is critical for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. In humans, mutations or drug therapy affecting the KV11.1 channel are associated with prolongation of the QT intervals on the ECG and increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death—conditions known as congenital or acquired Long QT syndrome (LQTS), respectively. In horses, sudden, unexplained deaths are a well-known problem. We sequenced the cDNA of the KCNH2 and KCNE2 genes using RACE and conventional PCR on mRNA purified from equine myocardial tissue. Equine KV11.1 and KCNE2 cDNA had a high homology to human genes (93 and 88%, respectively). Equine and human KV11.1 and KV11.1/KCNE2 were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and investigated by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Equine KV11.1 currents were larger compared to human KV11.1, and the voltage dependence of activation was shifted to more negative values with V1/2 = -14.2±1.1 mV and -17.3±0.7, respectively. The onset of inactivation was slower for equine KV11.1 compared to the human homolog. These differences in kinetics may account for the larger amplitude of the equine current. Furthermore, the equine KV11.1 channel was susceptible to pharmacological block with terfenadine. The physiological importance of KV11.1 was investigated in equine right ventricular wedge preparations. Terfenadine prolonged action potential duration and the effect was most pronounced at slow pacing. In conclusion, these findings indicate that horses could be disposed to both congenital and acquired LQTS. PMID:26376488

  2. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of the Equine K+ Channel KV11.1 (Ether à Go-Go-Related/KCNH2 Gene) and the Regulatory Subunit KCNE2 from Equine Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Thomsen, Kirsten Brolin; Olander, Emma Rie; Hauser, Frank; Tejada, Maria de los Angeles; Poulsen, Kristian Lundgaard; Grubb, Soren; Buhl, Rikke; Calloe, Kirstine; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2015-01-01

    The KCNH2 and KCNE2 genes encode the cardiac voltage-gated K+ channel KV11.1 and its auxiliary β subunit KCNE2. KV11.1 is critical for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. In humans, mutations or drug therapy affecting the KV11.1 channel are associated with prolongation of the QT intervals on the ECG and increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death--conditions known as congenital or acquired Long QT syndrome (LQTS), respectively. In horses, sudden, unexplained deaths are a well-known problem. We sequenced the cDNA of the KCNH2 and KCNE2 genes using RACE and conventional PCR on mRNA purified from equine myocardial tissue. Equine KV11.1 and KCNE2 cDNA had a high homology to human genes (93 and 88%, respectively). Equine and human KV11.1 and KV11.1/KCNE2 were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and investigated by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Equine KV11.1 currents were larger compared to human KV11.1, and the voltage dependence of activation was shifted to more negative values with V1/2 = -14.2±1.1 mV and -17.3±0.7, respectively. The onset of inactivation was slower for equine KV11.1 compared to the human homolog. These differences in kinetics may account for the larger amplitude of the equine current. Furthermore, the equine KV11.1 channel was susceptible to pharmacological block with terfenadine. The physiological importance of KV11.1 was investigated in equine right ventricular wedge preparations. Terfenadine prolonged action potential duration and the effect was most pronounced at slow pacing. In conclusion, these findings indicate that horses could be disposed to both congenital and acquired LQTS. PMID:26376488

  3. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A scale-construction study.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C

    2015-12-01

    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) in horses with acute colic. A cohort follow-up study was performed using 50 adult horses (n = 25 with acute colic, n = 25 controls). Composite pain scores were assessed by direct observations, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were assessed from video clips. Colic patients were assessed at arrival, and on the first and second mornings after arrival. Both the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP scores showed high inter-observer reliability (ICC = 0.98 for EQUUS-COMPASS, ICC = 0.93 for EQUUS-FAP, P <0.001), while a moderate inter-observer reliability for the VAS scores was found (ICC = 0.63, P <0.001). The cut-off value for differentiation between healthy and colic horses for the EQUUS-COMPASS was 5, and for differentiation between conservatively treated and surgically treated or euthanased patients it was 11. For the EQUUS-FAP, cut-off values were 4 and 6, respectively. Internal sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (sensitivity 95.8%, specificity 84.0%) and EQUUS-FAP (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 88.0%). The use of the EQUUS-COMPASS and EQUUS-FAP enabled repeated and objective scoring of pain in horses with acute colic. A follow-up study with new patients and control animals will be performed to further validate the constructed scales that are described in this study.

  4. Reviewe: Genetics and genomics in equine exercise physiology: an overview of the new applications of molecular biology as positive and negative markers of performance and health.

    PubMed

    Barrey, E

    2010-11-01

    Equine breeding selection has been developed by applying quantitative genetic methods for calculating the heritability of the complex traits such as performance in racing or sport competitions. With the great development of biotechnologies, equine molecular genetics has come of age. The recent sequencing of the equine genome by an international consortium was a major advance that will impact equine genomics in the near future. With the rapid progress in equine genetics, new applications in early performance evaluation and the detection of disease markers become available. Many new biomolecular tools will change management of horse selection, disease diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this review is to present new developments in equine genetics and genomics for performance evaluation and health markers after a short summary of the previous knowledge about the genetic components of the exercise performance traits.

  5. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan.

  6. Hallmarks of Hepatitis C Virus in Equine Hepacivirus

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomohisa; Kasai, Hirotake; Yamashita, Atsuya; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Yasumoto, Jun; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Okamoto, Toru; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Morimatsu, Masami; Manabe, Noboru; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Equine hepacivirus (EHcV) has been identified as a closely related homologue of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany, but not in Asian countries. In this study, we genetically and serologically screened 31 serum samples obtained from Japanese-born domestic horses for EHcV infection and subsequently identified 11 PCR-positive and 7 seropositive serum samples. We determined the full sequence of the EHcV genome, including the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), which had previously not been completely revealed. The polyprotein of a Japanese EHcV strain showed approximately 95% homology to those of the reported strains. HCV-like cis-acting RNA elements, including the stem-loop structures of the 3′ UTR and kissing-loop interaction were deduced from regions around both UTRs of the EHcV genome. A comparison of the EHcV and HCV core proteins revealed that Ile190 and Phe191 of the EHcV core protein could be important for cleavage of the core protein by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and were replaced with Ala and Leu, respectively, which inhibited intramembrane cleavage of the EHcV core protein. The loss-of-function mutant of SPP abrogated intramembrane cleavage of the EHcV core protein and bound EHcV core protein, suggesting that the EHcV core protein may be cleaved by SPP to become a mature form. The wild-type EHcV core protein, but not the SPP-resistant mutant, was localized on lipid droplets and partially on the lipid raft-like membrane in a manner similar to that of the HCV core protein. These results suggest that EHcV may conserve the genetic and biological properties of HCV. IMPORTANCE EHcV, which shows the highest amino acid or nucleotide homology to HCV among hepaciviruses, was previously reported to infect horses from Western, but not Asian, countries. We herein report EHcV infection in Japanese-born horses. In this study, HCV-like RNA secondary structures around both UTRs were predicted by determining the whole

  7. Whole inactivated equine influenza vaccine: Efficacy against a representative clade 2 equine influenza virus, IFNgamma synthesis and duration of humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Paillot, R; Prowse, L; Montesso, F; Huang, C M; Barnes, H; Escala, J

    2013-03-23

    Equine influenza (EI) is a serious respiratory disease of horses induced by the equine influenza virus (EIV). Surveillance, quarantine procedures and vaccination are widely used to prevent or to contain the disease. This study aimed to further characterise the immune response induced by a non-updated inactivated EI and tetanus vaccine, including protection against a representative EIV isolate of the Florida clade 2 sublineage. Seven ponies were vaccinated twice with Duvaxyn IE-T Plus at an interval of four weeks. Five ponies remained unvaccinated. All ponies were experimentally infected with the EIV strain A/eq/Richmond/1/07 two weeks after the second vaccination. Clinical signs of disease were recorded and virus shedding was measured after experimental infection. Antibody response and EIV-specific IFNgamma synthesis, a marker of cell-mediated immunity, were measured at different time points of the study. Vaccination resulted in significant protection against clinical signs of disease induced by A/eq/Richmond/1/07 and reduced virus shedding when challenged at the peak of immunity. Antigenic drift has been shown to reduce protection against EIV infection. Inclusion of a more recent and representative EIV vaccine strain, as recommended by the OIE expert surveillance panel on equine influenza vaccine, may maximise field protection. In addition, significant levels of EIV-specific IFNgamma synthesis by peripheral blood lymphocytes were detected in immunised ponies, which provided a first evidence of CMI stimulation after vaccination with a whole inactivated EIV. Duration of humoral response was also retrospectively investigated in 14 horses vaccinated under field condition and following the appropriate immunisation schedule, up to 599 days after first immunisation. This study revealed that most immunised horses maintained significant levels of cross-reactive SRH antibody for a prolonged period of time, but individual monitoring may be beneficial to identify poor vaccine

  8. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  9. Fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural hosts.

    PubMed

    Wohlsein, Peter; Lehmbecker, Annika; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Böer, Michael; Kummrow, Maja; Haas, Ludwig; Grummer, Beatrice

    2011-05-01

    In a zoological collection, four black bears (Ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. Independently in a geographically different zoo, two Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. In addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. All affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes virus antigen and ultrastructurally herpes viral particles were detected. Virus isolation and molecular analysis identified neurotropic equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 strains in both epizootics. There is serological evidence of a possible virus transmission from other equids to the affected animals. Cross-species transmission of EHV-1 should be considered in the management of captive wild equids and ungulates, particularly with respect to fatal disease in irreplaceable species. PMID:21167662

  10. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Panama: Fatal Endemic Disease and Genetic Diversity of Etiologic Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961–2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America. PMID:19564908

  11. Effects of ketanserin on hypergranulation tissue formation, infection, and healing of equine lower limb wounds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this multicentre, randomized, controlled field study was to determine the efficacy of ketanserin gel in preventing exuberant granulation tissue formation (hypergranulation) and infection in equine lower limb wounds. Horses and ponies (n = 481) with naturally occurring wounds were randomized to either topical treatment with ketanserin gel (n = 242) or a positive control (Belgium, Germany: ethacridin lactate solution, n = 120; France, United Kingdom: malic, benzoic, and salicylic acid [MBS] cream, n = 119). Treatment continued until the wound healed (success), formed hypergranulation tissue (failure), or became infected (failure). Treatment was terminated after 6 months in all remaining animals. Ketanserin was successful in 88% of cases. Wounds treated with ketanserin were 2 and 5 times more likely to heal successfully than were those treated with MBS or ethacridin lactate, respectively. Ketanserin gel is thus more effective than these standard treatments in preventing hypergranulation tissue and infection of equine lower limb wounds. PMID:15025151

  12. Meningoencephalitis in a polar bear caused by equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9).

    PubMed

    Donovan, T A; Schrenzel, M D; Tucker, T; Pessier, A P; Bicknese, B; Busch, M D M; Wise, A G; Maes, R; Kiupel, M; McKnight, C; Nordhausen, R W

    2009-11-01

    A 12-year-old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) developed a sudden onset of muscle tremors, erratic circling, increased blinking, head shaking, and ptyalism, which progressed to partial and generalized seizures. Ancillary diagnostic tests were inconclusive, and the only significant laboratory finding was nonsuppurative pleocytosis of cerebrospinal fluid. Euthanasia was elected. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated multifocal, random nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis involving most prominently the rostral cerebral cortex, as well as the thalamus, midbrain, and rostral medulla. Lesions consisted of inflammation, neuronal necrosis, gliosis, and both neuronal and glial basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody reactive to several equine herpesviruses was positive within affected areas of the brain, and polymerase chain reaction conclusively demonstrated the presence of only equine herpesvirus 9. The clinical and morphologic features of this case resemble other fatal herpesvirus encephalitides derived from interspecies transmission and underscore the need for extreme caution when managing wild or captive equids. PMID:19605910

  13. Bacterial isolates from equine infections in western Canada (1998–2003)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Chris; Greenwood, Sarah; Boison, Joe O.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Dowling, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    All bacterial samples of equine origin submitted to the diagnostic laboratory at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from January 1998 to December 2003 from either “in-clinic” or Field Service cases were accessed (1323 submissions). The most common bacterial isolates from specific presenting signs were identified, along with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The most common site from which significant bacterial isolates were recovered was the respiratory tract, followed by wounds. Streptococcus zooepidemicus was the most common isolate from most infections, followed by Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial resistance was not common in the isolates and acquired antimicrobial resistance to multiple drugs was rare. The results are compared with previous published studies from other institutions and used to suggest appropriate antimicrobial treatments for equine infections in western Canada. PMID:18309745

  14. Treatment of equine sarcoid in seven Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra).

    PubMed

    Marais, Hendrik J; Page, Patrick C

    2011-10-01

    Equine sarcoid has been diagnosed in endangered Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) in at least two game reserves in South Africa, with prevalence as high as 53% in Bontebok National Park. Seven Cape mountain zebras with sarcoids were treated with either surgical excision, 5-fluorouracil, allogenous vaccine, or a combination of 5-fluorouracil and allogenous vaccine. One of the two sarcoids on one of the 5-fluorouracil-treated zebras was left untreated. The microscopic features of the tumors evaluated showed either all or most of the typical epidermal and dermal histologic features of equine sarcoid. The zebras were examined 2 yr posttreatment to determine outcome. All sarcoids had resolved except on the zebra on which one of the sarcoids was left untreated. The efficacy of the three treatment methods in Cape mountain zebra is encouraging.

  15. Clinical features of the 1992 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Monreal, L; Villatoro, A J; Hooghuis, H; Ros, I; Timoney, P J

    1995-07-01

    During 1992, a widespread outbreak of Equine viral arteritis (EVA) occurred at a riding establishment near Barcelona, Spain. A total of 31 out of 186 horses on the premises displayed clinical signs, most frequently, fever, depression, mild ventral and limb oedema and a vesicular-erosive stomatitis, with hypersalivation, petechiations and small ulcerations. Affected horses developed illness of varying severity with only a few exhibiting a severe form of the disease and no mortality was recorded. Haematological and blood biochemical examination the most severely affected horses revealed a thrombocytopenia, slight leucocytosis with neutrophilia, lymphopenia and eosinopenia, an increase in plasma fibrinogen and a small rise in serum proteins and indirect bilirubin values. Diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of seroconversion to equine arteritis virus in acute and convalescent phase sera. Attempted isolation of the virus from citrated blood samples proved unsuccessful.

  16. Cell lineage allocation in equine blastocysts produced in vitro under varying glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Ross, Pablo; Velez, Isabel C; Macías-García, B; Riera, Fernando L; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Equine embryos develop in vitro in the presence of high glucose concentrations, but little is known about their requirements for development. We evaluated the effect of glucose concentrations in medium on blastocyst development after ICSI. In experiment 1, there were no significant differences in rates of blastocyst formation among embryos cultured in our standard medium (DMEM/F-12), which contained >16 mM glucose, and those cultured in a minimal-glucose embryo culture medium (<1 mM; Global medium, GB), with either 0 added glucose for the first 5 days, then 20 mM (0-20) or 20 mM for the entire culture period (20-20). In experiment 2, there were no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development (31-46%) for embryos cultured in four glucose treatments in GB (0-10, 0-20, 5-10, or 5-20). Blastocysts were evaluated by immunofluorescence for lineage-specific markers. All cells stained positively for POU5F1. An inner cluster of cells was identified that included presumptive primitive endoderm cells (GATA6-positive) and presumptive epiblast (EPI) cells. The 5-20 treatment resulted in a significantly lower number of presumptive EPI-lineage cells than the 0-20 treatment did. GATA6-positive cells appeared to be allocated to the primitive endoderm independent of the formation of an inner cell mass, as was previously hypothesized for equine embryos. These data demonstrate that equine blastocyst development is not dependent on high glucose concentrations during early culture; rather, environmental glucose may affect cell allocation. They also present the first analysis of cell lineage allocation in in vitro-fertilized equine blastocysts. These findings expand our understanding of the factors that affect embryo development in the horse.

  17. Phenotypical and functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, N; Gulati, B R; Kumar, R; Gera, S; Kumar, S; Kumar, P; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer promise as therapeutic aid in the repair of tendon and ligament injuries in race horses. Fetal adnexa is considered as an ideal source of MSCs due to many advantages, including non-invasive nature of isolation procedures and availability of large tissue mass for harvesting the cells. However, MSCs isolated from equine fetal adnexa have not been fully characterized due to lack of species-specific markers. Therefore, this study was carried out to isolate MSCs from equine umbilical cord blood (UCB) and characterize them using cross-reactive markers. The plastic-adherent cells could be isolated from 13 out of 20 (65 %) UCB samples. The UCB derived cells proliferated till passage 20 with average cell doubling time of 46.40 ± 2.86 h. These cells expressed mesenchymal surface markers but did not express haematopoietic/leucocytic markers by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The phenotypic expression of CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90 was shown by 96.36 ± 1.28, 93.40 ± 0.70, 73.23 ± 1.29 and 46.75 ± 3.95 % cells, respectively in flow cytometry, whereas, reactivity against the haematopoietic antigens CD34 and CD45 was observed only in 2.4 ± 0.20 and 0.1 ± 0.0 % of cells, respectively. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation could be achieved using established methods, whereas the optimum adipogenic differentiation was achieved after supplementing media with 15 % rabbit serum and 20 ng/ml of recombinant human insulin. In this study, we optimized methodology for isolation, cultural characterization, differentiation and immunophenotyping of MSCs from equine UCB. Protocols and markers used in this study can be employed for unequivocal characterization of equine MSCs.

  18. Evaluation of an in vitro degranulation challenge procedure for equine pulmonary mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hare, J E; Viel, L; Conlon, P D; Marshall, J S

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary mast cells (PMC) are important components of the inflammatory process in equine allergic lung diseases such as heaves. Very little, however, is known of the degranulation kinetics of these cells and thus, their pathophysiologic role remains largely speculative. The purpose of this study was to develop a repeatable protocol for in vitro equine PMC degranulation. Five mature horses (sex: 2 M, 3 F; age: 8.8 +/- 6.5 y), historically free of pulmonary disease and normal on clinical respiratory examination, arterial blood gas analysis, pulmonary mechanics testing and histamine inhalation challenge, were studied. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on 4 separate occasions, at least 2 d apart, in a different lung lobe on each occasion. The lavage fluid was concentrated by centrifugation. Cells were resuspended in modified HEPES/Tyrode, assessed for viability by Trypan blue exclusion, and PMC concentration determined. Cell inocula containing 30,000 PMC were incubated with 10(-8) to 6 x 10(-5) M A23187. Cells were then separated by centrifugation and histamine release (HR) was determined by fluorometric assay. The procedure was readily performed and yielded sufficient PMC for 30 to 60 inocula per lavage. Maximal HR (34.4 +/- 16.1%) was obtained with 10(-5) M A23187. The degranulation process was largely complete by 20 min but cell lysis was negligible. The challenge was repeatable within horse and produced a mean coefficient of variability of 23.0% following 20 min incubation with 10(-5) M A23187. We conclude that equine PMC degranulation can be repeatably performed in vitro and speculate that this protocol may be useful in further studies on the pathophysiology and treatment of equine allergic lung diseases. PMID:9553713

  19. Characterization of the equine blood-testis barrier during tubular development in normal and cryptorchid stallions.

    PubMed

    Rode, K; Sieme, H; Richterich, P; Brehm, R

    2015-09-15

    The formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is defined as occurring with the first appearance of spermatocytes at around puberty and is vital for normal spermatogenesis. This barrier between two adjacent Sertoli cells (SCs) consists of a cell junctional protein complex, which includes tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions, and gap junctions. In many mammalian species, BTB composition has already been investigated, whereas little is known about the equine BTB. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and qualitative Western Blot analysis were used to assess the expression and distribution patterns of the junctional proteins claudin-11 (TJ), zonula occludens-1 (TJ associated), N-cadherin (adherens junctions), and connexin 43 (gap junctions) in equine testes during tubular development and in testes of stallions exhibiting unilateral cryptorchidism. Therefore, testes of 21 warmblood stallions (aged 12 months-11 years) were obtained during routine surgical castration. In the normal adult equine testis, the junctional proteins are localized at the basolateral region of the seminiferous tubules forming a circumferential seal corresponding to the known BTB localization. N-cadherin is additionally expressed along the lateral SC surface. In immature seminiferous cords still lacking a lumen, a diffuse distribution pattern of the junctional proteins throughout the SC cytoplasm is visible. As lumen formation advances, the immunolocalization shifts progressively toward the basolateral SC membranes. Additionally, apoptotic germ cells were detected and quantified in prepubertal stallions using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and correlated with junctional protein localization. In the retained testis of cryptorchid stallions, which exhibit an aberrant testicular morphology, a deviating expression of the junctional proteins is visible. The present data show for the first time that (1) the equine SC junctional complex contains claudin-11

  20. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, D.; Romero-Zuñiga, J.J.; Dolz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV. PMID:26623349

  1. Pathology of Equine Influenza virus (H3N8) in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Pavulraj, Selvaraj; Bera, Bidhan Chandra; Joshi, Alok; Anand, Taruna; Virmani, Meenakshi; Vaid, Rajesh Kumar; Shanmugasundaram, Karuppusamy; Gulati, Baldev Raj; Rajukumar, K.; Singh, Rajendra; Misri, Jyoti; Singh, Raj Kumar; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Virmani, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Equine influenza viruses (EIV)—H3N8 continue to circulate in equine population throughout the world. They evolve by the process of antigenic drift that leads to substantial change in the antigenicity of the virus, thereby necessitating substitution of virus strain in the vaccines. This requires frequent testing of the new vaccines in the in vivo system; however, lack of an appropriate laboratory animal challenge model for testing protective efficacy of equine influenza vaccine candidates hinders the screening of new vaccines and other therapeutic approaches. In the present investigation, BALB/c mouse were explored for suitability for conducting pathogenecity studies for EIV. The BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally @ 2×106.24 EID50 with EIV (H3N8) belonging to Clade 2 of Florida sublineage and monitored for setting up of infection and associated parameters. All mice inoculated with EIV exhibited clinical signs viz. loss in body weights, lethargy, dyspnea, etc, between 3 and 5 days which commensurate with lesions observed in the respiratory tract including rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis and diffuse interstitial pneumonia. Transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, virus quantification through titration and qRT-PCR demonstrated active viral infection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Serology revealed rise in serum lactate dehydrogenase levels along with sero-conversion. The pattern of disease progression, pathological lesions and virus recovery from nasal washings and lungs in the present investigations in mice were comparable to natural and experimental EIV infection in equines. The findings establish BALB/c mice as small animal model for studying EIV (H3N8) infection and will have immense potential for dissecting viral pathogenesis, vaccine efficacy studies, preliminary screening of vaccine candidates and antiviral therapeutics against EIV. PMID:26587990

  2. Functional study of the equine beta-casein and kappa-casein gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Lenasi, Tina; Kokalj-Vokac, Nadja; Narat, Mojca; Baldi, Antonella; Dovc, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Casein genes are expressed in a tissue-specific and highly coordinated manner. The main goals of casein gene promoter studies are to unravel cis- and trans-acting factors involved in the complex signalling pathway controlling milk production, and to explore the possibility of using these promoters for tissue-specific production of heterologous proteins in the mammary gland. Here we present a comparative study of the equine beta-casein and kappa-casein gene proximal promoters. In order to confirm the assumption that in the horse, as in other mammalian species, casein genes are organized in a cluster located on a single chromosome, we performed in situ hybridization of pro-metaphase chromosomes with two BAC clones containing different equine casein genes. Sequence analysis of the beta-casein and kappa-casein gene proximal promoters revealed binding sites for activators (STAT5, GRE, NF1, MAF) and repressors (YY1, PMF), characteristic for casein genes. The alignments of casein gene promoters revealed the highest sequence identity in the proximal promoter region between the equine and human beta-casein gene promoters. We directly compared the activity of equine beta-casein and kappa-casein gene promoters in vitro using bovine mammary gland cell line BME-UV1. In this system, the kappa-casein gene proximal promoter activated the reporter gene expression more efficiently than the beta-casein gene promoter of approximately the same length. The 810 bp of beta-casein promoter activated the reporter gene expression more efficiently than the long fragment (1920 bp) and the 1206 bp fragment of the same promoter, which included also 396 bp of 5' UTR.

  3. Achilles tendon injuries in elite athletes: lessons in pathophysiology from their equine counterparts.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Rich, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury in equine athletes is one of the most well-accepted, scientifically supported companion animal models of human disease (i.e., exercise-induced Achilles tendon [AT] injury). The SDFT and AT are functionally and clinically equivalent (and important) energy-storing structures for which no equally appropriate rodent, rabbit, or other analogues exist. Access to equine tissues has facilitated significant advances in knowledge of tendon maturation and aging, determination of specific exercise effects (including early life), and definition of some of the earliest stages of subclinical pathology. Access to human surgical biopsies has provided complementary information on more advanced phases of disease. Importantly, equine SDFT injuries are only a model for acute ruptures in athletes, not the entire spectrum of human tendonopathy (including chronic tendon pain). In both, pathology begins with a potentially prolonged phase of accumulation of (subclinical) microdamage. Recent work has revealed remarkably similar genetic risk factors, including further evidence that tenocyte dysfunction plays an active role. Mice are convenient but not necessarily accurate models for multiple diseases, particularly at the cellular level. Mechanistic studies, including tendon cell responses to combinations of exercise-associated stresses, require a more thorough investigation of cross-species conservation of key stress pathway auditors. Molecular evidence has provided some context for the poor performance of mouse models; equines may provide better systems at this level. The use of horses may be additionally justifiable based on comparable species longevity, lifestyle factors, and selection pressure by similar infectious agents (e.g., herpesviruses) on general cell stress pathway evolution.

  4. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  5. A Retrospective Study of Equine Infectious Anemia Based on the Canadian Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Benoit

    1985-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia in Canada was reviewed for the period January 1976 to December 1981. The human and ecological factors prevailing in Canada are deemed instrumental with respect to the evolution of the disease. The natural spread of the disease on a large scale has not been influenced by the Federal program. Reactors with signs of the disease are important for it's propagation. The author underlines the necessity of cooperation with private practising veterinarians to control it. PMID:17422597

  6. Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Isolated from Bactrian Camel, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Yondon, Myagmarsukh; Zayat, Batsukh; Nelson, Martha I.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; White, Sarah K.; Wentworth, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Because little is known about the ecology of influenza viruses in camels, 460 nasal swab specimens were collected from healthy (no overt illness) Bactrian camels in Mongolia during 2012. One specimen was positive for influenza A virus (A/camel/Mongolia/335/2012[H3N8]), which is phylogenetically related to equine influenza A(H3N8) viruses and probably represents natural horse-to-camel transmission. PMID:25418532

  7. Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Raza, Fahad; Muhammad, Ghulam; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-05-28

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332 donkeys, aging from ≤ 5 to ≥ 10 years of either sex, from five metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan, were serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against B. caballi and T. equi, using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Out of 430 equid serum samples tested, 226 (52.6%, 95% CI 47.7-57.4) were found cELISA positive for EP (T. equi and/or B. caballi infections). The overall seroprevalence of EP was 41.2% (95% CI 36.5-46.0) for T. equi and 21.6% (95% CI 17.8-25.8) for B. caballi. A small proportion of equids (10.2%, 95% CI 7.5-13.5) was seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. Seroprevalence of T. equi was significantly higher (P<0.01) in equines from the metropolis of Lahore (66.7%, 95% CI 54.3-77.6) and in horses (56.9%, 95% CI 44.0-69.2). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that factors associated with prevalence of EP were being an equine species kept in metropolis Lahore (OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.28-7.90), horse (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.53-5.20) and male equids (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.86).

  8. Pathology of Equine Influenza virus (H3N8) in Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Pavulraj, Selvaraj; Bera, Bidhan Chandra; Joshi, Alok; Anand, Taruna; Virmani, Meenakshi; Vaid, Rajesh Kumar; Shanmugasundaram, Karuppusamy; Gulati, Baldev Raj; Rajukumar, K; Singh, Rajendra; Misri, Jyoti; Singh, Raj Kumar; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Virmani, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Equine influenza viruses (EIV)-H3N8 continue to circulate in equine population throughout the world. They evolve by the process of antigenic drift that leads to substantial change in the antigenicity of the virus, thereby necessitating substitution of virus strain in the vaccines. This requires frequent testing of the new vaccines in the in vivo system; however, lack of an appropriate laboratory animal challenge model for testing protective efficacy of equine influenza vaccine candidates hinders the screening of new vaccines and other therapeutic approaches. In the present investigation, BALB/c mouse were explored for suitability for conducting pathogenecity studies for EIV. The BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally @ 2×106.24 EID50 with EIV (H3N8) belonging to Clade 2 of Florida sublineage and monitored for setting up of infection and associated parameters. All mice inoculated with EIV exhibited clinical signs viz. loss in body weights, lethargy, dyspnea, etc, between 3 and 5 days which commensurate with lesions observed in the respiratory tract including rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis and diffuse interstitial pneumonia. Transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, virus quantification through titration and qRT-PCR demonstrated active viral infection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Serology revealed rise in serum lactate dehydrogenase levels along with sero-conversion. The pattern of disease progression, pathological lesions and virus recovery from nasal washings and lungs in the present investigations in mice were comparable to natural and experimental EIV infection in equines. The findings establish BALB/c mice as small animal model for studying EIV (H3N8) infection and will have immense potential for dissecting viral pathogenesis, vaccine efficacy studies, preliminary screening of vaccine candidates and antiviral therapeutics against EIV.

  9. A collaborative project in veterinary practice: developing a model of equine prematurity.

    PubMed

    Rossdale, P D; Jeffcott, L B; Leadon, D P

    1985-08-31

    The development and design of a project in collaborative research which originated from a problem identified in practice, namely prematurity in the newly born foal, is described here. The project established a model of equine prematurity for the purpose of studying the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of the condition. It involved practitioners and full time research workers in a number of veterinary and medical institutes. PMID:4090239

  10. A journey through people, places, and projects in equine assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    A research study is a product of not only a question and its pursuit but also the people, places, and facilities available at the time. My work in equine assisted reproduction has progressed from embryo transfer to oocyte maturation, oocyte transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsy, embryo vitrification, and cloning, as a result of collaborations with an array of remarkable people. This is a summary of some of the stories behind the studies. PMID:27158129

  11. EcPV2 DNA in equine squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital and ocular mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bogaert, Lies; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2011-01-27

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common malignant tumour of the eye and external genitals in horses. Comparable to humans, papillomaviruses (PV) have been proposed as etiological agents of cancer in horses and recently, Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in genital SCCs. Hitherto it had never been demonstrated in ocular SCCs. The first goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital and ocular SCCs, genital papillomas and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions, using EcPV2-specific PCR. The second goal was to investigate the possibility of latent EcPV2 infection in the genital and ocular mucosa of healthy horses on swabs obtained from the eye, penis, vulvovaginal region and cervix. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all genital SCCs (17/17), genital papillomas (8/8), PIN lesions (11/11) and ocular SCCs (9/9). In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 43% (17/40) of penile swabs, 53% (9/17) of vulvovaginal swabs, 47% (8/17) of cervical swabs and 57% (32/56) of ocular swabs. This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time its involvement in other genital lesions and in ocular SCCs and latent EcPV2 infections in normal genital (including cervical) and ocular equine mucosa. The close relatives of EcPV2 are associated to cutaneous lesions, and this virus is not related to high-risk human papillomaviruses causing cervical cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism does not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  12. The antimicrobial activity of honey against common equine wound bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Carnwath, R; Graham, E M; Reynolds, K; Pollock, P J

    2014-01-01

    Delayed healing associated with distal limb wounds is a particular problem in equine clinical practice. Recent studies in human beings and other species have demonstrated the beneficial wound healing properties of honey, and medical grade honey dressings are available commercially in equine practice. Equine clinicians are reported to source other non-medical grade honeys for the same purpose. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of a number of honey types against common equine wound bacterial pathogens. Twenty-nine honey products were sourced, including gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated commercial medical grade honeys, supermarket honeys, and honeys from local beekeepers. To exclude contaminated honeys from the project, all honeys were cultured aerobically for evidence of bacterial contamination. Aerobic bacteria or fungi were recovered from 18 products. The antimicrobial activity of the remaining 11 products was assessed against 10 wound bacteria, recovered from the wounds of horses, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eight products were effective against all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations varying from <2% to 16% (v/v). Overall, the Scottish Heather Honey was the best performing product, and inhibited the growth of all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations ranging from <2% to 6% (v/v). Although Manuka has been the most studied honey to date, other sources may have valuable antimicrobial properties. Since some honeys were found to be contaminated with aerobic bacteria or fungi, non-sterile honeys may not be suitable for wound treatment. Further assessment of gamma-irradiated honeys from the best performing honeys would be useful.

  13. Demographics of natural oral infection of mosquitos by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Serafín; Thébaud, Gaël; Smith, Darci R; Kenney, Joan L; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    The within-host diversity of virus populations can be drastically limited during between-host transmission, with primary infection of hosts representing a major constraint to diversity maintenance. However, there is an extreme paucity of quantitative data on the demographic changes experienced by virus populations during primary infection. Here, the multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI) and population bottlenecks were quantified during primary mosquito infection by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, an arbovirus causing neurological disease in humans and equids.

  14. Absence of the functional Myosin heavy chain 2b isoform in equine skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chikuni, Koichi; Muroya, Susumu; Nakajima, Ikuyo

    2004-05-01

    Nucleotide sequences which included the full coding region for three types of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were determined from equine skeletal muscles. The deduced amino acid sequences were 1937, 1938, and 1935 residues for the MyHC-2a, -2x, and -slow, respectively. No MyHC-2b isoform was amplified from the equine muscle cDNA except for one pseudogene fragment. One nucleotide was inserted in the coding region of the equine pseudogene product, a minute amount of which was expressed in the skeletal muscle. The 596 bp sequence of the equine MyHC pseudogene was categorized into the MyHC-2b genes on the phylogenetic tree of the mammalian MyHC genes. These results suggest that an ancestral MyHC-2b gene had lost its function and changed to a pseudogene during the course of horse history. The MyHC genes in some ungulates were analyzed through the PCR amplifications using the MyHC isoform-specific primers to confirm the presence of the MyHC-2b and -2x genes. The exon coding the 3' untranslated region of the MyHC-2x was successfully amplified from the all ungulates examined; however, that of the MyHC-2b gene was amplified only from horses, pigs and lesser mouse deer. The PCR analyses from rhinoceros, sika deer, moose, giraffes, water buffalo, bovine, Japanese serow and sheep genes implied the absence of the MyHC-2b-specific sequence in their genomes. These results suggest that the MyHC-2b gene independently lost its function in some ungulate species.

  15. Molecular characterization of equine rotaviruses isolated in Europe in 2013: implications for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Matthijnssens, Jelle; Ons, Ellen; De Coster, Sarah; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Gryspeerdt, Annick; Van Ranst, Marc; Raue, Rudiger

    2015-03-23

    Equine group A rotavirus (RVAs) mainly cause disease in foals under the age of 3 months. Only sporadic data are available on the circulation of RVAs in equine populations in Europe. In this study, 65 diarrheic samples from foals under 4 months of age were collected in Belgium (n=32), Germany (n=17), Slovenia (n=5), Sweden (n=4), Hungary (n=3), Italy (n=2), France (n=1) and The Netherlands (n=1). Forty percent of these samples (n=26) were found to be RVA positive by a quantitative RT-PCR assay. The viral load in 11 of these samples was sufficiently high to be (partially) genotyped. G3, G14 and P[12] were the main genotypes detected, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that they were closely related to contemporary equine RVA strains detected in Europe as well as in Brazil and South Africa. Regional variation was observed with only G14 and P[12] being detected in Germany, whereas mainly G3P[12] was encountered in Belgium. Surprisingly the only G14P[12] RVA strain detected in Belgium was also found to possess the very rare P[18] genotype, which has been described only once from equine RVA strain L338 detected in the UK in 1991. Despite the identification of this uncommon P[18] genotype, G3P[12] and G14P[12] RVA strains remained the most important genotypes in Europe during the study period. Based on this finding and the knowledge that G3P[12] and G14P[12] serotypes are partially cross-reactive it can be assumed that a vaccine based on an inactivated virus of the G3P[12] genotype is still relevant in the current European epidemiological situation, although the addition of a G14 strain would most likely be beneficial. PMID:25637313

  16. Inhibitory effect of curcuminoids and tetrahydrocurcuminoids on equine activated neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Franck, T; Kohnen, S; Grulke, S; Neven, P; Goutman, Y; Peters, F; Pirotte, B; Deby-Dupont, G; Serteyn, D

    2008-01-01

    In the horse, the inflammation response to various pathologies (intestinal strangulations, laminitis, etc.) involves an excessive stimulation of the polymorphonuclear neutrophils releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The aim of the present work was to study the effect of natural polyphenols, curcuminoids and tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) on isolated stimulated equine neutrophils and on the activity of purified MPO. The ROS production and the release of MPO by activated neutrophils were measured by chemiluminescence and ELISA techniques, respectively. The activity of purified MPO was measured by studying its nitration, chlorination or oxidation capacity and by using an original method called SIEFED allowing the study of drug interaction with the enzyme without interferences of the medium. Curcuminoids and THC had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on ROS production and MPO release by activated neutrophils and on purified MPO activity. We suggest that the higher efficacy of curcuminoids versus THC could be explained, at least partially, by its chemical structure: the conjugated double bounds and the plane structure of curcuminoids made easier the neutralization of the radical species generated by activated neutrophils and the interaction of the drug with the active site of MPO. These inhibitory effects of curcuminoids on the oxidant activity of equine neutrophils and on MPO activity open therapeutic perspectives in equine pathologies with excessive inflammatory reactions.

  17. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint.

    PubMed

    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Denoix, Jean M; Serteyn, Didier

    2011-05-01

    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experimental conditions (400N; 20°C). In all experiments, pendular joint damping was found to follow an exponential decay function (R(2)=0.99714), which confirmed that joint damping was fluid. The evolution of τ, c and μ was found to be significantly (P<0.05) different in the two groups, with a decrease in τ and an increase in c and μ that was faster and more prominent in digits from group 2. It was concluded that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a HOFD model. The influence of post mortem time on results suggested that, ideally, joint mechanical properties should only be tested on fresh cadavers at the same post mortem time. Moreover, the addition of lipid solvent was found to be responsible for upper viscous friction parameters and for a reduced damping time, which suggested that articular lubricating ability was compromised. This equine pendulum test could be used to test the efficacy of various bio-lubricant treatments.

  18. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint.

    PubMed

    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Denoix, Jean M; Serteyn, Didier

    2011-05-01

    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experimental conditions (400N; 20°C). In all experiments, pendular joint damping was found to follow an exponential decay function (R(2)=0.99714), which confirmed that joint damping was fluid. The evolution of τ, c and μ was found to be significantly (P<0.05) different in the two groups, with a decrease in τ and an increase in c and μ that was faster and more prominent in digits from group 2. It was concluded that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a HOFD model. The influence of post mortem time on results suggested that, ideally, joint mechanical properties should only be tested on fresh cadavers at the same post mortem time. Moreover, the addition of lipid solvent was found to be responsible for upper viscous friction parameters and for a reduced damping time, which suggested that articular lubricating ability was compromised. This equine pendulum test could be used to test the efficacy of various bio-lubricant treatments. PMID:20413334

  19. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising tool introduced for quantitative detection of cartilage degeneration and scoring of the severity of chondral lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-investigator agreement and inter-method agreement in grading cartilage lesions by means of conventional arthroscopy and with OCT technique. For this aim, 41 cartilage lesions based on findings in conventional and OCT arthroscopy in 14 equine joints were imaged, blind coded and independently ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) scored by three surgeons and one PhD-student. Results The intra- and inter-investigator percentages of agreement by means of OCT (68.9% and 43.9%, respectively) were higher than those based on conventional arthroscopic imaging (56.7% and 31.7%, respectively). The intra-investigator Kappa coefficients were 0.709 and 0.565 for OCT and arthroscopy, respectively. Inter-investigator Kappa coefficients were 0.538 and 0.408 for OCT and arthroscopy, respectively. Conclusions OCT can enhance reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints. PMID:24410869

  20. Characteristics of the equine embryo and fetus from days 15 to 107 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Franciolli, André Luis Rezende; Cordeiro, Bruna Mascaro; da Fonseca, Erika Toledo; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Ambrosio, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Ana Flavia; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Silva, Luciano Andrade

    2011-09-15

    In spite of numerous, substantial advances in equine reproduction, many stages of embryonic and fetal morphological development are poorly understood, with no apparent single source of comprehensive information. Hence, the objective of the present study was to provide a complete macroscopic and microscopic description of the equine embryo/fetus at various gestational ages. Thirty-four embryos/fetuses were aged based on their crown rump length (CRL), and submitted to macroscopic description, biometry, light and scanning microscopy, as well as the alizarin technique. All observed developmental changes were chronologically ordered and described. As examples of the main observed features, an accentuated cervical curvature was observed upon macroscopic examination in all specimens. In the nervous system, the encephalic fourth ventricle and the encephalic vesicles forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, were visualized from Day 19 (ovulation = Day 0). The thoracic and pelvic limbs were also visualized; their extremities gave rise to the hoof during development from Day 27. Development of other structures such as pigmented optical vesicle, liver, tail, cardiac area, lungs, and dermal vascularization started on Days 25, 25, 19, 19, 34, and 35, respectively. Light and scanning microscopy facilitated detailed examinations of several organs, e.g., heart, kidneys, lungs, and intestine, whereas the alizarin technique enabled visualization of ossification. Observations in this study contributed to the knowledge regarding equine embryogenesis, and included much detailed data from many specimens collected over a long developmental interval. PMID:21719090

  1. Identification of piroplasms isolated from asymptomatic equine species from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Carbonero, Alfonso; Arenas, Antonio; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to detect the presence of genetic material of equine piroplasmas and to determine the species isolates from apparently healthy equids, including horses, donkeys and mules, in southern Spain. Blood samples were collected from 135 animals to assess the presence of DNA from equine piroplasmas using PCR. Babesia (B.) caballi DNA was detected in blood samples of three horses and one donkey, while Theileria (T.) equi DNA was confirmed in blood of 19 horses, three mules and one donkey. All B. caballi isolates showed a 100% homology of the nucleotide sequence of the 18S RNA gene fragment with the Spanish isolate AY534883. T. equi isolates had a 99.8% homology with the Spanish isolate T. equi AY 534882 and a 98.2% homology with the sequence of the Spanish isolate T. equi DQ287951. The differences in the nucleotide sequence of 18S RNA gene between T. equi isolates in the present study and the above mentioned Spanish isolates suggest the circulation of different genotypes in this country. The presence of genetic material of these parasites in 20% of the examined animals indicates a widespread exposure to equine piroplasmosis in southern Spain, therefore, a monitoring program in this country is needed.

  2. [Development of a real-time RT-PCR for detection of equine influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, S; Santschi, E; Gerber, V; Stalder, H P; Zanoni, R G

    2015-04-01

    Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease in horses caused by influenza A viruses. In this work a real-time RT-PCR for fast and sensitive diagnosis of equine influenza viruses (EIV) targeting a highly conserved region of the matrix gene was developed. In addition two RT-PCR methods for the amplification of large parts of the matrix- and HA gene were adapted for molecular-epidemiological characterization of viruses. The primers of the real-time RT-PCR had homologies of 99.4% to EIV- and 97.7% to all influenza A viral sequences, whereas the minor groove binder (MGB) probe showed homologies of 99.3% and 99.6%, respectively. These high values allow application of the assay for influenza viruses in other species. Using 20 equine, 11 porcine and 2 avian samples, diagnostic suitability of the assay was confirmed. High specificity for influenza viruses was shown both experimentally and by software simulation. The assay analytical sensitivity was at 10(2)-10(3) copies of RNA and 10(0)-10(1) copies of DNA, respectively. This allows virus detection also in circumstances of minor viral shedding. All amplified EIV sequences were classified phylogenetically within the known lineages. PMID:26757582

  3. An equine joint friction test model using a cartilage-on-cartilage arrangement.

    PubMed

    Noble, Prisca; Collin, Bernard; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Magnée, Adrien; Denoix, Jean M; Serteyn, Didier

    2010-02-01

    This study describes an equine joint friction test using a cartilage-on-cartilage arrangement and investigates the influence of age and load on the frictional response. Osteochondral plugs were extracted from equine shoulder joints (2-5 years, n=12; 10-14 years, n=15), and mounted in a pin-on-disc tribometer. The frictional response was then measured under constant conditions (2N; 20 degrees C; 5 mm/s), and with increasing load (2N, 5N, 10N). In all experiments, the friction coefficient of young cartilage was significantly (P<0.001) smaller than obtained from old cartilage, while the application of a greater load resulted in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in friction coefficient only in old cartilage. It was concluded that cartilage ageing was responsible for an increase in friction coefficient under these experimental conditions. Moreover, where young cartilage lubrication remained stable, cartilage ageing may have been responsible for lubrication regime change. The cartilage-on-cartilage model could be used to better understand lubrication regime disturbances in healthy and diseased equine joints, and to test the efficacy of various bio-lubricant treatments.

  4. Characterization of equine cytochrome P450: role of CYP3A in the metabolism of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S M M; Ikenaka, Y; Hayami, A; Mizukawa, H; Darwish, W S; Watanabe, K P; Kawai, Y K; Ishizuka, M

    2016-10-01

    Research on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in large animal species including the horse is scarce because of the challenges in conducting in vivo studies. The metabolic reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are central to drug pharmacokinetics. This study elucidated the characteristics of equine CYPs using diazepam (DZP) as a model compound as this drug is widely used as an anesthetic and sedative in horses, and is principally metabolized by CYPs. Diazepam metabolic activities were measured in vitro using horse and rat liver microsomes to clarify the species differences in enzyme kinetic parameters of each metabolite (temazepam [TMZ], nordiazepam [NDZ], p-hydroxydiazepam [p-OH-DZP], and oxazepam [OXZ]). In both species microsomes, TMZ was the major metabolite, but the formation rate of p-OH-DZP was significantly less in the horse. Inhibition assays with a CYP-specific inhibitors and antibody suggested that CYP3A was the main enzyme responsible for DZP metabolism in horse. Four recombinant equine CYP3A isoforms expressed in Cos-7 cells showed that CYP3A96, CYP3A94, and CYP3A89 were important for TMZ formation, whereas CYP3A97 exhibited more limited activity. Phylogenetic analysis suggested diversification of CYP3As in each mammalian order. Further study is needed to elucidate functional characteristics of each equine CYP3A isoform for effective use of diazepam in horses.

  5. The incidence and species composition of Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) causing equine myiasis in northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Li, Kai; Hu, De-Fu

    2016-02-15

    A survey was conducted on the detection of the larval Gasterophilus species in 90 equines via necropsy or after administering oral ivermectin in Xinjian, China, from 2008 to 2013. All 90 (100%) equines were infested by larval Gasterophilus, and 3723second instar larvae (L2) and 63,778 third instar larvae (L3) were collected from faecal samples and the digestive tract, a ratio of L2:L3=1:17. Over 84.45% of the animals contained ≤1500 larvae and 7.78% had >2000 larvae. The highest totals of L2 and L 3 larvae in any one animal were 1208 in Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus), 2491 in Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), and 1785 in the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus). Six species of Gasterophilus were identified, with the following proportions of overall parasite abundance: Gasterophilus pecorum 88.94%, Gasterophilus nigricornis 4.94%, Gasterophilus nasalis 3.93%, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis 1.91%, Gasterophilus intestinalis 0.19%, and Gasterophilus inermis 0.087%. A majority of equines (n=32, 35.57%) was infested with five Gasterophilus species, while 29 animals (32.22%) harboured four species, 13 animals (14.44%) had six, 12 animals (13.33%) had three, three (3.33%) had two, and one (1.11%) had only one species. The percentage of Przewalski's horses infested was higher than local domestic horse or Mongolian wild ass.

  6. A survey on parasite management by equine veterinarians highlights the need for a regulation change

    PubMed Central

    Sallé, Guillaume; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In-depth knowledge of the use of anthelminthics in the field, especially by veterinarians, is required to design more sustainable parasite control strategies. Materials and methods An online survey was sent by e-mail to 940 equine veterinary practitioners to describe their equine practice, their awareness about parasites and the management strategies they apply. Results Gastrointestinal parasites were generally considered (68%) as an issue of moderate importance. Drug efficacy failure was a minor or moderate issue for 47% and 48% of responders, respectively. Parasite management mostly relied on the use of systematic calendar treatments across a wide variety of horse owners (ie, riding schools, studs or hobby horse owners). Almost half of the practitioners (42%) never performed Faecal Egg Count (FEC) before drenching. Horse owners or their employees in charge of equines were reported to be the only person managing drenching in 59% of the collected answers. This was associated with the report of many off-label uses of anthelmintics and the frequent buying of drugs using the internet. Conclusions Given the critical situation regarding anthelmintic resistance, it seems necessary for veterinarians to reclaim parasite management and prevention as a specific topic. Implementation of stricter regulations for use of anthelmintics, like the one applied in Denmark, may make parasitic management in equids more sustainable. PMID:26421153

  7. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  8. The incidence and species composition of Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) causing equine myiasis in northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Li, Kai; Hu, De-Fu

    2016-02-15

    A survey was conducted on the detection of the larval Gasterophilus species in 90 equines via necropsy or after administering oral ivermectin in Xinjian, China, from 2008 to 2013. All 90 (100%) equines were infested by larval Gasterophilus, and 3723second instar larvae (L2) and 63,778 third instar larvae (L3) were collected from faecal samples and the digestive tract, a ratio of L2:L3=1:17. Over 84.45% of the animals contained ≤1500 larvae and 7.78% had >2000 larvae. The highest totals of L2 and L 3 larvae in any one animal were 1208 in Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus), 2491 in Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), and 1785 in the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus). Six species of Gasterophilus were identified, with the following proportions of overall parasite abundance: Gasterophilus pecorum 88.94%, Gasterophilus nigricornis 4.94%, Gasterophilus nasalis 3.93%, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis 1.91%, Gasterophilus intestinalis 0.19%, and Gasterophilus inermis 0.087%. A majority of equines (n=32, 35.57%) was infested with five Gasterophilus species, while 29 animals (32.22%) harboured four species, 13 animals (14.44%) had six, 12 animals (13.33%) had three, three (3.33%) had two, and one (1.11%) had only one species. The percentage of Przewalski's horses infested was higher than local domestic horse or Mongolian wild ass. PMID:26827858

  9. Prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in equines of a tropical region of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-González, Rosa I.; González-Reyes, Ismael; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determinate the seroprevalence rate of equine brucellosis in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Serum samples from 420 equines were analyzed with the Rose Bengal test at cell concentrations of 3% (RBT-3%) and 8% (RBT-8%), and positive results were confirmed with the Rivanol test (RT). Risk factors were determined with the prevalence ratio (PR) and the use of variables generated from a questionnaire administered to the animals’ owners. Serum from 1 stallion had positive results with both the RBT-8% and the RT, for a seroprevalence rate of 0.238%. Drinking of water from a pond that was also used by cattle and dogs was the only associated risk factor for this animal (PR = 0.25). However, the results were considered false-positive, because the results for other horses in the same environmental conditions were negative. Although brucellosis is considered endemic in ruminants in the study area, the results obtained suggest that equines are not a reservoir of brucellosis and do not play an important role in the epidemiologic patterns of this disease in northeastern Mexico. PMID:17042384

  10. Stable and long-lasting immune response in horses after DNA vaccination against equine arteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Giese, M; Bahr, U; Jakob, N J; Kehm, R; Handermann, M; Müller, H; Vahlenkamp, T H; Spiess, C; Schneider, T H; Schusse, G; Darai, G

    2002-10-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of the equine viral arteritis. It is a small RNA virus with a linear, non-segmented plus RNA genome. EAV is a member of the Arteriviridae family that includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRSSV), simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) and lactate dehydrogenase virus (LDV). The viral transmission is via respiratory and reproductive routes. Clinical signs in horses vary, and severe infection can lead to abortions in pregnant mares or neonatal foal death. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the immune response in horses after immunization with a DNA vaccine harbouring and expressing EAV Open Reading Frames (ORF) 2, 5, and 7, in combination with equine interleukin 2 (eqIL2). Three boosters followed the basic immunization in two-week intervals. Each immunization was a combination of gene gun and intramuscular injection. All horses developed a high titer of neutralizing antibodies after basic immunization within 2 weeks. Remarkably, this immune response was found to be independent of the age of animals. The youngest horse was six-years old, and the oldest twenty-two years old. A remarkable difference in the immune response between the young and old were not observed. The duration of immunity was investigated during a period of one year. After 12 months, neutralizing antibodies were still detectable in all the vaccinated horses.

  11. Serological evidence of equine influenza virus in horse stables in Kaduna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    MESEKO, Clement A.; EHIZIBOLO, David O.; NWOKIKE, Edith C.; WUNGAK, Yiltawe S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major cause of acute respiratory diseases in horses in most parts of the world that results in severe economic losses. Information on the epidemiology of EIV in tropical Africa is scanty. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) in 284 horse sera in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria. The ELISA-positive sera were further examined for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to two strains each of H3N8 and H7N3 subtypes of influenza A virus. The results showed that antibodies against influenza A virus nucleoprotein were detected in 60.9% (173 of 284) of horses examined by NP-ELISA. Equine H3 and H7 subtypes were detected in 60% (21 of 35) and 20% (7 of 35) of horse sera respectively across the stables. Adequate quarantine of all imported horses, a national equine influenza surveillance plan and an appropriate EIV control program in Nigeria are recommended to safeguard the large horse population. PMID:27703404

  12. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Responsible for Clinical Disease in Algeria in 2011.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Lecouturier, F; Amelot, G; Gaudaire, D; Mamache, B; Laugier, C; Legrand, L; Zientara, S; Hans, A

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in Algeria between May and July, 2011. The outbreak started in Tiaret, in west province of Algeria, and spread to the other parts of the country affecting almost 900 horses in many provinces. The population studied was composed of 325 horses from different groups of age. Clinical sign expression was age dependent. Indeed, a morbidity rate of 14.9% was observed in horses under 15 months old and a rate of 4.95% in horses over 8 years old. Interestingly, the morbidity rate raised sharply to reach 100% in horses aged between 18 months and 7 years. The virus (H3N8) was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 11) from non-vaccinated horses using a qRT-PCR targeting a portion of the gene encoding the matrix protein (M). The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by sequencing the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and were named from A/equine/Tiaret/1/2011 to A/equine/Tiaret/10/2011. Alignment of HA1 amino acid sequence confirmed that viruses belong to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in the American lineage. Moreover, they are closely related to A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, A/equine/Eyragues/1/2010, A/equine/Bokel/2011 and A/equine/Lichtenfeld/2012. Our data indicate that this strain was also circulating in the European horse population in 2010, 2011 and 2012.

  13. A review of the equine age-related changes in the immune system: comparisons between human and equine aging, with focus on lung-specific immune-aging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Baptiste, K E; Fjeldborg, J; Horohov, D W

    2015-03-01

    The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans and horses share many of these age-related changes, with only a few differences. Thus, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence are well-described phenomena in both human and equine research, particularly in relation to the peripheral blood and especially the T-cell compartment. However, the lung is faced with unique challenges because of its constant interaction with the external environment and thus may not share similarities to peripheral blood when considering age-related changes in immune function. Indeed, recent studies have shown discrepancies in cytokine mRNA and protein expression between the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage immune cells. These results provide important evidence that age-related immune changes or 'dys-functions' are organ-specific.

  14. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  15. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  16. High Seroprevalence for Rickettsia rickettsii in Equines Suggests Risk of Human Infection in Silent Areas for the Brazilian Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Souza, Celso Eduardo; Camargo, Luciana Bonato; Pinter, Adriano; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2016-01-01

    Equines play a role in the epidemiology of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) since they are a primary host for the tick Amblyomma sculptum. We studied the seroprevalence for three species of Rickettsia in equines in four endemic (with human cases) and in four non-endemic areas (no human cases) in the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil. A serological survey of 504 equines was performed: around 63 animals were sampled in each area and tested through indirect immunofluorescence assay for R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. bellii in 2012-2013. Blood samples were seropositive for 183 equines (36.3%) in which 73 (39.9%) were from non-endemic areas. In the studied sites equines were highly exposed to Rickettsia infection ranging from 6.1% to 54.7%, with Geometric Mean Titers greater in endemic area (p = 0.012). Results suggest that Rickettsia may be more widespread than the surveillance of BSF has detected. These results highlight the need to include data on the seroprevalence of sentinel animals to improve human diagnoses and surveillance in areas with no reported human cases. PMID:27064788

  17. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: A comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine☆

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811

  18. Equine sperm nuclei with different ploidy levels: relationship between the nuclear DNA content and the nuclear area.

    PubMed

    Spirito, S; Campi, S; Boquet, M; Fernández, H; Ferrari, M

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the ability of the Feulgen reaction to identify equine sperm nuclei with different ploidy levels, to determine the frequency of haploid, diploid and polyploid sperm nuclei in the semen of fertile equines and to evaluate the relationship between the nuclear DNA content and the nuclear area. Determination of the ploidy level of Feulgen-stained spermatozoa using a scanning microspectrophotometer was very similar to the subjective estimations made with a light microscope. This indicates that the Feulgen reaction is a simple, inexpensive and reliable technique to recognise the ploidy level of equine spermatozoa. The incidence of diploid and polyploid spermatozoa, determined with a light microscope in 11 fertile equines, was 0.17 ± 0.08% and 0.027 ± 0.027% respectively. DNA content values obtained by microspectrophotometry in the only equine that presented polyploid spermatozoa allowed us to discriminate between haploid, diploid and polyploid subpopulations. Measurement of the nuclear area discriminated only two subpopulations: one including the haploid and diploid subpopulations and the other including the polyploid one. The similarity between the area of the haploid and diploid sperm nuclei suggests that the increase in DNA content is anisotropic, with a privileged direction of growth perpendicular to the nuclear flattening plane.

  19. [Contribution to the antigenic study of influenza viruses in animals. I.--Neuraminidase of the equine influenza viruses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, M; Aymard-Henry, M

    1975-01-01

    From the Revised Nomenclature of WHO, the fowl influenza virus A/Duck/Ukraine/63 (Hav7 Neq2) has the same neuraminidase as the equine virus A/equi 2/Miami/63 (Heq2 Neq2); the A/Chicken Germany "N"/49 virus has the same neuraminidase as the equine virus A/equi 1/Prague/56. A comparative study of the antigenic specificities confirms that the Neq2 neuraminidases are closely connected, whatever their animal origin, and that the fowl strain Hav7 Neq2 can be used for the titration of anti Neq2 antibodies in the serums of animals immunized with the equine virus Heq2 Neq2. The Neqi neuraminidases of various animal origins are connected, but the neuraminidase of the fowl strain Hav2 Neqi is slightly inhibited by the anti Neq1 antibodies of animals immunized with the Heq1 Neq1 virus: to titrate the anti Neq1 antibodies of equine origin, the H72 Neq1 recombinant should therefore be used. The antigenic characterization of the different equine influenza strains isolated since 1967 by the study of their neuraminidase has been completed: The various neuraminidases, like the hemagglutinins of the various strains belonging to the sub-type A equi2 are closely connected; a minor antigenic variation, concerning the two surface antigens, seems to exist between the strain A equi 1/Prague/56 and the strain of the same subtype isolated in 1973.

  20. Development and evaluation of aerosol delivery of antivirals for the treatment of equine virus induced respiratory infections

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An aerosol delivery system incorporating the DeVilbiss ultrasonic nebulizer was developed for antiviral chemotherapy of equine viral respiratory infections. The system's delivery capabilities were proven effective by two modes of analysis: (a) a non-destructive, non-invasive radioactive tracer method utilizing a saline solution of DTPA labelled 99mTc and, (b) an invasive-terminal study using fluorescent polystyrene monodispersed latex particles. Particles were efficiently distributed throughout the lung parenchyma with deposition more heavily concentrated in the tracheobronchial region. Amantadine HCl was administered to the lungs of a yearling horse and three yearling Shetland ponies over a single 15-30 minute period with no untoward side effects. Likewise, ribavirin was aerosolized into the respiratory trace of an adult pony and a yearling horse for 15-30 minutes twice a day for three and seven days respectively. Neither the horse nor pony demonstrated signs of clinical illness or other signs of ribavirin toxicity. Attempts to produce a reproducible equine influenza disease model were made. During these studies, the authors were unsuccessful in developing a consistent respiratory disease model. Without this model the efficacy of antiviral compounds cannot be assessed. From the data generated in these studies, the implication of equine influenza viruses as the major single etiological agents responsible for equine respiratory disease is brought into question. Further, the author proposed that equine respiratory disease is a multiple agent-induced disease, which needs extensive investigation.

  1. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2013-09-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven.

  2. High Seroprevalence for Rickettsia rickettsii in Equines Suggests Risk of Human Infection in Silent Areas for the Brazilian Spotted Fever

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Equines play a role in the epidemiology of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) since they are a primary host for the tick Amblyomma sculptum. We studied the seroprevalence for three species of Rickettsia in equines in four endemic (with human cases) and in four non-endemic areas (no human cases) in the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil. A serological survey of 504 equines was performed: around 63 animals were sampled in each area and tested through indirect immunofluorescence assay for R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. bellii in 2012–2013. Blood samples were seropositive for 183 equines (36.3%) in which 73 (39.9%) were from non-endemic areas. In the studied sites equines were highly exposed to Rickettsia infection ranging from 6.1% to 54.7%, with Geometric Mean Titers greater in endemic area (p = 0.012). Results suggest that Rickettsia may be more widespread than the surveillance of BSF has detected. These results highlight the need to include data on the seroprevalence of sentinel animals to improve human diagnoses and surveillance in areas with no reported human cases. PMID:27064788

  3. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  4. Pain recognition and treatment in the horse: a survey of equine veterinarians in The Netherlands and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, C L L; van Loon, J P A M

    2011-10-01

    This survey investigated the attitudes of equine veterinarians in The Netherlands and the Flemish region of Belgium towards pain management in the horse. Questionnaires were sent out to 771 equine veterinarians, all members of the Dutch or Flemish equine practitioners society. The return rate of completed questionnaires was 16.6%. The survey provided information about the use of analgesic drugs, factors influencing their prescription, pain scoring, analgesic therapy for specific clinical conditions, use of epidural analgesia, and appraisal of personal knowledge of pain management. The pain scores attributed to specific clinical conditions showed considerable variation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) were the most-often prescribed analgesic drugs, with older drugs still having an important role in pain management. Butorphanol was the main opioid used. A substantial proportion of the respondents considered their knowledge of pain recognition and analgesic therapy to be insufficient or moderate. PMID:22026220

  5. Identification of Lipoprotein Homologues of Pneumococcal PsaA in the Equine Pathogens Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Dean J.; Greated, Joanne S.; Chanter, Neil; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus are major etiological agents of upper and lower airway disease in horses. Despite the considerable animal suffering and economic burden associated with these diseases, the factors that contribute to the virulence of these equine pathogens have not been extensively investigated. Here we demonstrate the presence of a homologue of the Streptococcus pneumoniae PsaA protein in both of these equine pathogens. Inhibition of signal peptide processing by the antibiotic globomycin confirmed the lipoprotein nature of the mature proteins, and surface exposure was confirmed by their release from intact cells by mild trypsinolysis. PMID:10992520

  6. Human G3P[4] rotavirus obtained in Japan, 2013, possibly emerged through a human-equine rotavirus reassortment event.

    PubMed

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Nukiwa-Soma, Nao; Tohma, Kentaro; Liu, Xiaofang; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Dapat, Clyde; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Kayama, Yasuko; Masago, Yoshifumi; Omura, Tatsuo; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Two novel G3P[4] rotavirus strains were detected from children with acute diarrhea in Sendai, Japan, identified as a G3-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation by whole-genome sequence analysis. The VP7 gene of the two strains displayed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (91 %) and showed a close genetic relationship (99 % bootstrap value) to an equine rotavirus reported in India. The other gene segments were related to human group A rotaviruses. This report suggests a possible reassortment event between human and equine rotaviruses. PMID:25352228

  7. Prevalence of equine gammaherpesviruses on breeding farms in Turkey and development of a TaqMan MGB real-time PCR to detect equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5).

    PubMed

    Akkutay, A Zeynep; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Damiani, Armando; Tischer, B Karsten; Borchers, Kerstin; Alkan, Feray

    2014-11-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and EHV-5 are members of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The viruses are detected in horses with upper respiratory tract disease and are associated with low performance in racehorses. The aim of the current study was to use nested PCR to investigate the epidemiology of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in Arabian horse populations from breeding farms located in three different cities (Eskişehir, Malatya, and Bursa) in Turkey, using a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) with a TaqMan® minor-groove-binder (MGB) probe to detect EHV-5. Screening of blood and ocular and nasal swab samples by nested PCR showed the prevalence of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to be 59 % and 62 %, respectively, with a coinfection rate of 45 %. Thirty-seven isolates from blood samples were identified as EHV-2 using nested PCR. To develop the EHV-5 qPCR, a pair of primers and an MGB probe were designed based on a highly conserved genomic region encoding glycoprotein B (gB). The detection limit of the qPCR was 10 molecules per reaction, and it specifically detected EHV-5 and no other herpesviruses infecting horses (EHV-1, EHV-2, or EHV-4). When applied to field samples, the assay proved to be more sensitive than a well-established nested PCR. Therefore, the qPCR developed in this study provides a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic assay for the detection of EHV-5, and it complements other diagnostic procedures for equine respiratory disease.

  8. Development and use of a polarized equine upper respiratory tract mucosal explant system to study the early phase of pathogenesis of a European strain of equine arteritis virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract mucosa represents the first line of defense, which has to be overcome by pathogens before invading the host. Considering the economic and ethical aspects involved in using experimental animals for pathogenesis studies, respiratory mucosal explants, in which the tissue’s three-dimensional architecture is preserved, may be ideal alternatives. Different respiratory mucosal explant cultures have been developed. However, none of them could be inoculated with pathogens solely at the epithelium side. In the present study, equine nasal and nasopharyngeal explants were embedded in agarose (3%), leaving the epithelium side exposed to allow apical inoculation. Morphometric analysis did not show degenerative changes during 72 h of cultivation. The number of apoptotic cells in the mucosa slightly increased over time. After validation, the system was used for apical infection with a European strain (08P178) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) (107.6TCID50/mL per explant). Impermeability of agarose to virus particles was demonstrated by the absence of labeled microspheres (40nm) and a lack of EAV-antigens in RK13 cells seeded underneath the agarose layer in which inoculated explants were embedded. At 72 hpi, 27% of the EAV-positive cells were CD172a+ and 19% were CD3+ in nasal explants and 45% of the EAV-positive cells were CD172a+ and 15% were CD3+ in nasopharyngeal explants. Only a small percentage of EAV-positive cells were IgM+. This study validates the usefulness of a polarized mucosal explant system and shows that CD172a+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes represent important EAV-target cells in the respiratory mucosa. PMID:23537375

  9. Prevalence of equine gammaherpesviruses on breeding farms in Turkey and development of a TaqMan MGB real-time PCR to detect equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5).

    PubMed

    Akkutay, A Zeynep; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Damiani, Armando; Tischer, B Karsten; Borchers, Kerstin; Alkan, Feray

    2014-11-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and EHV-5 are members of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The viruses are detected in horses with upper respiratory tract disease and are associated with low performance in racehorses. The aim of the current study was to use nested PCR to investigate the epidemiology of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in Arabian horse populations from breeding farms located in three different cities (Eskişehir, Malatya, and Bursa) in Turkey, using a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) with a TaqMan® minor-groove-binder (MGB) probe to detect EHV-5. Screening of blood and ocular and nasal swab samples by nested PCR showed the prevalence of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to be 59 % and 62 %, respectively, with a coinfection rate of 45 %. Thirty-seven isolates from blood samples were identified as EHV-2 using nested PCR. To develop the EHV-5 qPCR, a pair of primers and an MGB probe were designed based on a highly conserved genomic region encoding glycoprotein B (gB). The detection limit of the qPCR was 10 molecules per reaction, and it specifically detected EHV-5 and no other herpesviruses infecting horses (EHV-1, EHV-2, or EHV-4). When applied to field samples, the assay proved to be more sensitive than a well-established nested PCR. Therefore, the qPCR developed in this study provides a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic assay for the detection of EHV-5, and it complements other diagnostic procedures for equine respiratory disease. PMID:25008897

  10. Immune interference in the setting of same-day administration of two similar inactivated alphavirus vaccines: eastern equine and western equine encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Reisler, Ronald B; Gibbs, Paul H; Danner, Denise K; Boudreau, Ellen F

    2012-11-26

    We compared the effect on primary vaccination plaque-reduction neutralization 80% titers (PRNT80) responses of same-day administration (at different injection sites) of two similar investigational inactivated alphavirus vaccines, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) vaccine (TSI-GSD 104) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) vaccine (TSI-GSD 210) to separate administration. Overall, primary response rate for EEE vaccine was 524/796 (66%) and overall primary response rate for WEE vaccine was 291/695 (42%). EEE vaccine same-day administration yielded a 59% response rate and a responder geometric mean titer (GMT)=89 while separate administration yielded a response rate of 69% and a responder GMT=119. WEE vaccine same-day administration yielded a 30% response rate and a responder GMT=53 while separate administration yielded a response rate of 54% and a responder GMT=79. EEE response rates for same-day administration (group A) vs. non-same-day administration (group B) were significantly affected by gender. A logistic regression model predicting response to EEE comparing group B to group A for females yielded an OR=4.10 (95% CL 1.97-8.55; p=.0002) and for males yielded an OR=1.25 (95% CL 0.76-2.07; p=.3768). WEE response rates for same-day administration vs. non-same-day administration were independent of gender. A logistic regression model predicting response to WEE comparing group B to group A yielded an OR=2.14 (95% CL 1.22-3.73; p=.0077). We report immune interference occurring with same-day administration of two completely separate formalin inactivated viral vaccines in humans. These findings combined with the findings of others regarding immune interference would argue for a renewed emphasis on studying the immunological mechanisms of induction of inactivated viral vaccine protection.

  11. Prevalence of equine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-4 infections in equidae species in Turkey as determined by ELISA and multiplex nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Ataseven, Veysel S; Dağalp, Seval B; Güzel, Murat; Başaran, Zeynep; Tan, Mehmet T; Geraghty, Bob

    2009-04-01

    In this report we examined the presence of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), and equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) in several equidae, including mules, donkeys, horses. The presence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 in respiratory diseases of equids, and ability of multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening in simultaneous diagnosis of horses acutely infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 were also investigated. Sera from 504 horses, mules and donkeys sampled were tested for the presence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 specific antibodies. Blood samples taken from 21 symptomatic horses and nasal swabs taken from 40 symptomatic horses were tested for the presence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 by a multiplex nested PCR. A total of 14.3% (3/21) of buffy coat samples and 32.5% (13/40) nasal swab samples were found to contain EHV-1 DNA, while 19% (4/21) buffy coat samples and 22.5% (9/40) nasal swab samples were found to be positive for EHV-4 DNA. By species, 14.5% of horses, 37.2% of mules and 24.2% of donkeys tested were EHV-1 seropositive. EHV-4 specific antibodies were detected in 237 (81.7%) of 290 horse sera tested. Results from this investigation demonstrate that EHV-1 and EHV-4 are prevalent throughout the equid population, and that donkeys and mules might also represent an important source of infection for other equids. We also showed that the multiplex nested PCR assay might be useful for diagnosis of mixed respiratory infections in horses due to EHV-1 and EHV-4.

  12. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination.

  13. Blastocele fluid from in vitro- and in vivo-produced equine embryos contains nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Herrera, C; Morikawa, M I; Castex, C Baca; Pinto, M R; Ortega, N; Fanti, T; Garaguso, R; Franco, M J; Castañares, M; Castañeira, C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M H; Mutto, A A

    2015-02-01

    Normal mammalian early embryonic development involves apoptosis of blastomeres as a remodeling process during differentiation, starting at the blastocyst stage. Genomic DNA has been recently detected in the blastocele fluid of human embryos and has been amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose the sex of in vitro-produced human embryos. This new approach varies from conventional preimplantation genetic diagnosis in that no cells are extracted from the embryo and only the blastocele fluid is aspirated and used as a DNA sample for diagnosis. In the present work, we investigated whether the blastocele fluid of equine preimplantation embryos contains nuclear DNA and whether this DNA could be used to diagnose the sex of the embryos by conventional PCR, using specific primers that target the TSPY and AMEL equine genes. The sex of 11 of 13 in vivo-produced embryos and of four of five in vitro-produced embryos was successfully diagnosed. The PCR amplification product was analyzed using genetic sequencing reporting that the DNA present in blastocele fluid was genomic. Additionally, after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining, the blastocele fluid from three different embryos produced a ladder pattern characteristic of DNA fragmented during apoptosis. Therefore, the results presented in this work report that blastocele fluid from in vivo- and in vitro-produced equine embryos contains nuclear DNA which is probably originated by apoptosis of embryonic cells, and this DNA could be used to diagnose the sex of preimlpantation embryos by conventional PCR.

  14. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of neural and inflammatory cells in equine brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Delcambre, Gretchen H; Liu, Junjie; Herrington, Jenna M; Vallario, Kelsey; Long, Maureen T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of cellular responses in equine infectious encephalitides has had limited description of both peripheral and resident cell populations in central nervous system (CNS) tissues due to limited species-specific reagents that react with formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE). This study identified a set of antibodies for investigating the immunopathology of infectious CNS diseases in horses. Multiple commercially available staining reagents and antibodies derived from antigens of various species for manual immunohistochemistry (IHC) were screened. Several techniques and reagents for heat-induced antigen retrieval, non-specific protein blocking, endogenous peroxidase blocking, and visualization-detection systems were tested during IHC protocol development. Boiling of slides in a low pH, citrate-based buffer solution in a double-boiler system was most consistent for epitope retrieval. Pressure-cooking, microwaving, high pH buffers, and proteinase K solutions often resulted in tissue disruption or no reactivity. Optimal blocking reagents and concentrations of each working antibody were determined. Ultimately, a set of monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were identified for CD3(+) (pAb A0452, Dako) T-lymphocytes, CD79αcy(+) B-lymphocytes (mAb HM57, Dako), macrophages (mAb MAC387, Leica), NF-H(+) neurons (mAb NAP4, EnCor Biotechnology), microglia/macrophage (pAb Iba-1, Wako), and GFAP(+) astrocytes (mAb 5C10, EnCor Biotechnology). In paraffin embedded tissues, mAbs and pAbs derived from human and swine antigens were very successful at binding equine tissue targets. Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology. PMID:26855862

  15. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of neural and inflammatory cells in equine brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Delcambre, Gretchen H; Liu, Junjie; Herrington, Jenna M; Vallario, Kelsey; Long, Maureen T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of cellular responses in equine infectious encephalitides has had limited description of both peripheral and resident cell populations in central nervous system (CNS) tissues due to limited species-specific reagents that react with formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE). This study identified a set of antibodies for investigating the immunopathology of infectious CNS diseases in horses. Multiple commercially available staining reagents and antibodies derived from antigens of various species for manual immunohistochemistry (IHC) were screened. Several techniques and reagents for heat-induced antigen retrieval, non-specific protein blocking, endogenous peroxidase blocking, and visualization-detection systems were tested during IHC protocol development. Boiling of slides in a low pH, citrate-based buffer solution in a double-boiler system was most consistent for epitope retrieval. Pressure-cooking, microwaving, high pH buffers, and proteinase K solutions often resulted in tissue disruption or no reactivity. Optimal blocking reagents and concentrations of each working antibody were determined. Ultimately, a set of monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were identified for CD3(+) (pAb A0452, Dako) T-lymphocytes, CD79αcy(+) B-lymphocytes (mAb HM57, Dako), macrophages (mAb MAC387, Leica), NF-H(+) neurons (mAb NAP4, EnCor Biotechnology), microglia/macrophage (pAb Iba-1, Wako), and GFAP(+) astrocytes (mAb 5C10, EnCor Biotechnology). In paraffin embedded tissues, mAbs and pAbs derived from human and swine antigens were very successful at binding equine tissue targets. Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology.

  16. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Hayes, Susan H; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P < 0.0001) for all bacteria enumerated. Enumerations from control horses did not change during the sampling period (P > 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05), while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05). The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota.

  17. Characterization of equine CSN1S2 variants considering genetics, transcriptomics, and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Jakub; Pawlak, Piotr; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Stachowiak, Anna; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Luczak, Magdalena; Marczak, Lukasz; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2016-02-01

    Currently, research interest is increasing in horse milk composition and its effect on human health. Despite previously published studies describing the presence of intra- and interbreed variability of equine milk components, no investigations have focused on the genetic background of this variation. Among horse caseins and the genes encoding them, least is known about the structure and expression of the α-S2 casein gene, CSN1S2. Herein, based on direct sequencing of the equine CSN1S2 coding sequence, we describe the presence of 51-bp insertion-deletion (in/del) polymorphism, which significantly changes the protein sequence (lack or presence of 17-amino acid serine-rich peptide). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the observed in/del polymorphism spanned exactly 2 exons; therefore, we hypothesized that we were observing different CSN1S2 splicing isoforms. However, further investigation indicated that the detected sequence variation was caused by a large (1.3-kb) deletion in the genomic DNA. We found that the polymorphic forms (A, longer; B, shorter; KP658381 and KP658382 GenBank records, respectively) were unevenly distributed among different horse breeds (the highest frequency of variant B was observed in coldblood horses and Haflingers). We propose that the analyzed polymorphism is associated with CSN1S2 expression level (the highest expression was recorded for individuals carrying the BB genotype), which was much more pronounced for milk CSN1S2 protein content than for relative transcript abundance (measured in milk somatic cells). Our results provide insight into the equine CSN1S2 structure and lay a foundation for further functional analyses regarding, for example, allergenicity or physiochemical properties of the observed CSN1S2 variants.

  18. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Plays a Role in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Moushimi; Keck, Forrest; Lindquist, Michael; Voss, Kelsey; Scavone, Lauren; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Roberts, Brian; Bailey, Charles; Schmaljohn, Connie; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD) strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections. PMID:25927990

  19. Weather factors in the prediction of western equine encephalitis epidemics in Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R F; Maarouf, A R

    1993-10-01

    Cases of western equine encephalitis in horses in 1987 in western USA and Manitoba, Canada were examined by backward trajectory analysis of winds. Culex tarsalis mosquitoes infected with western equine encephalitis virus could have been carried on southerly winds from Texas and Oklahoma to northern USA and from there to Manitoba. The presence of the Polar front over North Dakota and Minnesota at the end of July would have led to the landing of Cx. tarsalis in Montana and Wisconsin and prevented further carriage into Manitoba. Temperatures in southern Texas during the winter months (average daily maximum temperatures 19.7 degrees C and higher) would have permitted continuous transmission of western equine encephalitis virus by Cx. tarsalis in this area. Weather factors involved in outbreaks from 1975-88 were analysed to see if epidemics in Manitoba (23 or more cases in horses) could be predicted. The conditions for epidemics could be defined as follows: (a) the number of cases in horses in USA was 98 or more, (b) winds were southerly with speeds 45 kmh-1 or higher, and (c) counts of Cx. tarsalis females/light trap per day were 3.2 or higher. There were 3 or fewer cases in Manitoba, when the number of cases in USA was 27 or less, even when Cx. tarsalis counts were higher than 3.2. With Cx. tarsalis counts below 3 and/or unsuitable winds, or the Polar front further south, the number of cases in Manitoba was between 0 and 17, even when the number of cases in USA was from 38-172. Without information on the extent of infection further south, the weather variables would probably be more useful in excluding the possibility of an epidemic in Manitoba than in predicting one.

  20. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Brittany E.; Lawrence, Laurie M.; Hayes, Susan H.; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P < 0.0001) for all bacteria enumerated. Enumerations from control horses did not change during the sampling period (P > 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05), while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05). The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota. PMID:27128793

  1. Detection of efaproxiral (RSR13) and its metabolites in equine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Rong; Sandhu, Jasmeet; Zhao, Sarah; Lam, Geoffrey; Loganathan, Devan; Morrissey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Efaproxiral (RSR 13) is an experimental synthetic allosteric modifier of haemoglobin (Hb) that acts by increasing the release of oxygen from Hb to the surrounding tissues. It has been shown to increase maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) in a canine skeletal muscle model. The ability to increase maximal muscle oxygen uptake makes efaproxiral a potential performance-enhancing agent and is therefore prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. In this study, a method for the detection and elimination of efaproxiral in equine plasma and urine after a 2.5 g intravenous administration of efaproxiral is described. Post administration plasma and urine samples were collected up to 120 h. Efaproxiral was detected up to 120 h in urine and up to 78 h in plasma. In plasma, the peak concentration was 42 µg/ml and detected at 5 min post administration. In urine, the peak concentration was 2.8 mg/ml and detected at 0-1 h post administration. A validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was used for the quantitation of efaproxiral in equine plasma and urine. The limit of detection of the method is 0.05 ng/ml in plasma and 0.1 ng/ml in urine. The method is highly sensitive and specific with good precision, accuracy and recovery. The manuscript also describes the systematic identification of efaproxiral metabolites detected in post administration equine urine samples. The metabolites were identified by use of enhanced mass spectra and enhanced product ion scans. Both positive and negative mode ionizations were utilized for metabolite identification and plausible fragmentation pathways were proposed for the phase 1 metabolite identified. In addition to free efaproxiral, one phase 1 metabolite and two phase 2 metabolites were identified in post administration urine. PMID:24446264

  2. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of neural and inflammatory cells in equine brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjie; Herrington, Jenna M.; Vallario, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of cellular responses in equine infectious encephalitides has had limited description of both peripheral and resident cell populations in central nervous system (CNS) tissues due to limited species-specific reagents that react with formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE). This study identified a set of antibodies for investigating the immunopathology of infectious CNS diseases in horses. Multiple commercially available staining reagents and antibodies derived from antigens of various species for manual immunohistochemistry (IHC) were screened. Several techniques and reagents for heat-induced antigen retrieval, non-specific protein blocking, endogenous peroxidase blocking, and visualization-detection systems were tested during IHC protocol development. Boiling of slides in a low pH, citrate-based buffer solution in a double-boiler system was most consistent for epitope retrieval. Pressure-cooking, microwaving, high pH buffers, and proteinase K solutions often resulted in tissue disruption or no reactivity. Optimal blocking reagents and concentrations of each working antibody were determined. Ultimately, a set of monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were identified for CD3+ (pAb A0452, Dako) T-lymphocytes, CD79αcy+ B-lymphocytes (mAb HM57, Dako), macrophages (mAb MAC387, Leica), NF-H+ neurons (mAb NAP4, EnCor Biotechnology), microglia/macrophage (pAb Iba-1, Wako), and GFAP+ astrocytes (mAb 5C10, EnCor Biotechnology). In paraffin embedded tissues, mAbs and pAbs derived from human and swine antigens were very successful at binding equine tissue targets. Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology. PMID:26855862

  3. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  4. Characterization of equine CSN1S2 variants considering genetics, transcriptomics, and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Jakub; Pawlak, Piotr; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Stachowiak, Anna; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Luczak, Magdalena; Marczak, Lukasz; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2016-02-01

    Currently, research interest is increasing in horse milk composition and its effect on human health. Despite previously published studies describing the presence of intra- and interbreed variability of equine milk components, no investigations have focused on the genetic background of this variation. Among horse caseins and the genes encoding them, least is known about the structure and expression of the α-S2 casein gene, CSN1S2. Herein, based on direct sequencing of the equine CSN1S2 coding sequence, we describe the presence of 51-bp insertion-deletion (in/del) polymorphism, which significantly changes the protein sequence (lack or presence of 17-amino acid serine-rich peptide). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the observed in/del polymorphism spanned exactly 2 exons; therefore, we hypothesized that we were observing different CSN1S2 splicing isoforms. However, further investigation indicated that the detected sequence variation was caused by a large (1.3-kb) deletion in the genomic DNA. We found that the polymorphic forms (A, longer; B, shorter; KP658381 and KP658382 GenBank records, respectively) were unevenly distributed among different horse breeds (the highest frequency of variant B was observed in coldblood horses and Haflingers). We propose that the analyzed polymorphism is associated with CSN1S2 expression level (the highest expression was recorded for individuals carrying the BB genotype), which was much more pronounced for milk CSN1S2 protein content than for relative transcript abundance (measured in milk somatic cells). Our results provide insight into the equine CSN1S2 structure and lay a foundation for further functional analyses regarding, for example, allergenicity or physiochemical properties of the observed CSN1S2 variants. PMID:26709185

  5. Placental abnormalities in equine pregnancies generated by SCNT from one donor horse.

    PubMed

    Pozor, Malgorzata A; Sheppard, Barbara; Hinrichs, Katrin; Kelleman, Audrey A; Macpherson, Margo L; Runcan, Erin; Choi, Young-Ho; Diaw, Mouhamadou; Mathews, Philip M

    2016-10-01

    Placental changes associated with SCNT have been described in several species, but little information is available in this area in the horse. We evaluated the ultrasonographic, gross, and histopathological characteristics of placentas from three successful and five unsuccessful equine SCNT pregnancies, established using cells from a single donor horse. Starting at approximately 6-month gestation, the pregnancies were monitored periodically using transrectal (TR) and transabdominal (TA) ultrasonography (US) to examine the placentas, fetal fluids, and fetuses. Of the five mares that aborted, one mare did so suddenly without any abnormal signs detected by US and four had enlarged umbilical vessels visible on TA-US before abortion. Placental edema (TR-US) and intravascular thrombi in the umbilical cords were seen (TA-US) in two of these four mares; one mare aborted shortly after acute placental separation was identified on TA-US. In three mares that delivered live foals, TA-US showed engorged allantoic vessels and enlarged umbilical vessels. Two of these mares had placental thickening visible on TR-US, interpreted as a sign of placentitis, that subsided after aggressive medical treatment. Seven of the eight placentas were submitted for gross and histopathological examinations after delivery. All placentas had some degree of edema, abnormally engorged allantoic vessels, and enlarged umbilical vessels. Placentitis, large allantoic vesicles, cystic pouches in the fetal part of the cord, and hemorrhages and thrombi in the umbilical vessels were detected only in placentas from mares that aborted. Equine pregnancies resulting from SCNT may be associated with placental pathologies that can be detected using ultrasonography. However, interpreting their severity is difficult. Although placental abnormalities have been observed in SCNT pregnancies in other species, to the best of our knowledge, placentitis has not been previously reported and may be an important complication of

  6. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Hayes, Susan H; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P < 0.0001) for all bacteria enumerated. Enumerations from control horses did not change during the sampling period (P > 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05), while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05). The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota. PMID:27128793

  7. A clinician's guide to factors affecting withdrawal times for equine therapeutic medications.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Thomas; Dirikolu, Levent; Brewer, Kimberly; Hughes, Charlie G

    2013-11-01

    Equine forensic science can now detect concentrations down to 25 femtograms/mL (parts per quadrillion, ppq) or less in blood and urine. As such, horsemen are increasingly at risk of inadvertent 'positives' due to therapeutic medication 'overages' or trace identifications of dietary or environmental substances. Reviewed here are the factors which determine detection times and 'withdrawal times' for substances administered to horses. Withdrawal times are affected by many factors, including dose, formulation, route and frequency of administration, bioavailability, plasma half-life, sensitivity of the analytical process, the testing matrix (plasma, urine, or other), and the environmental presence and/or persistence of administered substances. Of these factors only dose is known precisely. For any given administration, horse-to-horse differences in the volumes of distribution, systemic clearance, and terminal plasma elimination half-life of substances are major and totally uncontrollable factors driving horse-to-horse variability in withdrawal times. A further complication is that chemically stable medications administered to horses and eliminated in the urine inevitably become part of the environment of the horse. The presence of these substances in the equine environment is increasingly giving rise to trace identifications long after nominal administration of these substances has ceased. Because of the unknown and uncontrollable horse-to-horse variability in medication pharmacokinetics, any therapeutic medication administration to a horse by definition includes the possibility of an inadvertent medication overage. As such, the caveat that there are no guarantees in life most assuredly applies to advisories concerning equine therapeutic medication withdrawal times.

  8. [The vaccines based on the replicon of the venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus against viral hemorrhagic fevers].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Plekhanova, T M; Sidorova, O N; Borisevich, S V; Makhlay, A A

    2015-01-01

    The status of the various recombinant DNA and RNA-derived candidate vaccines, as well as the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) replicon vaccine system against extremely hazardous viral hemorrhagic fevers, were reviewed. The VEEV-based replication-incompetent vectors offer attractive features in terms of safety, high expression levels of the heterologous viral antigen, tropism to dendritic cells, robust immune responses, protection efficacy, low potential for pre-existing anti-vector immunity and possibility of engineering multivalent vaccines were tested. These features of the VEEV replicon system hold much promise for the development of new generation vaccine candidates against viral hemorrhagic fevers.

  9. Industry liaison officers in the infected states of Australia during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hoare, R; Paxton, D

    2011-07-01

    We describe the activities of persons who were formally employed as industry liaison officers (ILOs) in the infected states of Australia during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak. The knowledge and communication skills of ILOs allowed them to function very effectively, despite most of them having received no prior training. It is arguable, however, that if ILOs had received prior training, they would have performed more effectively sooner. We suggest that more individuals need ILO training in 'peacetime' and that 'just-in-time' training packages require preparation and trial prior to outbreaks to be effective. PMID:21711303

  10. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, J. P.; Howe, D. K.; Furr, M.; Saville, W. J.; Marsh, A.E.; Reed, S. M.; Grigg, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especially sea otters (Enhydra lutris). EPM-like illness has also been recorded in several other mammals, including domestic dogs and cats. This paper updates S. neurona and EPM information from the last 15 years on the advances regarding life cycle, molecular biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:25737052

  11. Attempted reinnervation of the equine larynx using a muscle pedicle graft.

    PubMed

    Harrison, I W; Speirs, V C; Braund, K G; Steiss, J E

    1992-01-01

    Laryngeal hemiplegia was induced in 4 ponies via a left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy. Reinnervation of the denervated left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle was then attempted using a muscle pedicle graft from the right cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle. In 3 ponies there was no return of abductor function and failure of graft survival. In the fourth pony there was return of abductor function along with survival of the muscle bridge, however, there was evidence of reinnervation across the neurectomy site. Muscle-to-muscle neurotization of the paralyzed equine larynx, utilizing the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle, does not appear to be a clinically useful technique.

  12. Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies in moose (Alces americana), Maine, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lubelczyk, Charles; Elias, Susan P; Kantar, Lee; Albert, Jennifer; Hansen, Stephen; Saxton-Shaw, Kali; MacMillan, Katharine; Smith, Leticia B; Eisen, Rebecca; Swope, Bethany; Smith, Robert Pease; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Moose sera were collected from harvested animals during the 2010 hunting season in Maine. Of the 145 serum samples screened by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), 16 (11%) had antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Positive samples were collected from Aroostook County (n=13), Somerset County (n=2), and Piscataquis County (n=1) in northern and central Maine. Preliminary mosquito surveillance revealed the presence of enzootic and bridge vectors mosquitoes, including Culiseta (Climacura) melanura (Coquillett), Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen), and Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) perturbans (Walker). Select mosquito species were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of EEEV. None were positive. This is the first report of EEEV in moose from Maine.

  13. Characterization of the equine blood-testis barrier during tubular development in normal and cryptorchid stallions.

    PubMed

    Rode, K; Sieme, H; Richterich, P; Brehm, R

    2015-09-15

    The formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is defined as occurring with the first appearance of spermatocytes at around puberty and is vital for normal spermatogenesis. This barrier between two adjacent Sertoli cells (SCs) consists of a cell junctional protein complex, which includes tight junctions (TJs), adherens junctions, and gap junctions. In many mammalian species, BTB composition has already been investigated, whereas little is known about the equine BTB. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and qualitative Western Blot analysis were used to assess the expression and distribution patterns of the junctional proteins claudin-11 (TJ), zonula occludens-1 (TJ associated), N-cadherin (adherens junctions), and connexin 43 (gap junctions) in equine testes during tubular development and in testes of stallions exhibiting unilateral cryptorchidism. Therefore, testes of 21 warmblood stallions (aged 12 months-11 years) were obtained during routine surgical castration. In the normal adult equine testis, the junctional proteins are localized at the basolateral region of the seminiferous tubules forming a circumferential seal corresponding to the known BTB localization. N-cadherin is additionally expressed along the lateral SC surface. In immature seminiferous cords still lacking a lumen, a diffuse distribution pattern of the junctional proteins throughout the SC cytoplasm is visible. As lumen formation advances, the immunolocalization shifts progressively toward the basolateral SC membranes. Additionally, apoptotic germ cells were detected and quantified in prepubertal stallions using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and correlated with junctional protein localization. In the retained testis of cryptorchid stallions, which exhibit an aberrant testicular morphology, a deviating expression of the junctional proteins is visible. The present data show for the first time that (1) the equine SC junctional complex contains claudin-11

  14. Effect of inflammatory environment on equine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells immunogenicity and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, L; Remacha, A R; Romero, A; Vázquez, F J; Albareda, J; Prades, M; Ranera, B; Zaragoza, P; Martín-Burriel, I; Rodellar, C

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being investigated for the treatment of equine joint diseases because of their regenerative potential. Recently, the focus mainly has addressed to their immunomodulatory capacities. Inflammation plays a central role in joint pathologies, since the release of proinflammatory mediators to the synovial fluid (SF) leads to the activation of enzymatic degradation of the cartilage. MSCs can modulate the local immune environment through direct or paracrine interaction with immune cells, suppressing their proliferation and re-addressing their functions. Proinflammatory molecules can induce MSC immunoregulatory potential, but they could also increase the expression of immunogenic molecules. Studying the effect of inflammatory environment on MSC immunomodulation and immunogenicity profiles is mandatory to improve cellular therapies. The aim of this study was to analyse the response of equine bone marrow MSCs (eBM-MSCs) to three inflammatory conditions. Equine BM-MSCs from three animals were exposed to: (a) 20% allogeneic inflammatory SF (SF); (b) 50 ng/ml of TNFα and IFNγ (CK50) and (c) 20 ng/ml of TNFα and IFNγ (CK20). After 72 h of exposure, expression of immunogenic and immunomodulation-related molecules, including cell-to-cell contact and paracrine signalling molecules, were analysed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. The gene expression of adhesion molecules was upregulated whereas MSC migration-related genes were downregulated by all inflammatory conditions tested. CK culture conditions significantly upregulated the expression of COX-2, iNOS, IDO and IL-6. MHC-I gene expression was upregulated by all conditions, whereas MHC-II was upregulated only after CK priming. The expression of CD40 did not significantly change, whereas the ligand, CD40L, was downregulated in CK conditions. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the percentage of positive cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the MHC-I and MHC-II molecules at CK50

  15. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Furr, M; Saville, W J; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Grigg, M E

    2015-04-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especially sea otters (Enhydra lutris). EPM-like illness has also been recorded in several other mammals, including domestic dogs and cats. This paper updates S. neurona and EPM information from the last 15 years on the advances regarding life cycle, molecular biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:25737052

  16. Risk of introducing African horse sickness virus into the Netherlands by international equine movements.

    PubMed

    de Vos, C J; Hoek, C A; Nodelijk, G

    2012-09-15

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne viral disease of equines that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. and can have severe consequences for the horse industry in affected territories. A study was performed to assess the risk of introducing AHS virus (AHSV) into the Netherlands (P_AHS) by international equine movements. The goal of this study was to provide more insight into (a) the regions and equine species that contribute most to this risk, (b) the seasonal variation in this risk, and (c) the effectiveness of measures to prevent introduction of AHSV. Countries worldwide were grouped into three risk regions: (1) high risk, i.e., those countries in which the virus is presumed to circulate, (2) low risk, i.e., those countries that have experienced outbreaks of AHS in the past and/or where the main vector of AHS, Culicoides imicola, is present, and (3) very low risk, i.e., all other countries. A risk model was constructed estimating P_AHS taking into account the probability of release of AHSV in the Netherlands and the probability that local vectors will subsequently transmit the virus to local hosts. Model calculations indicated that P_AHS is very low with a median value of 5.1×10(-4)/year. The risk is highest in July and August, while equine movements in the period October till March pose a negligible risk. High and low risk regions contribute most to P_AHS with 31% and 53%, respectively. Importations of donkeys and zebras constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from high risk regions, while international movements of competition horses constitute the highest risk of AHSV release from low and very low risk regions. Preventive measures currently applied reduce P_AHS by 46% if compared to a situation in which no preventive measures are applied. A prolonged and more effective quarantine period in high risk regions and more stringent import regulations for low risk regions could further reduce P_AHS. Large uncertainty was involved in estimating model input

  17. Plasma and liver copper values in horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Dill, S G; Hintz, H F; deLahunta, A; Waldron, C H

    1989-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a common spinal cord disease in the horse. The etiology of EDM currently is unknown. In other species, there are similarities in the clinical signs and neuropathological changes observed in EDM and in copper deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine if horses affected with EDM had low levels of plasma or liver copper. Plasma copper values were determined in 25 EDM affected horses and 35 normal horses. Liver copper levels were determined on 13 EDM affected horses and 22 normal horses. Plasma and liver copper values were not significantly lower in EDM affected horses than in control horses. PMID:2914224

  18. An improved cosmid vector for the cloning of equine herpesvirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, L; Rafferty, E L; Brawley, A; Onions, D E

    1994-12-15

    We have modified the commercial cosmid vector, triple helix vector (THV), such that I-Sce-I restriction endonuclease sites flank the cloning site. I-Sce-I is a rare-cutting endonuclease which recognizes an 18-bp sequence. It does not restrict the genome of either of the equine herpesvirus 1 or 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) strains we have cosmid cloned. Thus, cosmid-cloned EHV fragments can be excised intact from the vector by I-Sce-I digestion, facilitating production of large overlapping EHV fragments for use in transfections to produce recombinant virus. PMID:7821817

  19. The Use of a Recombinant Canarypox-Based Equine Influenza Vaccine during the 2007 Australian Outbreak: A Systematic Review and Summary

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; El-Hage, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, Australia experienced the most extensive equine influenza outbreak observed in recent years. Extraordinary measures were rapidly implemented in order to control and prevent the spread of this highly contagious disease. The control strategy involved stringent movement restriction and disease surveillance, seconded by emergency post-outbreak vaccination strategies. Sixteen months after the first case and 12 months following the last reported case, Australia regained its equine influenza-free OIE status. This systematic review reports and summarises information relating to the implementation of emergency vaccination during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak, including the choice of vaccine and implementation strategies. PMID:27294963

  20. The Use of a Recombinant Canarypox-Based Equine Influenza Vaccine during the 2007 Australian Outbreak: A Systematic Review and Summary.

    PubMed

    Paillot, Romain; El-Hage, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, Australia experienced the most extensive equine influenza outbreak observed in recent years. Extraordinary measures were rapidly implemented in order to control and prevent the spread of this highly contagious disease. The control strategy involved stringent movement restriction and disease surveillance, seconded by emergency post-outbreak vaccination strategies. Sixteen months after the first case and 12 months following the last reported case, Australia regained its equine influenza-free OIE status. This systematic review reports and summarises information relating to the implementation of emergency vaccination during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak, including the choice of vaccine and implementation strategies. PMID:27294963

  1. Restricted differentiation potential of progenitor cell populations obtained from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT).

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kate Ann; Lee, Katie Joanna; Humphreys, William James Edward; Comerford, Eithne Josephine Veronica; Clegg, Peter David; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize stem and progenitor cell populations from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon, an energy-storing tendon with similarities to the human Achilles tendon, which is frequently injured. Using published methods for the isolation of tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells by low-density plating we found that isolated cells possessed clonogenicity but were unable to fully differentiate towards mesenchymal lineages using trilineage differentiation assays. In particular, adipogenic differentiation appeared to be restricted, as assessed by Oil Red O staining of stem/progenitor cells cultured in adipogenic medium. We then assessed whether differential adhesion to fibronectin substrates could be used to isolate a population of cells with broader differentiation potential. However we found little difference in the stem and tenogenic gene expression profile of these cells as compared to tenocytes, although the expression of thrombospondin-4 was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. Tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin had a similar differentiation potential to cells isolated by low density plating, and when grown in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In summary, we have found a restricted differentiation potential of cells isolated from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon despite evidence for stem/progenitor-like characteristics. PMID:25877997

  2. High concentrations of myeloperoxidase in the equine uterus as an indicator of endometritis.

    PubMed

    Parrilla-Hernandez, Sonia; Ponthier, Jérôme; Franck, Thierry Y; Serteyn, Didier D; Deleuze, Stéfan C

    2014-04-15

    Intraluminal fluid and excessive abnormal hyperedema are regularly used for the diagnosis of endometritis in the mare, which is routinely confirmed by the presence of neutrophils on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after cell lysis. This enzyme has been found in many fluids and tissues, and associated with different inflammatory pathologies in the horse. The aims of this study were to assess the presence and concentration of MPO in the equine uterus, and to investigate its relation with neutrophils, and other clinical signs of endometritis. Mares (n = 51) were evaluated for the presence of intraluminal fluid and excessive endometrial edema before breeding, and a small volume lavage and cytology samples were obtained. From 69 cycles, supernatant of the uterine flushes was analyzed with a specific equine MPO ELISA assay to measure MPO concentration. Cytology samples were used for the diagnosis of endometritis. Myeloperoxidase was present in the uterus of all estrus mares in highly variable concentrations. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in samples with positive cytologies and in the presence of intraluminal fluid. Occasionally, some samples with negative cytologies showed high MPO concentration, but the opposite was never observed. Cycles presenting hyperedema weren't associated with high concentration of MPO, intraluminal fluid, or positive cytology, making it a poor diagnostic tool of endometritis. PMID:24565475

  3. Evaluation of biomarkers following autologous osteochondral transplantation in the equine stifle joint - An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tuska, Pál; Tóth, Balázs; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Hangody, László; Papp, Miklós; Bodó, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in biomarker and synovial parameters following autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) in the equine stifle joint, to test the hypothesis whether synovial parameters would show significant differences at selected time points following the surgery (at days 3, 14, 60 and 180) compared to baseline level (at day 0). Surgical intervention was performed in both stifles of nine horses (n = 18). The joints were randomly assigned to operated and sham-operated groups. Grafts 8.5 mm in diameter were harvested from the femoropatellar (FP) joint under arthroscopic control and the medial femorotibial (MFT) joints had AOT using mosaicplasty (MP) instrumentation, while the sham FP and sham MFT joints underwent arthroscopy and miniarthrotomy without transplantation, respectively. Synovial fluid (SF) parameters were evaluated at days 4, 14, 60 and 180. Data were analysed by two-way repeated- measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and P < 0.05 was considered significant. During the first 10-14 days after surgery, lameness of degree 2-3/5 [American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) scores] was present, which disappeared after 60 days. Joints with transplantation showed significant increases in synovial white blood cell count (WBC), total protein (TP), substance P, C1,2C and CS846 epitope concentration at day 3 compared to baseline and shamoperated joints (P < 0.05). These parameters returned to the baseline values by two months after surgery and remained within normal levels at 6 months postoperatively. PMID:27342088

  4. Evidence-based medicine in bovine, equine and canine reproduction: quality of current literature.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, C; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate deficits and differences of published literature on reproduction in cattle, horses, and dogs. A literature search was conducted in the databases Medline and Veterinary Science. Approximately five times more articles on clinical bovine reproduction (n = 25 910) were found compared to canine (n = 5 015) and equine (n = 5 090) reproduction. For the evaluation of the literature, a checklist was used. A subset of 600 articles published between 1999 and 2008 was randomly selected. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 268 trials (86 for cattle, 99 for horses, and 83 for dogs) were evaluated and used for further analysis. For the field of canine and equine reproduction, there were fewer clinical trials with a control group compared to bovine reproduction (cattle 66%, horses 41%, and dogs 41%). For all three species investigated, few publications were identified (4%) with the highest level of evidence, i.e., controlled, randomized, and blinded trials, or meta-analyses. In cattle 33% of the publications were graded adequate to draw sound conclusions; however, only 7 and 11% were graded adequate in dogs and horses, respectively. Therefore, the veterinarian should always assess the quality of information before implementing results into practice to provide best available care for the animals. In conclusion, improvement of the quality of well-designed, conducted and reported clinical trails in animal reproduction is required.

  5. Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amy J; Martin, Denise A; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    We have developed nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and TaqMan nucleic acid amplification assays for the rapid detection of North American eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viral RNAs from samples collected in the field and clinical samples. The sensitivities of these assays have been compared to that of virus isolation. While all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays provide rapid detection of viral RNAs comparable to the isolation of viruses in Vero cells, the TaqMan assays for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs are the most sensitive. We have shown these assays to be specific for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs by testing geographically and temporally distinct strains of EEE and WEE viruses along with a battery of related and unrelated arthropodborne viruses. In addition, all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays have been used to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs from mosquito and vertebrate tissue samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of nucleic acid amplification demonstrate the usefulness of NASBA, standard RT-PCR, and TaqMan assays, in both research and diagnostic settings, to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs. PMID:12517876

  6. Effects of equine herpesvirus-9 infection in pregnant mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Fukushi, H; Nayel, M; Hibi, D; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus isolated from gazelles, was assessed in pregnant rodents (mice and hamsters) following intranasal inoculation. The pregnant female mice and hamsters were inoculated with EHV-9 in the early or late trimesters. The inoculated animals exhibited mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead or undersized fetuses. All three mice and four hamsters inoculated in the first trimester had varying degrees of placental abnormality, characterized by markedly dilated maternal blood sinusoids, atrophy of the trophoblast cells and necrosis of the middle layer of the trophoblast. There was also endometrial blood vessel congestion and necrosis and disorganization of the fetal capillaries in the mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester. EHV-9 antigen was detected in the brain of dams and the lungs of the fetuses and in the middle of the trophoblast layer of the placenta in hamsters inoculated in the first trimester. The placental lesions were milder in mice than in the hamsters. The mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester had more prominent lesions than the animals inoculated in the first trimester. These results suggest that EHV-9 can cause the death of the fetus or abortion and that these events may be secondary to placental vascular compromise. PMID:20813378

  7. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

  8. [Renaissance of equine dentistery, an abandoned discipline, which one tries to recover].

    PubMed

    Chuit, P

    2006-01-01

    The author illustrates by the study of ancient texts the interest shown for equine dentistry since the age of times. The first detailed studies on the technique go back to the 17th century. The 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were fertile in instrumental as well as technical discoveries; it was the time of creativity, and he quotes authors like Günther father and son, Frick, Goubaux and Barrier, Mérllat, Cadiot, and Colyer with his enormous work on animal dentistry published in 1936. During and right after the 2nd World War, it is the time of desertion, with only one exception, Erwin Becker, who out of Berlin gives an extraordinary prestige to the dentistry. The beginning of the revival seems to go back to 1975-1980. At this point of time, non veterinarian "dentists" breach in, the moust famous being Dale Jeffrey, who opens a school, creates an academy and publishes a newspaper. The author reviews all the existing teaching method. A new professions is born, the dental technician, one hurdle remains how to integrate it within the world of the veterinarians? The author presents the British example, the best regulated. He also shows how the French National Veterinary Schools have restored the teaching of dentistry. The author regrets that the Medias glorify the dental technicians under the pompous and improper trade name "equine dentists", to the detriment of the veterinarians.

  9. Second Generation Inactivated Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Candidates Protect Mice against a Lethal Aerosol Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Honnold, Shelley P.; Bakken, Russell R.; Fisher, Diana; Lind, Cathleen M.; Cohen, Jeffrey W.; Eccleston, Lori T.; Spurgers, Kevin B.; Maheshwari, Radha K.; Glass, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no FDA-licensed vaccines or therapeutics for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) for human use. We recently developed several methods to inactivate CVEV1219, a chimeric live-attenuated eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Dosage and schedule studies were conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three potential second-generation inactivated EEEV (iEEEV) vaccine candidates in mice: formalin-inactivated CVEV1219 (fCVEV1219), INA-inactivated CVEV1219 (iCVEV1219) and gamma-irradiated CVEV1219 (gCVEV1219). Both fCVEV1219 and gCVEV1219 provided partial to complete protection against an aerosol challenge when administered by different routes and schedules at various doses, while iCVEV1219 was unable to provide substantial protection against an aerosol challenge by any route, dose, or schedule tested. When evaluating antibody responses, neutralizing antibody, not virus specific IgG or IgA, was the best correlate of protection. The results of these studies suggest that both fCVEV1219 and gCVEV1219 should be evaluated further and considered for advancement as potential second-generation inactivated vaccine candidates for EEEV. PMID:25116127

  10. Effects of equine herpesvirus-9 infection in pregnant mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Fukushi, H; Nayel, M; Hibi, D; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus isolated from gazelles, was assessed in pregnant rodents (mice and hamsters) following intranasal inoculation. The pregnant female mice and hamsters were inoculated with EHV-9 in the early or late trimesters. The inoculated animals exhibited mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead or undersized fetuses. All three mice and four hamsters inoculated in the first trimester had varying degrees of placental abnormality, characterized by markedly dilated maternal blood sinusoids, atrophy of the trophoblast cells and necrosis of the middle layer of the trophoblast. There was also endometrial blood vessel congestion and necrosis and disorganization of the fetal capillaries in the mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester. EHV-9 antigen was detected in the brain of dams and the lungs of the fetuses and in the middle of the trophoblast layer of the placenta in hamsters inoculated in the first trimester. The placental lesions were milder in mice than in the hamsters. The mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester had more prominent lesions than the animals inoculated in the first trimester. These results suggest that EHV-9 can cause the death of the fetus or abortion and that these events may be secondary to placental vascular compromise.

  11. Restricted differentiation potential of progenitor cell populations obtained from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, William James Edward; Comerford, Eithne Josephine Veronica; Clegg, Peter David; Canty‐Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize stem and progenitor cell populations from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon, an energy‐storing tendon with similarities to the human Achilles tendon, which is frequently injured. Using published methods for the isolation of tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells by low‐density plating we found that isolated cells possessed clonogenicity but were unable to fully differentiate towards mesenchymal lineages using trilineage differentiation assays. In particular, adipogenic differentiation appeared to be restricted, as assessed by Oil Red O staining of stem/progenitor cells cultured in adipogenic medium. We then assessed whether differential adhesion to fibronectin substrates could be used to isolate a population of cells with broader differentiation potential. However we found little difference in the stem and tenogenic gene expression profile of these cells as compared to tenocytes, although the expression of thrombospondin‐4 was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. Tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin had a similar differentiation potential to cells isolated by low density plating, and when grown in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In summary, we have found a restricted differentiation potential of cells isolated from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon despite evidence for stem/progenitor‐like characteristics. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 33:849–858, 2015. PMID:25877997

  12. Indirect myosin immunocytochemistry for the identification of fibre types in equine skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Rose, R. J.; Pozgaj, I.; Hoh, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The histochemical ATPase method for muscle fibre typing was first described by Brooke and Kaiser in 1970. However, problems have been found with the subdivision of type II fibres using this technique. To determine whether indirect myosin immunocytochemistry using anti-slow (5-4D), anti-fast (1A10) and anti-fast red (5-2B) monoclonal antibodies with cross reactivity for type I, II and IIa fibres, respectively, in a number of species, could identify three fibre types in equine skeletal muscle, data on fibre type composition and fibre size obtained using the two different techniques were compared. Results indicate that different myosin heavy chains can coexist in single equine muscle fibres. Type I and type II fibres were identified by immunocytochemistry, but subdivision of type II fibres was not possible. Although the percentage of type I and type II fibres was not significantly different for the two techniques, a few fibres reacted with both the 1A10 and 5-4D antibodies.

  13. Equine infectious anemia virus-infected dendritic cells retain antigen presentation capability

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Julie A.; McGuire, Travis C. . E-mail: mcguiret@vetmed.wsu.edu

    2005-05-10

    To determine if equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) were susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, ex vivo-generated DC were infected with virus in vitro. EIAV antigen was detected by immunofluorescence 3 days post-infection with maximum antigen being detected on day 4, whereas there was no antigen detected in DC incubated with the same amount of heat-inactivated EIAV. No cytolytic activity was observed after EIAV{sub WSU5} infection of DC. These monocyte-derived DC were more effective than macrophages and B cells in stimulating allogenic T lymphocytes. Both infected macrophages and DC stimulated similar levels of memory CTL responses in mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ cells as detected with {sup 51}Cr-release assays indicating that EIAV infection of DC did not alter antigen presentation. However, EIAV-infected DC were more effective than infected macrophages when used to stimulate memory CTL in isolated CD8+ cells. The maintenance of antigen processing and presenting function by EIAV-infected DC in vitro suggests that this function is maintained during in vivo infection.

  14. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part III. A teased fibre study of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-11-01

    Individual nerve fibres were isolated from the recurrent laryngeal and some distal hindlimb nerves, in an investigation of equine laryngeal hemiplegia. One hundred teased fibres were obtained from each of three sampling sites on both left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves, from 15 Thoroughbred horses. These fibres were graded descriptively and internode lengths measured. A distal distribution of pathology was demonstrated in all groups studied, but was most severe in the clinical group of horses. The predominant change was one of short thinly myelinated internodes interspersed amongst normally myelinated internodes, indicating remyelination of previously demyelinated areas of nerve fibre. Such pathological change was also reflected by the decreased mean internode length, and its increased variability associated with disease. However, it was determined statistically that these abnormal internodes were grouped along particular nerve fibres, rather than being randomly distributed between all nerve fibres. This is thought to indicate myelin sheath changes secondary to underlying axonal pathology. Thus it was concluded that the primary pathology was likely to be axonal in nature, while the high incidence of demyelination changes was a reflection of the chronic nature of the disease process. Thus, the distal distribution of pathology, the primary axonal involvement, the presence of changes in left and right recurrent laryngeal and distal limb nerves, all support the classification of equine laryngeal hemiplegia as a distal axonopathy.

  15. Neodymium (Nd):YAG laser surgery in the equine larynx: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tate, L P; Newman, H C; Cullen, J M; Sweeney, C

    1986-01-01

    Laryngeal surgery in the equine is customarily and routinely performed by means of a ventral laryngotomy incision. Such procedures are usually performed under deep general anesthesia with the horse in dorsal recumbency. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of an endoscopic approach coupled to a Nd:YAG laser fiber in performing arytenoidectomy. Arytenoidectomy is commonly indicated in the treatment of arytenoid chondritis and in the failure of prosthetic implantation for left laryngeal hemiplegia. This preliminary study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of the endoscopic laser approach to ablate the most difficult of the structures of the larynx, considering tissue structure and density. This procedure was accomplished by using heavy sedation and local anesthesia and was performed in the standing position. This approach appears to be feasible and makes other adjacent structures accessible via the endoscope coupled to a surgical laser. Indications for future pilot applications of laser surgery in the equine larynx are entrapment of the epiglottis, dorsal soft palate displacement, and the ablation of laryngeal cysts and polyps. This pilot study appears to offer a new modality for discrete surgical ablation of this structure, with minimal postoperative complications and a reduced or equivalent convalescent period in this valuable species of animal.

  16. [Renaissance of equine dentistery, an abandoned discipline, which one tries to recover].

    PubMed

    Chuit, P

    2006-01-01

    The author illustrates by the study of ancient texts the interest shown for equine dentistry since the age of times. The first detailed studies on the technique go back to the 17th century. The 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were fertile in instrumental as well as technical discoveries; it was the time of creativity, and he quotes authors like Günther father and son, Frick, Goubaux and Barrier, Mérllat, Cadiot, and Colyer with his enormous work on animal dentistry published in 1936. During and right after the 2nd World War, it is the time of desertion, with only one exception, Erwin Becker, who out of Berlin gives an extraordinary prestige to the dentistry. The beginning of the revival seems to go back to 1975-1980. At this point of time, non veterinarian "dentists" breach in, the moust famous being Dale Jeffrey, who opens a school, creates an academy and publishes a newspaper. The author reviews all the existing teaching method. A new professions is born, the dental technician, one hurdle remains how to integrate it within the world of the veterinarians? The author presents the British example, the best regulated. He also shows how the French National Veterinary Schools have restored the teaching of dentistry. The author regrets that the Medias glorify the dental technicians under the pompous and improper trade name "equine dentists", to the detriment of the veterinarians. PMID:16444949

  17. Population studies of 17 equine STR for forensic and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, L H P; van Haeringen, W A; Lenstra, J A

    2011-12-01

    As a consequence of the close integration of horses into human society, equine DNA analysis has become relevant for forensic purposes. However, the information content of the equine Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci commonly used for the identification or paternity testing has so far not been fully characterized. Population studies were performed for 17 polymorphic STR loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, LEX3 and VHL20) including 8641 horses representing 35 populations. The power of parental exclusion, polymorphic information content, expected and observed heterozygosity and probability of identity were calculated, showing that the set of 17 STRs has sufficient discriminating power for forensic analysis in almost all breeds. We also explored the reliability of individual assignment tests in identifying the correct breeds of origin for unknown samples. The overall proportion of individuals correctly assigned to a population was 97.2%. Finally, we demonstrate the phylogenetic signal of the 17 STR. We found three clusters of related breeds: (i) the cold-blooded draught breeds Haflinger, Dutch draft and Friesian; (ii) the pony breeds Shetland and Miniature horse with the Falabella, Appaloosa and Icelandic; and (iii) The Warmblood riding breeds, together with the hot-blooded Standard-bred, Thoroughbred and Arabian. PMID:22035004

  18. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchessi, Marta; Chen, Yuwen; Durgam, Sushmitha; Pondenis, Holly; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP) cells in equine synovial fluid (SF) and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were performed during primary cultures. At first passage, SF-cells were seeded at low density, with or without FGF-2. Following monolayer expansion and serial immunophenotyping, cells were transferred to chondrogenic pellet cultures. Pellets were analyzed for chondrogenic mRNA expression and cartilage matrix secretion. There was a mean of 59.2 CFU/mL of SF. FGF-2 increased the number of population doublings during two monolayer passages and halved the population doubling times. FGF-2 did not alter the immunophenotype of SF-CPs during monolayer expansion, nor did FGF-2 compromise chondrogenesis. Hypertrophic phenotypic markers were not expressed in control or FGF-2 groups. FGF-2 did prevent the development of a “fibroblastic” cell layer around pellet periphery. FGF-2 significantly accelerates in vitro SF-CP expansion, the major hurdle to clinical application of this cell population, without detrimentally affecting subsequent chondrogenic capacity. PMID:26839571

  19. Assessment of equine fecal contamination: the search for alternative bacterial source-tracking targets.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joyce M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-01-01

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicated that upstream and downstream water samples were predominantly beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (35 and 19%, respectively), while the manure library consisted predominantly of Firmicutes (31%) and previously unidentified sequences (60%). Manure-specific eubacterial sequences were not detectable beyond 5 m downstream of the pile, suggesting either poor survival or high dilution rates. In contrast, Bacteroides and Prevotella sp. sequences were detected both in manure and downstream using group-specific primers. Novel sequences from Bacteroides and Prevotella analysis produced an equine-specific phylogenetic cluster as compared to previous data sets obtained for human and bovine samples. While these results suggest that some anaerobic fecal bacteria might be potential identifiers for use in source-tracking applications, a comprehensive examination of environmental sequences within these species should be performed before methods targeting these bacterial groups are applied to watersheds for development of microbial source-tracking protocols.

  20. Identification of Equine Lactadherin-derived Peptides That Inhibit Rotavirus Infection via Integrin Receptor Competition*

    PubMed Central

    Civra, Andrea; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Donalisio, Manuela; Napolitano, Lorenzo; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S.; Conti, Amedeo; Lembo, David

    2015-01-01

    Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding. PMID:25814665