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Sample records for mid-country intermediate zone

  1. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones? 222.42 Section 222.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and..., if the public authority provides Notice of Quiet Zone Continuation, in accordance with § 222.43...

  2. Optimum forward scattering zone for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Pardeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a comparative study of various schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter, which decides the maximum value of forward laboratory scattering angle, in intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments. We have found that these are special cases of the recently proposed parameterization scheme in Kumar Rajiv et al., Phys. Rev. C, 81 (2010) 037602. The scheme may be used to demarcate the absorption-free as well as no-flux loss zone for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments.

  3. Jurassic Early Cretaceous intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles and Pangaean subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizán, Haroldo; Van Zele, María Andrea

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that the distribution of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) seems to be conditioned by Pangaean subducted slabs. Palaeomagnetic data from between ˜ 200Ma and 125Ma were compiled from reliable studies and their VGPs repositioned in their Jurassic-Early Cretaceous geographic location considering a "zero-longitude" motion of Africa over the last 200m.y. and the corresponding palaeomagnetic poles from each sequence. Those repositioned VGPs lying between latitudes of ± 60° were considered to be intermediate. To avoid bias as a function of simple sampling numbers for those sequences with more data, each VGP was weighted by Love's methodology. A colour-scale map (shadow-scale map in printed issue) of density of the weighted intermediate VGPs was obtained and compared with the Pangaean subduction zones. There is a good visual correlation between the distribution of these VGPs and the location of the subduction zones during the Jurassic, suggesting that there is a relationship between the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous geomagnetic reversals and the plate tectonic setting at that time. Minima of intermediate VGPs correlate well with the absence of VGPs predicted with a tomographic model and the intermediate VGP distribution is also well correlated with zones of faster seismic wave propagation in the lower mantle (just above of the core-mantle boundary), which suggests that the Jurassic geomagnetic polarity transitions could have been controlled by a structure of the core-mantle boundary similar to that at the Present time. We suspect that the subducted lithospheric slabs refrigerated the deepest mantle causing more heat than average flowing out from the core and controlling the geometry of the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous polarity transitions. The Earth's lithospheric plate motion history could have played a controlling role in the geometry of the geomagnetic reversals.

  4. Relationship between shallow-and intermediate-depth seismicity in the eastern aleutian subduction zone

    SciTech Connect

    Abers, G.A. )

    1992-10-23

    The transition from shallow interplate thrusting to intermediate-depth seismicity is often poorly observed, but critical for understanding the fate of the downgoing slab. In order to better examine the transition, 1448 earthquakes are relocated from data recorded by a regional seismic network in the eastern Aleutian arc, using an improved three-dimensional velocity model and accurate ray tracing. Single-event first-motion solutions are determined from these rays for 31 slab events. The interplate thrust zone is a planar fault zone, dipping 10-15[degrees] at 25-35 km depth, and is no more than 5-10 km wide. Most intermediate-depth earthquakes are localized to a plane no wider than 5 km near the top of the descending plate. Fault-plane solution orientations for these events vary by several tens of degrees in orientation, although 73% show T axes aligned within 45[degrees] of the slab dip. A parallel seismic zone, 20-25 km deeper into the slab, also shows down-dip plunges of T axes for 3 to 5 solutions. The fault-plane solutions are poorly explained by plate bending ur unbending about a neutral fiber. Hypocenters show that intermediate-depth events are confined near the subducted oceanic crust, supporting compositional rather than pure thermal control of intermediate-depth seismicity. One explanation is that the upper-plane events are an indirect consequence of phase changes in subducted crust. Perhaps similar processes are important in producing earthquakes in the lower, parallel zone. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Periodic Viscous Shear Heating Instability in Fine-Grained Shear Zones: Mechanism for Intermediate Depth Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coon, E.; Kelemen, P.; Hirth, G.; Spiegelman, M.

    2005-12-01

    Kelemen and Hirth (Fall 2004 AGU) presented a model for periodic, viscous shear heating instabilities along pre-existing, fine grained shear zones. This provides an attractive alternative to dehydration embrittlement for explaining intermediate-depth earthquakes, especially those in a narrow thermal window within the mantle section of subducting oceanic plates (Hacker et al JGR03). Ductile shear zones with widths of cm to m are common in shallow mantle massifs and peridotite along oceanic fracture zones. Pseudotachylites in a mantle shear zone show that shear heating temperatures exceeded the mantle solidus (Obata & Karato Tectonophys95). Olivine grain growth in shear zones is pinned by closely spaced pyroxenes; thus, once formed, these features do not `heal' on geological time scales in the absence of melt or fluid (Warren & Hirth EPSL05). Grain-size sensitive creep will be localized within these shear zones, in preference to host rocks with olivine grain size from 1 to 10 mm. Inspired by the work of Whitehead & Gans (GJRAS74), we proposed that such pre-existing shear zones might undergo repeated shear heating instabilities. This is not a new concept; what is new is that viscous deformation is limited to a narrow shear zone, because grain boundary sliding, sensitive to both stress and grain size, may accommodate creep even at high stress and high temperature. These new ideas yield a new result: simple models for a periodic shear heating instability. Last year, we presented a 1D numerical model using olivine flow laws, assuming that viscous deformation remains localized in shear zones, surrounded by host rocks undergoing elastic deformation. Stress evolves due to elastic strain and drives viscous deformation in a shear zone of specified width. Shear heating and thermal diffusion control T. A maximum of 1400 C (substantial melting of peridotite ) was imposed. Grain size evolves due to recrystallization and diffusion. For strain rates of E-13 to E-14 per sec and

  6. Monitoring deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic zone by geodetic means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2015-04-01

    Background Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, the so-called Vrancea zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Europe. Despite many years of international research, its intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment still represents a challenge of the 21st century. Infrastructure In the attempt to join the above-mentioned efforts, the Solid Earth Dynamics Department (SEDD) in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy has developed a special research infrastructure, mainly devoted to gravity and space geodesy observations. A geodetic network covering the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes has been designed and implemented for monitoring deep geodynamic processes and their surface echoes. Within each base-station of the above-mentioned network, a still-reinforced concrete pillar allows for high accuracy repeated gravity and GPS determinations. Results Starting from some results of the previously run CERGOP and UNIGRACE European programmes, to which additional SEDD repeated field campaigns were added, an unusual geodynamic behaviour has been revealed in the area. 1) Crust deformation: unlike the overall uprising of East Carpathians, as a result of denudation followed by erosion, their SE bending zone, with Vrancea epicentre area exhibits a slight subsidence. 2) Gravity change: more than 200 microgals non-tidal gravity decrease over a 20 years time-span has been noticed within the subsiding area. Extended observations showed the gravity lowering as a nowadays continuing process. Interpretation This strange combination of topography subsidence and gravity lowering has been interpreted in terms of crust stretching in the Vrancea epicentre zone due to the gravity pull created by densification of the lower crust as a result of phase-transform processes taking place in the lithospheric compartment sunken into the upper mantle. The occurrence of crust earthquakes with vertical-extension focal

  7. Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

  8. Pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies induced by intermediate-depth earthquakes (Vrancea zone-Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanica, Dumitru; Dragos Stanica, Armand

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that before the earthquake initiation, the high stress level which reached within the seismogenic volume may generate dehydration of rocks and fluids migration along surrounding faulting systems and could be reflected by electrical conductivity changes. In this paper, we investigate these changes of conductivity using ULF electromagnetic data recorded at the Geodynamic Observatory Provita de Sus, located on the Carpathian electrical conductivity anomaly (CECA), at about 100km distance of Vrancea epicentral zone. Using ground-based monitoring system (GMS 06 and MAG03 DAM electromagnetic and geomagnetic equipments, respectively), possible anomalous variations of the electromagnetic normalized functions (ENF) have been analyzed in correlation with earthquakes with Mw > 3.7 triggered in 2013 year at the intermediate depth interval 70-160km, in seismic active Vrancea zone. Thus, the daily mean distributions of the both functions Bzn = Bz/Bperp (where: Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the strike orientation) and Rn = Rpar/Rz (where: Rpar is resistivity parallel to strike; Rz is vertical resistivity), together with their standard deviation (SD) are performed by using the FFT band-pass filter analysis in the frequency range (0.001Hz to 0.016Hz). After analyzing the anomalous intervals of the Bzn* and Ron* values obtained by using a standardized random variable equation, we may conclude that: (i) a pre-seismic anomalous value of maximum related to the both ENF may reflect an impending earthquake; (ii) a superimposed effect of some earthquakes occurred at short time-intervals is also reflected by the anomalous maximum value; (iii) pre-seismic lead time is between 1 to 32 days before the impending earthquake.

  9. Catastrophic Collisions in the Terrestrial Planet Zone and the Epoch of Terrestrial Planet Formation around Intermediate Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Song, I.; Rhee, J. H.; Bessell, M. S.; Murphy, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have completed an extensive search for stars hosting terrestrial planet zone dust by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and IRAS catalogs. Near-infrared to far-infrared excess emission has been discovered towards a 10-20 Myr old, A-type member of the Upper-Centaurus-Lupus association. The hot dust component ( 750 K) in combination with the high fractional infrared luminosity (0.4%) suggest a recent catastrophic collision between rocky bodies in this intermediate mass star's inner planetary system. Synthesis of all published incidences of intermediate mass stars with evidence for terrestrial planet zone dust suggests that catastrophic collisions analogous to the Moon-forming event in our Solar System occur around intermediate mass stars when the star is 10-30 Myr old. Funding for this research came from NASA grants and an LLNL-Minigrant to UCLA and from the Spitzer Visiting Graduate Student Program.

  10. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime.

    PubMed

    Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-17

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies for high resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.

  11. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    SciTech Connect

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies for high resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.

  12. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE PAGES

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; ...

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formore » high resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.« less

  13. Origin of mineralogical zoning in an intermediate subvolcanic pluton by crystal settling and conductive cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Rainy Lake Intrusive Complex is one of nine sheet-like intermediate plutons that are compositionally, temporally, and spatially linked to andesitic stratovolcanoes in the western Great Bear Magmatic Zone, an early Proterozoic continental magmatic arc. The pluton, exposed in oblique cross section, has a flat roof and is 1.5 km thick by 12 km long. The observed distribution of plagioclase phenocrysts in the body closely resembles the sinusoidal olivine distribution patterns found in lava lakes and some mafic sills. The shape of the curve indicates that the volume fraction plagioclase phenocrysts in the pluton at the time of intrusion ranged for 10% near the roof to 50% near the base. Calculations indicate that the plagioclase phenocrysts were denser than the surrounding melt. The effects of different crystal concentrations on the viscosity, and hence settling velocities, were computed as a function of height in the pluton; settling velocities ranged, at the time of intrusion, from 160 meters per year near the top to less than 1 meter per year near the base. The observed sinusoidal distribution curve for plagioclase can be explained by the interplay between crystal settling and the solidification of the pluton from the top downwards and the bottom upwards. This suggests that whole body convection did not play a major role in the cooling of the pluton.

  14. Molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Most neurons migrate with an elongated, "bipolar" morphology, extending a long leading process that explores the environment. However, when immature projection neurons enter the intermediate zone (IZ) of the neocortex they become "multipolar". Multipolar cells extend and retract cytoplasmic processes in different directions and move erratically-sideways, up and down. Multipolar cells extend axons while they are in the lower half of the IZ. Remarkably, the cells then resume radial migration: they reorient their centrosome and Golgi apparatus towards the pia, transform back to bipolar morphology, and commence locomotion along radial glia (RG) fibers. This reorientation implies the existence of directional signals in the IZ that are ignored during the multipolar stage but sensed after axonogenesis. In vivo genetic manipulation has implicated a variety of candidate directional signals, cell surface receptors, and signaling pathways, that may be involved in polarizing multipolar cells and stabilizing a pia-directed leading process for radial migration. Other signals are implicated in starting multipolar migration and triggering axon outgrowth. Here we review the molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration, and also discuss how multipolar migration affects the orderly arrangement of neurons in layers and columns in the developing neocortex.

  15. Molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration in the intermediate zone

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Most neurons migrate with an elongated, “bipolar” morphology, extending a long leading process that explores the environment. However, when immature projection neurons enter the intermediate zone (IZ) of the neocortex they become “multipolar”. Multipolar cells extend and retract cytoplasmic processes in different directions and move erratically—sideways, up and down. Multipolar cells extend axons while they are in the lower half of the IZ. Remarkably, the cells then resume radial migration: they reorient their centrosome and Golgi apparatus towards the pia, transform back to bipolar morphology, and commence locomotion along radial glia (RG) fibers. This reorientation implies the existence of directional signals in the IZ that are ignored during the multipolar stage but sensed after axonogenesis. In vivo genetic manipulation has implicated a variety of candidate directional signals, cell surface receptors, and signaling pathways, that may be involved in polarizing multipolar cells and stabilizing a pia-directed leading process for radial migration. Other signals are implicated in starting multipolar migration and triggering axon outgrowth. Here we review the molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration, and also discuss how multipolar migration affects the orderly arrangement of neurons in layers and columns in the developing neocortex. PMID:25452716

  16. Slab stress field in the Hellenic subduction zone as inferred from intermediate depth earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K.; Melis, N. S.; Evangelidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we investigate the stress regime of the subducting slab beneath the Hellenic Arc aiming to answer two fundamental questions; a) How does the slab deformation vary horizontally and vertically along this large curvature arc? b) Which are the mechanisms inferred from global observations that can explain this deformation and have not been identified previously due to dataset limitations. The data are selected from various seismic networks, global and local seismic catalogues and the newly established Hellenic broadband seismic network (http://bbnet.gein.noa.gr/). An updated view of the geometry of the Hellenic Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) is gained by the spatial distribution of intermediate depth earthquakes (40 km≤ depth ≤ 180km). Stress tensor inversion is performed on 100 fault plane solutions of intermediate depth earthquakes after quality control has been applied. The stress field parameters are determined along the arc for several depth ranges. The slab is divided into four subsets, each containing enough focal mechanisms for stress inversion to be performed successfully. The Peloponnese segment shows for depths 50-80 km σ1 almost normal to the slab and σ3 steeper than the slab dip that might indicate suction force-the component of the slab pull force that is unbalanced by the subduction resistance. The Kithira-Western Crete segment shows for depths 50-100 km a biaxial deviatoric compression or a state of confined compression with the σ1 along strike. The stress regime in this section of the slab might be related to its complex shape and geometry (width, curvature) reflecting changes in the slab dip between the Peloponnese-Kithira strait and the Crete region as has also been identified by teleseimic receiver functions. The third segment below Crete shows σ1 along strike and σ3 almost subvertical to slab direction. The stress field for the forth segment below Karpathos and Rhodos has been divided into two depth ranges. The shallow subset (50

  17. The role of ATP signaling in the migration of intermediate neuronal progenitors to the neocortical subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuxin; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Torii, Masaaki; Haydar, Tarik F.; Rakic, Pasko

    2008-01-01

    Most neurons of the cerebral cortex are generated in the germinal zones near the embryonic cerebral ventricle and migrate radially to the overlying cortical plate. Initially, all dividing cells are attached to the surface of the embryonic ventricle (ventricular zone) until a subset of dividing cells (basal or intermediate neuronal progenitors, INPs), recognized by their immunoreactivity to Tbr2, detach from the ventricular surface and migrate a short distance to establish a secondary proliferative compartment (the subventricular zone). The mechanism that regulates migration of the Tbr2+ INPs from the ventricular to the subventricular zones is unknown. Here, we show that INPs, unlike the postmitotic neurons that tend to lose the ATP response, continue to express the purinergic P2Y1 receptor. Furthermore, blocking ATP signaling by the P2Y1 blockers, MRS2176, suramin, and apyrase, reduces Ca2+ transients and retards INP migration to the subventricular zone. In addition, genetic knockdown of the P2Y1 receptor by in vivo application of short hairpin RNA selectively impairs the migration of INPs to the subventricular zone. Together, these results suggest that intercellular ATP signaling is essential for the migration of INPs and the proper formation of the subventricular zone. Interference of ATP signaling or abnormal Ca2+ fluctuations in INPs may play a significant role in variety of genetic or acquired cortical malformations. PMID:18689674

  18. Grain size assisted thermal runaway: a mechanism to generate intermediate-depth earthquakes and ductile shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielmann, Marcel; Rozel, Antoine; Kaus, Boris; Ricard, Yanick

    2017-04-01

    The nucleation processes of intermediate-depth earthquakes as well as ductile shear zones are an enigmatic topic. Here we present fully coupled thermomechanical models which investigate the interplay between grain size evolution and shear heating and the impact of this feedback loop on intermediate-depth earthquake generation and shear zone formation. When grain growth is inhibited, grain size reduction facilitates the occurrence of thermal runaway, as critical stresses needed to initiate thermal runaway are significantly reduced. Grain size reduction significantly weakens the rock prior to thermal runaway and increases rheological contrasts. Once thermal runaway occurs, a pseudotachylite is formed which is embedded in a mylonite matrix. More recently it has also been suggested that dislocation accommodated grain boundary sliding might significantly contribute to the formation of localized ductile shear zones. In the framework of our models, we test this hypothesis and evaluate the importance of different deformation mechanisms on the occurrence of grain size assisted thermal runaway. Results indicate that although dislocation accommodated grain boundary sliding has some impact, peak stresses and thus also thermal runaway are much more affected by low-temperature plasticity. As the parameters of low-temperature plasticity are still highly uncertain, this result highlights the importance of additional research to better constrain the parameters for low-temperature plasticity.

  19. Prolonged sojourn of developing pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus and their settling in the stratum pyramidale

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.A. )

    1990-11-15

    In radiograms of rat embryos that received a single dose of (3H)thymidine between days E16 and E20 and were killed 24 hours after the injection, the heavily labeled cells (those that ceased to multiply soon after the injection) form a horizontal layer in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus, called the inferior band. The fate of these heavily labeled cells was traced in radiograms of the dorsal hippocampus in embryos that received (3H)thymidine on day E18 and were killed at different intervals thereafter. Two hours after injection the labeled proliferative cells are located in the Ammonic neuroepithelium. The heavily labeled cells that leave the neuroepithelium and aggregate in the inferior band 1 day after the injection become progressively displaced toward the stratum pyramidale 2-3 days later, and penetrate the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region on the 4th day. In the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, farther removed from the Ammonic neuroepithelium, the heavily labeled cells are still sojourning in the intermediate zone 4 days after labeling. Observations in methacrylate sections suggest that two morphogenetic features of the developing hippocampus may contribute to the long sojourn of young pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone: the way in which the stratum pyramidale forms and the way in which the alveolar channels develop. The stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region forms before that of the CA3 region, which is the reverse of the neurogenetic gradient in the production of pyramidal cells. We hypothesize that this is so because the pyramidal cells destined to settle in the CA3 region, which will be contacted by granule cells axons (the mossy fibers), have to await the formation of the granular layer on days E21-E22.

  20. Prolonged sojourn of developing pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus and their settling in the stratum pyramidale.

    PubMed

    Altman, J; Bayer, S A

    1990-11-15

    In radiograms of rat embryos that received a single dose of [3H]thymidine between days E16 and E20 and were killed 24 hours after the injection, the heavily labeled cells (those that ceased to multiply soon after the injection) form a horizontal layer in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus, called the inferior band. The fate of these heavily labeled cells was traced in radiograms of the dorsal hippocampus in embryos that received [3H]thymidine on day E18 and were killed at different intervals thereafter. Two hours after injection the labeled proliferative cells are located in the Ammonic neuroepithelium. The heavily labeled cells that leave the neuroepithelium and aggregate in the inferior band 1 day after the injection become progressively displaced toward the stratum pyramidale 2-3 days later, and penetrate the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region on the 4th day. In the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, farther removed from the Ammonic neuroepithelium, the heavily labeled cells are still sojourning in the intermediate zone 4 days after labeling. Observations in methacrylate sections suggest that two morphogenetic features of the developing hippocampus may contribute to the long sojourn of young pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone: the way in which the stratum pyramidale forms and the way in which the alveolar channels develop. The stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region forms before that of the CA3 region, which is the reverse of the neurogenetic gradient in the production of pyramidal cells. We hypothesize that this is so because the pyramidal cells destined to settle in the CA3 region, which will be contacted by granule cells axons (the mossy fibers), have to await the formation of the granular layer on days E21-E22. Concordant with this is the observation that the hippocampal intermediate zone, which contains the sojourning young pyramidal cells, greatly enlarges between days E16 and E20, then suddenly diminishes and disappears by day E22. The other

  1. Periodic Viscous Shear Heating Instability in Fine-Grained Shear Zones: Possible Mechanism for Intermediate Depth Earthquakes and Slow Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.

    2004-12-01

    creep and grain boundary sliding as a function of stress and strain, and undergoes diffusive growth during diffusion creep. For strain rates ca E-13 per second and initial temperatures ca 600 to 850 C, this model produces periodic viscous shear heating events with periods of 100's of years. Strain rates during these events approach 1 per second as temperatures reach 1400 C, so future models will incorporate inertial terms in the stress. Cooling between events returns the shear zone almost to its initial temperature, but ultimately shear zone temperature between events exceeds 850 C resulting in stable viscous creep. Back of the envelope calculations based on model results support the view that viscous deformation in both shear zone and host will be mainly via grain-size sensitive creep, and thus deformation will remain localized in shear zones. Similarly, we infer that inertial terms will remain small. Future models will test and quantify these inferences. The simple model described above provides an attractive explanation for intermediate-depth earthquakes, especially those in subduction zones that occur in a narrow thermal window (e.g., Hacker et al JGR 2003). We think that a "smoother"periodic instability might be produced via the same mechanism in weaker materials, which could provide a viscous mechanism for some slow earthquakes. By AGU, we will construct a second, simple model using quartz rheology to investigate this. Finally, coupling of viscous shear heating instabilities in the shallow mantle with brittle stick-slip deformation in the weaker, overlying crust may influence earthquake frequency.

  2. Dynamic model of intermediate melting zones formation within the permeable lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Konstantin; Perepechko, Yury; Sharapov, Viktor; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Perepechko, Ludmila

    2017-04-01

    The paper discusses a model of mantle-crustal magmatic fluid systems in the collision domains in the southern and eastern margins of the Siberian Platform and as well within the mantle wedges beneath the epicontinental volcanic arcs of the Pacific Ocean. The study of the fluid-magmatic systems evolution is based on the nonstationary nonlinear dynamic model of heat and mass transfer of the multicomponent heterogeneous media, which takes into account the deformation of the rock. The interfacial interaction corresponding to the local parameters of the hydrodynamic flow is described within the model of flow-type multi-vessel reactor based on the minimization of the Gibbs potential. Numerical simulation of the wehrlitization of rocks of the deeper parts of the mantle wedge under the frontal area of the volcanic arcs of the Northwest Pacific Ocean demonstrates the following features of the hydrodynamic and metasomatic processes. A permeable region of the mantle wedge above the magmatic source quickly reaches a quasi-stationary distribution of pressure, which is somewhat less than lithostatic pressure in the rock massif. The variation of the interphase interaction parameters during fluid flow in a permeable zone and an increase in the interfacial viscous friction can lead to a significant change in the temperature distribution in the subsurface of the fluid system. At weak interfacial friction, the increase in temperature by a few degrees is recorded at the bottom flow. This leads to a significant change in the structure of a front metasomatic zoning that results in doubling of the carbonatization region developing in the zone of fluid penetration into the system. At that, the basification zone beyond the second area of carbonatization is more significant. A strong temperature increase appears due to a strong interfacial viscous friction, which leads to a qualitative change in the nature of the zoning evolution in the metasomatic columns which is observed along the fluid

  3. Intermediate-depth Fracturing of Oceanic Lithosphere in Subduction Zones: Memories from Exhumed High-Pressure Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Oncken, Onno; Agard, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Understanding processes acting along the subduction interface is crucial to assess lithospheric scale coupling between tectonic plates and mechanisms causing intermediate-depth seismicity. Despite a wealth of geophysical studies aimed at better characterizing/localizing this seismicity, we still critically lack constrains on processes triggering fracturing in regions (40-100km depths; T > 400°C) where deformation is expected to be achieved by plastic flow. We herein attempt to bridge this gap by providing a review of available evidence from brittle deformation patterns in exhumed High Pressure (HP) ophiolites, together with some new, critical observations. Field examples from various ophiolitic terranes (New-Caledonia, W. Alps, Tian Shan…) indicate that brittle deformation under HP conditions generally implies vein filling and precipitation of HP minerals, probably under very high pore fluid pressure conditions. Coalescence of such vein networks could explain some of the seismic events recorded along the fluid-rich subduction interface region. By contrast, HP pseudotachylites (though reported in only few localities so far) are apparently restricted to somehow deeper slab regions where fluid-deficient conditions are prevalent (Corsica, Zambia, Voltri?). The recent discovery of eclogite breccias, found as m-sized dismembered fragments within an eclogite-facies shear zone from the Monviso area (W. Alps), provides a new opportunity to study the genesis of intermediate-depth earthquakes. We herein argue that these eclogite breccias constitute unique remnants from an ancient fault zone associated with intraslab, intermediate-depth seismicity at ca. 80 km depth. The breccia is internally made of 1-10 cm-sized rotated fragments of eclogite mylonite cemented by an eclogite-facies matrix attesting of fracturing and fault sealing under lawsonite-eclogite facies conditions (550°C, 2.5 GPa) during subduction of the Tethyan seafloor. Textural observations and polyphased

  4. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis

    2015-04-01

    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the

  5. Determination of fault plane orientations from rupture directivity of intermediate and deep earthquakes in the northeastern Japan subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburg, Tim

    Earthquakes occur at intermediate (≥ 70 km) and deep (≥ 300 km) depths within the Earth. Since their discovery, the cause of intermediate and deep-focus earthquakes has remained a fundamental problem in seismology. While several physical mechanisms have been theorized to explain the occurrence of deep earthquakes, the mechanism may be constrained by determining the fault plane orientation. I used rupture directivity of 52 events in the northeastern Japan subduction zone to determine each event's fault plane orientation. With adequate station coverage, in both azimuth and distance, rupture can be identified along a single nodal plane signifying the fault plane. P-wave duration is shortest in the direction of rupture propagation and greatest in the opposite direction. Measuring the differential rupture duration between seismic stations allows for the determination of rupture direction, rupture velocity relative to the background seismic velocity, and the fault plane for each event. Rupture directivity is determined for a total of 20 events. Results indicate that rupture at intermediate and deep focus depths occur along the subhorizontal nodal plane. While fault plane orientation is apparently uniform in the subducting slab, rupture direction appears scattered. These results suggest multiple mechanisms are responsible for the orientation and azimuthal direction of rupture.

  6. Proton beam therapy leads to excellent local control rates in choroidal melanoma in the intermediate fundus zone.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Shideh; Cordini, Dino; Riechardt, Aline I; Seibel, Ira; Willerding, Gregor; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E; Moser, Lutz; Joussen, Antonia M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate long-term outcomes of proton beam radiotherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma of the intermediate zone of the fundus. Retrospective interventional single-center study. The study was a retrospective analysis with long-term follow-up of 62 patients with a minimum tumor-to-disc and tumor-to-fovea distance of 2 mm of choroidal melanoma in the intermediate zone of the fundus. Mean values of tumor prominence, largest basal diameter, and tumor distances to the optic disc and fovea were 7.6, 12.8, 5.2, and 4.6 mm, respectively. All patients were irradiated with a total proton dose of 60 cobalt gray equivalents. After proton beam radiotherapy, 71.0% of the patients received subsequent endoresection of the tumor. Only 18 patients (29.0%) did not require additional tumor resection and were analyzed as a separate group. For the total of patients, the median follow-up time was 70.3 months. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier rates of local tumor relapse, enucleation, and distant metastasis were 3.9%, 3.7%, and 13.4%, respectively. Cataract surgery was the most frequent secondary treatment in our cohort. In this study we demonstrate the effectiveness of proton beam irradiation in tumor control and preservation of the globe in the analyzed patients. The rate of metastasis was not higher than previously described. Nevertheless, consecutive tumor surgery is frequently required to maintain the eye in patients with large-sized choroidal melanomas. In conclusion, proton beam radiotherapy allows preservation of the eye in mid-zone choroidal melanomas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of an intermediate-scale experiment to validate unsaturated- zone transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.D.; Hopkins, P.L.; Glass, R.J.; Ward, D.B.

    1991-12-18

    An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out to evaluate instrumentation and models that might be used for transport-model validation for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The experimental test bed is a 6-m high {times} 3-m diameter caisson filled with quartz sand with a sorbing layer at an intermediate depth. The experiment involves the detection and prediction of the migration of fluid and tracers through an unsaturated porous medium. Pre-test design requires estimation of physical properties of the porous medium such as the relative permeability, saturation/pressure relations, porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity as well as geochemical properties such as surface complexation constants and empircial K{sub d}`S. The pre-test characterization data will be used as input to several computer codes to predict the fluid flow and tracer migration. These include a coupled chemical-reaction/transport model, a stochastic model, and a deterministic model using retardation factors. The calculations will be completed prior to elution of the tracers, providing a basis for validation by comparing the predictions to observed moisture and tracer behavior.

  8. Signature of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Central Molecular Zone of Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Tomoharu; Mizuno, Reiko; Miura, Kodai; Takekawa, Shunya

    2017-01-01

    The high-velocity compact cloud CO-0.40-0.22 was mapped in 22 molecular lines with the NRO 45 m radio telescope and the ASTE 10 m telescope. The map of each detected line shows that this cloud has a compact appearance (d~=3 pc) and extremely broad velocity width (Δ V~=100 km s-1). The representative position-velocity map along the major axis shows that CO-0.40-0.22 consists of an intense region with a shallow velocity gradient and a less intense high-velocity wing. This kinematical structure can be attributed to a gravitational kick to the molecular cloud caused by an invisible compact object with a mass of ~105 M ⊙. Its compactness and the absence of a counterpart at other wavelengths suggest that this massive object is an intermediate-mass black hole.

  9. A dearth of intermediate melts at subduction zone volcanoes and the petrogenesis of arc andesites.

    PubMed

    Reubi, Olivier; Blundy, Jon

    2009-10-29

    Andesites represent a large proportion of the magmas erupted at continental arc volcanoes and are regarded as a major component in the formation of continental crust. Andesite petrogenesis is therefore fundamental in terms of both volcanic hazard and differentiation of the Earth. Andesites typically contain a significant proportion of crystals showing disequilibrium petrographic characteristics indicative of mixing or mingling between silicic and mafic magmas, which fuels a long-standing debate regarding the significance of these processes in andesite petrogenesis and ultimately questions the abundance of true liquids with andesitic composition. Central to this debate is the distinction between liquids (or melts) and magmas, mixtures of liquids with crystals, which may or may not be co-genetic. With this distinction comes the realization that bulk-rock chemical analyses of petrologically complex andesites can lead to a blurred picture of the fundamental processes behind arc magmatism. Here we present an alternative view of andesite petrogenesis, based on a review of quenched glassy melt inclusions trapped in phenocrysts, whole-rock chemistry, and high-pressure and high-temperature experiments. We argue that true liquids of intermediate composition (59 to 66 wt% SiO(2)) are far less common in the sub-volcanic reservoirs of arc volcanoes than is suggested by the abundance of erupted magma within this compositional range. Effective mingling within upper crustal magmatic reservoirs obscures a compositional bimodality of melts ascending from the lower crust, and masks the fundamental role of silicic melts (>/=66 wt% SiO(2)) beneath intermediate arc volcanoes. This alternative view resolves several puzzling aspects of arc volcanism and provides important clues to the integration of plutonic and volcanic records.

  10. SIGNATURE OF AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE IN THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE OF OUR GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Tomoharu; Mizuno, Reiko; Miura, Kodai; Takekawa, Shunya

    2016-01-01

    We mapped the high-velocity compact cloud CO–0.40–0.22 in 21 molecular lines in the 3 mm band using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Eighteen lines were detected from CO–0.40–0.22. The map of each detected line shows that this cloud has a compact appearance (d ≃ 3 pc) and extremely broad velocity width (ΔV ≃ 100 km s{sup −1}). The mass and kinetic energy of CO–0.40–0.22 are estimated to be 10{sup 3.6} M{sub ⊙} and 10{sup 49.7} erg, respectively. The representative position–velocity map along the major axis shows that CO–0.40–0.22 consists of an intense region with a shallow velocity gradient and a less intense high-velocity wing. Here, we show that this kinematical structure can be attributed to a gravitational kick to the molecular cloud caused by an invisible compact object with a mass of ∼10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. Its compactness and the absence of counterparts at other wavelengths suggest that this massive object is an intermediate-mass black hole.

  11. Microbial competition for N intermediates drives oscillating N loss from marine oxygen deficient zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, J. L.; Weber, T. S.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Small oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) below the ocean surface play a major role in regulating marine biological productivity, through the removal of bioavailable nitrogen (N). Recent observations have shown diverse microbial communities affecting N metabolic pathways, but the large-scale consequences of this complexity are unknown. Here we investigate the key microbial interactions and their importance for N loss in a circulation and ecosystem model of the largest ODZ, in the North Pacific. The microbial model replicates observed chemical distributions, but exhibits fundamentally distinct behavior from traditional models based on chemistry alone. The ecosystem undergoes local oscillations that create large variability in the regional rate of N loss, even in a steady circulation. These N loss fluctuations occur at the boundary between oxic and anoxic waters, where miniscule fluctuations in scarce resources are driven by competitive dynamics and dramatically shift the balance between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The coexistence of these populations and their competing geochemical effects reduces overall rates of N loss while expanding the scale of anoxic waters. Intrinsic ecosystem oscillations also cause dramatic swings in the ratio of heterotrophic to autotrophic N loss pathways, possibly underlying the wide variations observed in nature.

  12. Latitudinal variations in intermediate depth ventilation and biological production over northeastern Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zones during the last 60 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Edouard

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms affecting past variability in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) are poorly known. We analyzed core MD02-2524, obtained from the Nicaragua Margin in the present ETNP OMZ for major and minor elements (titanium (Ti), brome (Br), silicon (Si), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)) using an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner, and redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni)) determined by ICP-MS. The U and Mo content was higher during the deglaciation than during the Holocene and the last glacial maximum, whereas enrichment was not observed for Ni, an element closely associated with organic matter. High-resolution XRF scanning indicated that the Ca-based carbonate content had millennial-scale variability inversely correlated with Br-based organic matter and Si/K-based opal content during the last glacial period. The available data suggest no clear regional trend in biological productivity during the last deglaciation, but significant local variability in the coastal eastern equatorial Pacific. The trace element enrichment and the lack of a concomitant increase in biogenic phases indicated that an enhanced ETNP OMZ, at least between 15°N and 12°N at a water depth of 500-900 m, was principally caused by a reduced oxygen supply driven by oceanic circulation to the Nicaragua Basin during the deglaciation. The observed patterns can be interpreted as the distinct changes in the oxygenation state of northern and southern water masses at intermediate depths. We also found evidence for a decoupling between local productivity and pore water oxygenation for several millennial-scale events during Marine Isotopic Stage 3, indicating that remote oxygen consumption and/or oceanic ventilation impacted OMZ intensity. Multi-millennial scale variations of the productivity at Papagayo upwelling cell displayed an opposite trend from productivity at the Costa Rica Dome, in relation with the latitudinal shift

  13. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on residual nitrate in the crop root zone and nitrate accumulation in the intermediate vadose zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katupitiya, A.; Eisenhauer, D.E.; Ferguson, R.B.; Spalding, R.F.; Roeth, F.W.; Bobier, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tillage influences the physical and biological environment of soil. Rotation of crops with a legume affects the soil N status. A furrow irrigated site was investigated for long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on leaching of nitrate from the root zone and accumulation in the intermediate vadose zone (IVZ). The investigated tillage systems were disk-plant (DP), ridge-till (RT) and slot-plant (SP). These tillage treatments have been maintained on the Hastings silt loam (Udic Argiustoll) and Crete silt loam (Pachic Argiustoll) soils since 1976. Continuous corn (CC) and corn soybean (CS) rotations were the subtreatments. Since 1984, soybeans have been grown in CS plots in even calendar years. All tillage treatments received the same N rate. The N rate varied annually depending on the root zone residual N. Soybeans were not fertilized with N-fertilizer. Samples for residual nitrate in the root zone were taken in 8 of the 15 year study while the IVZ was only sampled at the end of the study. In seven of eight years, root zone residual soil nitrate-N levels were greater with DP than RT and SP. Residual nitrate-N amounts were similar in RT and SP in all years. Despite high residual nitrate-N with DP and the same N application rate, crop yields were higher in RT and SP except when DP had an extremely high root zone nitrate level. By applying the same N rates on all tillage treatments, DP may have been fertilized in excess of crop need. Higher residual nitrate-N in DP was most likely due to a combination of increased mineralization with tillage and lower yield compared to RT and SP. Because of higher nitrate availability with DP, the potential for nitrate leaching from the root zone was greater with DP as compared to the RT and SP tillage systems. Spring residual nitrate-N contents of DP were larger than RT and SP in both crop rotations. Ridge till and SP systems had greater nitrate-N with CS than CC rotations. Nitrate accumulation in IVZ at the upstream end of the

  14. Spatially Directed Proteomics of the Human Lens Outer Cortex Reveals an Intermediate Filament Switch Associated With the Remodeling Zone

    PubMed Central

    Wenke, Jamie L.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Schey, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantify protein changes in the morphologically distinct remodeling zone (RZ) and adjacent regions of the human lens outer cortex using spatially directed quantitative proteomics. Methods Lightly fixed human lens sections were deparaffinized and membranes labeled with fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-TRITC). Morphology directed laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate tissue from four distinct regions of human lens outer cortex: differentiating zone (DF), RZ, transition zone (TZ), and inner cortex (IC). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of the plasma membrane fraction from three lenses (21-, 22-, and 27-year) revealed changes in major cytoskeletal proteins including vimentin, filensin, and phakinin. Peptides from proteins of interest were quantified using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry and isotopically-labeled internal peptide standards. Results Results revealed an intermediate filament switch from vimentin to beaded filament proteins filensin and phakinin that occurred at the RZ. Several other cytoskeletal proteins showed significant changes between regions, while most crystallins remained unchanged. Targeted proteomics provided accurate, absolute quantification of these proteins and confirmed vimentin, periplakin, and periaxin decrease from the DF to the IC, while filensin, phakinin, and brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1) increase significantly at the RZ. Conclusions Mass spectrometry-compatible fixation and morphology directed laser capture enabled proteomic analysis of narrow regions in the human lens outer cortex. Results reveal dramatic cytoskeletal protein changes associated with the RZ, suggesting that one role of these proteins is in membrane deformation and/or the establishment of ball and socket joints in the human RZ. PMID:27537260

  15. Center-cut separation of intermediately adsorbing target component by 8-zone simulated moving bed chromatography with internal recycle.

    PubMed

    Kiwala, Dawid; Mendrella, Jadwiga; Antos, Dorota; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    An 8-zone simulated moving bed chromatography with internal recycle (8ZSMB-IR) has been designed for center-cut separation, that is, for isolating an intermediately adsorbed component out of a multicomponent mixture. The system consists of two integrated subunits and operates in a fully continuous manner. In the first subunit the feed mixture is split into two fractions containing either a single component or a binary mixture. The binary mixture is recycled through the internal raffinate or extract port into the second subunit, where the target product is isolated. Additionally, the solvent is also recycled internally. For a case study, the separation of a ternary mixture of cycloketones as a model system under weakly non-linear isotherm conditions has been investigated. A few novel configurations of the 8ZSMB-IR unit including the arrangement of the internal recycle of extract, raffinate and solvent streams between two subunits have been examined with respect to various performance indicators for the process realization. The unit performed best with the developed configuration when the internal raffinate stream was recycled and the solvent recycling loop was closed between the last and the first zone of the first subunit. That configuration has further been analyzed experimentally and numerically. On the basis of the results a strategy for determining reliable operating conditions for the 8ZSMB-IR process has been developed. The procedure exploited a model of the process dynamics, which was implemented to refine the isotherm coefficients and to quantify the mixing effect of the liquid stream inside the recycling loops. The upgraded model with the adjusted parameters has been validated based on experimental data and successfully applied for optimizing the operating conditions of the separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fault plane orientations of intermediate-depth and deep-focus earthquakes in the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Linda M.; Baluyut, Elena C.; Osburg, Timothy; Lisac, Kristen; Kokkinen, Siiri

    2015-12-01

    In the northwestern Pacific, the Pacific plate subducts to the west at the Japan, Kuril, and Kamchatka trenches. Throughout most of the subduction zone, the subducting slab is planar and dipping at an angle of 30°-60°, with the exception of a fold in the southern Kuril segment. To investigate how the slab deforms in response to the applied forces and which mechanism generates the earthquakes, we analyze the rupture properties of 111 large (MW≥5.7) intermediate-depth and deep-focus earthquakes (60-656 km depth) from 1990 to 2014 in the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone. For each earthquake, we use rupture directivity to estimate rupture direction and rupture speed and to distinguish the fault plane from the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. Seventy six percent of the earthquakes with sufficient station coverage are well modeled by unilateral rupture propagation. The estimated rupture speeds range from zero to supershear. The estimated rupture directions allow identification of the fault plane as the more horizontal nodal plane for 30 earthquakes, while an additional 11 earthquakes rupture toward the intersection of the nodal planes, so the fault plane cannot be identified. Combining our newly identified fault planes with previously identified fault planes in the region, we observe that in planar slab segments, most earthquakes slip along a dominant fault orientation. For a steeply dipping slab, this orientation is subhorizontal. In more sharply bent slab segments, such as the Kuril fold, deformation is accommodated along more variable fault orientations, including subvertical faults. The correlation of slab geometry with fault orientation suggests that the local stress field controls fault orientations.

  17. Response of the South Pacific Convergence Zone to imposed circulation and moisture perturbations in an intermediate level complexity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niznik, M. J.; Lintner, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has identified a connection between the strength of low-level trade wind inflow from the relatively dry southeastern Pacific basin and the position of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). This circulation-precipitation relationship has been noted in composite analysis applied to reanalysis data as well as to output from current generation climate models, although the causality is ambiguous. Additionally, given that prior studies exhibit deep vertical structures associated with changes to low-level inflow east of the SPCZ, the relationship between low-level inflow variability and the propagation of upper level mid-latitude synoptic disturbances into the SPCZ remains unclear. Thus, forcing models with prescribed circulation and moisture anomalies may be instructive for untangling the dynamic and thermodynamic contributions to such interactions, as well as their potential causality. To that end, we use the Quasi-equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model 2 (QTCM2), an intermediate complexity model with a separate boundary layer of fixed height imposed at the base of the free troposphere, to explore the response of the SPCZ, and more broadly convection across the South Pacific, to perturbed low- and upper-level circulation and moisture fields east of its climatological position. Preliminary results suggest a strong precipitation response to strengthened low-level trade wind inflow, hypothesized to be the result of increased convergence in the climatological SPCZ, with an associated decrease in Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) precipitation. Conversely, there is a limited precipitation response to weakened low-level trade wind inflow despite a notable (2-3 g kg-1) increase in specific humidity, suggesting the climatological low-level inflow is already associated with the necessary moisture threshold for deep convection. Ultimately, these results suggest dynamics play a stronger role than thermodynamics in the interaction as modeled by QTCM2.

  18. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate.

  19. Excitatory and inhibitory intermediate zone interneurons in pathways from feline group I and II afferents: differences in axonal projections and input.

    PubMed

    Bannatyne, B A; Liu, T T; Hammar, I; Stecina, K; Jankowska, E; Maxwell, D J

    2009-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare properties of excitatory and inhibitory spinal intermediate zone interneurons in pathways from group I and II muscle afferents in the cat. Interneurons were labelled intracellularly and their transmitter phenotypes were defined by using immunocytochemistry. In total 14 glutamatergic, 22 glycinergic and 2 GABAergic/glycinergic interneurons were retrieved. All interneurons were located in laminae V-VII of the L3-L7 segments. No consistent differences were found in the location, the soma sizes or the extent of the dendritic trees of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. However, major differences were found in their axonal projections; excitatory interneurons projected either ipsilaterally, bilaterally or contralaterally, while inhibitory interneurons projected exclusively ipsilaterally. Terminal projections of glycinergic and glutamatergic cells were found within motor nuclei as well as other regions of the grey matter which include the intermediate region, laminae VII and VIII. Cells containing GABA/glycine had more restricted projections, principally within the intermediate zone where they formed appositions with glutamatergic axon terminals and unidentified cells and therefore are likely to be involved in presynaptic as well as postsynaptic inhibition. The majority of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons were found to be coexcited by group I and II afferents (monosynaptically) and by reticulospinal neurons (mono- or disynaptically) and to integrate information from several muscles. Taken together the morphological and electrophysiological data show that individual excitatory and inhibitory intermediate zone interneurons may operate in a highly differentiated way and thereby contribute to a variety of motor synergies.

  20. Smad6 promotes neuronal differentiation in the intermediate zone of the dorsal neural tube by inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihui; Chen, Yongfeng; Li, Zhenfei; Bai, Ge; Zhu, Yue; Yan, Rui; Tan, Fangzhi; Chen, Ye-Guang; Guillemot, Francois; Li, Lin; Jing, Naihe

    2011-07-19

    Proliferation of the neural/neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) at the ventricular zone of the dorsal spinal cord requires the stimuli of Wnt and bone morphogenic protein (BMP). However, how these two signaling pathways are regulated to initiate differentiation in the NPCs as they enter the intermediate zone is not known. Here, we show that Smad6, a negative regulator of BMP signaling, is expressed in the intermediate zone of the chick dorsal spinal cord. Knockdown experiments show that Smad6 is required for promoting NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate into neurons. Although we find that Smad6 inhibits BMP signaling, as expected, we also find that Smad6 unexpectedly inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Smad6 is independent of its effect on the BMP pathway. Rather, Smad6 through its N-terminal domain and link region enhances the interaction of C-terminal binding protein with the β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) complex and the TCF-binding element to inhibit β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. Our study provides evidence that transition of NPCs from a proliferative state to a differentiating state is controlled by the dual inhibitory role of Smad6 to both BMP and Wnt signaling at the level of transcription.

  1. Use of an Intermediate-Scale Tank to Study Strategies for Modified NZVI Emplacement for Effective Treatment of DNAPL Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Mittal, M.; Phenrat, T.; Fagerlund, F.; Kim, H.; Cihan, A.; Lowry, G. V.

    2009-12-01

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) sources act as long term sources of ground water contamination. Emplacing modified nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI) particles in the source zone and area immediately downstream of the source zone may serve the dual purpose of reducing the mass transfer from entrapped DNAPL and reductive dechlorination of the dissolved mass, thus reducing the total mass loading to the plume. Placement of NZVI is expected to alter porosity resulting in flow bypassing which may reduce treatment efficiency. The magnitude of this reduction will depend on the NZVI mass emplacement and its distribution. Another issue of concern is whether DNAPL mass rebounds if the emplaced NZVI is oxidized. In an ongoing study, the basic processes of NZVI reactivity and mass flux reduction were investigated in small cells, columns and tanks. To understand these processes and upscale them to larger systems, a series of experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional intermediate scale tank. This paper presents the results from one of these experiments that focused on evaluating the effects of emplacing the modified NZVI particles in the source zone with the DNAPL and to intercept the dissolved plume immediately down gradient of the source with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the net mass flux loading to the plume. A 5 cm x 5 cm PCE source zone in a coarse sand lens embedded in a finer sand matrix was created in an intermediate scale tank 2.4 m x 1.2 m x 0.55 m. The mass flux generation from source zone and the plume configuration were monitored using aqueous samples extracted at 4 vertical arrays containing 9 ports in each. Polymer coated NZVI particles were injected 7.5 cm downstream of the source zone creating a reactive zone of 14 cm x 14 cm x 5.5 cm such that the particles blanketed the PCE source zone. Dissolved PCE concentrations were monitored after NZVI injection using the same vertical sampling array. Dechlorination byproducts were monitored to

  2. Tearing of the mantle lithosphere along the intermediate-depth seismicity zone beneath the Gibraltar Arc: The onset of lithospheric delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heit, Benjamin; Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Yuan, Xiaohui; Morales, Jose; Stich, Daniel; Martín, Rosa; Molina-Aguilera, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The intermediate-depth seismicity (IDS) beneath the Gibraltar Arc is enigmatic. So far, there is no general consensus on its relationship with the ongoing tectonic processes. We analyzed S wave receiver functions (SRFs) with data recorded by a dense N-S seismic profile deployed across the Sierra Nevada in southern Spain. SRF piercing points at depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) sample an area of the IDS zone, providing an ideal opportunity to study the lithospheric structure at the IDS zone. We observe an abrupt change in the LAB depth along a profile from north to south across the northern branch of the IDS. The LAB depth changes from 90 to 100 km north of the IDS to 130 km south of it. We propose that the IDS marks a tear in the Iberian mantle lithosphere along its entire length, implying an ongoing lithospheric delamination process that produces the seismicity at its onset.

  3. Earthquake mechanics and deformation in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone from fault plane orientations of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Linda M.; Hughes, Amanda N.; Silver, Paul G.

    2007-05-01

    We make use of rupture directivity to analyze 82 deep earthquakes (≥100 km depth) in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone. Identifying the fault planes for 25 of them, we are able to place new constraints on both the physical mechanism of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes and deformation within the subducting slab. We find that half of deep earthquakes with MW ≥ 6 have detectable directivity. We compare the obtained fault orientations with those expected for the reactivation of outer-rise normal faults and with those expected for the creation of new faults in response to the ambient stress field. Earthquakes >300 km depth match the patterns expected for the creation of a new system of faults: we observe both subhorizontal and subvertical fault planes consistent with a downdip-compressional stress field. Slip along these faults causes the slab to thicken. Rupture propagation shows no systematic directional pattern. In contrast, at intermediate depths (100-300 km), all ruptures propagate subhorizontally and all identified fault planes, whether in the upper or lower region of the double seismic zone, are subhorizontal. Rupture propagation tends to be directed away from the top surface of the slab. After accounting for the angle of subduction, the subhorizontal fault plane orientation is inconsistent with the orientation of outer-rise normal faults, allowing us to rule out mechanisms that require the reactivation of these large surface faults. Subhorizontal faults are consistent with only one of the two failure planes expected from the slab stress field, suggesting that isobaric rupture processes or preexisting slab structures may also influence the fault plane orientation. If all deformation takes place on these subhorizontal faults, it would cause the slab to thin. Assuming the slab is incompressible, this implies that the slab is also lengthening and suggests that slab pull rather than unbending is the primary force controlling slab seismicity at

  4. Enhanced-Solubilization of a Multi-Component Immiscible Liquid Source Zone within an Intermediate-scale Flow Cell System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvell, J. R.; Tick, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Complex multi-component immiscible liquid mixtures can significantly limit the effectiveness of groundwater remediation. The use of enhanced-flushing technologies has emerged as a promising technique for the remediation of sites contaminated with immiscible liquids. A series of two dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of two different flushing agents on the removal of a uniformly distributed multi-component immiscible liquid source zone. A 39.5 x 20.2 cm flow-cell was packed with 20/30-mesh sand and emplaced with a 15 x 3 cm rectangular source zone within the center of the flow cell. The source zone was established with a 10% NAPL saturation (Sn) consisting of equal 1:1:1 mole mixture of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE). The solubilization agents investigated included 5 wt% solution of a complexing sugar, hydroxypropyl-$betacyclodextrin (HPCD), and a 5 wt% solution of a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results of these experiments indicate that the addition of a chemical flushing agent greatly reduces the time needed to remove each component compared to flushing with water alone (i.e. pump and treat). Elution curve (concentration-time) analysis from both total extraction and at the down-gradient end of the source zone showed that SDS removed all three components from the source zone approximately 10 times faster than HPCD. For the extraction port SDS showed slightly more ideal removal in terms of mass flux behavior, removing more mass initially before a significant reduction in mass flux was observed. Although SDS was superior when evaluated on a recovery basis, HPCD outperformed SDS for all components when compared based on contaminant-mass to reagent-mass and moles of contaminant to moles of reagent removed for the source zone port. These findings suggest that the selection of a particular flushing agent should be evaluated carefully prior to remediation as

  5. Transcript levels of the intermediate size or grey zone fragile X mental retardation 1 alleles are raised, and correlate with the number of CGG repeats

    PubMed Central

    Loesch, Danuta Z; Bui, Quang M; Huggins, Richard M; Mitchell, Robert J; Hagerman, Randi J; Tassone, Flora

    2007-01-01

    Background Grey zone or intermediate alleles are one of the three recognised classes of the X‐linked fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene showing intergenerational instability. These classes are defined according to the number of CGG repeats in the FMR1 5′‐untranslated region. Although large CGG expansions (>200 repeats) cause a neurodevelopmental anomaly through silencing of the gene, resulting in a deficit of FMR1 specific protein, smaller expansions (approximately 55–200 repeats) are associated with an increased transcription and late‐onset specific phenotypes. Those alleles with a CGG repeat number ranging between approximately 41 and 55 are relatively poorly defined with regard to both transcriptional and translational activity, and also potential phenotypic effects. Methods and results Based on a sample of 33 males carrying FMR1 alleles within the grey zone range, defined here as 41–60 CGGs, we show an increased transcriptional activity relative to that seen in common alleles (5–40 CGGS). This is the first study to report a significant relationship between FMR1 mRNA levels and CGG repeat number within the grey zone range (p<0.001). From a piecewise linear regression model, the threshold for onset of the increase in mRNA levels as a function of CGG repeat size has been determined at approximately 39 repeats (standard error (SE) 3.24), and that for the reduction in the rate of this increase at approximately 54 repeats (SE 4.27). Conclusions The ambiguities associated with the definition and transcription dynamics of the FMR1 gene within the grey zone range are dealt with. There may be specific phenotypes associated with the toxic “gain‐of‐function” effect of raised mRNA. PMID:16905681

  6. Specific suites of earthquakes occurring at shallow and intermediate depths - a signature of major lithospheric deformation episodes in Vrancea seismic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitea, F.; Mitrofan, H.; Marin, C.; Anghelache, M. A.; Tudorache, A.

    2009-04-01

    At the southeast Carpathians bend, in Vrancea seismic zone, strong and very strong earthquakes (Mw ≥ 6) frequently occur at intermediate (subcrustal) depths (70-160 km), in a highly confined (30 x 60 km) epicentral area. Investigations addressing regularities in those earthquakes recurrence periods have so far been concerned just with the actual subcrustal seismogenic volume: possibly existing relationships with the shallower (h < 60 km) and less strong (Mw < 5) crustal earthquakes which were recorded in an adjacent, broader area, have not been considered. A Na-K-Mg geothermometer anomaly, which we managed to monitor for more than 1 ½ year prior to the occurrence of a strong intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquake, provided a first suggestion that such a major shock could be somehow related also to smaller magnitude crustal events. The present search for coherence patterns has taken into account main seismic events recorded since 1975 till now in three distinct domains: (i) in the very domain of intermediate-depth seismicity (all the events with Mw ≥ 6.0); (ii) in a previously outlined crustal lineament of seismic sensitivity, extending between the cities Marasesti and Galati (all the events with Mw ≥ 3.3); (iii) in another previously outlined crustal lineament of seismic sensitivity, designated as "Vrancioaia region" (events with Mw ≥ 2.6). The two indicated lineaments of crustal seismicity converge, to delineate an obtuse angle which closely bounds the narrow epicentral domain of the subcrustal earthquakes. Over the indicated time-period, the considered seismic events series developed as a succession of 4 distinct "episodes", each episode displaying a highly similar evolution pattern: it started with one of the main crustal events (2.6≤Mw≤4.5) recorded in Vrancioaia region; there followed, 9-23 months afterwards, one or two strong (6.0≤Mw≤7.4), intermediate-depth earthquakes; finally, 5-42 months after the intermediate-depth earthquakes, there was

  7. Intrinsic Membrane Properties of Pre-oromotor Neurons in the Intermediate Zone of the Medullary Reticular Formation

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Sharmila; Boulant, Jack A.; Chen, Zhixiong; Travers, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in the lower brainstem that control consummatory behavior are widely distributed in the reticular formation (RF) of the pons and medulla. The intrinsic membrane properties of neurons within this distributed system shape complex excitatory and inhibitory inputs from both orosensory and central structures implicated in homeostatic control to produce coordinated oromotor patterns. The current study explored the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons in the intermediate subdivision of the medullary reticular formation (IRt). Neurons in the IRt receive input from the overlying (gustatory) nucleus of the solitary tract and project to the oromotor nuclei. Recent behavioral pharmacology studies as well as computational modeling suggest that inhibition in the IRt plays an important role in the transition from a taste-initiated oromotor pattern of ingestion to one of rejection. The present study explored the impact of hyperpolarization on membrane properties. In response to depolarization, neurons responded with either a tonic discharge, an irregular/burst pattern or were spike-adaptive. A hyperpolarizing pre-pulse modulated the excitability of most (82%) IRt neurons to subsequent depolarization. Instances of both increased (30%) and decreased (52%) excitability were observed. Currents induced by the hyperpolarization included an outward 4-AP sensitive K+ current that suppressed excitability and an inward cation current that increased excitability. These currents are also present in other subpopulations of RF neurons that influence the oromotor nuclei and we discuss how these currents could alter ring characteristics to impact pattern generation. PMID:20338224

  8. Influence of a micro-thread at cervical position and a cylindrical intermediate zone on the mechanical behaviour of dental implants: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Garitaonaindia, Ugutz; Alcaraz, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the influence on the biomechanical behaviour of dental implants of a micro-thread at their cervical part as well as of a cylindrical geometry at an intermediate zone. Stresses and strains in the elements involved, that is, bone, implant, screw and abutment, have to be considered in detail. Three different three-dimensional finite element models are generated to analyse the behaviour of the various components under the so-called tightening and operating conditions. For the modelling, material specifications for the cancellous bone and cortical bone, on one hand, and titanium properties for the implant, screw and abutment, on the other, are implemented. The tightening condition was fixed according to the stresses in the screw. The operating conditions were simulated by applying a force of 150 N, taking into account ISO 14801:2007 standard. The maximum stress under tightening conditions occurs always in the screw, while under operating conditions it is produced at the screw or the abutment, although considerable stress values are also present in the implant. In all the models, the maximum stress at the junction between the implant and the bone occurs within the cortical bone. Implants provided with micro-thread at the cervical position are advantageous over homogeneously threaded implants since lower stresses in both the implant and the adjacent bone are produced. A cylindrical intermediate portion on the implant surface does not present special advantage over the implants with continuous external thread under tightening and operating conditions.

  9. ApoER2 Controls Not Only Neuronal Migration in the Intermediate Zone But Also Termination of Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yuki; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Fujino, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Tokuo T; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2016-11-30

    Neuronal migration contributes to the establishment of mammalian brain. The extracellular protein Reelin sends signals to various downstream molecules by binding to its receptors, the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor and exerts essential roles in the neuronal migration and formation of the layered neocortex. However, the cellular and molecular functions of Reelin signaling in the cortical development are not yet fully understood. Here, to gain insight into the role of Reelin signaling during cortical development, we examined the migratory behavior of Apoer2-deficient neurons in the developing brain. Stage-specific labeling of newborn neurons revealed that the neurons ectopically invaded the marginal zone (MZ) and that neuronal migration of both early- and late-born neurons was disrupted in the intermediate zone (IZ) in the Apoer2 KO mice. Rescue experiments showed that ApoER2 functions both in cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous manners, that Rap1, integrin, and Akt are involved in the termination of migration beneath the MZ, and that Akt also controls neuronal migration in the IZ downstream of ApoER2. These data indicate that ApoER2 controls multiple processes in neuronal migration, including the early stage of radial migration and termination of migration beneath the MZ in the developing neocortex.

  10. H ingestion into He-burning convection zones in super-AGB stellar models as a potential site for intermediate neutron-density nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Sam; Ritter, Christian; Herwig, Falk; Fryer, Christopher Lee; Pignatari, Marco; Bertolli, Michael G.; Paxton, Bill

    2015-12-03

    We investigate the evolution of super-AGB (SAGB) thermal pulse (TP) stars for a range of metallicities (Z) and explore the effect of convective boundary mixing (CBM). With decreasing metallicity and evolution along the TP phase, the He-shell flash and the third dredge-up (TDU) occur closer together in time. After some time (depending upon the CBM parametrization), efficient TDU begins while the pulse-driven convection zone (PDCZ) is still present, causing a convective exchange of material between the PDCZ and the convective envelope. This results in the ingestion of protons into the convective He-burning pulse. Even small amounts of CBM encourage the interaction of the convection zones leading to transport of protons from the convective envelope into the He layer. H-burning luminosities exceed 109 (in some cases 1010) L⊙. We also calculate models of dredge-out in the most massive SAGB stars and show that the dredge-out phenomenon is another likely site of convective-reactive H-12C combustion. We discuss the substantial uncertainties of stellar evolution models under these conditions. Nevertheless, the simulations suggest that in the convective-reactive H-combustion regime of H ingestion the star may encounter conditions for the intermediate neutron capture process (i-process). We speculate that some CEMP-s/r stars could originate in i-process conditions in the H ingestion phases of low-Z SAGB stars. This scenario would however suggest a very low electron-capture supernova rate from SAGB stars. Here, we also simulate potential outbursts triggered by such H ingestion events, present their light curves and briefly discuss their transient properties.

  11. H ingestion into He-burning convection zones in super-AGB stellar models as a potential site for intermediate neutron-density nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Sam; Ritter, Christian; Herwig, Falk; ...

    2015-12-03

    We investigate the evolution of super-AGB (SAGB) thermal pulse (TP) stars for a range of metallicities (Z) and explore the effect of convective boundary mixing (CBM). With decreasing metallicity and evolution along the TP phase, the He-shell flash and the third dredge-up (TDU) occur closer together in time. After some time (depending upon the CBM parametrization), efficient TDU begins while the pulse-driven convection zone (PDCZ) is still present, causing a convective exchange of material between the PDCZ and the convective envelope. This results in the ingestion of protons into the convective He-burning pulse. Even small amounts of CBM encourage themore » interaction of the convection zones leading to transport of protons from the convective envelope into the He layer. H-burning luminosities exceed 109 (in some cases 1010) L⊙. We also calculate models of dredge-out in the most massive SAGB stars and show that the dredge-out phenomenon is another likely site of convective-reactive H-12C combustion. We discuss the substantial uncertainties of stellar evolution models under these conditions. Nevertheless, the simulations suggest that in the convective-reactive H-combustion regime of H ingestion the star may encounter conditions for the intermediate neutron capture process (i-process). We speculate that some CEMP-s/r stars could originate in i-process conditions in the H ingestion phases of low-Z SAGB stars. This scenario would however suggest a very low electron-capture supernova rate from SAGB stars. Here, we also simulate potential outbursts triggered by such H ingestion events, present their light curves and briefly discuss their transient properties.« less

  12. H ingestion into He-burning convection zones in super-AGB stellar models as a potential site for intermediate neutron-density nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Ritter, C.; Herwig, F.; Fryer, C.; Pignatari, M.; Bertolli, M. G.; Paxton, B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of super-AGB (SAGB) thermal pulse (TP) stars for a range of metallicities (Z) and explore the effect of convective boundary mixing (CBM). With decreasing metallicity and evolution along the TP phase, the He-shell flash and the third dredge-up (TDU) occur closer together in time. After some time (depending upon the CBM parametrization), efficient TDU begins while the pulse-driven convection zone (PDCZ) is still present, causing a convective exchange of material between the PDCZ and the convective envelope. This results in the ingestion of protons into the convective He-burning pulse. Even small amounts of CBM encourage the interaction of the convection zones leading to transport of protons from the convective envelope into the He layer. H-burning luminosities exceed 109 (in some cases 1010) L⊙. We also calculate models of dredge-out in the most massive SAGB stars and show that the dredge-out phenomenon is another likely site of convective-reactive H-12C combustion. We discuss the substantial uncertainties of stellar evolution models under these conditions. Nevertheless, the simulations suggest that in the convective-reactive H-combustion regime of H ingestion the star may encounter conditions for the intermediate neutron capture process (i-process). We speculate that some CEMP-s/r stars could originate in i-process conditions in the H ingestion phases of low-Z SAGB stars. This scenario would however suggest a very low electron-capture supernova rate from SAGB stars. We also simulate potential outbursts triggered by such H ingestion events, present their light curves and briefly discuss their transient properties.

  13. Frictional properties of clay-rich fault materials along a megasplay fault in the Nankai subduction zone for intermediate to high-velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, A.; Fabbri, O.; Karpoff, A.; Ujiie, K.

    2011-12-01

    Recently reported experimental result on frictional properties of clay-rich materials collected from a major splay fault within the Nankai accretionary complex revealed that velocity dependence of the clay-rich fault rocks and the wall rocks almost always showed velocity strengthening at slow slip rates (0.03-0.1 mm/s) [Ikari et al., 2009, GRL]. This frictional behavior at the slow rates is consistent with the fault stabilizing model by the presence of velocity-strengthening clays. Recently, high-velocity frictional data of the clay-rich fault materials recovered from the splay fault have become also available, which are relevant to coseismic slip at velocities of higher than 1 m/s [Ujiie and Tsutsumi, 2010, GRL]. The high-velocity experiments have revealed that at seismic slip rates frictional strength becomes lower and Dc becomes larger than the rate- and state-dependent friction laws predict. Therefore, frictional constitutive parameters estimated for slow slip rates (<~1 mm/s) may not be applicable for a range of higher seismic slip rates. Here, we present results from a series of frictional experiments over a range of slip velocities from 0.0026 to 260 mm/s, with > 150 mm of displacements on clay-rich fault materials from the major splay fault within the Nankai accretionary complex (a megasplay fault zone) for water saturated condition. All of the samples tested in this study were collected at Site C0004 during the IODP expedition 316. Friction experiments were conducted on the samples using a rotary-shear, intermediate- to high-velocity friction testing machine. Experimental results reveal that there are both velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening fault materials for slip velocities from 0.026 to ~26 mm/s. The velocity weakening behavior could provide a condition to initiate unstable fault motion at shallow depths along the splay fault. On the contrary, velocity strengthening behavior may affect to stabilize the propagation process of earthquake nuclei

  14. Impacts of Stabilized Criegee Intermediates, surface uptake processes and higher aromatic secondary organic aerosol yields on predicted PM2.5 concentrations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Cureño, Iris V.; Chen, Gang; Ali, Sajjad; Zhang, Hongliang; Malloy, Meagan; Bravo, Humberto A.; Sosa, Rodolfo

    2014-09-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) with the SAPRC-99 gas phase photochemical mechanism and the AERO5 aerosol module was applied to model gases and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) and the surrounding regions for March 2006 using the official 2006 emission inventories, along with emissions from biogenic sources, biomass burning, windblown dust, the Tula Industrial Complex and the Popocatépetl volcano. The base case model was capable of reproducing the observed hourly concentrations of O3 and attaining CO, NO2 and NOx performance similar to previous modeling studies. Although the base case model performance of hourly PM2.5 and PM10 meets the model performance criteria, under-prediction of high PM2.5 concentrations in late morning indicates that secondary PM, such as sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), might be under-predicted. Several potential pathways to increase SOA and secondary sulfate were investigated, including Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) from ozonolysis reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons and their reactions with SO2, the reactive uptake processes of SO2, glyoxal and methylglyoxal on particle surface and higher SOA formation due to higher mass yields of aromatic SOA precursors. Averaging over the entire episode, the glyoxal and methylglyoxal reactive uptake and higher aromatics SOA yields contribute to ∼0.9 μg m-3 and ∼1.25 μg m-3 of SOA, respectively. Episode average SOA in the MCMZ reaches ∼3 μg m-3. The SCI pathway increases PM2.5 sulfate by 0.2-0.4 μg m-3 or approximately 10-15%. The relative amount of sulfate increase due to SCI agrees with previous studies in summer eastern US. Surface SO2 uptake significantly increases sulfate concentration in MCMZ by 1-3 μg m-3 or approximately 50-60%. The higher SOA and sulfate leads to improved PM2.5 and PM10 model performance.

  15. Intermediate treatments

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  16. Polyphase ductile/brittle deformation along a major tectonic boundary in an ophiolitic nappe, Alpine Corsica: Insights on subduction zone intermediate-depth asperities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magott, Rémi; Fabbri, Olivier; Fournier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In an ophiolitic nappe of Alpine Corsica, a major fault zone superimposes metagabbro over serpentinite and peridotite. Ductile and brittle deformation structures are observed in the fault damage zones. In the metagabbro damage zone, early deformation culminates in blueschist or eclogite facies conditions and consists of west-verging mylonitization alternating with pseudotachylyte-forming faulting with undetermined vergence. This early deformation is likely coeval with west-verging seismic (pseudotachylyte-forming) reverse faulting in the footwall peridotite or with aseismic distributed cataclastic deformation of footwall serpentinite. These early events (aseismic mylonitization or distributed cataclasis and seismic faulting) are interpreted as reverse faulting/shear in an east-dipping subducting oceanic lithosphere in Cretaceous to Eocene times. Late deformation events consist of ductile shear and seismic faulting having occurred under retrograde greenschist conditions. Kinematics of the ductile shear is top-to-the-east. These events are interpreted as the result of syn-to post-collision extension of Alpine Corsica in Eocene to Miocene times. The heterogeneous distribution of pseudotachylyte veins along the fault zone (abundant at peridotite-metagabbro interfaces, rare or absent at serpentinite-metagabbro interfaces) is interpreted as the consequence of contrasted frictional properties of the rocks in contact. High-friction peridotite-metagabbro contacts could correspond to asperities whereas low-friction serpentinite-metagabbro contacts could correspond to creeping zones.

  17. Subduction zone intermediate-depth seismicity: Insights from the structural analysis of Alpine high-pressure ophiolite-hosted pseudotachylyte (Corsica, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magott, Rémi; Fabbri, Olivier; Fournier, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Pseudotachylyte in the Cima di Gratera ophiolite, Alpine Corsica, is distributed in the peridotite unit and in the overlying metagabbro unit and was formed under blueschist to eclogite metamorphic facies conditions, corresponding to a 60-90 km depth range. Peridotite pseudotachylyte is clustered in fault zones either beneath the tectonic contact with overlying metagabbros or at short distance from it. Fault zones are either parallel to the contact or make an angle of 55° to it. Displacement sense criteria associated with fault veins indicate top-to-the-west or top-to-the-northwest reverse senses. Cataclasite flanking most veins was formed before or coevally with frictional melting and likely mechanically weakened the peridotite, facilitating subsequent seismic rupture. In the basal part of the metagabbro unit, post-mylonitization pseudotachylyte can be distinguished from pre-mylonitization pseudotachylyte formed earlier. In the equant metagabbro above the mylonitic sole, only one episode of pseudotachylyte formation can be identified. Kinematics associated with metagabbro pseudotachylyte remain unknown. The geometry and kinematics of the pseudotachylyte veins from the peridotite unit and to a lesser extent from the metagabbro unit are similar to modern seismic ruptures of the upper parts of the Wadati-Benioff zones such as in the Pacific plate beneath NE Japan.

  18. Volatile (sulphur and chlorine), major, and trace element geochemistry of mafic to intermediate tephras from the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone (33-43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Hoernle, Kaj; Jacques, Guillaume; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Schumann, Kai; Mahlke, Julia; Lara, Luis E.

    2014-10-01

    Here we present the first systematic investigation of volatile geochemistry along the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of Chile. Holocene olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the most mafic tephras sampled from 16 volcanoes along the volcanic front of the SVZ between 33°S and 43°S were analysed for pre-eruptive sulphur, chlorine, and major element contents. These results are combined with trace element compositions of the host whole rocks. The highest fractionation-corrected gas contents occur in the least-degassed melt inclusions from small monogenetic cones of Los Hornitos, Cabeza de Vaca, and Apagado from both the transitional and the southern-central SVZ, reaching ~3,000 μg/g S and 1,400 μg/g Cl, while the lowest abundances of ~1,100 μg/g S and ~600 μg/g Cl were found in the central SVZ at Volcán Lonquimay, Volcán Llaima, and Volcán Villarrica. Chlorine co-varies with trace element indicators for the degree of melting and/or source enrichment, such that the lowest Cl contents are found in high-degree melts from the most depleted mantle sources. The size of the volcanic edifices correlates inversely with Cl abundances in the melt. This could reflect more extensive degassing during ascent through the complex magma plumbing systems beneath the stratovolcanoes or greater dilution during larger degrees of melting of more depleted sources, or a combination of these factors. Compared to other subduction zones, the SVZ melt inclusions exhibit Cl and S abundances in the same range as most of those from the Central American and those from the Marianas arcs.

  19. Gray zone lymphoma with features intermediate between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: characteristics, outcomes, and prognostication among a large multicenter cohort.

    PubMed

    Evens, Andrew M; Kanakry, Jennifer A; Sehn, Laurie H; Kritharis, Athena; Feldman, Tatyana; Kroll, Aimee; Gascoyne, Randy D; Abramson, Jeremy S; Petrich, Adam M; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Al-Mansour, Zeina; Adeimy, Camille; Hemminger, Jessica; Bartlett, Nancy L; Mato, Anthony; Caimi, Paolo F; Advani, Ranjana H; Klein, Andreas K; Nabhan, Chadi; Smith, Sonali M; Fabregas, Jesus C; Lossos, Izidore S; Press, Oliver W; Fenske, Timothy S; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Vose, Julie M; Blum, Kristie A

    2015-09-01

    Gray zone lymphoma (GZL) with features between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a recently recognized entity reported to present primarily with mediastinal disease (MGZL). We examined detailed clinical features, outcomes, and prognostic factors among 112 GZL patients recently treated across 19 North American centers. Forty-three percent of patients presented with MGZL, whereas 57% had non-MGZL (NMGZL). NMGZL patients were older (50 versus 37 years, P = 0.0001); more often had bone marrow involvement (19% versus 0%, P = 0.001); >1 extranodal site (27% versus 8%, P = 0.014); and advanced stage disease (81% versus 13%, P = 0.0001); but they had less bulk (8% versus 44%, P = 0.0001), compared with MGZL patients. Common frontline treatments were cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone +/- rituximab (CHOP+/-R) 46%, doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine +/- rituximab (ABVD+/-R) 30%, and dose-adjusted etoposide-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone-rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) 10%. Overall and complete response rates for all patients were 71% and 59%, respectively; 33% had primary refractory disease. At 31-month median follow-up, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival rates were 40% and 88%, respectively. Interestingly, outcomes in MGZL patients seemed similar compared with that of NMGZL patients. On multivariable analyses, performance status and stage were highly prognostic for survival for all patients. Additionally, patients treated with ABVD+/-R had markedly inferior 2-year PFS (22% versus 52%, P = 0.03) compared with DLBCL-directed therapy (CHOP+/-R and DA-EPOCH-R), which persisted on Cox regression (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.83; P = 0.04). Furthermore, rituximab was associated with improved PFS on multivariable analyses (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.69; P = 0.002). Collectively, GZL is a heterogeneous

  20. Grey zone lymphoma with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a clinicopathological study of 14 Epstein-Barr virus-positive cases.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ahmed A; Satou, Akira; Eladl, Ahmed E; Kato, Seiichi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Asano, Naoko

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological features of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive grey zone lymphoma (GZL) with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). We investigated the clinicopathological features of 14 cases of EBV-positive GZL in Japan. The control group included 173 cases of EBV-positive CHL and 64 cases of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly (polymorphous type). The patients were 10 men and four women with a median age of 62 years. Twelve patients (86%) had advanced clinical stage, 11 (79%) had B-symptoms, eight (57%) had mediastinal disease, 10 (71%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and five (36%) had thrombocytopenia. All cases had CHL-like morphology but strongly expressed at least one B-cell marker. The neoplastic cells were Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg-like cells, but with a large number of mononuclear variants. EBV-positive GZL patients were more significantly more likely than EBV-positive CHL patients to have advanced clinical stage (P = 0.023), presence of B-symptoms (P = 0.011), elevated serum LDH levels (P = 0.047), thrombocytopenia (P = 0.042), and mediastinal involvement (P = 0.023). The progression-free survival (PFS) of EBV-positive GZL patients was significantly poorer than that of EBV-positive CHL patients (P = 0.043) but no difference from EBV-positive DLBCL patients was observed (P = 0.367). EBV-positive GZL patients have significantly worse PFS than EBV-positive CHL patients, and are significantly more likely to have adverse clinical parameters such as advanced clinical stage, presence of B-symptoms, and thrombocytopenia. Further studies are needed to better characterize this entity, which may require the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  2. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  3. Teaching about "Intermediate Forms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, Evan B.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the common assumption about the lack of intermediate forms in evolutionary history is inaccurate and misleading. Points out that there are many transitional forms, although special creationists refuse to recognize them as such. (DDR)

  4. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  5. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  6. Hybrid songbirds employ intermediate routes in a migratory divide.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-10-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between populations that use different routes to navigate around unsuitable areas on seasonal migration. Hybrids in divides have been predicted to employ intermediate and potentially inferior routes. We provide the first direct test of this hypothesis, using light-level geolocators to track birds breeding in a hybrid zone between Swainson's thrushes in western Canada. Compared to parental forms, hybrids exhibited increased variability in their migratory routes, with some using intermediate routes that crossed arid and mountainous regions, and some using the same routes as one parental group on fall migration and the other on spring migration. Hybrids also tended to use geographically intermediate wintering sites. Analysis of genetic variation across the hybrid zone suggests moderately strong selection against hybrids. These results indicate that seasonal migratory behaviour might be a source of selection against hybrids, supporting a possible role for migration in speciation.

  7. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  8. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  9. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  10. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  11. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  12. Sara Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, James E.; Maraby, Julien

    This volume consists of an intermediate course in Sara, a language of the Chad Republic of Africa. It is designed for native speakers of English and includes forty reading selections in Sara and an English translation of each selection. The readings are followed by a corresponding set of dialogues in Sara, accompanied by an English translation.…

  13. Intermediate Pashto. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    The textbook for intermediate level Pashto instruction consists of 14 units (15-28) on a variety of cultural topics and linguistic structures. Cultural topics include engagement and marriage, children's education, agriculture and related subjects, the family, Pashtun history, genealogies of major Pashtun tribes, the Pashtun code of behavior,…

  14. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  15. Intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, C.; Tamain, B.

    The intermediate energy heavy ion induced reactions are extensively studied for several years. In this paper, we try to summarize the present knowledge. The peripheral reactions appear to be intermediate between the fragmentation and the deep inelastic regimes. Many questions remain open concerning the energy relaxation mechanisms and an eventual participant zone creation. In the case of central collisions, it has been shown that very hot nuclei can be built. The fusion limits are discussed and the very hot nuclei properties are considered. In some cases, hot spot formation or compression effects could play a role. Multifragmentation is discussed as a possible decay channel. In all these aspects, a difficult question concerns the validity of the temperature concept and more generally of collective thermodynamical variables. Such collective effects have been investigated in pion production experiments. Les réactions induites par ions lourds d'énergie intermédiaire sont très étudiées depuis quelques années. Dans cet article, nous essayons de résumer l'état actuel des connaissances. Les mécanismes mis en jeu dans les collisions périphériques sont intermédiaires entre les collisions très inélastiques et la fragmentation. La cible joue clairement un rôle déterminant et des effets importants de champ moyen demeurent. De nombreuses questions restent sans réponse comme par exemple les mécanismes de relaxation d'énergie ou l'existence d'une éventuelle zone participante. Dans le cas des collisions centrales, il a pu être montré que des noyaux très chauds sont fabriqués. Les limites au processus de fusion et les propriétés des noyaux très chauds sont discutées. Dans certains cas, des effets de compression ou de points chauds peuvent être envisagés. La multifragmentation est une voie de désexcitation possible. Une importante question concerne la validité du concept de température et plus généralement la notion de variable collective

  16. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  17. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  18. Modeling DNA Replication Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Roy, D.; Shapiro, R.

    1997-06-01

    While there is now available a great deal of information on double stranded DNA from X-ray crystallography, high resolution NMR and computer modeling, very little is known about structures that are representative of the DNA core of replication intermediates. DNA replication occurs at a single strand/double strand junction and bulged out intermediates near the junction can lead to frameshift mutations. The single stranded domains are particularly challenging. Our interest is focused on strategies for modeling the DNA of these types of replication intermediates. Modeling such structures presents special problems in addressing the multiple minimum problem and in treating the electrostatic component of the force field. We are testing a number of search strategies for locating low energy structures of these types and we are also investigating two different distance dependent dielectric functions in the coulombic term of the force field. We are studying both unmodified DNA and DNA damaged by aromatic amines, carcinogens present in the environment in tobacco smoke, barbecued meats and automobile exhaust. The nature of the structure adopted by the carcinogen modified DNA at the replication fork plays a key role in determining whether the carcinogen will cause a mutation during replication that can initiate the carcinogenic process. In the present work results are presented for unmodified DNA.

  19. Antenna gain measurements in the intermediate-field zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Bari, Farida; Dumitrascu, Ana; Paun, Mirel; Deacu, Daniela; Tasu, Sorin; Danisor, Alin; Tamas, Razvan D.

    2016-12-01

    Antenna gain is usually evaluated under far-field conditions. Furthermore, Friis transmission formula can solely be applied when antenna size can be neglected with respect to the distance between the measuring antenna and the antenna under test. In this paper, we show that by applying the distance averaging technique the far-field and antenna size constraints can be overcome. Our method was validated by measuring a monopole antenna and a Vivaldi antenna in an open area test site (OATS).

  20. Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-03-13

    Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.

  1. [Intermediate endpoints in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Peters, Sanne A E; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    An intermediate variable such as blood pressure is part of the causal pathway of mechanisms to a clinical outcome, e.g. myocardial infarction. An intervention affects a clinical outcome through its effect on that intermediate variable. In studies designed to assess the effects of interventions an intermediate variable may be used as surrogate for clinical outcomes. Such an endpoint is also known as an intermediate endpoint. Intervention studies with intermediate endpoints are commonly performed in medical research to evaluate the effects of an intervention on clinical outcomes. Intervention studies with an intermediate endpoint are conducted in a smaller study population and with a shorter duration of follow-up than studies using clinical outcomes. An intermediate variable is not eligible as an intermediate endpoint when the intervention also affects other biological mechanisms that subsequently affect the clinical endpoint. Due to a smaller sample size and shorter study duration, side effects of intervention are more difficult to evaluate in studies with an intermediate endpoint than in studies with clinical endpoints.

  2. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  3. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  4. Masonry. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Moses

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate masonry course. These materials, developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course, are designed to provide the student with the skills and knowledge necessary for entry level employment in the field…

  5. Dee-Mack Intermediate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Frank Reliford, the Principal at Dee-Mack Intermediate since 2005, is familiar to almost every child in the community. 260 Students attend Reliford's school, and their status is a point of pride: Dee-Mack Intermediate is consistently one of the highest performing schools in the state. The change in student performance correlates to the…

  6. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  7. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  8. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  9. Intermediate-statistics spin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we show that spin waves, the elementary excitation of the Heisenberg magnetic system, obey a kind of intermediate statistics with a finite maximum occupation number n. We construct an operator realization for the intermediate statistics obeyed by magnons, the quantized spin waves, and then construct a corresponding intermediate-statistics realization for the angular momentum algebra in terms of the creation and annihilation operators of the magnons. In other words, instead of the Holstein-Primakoff representation, a bosonic representation subject to a constraint on the occupation number, we present an intermediate-statistics representation with no constraints. In this realization, the maximum occupation number is naturally embodied in the commutation relation of creation and annihilation operators, while the Holstein-Primakoff representation is a bosonic operator relation with an additional putting-in-by-hand restriction on the occupation number. We deduce the intermediate-statistics distribution function for magnons from the intermediate-statistics commutation relation of the creation and annihilation operators directly, which is a modified Bose-Einstein distribution. On the basis of these results, we calculate the dispersion relations for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin waves. The relations between the intermediate statistics that magnons obey and the other two important kinds of intermediate statistics, Haldane-Wu statistics and the fractional statistics of anyons, are discussed. We also compare the spectrum of the intermediate-statistics spin wave with the exact solution of the one-dimensional s = 1/2 Heisenberg model, which is obtained by the Bethe ansatz method. For ferromagnets, we take the contributions from the interaction between magnons (the quartic contribution), the next-to-nearest-neighbor interaction, and the dipolar interaction into account for comparison with the experiment.

  10. Hydrogeology of the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems in Sarasota and adjacent counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    From 1991 to 1995, the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system and the major permeable zones and confining units of the intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida was studied. The study area is a 1,400-square-mile area that includes Sarasota County and parts of Manatee, De Soto, Charlotte, and Lee Counties. Lithologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, and water-level data were used to correlate the hydrogeology and map the extent of the aquifer systems. Water chemistry was evaluated in southwest Sarasota County to determine salinity of the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems. The surficial aquifer is an unconfined aquifer system that overlies the intermediate aquifer system and ranges from a few feet to over 60 feet in thickness in the study area. Hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system determined from aquifer and laboratory tests, and model simulations vary considerably across the study area. The intermediate aquifer system, a confined aquifer system that lies between the surficial and the Upper Floridan aquifers, is composed of alternating confining units and permeable zones. The intermediate aquifer system has three major permeable zones that exhibit a wide range of hydraulic properties. Horizontal flow in the intermediate aquifer system is northeast to southwest. Most of the study area is in a discharge area of the intermediate aquifer system. Water ranges naturally from fresh in the surficial aquifer system and upper permeable zones of the intermediate aquifer system to moderately saline in the lower permeable zone. Water-quality data collected in coastal southwest Sarasota County indicate that ground-water withdrawals from major pumping centers have resulted in lateral seawater intrusion and upconing into the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems.

  11. X-rays from intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, Jan

    I will review the X-ray properties of intermediate mass stars and discuss possible X-ray generating mechanisms. Main-sequence stars of spectral type mid B to mid A neither drive sufficiently strong winds to produce shock generated X-rays, nor possess an outer convection zone to generate dynamo driven magnetic activity and coronae. Consequently they should be virtually X-ray dark and occasionally detected X-ray emission was usually attributed to undetected low-mass companions. However, in magnetic intermediate mass stars, the Ap/Bp stars, a different X-ray production mechanism may operate. It is termed the magnetically channeled wind-shock model, where the stellar wind from both hemispheres is channelled towards the equatorial plane, collides and forms a rigidly rotating disk around the star. The strong shocks of the nearly head-on wind collision as well as the existence of magnetically confined plasma in a dynamic circumstellar disk can lead to diverse X-ray phenomena. In this sense Ap/Bp stars bridge the 'classical' X-ray regimes of cool and hot stars.

  12. Tachyon field in intermediate inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Toloza, Adolfo

    2009-04-15

    The tachyonic inflationary universe model in the context of intermediate inflation is studied. General conditions for this model to be realizable are discussed. In the slow-roll approximation, we describe in great detail the characteristics of this model.

  13. Intermediate care for older people.

    PubMed

    Logan, Pip; Stoner-Hobbs, Val; McCloughry, Helen; Foster, Carol; Fitzsimmons, Dwane; Williams, Jo; Spencer, Pamela; Robertson, Kate; Gladman, John

    2007-06-01

    Up to 40 per cent of older people do not go to hospital after calling an emergency ambulance and until recently were not referred on to any other community services. This article describes how a multidisciplinary working group developed and evaluated a protocol to enable older people to be referred to intermediate care services after calling an emergency ambulance. A total of 54 patients were monitored after referral to intermediate care to assess adherence to the protocol and outcomes.

  14. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  15. Hurricanes and coral reefs: The intermediate disturbance hypothesis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. S.

    1993-11-01

    A review of research on the effects of hurricanes on coral reefs suggests that the intermediate disturbance hypothesis may be applicable to shallow reef zones dominated by branching or foliaceous coral species that are especially susceptible to mechanical damage from storms. Diversity ( H') increases because of an increase in evenness following destruction or removal of the species that was monopolizing the space. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis as presented by Connell focuses on changes in number of species, but should be expanded to include diversity ( H') and evenness. It should also be modified to incorporate changes in living cover and the time elapsed since disturbances of varying intensities. This hypothesis predicts that when cover is high, diversity will be low. However, research on coral reefs does not consistently demonstrate an inverse correlation of coral diversity, and coral cover. An increase in cover and decrease in diversity with depth would also be expected because deeper reef zones generally experience less disturbance. However, higher diversity (both H' and species richness) is often associated with deeper zones. The effects of hurricanes on coral reefs will depend on the temporal and spatial scales under consideration, the life history characteristics and morphology of the dominant species, the depth of the reef zone, the ecological history of the site, and the influence of any additional natural or human stresses.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework and geochemistry of the intermediate aquifer system in parts of Charlotte, De Soto, and Sarasota counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, A.E.; Sacks, L.A.; Yobbi, D.K.; Knochenmus, L.A.; Katz, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework underlying the 600-square-mile study area in Charlotte, De Soto, and Sarasota Counties, Florida, consists of the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The hydrogeologic framework and the geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated for the study area. Particular emphasis was given to the analysis of hydrogeologic and geochemical data for the intermediate aquifer system. Flow regimes are not well understood in the intermediate aquifer system; therefore, hydrogeologic and geochemical information were used to evaluate connections between permeable zones within the intermediate aquifer system and between overlying and underlying aquifer systems. Knowledge of these connections will ultimately help to protect ground-water quality in the intermediate aquifer system. The hydrogeology was interpreted from lithologic and geophysical logs, water levels, hydraulic properties, and water quality from six separate well sites. Water-quality samples were collected from wells located along six ground-water flow paths and finished at different depth intervals. The selection of flow paths was based on current potentiometric-surface maps. Ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions; field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, and alkalinity); stable isotopes (deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon-13); and radioactive isotopes (tritium and carbon-14). The surficial aquifer system is the uppermost aquifer, is unconfined, relatively thin, and consists of unconsolidated sand, shell, and limestone. The intermediate aquifer system underlies the surficial aquifer system and is composed of clastic sediments interbedded with carbonate rocks. The intermediate aquifer system is divided into three permeable zones, the Tamiami/Peace River zone (PZ1), the Upper Arcadia zone (PZ2), and the Lower Arcadia zone (PZ3). The Tamiami/Peace River zone (PZ1) is the uppermost zone and is

  17. Intermediate tax sanctions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Peregrine, M W

    1997-07-01

    New federal tax law applies intermediate tax sanctions when tax-exempt organizations enter into so-called excess benefit transactions with corporate insiders. The sanctions take the form of a two-tiered penalty excise tax, which is assessed not on the tax-exempt organization itself but on the insider who receives the excess benefit and the organizational managers and board members who knowingly participate in an improper transaction. The intermediate tax sanctions, therefore, present tax-planning challenges for tax-exempt hospitals and integrated delivery systems as well as for 501(c)(4) HMOs. Forthcoming treasury regulations are expected to add clarity to the new law.

  18. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, S.A.

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  19. Intermediate and Definitive Cleft Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gary, Celeste; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    Intermediate and definitive cleft rhinoplasties are a challenging part of definitive cleft care. The anatomy of the cleft nose is severely affected by the structural deficits associated with congenital orofacial clefting. A comprehensive understanding of the related anatomy is crucial for understanding how to improve the appearance and function in patients with secondary cleft nasal deformities. Timing of intermediate and definitive rhinoplasty should be carefully considered. A thorough understanding of advanced rhinoplasty techniques is an important part of providing adequate care for patients with these deformities.

  20. Thermal Runaway during Intermediate-Depth Earthquake Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, German; Florez, Manuel; Barrett, Sarah; Beroza, Gregory; Pedraza, Patricia; Blanco, Jose; Poveda, Esteban

    2014-05-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures are expected to lead to ductile, rather than brittle deformation. There are two leading explanations for the physical mechanism that enables these earthquakes. In the first, high pore pressure from metamorphic dehydration reactions in the subducting slab reduces the effective normal stress sufficiently to enable frictional failure. In the second, slow deformation generates heat, which leads to weakening, further deformation, and a self-localizing thermal shear runaway. We use the nest of intermediate-depth earthquakes under Bucaramanga, Colombia as recorded by the digital RSNC (Red Sísmica Nacional de Colombia) regional seismic network to explore these two possibilities. We observe a combination of high stress drop and low radiation efficiency for Mw 4-5 earthquakes in the Bucaramanga Nest that points to the importance of thermal effects. If we assume a cm-scale fault-zone width, this combination implies a temperature increase of 600-1,000ºC during earthquake failure, which suggests that substantial shear heating, and possibly partial melting, occurs during intermediate-depth earthquake failure. Our observations support thermal shear runaway as the mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes. This mechanism could help explain differences in their behavior, such as the paucity of aftershocks, compared to shallow earthquakes. Although we have inferred these mechanisms for intermediate depth earthquakes, it's likely that they would apply for rapid deformation on the deep extensions of fault zones as well - particularly during large earthquakes, such as the 2012 Mw 8.6 strike-slip event off Sumatra, which is inferred to have ruptured well into the oceanic mantle.

  1. Conversation at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of free conversation, especially with regard to vocabulary. Recommends group discussion in the FL, using, at the intermediate level, limited, familiar vocabulary. At a higher level, words from a special technical vocabulary may be introduced, aurally and visually. A teaching example ("Traffic") is given with thorough…

  2. AIDS Elementary/Intermediate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Nancy Rader

    This Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Curriculum was developed for intermediate elementary (5th, 6th, and 7th grade) students. It is an integrated unit that encompasses health, science, social studies, math, and language arts. The curriculum is comprised of nine class activities designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to determine…

  3. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  4. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  5. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  6. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  7. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  8. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  9. "Intermediate" population control and comprehensive community development.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1993-01-01

    China's fertility rapidly declined since the 1970s. Family planning efforts and rigorous population control were recognized as having a significant influence on the 50% decline in fertility to 2.25 in 1990. Little attention was given to intermediate level research on the determinants of fertility decline. The intermediate level is the community, which is a suitable level for analysis of Chinese fertility because income is relatively homogenous at the community level. Communities have common economic interests, and multiple births by one member encroaches on the resources of other members. Community social organization links the micro with the macro birth control of national government. Cultural values shape reproductive patterns in communities. A determinant of population control is the general level of development in the community. Several models of development are apparent: the traditional agricultural topology, the modern industrial structure topology, and the transitional industrial structure topology. Communities may vary in size from small, to medium, to large. Family planning core households can be effective in educating adjacent households and responding flexibly. The medium community has close spatial connections between population management and local economy and culture. A large community corresponds to a township in rural areas and neighborhood in urban areas. Historical period influences reflect the level and structure of social economic development. In the Hainan community with population of 6.5 million, there are still backward economic conditions and a high birth rate. An experimental zone development group was established in 1991 to enhance population and economic development in five agricultural communities. Within 2 years, progress had been made in market reform and communities were modeled on "little government and big societies." The experimental program expanded knowledge about population issues, promoted education and training, and secured

  10. First intermediate host of the digenean trematode Proctoeces lintoni (Fellodistomidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Marcela; González, Karen; Loot, Geraldine; Pulgar, José; Marquet, Pablo A

    2009-12-01

    The digenetic trematode, Proctoeces lintoni, is a parasite of the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the Chilean Pacific coastline. Although this species is relatively well known, the first intermediate host has not yet been described. In the present study, we used experimental protocols and field studies to identify the host that harbors the sporocysts and cercariae stages of the parasite. The first intermediate host was shown to be the dominant mussel of the mid-littoral zone, Perumytilus purpuratus.

  11. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  12. Mechanics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Stamenovic, Dimitrijie

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the cytoskeleton of living cells plays important roles in mechanical and biological functions of the cells. Here we focus on the contribution of intermediate filaments (IFs) to the mechanical behaviors of living cells. Vimentin, a major structural component of IFs in many cell types, is shown to play an important role in vital mechanical and biological functions such as cell contractility, migration, stiffness, stiffening, and proliferation.

  13. PERIPHERAL RETINOSCHISIS IN INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y

    2017-01-11

    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  14. Mechanics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Stamenovic, Dimitrijie

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the cytoskeleton of living cells plays important roles in mechanical and biological functions of the cells. Here we focus on the contribution of intermediate filaments (IFs) to the mechanical behaviors of living cells. Vimentin, a major structural component of IFs in many cell types, is shown to play an important role in vital mechanical and biological functions such as cell contractility, migration, stiffness, stiffening, and proliferation.

  15. Fluid pathways in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; van Keken, P. E.; Hacker, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    A large amount of water captured in the oceanic crust and mantle is recycled in subduction zones. Upon compaction and heating most fluids are expelled, but a significant amount of water can be carried in hydrated mineral phases and point defects. While the qualitative role of volatiles and dehydration reactions is well appreciated in the mechanisms for intermediate depth seismicity, mantle wedge melting and arc volcanism, the quantitative details of the metamorphic reactions and the pathways of fluids and melts in the slab are poorly understood. We provide finite element models, combined with thermodynamic and mineralogical constraints, to estimate the water release and migration from the subducting slab to overlying arc. We use models from a selection of warm (e.g., Cascadia), cold (Central Honshu) and intermediate (Nicaragua) subduction zones, using slab geometries constrained from seismological observations. The fluid release is predicted from the breakdown of hydrated phases in sediments, oceanic crust and slab mantle. We use newly developed high resolution models for the flow of these released fluids that take into account permeability and compaction pressures. While the detailed structure depends on the chosen rheology and permeability, we find that for reasonable assumptions of permeability, a significant amount of fluids can travel through the wedge along nearly vertical pathways at rates and paths, consistent with geochronological and geochemical constraints. For models considered to date, we find that the principal source of fluids that feed the wedge come from the hydrated oceanic crust and particularly the hydrated slab mantle. Fluids released from the sediments and shallow crust, tend to travel along high permeability zones in the subducting slab before being released to hydrate the cold corner of subduction zones, suggesting that the cold and hydrated forearc region that is imaged in many subduction zones is maintained by an active hydrological cycle

  16. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    DOEpatents

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  18. Landing Zone and Drop Zone Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for Army Terrestrial Environmental Modeling and Intelligence System (ARTEMIS...for the Army Terrestrial Environmental Model - ing and Intelligence System (ARTEMIS) program under Work Item 9K3D08 for the Geospatial Remote...Compatible Use Zone APZ Accident Potential Zone APZ-LZ Accident Potential Zone–Landing Zone ARTEMIS Army Terrestrial Environmental Modeling and

  19. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    about the structure and processes in the upper mantle beneath the collision zone . The fate of the Neotethys plate subducted prior to the continental...collision remains largely unknown. There are no intermediate and deep earthquakes under the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone , yet the subduction is too...suture zone (Bird, 1978; Molinaro et al., 2005). In the Makran subduction zone in the south, seismicity and structure have been studied with the

  20. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  1. A hybrid zone between hydrothermal vent mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    O'Mullan, G D; Maas, P A; Lutz, R A; Vrijenhoek, R C

    2001-12-01

    This study provides the first example of a hybrid zone between animal taxa distributed along the mid-ocean ridge system. We examined the distribution and genetic structure of deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) along a 2888-km portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 37 degrees 50' N and 14 degrees 45' N latitude. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), allozymes and multivariate-morphometric evidence discriminated between individuals of a northern species, Bathymodiolus azoricus, and a southern species, B. puteoserpentis, that were separated by an intermediate ridge segment almost devoid of mussels. A small sample of mussels from Broken Spur, a vent locality along this intermediate zone, revealed a mixed population with gene frequencies and morphology that were broadly intermediate to those of the northern and southern species. Multilocus clines in mtDNA and allozyme frequencies were centred over the intermediate zone. We consider intrinsic and extrinsic processes that might limit genetic exchange across this hybrid zone.

  2. Kinetic Intermediates in RNA Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinkar, Patrick P.; Williamson, James R.

    1994-08-01

    The folding pathways of large, highly structured RNA molecules are largely unexplored. Insight into both the kinetics of folding and the presence of intermediates was provided in a study of the Mg2+-induced folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme by hybridization of complementary oligodeoxynucleotide probes. This RNA folds via a complex mechanism involving both Mg2+-dependent and Mg2+-independent steps. A hierarchical model for the folding pathway is proposed in which formation of one helical domain (P4-P6) precedes that of a second helical domain (P3-P7). The overall rate-limiting step is formation of P3-P7, and takes place with an observed rate constant of 0.72 ± 0.14 minute-1. The folding mechanism of large RNAs appears similar to that of many multidomain proteins in that formation of independently stable substructures precedes their association into the final conformation.

  3. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dale D.

    2008-01-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) network is one of the three cytoskeletal systems in smooth muscle. The type III IF proteins vimentin and desmin are major constituents of the network in smooth muscle cells and tissues. Lack of vimentin or desmin impairs contractile ability of various smooth muscle preparations, implying their important role for smooth muscle force development. The IF framework has long been viewed as a fixed cytostructure that solely provides mechanical integrity for the cell. However, recent studies suggest that the IF cytoskeleton is dynamic in mammalian cells in response to various external stimulation. In this review, the structure and biological properties of IF proteins in smooth muscle are summarized. The role of IF proteins in the modulation of smooth muscle force development and redistribution/translocation of signaling partners (such as p130 Crk-associated substrate, CAS) is depicted. This review also summarizes our latest understanding on how the IF network may be regulated in smooth muscle. PMID:18256275

  5. Intermediate superconductive magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, M.; Fujino, H.; Iwamoto, M.; Murakomi, M.; Shintomi, T.; Veda, K.

    1983-05-01

    In the past decade, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for application to peak shaving in utility has been investigated in a manner to construct the huge superconducting coil in bed rock. To confine the strong electromagnetic forces accompanied with the high magnetic field, megaton structures, no matter how they will be constructed in a liquid helium temperature, are needed. To meet such a requirement, the revolutionary idea was proposed that the superconducting coil would be constructed on the underground bed rock. Here presented is a 10 MWh unit as an intermediate SMES that is a milestone along the distant way of RandD of SMES against 1,000 - 10,000 MWh unit which advocate the replacement of the hydro-pumped station. Therefore, even if the 10 MWh unit would not function as a storage in the utility network, its design should also consider the same situation.

  6. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  7. Microleakage of intermediate restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C

    1990-03-01

    This study compares the microleakage of a glass ionomer cement, Ketac Fil, used without cavity conditioning, with the established intermediate restorative materials, Cavit-W, and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement, Kalzinol. Microleakage was assessed using an electrochemical technique. At the end of 30 days, the materials tested, listed in decreasing order of microleakage, were Cavit-W, Ketac Fil inserted without cavity conditioning, Kalzinol, and the control group of Ketac Fil inserted into conditioned cavities. There was no significant difference in the microleakage observed in Ketac Fil restorations inserted without cavity conditioning and Kalzinol (p = 0.450), while the differences between the other groups were highly significant (p less than 0.001).

  8. Rupture Velocities of Intermediate- and Deep-Focus Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The rupture velocities of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes --- how they vary between subduction zones, how they vary with depth, and what their maximum values are --- may help constrain the mechanism(s) of the earthquakes. As part of a global study of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes, I have used rupture directivity to estimate the rupture vector (speed and orientation) for 422 earthquakes >70 km depth with MW ≥5.7 since 1990. I estimate the rupture velocity relative to the local P-wave velocity (vr/α). Since the same method is used for all earthquakes, the results can be readily compared across study areas. The study areas --- Middle America, South America, Tonga-Kermadec, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, and Japan-Kurils-Kamchatka --- include some of the warmest and coldest subduction zones: subducting plate ages range from 9-150 Myr and descent rates range from 1-13 cm/yr. Across all subduction zones and depth ranges, for the 193 earthquakes with observable directivity and well-constrained rupture vectors, most earthquakes rupture on the more horizontal of the two possible nodal planes. However, the rupture vectors appear to be randomly-oriented relative to the slip vector, so the earthquakes span the continuum from Mode II (i.e., parallel slip and rupture vectors) to Mode III rupture (i.e., perpendicular slip and rupture vectors). For this earthquake population, the mean rupture velocity is 0.43 vr/α ± 0.14 vr/α. The mean earthquake rupture velocities are similar between all subduction zones. Since the local seismic wavespeed is faster in colder subduction zones, absolute rupture velocities are faster in colder subduction zones. Overall, the fastest rupture velocities exceed the local S-wave speed. The supershear ruptures are associated with earthquakes closer to Mode II than Mode III faulting. This is consistent with theoretical calculations, which limit the rupture velocity to the S-wave speed for Mode III rupture but the P-wave speed for Mode II

  9. Protein vivisection reveals elusive intermediates in folding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2010-01-01

    Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu→Glu−) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We apply this strategy to Ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the β5 strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high energy states. PMID:20144618

  10. The application of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis to physical systems: a case study on floodplain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayburg, Scott; Neave, Melissa; Thompson-Laing, Justin

    2010-05-01

    Disturbances, defined as discrete events that disrupt physical and/or biological systems, are a component of every natural system. Disturbance ecology has been dominated, for the last 30 years or so, by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis that states that biological diversity will be maximised where disturbance occurs at an intermediate level. A wide range of disturbances and organisms have been examined with respect to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and in many cases (especially with respect to sessile organisms) the theory has proven valid. In rivers, lakes, wetlands and floodplains, the predominant agent of disturbance is flooding. In flood disturbed environments, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis has been shown to apply to terrestrial and aquatic vegetation, but conflicting results have been observed when dealing with mobile organisms like macroinvertebrates, fish or amphibians. The argument for the validity of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (irrespective of disturbance type) stems from the notion that an intermediate frequency of disturbance promotes diversity by: 1) preventing the competitive exclusion by the dominant species that can arise in infrequently disturbed sites; and 2) facilitating greater diversity than that observed in highly-disturbed sites where only species tolerant of the disturbance can thrive. A singular omission in this logic, and indeed in research into the intermediate disturbance hypothesis more generally, has been the lack of focus on its application or relation to physical systems. This study addresses this lack by investigating whether an intermediate level of flood disturbance leads to a greater diversity of soil character (assessed using a wide range of physical and geochemical soil properties). Four flood frequency (or disturbance frequency) categories are included in this study spanning the range from frequent through to infrequent flood disturbance. These are: a high-inundation-frequency flood zone

  11. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  12. Chromospheric Activity at Intermediate Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark; Stauffer, John; Deliyannis, Constantine; Sherry, William

    2005-08-01

    The calibration of the empirical relation between Ca II chromospheric strength and stellar age between 0.6 Gyr (Hyades) and 4.0 - 5 Gyr (M67 and the Sun) relies on the uncertain determination of ages for individual field stars in the solar neighborhood. We therefore propose to obtain WIYN/Hydra spectra of ~ 100 solar-type dwarf stars in the 1.8 Gyr old open cluster, NGC 752. This cluster contains a sample of solar-type dwarfs that is homogeneous in age and chemical composition. Furthermore, NGC 752 is the nearest-and hence brightest- cluster at an age ~ 2 Gyr. The results will yield an improved calibration of the age-activity relation at intermediate ages. In addition, we will determine if the chromospheric Ca II strengths for the solar-type stars in NGC 752 lie in the so-called "Vaughan-Preston Gap''- an apparent discontinuity in the Ca II H& K strength-(B-V) diagram found for field stars in the solar neighborhood. Our data will yield insight on the two proposed origins for the gap, namely, that it is a result of two different modes of dynamo action or that it is actually an artifact of a discontinuity in the local star formation rate. This is a resubmission of a previously approved proposal that was allocated two nights in 2004 November. The time was lost to instrument problems (Hydra gripper malfunctions) and weather. No usable data were obtained.

  13. Intermediate Filaments: Structure and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the intermediate filament (IF) supergene family are ubiquitous structural components that comprise, in a cell type-specific manner, the cytoskeleton proper in animal tissues. All IF proteins show a distinctly organized, extended α-helical conformation prone to form two-stranded coiled coils, which are the basic building blocks of these highly flexible, stress-resistant cytoskeletal filaments. IF proteins are highly charged, thus representing versatile polyampholytes with multiple functions. Taking vimentin, keratins, and the nuclear lamins as our prime examples, we present an overview of their molecular and structural parameters. These, in turn, document the ability of IF proteins to form distinct, highly diverse supramolecular assemblies and biomaterials found, for example, at the inner nuclear membrane, throughout the cytoplasm, and in highly complex extracellular appendages, such as hair and nails, of vertebrate organisms. Ultimately, our aim is to set the stage for a more rational understanding of the immediate effects that missense mutations in IF genes have on cellular functions and for their far-reaching impact on the development of the numerous IF diseases caused by them.

  14. Exploring the connection between intermediate-depth seismicity, slab hydration, and dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Pesicek, J. D.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The dehydration of hydrous minerals has commonly been cited as the cause of intermediate-depth seismicity in subducted crust and mantle, through the process known as dehydration embrittlement. However, recent laboratory and empirical studies have called both the mechanism and seismological observation of this phenomenon into question. In order to assess the global relationship between seismicity, the presence of hydrous and dehydrating minerals, and the thermal state of slabs, we perform double-difference earthquake relocation of earthquakes at the majority of Earth's subduction zones, which reduces the scatter and improves the accuracy of the distributions of slab seismicity. The double-difference relocations are systematically calculated for each subduction zone in a version of the algorithm tomoDD that has been modified to include absolute and differential catalog P, S, and depth phase arrival times from local and teleseismic stations, as well as a three-dimensional global velocity model. Preliminary relocations demonstrate shifts of up to 15 km due to the use of a three-dimensional global velocity model. These relocations also illuminate various types of slab structures, including a range of slab morphologies, potential double seismic zones, and evidence of fault zones within slabs. At each subduction zone, these distributions are compared to previously published two-dimensional thermal and mineralogical models that have been calculated for that particular slab. The findings of these comparisons will be used to develop a set of slab conditions that describe where intermediate-depth seismicity is possible (and observed) at subduction zones.

  15. Enhancement of entropic transport by intermediates.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debasish

    2011-07-01

    Brownian particles confined in a two-dimensional enclosure that give rise to a bistable entropic potential are considered. With the introduction of an intermediate lobe, the mean first passage time from one lobe to another through the intermediate shows a turnover behavior with the variation of the stability of the entropic intermediate. The mean escape time shows a minimum for an optimal value of the barrier height of the intermediate state. A three-state model is proposed to explain the nonmonotonic behavior of the entropic transport.

  16. Analysis and compensation for the cascade dead-zones in the proportional control valve.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Su, Qi; Zhang, Junhui; Lu, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The four-way proportional directional control valve has been widely used as the main stage spring constant for the two-stage proportional control valve (PDV). Since a tradeoff should be made between manufacturing costs and static performance, two symmetry dead-zones are introduced in the main stage spring constant: the center dead-zone caused by the center floating position and the intermediate dead-zone caused by the intermediate position. Though the intermediate dead-zone is much smaller than the center dead-zone, it has significant effect on the dynamic position tracking performance. In this paper, the cascade dead-zones problem in a typical two-stage PDV is analyzed and a cascade dead-zones model is proposed for the main stage spring constant. Then, a cascade dead-zones inverse method is improved with gain estimation and dead-zone detection to compensate the dead-zone nonlinearity. Finally, a digital controller is designed for verification. The comparative experimental results indicate that it is effective to reduce the large position tracking error when the proposed method is applied.

  17. A quantitative analysis of global intermediate and deep seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscic, Marija; Becker, Dirk; Le Pourhiet, Laetitita; Agard, Philippe; Meier, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The seismic activity in subduction zones around the world shows a large spatial variabilty with some regions exhibiting strong seismic activity down to depths of almost 700km while in other places seismicity terminates at depths of about 200 or 300 km. Also the decay of the number of seismic events or of the seismic moment with depth is more pronounced in some regions than in others. The same is true for the variability of the ratio of large to small events (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation) that is varying with depth. These observations are often linked to parameters of the downgoing plate like age or subduction velocity. In this study we investigate a subset of subduction zones utilizing the revised ISC catalogue of intermediate and deep seismicity to determine statistical parameters well suited to describe properties of intermediate deep and deep events. The seismicity is separated into three depth intervals from 50-175km, 175-400km and >400km based on the depth at which the plate contact decouples, the observed nearly exponential decay of the event rate with depth and the supposed depth of phase transition at 410 km depth where also an increase of the event number with depth is observed. For estimation of the b-value and the exponential decay with depth, a restriction of the investigated time interval to the period after 1997 produced significantly better results indicating a globally homogeneous magnitude scale with the magnitude of completeness of about Mw 5. On a global scale the b-value decreases with depth from values of about 1 at 50-175km to values of slightly below 0.8 for events below 400km. Also, there is a slight increase of the b-value with the age of the subducting plate. These changes in the b-value with depth and with age may indicate a varying fragmentation of the slab. With respect to the ratio of the seismic moment between deeper and shallower parts of the subduction zones a dependence on the age is apparent with older slabs

  18. Postreceptor Neuronal Loss in Intermediate Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Enrico; Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Uji, Akihito; Nittala, Muneeswar Gupta; Boyer, David S; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and photoreceptor alterations in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retrospective case-control study. We collected data from 68 eyes with intermediate AMD from 68 patients with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging. A control group of 50 eyes from 50 healthy subjects was included for comparison. Our main outcome measures for comparison between groups were (1) the average and minimum GCC thickness and (2) the "normalized" reflectivity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) en face image. The average and minimum GCC thicknesses were thinner in AMD patients (69.54 ± 9.30 μm and 63.22 ± 14.11 μm, respectively) than in healthy controls (78.57 ± 6.28 μm and 76.28 ± 6.85 μm, P < .0001 and P < .0001, respectively). Agreement was found to be excellent in the "normalized" EZ reflectivity assessment (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.986, coefficient of variation = 1.11). The EZ "normalized" reflectivity was 0.67 ± 0.11 in controls and 0.61 ± 0.09 in the AMD group (P = .006). In univariate analysis, EZ "normalized" reflectivity was found to have a significant direct relationship with average (P < .0001) and minimum (P < .0001) GCC thickness in AMD patients, but not in controls (P = .852 and P = .892, respectively). Eyes with intermediate AMD exhibit GCC thinning, as well as a reduced EZ "normalized" reflectivity, and these parameters are correlated. This study supports the concept of postreceptor retinal neuronal loss as a contributor to retinal thinning in intermediate AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN THE VADOSE ZONE WITH PLANT ROOTS. (R825414)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The vadose zone is the intermediate medium between the atmosphere and groundwater. The modeling of the processes taking place in the vadose zone needs different approaches to those needed for groundwater transport problems because of the marked changes in envi...

  20. Experimental shear zones and magnetic fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Alford, C.

    Magnetic fabric analysis has been used as a non-destructive means of detecting petrofabric development during experimentally produced multi-stage, transpressive deformations in 'shear zones'. Artificial, magnetic-bearing silicate sands and calcite sands, bonded with Portland cement, were deformed at room temperature and at 100 and 150 MPa confining pressure. The slip-rate for the shear zone walls was 0.73 × 10 -4 mm s -1 and the maximum shear strains were about 0.38, across zones that were initially about 5 mm thick. The magnetic fabric ellipsoid rapidly spins so that the maximum and intermediate susceptibilities tend to become parallel to the shear zone walls throughout the sheared zone. The ellipsoid becomes increasingly oblate with progressive deformation. However, in all cases, the anisotropy is strongly influenced by the pre-deformation magnetic fabric. During deformation the cement gel collapses so that cataclasis of the mineral grains is suppressed. In the quartz-feldspar aggregates the magnetite's alignment is accommodated by particulate flow (intergranular displacements) of the grains. In the calcite aggregates stronger magnetic fabrics develop due to plastic deformation of calcite grains as well as particulate flow. However, the calcite grain fabrics are somewhat linear ( L ≥ S) whereas the magnetic fabrics are planar ( S > L). The preferred dimensional orientations of magnetite are weak and it is possible that the magnetic fabrics are due to intragranular rearrangements of magnetic domains. The transpressive shear zones are much more efficient than axial-symmetric shortening in the increase of anisotropy of the magnetic fabrics, especially in the case of the calcite aggregates. This suggests that flow laws derived for axial-symmetric shortening experiments may not be appropriate for non-coaxial strain histories such as those of shear zones.

  1. New Madrid Seismic Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE BY COLONEL J.DAVID NORWOOD United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...mCTBB l USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT New Madrid Seismic Zone by J. David Norwood, COL, USA Michael A. Pearson, COL, USA Project Advisor The...ABSTRACT AUTHOR: J. David Norwood, Colonel, U.S. Army TITLE: New Madrid Seismic Zone FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 April 1998 . PAGES:

  2. Intermediate filaments in nervous tissues

    PubMed Central

    Liem, RKH; Yen, S; Salomon, GD; Shelanski, ML

    1978-01-01

    Intermediate filaments have been isolated from rabbit intradural spinal nerve roots by the axonal flotation method. This method was modified to avoid exposure of axons to low ionic strength medium. The purified filaments are morphologically 75-80 percent pure. The gel electrophoretogram shows four major bands migrating at 200,000, 145,000, 68,000, and 60,000 daltons, respectively. A similar preparation from rabbit brain shows four major polypeptides with mol wt of 200,000 145,000, 68,000, and 51,000 daltons. These results indicate that the neurofilament is composed of a triplet of polypepetides with mol wt of 200,000, 145,000, and 68,000 daltons. The 51,000-dalton band that appears in brain filament preparations as the major polypeptide seems to be of glial origin. The significance of the 60,000- dalton band in the nerve root filament preparation is unclear at this time. Antibodies raised against two of the triplet proteins isolated from calf brain localize by immunofluorescence to neurons in central and peripheral nerve. On the other hand, an antibody to the 51,000-dalton polypeptide gives only glial staining in the brain, and very weak peripheral nerve staining. Prolonged exposure of axons to low ionic strength medium solubilizes almost all of the triplet polypeptides, leaving behind only the 51,000- dalton component. This would indicate that the neurofilament is soluble at low ionic strength, whereas the glial filament is not. These results indicate that neurofilaments and glial filaments are composed of different polypeptides and have different solubility characteristics. PMID:83322

  3. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  4. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  5. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming

    2017-07-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  6. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of ten terminal objectives for a two-semester course (3 hours daily). This 540-hour intermediate course includes advanced troubleshooting techniques on outboard marine engines, inboard-outboard marine engines, inboard marine engines, boat…

  7. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  8. Radio and Television Servicing. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 32 terminal objectives for an intermediate (second year) radio/TV servicing course. This 1-year course (3 hours daily) was designed to provide the student with the basic skills and knowledges necessary for entry level employment in the Radio/TV…

  9. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research.

  10. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  11. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  12. Liver resection for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng-Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ji-Tong; Xu, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is regarded as the gold standard staging system for HCC, classifying HCC as early, intermediate, or advanced. For intermediate HCC, trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as the optimal strategy by the BCLC guideline. This review investigates whether liver resection is better than TACE for intermediate HCC. Based on published studies, we compare the survival benefits and complications of liver resection and TACE for intermediate HCC. We also compare the survival benefits of liver resection in early and intermediate HCC. We find that liver resection can achieve better or at least comparable survival outcomes compared with TACE for intermediate HCC; however, we do not observe a significant difference between liver resection and TACE in terms of safety and morbidity. We conclude that liver resection may improve the short- and long-term survival of carefully selected intermediate HCC patients, and the procedure may be safely performed in the management of intermediate HCC. PMID:27190577

  13. Business Machine Maintenance. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, Robert

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 28 terminal objectives presented in this guide for an intermediate business machine maintenance course at the secondary level. (For the basic course guide see CE 010 949.) Titles of the 28 terminal objective sections are Career Opportunities,…

  14. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  15. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  16. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  17. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  18. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  19. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for an intermediate diesel mechanics course (two semesters, 3 hours daily) designed for high school students who upon completion would be ready for an on-the-job training experience in diesel service and repair. Through…

  20. Teaching Pronunciation in the Standard Intermediate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.

    Rationales and approaches for teaching pronunciation in the intermediate foreign language classroom are discussed. Pronunciation should be taught regularly and overtly because perfecting pronunciation is an essential part of learning to communicate, and because intermediate students have enough vocabulary to generalize pronunciation rules to new…

  1. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  2. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  3. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  4. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  5. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  6. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    in the upper mantle beneath the collision zone . The fate of the Neotethys plate subducted prior to the continental collision remains largely unknown...There are no intermediate and deep earthquakes under the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone , yet the subduction is too recent for the slab to reach thermal...2005). In the Makran subduction zone in the south, seismicity and structure have been studied with the deployment of dense seismic networks (Yamini

  7. In vivo formation steps of the hard alpha-keratin intermediate filament along a hair follicle: evidence for structural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rafik, Mériem Er; Briki, Fatma; Burghammer, Manfred; Doucet, Jean

    2006-04-01

    Several aspects of the intermediate filaments' molecular architecture remain mysterious despite decades of study. The growth process and the final architecture may depend on the physical, chemical, and biochemical environment. Aiming at clarifying this issue, we have revisited the structure of the human hair follicle by means of X-ray microdiffraction. We conclude that the histology-based growth zones along the follicle are correlated to the fine architecture of the filaments deduced from X-ray microdiffraction. Our analysis reveals the existence of two major polymorph intermediate filament architectures. Just above the bulb, the filaments are characterized by a diameter of 100 Angstroms and a low-density core. The following zone upwards is characterized by the lateral aggregation of the filaments into a compact network of filaments, by a contraction of their diameter (to 75 Angstroms) and by the setting up of a long-range longitudinal ordering. In the upper zone, the small structural change associated with the tissue hardening likely concerns the terminal domains. The architecture of the intermediate filament in the upper zones could be specific to hard alpha-keratin whilst the other architecture found in the lower zone could be representative for intermediate filaments in a different environment.

  8. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Florian; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection. PMID:27355965

  9. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  10. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  11. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  12. Subduction of fracture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  13. Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone lymphomas are a group of indolent (slow-growing) NHL B-cell lymphomas, which account for approximately 12 percent of all B-cell lymphomas. The median age for diagnosis is 65 years old. There are three types of marginal zone lymphoma: ...

  14. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  15. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  16. Urban Terrain Zone Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    function . An example of the interaction of some of these can result in an exposed surface of decorative brick veneer on a framed stracture . Or, a...Classification System for HOUT Studies . . . . . . . . .- ..- . . . . . . 14 2. Urban Terrain Zones Function /Morphology Relationship...By Function --All Cities Aggregated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6. Building Types: Major Terrain Zones . . . . ...... 103 7. Urban Terrain

  17. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  18. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  19. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  20. Dynamic Source Inversion of Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuto Sho Mirwald, Aron; Cruz-Atienza, Victor Manuel; Krishna Singh-Singh, Shri

    2017-04-01

    The source mechanisms of earthquakes at intermediate depth (50-300 km) are still under debate. Due to the high confining pressure at depths below 50 km, rocks ought to deform by ductile flow rather than brittle failure, which is the mechanism originating most earthquakes. Several source mechanisms have been proposed, but for neither of them conclusive evidence has been found. One of two viable mechanisms is Dehydration Embrittlement, where liberation of water lowers the effective pressure and enables brittle fracture. The other is Thermal Runaway, a highly localized ductile deformation (Prieto et. al., Tecto., 2012). In the Mexican subduction zone, intermediate depth earthquakes represent a real hazard in central Mexico due to their proximity to highly populated areas and the large accelerations induced on ground motion (Iglesias et. al., BSSA, 2002). To improve our understanding of these rupture processes, we use a recently introduced inversion method (Diaz-Mojica et. al., JGR, 2014) to analyze several intermediate depth earthquakes in Mexico. The method inverts strong motion seismograms to determine the dynamic source parameters based on a genetic algorithm. It has been successfully used for the M6.5 Zumpango earthquake that occurred at a depth of 62 km in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. For this event, high radiated energy, low radiation efficiency and low rupture velocity were determined. This indicates a highly dissipative rupture process, suggesting that Thermal Runaway could probably be the dominant source process. In this work we improved the inversion method by introducing a theoretical consideration for the nucleation process that minimizes the effects of rupture initiation and guarantees self-sustained rupture propagation (Galis et. al., GJInt., 2014). Preliminary results indicate that intermediate depth earthquakes in central Mexico may vary in their rupture process. For instance, for a M5.9 normal-faulting earthquake at 55 km depth that produced very

  1. Biocatalysis: synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2006-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand for the bulk preparation of drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of the use of microorganisms and microorganism-derived enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

  2. Source Rupture Process of the 2005 Tarapaca Intermediate Depth Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Favreau, P.; de Chabalier, J.; Bouin, M.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the details of the rupture process of the large (Mw 7.7) intermediate-depth earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2005 in the Tarapaca region of the Northern Chile seismic gap, using different data sets and different methods. The high quality and variety of seismic and geodetic data available for this event provided an unprecedented opportunity to study its source in detail. This earthquake is a slab-pull event with down dip extensional source mechanism. The aftershock distribution, determined from a post-seismic temporary array, indicates a sub-horizontal fault plane lying between the upper and lower planes of the double seismic zone. This earthquake was also recorded by a permanent digital strong-motion network operated by the University of Chile. These records have absolute time and high dynamic range so that they contain direct information about the rupture process. We used a systematic, fully nonlinear inversion method based on the neighbourhood algorithm to invert for the kinematic slip distribution using the accelerometric data set. This low frequency inversion provides a relatively smooth image of the rupture history. The kinematic inversion shows that the earthquake occurred by the rupture of two asperities. Based on the kinematic inversion result, we propose dynamic rupture models in order to quantify the dynamic rupture process. We simulate the dynamic rupture process and the strong ground motion using a 3D finite-difference method. In our simulation, dynamic rupture grows under the simultaneous control of initial stress and rupture resistance by friction. We constrain dynamic rupture parameters of the Tarapaca earthquake by simple trial and error. Large intraplate earthquakes in subduction zone are quite common although very few have been studied in detail. These earthquakes occurred at depth where the mechanism by which they are triggered remains poorly understood. Consequently, the determination of source rupture for intermediate

  3. Shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region across the Afghan-Pakistan border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Asghar; Ali, Aamir; Barkat, Adnan

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal seismicity parameters of shallow (0-70 km) and intermediate (70-300 km) depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region, which is characterized by the occurrence of large earthquakes in a small zone of intense activity. By way of comparison, intermediate depth earthquakes dominate the Hindu Kush seismicity. Using a catalogue of 3820 earthquakes, we determined the various earthquake histograms, time-series plots, variations of frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value) and seismicity rate changes (z-value). Both time periods, encompassing pre- and post-1964 subsets of earthquakes, differ significantly in terms of reporting earthquakes, b- and z-value for shallow and intermediate seismicity. The b-values appear to be lower (1.07 and 0.90) for intermediate depth earthquakes than do the b-values produced by shallow earthquakes (1.32 and 1.06) using the pre- and post-1964 data sets. The three low b-value (<0.9) areas have been identified within the intermediate depth seismicity region of the Hindu Kush. The z-value maps show that the earthquakes with magnitude of 7.0 and above can only be seen in the intermediate depth earthquake maps.

  4. Anomalous zones (domal)

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, D.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Each zone contains several anomalous salt properties (anomalous features). Zones cannot be characterized by any single property Zones are highly variable, lenticular, and discontinuous in detail; however, once established, they commonly have a predictable trend. The individual anomalous features can occur alone (locally in pairs) over areas of various sizes and shapes. These alone occurrences are not anomalous zones. Anomalous zones may be of any origin, and origin is not part of the definition. Typical origins include: primary (sedimentary), external sheath zone, separating two spines of salt, or caused by toroidal flow. The major importance of an anomalous zone is that it consists of various anomalous features distributed discontinuously along the zone. Thus, if three or more anomalous properties are observed together, one should look for others. The anomalous zones observed in the Gulf Coast thus far are vertical, linear, and semicontinuous. Most are reasonably straight, but some bend sharply, end abruptly, or coalesce. Textures in salt involve grain size, color (white to dark gray), grain shape, or grain distribution of the salt. Typical anomalous textures are coarse-grain, poikiloblastic, and friability. A change in color is commonplace and seldom anomalous. Structural anomalous features, broadly defined, account for most of the rest of the anomalous features. Not uncommonly they cause mining problems. Among the structural anomalous features: INCLUSIONS: Sediments, hydrocarbons, brine, gases. Common gases are air (as N{sub 2}), CH-compounds, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. STRUCTURES: Sheared salt, undue stabbing or jointing, voids (crystal-lined pockets), permeability, increased porosity COMPOSITION: High anhydrite content, visible anhydrite as grains or boudins, very black salt = disseminated impurities such as clay.

  5. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  6. Prox1 is required for granule cell maturation and intermediate progenitor maintenance during brain neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Alfonso; Lagutin, Oleg V; Chow, Lionel M L; Baker, Suzanne J; Oliver, Guillermo

    2010-08-17

    The dentate gyrus has an important role in learning and memory, and adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus may play a role in the acquisition of new memories. The homeobox gene Prox1 is expressed in the dentate gyrus during embryonic development and adult neurogenesis. Here we show that Prox1 is necessary for the maturation of granule cells in the dentate gyrus during development and for the maintenance of intermediate progenitors during adult neurogenesis. We also demonstrate that Prox1-expressing intermediate progenitors are required for adult neural stem cell self-maintenance in the subgranular zone; thus, we have identified a previously unknown non-cell autonomous regulatory feedback mechanism that controls adult neurogenesis in this region of the mammalian brain. Finally, we show that the ectopic expression of Prox1 induces premature differentiation of neural stem cells.

  7. Characterization of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes Beneath Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Prieto, G.

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of earthquakes deeper than ~50 km depth is unexpected because of the high pressures and temperatures. Different mechanisms, such as dehydration embrittlement, runaway shear instabilities, and phase transformations, have been invoked to explain their occurrence. We investigate a concentration of intermediate-depth earthquakes beneath Cauca, Colombia (~4° N). From 50-250 km depth, this region averages ~50 earthquakes per year with magnitude M≥2. The largest earthquakes include a pair of magnitude M>6 earthquakes in 1997. Their fault planes, which were identified by analyzing the directivity of the ruptures, are fairly steep and strike approximately perpendicular to the trench. This orientation contrasts with the predominant subhorizontal trench-parallel faults seen in other subduction zones. To further investigate fault structures and the distribution of seismicity beneath Cauca, we relocate earthquakes using double-difference methods with both catalog picks and relative arrival times measured from waveform similarity. We use seismic data from the Colombian seismic network from 1993 to the present. Based on catalog P and S wave picks, our preliminary results show that the earthquakes, whose depths generally increase to the east, appear to define the position of the Nazca subducting slab. In addition, there are several fingers of seismicity extending up from the general plane of slab seismicity. Refined earthquake locations will allow us to place additional constraints on the mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquakes and, in particular, to investigate the role of pre-existing or reactivated structures in their generation.

  8. Dehydration-driven stress transfer triggers intermediate-depth earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, Thomas P.; Hilairet, Nadège; Incel, Sarah; Deldicque, Damien; Labrousse, Loïc; Gasc, Julien; Renner, Joerg; Wang, Yanbin; Green, Harry W., II; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes (30-300 km) have been extensively documented within subducting oceanic slabs, but their mechanics remains enigmatic. Here we decipher the mechanism of these earthquakes by performing deformation experiments on dehydrating serpentinized peridotites (synthetic antigorite-olivine aggregates, minerals representative of subduction zones lithologies) at upper mantle conditions. At a pressure of 1.1 gigapascals, dehydration of deforming samples containing only 5 vol% of antigorite suffices to trigger acoustic emissions, a laboratory-scale analogue of earthquakes. At 3.5 gigapascals, acoustic emissions are recorded from samples with up to 50 vol% of antigorite. Experimentally produced faults, observed post-mortem, are sealed by fluid-bearing micro-pseudotachylytes. Microstructural observations demonstrate that antigorite dehydration triggered dynamic shear failure of the olivine load-bearing network. These laboratory analogues of intermediate-depth earthquakes demonstrate that little dehydration is required to trigger embrittlement. We propose an alternative model to dehydration-embrittlement in which dehydration-driven stress transfer, rather than fluid overpressure, causes embrittlement.

  9. Dehydration-driven stress transfer triggers intermediate-depth earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Ferrand, Thomas P.; Hilairet, Nadège; Incel, Sarah; Deldicque, Damien; Labrousse, Loïc; Gasc, Julien; Renner, Joerg; Wang, Yanbin; Green II, Harry W.; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes (30–300 km) have been extensively documented within subducting oceanic slabs, but their mechanics remains enigmatic. Here we decipher the mechanism of these earthquakes by performing deformation experiments on dehydrating serpentinized peridotites (synthetic antigorite-olivine aggregates, minerals representative of subduction zones lithologies) at upper mantle conditions. At a pressure of 1.1 gigapascals, dehydration of deforming samples containing only 5 vol% of antigorite suffices to trigger acoustic emissions, a laboratory-scale analogue of earthquakes. At 3.5 gigapascals, acoustic emissions are recorded from samples with up to 50 vol% of antigorite. Experimentally produced faults, observed post-mortem, are sealed by fluid-bearing micro-pseudotachylytes. Microstructural observations demonstrate that antigorite dehydration triggered dynamic shear failure of the olivine load-bearing network. These laboratory analogues of intermediate-depth earthquakes demonstrate that little dehydration is required to trigger embrittlement. We propose an alternative model to dehydration-embrittlement in which dehydration-driven stress transfer, rather than fluid overpressure, causes embrittlement. PMID:28504263

  10. Source Analysis of Bucaramanga Nest Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, G. A.; Pedraza, P.; Dionicio, V.; Levander, A.

    2016-12-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes are those that occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere and can occasionally be destructive. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures at such depths are expected to lead to ductile flow, rather than brittle failure, as a response to stress. Intermediate-depth seismicity rates vary substantially worldwide, even within a single subduction zone having highly clustered seismicity in some cases (Vrancea, Hindu-Kush, etc.). One such places in known as the Bucaramanga Nest (BN), one of the highest concentration of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the world. Previous work on these earthquakes has shown 1) Focal mechanisms vary substantially within a very small volume. 2) Radiation efficiency is small for M<5 events. 3) repeating and reverse polarity events are present. 4) Larger events show a complex behavior with two distinct rupture stages. Due to on-going efforts by the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC) to densify the national seismic network, it is now possible to better constrain the rupture behavior of these events. In our work we will present results from focal mechanisms based on waveform inversion as well as polarity and S/P amplitude ratios. These results will be contrasted to the detection and classification of repeating families. For the larger events we will determine source parameters and radiation efficiencies. Preliminary results show that reverse polarity events are present and that two main focal mechanisms, with their corresponding reverse polarity events are dominant. Our results have significant implications in our understanding of intermedaite-depth earthquakes and the stress conditions that are responsible for this unusual cluster of seismicity.

  11. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    We studied occurence and source parameters of several recent intermediate depth earthquakes. We concentrated on the Mw=7.7 salvadorian earthquake which took place on January 13, 2001. It was a good example of the high seismic risk associated to such kind of events which occur closer to the coast than the interplate thrust events. The Salvadorian earthquake was an intermediate depth downdip extensional event which occured inside the downgoing Cocos plate, next to the downdip flexure where the dip increases sharply before the slab sinks more steeply. This location corresponds closely to the position of the Mw=5.7 1996 and Mw=7.3 1982 downdip extensional events. Several recent intermediate depth earthquakes occured in subduction zones exhibiting a ``flat slab'' geometry with three distinct flexural bends where flexural stress may be enhanced. The Mw=6.7 Geiyo event showed a downdip extensional mechanism with N-S striking nodal planes. This trend was highly oblique to the trench (Nankai Trough), yet consistent with westward steepening at the SW lateral termination of the SW Japan flat slab. The Mw=6.8 Olympia earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone occured at the downdip termination of the Juan de Fuca slab, where plate dip increases from about 5o to over 30o. The N-S orientation of the focal planes, parallel to the trench indicated downdip extension. The location at the downdip flexure corresponds closely to the estimated positions of the 1949 M7.1 Olympia and 1965 M6.5 Seattle-Tacoma events. Between 1994 and 1999, in Central Mexico, an unusually high intermediate depth seismicity occured where several authors proposed a flat geometry for the Cocos plate. Seven events of magnitude between Mw=5.9 and Mw=7.1 occured. Three of them were downdip compressional and four where down-dip extensional. We can explain these earthquakes by flexural stresses at down-dip and lateral terminations of the supposed flat segment. Even if intermediate depth earthquakes occurence could

  12. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  13. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  14. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Intermediate Temperature Brittleness in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Cao, Qing Ping; Wang, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Dong Xian; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Narayan, Ramasubramanian Lakshmi; Jiang, Jian-Zhong

    2017-04-01

    All metallic glasses (MGs), irrespective of their compositions, become brittle in the intermediate temperature range of 0.6-0.7 Tg However, most materials are expected to carry higher strains during deformation with increasing temperature. This behavior of MGs is explained by describing the competition between shear banding and diffusive relaxation processes, and is reminiscent of the "intermediate temperature ductility minimum" observed in polycrystalline metals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of intermediate...

  17. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of intermediate...

  18. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of intermediate...

  19. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of intermediate...

  20. 29 CFR 452.123 - Elections of intermediate body officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Elections of intermediate body officers. 452.123 Section... intermediate body officers. Section 401(d) states that officers of intermediate bodies shall be elected either... intermediate bodies. Such delegates may therefore participate in the election of officers of intermediate...

  1. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  2. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5094 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), stands at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  3. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  4. Theory of zone radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Audeh, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A spectroscopic instrumentation system was developed which was used to measure temperature and concentration distributions in axisymmetric and two dimensional combusting flows. This measurement technique is known as zone radiometry.

  5. Liquefaction processes and systems and liquefaction process intermediate compositions

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.; Maupin, Gary D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2014-07-12

    Liquefaction processes are provided that can include: providing a biomass slurry solution having a temperature of at least 300.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 2000 psig; cooling the solution to a temperature of less than 150.degree. C.; and depressurizing the solution to release carbon dioxide from the solution and form at least part of a bio-oil foam. Liquefaction processes are also provided that can include: filtering the biomass slurry to remove particulates; and cooling and depressurizing the filtered solution to form the bio-oil foam. Liquefaction systems are provided that can include: a heated biomass slurry reaction zone maintained above 300.degree. C. and at least 2000 psig and in continuous fluid communication with a flash cooling/depressurization zone maintained below 150.degree. C. and between about 125 psig and about atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction systems are also provided that can include a foam/liquid separation system. Liquefaction process intermediate compositions are provided that can include a bio-oil foam phase separated from an aqueous biomass solids solution.

  6. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  7. A Stem Cell Niche for Intermediate Progenitor Cells of the Embryonic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kriegstein, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The excitatory neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex arise from asymmetric divisions of radial glial cells in the ventricular zone and symmetric division of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic cortex. Little is known about the microenvironment in which IPCs divide or whether a stem cell niche exists in the SVZ of the embryonic cortex. Recent evidence suggests that vasculature may provide a niche for adult stem cells but its role in development is less clear. We have investigated the vasculature in the embryonic cortex during neurogenesis and find that IPCs are spatially and temporally associated with blood vessels during cortical development. Intermediate progenitors mimic the pattern of capillaries suggesting patterns of angiogenesis and neurogenesis are coordinated during development. More importantly, we find that IPCs divide near blood vessel branch points suggesting that cerebral vasculature establishes a stem cell niche for intermediate progenitors in the SVZ. These data provide novel evidence for the presence of a neurogenic niche for intermediate progenitors in the embryonic SVZ and suggest blood vessels are important for proper patterning of neurogenesis. PMID:19346271

  8. Investigation of the mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wan-Jou

    The Pamir--Hindu Kush seismic zone is caused by the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate. Earthquakes in this region can occur down to ~250 km depth. Intermediate-depth earthquakes that occur in the Hindu Kush region may be related to deformation and break-off of the Indian plate, dehydration of former oceanic crust in the northern margin of the Indian plate, or subduction of the Eurasian plate in the eastern part of the Pamir-Hindu Kush region. We use a cross-correlation-based method to estimate differential rupture duration between each pair of seismic stations to find the rupture direction and the orientation of the fault plane for 52 intermediate-depth earthquakes between 1990 and 2009. We found most of the analyzed intermediate-depth earthquakes are located in the western part of the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Among the 52 analyzed earthquakes, we observed directivity for 13 intermediate-depth earthquakes. Moreover, 6 of the earthquakes that show directivity have their rupture toward the intersection of the nodal planes. Regardless of the rupture direction, we can classify the earthquakes with observable directivity at depths between 180 and 240 km into two clusters based on the orientation of the fault planes. Earthquakes in cluster I have similar rupture behavior. Furthermore, earthquakes in cluster II have their fault planes migrate with the shape of Indian slab.

  9. Earthquakes initiation and thermal shear instability in the Hindu Kush intermediate depth nest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Piero; Prieto, German; Rivera, Efrain; Ruiz, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Intermediate depth earthquakes often occur along subducting lithosphere, but despite their ubiquity the physical mechanism responsible for promoting brittle or brittle-like failure is not well constrained. Large concentrations of intermediate depth earthquakes have been found to be related to slab break-off, slab drip, and slab tears. The intermediate depth Hindu Kush nest is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and shows the correlation of a weak region associated with ongoing slab detachment process. Here we study relocated seismicity in the nest to constraint the geometry of the shear zone at the top of the detached slab. The analysis of the rupture process of the Mw 7.5 Afghanistan 2015 earthquake and other several well-recorded events over the past 25 years shows an initially slow, highly dissipative rupture, followed by a dramatic dynamic frictional stress reduction and corresponding large energy radiation. These properties are typical of thermal driven rupture processes. We infer that thermal shear instabilities are a leading mechanism for the generation of intermediated-depth earthquakes especially in presence of weak zone subjected to large strain accumulation, due to ongoing detachment process.

  10. Fault Plane Orientations of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Extending from Colombia in the north to Chile and Argentina in the south, the South American subduction zone exhibits considerable variation: the subduction angle alternates between flat and steep; the subducting plate has complex structures such as ridges, plateaus, and fracture zones; and late Cenozoic volcanism in the overlying plate has gaps. I investigate the effect of these differences in incoming plate structure and subduction geometry on intermediate-depth earthquakes and use the results to test hypotheses for why intermediate-depth earthquakes occur. For all large (Mw ≥5.7) intermediate-depth earthquakes (60-360 km depth) in South America since 1990, I analyze rupture directivity to try to distinguish which of the two possible fault planes of the focal mechanism slipped in the earthquake. Of the 163 earthquakes that met the selection criteria, half were recorded with a sufficient distribution of stations to determine if there was directivity to the rupture and fault planes were identified for 31 events. Fault plane orientations are spatially coherent. In regions with "normal" subduction angles, such as the Central Volcanic Zone (southern Peru to central Chile), results are consistent with previous studies in Central America and the western Pacific subduction zones: most earthquakes rupture along subhorizontal faults and rupture azimuths are randomly distributed. In the Peruvian Flat Slab, identified fault planes dip eastward. After taking into account the angle of subduction, these faults are perpendicular to the faults that rupture in regions with normal subduction angles. Within sharply curved slab segments, such as the rebending of the plate at the eastern edge of the Peruvian flat slab, both orientations of faults slip. The observed flip in dominant fault plane orientation on either side of sharply curved slab segments suggests that bending and unbending stresses have an important role in controlling fault orientations. Pre-existing weak zones may

  11. Cytoplasmic peptidoglycan intermediate levels in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Harika; Ayon, Navid J; Gutheil, William G

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular cytoplasmic peptidoglycan (PG) intermediate levels were determined in Staphylococcus aureus during log-phase growth in enriched media. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates were quantitatively determined using ion pairing LC-MS/MS in negative mode, and amine intermediates were quantitatively determined stereospecifically as their Marfey's reagent derivatives in positive mode. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates in S. aureus varied from 1.4 μM for UDP-GlcNAc-Enolpyruvyate to 1200 μM for UDP-MurNAc. Levels of amine intermediates (L-Ala, D-Ala, D-Ala-D-Ala, L-Glu, D-Glu, and L-Lys) varied over a range of from 860 μM for D-Ala-D-Ala to 30-260 mM for the others. Total PG was determined from the D-Glu content of isolated PG, and used to estimate the rate of PG synthesis (in terms of cytoplasmic metabolite flux) as 690 μM/min. The total UDP-linked intermediates pool (2490 μM) is therefore sufficient to sustain growth for 3.6 min. Comparison of UDP-linked metabolite levels with published pathway enzyme characteristics demonstrates that enzymes on the UDP-branch range from >80% saturation for MurA, Z, and C, to <5% saturation for MurB. Metabolite levels were compared with literature values for Escherichia coli, with the major difference in UDP-intermediates being the level of UDP-MurNAc, which was high in S. aureus (1200 μM) and low in E. coli (45 μM).

  12. The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-12-01

    An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer

  13. Hydroxyacetone production from C3 Criegee intermediates

    DOE PAGES

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Liu, Fang; Rotavera, Brandon; ...

    2016-12-21

    Hydroxyacetone (CH3C(O)CH2OH) is observed as a stable end product from reactions of the (CH3)2COO Criegee intermediate, acetone oxide, in a flow tube coupled with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer detection. In the experiment, the isomers at m/z = 74 are distinguished by their different photoionization spectra and reaction times. Hydroxyacetone is observed as a persistent signal at longer reaction times at a higher photoionization threshold of ca. 9.7 eV than Criegee intermediate and definitively identified by comparison with the known photoionization spectrum. Complementary electronic structure calculations reveal multiple possible reaction pathways for hydroxyacetone formation, including unimolecular isomerization via hydrogen atom transfermore » and –OH group migration as well as self-reaction of Criegee intermediates. Varying the concentration of Criegee intermediates suggests contributions from both unimolecular and self-reaction pathways to hydroxyacetone. As a result, the hydroxyacetone end product can provide an effective, stable marker for the production of transient Criegee intermediates in future studies of alkene ozonolysis.« less

  14. Hydroxyacetone Production From C3 Criegee Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Taatjes, Craig A; Liu, Fang; Rotavera, Brandon; Kumar, Manoj; Caravan, Rebecca; Osborn, David L; Thompson, Ward H; Lester, Marsha I

    2017-01-12

    Hydroxyacetone (CH3C(O)CH2OH) is observed as a stable end product from reactions of the (CH3)2COO Criegee intermediate, acetone oxide, in a flow tube coupled with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer detection. In the experiment, the isomers at m/z = 74 are distinguished by their different photoionization spectra and reaction times. Hydroxyacetone is observed as a persistent signal at longer reaction times at a higher photoionization threshold of ca. 9.7 eV than Criegee intermediate and definitively identified by comparison with the known photoionization spectrum. Complementary electronic structure calculations reveal multiple possible reaction pathways for hydroxyacetone formation, including unimolecular isomerization via hydrogen atom transfer and -OH group migration as well as self-reaction of Criegee intermediates. Varying the concentration of Criegee intermediates suggests contributions from both unimolecular and self-reaction pathways to hydroxyacetone. The hydroxyacetone end product can provide an effective, stable marker for the production of transient Criegee intermediates in future studies of alkene ozonolysis.

  15. Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans.

    PubMed

    Stramma, Lothar; Johnson, Gregory C; Sprintall, Janet; Mohrholz, Volker

    2008-05-02

    Oxygen-poor waters occupy large volumes of the intermediate-depth eastern tropical oceans. Oxygen-poor conditions have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems because important mobile macroorganisms avoid or cannot survive in hypoxic zones. Climate models predict declines in oceanic dissolved oxygen produced by global warming. We constructed 50-year time series of dissolved-oxygen concentration for select tropical oceanic regions by augmenting a historical database with recent measurements. These time series reveal vertical expansion of the intermediate-depth low-oxygen zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and the equatorial Pacific during the past 50 years. The oxygen decrease in the 300- to 700-m layer is 0.09 to 0.34 micromoles per kilogram per year. Reduced oxygen levels may have dramatic consequences for ecosystems and coastal economies.

  16. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  17. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  18. Methane flux and oxidation at two types of intermediate landfill covers

    SciTech Connect

    Abichou, Tarek . E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu; Chanton, Jeffery; Powelson, David; Fleiger, Jill; Escoriaza, Sharon; Lei, Yuan; Stern, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Methane emissions were measured on two areas at a Florida (USA) landfill using the static chamber technique. Because existing literature contains few measurements of methane emissions and oxidation in intermediate cover areas, this study focused on field measurement of emissions at 15-cm-thick non-vegetated intermediate cover overlying 1-year-old waste and a 45-cm-thick vegetated intermediate cover overlying 7-year-old waste. The 45 cm thick cover can also simulate non-engineered covers associated with older closed landfills. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. The arithmetic means of the measured fluxes were 54 and 22 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} from the thin cover and the thick cover, respectively. The peak flux was 596 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thin cover and 330 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thick cover. The mean percent oxidation was significantly greater (25%) at the thick cover relative to the thin cover (14%). This difference only partly accounted for the difference in emissions from the two sites. Inverse distance weighing was used to describe the spatial variation of flux emissions from each cover type. The geospatial mean flux was 21.6 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thick intermediate cover and 50.0 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thin intermediate cover. High emission zones in the thick cover were fewer and more isolated, while high emission zones in the thin cover were continuous and covered a larger area. These differences in the emission patterns suggest that different CH{sub 4} mitigation techniques should be applied to the two areas. For the thick intermediate cover, we suggest that effective mitigation of methane emissions could be achieved by placement of individualized compost cells over high emission zones. Emissions from the thin intermediate cover, on the other hand, can be mitigated by placing a compost layer over the entire area.

  19. Photon ratchet intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Farrell, D. J.; Phillips, C. C.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative concept for solar power conversion—the "photon ratchet" intermediate band solar cell (IBSC)—which may increase the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of IBSCs by increasing the lifetime of charge carriers in the intermediate state. The limiting efficiency calculation for this concept shows that the efficiency can be increased by introducing a fast thermal transition of carriers into a non-emissive state. At 1 sun, the introduction of a "ratchet band" results in an increase of efficiency from 46.8% to 48.5%, due to suppression of entropy generation.

  20. Intermediate load-center photovoltaic application experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of nine intermediate load-center photovoltaic systems were carried into the construction phase this year. These nine systems range in size from 20 to 225 kW/sub p/ electrical output and total almost 1 MW/sub p/. They are being installed in a diverse set of applications and locations and represent the bulk of the photovoltaic initial system evaluation experiments (ISEE) for the intermediate load-center sector. Each of these experiments are briefly described and the status of the construction phase is given for each project.

  1. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  2. Genetics of alcoholism using intermediate phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Schuckit, Marc A; Johnson, Bankole A; Goldman, David

    2003-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in San Francisco, CA. It was organized by Mary-Anne Enoch and David Goldman and chaired by David Goldman. The presentations were (1) Two functional polymorphisms and their intermediate phenotypes in complex behaviors: COMT/executive cognition and anxiety and HTT/anxiety, by David Goldman; (2) Role of the EEG in determining genetic risk for alcoholism and anxiety disorders, by Mary-Anne Enoch; (3) The response to alcohol as an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism, by Marc A. Schuckit; and (4) Pharmacogenomic approaches to alcoholism treatment: toward a hypothesis, by Bankole A. Johnson.

  3. Seismicity of the eastern Hellenic Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruestle, A.; Kueperkoch, L.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.; Egelados Working Group

    2012-04-01

    The Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) is the seismically most active region of Europe. The African plate is subducting beneath the Aegean lithosphere with a relative velocity of 4 cm per year. A detailed picture of the microseismicity of the eastern HSZ was obtained by the recordings of the temporary networks CYCNET (September 2002 - September 2005) and EGELADOS (October 2005 - March 2007). In total, nearly 7000 earthquakes were located with a location uncertainty of less than 20 km. The SE Aegean is dominated by (1) shallow intraplate seismicity within the Aegean plate, by (2) interplate seismicity at the plate contact and by (3) intermediate deep seismicity along the subducting African slab. Strong shallow seismicity in the upper plate is observed along the Ptolemy graben south of Crete extending towards the Karpathos Basin, indicating intense recent deformation of the forearc. In contrary, low shallow seismicity around Rhodes indicates only minor seismic crustal deformation of the upper plate. An almost NS-striking zone of microseismicity has been located, running from the Karpathos basin via the Nisyros volcanic complex towards the EW striking Gökova graben. In the SE Aegean the geometry of the Wadati-Benioff-Zone (WBZ) within the subducting African plate is revealed in detail by the observed microseismicity. Between about 50 to 100 km depth a continuous band of intermediate deep seismicity describes the strongly curved geometry of the slab. From the central to the eastern margin of the HSZ, the dip direction of the WBZ changes from N to NW with a strong increase of the dip angle beneath the eastern Cretan Sea. The margin of the dipping African slab is marked by an abrupt end of the observed WBZ beneath SW Anatolia. Below 100 km depth, the WBZ of the eastern HSZ is dominated by an isolated cluster of intense intermediate deep seismicity (at 100-180 km depth) beneath the Nisyros volcanic complex. It has an extension of about 100x80 km and is build up of 3 parallel

  4. Arid Zone Hydrology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  5. Microgravity Silicon Zoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research program is directed toward the understanding of the float zone crystal growth process, the melt interactions which lead to crystal inhomogeneities, and the influence of microgravity on reducing these inhomogeneities. Silicon was selected as the model crystal because its inhomogeneities lead to known variations in device performance, and because the mechanisms involved in its growth are understood better than for other high temperature crystals. The objective of the program is to understand the growth mechanisms in float zone growth and thereby determine the feasibility and advantages of float zone growth of silicon under microgravity conditions. This will be done by characterizing the growth at g = 1, projecting the changes in melt flows due to microgravity, observing these in space growth and determining the effects on defective inhomogeneities. A Thin Rod Zoner was constructed as a laboratory prototype for flight growth of 5 mm diameter silicon crystals, which can be done within the power and cooling capabilities of shuttle flights. A new method of zoning silicon, using resistance heating, has resulted in melting 5 mm diameter ingots.

  6. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    PubMed

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  7. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5093 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), makes a visual check of the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF), a single-rack-mounted facility in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  8. Stretching the comfort zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-08-01

    Bruce C. Gibb is organizing a workshop for two groups of scientists that study a similar topic, but rarely get together. The different perspectives they bring and the unusual set up of the meeting will hopefully lead to new ideas, but, as he suggests, they will also lead to the attendees leaving their comfort zones.

  9. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning.

  10. Dilution Zone Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.

  11. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  12. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  13. Nucleation via an unstable intermediate phase.

    PubMed

    Sear, Richard P

    2009-08-21

    The pathway for crystallization from dilute vapors and solutions is often observed to take a detour via a liquid or concentrated-solution phase. For example, in moist subzero air, droplets of liquid water form, which then freeze. In this example and in many others, an intermediate phase (here liquid water) is dramatically accelerating the kinetics of a phase transition between two other phases (water vapor and ice). Here we study this phenomenon via exact computer simulations of a simple lattice model. Surprisingly, we find that the rate of nucleation of the new equilibrium phase is actually fastest when the intermediate phase is slightly unstable in the bulk, i.e., has a slightly higher free energy than the phase we start in. Nucleation occurs at a concave part of the surface and microscopic amounts of the intermediate phase can form there even before the phase is stable in the bulk. As the nucleus of the equilibrium phase is microscopic, this allows nucleation to occur effectively in the intermediate phase before it is stable in the bulk.

  14. NTTC Course 215: Intermediate Water Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is the examination booklet used for a home study course in water treatment. This course is the intermediate part of a series produced by the Department of the Navy. This publication is designed to be used in conjunction with a textbook. Each of the two examinations contained in this document are referenced to a section of the…

  15. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  16. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  17. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  18. Fostering teamwork in an intermediate care unit.

    PubMed

    Spence, Heather; Cappleman, Julia

    2011-06-01

    The government has emphasised that, to deliver high quality, integrated care, staff must work across organisational boundaries using a team approach so that everyone works towards the same goals. This article describes how one NHS-managed intermediate care unit has integrated care staff employed by the independent sector.

  19. NTTC Course 215: Intermediate Water Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is the examination booklet used for a home study course in water treatment. This course is the intermediate part of a series produced by the Department of the Navy. This publication is designed to be used in conjunction with a textbook. Each of the two examinations contained in this document are referenced to a section of the…

  20. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  1. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  2. Giano Intermediate School: The Parent Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Hartzman, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    On a Wednesday morning at Giano Intermediate School in West Covina, California, 25 mothers and fathers sit in rapt attention, many taking notes, as a school counselor outlines the morning's Parent Chat. The session is devoted to exploring how well the parents know their children. Parents complete a questionnaire that asks them to answer such…

  3. Using Drosophila for Studies of Intermediate Filaments.

    PubMed

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Thiemann, Dylan A; Magin, Thomas M; Wallrath, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful organism for determining protein function and modeling human disease. Drosophila offers a rapid generation time and an abundance of genomic resources and genetic tools. Conservation in protein structure, signaling pathways, and developmental processes make studies performed in Drosophila relevant to other species, including humans. Drosophila models have been generated for neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and many other disorders. Recently, intermediate filament protein diseases have been modeled in Drosophila. These models have revealed novel mechanisms of pathology, illuminated potential new routes of therapy, and make whole organism compound screens feasible. The goal of this chapter is to outline steps to study intermediate filament function and model intermediate filament-associated diseases in Drosophila. The steps are general and can be applied to study the function of almost any protein. The protocols outlined here are for both the novice and experienced Drosophila researcher, allowing the rich developmental and cell biology that Drosophila offers to be applied to studies of intermediate filaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reading Resource Manual for Intermediate Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Diane; Feeley, Dot

    This guide describes where specific skills are emphasized in the three reading texts (published by Ginn, Holt, and Lyons and Carnhan) used in the intermediate grades in the Stoneham (Massachusetts) Public School System. The four major sections of the book are color-coded and include phonetic and structural analysis, vocabulary development, study…

  5. Measuring. USMES Intermediate "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of five booklets on measuring, intermediate grade students learn how to use a stopwatch, choose the right tool to measure distance, use a trundle wheel, make a scale drawing, and find the speed of things. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range…

  6. Membrane Fission: Model for Intermediate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane budding-fission is a fundamental process generating intracellular carriers of proteins. Earlier works were focused only on formation of coated buds connected to the initial membrane by narrow membrane necks. We present the theoretical analysis of the whole pathway of budding-fission, including the crucial stage where the membrane neck undergoes fission and the carrier separates from the donor membrane. We consider two successive intermediates of the reaction: 1), a constricted membrane neck coming out of aperture of the assembling protein coat, and 2), hemifission intermediate resulting from self-fusion of the inner monolayer of the neck, while its outer monolayer remains continuous. Transformation of the constricted neck into the hemifission intermediate is driven by the membrane stress produced in the neck by the protein coat. Although apparently similar to hemifusion, the fission is predicted to have an opposite dependence on the monolayer spontaneous curvature. Analysis of the further stages of the process demonstrates that in all practically important cases the hemifission intermediate decays spontaneously into two separate membranes, thereby completing the fission process. We formulate the “job description” for fission proteins by calculating the energy they have to deliver and the radii of the protein coat aperture which have to be reached to drive the fission process. PMID:12829467

  7. The Intermediate Unit as a Change Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Jerry B.

    Major benefits are to be derived from the establishment of a middle echelon agency functioning as a link between the State department of education and local school districts. Such an intermediate unit is the ideal agency not only to provide services in high cost, low pupil incidence areas, but also to be the needed change agent for education. It…

  8. A Concurrent Support Course for Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cameron I.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the creation and implementation of a concurrent support class for TRS 92--Intermediate Algebra, a developmental mathematics course at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. The concurrent course outlined in this article demonstrates a statistically significant increase in student success rates since its inception.…

  9. Capabilities of proprietary intermediate telehealth devices.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Oluseun; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Proprietary intermediate telehealth devices are those which are specifically designed as connectors between the entities of telehealth systems. This article seeks to understand what are the capabilities of such devices and then to investigate how these are clustered on the current generation of devices. Fourteen current-generation devices available from 12 device providers were selected and analyzed. Four categories of questions were composed to evaluate the devices: setup/configuration, available features, inputs, and outputs. Data were collected and synthesized on the following capabilities: availability from suppliers, setup, environments of use, multiple-condition monitoring, multiuser capabilities, prompts, reminders and alerts, interaction with the health professional, access to historical data, device inputs, and their transfer technology. There are three main roles for proprietary intermediate devices in telehealth systems: displaying information to the patient; receiving data manually/automatically; forwarding results and questionnaire responses to another entity. Provider Perspective: Intermediate devices are usually part of closed proprietary systems. Providers produce disease-customisable devices. Connectivity is considerably ahead of the current generation of point-of-care devices. However, little data are available on connection to rest of the proprietary system. Patient Perspective: It shows clear benefit that one intermediate device can be potentially used with several chronic conditions. Simple setup, authentication procedures, and automatic data transfer are key design aspects. Health Professional Perspective: Little direct interaction with the health professional was observed. Payer Perspective: Details of costs of devices are generally unavailable; system providers indicate that cost variability is based on "user requirements."

  10. Giano Intermediate School: The Parent Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Hartzman, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    On a Wednesday morning at Giano Intermediate School in West Covina, California, 25 mothers and fathers sit in rapt attention, many taking notes, as a school counselor outlines the morning's Parent Chat. The session is devoted to exploring how well the parents know their children. Parents complete a questionnaire that asks them to answer such…

  11. Teacher Education for the Intermediate School Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainbrook, James R., Jr.

    The aim of this 1970 investigation was to analyze the professional education of Indiana's intermediate school teachers. This analysis involved a comparison of the data collected from middle and junior high school teachers. Results obtained from the junior high school teachers were also utilized in a second comparison with the findings from a…

  12. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  13. Law Enforcement Careers. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.S.

    Intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of six terminal objectives for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course designed to provide high school juniors and seniors with basic law enforcement skills and knowledge. Titles of the six terminal objectives are State Criminal Code, Patrol Methods and…

  14. The intermediate anomaly. [satellite orbit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacozy, P.

    1977-01-01

    Time transformations of the equation dt = cr to the n ds, where s is a variable called the intermediate anomaly, are known to reduce global error in the solution of gravitational systems obtained by numerical integration. Attention is given to the Sundman time transformation, and its relation to equations of Keplerian elliptical motion.

  15. Intermediate Tamil: A Self-Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold

    This self-instructional method for learning an intermediate level of Tamil is designed to follow an elementary level such as "Conversational Tamil." The material in this text concentrates on grammatical constructions not covered in that elementary text, particularly negatives of all kinds; in addition, this text uses the same transcription and the…

  16. Renne Intermediate School Features Personalized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Renne (Oregon) Intermediate School offers an innovative program of personalized instruction to students in grades 6-8. Teachers work closely with individual students, following a continuous progress curriculum which allows cross-grade-level placement in the core areas of math, reading, and language arts. Based on cooperative district planning, the…

  17. Predicting Student Success in Intermediate Accounting I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to find some quantitative predictors of student success in Intermediate Accounting I that an advisor can use as an aid in student counseling. The AICPA Level I Form C test and the average grade in principles courses proved to be reasonable predictors of success. (CT)

  18. Intermediate filaments: a role in epithelial polarity

    PubMed Central

    Oriolo, Andrea S.; Wald, Flavia A.; Ramsauer, Victoria P.; Salas, Pedro J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Intermediate filaments have long been considered mechanical components of the cell that provide resistance to deformation stress. Practical experimental problems, including insolubility, lack of good pharmacological antagonists, and the paucity of powerful genetic models, have handicapped the research of other functions. In single-layered epithelial cells, keratin intermediate filaments are cortical, either apically polarized or apico-lateral. This review analyzes phenotypes of genetic manipulations of simple epithelial cell keratins in mice and C. elegans that strongly suggest a role of keratins in apico-basal polarization and membrane traffic. Published evidence that intermediate filaments can act as scaffolds for proteins involved in membrane traffic and signaling is also discussed. Such a scaffolding function would generate a highly polarized compartment within the cytoplasm of simple epithelial cells. While in most cases mechanistic explanations for the keratin-null or overexpression phenotypes are still missing, it is hoped investigators will be encouraged to study these as yet poorly understood functions of intermediate filaments. PMID:17425955

  19. A Concurrent Support Course for Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cameron I.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the creation and implementation of a concurrent support class for TRS 92--Intermediate Algebra, a developmental mathematics course at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. The concurrent course outlined in this article demonstrates a statistically significant increase in student success rates since its inception.…

  20. Health Education for Special Children: Intermediate EMR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Patrick; And Others

    Intended for teachers and administrators in special education, the curriculum guide offers information on planning a health education program for educable mentally retarded children in intermediate grades. Sections preceding the actual guide include information on specific goals of and elements necessary for a successful health education program,…

  1. Health Education for Special Children: Intermediate TMR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Patrick; And Others

    Intended for teachers and administrators in special education, the curriculum guide offers information on planning a health education program for trainable mentally handicapped children in intermediate grades. Sections preceding the actual guide include information on specific goals of and elements necessary for a successful health education…

  2. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  3. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  4. 49 CFR 568.5 - Requirements for intermediate manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for intermediate manufacturers. 568.5...-ALL INCOMPLETE, INTERMEDIATE AND FINAL-STAGE MANUFACTURERS OF VEHICLES MANUFACTURED IN TWO OR MORE STAGES § 568.5 Requirements for intermediate manufacturers. Each intermediate manufacturer of a...

  5. Single-disk diffusion testing (Kirby-Bauer) of susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis to chloramphenicol: significance of the intermediate category.

    PubMed

    Furtado, G L; Medeiros, A A

    1980-10-01

    The significance of the intermediate category of the single-disk diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer) of antibiotic susceptibility has never been clearly defined. Thirty-two percent of 756 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were of intermediate susceptibility to chloramphenicol, a higher percentage than for any other species. The breakpoint separating susceptible and intermediate isolates nearly bisected the frequency distribution of zone diameters of P. mirabilis but not that of the other species. The breakpoint separating susceptible and intermediate isolates nearly bisected the frequency distribution of zone diameters of P. mirabillis but not that of the other species tested. By serial broth dilution testing, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chloramphenicol of 50 individual isolates of P. mirabilis were 3.9 to 22.1 micrograms/ml (geometric mean, 8.0), whereas the MICs of susceptible Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter strains were 2.0 to 3.9 micrograms/ml (geometric mean, 2.9). Seventy percent of isolates of P. mirabilis with MICs of 7.8 to 15.6 micrograms/ml were classified as susceptible by disk testing. We conclude that existing Kirby-Bauer breakpoints do not accurately discriminate P. mirabilis isolates that are marginally susceptible to chloramphenicol. These data underscore the difficulty of applying a single set of breakpoints to all species and suggest that species-specific breakpoints would more accurately predict the MIC equivalent of given zone diameters.

  6. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  7. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  8. Influence of Intermediate Stress on Yielding of Berea Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourine, S.; Karner, S. L.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Chester, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    The onset of brittle failure of Berea sandstone has been investigated under varying stress states by subjecting solid and hollow cylindrical samples to confining pressure Pc (to 120 MPa) and axial stress σ z (to 260 MPa) in a conventional triaxial deformation apparatus. Inelastic yielding of solid and hollow samples is marked by cascading acoustic emissions and axial displacements that depart from the initial linear elastic response. For hollow samples, uniaxial (σ z > σ Θ = σ r = 0) and biaxial (σ z > σ Θ > σ r = 0 or σ Θ > σ z > σ r = 0) stress states are obtained with deviators that (1) are maximum at the inner wall, (2) decay in a predictable manner with increasing radius prior to yielding, and (3) are insensitive to frictional boundary conditions at piston-sample contacts throughout much of the sample. X-ray CT scans of deformed samples reveal different modes of failure associated with the stress states imposed. Zones of anomalous X-ray density within hollow samples that mark deformed sandstone are localized near the inner wall, nearly midway between sample ends, and inner walls have lost their cylindrical geometry. Axial cavities of hollow samples become elliptical when axial stress is the intermediate principal stress (σ z = σ 2), with geometries resembling wellbore break-outs used to infer in-situ horizontal stresses in scientific drilling studies, while toroidal spalls are developed when the tangential stress is the intermediate stress (σ Θ = σ 2). Our results for solid specimens under conventional triaxial conditions (σ z > σ r = σ Θ > 0) are in agreement with results reported for Berea sandstone. However, the results for hollow specimens require a yield criterion that includes intermediate stress σ 2. Yield criteria that fit our combined data may be expressed in terms of first and second invariants of stress I1 and J2; for example, using the modified Wiebols and Cook (1968) criterion, J21/2 = A + B I1 + C I12, data for Berea

  9. Hybrid zones and the speciation continuum in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K

    2012-12-01

    Tropical butterflies in the genus Heliconius have long been models in the study of the stages of speciation. Heliconius are unpalatable to predators, and many species are notable for multiple geographic populations with striking warning colour pattern differences associated with Müllerian mimicry. A speciation continuum is evident in Heliconius hybrid zones. Examples range from hybrid zones across which (a) there is little genetic differentiation other than at mimicry loci, but where hybrids are common, (b) to 'bimodal' hybrid zones with strong genetic divergence and few hybrids, (c) through to 'good' sympatric species, with hybridization extremely rare or absent. Now, in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Arias et al. (2012) have found an intermediate case in Colombian Heliconius cydno showing evidence for assortative mating and molecular differences, but where hybrids are abundant.

  10. Decoupling of Pacific subduction zone guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.

    2010-12-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals have been observed in many circum Pacific subduction zones and have been attributed to the presence of a low velocity layer (LVL) in the subducting slab. This LVL acts as a waveguide for the high frequency energy, while lower frequency energy is not retained and travels in the higher velocity surrounding mantle. This leads to the characteristic dispersion of seismic waves observed. The commonly accepted model for the LVL is the persistence of basaltic oceanic crust to a depth of greater than 150 km. This basaltic oceanic crust has not yet undergone phase transformation to eclogite due to kinetic hindering, and so still has a distinguishably lower velocity than the surrounding mantle. It has been shown that guided waves are only seen from events that occur in or near to the low velocity layer. Similarly it would be expected that guided waves are only seen when the receiver is on the wave guide. However in a subduction zone setting it has been shown that guided wave energy is decoupled from the waveguide, due to the bend of the slab (Martin et al., 2003). Therefore high frequency guided wave energy escapes the waveguide and so can be observed at receivers placed in specific positions on the overriding plate. This decoupling mechanism allows guided waves from intermediate and deep Wadati-Benioff zone earthquakes to be observed. We use a two dimensional finite difference model to investigate the decoupling of wave guide energy due to the geometry of various Pacific subduction zones in order to predict the occurrence of guided wave arrivals along up-dip and along-strike propagation paths. The slab geometry is inferred from the USGS slab contour model slab 1.0. An explosive source is used so that frequency effects of the source do not complicate the results. The thickness of the LVL is inferred from published observations of Pacific subduction zone guided waves. For the along-strike profile we concentrate on the observations of guided

  11. Deer use of riparian zones and adjacent pine plantations in Texas

    Treesearch

    Micah L. Poteet; Ronald E. Thill; R. Montague Whiting; R. Lee Rayburn

    1996-01-01

    The authors monitored white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of riparian zones (RZ’s) and adjacent pine plantations of 3 age classes (young, 1 to 3 years old; intermediate, 5 to 7 years old; and older, 9 to 13 years old) using radio telemetry for 2 years on a 1,300 ha study area near Alto, TX. Riparian zones comprised 22.0 percent of the area; young,...

  12. Intermediates and kinetics of membrane fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, J

    1992-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that the influenza virus fusion protein, hemagglutinin (HA), produces membrane destabilization and fusion by a multistep process, which involves the aggregation of the HAs to form a fusion site. While the details of this process are under debate, it is important to recognize that proposing any sequence of "microscopic" fusion intermediates encumbers general "macroscopic" kinetic consequences, i.e., with respect to membrane mixing rates. Using a kinetic scheme which incorporates the essential elements of several recently proposed models, some of these measurable properties have been elucidated. First, a rigorous mathematical relationship between fusion intermediates and the fusion event itself is defined. Second, it is shown that what is measured as the macroscopic "fusion rate constant" is a simple function of all of the rate constants governing the transitions between intermediates, whether or not one of the microscopic steps is rate limiting. Third, while this kinetic scheme predicts a delay (or lag) time for fusion, as has been observed, it will be very difficult to extract reliable microscopic information from these data. Furthermore, it is predicted that the delay time can depend upon HA surface density even when the HA aggregation step is very rapid compared with fusion, i.e., the delay time need not be due to HA aggregation. Fourth, the inactivation process observed for influenza virions at low pH can be described within this kinetic scheme simply, yet rigorously, via the loss of the fusion intermediates. Fifth, predicted Arrhenius plots of fusion rates can be linear for this multistep scheme, even though there is no single rate-determining step and even when a branched step is introduced, i.e., where one pathway predominates at low temperature and the other pathway predominates at high temperature. Furthermore, the apparent activation energies obtained from these plots bear little or no quantitative resemblance to the

  13. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  14. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  15. Role of H2O in Generating Subduction Zone Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, A.

    2017-03-01

    A dense nationwide seismic network and high seismic activity in Japan have provided a large volume of high-quality data, enabling high-resolution imaging of the seismic structures defining the Japanese subduction zones. Here, the role of H2O in generating earthquakes in subduction zones is discussed based mainly on recent seismic studies in Japan using these high-quality data. Locations of intermediate-depth intraslab earthquakes and seismic velocity and attenuation structures within the subducted slab provide evidence that strongly supports intermediate-depth intraslab earthquakes, although the details leading to the earthquake rupture are still poorly understood. Coseismic rotations of the principal stress axes observed after great megathrust earthquakes demonstrate that the plate interface is very weak, which is probably caused by overpressured fluids. Detailed tomographic imaging of the seismic velocity structure in and around plate boundary zones suggests that interplate coupling is affected by local fluid overpressure. Seismic tomography studies also show the presence of inclined sheet-like seismic low-velocity, high-attenuation zones in the mantle wedge. These may correspond to the upwelling flow portion of subduction-induced secondary convection in the mantle wedge. The upwelling flows reach the arc Moho directly beneath the volcanic areas, suggesting a direct relationship. H2O originally liberated from the subducted slab is transported by this upwelling flow to the arc crust. The H2O that reaches the crust is overpressured above hydrostatic values, weakening the surrounding crustal rocks and decreasing the shear strength of faults, thereby inducing shallow inland earthquakes. These observations suggest that H2O expelled from the subducting slab plays an important role in generating subduction zone earthquakes both within the subduction zone itself and within the magmatic arc occupying its hanging wall.

  16. Arid Zone Geosystems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    the transition of the emphasis of the Nahal Yael Research Project from the direct measurement approach of the late six- ties and early seventies, to...lffLASSIFIEDflfl ARID ZONE GEOSYSTEMS A RESEARCH REPORT C- EDITED BY ASHER P. SCHICK fr~ PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY I INSTITUTE OF EARTH SCIENCESi o THE HEBREW...second comprehensive collection and analysis of geosystem- oriented environmental data based on the Nahal Yael Research Watershed, located in the Negev

  17. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  18. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  19. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  20. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets."

  1. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Carious Dentin from Transparent Zone to Normal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Yao, X.; Liu, Y.W.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses. PMID:24556607

  2. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy W

    2013-02-01

    A leading idea about how disturbances and other environmental fluctuations affect species diversity is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). The IDH states that diversity of competing species is, or should be expected to be, maximized at intermediate frequencies and/or intensities of disturbance or environmental change. I argue that the IDH has been refuted on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and so should be abandoned. Empirical studies only rarely find the predicted humped diversity-disturbance relationship. Theoretically, the three major mechanisms thought to produce humped diversity-disturbance relationships are logically invalid and do not actually predict what they are thought to predict. Disturbances and other environmental fluctuations can affect diversity, but for different reasons than are commonly recognized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Substrate Activation by Iron Superoxo Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of non-heme-iron oxygenases and oxidases catalyze reactions for which the well-established mechanistic paradigm involving a single C-H-bond cleaving intermediate of the Fe(IV)-oxo (ferryl) type [1] is insufficient to explain the chemistry. It is becoming clear that, in several of these cases, Fe(III)-superoxide complexes formed by simple addition of O2 to the reduced [Fe(II)] cofactor initiate substrate oxidation by abstracting hydrogen [2]. This substrate-oxidizing entry route into high-valent-iron intermediates makes possible an array of complex and elegant oxidation reactions without consumption of valuable reducing equivalents. Examples of this novel mechanistic strategy are discussed with the goal of bringing forth unifying principles. PMID:20951572

  4. Colloidal Nanoparticles for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia; Zimanyi, Gergely T.

    2015-07-28

    The Intermediate Band (IB) solar cell concept is a promising idea to transcend the Shockley–Queisser limit. Using the results of first-principles calculations, we propose that colloidal nanoparticles (CNPs) are a viable and efficient platform for the implementation of the IB solar cell concept. We focused on CdSe CNPs and we showed that intragap states present in the isolated CNPs with reconstructed surfaces combine to form an IB in arrays of CNPs, which is well separated from the valence and conduction band edges. We demonstrated that optical transitions to and from the IB are active. We also showed that the IB can be electron doped in a solution, e.g., by decamethylcobaltocene, thus activating an IB-induced absorption process. Our results, together with the recent report of a nearly 10% efficient CNP solar cell, indicate that colloidal nanoparticle intermediate band solar cells are a promising platform to overcome the Shockley–Queisser limit.

  5. Management applicability of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis across Mongolian rangeland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takehiro; Okubo, Satoru; Okayasu, Tomoo; Jamsran, Undarmaa; Ohkuro, Toshiya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2009-03-01

    The current growing body of evidence for diversity-disturbance relationships suggests that the peaked pattern predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) may not be the rule. Even if ecologists could quantify the diversity-disturbance relationship consistent with the IDH, the applicability of the IDH to land management has rarely been addressed. We examined two hypotheses related to the generality and management applicability of the IDH to Mongolian rangeland ecosystems: that the diversity-disturbance relationship varies as a function of landscape condition and that some intermediate scales of grazing can play an important role in terms of sustainable rangeland management through a grazing gradient approach. We quantified the landscape condition of each ecological site using an ordination technique and determined two types of landscape conditions: relatively benign and harsh environmental conditions. At the ecological sites characterized by relatively benign environmental conditions, diversity-disturbance relationships were generally consistent with the IDH, and maximum diversity was observed at some intermediate distance from the source of the grazing gradient. In contrast, the IDH was not supported at most (but not all) sites characterized by relatively harsh environmental conditions. The intermediate levels of grazing were generally located below the ecological threshold representing the points or zones at which disturbance should be limited to prevent drastic changes in ecological conditions, suggesting that there is little "conundrum" with regard to intermediate disturbance in the studied systems in terms of land management. We suggest that the landscape condition is one of the primary factors that cause inconsistencies in diversity-disturbance relationships. The ecological threshold can extend its utility in rangeland management because it also has the compatibility with the maintenance of species diversity. This study thus suggests that some

  6. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Daxi; Beach, Duane E.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test Data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range.Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  7. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  8. Dwarf nova outbursts in intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, J.-M.; Lasota, J.-P.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The disc instability model (DIM) has been very successful in explaining the dwarf nova outbursts observed in cataclysmic variables. When, as in intermediate polars, the accreting white dwarf is magnetised, the disc is truncated at the magnetospheric radius, but for mass-transfer rates corresponding to the thermal-viscous instability such systems should still exhibit dwarf-nova outbursts. Yet, the majority of intermediate polars, in which the magnetic field is not large enough to completely disrupt the accretion disc, seem to be stable, and the rare observed outbursts, in particular in systems with long orbital periods, are much shorter than normal dwarf-nova outbursts. Aims: We investigate the predictions of the disc instability model for intermediate polars in order to determine which of the observed properties of these systems can be explained by the DIM. Methods: We use our numerical code for the time evolution of accretion discs, modified to include the effects of the magnetic field, with constant or variable mass transfer from the secondary star. Results: We show that intermediate polars have mass transfer low enough and magnetic fields large enough to keep the accretion disc stable on the cold equilibrium branch. We show that the infrequent and short outbursts observed in long-period systems, such as, for example, TV Col, cannot be attributed to the thermal-viscous instability of the accretion disc, but instead have to be triggered by an enhanced mass-transfer from the secondary, or, more likely, by some instability coupling the white dwarf magnetic field with that generated by the magnetorotational instability operating in the accretion disc. Longer outbursts (a few days) could result from the disc instability.

  9. Warm-intermediate inflationary universe model

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon E-mail: ramon.herrera@ucv.cl

    2009-04-15

    Warm inflationary universe models in the context of intermediate expansion, between power law and exponential, are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. The inflaton potentials considered in this study are negative-power-law and powers of logarithms, respectively. The parameters of our models are constrained from the WMAP three and five year data.

  10. Radicals: Reactive Intermediates with Translational Potential

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This Perspective illustrates the defining characteristics of free radical chemistry, beginning with its rich and storied history. Studies from our laboratory are discussed along with recent developments emanating from others in this burgeoning area. The practicality and chemoselectivity of radical reactions enable rapid access to molecules of relevance to drug discovery, agrochemistry, material science, and other disciplines. Thus, these reactive intermediates possess inherent translational potential, as they can be widely used to expedite scientific endeavors for the betterment of humankind. PMID:27631602

  11. The middle of the road: perceiving intermediates.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Ivana; Burro, Roberto; Torquati, Stefania; Savardi, Ugo

    2013-09-01

    This article aims to study the extension and immediacy of the perception of intermediates during the observation of images showing a variation in a spatial property from one extreme (e.g. at the top of a mountain) to the opposite extreme (e.g. at the bottom of a mountain). Three experiments were carried out: rating tasks were used in studies 1 and 3 and a classification task in study 2. Three main results emerged. The first result (concerning extension) is that people consistently recognize some instances of a dimension as intermediates (neither a… nor b) rather than as one or the other opposite pole (a, b). The number of these cases ranges from one to most of the experiences in between the two extremes, depending on the type of opposite considered. The second result (concerning immediacy) is that recognizing and rating intermediates did not take longer in most cases than recognizing and rating the two poles. The third result (concerning task influence) is that there were differences due to the type of task, i.e. rating and classification. The implications of these results are discussed within the framework of theories grounding cognition in perception.

  12. Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates in Giant Cell Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Astrid; Younge, Brian R.; Szweda, Luke; Mock, Bettina; Björnsson, Johannes; Moeller, Kerstin; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2002-01-01

    Arterial wall damage in giant cell arteritis (GCA) is mediated by several different macrophage effector functions, including the production of metalloproteinases and lipid peroxidation. Tissue-invading macrophages also express nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2, but it is not known whether nitric oxide-related mechanisms contribute to the disease process. Nitric oxide can form nitrating agents, including peroxynitrite, a nitric oxide congener formed in the presence of reactive oxygen intermediates. Protein nitration selectively targets tyrosine residues and can result in a gain, as well as a loss, of protein function. Nitrated tyrosine residues in GCA arteries were detected almost exclusively on endothelial cells of newly formed microcapillaries in the media, whereas microvessels in the adventitia and the intima were spared. Nitration correlated with endothelial NOS-3 expression and not with NOS-2-producing macrophages, which preferentially homed to the hyperplastic intima. The restriction of nitration to the media coincided with the production of reactive oxygen intermediates as demonstrated by the presence of the toxic aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal. Depletion of tissue-infiltrating macrophages in human temporal artery-SCID mouse chimeras disrupted nitrotyrosine generation, demonstrating a critical role of macrophages in the nitration process that targeted medial microvessels. Thus, protein nitration in GCA is highly compartmentalized, reflecting the production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen intermediates in the inflamed arterial wall. Heterogeneity of microvessels in NOS-3 regulation may be an additional determinant contributing to this compartmentalization and could explain the preferential targeting of newly generated capillary beds. PMID:12107096

  13. Diffraction of electrons at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascolani, H.; Barrachina, R. O.; Guraya, M. M.; Zampieri, G.

    1992-08-01

    We present a theory of the elastic scattering of electrons from crystalline surfaces that contains both low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED) effects at low energies and x-ray-photoelectron- and Auger-electron-diffraction (XPD/AED) effects at intermediate energies. The theory is based on a cluster-type approach to the scattering problem and includes temperature effects. The transition from one regime to the other may be explained as follows: At low energies all the scattered waves add coherently, and the intensity is dominated by LEED effects. At intermediate energies the thermal vibration of the atoms destroys the long-range coherency responsible for the LEED peaks, but affects little the interference of those waves that share parts of their paths inside the solid. Thus, the interference of these waves comes to dominate the intensity, giving rise to structures similar to those observed in XPD/AED experiments. We perform a calculation of the elastic reflection of electrons from Cu(001) that is in good agreement with the experiment in the range 200-1500 eV. At low energies the intensity is dominated by LEED peaks; at 400 eV LEED peaks and XPD/AED structures coexist; and above this energy the intensity is dominated by the latter. We analyze the contributions to the intensity at intermediate energies of the interferences in the incoming and outgoing parts of the electron path.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of transcription in intermediate heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Habu, Yoshiki; Mathieu, Olivier; Tariq, Muhammad; Probst, Aline V; Smathajitt, Chotika; Zhu, Tong; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2006-12-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a compact, transcriptionally inert structure formed in gene-poor and repeat- and transposon-rich regions. In Arabidopsis, constitutive heterochromatin is characterized by hypermethylated DNA and histone H3 dimethylated at lysine (K) 9 (H3K9me2) together with depletion of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me2). Here, we describe loci with intermediate properties of heterochromatin in which transcription downregulation is inherited in a manner similar to constitutive heterochromatin, although the loci are associated with opposing histone marks--H3K4me2 and H3K9me2. In the ddm1 (decrease in DNA methylation 1) mutants, their transcriptional activation is accompanied by the expected shift in the H3 modifications--depletion of H3K9me2 and enrichment in H3K4me2. In mom1 (Morpheus' molecule 1) mutants, however, a marked increase in transcription is not accompanied by detectable changes in the levels of H3K4me2 and H3K9me2. Therefore, transcriptional regulation in the intermediate heterochromatin involves two distinct epigenetic mechanisms. Interestingly, silent transgenic inserts seem to acquire properties characteristic of the intermediate heterochromatin.

  15. Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in Middle America: Fault Reactivation or Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langstaff, M. A.; Warren, L. M.; Silver, P. G.

    2006-12-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes are often attributed to dehydration embrittlement reactivating pre-existing weak zones. The orientations of pre-subduction faults are particularly well known offshore of Middle America, where seismic reflection profiles show outer-rise faults dipping towards the trench and extending >20~km into the lithosphere. If water is transported along these faults and incorporated into hydrous minerals, the faults may be reactivated later when the minerals dehydrate. In this case, the fault orientations should be the same in the outer rise and at depth, after accounting for the angle of subduction. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the directivity of 54 large (M_W > 5.7) earthquakes between 40--220~km depth in the Middle America Trench. For 15 of these earthquakes, the directivity vector allows us to confidently distinguish the fault plane of the earthquake. Between 40--85~km depth, we observe both subhorizontal and subvertical fault planes. The subvertical fault planes are consistent with the reactivation of outer rise faults, whereas the subhorizontal fault planes suggest the formation of new faults. Deeper than 85~km, we only observe subhorizontal faults, indicating that the outer rise faults are no longer reactivated. The occurrence of only subhorizontal faults may be due to unbending stresses preferentially creating horizontal faults, or an isobaric rupture process.

  16. Synthetic mononuclear nonheme iron-oxygen intermediates.

    PubMed

    Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-08-18

    Mononuclear nonheme iron-oxygen species, such as iron-superoxo, -peroxo, -hydroperoxo, and -oxo, are key intermediates involved in dioxygen activation and oxidation reactions catalyzed by nonheme iron enzymes. Because these iron-oxygen intermediates are short-lived due to their thermal instability and high reactivity, it is challenging to investigate their structural and spectroscopic properties and reactivity in the catalytic cycles of the enzymatic reactions themselves. One way to approach such problems is to synthesize biomimetic iron-oxygen complexes and to tune their geometric and electronic structures for structural characterization and reactivity studies. Indeed, a number of biologically important iron-oxygen species, such as mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-superoxo, iron(III)-peroxo, iron(III)-hydroperoxo, iron(IV)-oxo, and iron(V)-oxo complexes, were synthesized recently, and the first X-ray crystal structures of iron(III)-superoxo, iron(III)-peroxo, and iron(IV)-oxo complexes in nonheme iron models were successfully obtained. Thus, our understanding of iron-oxygen intermediates in biological reactions has been aided greatly from the studies of the structural and spectroscopic properties and the reactivities of the synthetic biomimetic analogues. In this Account, we describe our recent results on the synthesis and characterization of mononuclear nonheme iron-oxygen complexes bearing simple macrocyclic ligands, such as N-tetramethylated cyclam ligand (TMC) and tetraamido macrocyclic ligand (TAML). In the case of iron-superoxo complexes, an iron(III)-superoxo complex, [(TAML)Fe(III)(O2)](2-), is described, including its crystal structure and reactivities in electrophilic and nucleophilic oxidative reactions, and its properties are compared with those of a chromium(III)-superoxo complex, [(TMC)Cr(III)(O2)(Cl)](+), with respect to its reactivities in hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions. In the case of iron-peroxo intermediates

  17. Biodegradation of central intermediate compounds produced from biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Ozer

    2004-10-01

    In this study I consider the incomplete biodegradation of aromatic compounds during the waste- water cycle between aerobic or anaerobic zones in biological nutrient removal processes, including aerobic biodegradation of compounds (such as cyclohex-l-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA) produced during the incomplete anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds, and anaerobic biodegradation of compounds (such as catechol, protocatechuate, and gentisic acid) produced during the incomplete aerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds. Anaerobic degradation of the aerobic central intermediates that result from the incomplete aero-bic degradation of aromatic compounds usually leads to benzoyl-CoA. On the other hand, aerobic degradation of the anaerobic central intermediates that result from the incomplete anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds usually leads to protocatechuate.

  18. Horizontal free face blasting for minimizing channeling and mounding in situ retort with cusp at intermediate elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-07-10

    A method is claimed for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in a retort site within a subterranean formation. A void is excavated into the formation and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. A plurality of explosive charges are formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. At least one central explosive charge is in a central portion of the zone of unfragmented formation, and a plurality of outer explosive charges are in the zone of unfragmented formation nearer the side walls of the void than the central explosive charge. The distance from each such outer explosive charge to an adjacent side wall of the void is about equal to the crater radius of the outer explosive charge. The central and outer explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ retort. The retort has a horizontal cross-sectional area at an intermediate elevation which is less than the horizontal cross-sectional area of the retort at elevations above and below the intermediate elevation.

  19. Floristic zones and aeroallergen diversity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Richard W

    2003-08-01

    The interplay of geographic, geochemical, and meteorologic factors combines to define distinct floristic zones in North America. Latitude, elevation, Pacific or Atlantic Ocean influence, continental air mass influence, mountains, and hills are contributory geographic factors. Hardiness zones are defined by the nadir of temperature, which strongly affects the survival of individual plant species. There are 12 hardiness zones from the northernmost tundra to the tropics of Mexico. Although it is useful to consider the 10 major floristic zones, the hardiness zones cut across these zones and characterize subregions. A multiplicity of local terrain effects, such as soil porosity and acidity, and sun exposure also impact on plant growth. The ability of plant species, whether woody shrubs and trees, or herbaceous weeds and grasses, to adapt to conditions within the floristic zones determines their range. This article identifies the major aeroallergenic species and the regions in which they are most prevalent.

  20. Smartphones and Time Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  1. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  2. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  3. Intermediate photofragment distributions as probes of non-adiabatic dynamics at conical intersections: application to the Hartley band of ozone.

    PubMed

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu

    2015-11-21

    Quantum dynamics at a reactive two-state conical intersection lying outside the Franck-Condon zone is studied for a prototypical reaction of ultraviolet photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band. The focus is on the vibrational distributions in the two electronic states at intermediate interfragment distances near the intersection. Such intermediate distributions of strongly interacting photofragments contain unique information on the location and shape of the conical intersection. Multidimensional Landau-Zener modeling provides a framework to reverse engineer the molecular geometry-dependent Massey parameter of the intersection from the intermediate distributions. The conceptual approach is demonstrated for the intermediate O-O bond stretch distributions which become strongly inverted on adiabatic passage through the intersection. It is further demonstrated that intermediate distributions can be reconstructed from the photoemission spectrum of the dissociating molecule. The illustration, given using quantum mechanical calculations of resonance Raman profiles for ozone, completes a practicable cycle of conversion of intermediate distributions into topographic features of the conical intersection.

  4. Intermediate DNA methylation is a conserved signature of genome regulation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, GiNell; Hong, Chibo; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xin; Li, Daofeng; Coarfa, Cristian; Bell, Robert J.A.; Maire, Cecile L.; Ligon, Keith L.; Sigaroudinia, Mahvash; Gascard, Philippe; Tlsty, Thea D.; Harris, R. Alan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Bilenky, Misha; Mill, Jonathan; Farnham, Peggy J.; Kellis, Manolis; Marra, Marco A.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Hirst, Martin; Stormo, Gary D.; Wang, Ting; Costello, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    The role of intermediate methylation states in DNA is unclear. Here, to comprehensively identify regions of intermediate methylation and their quantitative relationship with gene activity, we apply integrative and comparative epigenomics to 25 human primary cell and tissue samples. We report 18,452 intermediate methylation regions located near 36% of genes and enriched at enhancers, exons and DNase I hypersensitivity sites. Intermediate methylation regions average 57% methylation, are predominantly allele-independent and are conserved across individuals and between mouse and human, suggesting a conserved function. These regions have an intermediate level of active chromatin marks and their associated genes have intermediate transcriptional activity. Exonic intermediate methylation correlates with exon inclusion at a level between that of fully methylated and unmethylated exons, highlighting gene context-dependent functions. We conclude that intermediate DNA methylation is a conserved signature of gene regulation and exon usage. PMID:25691127

  5. A new intermediate for the production of flexible stable polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Method of incorporating ether linkages into perfluoroalkylene segment of a dianydride intermediate yields intermediate that may be used in synthesis of flexible, stable polyimides for use as high-temperature, solvent-resistant sealants.

  6. Extrasolar planets around intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, A. P.

    2008-08-01

    One of the earliest hints for extrasolar planets came with the discovery almost 15 years ago of low amplitude, long period radial velocity (RV) variations in several K giant stars, β Gem, α Tau (Aldebaran) and α Boo. Since then it has been confirmed that for β Gem (stellar mass =1.7 Modot) these RV variations are due to a planetary companion. Aldebaran is another K giant star showing long-lived (>26 years) and coherent RV variations. These are most likely due to a planetary companion having a mass of 9 MJup using an estimated mass of 2.5 Modot for the star. Giant stars like α Tau and β Gem offer us the possibility of studying the process of planet formation around stars more massive than the sun. The main sequence stars with masses >1.2 Modot are ill-suited for RV surveys as there are few spectral lines for measuring the RV and these are often broadened by high rates of stellar rotation. Currently over 20 intermediate mass giant stars are known to host extrasolar planets. This sample is sufficiently large that we can begin to look at the overall properties of planets around intermediate mass stars. These suggest that more massive stars may have more massive planets that the orbital eccentricities for their extrasolar planets show the wide range of eccentricities seen for main sequence, solar mass stars, and that unlike for main sequence stars there seems to be no preference for metal rich intermediate mass stars to host extrasolar planets.

  7. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  8. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    SciTech Connect

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  9. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Petrus; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas

    2017-07-04

    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer-type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the 'redox non-innocent' nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic application and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2N3, (RO)2P(=O)N3, ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of synthetically useful reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Decoupled anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction within the methanogenic zone of Arctic sediments (Beaufort Sea, Alaska)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treude, T.; Krause, S.; Hamdan, L.; Schweers, J.; Coffin, R.

    2012-04-01

    Piston cores taken at two stations along a depth transect on the continental margin of the Beaufort Sea (Alaska) revealed an at first sight "classical" sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) with organoclastic sulfate reduction on top, followed by an intermediate zone of anaerobic methane consumption, and a methanogenic zone at the bottom. Surprisingly, however, sulfate did not completely disappear within the methanogenic zone but concentrations remained at levels around 300-500 µM. Further investigations revealed that sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) activity was still detectable and deeply distributed within the methanogenic zone, and that the two processes were probably not coupled. This poster will discuss (1) potential mineralogical sources of sulfur that could support sulfate reduction in the methanogenic zone, (2) potential electron acceptors of AOM, and (3) thermodynamic considerations about the unusual co-presence of sulfate reduction, AOM, and methanogenesis in the very same sediment zone.

  11. Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Harald; Bär, Harald; Kreplak, Laurent; Strelkov, Sergei V; Aebi, Ueli

    2007-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a major structural element of animal cells. They build two distinct systems, one in the nucleus and one in the cytoplasm. In both cases, their major function is assumed to be that of a mechanical stress absorber and an integrating device for the entire cytoskeleton. In line with this, recent disease mutations in human IF proteins indicate that the nanomechanical properties of cell-type-specific IFs are central to the pathogenesis of diseases as diverse as muscular dystrophy and premature ageing. However, the analysis of these various diseases suggests that IFs also have an important role in cell-type-specific physiological functions.

  12. Reactive intermediates in cytochrome p450 catalysis.

    PubMed

    Krest, Courtney M; Onderko, Elizabeth L; Yosca, Timothy H; Calixto, Julio C; Karp, Richard F; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T

    2013-06-14

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis.

  13. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Marcie

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  14. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  15. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOEpatents

    Bel,; Lon, E [Altadena, CA; Crane, Douglas Todd [Pasadena, CA

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  16. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  17. Order and disorder in intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Avinery, Ram; Malka-Gibor, Eti; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Beck, Roy

    2015-09-14

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), important components of the cytoskeleton, provide a versatile, tunable network of self-assembled proteins. IF proteins contain three distinct domains: an α-helical structured rod domain, flanked by intrinsically disordered head and tail domains. Recent studies demonstrated the functional importance of the disordered domains, which differ in length and amino-acid sequence among the 70 different human IF genes. Here, we investigate the biophysical properties of the disordered domains, and review recent findings on the interactions between them. Our analysis highlights key components governing IF functional roles in the cytoskeleton, where the intrinsically disordered domains dictate protein-protein interactions, supramolecular assembly, and macro-scale order.

  18. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  19. Reactive Intermediates in Cytochrome P450 Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Calixto, Julio C.; Karp, Richard F.; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis. PMID:23632017

  20. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  1. Tentative inhibition zone criteria (Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method) for rifampin against staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Traub, W H; Spohr, M; Bauer, D

    1987-01-01

    Two of 359 (0.6%) clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 of 218 (5.5%) clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant or of intermediate susceptibility against rifampin as based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints obtained with the agar dilution method: MIC greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml = resistant; MIC 0.25-1 microgram/ml = intermediate susceptible; MIC less than 0.125 microgram/ml = susceptible. The following inhibition zone criteria with 2 micrograms rifampin disks were proposed for staphylococcal isolates utilizing the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test: diameter of inhibition zones less than or equal to 13 mm = resistant; diameter 14-21 mm = intermediate susceptible; diameter greater than or equal to 22 mm = susceptible.

  2. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackfield, Donald T.; Poole, Brian R.

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  3. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections... apply to intermediate bodies. 42 The Department of Labor considers these rulings to be consistent with...

  4. Institutionalized Crucible Experiences within Intermediate-Level Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    INSTITUTIONALIZED CRUCIBLE EXPERIENCES WITHIN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL EDUCATION A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Institutionalized Crucible Experiences within Intermediate-Level Education 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...effects, both positive and negative, of implementing a crucible experience within Intermediate-Level Education across all military services within the

  5. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section 398.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted in...

  6. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  7. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  8. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  9. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  10. 22 CFR 140.10 - Intermediate credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate credit institutions. 140.10... TRAFFICKERS Enforcement § 140.10 Intermediate credit institutions. (a) Treatment as non-governmental entity or as a foreign government entity. Intermediate credit institutions (“ICIs”) shall be subject to either...

  11. Physics of intermediate shocks: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.

  12. Intermediate GRBs observed by various satellite experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Firstly GRB duration distribution was analyzed on data of BATSE experiment onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) operated from April 1991 until to June 2000. Usually two GRBs groups separated in duration distribution: short and long. These types of events are classified due to analysis of duration of interval where integrated counts from the GRB raising from 5% to 95% (t90). The value t90 ∼ 2s is used as boundary between short and long events. However, in 1999 third burst subgroup (intermediate GRBs) was found due to GRBs duration and duration-hardness distributions analysis of 4B current BATSE catalogue (recently available as 5B one) in time interval of 0.8 s ≤ t90≤ 50 s. Since CGRO operation has finished, two satellite experiments GRBs catalogues BAT/Swift and GBM/Fermi contain the amount of bursts comparable with 4B current BATSE catalogue and it is sufficient for duration distribution precision investigation. The results of these distributions analysis are discussed. It allows concluding the appearance of intermediate GRB subgroup on data of three experiments: BATSE/CGRO, BAT/Swift and GBM/Fermi.

  13. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  14. Keto-Enol Thermodynamics of Breslow Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathias; Breugst, Martin; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Berkessel, Albrecht

    2016-04-20

    Breslow intermediates, first postulated in 1958, are pivotal intermediates in carbene-catalyzed umpolung. Attempts to isolate and characterize these fleeting amino enol species first met with success in 2012 when we found that saturated bis-Dipp/Mes imidazolidinylidenes readily form isolable, though reactive diamino enols with aldehydes and enals. In contrast, triazolylidenes, upon stoichiometric reaction with aldehydes, gave exclusively the keto tautomer, and no isolable enol. Herein, we present the synthesis of the "missing" keto tautomers of imidazolidinylidene-derived diamino enols, and computational thermodynamic data for 15 enol-ketone pairs derived from various carbenes/aldehydes. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the aldehyde favor enol formation, the same holds for N,N'-Dipp [2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl] and N,N'-Mes [2,4,6-trimethylphenyl] substitution on the carbene component. The latter effect rests on stabilization of the diamino enol tautomer by Dipp substitution, and could be attributed to dispersive interaction of the 2-propyl groups with the enol moiety. For three enol-ketone pairs, equilibration of the thermodynamically disfavored tautomer was attempted with acids and bases but could not be effected, indicating kinetic inhibition of proton transfer.

  15. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR.

    PubMed

    Brugger, R M; Herleth, W H

    1990-01-01

    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deliver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, "ideal" beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  16. Excitation of the M intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Tóth-Boconádi, Rudolf; Dér, András; Fábián, László; Taneva, Stefka Germanova; Keszthelyi, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Protein electric response signals (PERS) of the M intermediates of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were recorded. Contrary to earlier findings reporting on a single-phase response upon excitation of the M intermediates, a kinetic analysis of the signals revealed the existence of three components, the fastest and the slowest ones of negative, while the middle one of positive sign with respect to the normal direction of proton pumping. Based on proton motion indicator experiments and molecular dipole calculations, the components were assigned to proton transfer steps and conformational changes driving the bR molecule back from the M to the ground state upon blue light excitation. The fastest, negative pump component was assigned to the proton transfer from D85 to the Schiff base. The subsequent positive component was attributed to rearrangements in the protein core (in the vicinity of the retinal molecule), triggered by the primary proton transfer process. The slowest component was established to reflect charge rearrangements associated with proton uptake by the protein from the bulk.

  17. Environmental impact of radionuclide migration in groundwater from a low-intermediate level radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Wang, J S; Yang, Z F; Li, S S; Wang, Z M

    2001-04-01

    The radionuclide migration from a certain Chinese repository with low-intermediate level radioactive solid waste is studied. The migration in groundwater is analyzed and computed in detail. Under presumption of normal releasing, or the bottom of the repository has been marinated for one month with precipitation reaching 600 mm once and a 6 m aerated zone exists, a prediction for 7 radionuclides is conducted. It shows that the aerated zone is the primary barrier for migration. The migration for radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 63Ni, etc. will be retarded in it within 500 years. The concentration of 239Pu will be decreased by amount of 6 order. Only 3H and 14C can migrate through the aerated zone. The radionuclides that go through the aerated zone and enter the aquifer will exist in spring, stream and sea. Based on this, the intake dose by residents in different age group resulting from drinking contaminated spring water, eating seafood is calculated. The results showed that the impact of the repository to the key resident group is lower than the limit in national repository regulation standard. This complies with the repository management target.

  18. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    SciTech Connect

    Geronikolou, St. A.; Zimeras, S.; Tsitomeneas, S. Th.

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  19. The Effect of Peer-Assisted Mediation vs. Tutor-Intervention within Dynamic Assessment Framework on Writing Development of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfani, Shiva Seyed; Nikbin, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic assessment originates in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Practicing dynamic assessment necessarily requires the development of ZPD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of peer-assisted mediation vs. tutor-intervention within dynamic assessment framework on writing development and the attitude of Iranian intermediate EFL…

  20. Comparison of the accuracy of disk diffusion zone diameters obtained by manual zone measurements to that by automated zone measurements to determine antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lestari, Endang Sri; Severin, Juliëtte A; Filius, P Margreet G; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Offra Duerink, D; Hadi, Usman; Wahjono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2008-10-01

    Although a variety of techniques are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, disk diffusion methods remain the most widely used. We compared the accuracy of disk diffusion zone diameters as obtained by manual zone measurements in a low resource country (Indonesia) to that by automated zone measurements (Oxoid aura image system) in a high resource setting (the Netherlands) to determine susceptibility categories (sensitive, intermediate susceptible or resistant). A total of 683 isolates were studied, including 294 Staphylococcus aureus, 195 Escherichia coli and 194 other Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrobial agents included tetracycline, oxacillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol for S. aureus and ampicillin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol for E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae. Of the 4098 drug-organism combinations, overall category agreement (CA), major discrepancy (MD) and minor discrepancy (mD) between the two methods were 82.4% (3379/4098), 6.0% (244/4098) and 11.6% (475/4098), respectively. One hundred and sixty three of 244 MDs were resolved using reference broth microdilution method. Overall very major error (VME), major error (ME) and minor error (mE) of manual zone measurement were 28.8%, 45.4% and 4.9%, respectively and for the aura image system 4.9%, 16.0% and 4.9%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the disk diffusion method with manual zone measurement in Indonesia is reliable for susceptibility testing. The use of an automated zone reader, such as the aura image system, will reduce the number of errors, and thus improve the accuracy of susceptibility test results for medically relevant bacteria.

  1. Habitable zones in the universe.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2005-12-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review the historical development of the concept of habitable zones and the present state of the research. We also suggest ways to make progress on each of the habitable zones and to unify them into a single concept encompassing the entire universe.

  2. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  3. [Foot reflex zone massage].

    PubMed

    Kesselring, A

    1994-01-01

    Foot reflexology is defined as massage of zones on the feet which correspond to different parts of the body. A medline-search yielded no literature in the field of foot reflexology. Indications for and results of foot reflexology have been extrapolated from case-descriptions and two pilot studies with small samples. One study (Lafuente et al.) found foot reflexology to be as helpful to patients with headaches as medication (flunarizine), yet foot reflexology was fraught with less side-effects than medication. In a second study (Eichelberger et al.) foot reflexology was used postoperatively on gynecological patients. The intervention group showed a lesser need for medication to enhance bladder tonus than did the control group. The literature describes foot reflexology as enhancing urination, bowel movements and relaxation.

  4. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  5. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2012-11-01

    Contaminants in vadose zone environments pose a long-term source and threat to groundwater resources, human health, and the environment. Several technical, regulatory, and policy challenges and opportunities are associated with contamination in vadose zone environments, particularly in remediation. In this special issue, ten papers present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments.

  6. Growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-06-01

    The seagrass Zostera japonica occurs mainly in the intertidal zone and is thus exposed to widely varying environmental conditions affecting its growth and distribution compared to subtidal seagrasses. The growth dynamics of Z. japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone were investigated in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea to examine the environmental stresses and limiting factors on the growth of intertidal seagrasses. The shoot density and morphology, biomass, and leaf productivity of Z. japonica were measured in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors at its upper and lower distributional limits and in an intermediate zone of the intertidal area. The mean exposure time to the atmosphere during low tide in the upper intertidal zone was approximately 1.5- and 1.9-fold longer than that in the intermediate and lower intertidal zones, respectively. Shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in the intermediate zone than at the upper and lower distributional limits. Longer emersion leading to a various of environmental stresses appeared to reduce Z. japonica growth in the upper intertidal zone, whereas interspecific competitive interactions related to irradiance seemed to affect Z. japonica growth in the lower intertidal zone. Shoot size, density, biomass, and leaf productivity were lower in the upper than in the lower zone, implying that emersion-associated stresses in the upper zone had a greater detrimental effect on Z. japonica growth than did stresses occurring in the lower zone. The productivity of Z. japonica showed strong positive correlations with air and water temperature, suggesting enhancement of Z. japonica production at higher temperatures. Thus, the predicted increases in air and water temperature associated with global climate change might have positive effects on the growth and extension in distributional range of this species.

  7. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  8. Intermediate Pashto Textbook Revised Edition and Intermediate Pashto Workbook Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    Intermediate Pashto is part of a set of materials for teaching oral and written Afghan Pashto. The transcription of a word or phrase is given only when the word or phrase is introduced, or when pronunciation is the focus. Dialogues and readings on various topics (e.g. food, shopping, weather, family, etc.) are used, with accompanying presentations…

  9. The physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates in the gas phase

    DOE PAGES

    Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2015-07-24

    Here, carbonyl oxides, also known as Criegee intermediates, are key intermediates in both gas phase ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the troposphere and solution phase organic synthesis via ozonolysis. Although the study of Criegee intermediates in both arenas has a long history, direct studies in the gas phase have only recently become possible through new methods of generating stabilised Criegee intermediates in sufficient quantities. This advance has catalysed a large number of new experimental and theoretical investigations of Criegee intermediate chemistry. In this article we review the physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates, focusing on their molecular structure, spectroscopy, unimolecular andmore » bimolecular reactions. These recent results have overturned conclusions from some previous studies, while confirming others, and have clarified areas of investigation that will be critical targets for future studies. In addition to expanding our fundamental understanding of Criegee intermediates, the rapidly expanding knowledge base will support increasingly predictive models of their impacts on society.« less

  10. The physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2015-07-24

    Here, carbonyl oxides, also known as Criegee intermediates, are key intermediates in both gas phase ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the troposphere and solution phase organic synthesis via ozonolysis. Although the study of Criegee intermediates in both arenas has a long history, direct studies in the gas phase have only recently become possible through new methods of generating stabilised Criegee intermediates in sufficient quantities. This advance has catalysed a large number of new experimental and theoretical investigations of Criegee intermediate chemistry. In this article we review the physical chemistry of Criegee intermediates, focusing on their molecular structure, spectroscopy, unimolecular and bimolecular reactions. These recent results have overturned conclusions from some previous studies, while confirming others, and have clarified areas of investigation that will be critical targets for future studies. In addition to expanding our fundamental understanding of Criegee intermediates, the rapidly expanding knowledge base will support increasingly predictive models of their impacts on society.

  11. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  12. Intermediate inflation driven by DBI scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazavari, N.; Mohammadi, A.; Ossoulian, Z.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2016-06-01

    Picking out a DBI scalar field as inflation, the slow-rolling inflationary scenario is studied by attributing an exponential time function to scale factor, known as intermediate inflation. The perturbation parameters of the model are estimated numerically for two different cases, and the final result is compared with Planck data. The diagram of tensor-to-scalar ratio r versus scalar spectra index ns is illustrated, and it is found that they are within an acceptable range as suggested by Planck. In addition, the acquired values for amplitude of scalar perturbation reveal the ability of the model to depict a good picture of the Universe in one of its earliest stages. As a further argument, the non-Gaussianity is investigated, displaying that the model prediction stands in a 68% C.L. regime according to the latest Planck data.

  13. A traditional intermediate moisture meat: Beef cecina.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Cano, R; Dorantes-Alvarez, L; Hernandez-Sanchez, H; Gutierrez-Lopez, G F

    1994-01-01

    Cecina is an intermediate moisture meat produced and consumed to a large extent in Mexico. Four samples of cecina coming from different States of this country, were tested for water activity, colour, texture, fat, protein, moisture and chloride content. Sensory and microbiological analyses were also performed. Different fabrication methods for producing cecina were identified, involving large variations in the formulation of the product. There was a significant difference (P < 0·05) among samples regarding fat and chloride content, colour and texture. Differences in colour and saltiness were recorded through sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed higher counts than those recommended in the Mexican Official Standard for chopped and raw meat, due to poor sanitary conditions during production and marketing. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [The intermediate syndrome during organophosphorus pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Benslama, A; Moutaouakkil, S; Charra, B; Menebhi, L

    2004-04-01

    Acute intoxication by organophosphate pesticides is frequent in Morocco. We report two cases of malathion poisoning complicated by intermediate syndrome. The purpose of this work is to describe distinctive features of this syndrome, it arises 48-96 h after the cholinergic crisis and it is characterized by respiratory paresis with difficulties of weaning from the assisted respiratory, deficit of proximal limbs, neck flexors, and cranial nerves. This syndrome coincides with the prolonged inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, and is not due to the necrosis of muscular fiber's necrosis. Both clinical and electromyographic features are explained by a combined pre- and postsynaptic dysfunction of the neuromuscular transmission. The difficulty of this syndrome lies in its rarity and also its severity, because of the respiratory failure, which justifies medical supervision in intensive care unit, for at least 96 h, in expectation for the respiratory distress, all the more cholinergic syndrome is intense.

  15. The intermediate comets and nongravitational effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The motions of the intermediate-period comets Pons-Brooks, Olbers, Brorsen-Metcalf, and Westphal are investigated over their observed intervals. The three apparitions of comets Pons-Brooks and Olbers were successfully linked, using the now standard nongravitational-force model. The two apparitions of Comet Brorsen-Metcalf were successfully linked without the need for nongravitational effects. For the 1852 and 1913 apparitions of Comet Westphal, complete success was not achieved in modeling the comet's motion either with or without nongravitational effects. However, by including these effects, the comet's astrometric observations could be represented significantly better than if they were assumed inoperative. Comet Westphal's dynamic and photometric behavior suggests its complete disintegration before reaching perihelion in 1913. If the very large radial nongravitational parameter determined for Comet Westphal is due to the comet's disintegration into dust, then the resultant dust-particle size is of the order of 0.8 mm.

  16. Intermediate filaments in. cap alpha. -keratins

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, R.D.B.; MacRae, T.P.; Parry, D.A.D.; Suzuki, E.

    1986-03-01

    Previous x-ray diffraction studies on the ..cap alpha..-keratins of hair and wool have revealed that the intermediate filaments (IF) have a helical structure rendered imperfect by a precisely defined dislocation. It has also been possible to deduce a surface lattice for the IF and to determine the number of IF molecules associated with each lattice point. In this work this information is combined with data on the ionic interactions between the coiled-coil rope segments of the IF molecules to provide a plausible model for the pattern of interactions that stabilize the framework of the IF in the hard ..cap alpha..-keratins. Similar interaction studies of the proteins from the IF in the so-called soft ..cap alpha..-keratin from the stratum corneum layer of the skin suggest that they are likely to have an essentially similar pattern.

  17. A Mechanochemical Switch to Control Radical Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    B12-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB12-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch. When the switch is “off”, the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical moiety is stabilized by releasing the internal strain of an enzyme-imposed conformation. Turning the switch “on,” the enzyme environment becomes the driving force to impose a distinct conformation of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical to avoid deleterious radical transfer. This mechanochemical switch illustrates the elaborate way in which enzymes attain selectivity of extremely chemically challenging reactions. PMID:24846280

  18. A mechanochemical switch to control radical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Brunk, Elizabeth; Kellett, Whitney F; Richards, Nigel G J; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2014-06-17

    B₁₂-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB₁₂-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch. When the switch is "off", the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical moiety is stabilized by releasing the internal strain of an enzyme-imposed conformation. Turning the switch "on," the enzyme environment becomes the driving force to impose a distinct conformation of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical to avoid deleterious radical transfer. This mechanochemical switch illustrates the elaborate way in which enzymes attain selectivity of extremely chemically challenging reactions.

  19. The intermediate comets and nongravitational effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The motions of the intermediate-period comets Pons-Brooks, Olbers, Brorsen-Metcalf, and Westphal are investigated over their observed intervals. The three apparitions of comets Pons-Brooks and Olbers were successfully linked, using the now standard nongravitational-force model. The two apparitions of Comet Brorsen-Metcalf were successfully linked without the need for nongravitational effects. For the 1852 and 1913 apparitions of Comet Westphal, complete success was not achieved in modeling the comet's motion either with or without nongravitational effects. However, by including these effects, the comet's astrometric observations could be represented significantly better than if they were assumed inoperative. Comet Westphal's dynamic and photometric behavior suggests its complete disintegration before reaching perihelion in 1913. If the very large radial nongravitational parameter determined for Comet Westphal is due to the comet's disintegration into dust, then the resultant dust-particle size is of the order of 0.8 mm.

  20. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  1. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  2. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Meena; Karandikar, Manjiri

    2015-01-01

    The 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system identified "pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation" (PPTID) as a new pineal parenchymal neoplasm, located between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma as grade II or III. Because of the small number of reported cases, the classification of PPT is still a matter of controversy. We report a case of PPTID. A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital with complaints of a headache, nausea, vomiting since 1-year. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed well-defined, mildly enhancing lesion in the region of the pineal gland with areas of calcification. The tumor was excised. After 3 years, she presented with metastasis in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal region. This is a rare event.

  3. The intermediate distance hypothesis of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Seebens, Hanno; Essl, Franz; Blasius, Bernd

    2017-02-01

    Biological invasions are a worldwide phenomenon, but the global flows between native and alien regions have rarely been investigated in a cross-taxonomic study. We therefore lack a thorough understanding of the global patterns of alien species spread. Using native and alien ranges of 1380 alien species, we show that the number of alien species follows a hump-shaped function of geographic distance. We observe distinct variations in the relationship between alien species exchanges and distance among taxonomic groups, which relate to the taxa-specific dispersal modes and their pathways of introduction. We formulate a simple statistical model, combining trade volume and biogeographic dissimilarity, which reproduces the observed pattern in good agreement with reported data and even captures variations among taxonomic groups. This study demonstrates the universality of the intermediate distance hypothesis of alien species spread across taxonomic groups, which will help to improve the predictability of new alien species arrivals.

  4. NN and Nd Scattering with Intermediate Dibaryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonova, Maria N.

    2017-03-01

    Excitation of intermediate dibaryon resonances in hadronic processes accompanied by high momentum transfers is considered. It is shown that some basic features of NN inelastic scattering with single- or double-pion production can be effectively described by taking into account the short-range s-channel dibaryon excitation along with peripheral t-channel meson-exchange processes. In particular, isovector dibaryons with I(J^P)=1(2^+), 1(3^-) and 1(2^-) are shown to play an important role in reproducing the cross sections and especially polarization observables in the basic single-pion production reaction pp → dπ ^+, while an isoscalar I(J^P)=0(3^+) dibaryon is crucial for describing the basic double-pion production process pn → d (π π )_0. Possible generalization of resonance (dibaryon) mechanisms considered in NN scattering to Nd elastic and inelastic scattering is also discussed.

  5. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Ten Brink, Uri; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  6. Intermediate photovoltaic system/utility interface experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biringer, K. L.; McDowell, J. F.; Rogers, C. B.; Haskins, D. E.

    A description is given of 11 intermediate photovoltaic application projects, including the Arizona Public Service Company project, the E-Systems 27 kW photovoltaic concentrator application experiment, a 110 kW photovoltaic application experiment in Orlando, Florida, the Lea County photovoltaic flat plate photovoltaic experiment in southeastern New Mexico, the Mt. Laguna photovoltaic flat plate installation in California, the San Bernardino 35 kW photovoltaic flat plate project in California, and the Solar Power flat plate photovoltaic experiment in Massachusetts. It is pointed out that the most significant point to be made relative to the interface of photovoltaic systems with the utility grid is that it can be done successfully.

  7. EGRET sources at intermediate galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the abstracts of four papers (using ROSAT data) that are submitted to refereed journals during the current reporting period. The papers are: (1) Extreme x-ray variability in the narrow-line QSO PHL 1092; (2) The Geminga pulsar (soft x-ray variability and an EUVE observation); (3) a broad-band x-ray study of the geminga pulsar; and (4) Classification of IRAS-selected x-ray galaxies in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The abstracts of these papers are given in the next four sections of this report, and their status is given in the Appendix. Finally, two new projects (De-identifying a non-AGN and EGRET sources at intermediate galactic latitude) for which ROSAT data were recently received are currently being studied under this grant. A summary of work in progress on these new projects is given in the last two sections of this report.

  8. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  9. Physical properties of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Block, Johanna; Schroeder, Viktor; Pawelzyk, Paul; Willenbacher, Norbert; Köster, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a sophisticated filament system in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. They form bundles and networks with adapted viscoelastic properties and are strongly interconnected with the other filament types, microfilaments and microtubules. IFs are cell type specific and apart from biochemical functions, they act as mechanical entities to provide stability and resilience to cells and tissues. We review the physical properties of these abundant structural proteins including both in vitro studies and cell experiments. IFs are hierarchical structures and their physical properties seem to a large part be encoded in the very specific architecture of the biopolymers. Thus, we begin our review by presenting the assembly mechanism, followed by the mechanical properties of individual filaments, network and structure formation due to electrostatic interactions, and eventually the mechanics of in vitro and cellular networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  10. Navigating Intermediate Targets: The Nervous System Midline

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Barry J.; Zou, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    In a bilaterally symmetric animal, the midline plays a key role in directing axon growth during wiring of the nervous system. Midline cells provide a variety of guidance cues for growing axons, to which different types of axons respond in different ways and at different times. For some axons, the midline is an intermediate target. They first seek it out, but then move on towards their final targets on the opposite side. For others, the midline is a repulsive barrier that keeps them on their own side of the midline. And for many of these axons the midline provides signals that guide them along specific lateral pathways or up and down the longitudinal axis. PMID:20534708

  11. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules were tested for qualification. Tests involved the following: (1) delivery of 20 solar cells for use as reference cells; (2) module documentation and inspection plans specifying the 10 Group I modules; (3) design review of module documentation from Group I modules; (4) revise module documentation to overcome any problems of deficiencies associated with the Group I modules; (5) delivery of 10 Group II modules built to revised specifications; (6) testing of Group II modules to the criteria as outlined in qualification specification. It is found that the solarvolt MSP43E40B satisfies the design criteria of qualification specification for intermediate load modules. Design changes were made in the Group I modules to overcome the deficiencies which allowed Group II modules to pass the qualification tests.

  12. Supervising Remote Humanoids Across Intermediate Time Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambuchen, Kimberly; Bluethmann, William; Goza, Michael; Ambrose, Robert; Rabe, Kenneth; Allan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration, laid out in 2004, relies heavily upon robotic exploration of the lunar surface in early phases of the program. Prior to the arrival of astronauts on the lunar surface, these robots will be required to be controlled across space and time, posing a considerable challenge for traditional telepresence techniques. Because time delays will be measured in seconds, not minutes as is the case for Mars Exploration, uploading the plan for a day seems excessive. An approach for controlling humanoids under intermediate time delay is presented. This approach uses software running within a ground control cockpit to predict an immersed robot supervisor's motions which the remote humanoid autonomously executes. Initial results are presented.

  13. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  14. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  15. Marine Coral and Sediment Records of Intermediate Water History from Decadal to Millennial Timescales on the California Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J. P.; Spero, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Intermediate waters (300-2500m) are critically important to the earth's climate system for the transport of heat and salt around the globe, as well as influencing the carbon cycle via the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Results from the California margin indicate that intermediate waters are sensitive to climate change across multiple timescales. Sediment cores in Santa Barbara Basin (MD02-2503 and MD02-2504) provide high-resolution records of surface and intermediate water processes during the most recent deglaciation. Oxygen isotopic values of planktonic and benthic foraminifera indicate that surface and intermediate waters warmed synchronously,~2ka prior to Termination IA. These findings are consistent with previous studies that indicate intermediate waters responded prior to or synchronously with surface waters during major climatic transitions (Kennett et al., 2002; Hendy and Kennett, 2003). Studies from the Santa Barbara Basin also indicate dramatic changes in oxygenation during the Bolling-Allerod, associated with the combined influences of water column methane oxidation, intermediate water ventilation and surface productivity. These studies indicate that intermediate waters are highly sensitive to climate change on millennial timescales. However, it is poorly understood how intermediate waters will respond to climate change on short timescales, such as during ENSO episodes, Pacific Decadal Oscillation mode shifts, or anthropogenic forcing. Investigations of deep-sea bamboo corals collected along the California margin (250-2200m) are utilized to reconstruct the recent environmental history of intermediate waters in this region. Preliminary radiocarbon analyses of four coral specimens from south of Pt. Conception suggest that bamboo corals live for centuries with growth rates of 50-100 microns/year. Radiocarbon content of recently precipitated coral calcite reflects equilibrium with that of ambient seawater (Δ14Ccalcite = ¬ 249.7 ‰ Δ14CDIC = ¬ 242.2 ‰). A

  16. Quaternary travertine of the Kurai fault zone (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deev, E. V.; Sokol, E. V.; Ryapolova, Yu. M.; Kokh, S. N.; Rusanov, G. G.

    2017-03-01

    In the Kurai fault zone, travertine forms a matrix cementing clastic material of colluvial and glacial deposits or rarely forming a stockwork in a system of fractures in Palaeozoic rocks. The regular change of composition of solutions in the process of travertine formation has resulted in change of stable Mg-calcite by Sr-aragonite. According to the carbon isotopic composition, the travertine has intermediate genesis between thermal and meteogene. The light oxygen isotopic composition of CaCO3 indicates formational water input. The carbonates inherited Y, Sr, U, and Ni and in some areas, V, As, and Zn from the endogeneous water sources. Given that the Kurai zone travertine cements the Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments and 14C dating of the carbonates gives a range of >40 000-3475 ± 35 years, the faults serving as routes of migration of the solutions forming the travertine should be considered as active structures.

  17. Rheological control of Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodholt, John; Stein, Seth

    1988-01-01

    Intermediate and deep focus earthquakes in Wadati-Benioff zones are considered, and it is suggested that although seismicity in downgoing slabs is restricted to their cold and strong interior, the seismicity distribution is not easily described as being controlled by a single lithospheric strength value. A numerical thermal model is used to compute strength contours for flow law constants reported from laboratory experiments, and it is shown that the expected pressure strengthening is large enough that the slab should have considerable strength well below the deepest seismicity. The results indicate that either a strongly depth-dependent limiting strength in downgoing slabs exists, or factors in addition to strength control the distribution of subduction zone earthquakes.

  18. Rheological control of Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodholt, John; Stein, Seth

    1988-01-01

    Intermediate and deep focus earthquakes in Wadati-Benioff zones are considered, and it is suggested that although seismicity in downgoing slabs is restricted to their cold and strong interior, the seismicity distribution is not easily described as being controlled by a single lithospheric strength value. A numerical thermal model is used to compute strength contours for flow law constants reported from laboratory experiments, and it is shown that the expected pressure strengthening is large enough that the slab should have considerable strength well below the deepest seismicity. The results indicate that either a strongly depth-dependent limiting strength in downgoing slabs exists, or factors in addition to strength control the distribution of subduction zone earthquakes.

  19. Achieving That Elusive "Leadership Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the "leadership zone" happens when librarians tap into the extraordinary skills lying within to overcome obstacles and transform sometimes-difficult situations into meaningful outcomes. Maturing into an experienced leader who stays in the leadership zone requires knowledge, training, and practice. This article provides tactical…

  20. Achieving That Elusive "Leadership Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the "leadership zone" happens when librarians tap into the extraordinary skills lying within to overcome obstacles and transform sometimes-difficult situations into meaningful outcomes. Maturing into an experienced leader who stays in the leadership zone requires knowledge, training, and practice. This article provides tactical…

  1. Three-zone pupil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  2. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact Zone: Missoula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-23

    A rock outcrop dubbed "Missoula," near Marias Pass on Mars, is seen in this image mosaic taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager on NASA's Curiosity rover. Pale mudstone (bottom of outcrop) meets coarser sandstone (top) in this geological contact zone, which has piqued the interest of Mars scientists. White mineral veins that fill fractures in the lower rock unit abruptly end when they meet the upper rock unit. Such clues help scientists understand the possible timing of geological events. First, the fine sediment that now forms the lower unit would have hardened into rock. It then would have fractured, and groundwater would have deposited calcium sulfate minerals into the fractures. Next, the coarser sediment that forms the upper unit would have been deposited. The area pictured is about 16 inches (40 centimeters) across. The image was taken on the 1,031st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 1, 2015). MAHLI was built by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19829

  4. The Intertropical Convergence Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone, or ITCZ, is the region that circles the Earth, near the equator, where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. The intense sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, raising its humidity and causing it to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Variation in the location of the ITCZ drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. This image is a combination of cloud data from NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-11) and color land cover classification data. The ITCZ is the band of bright white clouds that cuts across the center of the image. For more GOES images, visit the GOES Project Science site. Image Courtesy GOES Project Science Office

  5. The Intertropical Convergence Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone, or ITCZ, is the region that circles the Earth, near the equator, where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. The intense sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, raising its humidity and causing it to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Variation in the location of the ITCZ drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. This image is a combination of cloud data from NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-11) and color land cover classification data. The ITCZ is the band of bright white clouds that cuts across the center of the image. For more GOES images, visit the GOES Project Science site. Image Courtesy GOES Project Science Office

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  7. Lithospheric flexure at fracture zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, D.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Studies attempting to demonstrate that lithospheric flexure occurs across the Pioneer and Mendocino fracture zones, and that the flexural topography is a topographic expression at these fracture zones, are presented. The flexure is modelled and compared with predicted depths with five bathymetric profiles which cross the two fracture zones at different ages. The model uses a thin elastic plate overlying an incompressible fluid half-space, and incorporates a temperature-dependent effective elastic thickness. Several conclusions were derived from this study. First, it is found that no significant slip on the fossil fault planes of the Mendocino and Pioneer fracture zones exists. In addition, the flexural amplitude is determined to increase with age. Finally, it is concluded that there is elastic coupling between the Mendocino and Pioneer fracture zones since the separation is less than a flexural wavelength.

  8. In the zone or zoning out? Tracking behavioral and neural fluctuations during sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Michael; Noonan, Sarah K; Rosenberg, Monica; Degutis, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Despite growing recognition that attention fluctuates from moment-to-moment during sustained performance, prevailing analysis strategies involve averaging data across multiple trials or time points, treating these fluctuations as noise. Here, using alternative approaches, we clarify the relationship between ongoing brain activity and performance fluctuations during sustained attention. We introduce a novel task (the gradual onset continuous performance task), along with innovative analysis procedures that probe the relationships between reaction time (RT) variability, attention lapses, and intrinsic brain activity. Our results highlight 2 attentional states-a stable, less error-prone state ("in the zone"), characterized by higher default mode network (DMN) activity but during which subjects are at risk of erring if DMN activity rises beyond intermediate levels, and a more effortful mode of processing ("out of the zone"), that is less optimal for sustained performance and relies on activity in dorsal attention network (DAN) regions. These findings motivate a new view of DMN and DAN functioning capable of integrating seemingly disparate reports of their role in goal-directed behavior. Further, they hold potential to reconcile conflicting theories of sustained attention, and represent an important step forward in linking intrinsic brain activity to behavioral phenomena.

  9. Transcriptional programs in transient embryonic zones of the cerebral cortex defined by high-resolution mRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Albert E.; Oh, Sunghee; Xie, Yanhua; Leng, Jing; Cotney, Justin; Dominguez, Martin H.; Noonan, James P.; Rakic, Pasko

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing the genetic programs that specify development and evolution of the cerebral cortex is a central challenge in neuroscience. Stem cells in the transient embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones generate neurons that migrate across the intermediate zone to the overlying cortical plate, where they differentiate and form the neocortex. It is clear that not one but a multitude of molecular pathways are necessary to progress through each cellular milestone, yet the underlying transcriptional programs remain unknown. Here, we apply differential transcriptome analysis on microscopically isolated cell populations, to define five transcriptional programs that represent each transient embryonic zone and the progression between these zones. The five transcriptional programs contain largely uncharacterized genes in addition to transcripts necessary for stem cell maintenance, neurogenesis, migration, and differentiation. Additionally, we found intergenic transcriptionally active regions that possibly encode unique zone-specific transcripts. Finally, we present a high-resolution transcriptome map of transient zones in the embryonic mouse forebrain. PMID:21873192

  10. Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.

  11. Assortative mating and spatial structure in hybrid zones.

    PubMed

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-02-01

    The spatial genetic composition of hybrid zones exhibits a range of possible patterns, with many characterized by patchy distributions. While several hypothetical explanations exist for the maintenance of these "mosaic" hybrid zones, they remain virtually unexplored theoretically. Using computer simulations we investigate the roles of dispersal and assortative mating in the formation and persistence of hybrid zone structure. To quantify mosaic structure we develop a likelihood method, which we apply to simulation and empirical data. We find that long distance dispersal can lead to a patchy distribution that assortative mating can then reinforce, ultimately producing a mosaic capable of persisting over evolutionarily significant periods of time. By reducing the mating success of rare males, assortative mating creates a positive within-patch frequency-dependent selective pressure. Selection against heterozygotes can similarly create a rare-type disadvantage and we show that it can also preserve structure. We find that mosaic structure is maintained across a range of assumptions regarding the form and strength of assortative mating. Interestingly, we find that higher levels of mosaic structure are sometimes observed for intermediate assortment strengths. The high incidence of assortment documented in hybrid zones suggests that it may play a key role in stabilizing their form and structure.

  12. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J

    2012-10-02

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future.

  13. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; DeLong, Edward F.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N2 production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two “end points” represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future. PMID:22967509

  14. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, J.; Giraud, E.; Toledo, I.; Selman, F.; Quintana, H.

    2012-11-01

    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the intracluster light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds on to the cluster. However, these models also overpredict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin, something that is still not well understood. The models also make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of an intermediate redshift (z = 0.29) X-ray cluster that we have extensively studied in previous papers. The advantage of observing intermediate redshift clusters rather than nearby ones is that the former fit the field of view of multi-object spectrographs in 8-m telescopes and therefore permit us to encompass most of the ICL with only a few well-placed slits. In this paper we show that by stacking spectra at different locations within the ICL it is possible to reach sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios to fit population synthesis models and derive meaningful results. The models provide ages and metallicities for the dominant populations at several different locations within the ICL and the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) halo, as well as measures of the kinematics of the stars as a function of distance from the BCG. We thus find that the ICL in our cluster is dominated by old metal-rich stars, at odds with what has been found in nearby clusters where the stars that dominate the ICL are old and metal poor. While we see weak evidence of a young, metal-poor component, if real, these young stars would amount to less than 1 per cent of the total ICL

  15. DNA packaging intermediates of bacteriophage Φ174

    PubMed Central

    Music, Cynthia L; Cheng, R Holland; Bowen, Zorina; McKenna, Robert; Rossmann, Michael G; Baker, Timothy S; Incardona, Nino L

    2014-01-01

    Background Like many viruses, bacteriophage ΦX174 packages its I)NA genome into a procapsid that is assembled from structural intermediates and scaffolding proteins. The procapsid contains the structural proteins F, G and H, as well as the scaffolding proteins B and D. Provirions are formed by packaging of DNA together with the small internal J proteins, while losing at least some of the B scaffolding proteins. Eventually, loss of the I) scaffolding proteins and the remaining B proteins leads to the formation of mature virions. Results ΦX174 108S 'procapsids' have been purified in milligram quantities by removing 114S (mature virion) and 70S (abortive capsid) particles from crude lysates by differential precipitation with polyethylene glycol. 132S 'provirions' were purified on sucrose gradients in the presence of EDTA. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to obtain reconstructions of procapsids and provirions. Although these are very similar to each other, their structures differ greatly from that of the virion. The F and G proteins, whose atomic structures in virions were previously determined from X-ray crystallography, were fitted into the cryo-EM reconstructions. This showed that the pentamer of G proteins on each five-fold vertex changes its conformation only slightly during DNA packaging and maturation, whereas major tertiary and quaternary structural changes occur in the F protein. The procapsids and provirions were found to contain 120 copies of the I) protein arranged as tetramers on the twofold axes. IDNA might enter procapsids through one of the 30 Å diameter holes on the icosahedral three-fold axes. Conclusions Combining cryo-EM image reconstruction and X-ray crystallography has revealed the major conformational changes that can occur in viral assembly. The function of the scaffolding proteins may be, in part, to support weak interactions between the structural proteins in the procapsids and to cover surfaces that are subsequently required for

  16. Similarity and Cluster Analysis of Intermediate Deep Events in the Southeastern Aegean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscic, M.; Meier, T. M.; Becker, D.; Brüstle, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of geodynamic processes in the Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ), in particular in the eastern part of the HSZ, we analyze a cluster of intermediate deep events in the region of Nisyros volcano. The events were recorded by the temporary seismic network EGELADOS deployed from September 2005 to March 2007. The network covered the entire Hellenic subduction zone and it consisted of 23 offshore and 56 onshore broadband stations completed by 19 permanent stations from NOA, GEOFON and MedNet. The cluster of intermediate deep seismicity consists of 159 events with local magnitudes ranging from magnitude 0.2 to magnitude 4.1 at depths from 80 to 200 km. The events occur close to the top of the slab at an about 30 km thick zone. The spatio-temporal clustering is studied using three component similarity analysis.Single event locations obtained using the nonlinear location tool NonLinLoc are compared to relative relocations calculated using the double-difference earthquake relocation software HypoDD. The relocation is performed with both manual readings of onset times as well as with differential traveltimes obtained by separate cross-correlation of P- and S-waveforms. The three-component waveform cross-correlation was performed for all the events using data from 45 stations. The results of the similarity analysis are shown as a function of frequency for individual stations and averaged over the network. Average similarities between waveforms of all event pairs reveal a low number of highly similar events but a large number of moderate similarities. Interestingly, the single station similarities between the event pairs show (1) in general decreasing similarity with increasing epicentral distance, (2) reduced similarities for paths crossing boundaries of slab segments, and (3) the influence of strong local heterogeneity leading to a considerable reduction of waveform similarities e.g. in the center of the Santorini volcano.

  17. Energetics of intermediates in membrane fusion: comparison of stalk and inverted micellar intermediate mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, D P

    1993-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of membrane fusion, we have to infer the sequence of structural transformations that occurs during the process. Here, it is shown how one can estimate the lipid composition-dependent free energies of intermediate structures of different geometries. One can then infer which fusion mechanism is the best explanation of observed behavior in different systems by selecting the mechanism that requires the least energy. The treatment involves no adjustable parameters. It includes contributions to the intermediate energy resulting from the presence of hydrophobic interstices within structures formed between apposed bilayers. Results of these calculations show that a modified form of the stalk mechanism proposed by others is a likely fusion mechanism in a wide range of lipid compositions, but a mechanism based on inverted micellar intermediates (IMIs) is not. This should be true even in the vicinity of the lamellar/inverted hexagonal phase transition, where IMI formation would be most facile. Another prediction of the calculations is that traces of apolar lipids (e.g., long-chain alkanes) in membranes should have a substantial influence on fusion rates in general. The same theoretical methods can be used to generate and refine mechanisms for protein-mediated fusion. PMID:8298039

  18. 47 CFR 73.505 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.505 Zones. For the purpose of assignment of noncommercial educational FM stations, the United States is divided into three zones, Zone I, Zone I-A, and Zone II,...

  19. 47 CFR 73.505 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.505 Zones. For the purpose of assignment of noncommercial educational FM stations, the United States is divided into three zones, Zone I, Zone I-A, and Zone II,...

  20. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  1. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  2. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  3. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  4. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  5. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central zone. 71.6 Section 71.6 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.6 Central zone. The third zone, the central standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  6. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  7. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  8. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  9. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  10. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  11. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  12. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  13. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  14. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  15. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  16. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  17. Structure and evolution of time-dependent intermediate shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. C.; Kennel, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative description of time-dependent intermediate shocks is formulated using the Cohen-Kulsrud-Burgers equations. In noncoplanar Riemann problems, time-dependent two-three transition intermediate shocks evolve in time as a localized self-similar structure whose strength decreases as 1/the square root of t, and whose width expands as the square root of t. Time-dependent intermediate shocks offer a way of solving the noncoplanar MHD Riemann problem.

  18. Regional evaluation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and chemical characteristics of the intermediate aquifer system underlying southern west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major aquifer systems-the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system-are recognized in the approximately 5,100-square-mile southern west-central Florida study area. The principal source of freshwater for all uses is ground water supplied from the three aquifer systems. Ground water from the intermediate aquifer system is considered only moderately abundant compared to the Upper Floridan aquifer, but it is an important source of water where the Upper Floridan aquifer contains water too mineralized for most uses. In the study area, the potential ground-water resources of the intermediate aquifer system were evaluated by regionally assessing the vertical and lateral distribution of hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics. Although the intermediate aquifer system is considered a single entity, it is composed of multiple water-bearing zones separated by confining units. Deposition of a complex assemblage of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments during the late Oligocene to early Pliocene time resulted in discontinuities that are reflected in transitional and abrupt contacts between facies. Discontinuous facies produce water-bearing zones that may be locally well-connected or culminate abruptly. Changes in the depositional environment created the multilayered intermediate aquifer system that contains as many as three zones of enhanced water-bearing capacity. The water-bearing zones consist of indurated limestone and dolostone and in some places unindurated sand, gravel, and shell beds, and these zones are designated, in descending order, as Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 1 is thinnest (<80 feet thick) and is limited to <20 percent (southern part) of the study area. Zone 2, the only regionally extensive zone, is characterized by moderately low permeability. Zone 3 is found in about 50 percent of the study area, has the highest transmissivities, and generally is in good hydraulic connection with the

  19. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Erber, A; Riemer, D; Bovenschulte, M; Weber, K

    1998-12-01

    We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes, the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of data on IF proteins of vertebrates and the results on IF proteins of Cephalochordata, Mollusca, Annelida, and Nematoda, two IF prototypes emerge. The L-type, which includes 35 sequences from 11 protostomic phyla, shares with the nuclear lamins the long version of the coil 1b subdomain and, in most cases, a homology segment of some 120 residues in the carboxyterminal tail domain. The S-type, which includes all four subfamilies (types I to IV) of vertebrate IF proteins, lacks 42 residues in the coil 1b subdomain and the carboxyterminal lamin homology segment. Since IF proteins from all three phyla of the chordates have the 42-residue deletion, this deletion arose in a progenitor prior to the divergence of the chordates into the urochordate, cephalochordate, and vertebrate lineages, possibly already at the origin of the deuterostomic branch. Four phyla recently placed into the protostomia on grounds of their 18S rDNA sequences (Brachiopoda, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes) show IF proteins of the L-type and fit by sequence identity criteria into the lophotrochozoic branch of the protostomia.

  20. Criegee Intermediates React with Levoglucosan on Water.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Hoffmann, Michael R; Colussi, A J

    2017-08-17

    Levoglucosan (Levo), a C6-anhydrosaccharide produced in the combustion of cellulosic materials, is the major component of aerosols produced from biomass burning over vast regions worldwide. Levo has long been considered chemically inert and thus has been used as a tracer of biomass burning sources. However, we now show that sugars including Levo, glucose, arabitol, and mannitol react rapidly with Criegee intermediates (CIs) generated during the ozonolysis of sesquiterpenes on the surface of water:acetonitrile microjets. Hydrophilic Levo reacts faster with CIs than with water or surface-active 1-octanol at air-aqueous interfaces. This unexpected phenomenon is likely associated with the relatively low water density at air-aqueous interfaces coupled with a higher gas-phase acidity of the saccharide hydroxyl groups (i.e., -OH) versus n-alkanols. Results presented herein show that aerosol saccharides are in fact reactive toward CIs. Given the abundance of saccharides in the atmosphere, they may be important contributors to the growth and mass loading of secondary organic aerosols.

  1. Intermediate endpoint biomarkers for lung cancer chemoprevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Klein-Parker, Helga; Gazdar, Adi; Guillaud, Martial; Payne, Peter W.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Band, Pierre; Palcic, Branko

    1998-04-01

    Given the demographics of current and ex-smoking populations in North America, lung cancer will be a major problem in the foreseeable future. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer holds great promise for the management of this disease. Unlike cervical cancer, the physical, complete removal/destruction of all dysplastic lesions in the bronchial tree is not possible; however, treatment of the lesions using a chemopreventive agent is. Intermediate biomarkers have been used to screen promising chemopreventive agents for larger population studies. We have examined the natural history of lung cancer development by following a group of subjects at high risk of developing lung cancer using fluorescence endoscopy to identify the areas of abnormality for biopsy. Approximately 900 biopsies have been collected in this fashion and graded by at least two experienced, expert pathologists. Using an interactive version of the Cyto-Savant (Oncometrics Imaging Corp.), cytometric and tissue architectural data were collected from these biopsies. Using only the data from the normal and invasive cancer biopsies, quantitative morphometric and architectural indices were generated and calculated for all the collected biopsies. These indices were compared with Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) of ten sites commonly associated with cancer. These results and the application of these quantitative measures to two small chemoprevention studies will be reported.

  2. Mechanical properties of intermediate filament proteins

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Elisabeth E.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filament form viscoelastic gels. The crosslinks holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking non-linear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large stains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual Ifs can be stretched to more than 2 or 3 times their resting length without breaking. At least ten different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of IF on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations. PMID:26795466

  3. Abrasion fission reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowry, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In-flight fission of 0.3-1.0 GeV A uranium beams at GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research and RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory have demonstrated that the yield of fission fragments is naturally attuned to the N, Z and excitation energy of the projectile prefragments formed in peripheral nuclear collisions. Similar measurements at intermediate energies (less than 0.1 GeV A) are scarce despite the potential proximity to the threshold of limiting fragmentation proposed by Benecke et al. and may provide a sensitive probe of prefragment formation. Cross section measurements spanning 20 different isotopic chains from nickel to silver are presented following in-flight fission reactions of an 80 MeV A uranium-238 beam on a diamond active target at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (East Lansing, USA). Fission products were identified on an event-by-event basis by correlating time-of-flight and energy-loss measurements in the S800 spectrograph with in-flight gamma-decays reconstructed by the Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETINA) in the rest frame of the projectile. Transmission through the S800 has been determined using state-of-the-art simulations developed in the LISE + + code. et al. A full author list is available on request.

  4. Intermediate Redshift Galaxy Clusters from DPOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, P. A. A.

    2003-06-01

    In this thesis we discuss the selection of intermediate redshift galaxy cluster candidates based on the Digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). Clusters are detected using the best DPOSS plates based on seeing and limiting magnitude. The search is further restricted to high galactic latitudes (|b| > 50 °), where stellar contamination is mild and nearly uniform. The input galaxy catalogs used for this search are limited to r = 21.1. The cluster selection is based on two techniques, the adaptive kernel and the voronoi tesselation methods. The final combined catalog contains ~ 10,000 candidates over ~ 2,700 square degrees, with ~ 0.30 and ~ 40 (Ngals is a richness estimate we provide). Rich clusters are detected down to z ~ 0.5. This cluster catalog is a supplement to the previous DPOSS catalogs, being the largest resource of rich clusters in this redshift range to date. In order to optimize the detection algorithms and estimate the contamination and completeness rates, we perform a large number of simulations for both catalogs. Redshift and richness estimates are also provided for all candidates in the two catalogs. As a by-product we present a comparison between the DPOSS and SDSS surveys. This comparison is used to estimate the DPOSS detection limits. Some of the projects to be developed in the future are also discussed.

  5. Tensile Properties of Single Desmin Intermediate Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Kreplak, Laurent; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli

    2008-01-01

    Within muscle fibers, desmin intermediate filaments (IFs) are major constituents of the extrasarcomeric cytoskeleton. However, their contribution to the mechanical properties of myocytes has remained elusive. We present an experimental approach to measure the extensibility and the tensile strength of in vitro reconstituted desmin IFs adsorbed to a solid support. The tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to push on single filaments perpendicular to the filament axis. The torque of the AFM cantilever was monitored during the pushing events to yield an estimate of the lateral force necessary to bend and stretch the filaments. Desmin IFs were stretched up to 3.4-fold with a maximum force of ∼3.5 nN. Fully stretched filaments exhibited a much smaller diameter than did native IFs, i.e., ∼3.5 nm compared to 12.6 nm, both by AFM and electron microscopy. Moreover, we combined the morphological and lateral force data to compute an average stress-strain curve for a single desmin filament. The main features were a pronounced strain-hardening regime above 50% extension and a tensile strength of at least 240 MPa. Because of these nonlinear tensile properties, desmin IFs may dissipate mechanical energy and serve as a physical link between successive sarcomeres during large deformation. PMID:18178641

  6. Understanding the White Dwarfs in Intermediate Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Kunegunda E.; Sion, E. M.

    2006-12-01

    The temperature of a white dwarf (WD) in a cataclysmic variable (CV) can tell you much about the accretion history of the binary system, and hence the evolution of the system. Best seen in the ultraviolet, a white dwarf's temperature is typically measured through modeling of a UV spectrum. This approach has been taken for numerous CVs modeling the spectrum as a combination of accretion disk and WD photosphere and also for polars, the strongly magnetic (B 10-80 MG) subset of CVs that contain magnetically controlled accretion streams rather than a disk. The task of extracting information about the WD in an intermediate polar (IP, magnetic CVs with B < 5 MG) is a bit trickier as they contain both magnetically controlled accretion streams and a truncated accretion disk. The fact that there are only five IPs for which WD temperatures have been estimated is a testament to the difficulty of modeling these systems. Here we present initial results from our project of determining the temperatures of WDs in IPs. We show that traditional methods of obtaining an inner accretion disk radius via optical emission line wings is likely inaccurate for most IPs, and that in some cases, the truncation radius is so large that the accretion disk does not contribute UV flux. Finally, we show that IPs follow the general trend of magnetic CVs containing cooler WDs than non-magnetic CVs. This work is supported in part by NSF grant AST0507514 and by NASA grant NNG04GE78G.

  7. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study.

  8. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  9. Visualizing virus assembly intermediates inside marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Raytcheva, Desislava; Flanagan, John; Khant, Htet A; Liu, Xiangan; Rochat, Ryan H; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; Ludtke, Steve J; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Schmid, Michael F; King, Jonathan A; Chiu, Wah

    2013-10-31

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms responsible for ∼25% of organic carbon fixation on the Earth. These bacteria began to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into bioenergy and oxygen more than two billion years ago. Cyanophages, which infect these bacteria, have an important role in regulating the marine ecosystem by controlling cyanobacteria community organization and mediating lateral gene transfer. Here we visualize the maturation process of cyanophage Syn5 inside its host cell, Synechococcus, using Zernike phase contrast electron cryo-tomography (cryoET). This imaging modality yields dramatic enhancement of image contrast over conventional cryoET and thus facilitates the direct identification of subcellular components, including thylakoid membranes, carboxysomes and polyribosomes, as well as phages, inside the congested cytosol of the infected cell. By correlating the structural features and relative abundance of viral progeny within cells at different stages of infection, we identify distinct Syn5 assembly intermediates. Our results indicate that the procapsid releases scaffolding proteins and expands its volume at an early stage of genome packaging. Later in the assembly process, we detected full particles with a tail either with or without an additional horn. The morphogenetic pathway we describe here is highly conserved and was probably established long before that of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting more complex organisms.

  10. Nucleoprotein complex intermediates in HIV-1 integration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Craigie, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Integration of retroviral DNA into the host genome is an essential step in the viral replication cycle. The viral DNA, made by reverse transcription in the cytoplasm, forms part of a large nucleoprotein complex called the preintegration complex (PIC). The viral integrase protein is the enzyme within the PIC that is responsible for integrating the viral DNA into the host genome. Integrase is tightly associated with the viral DNA within the PIC as demonstrated by functional assays. Integrase protein catalyzes the key DNA cutting and joining steps of integration in vitro with DNA substrates that mimic the ends of the viral DNA. Under most in vitro assay conditions the stringency of the reaction is relaxed; most products result from “half-site” integration in which only one viral DNA end is integrated into one strand of target DNA rather than concerted integration of pairs of DNA as occurs with PICs and in vivo. Under these relaxed conditions catalysis appears to occur without formation of the highly stable nucleoprotein complexes that is characteristic of the association of integrase with viral DNA in the PIC. Here we describe methods for the assembly of nucleoprotein complex intermediates in HIV-1 DNA integration from purified HIV-1 integrase and substrates that mimic the viral DNA ends. PMID:19232539

  11. Grand unification and intermediate scale supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-02-01

    With minimal field content and for an interesting range of the supersymmetric Higgs mixing parameter, 0.5 ≲ tan2 β ≲ 2, the superpartner mass scale, , is found to be at the intermediate scale, ~ 1010±1 GeV, near where the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling passes through zero. For any 4d supersymmetric grand unified symmetry spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value <Σ>, if superpotential interactions for Σ are forbidden e.g. by R symmetries, the uneaten color octet, Σ8, and weak triplet, Σ3, have masses of order m. The combination of superpartner and Σ8,3 states leads to successful gauge coupling unification, removing the disastrously high proton decay rate of minimal Standard Model unification. Proton decay could be seen in future experiments if ~ 1011 GeV,but not if it is lower. If there heating temperature after inflation, T R , is less than dark matter may be axions. If T R > , thermal LSP dark matter may lead to the environmental selection of a TeV-scale LSP, either wino or Higgsino, which could comprise all or just one component of dark matter. In the Higgsino case, the dark matter is found to behave inelastically in direct detection experiments, and gauge coupling unification occurs accurately without the need of any threshold corrections.

  12. Superphenix 1 intermediate heat exchanger fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, H.; Granito, F.; Pouderoux, P.

    1985-02-01

    The eight Superphenix 375-MW (thermal) intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) are similar in overall design to the Phenix components. Detailed design changes had to be made during fabrication on the following grounds: Due to seismic resistance, the support area was raised as high as possible to situate the component natural frequencies well out of the resonance peak range and remove thick plate-to-shell connections from heavy thermal load areas. Integration of lessons drawn from the Phenix incidents, due mainly to secondary sodium radial temperature disparities, resulted in the design of a more adaptable outlet header, together with a sodium mixing device, and in the reduction of temperature differences by heat insulation. To avoid circumferential temperature disparities, the iron shot biological shielding plug was replaced by stacked stainless steel plates within an outer shell, which in the new design, is not a supporting structure. The thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design of the component necessitated the elaboration of sophisticated computer codes, with validation of results on mock-ups. The detailed design studies and the actual manufacturing work had to adapt to both design developments and to inherent fabrication difficulties, mainly related to the very tight tolerances imposed for these exceptionally large components and to the welding of steel with an excessive boron content. The construction of the Creys-Malville IHXs afforded valuable industrial experience, which should provide a basis for the design of simpler and less costly IHX units for the forthcoming 1500-MW (electric) breeder.

  13. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  14. Substrate radical intermediates in soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aimin; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Jingyan; Brazeau, Brian J; Lipscomb, John D

    2005-12-09

    EPR spin-trapping experiments were carried out using the three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO). Spin-traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), alpha-4-pyridyl-1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), and nitrosobenzene (NOB) were used to investigate the possible formation of substrate radical intermediates during catalysis. In contrast to a previous report, the NADH-coupled oxidations of various substrates did not produce any trapped radical species when DMPO or POBN was present. However, radicals were detected by these traps when only the MMO reductase component and NADH were present. DMPO and POBN were found to be weak inhibitors of the MMO reaction. In contrast, NOB is a strong inhibitor for the MMO-catalyzed nitrobenzene oxidation reaction. When NOB was used as a spin-trap in the complete MMO system with or without substrate, EPR signals from an NOB radical were detected. We propose that a molecule of NOB acts simultaneously as a substrate and a spin-trap for MMO, yielding the long-lived radical and supporting a stepwise mechanism for MMO.

  15. Rate control based on intermediate description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Guo, Yi; Li, Houqiang

    2010-07-01

    Video adaptation has been proved to be an efficient technique in dealing with various constraints such as bandwidth limitation and user requirement in multimedia applications. However, existing methods including Scalable Video Coding and transcoding cannot get a fine performance when bandwidth constraints exist in various scenarios particularly in realtime applications. In this paper, we propose a novel rate control scheme based on intermediate description. The proposed scheme can provide fast rate control for narrow and time-varying transmission channel in scenarios such as video streaming, video sharing and video on demand. In this scheme, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients distribution is modeled by generalized Gaussian distribution, meanwhile the parameter information of this model is stored as side information for rate control. With the stored parameter information, encoder and transcoder can achieve the target bit-rate with low complexity. Furthermore, an initial Quantization Parameter (QP) determination method is also presented to calculate a proper QP for the Instantaneous Decoding Refresh (IDR) picture. Experimental results show that compared with JVT-G012 in H.264, the proposed rate control scheme can save more than 85% encoding time and obtain the required bit-rate more precisely, meanwhile gains a performance improvement by 0.2dB averagely.

  16. Wind Variability in Intermediate Luminosity B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1996-01-01

    This study used the unique spectroscopic diagnostics of intermediate luminosity B supergiants to determine the ubiquity and nature of wind variability. Specifically, (1) A detailed analysis of HD 64760 demonstrated massive ejections into its wind, provided the first clear demonstration of a 'photospheric connection' and ionization shifts in a stellar wind; (2) The international 'IUE MEGA campaign' obtained unprecedented temporal coverage of wind variability in rapidly rotating stars and demonstrated regularly repeating wind features originating in the photosphere; (3) A detailed analysis of wind variability in the rapidly rotating B1 Ib, gamma Ara demonstrated a two component wind with distinctly different mean states at different epochs; (4) A follow-on campaign to the MEGA project to study slowly rotating stars was organized and deemed a key project by ESA/NASA, and will obtain 30 days of IUE observations in May-June 1996; and (5) A global survey of archival IUE time series identified recurring spectroscopic signatures, identified with different physical phenomena. Items 4 and 5 above are still in progress and will be completed this summer in collaboration with Raman Prinja at University College, London.

  17. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  18. Slab temperature controls on the Tonga double seismic zone and slab mantle dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Wei, S. Shawn; Wiens, Douglas A.; van Keken, Peter E.; Cai, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Double seismic zones are two-layered distributions of intermediate-depth earthquakes that provide insight into the thermomechanical state of subducting slabs. We present new precise hypocenters of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Tonga subduction zone obtained using data from local island–based, ocean-bottom, and global seismographs. The results show a downdip compressional upper plane and a downdip tensional lower plane with a separation of about 30 km. The double seismic zone in Tonga extends to a depth of about 300 km, deeper than in any other subduction system. This is due to the lower slab temperatures resulting from faster subduction, as indicated by a global trend toward deeper double seismic zones in colder slabs. In addition, a line of high seismicity in the upper plane is observed at a depth of 160 to 280 km, which shallows southward as the convergence rate decreases. Thermal modeling shows that the earthquakes in this “seismic belt” occur at various pressures but at a nearly constant temperature, highlighting the important role of temperature in triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes. This seismic belt may correspond to regions where the subducting mantle first reaches a temperature of ~500°C, implying that metamorphic dehydration of mantle minerals in the slab provides water to enhance faulting. PMID:28097220

  19. Slab temperature controls on the Tonga double seismic zone and slab mantle dehydration.

    PubMed

    Wei, S Shawn; Wiens, Douglas A; van Keken, Peter E; Cai, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Double seismic zones are two-layered distributions of intermediate-depth earthquakes that provide insight into the thermomechanical state of subducting slabs. We present new precise hypocenters of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Tonga subduction zone obtained using data from local island-based, ocean-bottom, and global seismographs. The results show a downdip compressional upper plane and a downdip tensional lower plane with a separation of about 30 km. The double seismic zone in Tonga extends to a depth of about 300 km, deeper than in any other subduction system. This is due to the lower slab temperatures resulting from faster subduction, as indicated by a global trend toward deeper double seismic zones in colder slabs. In addition, a line of high seismicity in the upper plane is observed at a depth of 160 to 280 km, which shallows southward as the convergence rate decreases. Thermal modeling shows that the earthquakes in this "seismic belt" occur at various pressures but at a nearly constant temperature, highlighting the important role of temperature in triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes. This seismic belt may correspond to regions where the subducting mantle first reaches a temperature of ~500°C, implying that metamorphic dehydration of mantle minerals in the slab provides water to enhance faulting.

  20. Immunopathology of the noninfectious posterior and intermediate uveitides.

    PubMed

    Boyd, S R; Young, S; Lightman, S

    2001-01-01

    The posterior and intermediate uveitides share an underlying immune etiology; however, they can be clinically and immunopathologically distinguished. Although the initiating stimuli for posterior and intermediate uveities are not known, it is believed that an exogenous agent (such as a bacterium or a virus) or an endogenous molecule may induce disease. In either case, T-helper lymphocytes in conjunction with human leukocyte antigens are likely to be involved. This review examines the epidemiology, histology, immunopathology, and theories of pathogenesis of several posterior and intermediate uveitides, including sympathetic ophthalmia, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis, intermediate uveitis, white dot syndromes, and birdshot retinochoroidopathy.

  1. Seismological evidence for a localized mushy zone at the Earth's inner core boundary.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dongdong; Wen, Lianxing

    2017-08-01

    Although existence of a mushy zone in the Earth's inner core has been hypothesized several decades ago, no seismic evidence has ever been reported. Based on waveform modeling of seismic compressional waves that are reflected off the Earth's inner core boundary, here we present seismic evidence for a localized 4-8 km thick zone across the inner core boundary beneath southwest Okhotsk Sea with seismic properties intermediate between those of the inner and outer core and of a mushy zone. Such a localized mushy zone is found to be surrounded by a sharp inner core boundary nearby. These seismic results suggest that, in the current thermo-compositional state of the Earth's core, the outer core composition is close to eutectic in most regions resulting in a sharp inner core boundary, but deviation from the eutectic composition exists in some localized regions resulting in a mushy zone with a thickness of 4-8 km.The existence of a mushy zone in the Earth's inner core has been suggested, but has remained unproven. Here, the authors have discovered a 4-8 km thick mushy zone at the inner core boundary beneath the Okhotsk Sea, indicating that there may be more localized mushy zones at the inner core boundary.

  2. Magma mixing in a zoned alkalic intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.G.; Henry, C.D.; Barker, D.S.; Rubin, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The Marble Canyon stock is unique among the alkalic intrusions of the Trans-Pecos magmatic province in being zoned from a critically silica-undersaturated rim of alkali gabbro (AG) to a silica-oversaturated core of quartz syenite (QS). Hybrid rocks of intermediate chemical and mineralogical compositions occur between the rim and core. Nepheline-syenite dikes occur only within the AG. Silica-rich dikes of quartz trachyte, pegmatite, and aplite cut the AG, QS, and hybrid rocks. Thermodynamic calculations of silica activity in the magmas illustrate the presence of two trends with decreasing temperature: a silica-poor trend from AG to nepheline syenite and a silica-rich trend from hybrid rocks to QS. Least-square modeling of rock and mineral compositions suggests 1) the nepheline syenites were derived by crystal-liquid fractionation from nearly solidified AG at the rim of the stock, 2) AG magma farther from the rim mixed with a small proportion of granitic magma, and 3) the mixture then differentiated to produce the hybrid rocks and QS. Zirconium dioxide inclusions in plagioclase crystals of the hybrid rocks and QS indicate that the AG magma contained some crystals before it mixed with the granitic magma. Two origins for the granitic magma are possible: 1) a late-stage differentiate of a mantle-derived hypersthene-normative magma and 2) melting of crustal material by the AG magma. Recognition of magma mixing might not have been possible if the AG had been hypersthene-normative.

  3. Anaerobic bioventing of unsaturated zone contaminated with DDT and DNT.

    PubMed

    Shah, J K; Sayles, G D; Suidan, M T; Mihopoulos, P; Kaskassian, S

    2001-01-01

    Initial degradation of highly chlorinated compounds and nitroaromatic compounds found in munition waste streams is accelerated under anaerobic conditions followed by aerobic treatment of the degradation products. The establishment of anaerobic environment in a vadose zone can be accomplished by feeding appropriate anaerobic gas mixture, i.e., "anaerobic bioventing". The gas mixture contains an electron donor for the reduction of these compounds. Lab scale study was conducted to evaluate potential of anaerobic bioventing for the treatment of an unsaturated zone contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Hydrogen was used as the electron donor. Using the soil columns innoculate with anaerobic microorganisms, it was observed that by feeding a gas mixture of 1% hydrogen, 1% carbon dioxide and nitrogen, methanogenic conditions were established and DDT was reductively dechlorinated. 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) accumulated as the intermediate product. The half life of DDT was calculated to be 8.5 months. DNT completely disappeared after six months of operation and no intermediates could be detected.

  4. Geoid anomalies in the vicinity of subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The regional geoid of the southwest Pacific is matched reasonably well by results from a model of the upper mantle density structure (including slabs) associated with subduction zones of the region. Estimates of the geoid are obtained from Geos-3 and Seasat radar altimeter data. These data are very well suited to the task of detecting intermediate wavelength (600-4000 km) geopotential variations. Actually, subducting slabs can be expected to produce primarily intermediate and longer wavelength variations. Gravimetric profiles across trench/island arc complexes resolve primarily short wavelengths. The model represents subducting slabs as thin surfaces of anomalous mass per unit area. These surfaces are positioned using published seismicity results which detail the configuration of the Benioff zones. Crustal effects are ignored. Effects due to the contrast between the young thermal lithosphere of the behind-arc regions (marginal basins) and the older lithosphere seaward of the trench are modelled. Results indicate that the New Hebrides slab possesses an average areal density anomaly of about 300,000 gm/sq cm. This is about three times that which is estimated for the Tonga-Kermadec slab. Additional modelling suggests that slabs worldwide may be an important source of large, long wavelength gravity highs; i.e., they may contribute substantially to geopotential power of harmonic degree as low as three or four up to twenty or more.

  5. Comment on the article by Vázquez and Márquez-Garcia. High-risk vs. low-risk for thrombo-embolic events: who are in the intermediate-risk group? What should be done then?

    PubMed

    Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo Roberto; Barbosa-Filho, José

    2008-03-14

    Although high risk and low risk profile for thrombo-embolic events have been extensively and intensively investigated in multi-centre trials and described in detail in atrial fibrillation guidelines, the management of those at otherwise intermediate risk is still a 'no-one's zone'. Individual risk profile is mandatory to identify those who will benefit of anti-coagulation therapy and large-scale clinical trials are still awaited to define efficacy and efficiency profile in intermediate-risk group.

  6. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  7. Zone purification of potassium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susman, S.

    1969-01-01

    Procedure for removal of sodium and bromine from KCl involves zone refining in dilute halogen atmosphere. Distribution of Na and Br at concentrations of parts per million is followed by neutron-activation analyses.

  8. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  9. The oligocene Lund Tuff, Great Basin, USA: A very large volume monotonous intermediate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maughan, L.L.; Christiansen, E.H.; Best, M.G.; Gromme, C.S.; Deino, A.L.; Tingey, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual monotonous intermediate ignimbrites consist of phenocryst-rich dacite that occurs as very large volume (> 1000 km3) deposits that lack systematic compositional zonation, comagmatic rhyolite precursors, and underlying plinian beds. They are distinct from countless, usually smaller volume, zoned rhyolite-dacite-andesite deposits that are conventionally believed to have erupted from magma chambers in which thermal and compositional gradients were established because of sidewall crystallization and associated convective fractionation. Despite their great volume, or because of it, monotonous intermediates have received little attention. Documentation of the stratigraphy, composition, and geologic setting of the Lund Tuff - one of four monotonous intermediate tuffs in the middle-Tertiary Great Basin ignimbrite province - provides insight into its unusual origin and, by implication, the origin of other similar monotonous intermediates. The Lund Tuff is a single cooling unit with normal magnetic polarity whose volume likely exceeded 3000 km3. It was emplaced 29.02 ?? 0.04 Ma in and around the coeval White Rock caldera which has an unextended north-south diameter of about 50 km. The tuff is monotonous in that its phenocryst assemblage is virtually uniform throughout the deposit: plagioclase > quartz ??? hornblende > biotite > Fe-Ti oxides ??? sanidine > titanite, zircon, and apatite. However, ratios of phenocrysts vary by as much as an order of magnitude in a manner consistent with progressive crystallization in the pre-eruption chamber. A significant range in whole-rock chemical composition (e.g., 63-71 wt% SiO2) is poorly correlated with phenocryst abundance. These compositional attributes cannot have been caused wholly by winnowing of glass from phenocrysts during eruption, as has been suggested for the monotonous intermediate Fish Canyon Tuff. Pumice fragments are also crystal-rich, and chemically and mineralogically indistinguishable from bulk tuff. We

  10. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  11. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard W.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Hartenstine, John R.; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 725 K (170 to 450 C), including space nuclear power system radiators, fuel cells, and high temperature electronics cooling. Historically, water has been used in heat pipes at temperatures up to about 425 K (150 C). Recent life tests, updated below, demonstrate that titanium/water and Monel/water heat pipes can be used at temperatures up to 550 K (277 C), due to water's favorable transport properties. At temperatures above roughly 570 K (300 C), water is no longer a suitable fluid, due to high vapor pressure and low surface tension as the critical point is approached. At higher temperatures, another working fluid/envelope combination is required, either an organic or halide working fluid. An electromotive force method was used to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This procedure was used to reject aluminum and aluminum alloys as envelope materials, due to their high decomposition potential. Titanium and three corrosion resistant superalloys were chosen as envelope materials. Life tests were conducted with these envelopes and six different working fluids: AlBr3, GaCl3, SnCl4, TiCl4, TiBr4, and eutectic diphenyl/diphenyl oxide (Therminol VP-1/Dowtherm A). All of the life tests except for the GaCl3 are ongoing; the GaCl3 was incompatible. As the temperature approaches 725 K (450 C), cesium is a potential heat pipe working fluid. Life tests results are also presented for cesium/Monel 400 and cesium/70-30 copper/nickel heat pipes operating near 750 K (477 C). These materials are not suitable for long term operation, due to copper transport from the condenser to the evaporator.

  12. Reflection-Zone-Plate Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, John M.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave antenna, based on reflection holography, designed and tested. Modified to produce arbitrary beam patterns by controlling relief pattern. Antenna planar or contoured to supporting structure. Low off-axis radar cross section at frequencies removed from operational frequency. Interference pattern produced by spherical wave intersecting plane wave consists of concentric circles similar to Newton's rings. Pattern identical to Fresnel zone plate, which has lens properties. Plane wave incident on hologram, or zone plate, focused to point.

  13. Ground based silicon zoning program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of building flight hardware and carrying out experiments in space was investigated. The ground based investigation phase A/B of the experimental float zoning of silicon is outlined. The overall program goals, leading to recommending experiments to be done in phase C/D are spelled out. Thermophysical properties which must be accurately known to compare thermophysical models to experimental zoning of silicon are listed.

  14. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    SciTech Connect

    Tippetts, Trevor

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  15. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Melt-bearing shear zones: analogue experiments and comparison with examples from southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujic, Djordje; Mancktelow, Neil S.

    1998-06-01

    Analogue model experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of irregularly distributed weak sites in localising strain, as an aid to understanding shear zone development in partially molten rocks. The very weak inclusions consisted of Vaseline in a homogeneous matrix of paraffin wax, which has a power-law viscous rheology. Boundary conditions were those of pure shear at constant natural strain rate and confining stress σ3. The inclusions were initially perfect cylinders with axes parallel to the intermediate bulk strain axis Y. Conjugate shear zones nucleate on the inclusions and link up to form an anastomosing pattern of high strain zones of concentrated shear surrounding much more weakly deformed pods of near coaxial strain. The zones initiate at angles near 45° to the bulk shortening axis Z but stretch and rotate towards the X axis with increasing bulk strain. All inclusions nucleate shear zones, so that with increasing development of the anastomosing pattern, weak material occurs only within the high strain zones. The restriction of migmatite leucosomes to shear zones in natural examples could also reflect a corresponding control of melt on the sites of shear zone nucleation, rather than implying accumulation from the surrounding wall-rock. The model geometry is very similar to that observed in small-scale shear zones in migmatites of southern Madagascar. Elongate zones rich in weak inclusions, originally either perpendicular or at 45° to the Z axis, were also modelled for direct comparison with the regional-scale geometry of the Pan-African high-grade 'shear zones' on Madagascar.

  17. The global aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  18. 19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH CASTLE ROCK IN BACKGROUND. JUNCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL AND TOP CHORD WITH STABILIZING LATERAL STRUT ABOVE AND SWAY STRUT BELOW. ORIGINAL PAIRED DIAGONAL EYE BARS LATER REINFORCED WITH TIE ROD - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  19. The Needs of Intermediate Professions: Middle Engineers and Middle Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Nouvel, Jean

    In France, intermediate professions are jobs for holders of the professional baccalaureate plus 2-4 years of additional study. Intermediate technological education supplies a qualification that comes between secondary education and the qualified engineer. These people have a practical background that combines knowledge with skills and an ability…

  20. The Intermediate School Principal: An In-Basket Simulation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musella, Donald F.; Joyce, H. Donald

    The materials in this booklet simulate some of the problems that intermediate (junior high, middle, and senior elementary) school principals could face under actual working conditions. Taken from the real-life problems of some intermediate school principals, the exercises are presented in the form of in-basket items -- letters, memos, phone…

  1. Possible Source of Intermediate Ions over Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sunil D.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (r = 0.58) and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL) is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere. PMID:22701357

  2. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and intermediate...

  3. 9 CFR 2.77 - Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records: Carriers and intermediate handlers. 2.77 Section 2.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.77 Records: Carriers and intermediate...

  4. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  5. Machine Shop. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Arthur; Lambert, George

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a high school intermediate machine shop course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) designed to enable students to become familiar with the operation of machine shop equipment, to…

  6. 27 CFR 17.154 - Spirits contained in intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.154 Spirits contained in intermediate products. Spirits contained in an intermediate product are not subject to drawback until that...

  7. Digital Intermediation: An Exploration of User and Intermediary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Silvia Barcellos

    2003-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory case study of intermediation in a hospital digital library information service. Focuses on intermediation where user-intermediary communications were conducted through an asynchronous text-based digital medium. Contributions of the study are evidenced in a descriptive framework of nine categories of factors perceived as…

  8. Commercial and Advertising Art. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Floyd

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for an intermediate commercial and advertising art course for high school vocational students. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course involving specialized classroom, shop, and practical…

  9. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

  10. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

  11. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which that ingredient is used, or unless the formula for the ingredient is contained in one of the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer...

  12. Kent Intermediate School District: From Invisible Agency to Power Player

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Michigan's intermediate school districts were created by constitutional convention in 1962. Between their inception and 2000, few units of government were less visible and less understood. This article chronicles the emergence of one intermediate school district as an aggressive force for change in education and a locus of activity for community…

  13. Commercial and Advertising Art. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Floyd

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for an intermediate commercial and advertising art course for high school vocational students. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course involving specialized classroom, shop, and practical…

  14. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and to...

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  16. 42 CFR 54a.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54a.12 Section 54a.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.12 Treatment of intermediate organizations. If a...

  17. 42 CFR 54a.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54a.12 Section 54a.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.12 Treatment of intermediate organizations. If a...

  18. 42 CFR 54a.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54a.12 Section 54a.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.12 Treatment of intermediate organizations. If a...

  19. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and to...

  20. Exemplary Dissemination Programs for Intermediate Units Serving Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    Utilizing information derived from documents, site visits, correspondence, and personal interviews re: 6 intermediate education units serving rural schools which were initially identified via a mail survey, this report describes intermediate education units with exemplary information dissemination programs. Varying considerably, each program is…

  1. "Intermediate" seed storage physiology: populus as a natural model system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Intermediate” seeds are short lived because they are sensitive to the combined stresses of low moisture and temperature during storage. We hypothesize that intermediate seeds either 1) exhibit intermediate sensitivity to desiccation compared to orthodox and recalcitrant seeds; 2) are damaged by sub...

  2. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  3. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  4. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  5. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  6. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  7. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  8. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and to...

  9. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and to...

  10. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern…

  11. Thermolabile folding intermediates: inclusion body precursors and chaperonin substrates

    PubMed Central

    KING, JONATHAN; HAASE-PETTINGELL, CAMERON; ROBINSON, ANNE SKAJA; SPEED, MARGARET; MITRAKI, ANNA

    2007-01-01

    An unexpected aspect of the expression of cloned genes is the frequent failure of newly synthesized polypeptide chains to reach their native state, accumulating instead as insoluble inclusion bodies. Amyloid deposits represent a related state associated with a variety of human diseases. The critical folding intermediates at the juncture of productive folding and the off-pathway aggregation reaction have been identified for the phage P22 tailspike and coat proteins. Though the parallel β coil tailspike is thermostable, an early intracellular folding intermediate is thermolabile. As the temperature of intracellular folding is increased, this species partitions to inclusion bodies, a kinetic trap within the cell. The earliest intermediates along the in vitro aggregation pathway, sequential multimers of the thermolabile folding intermediates, have been directly identified by native gel electrophoresis. Temperature-sensitive folding (tsf) mutations identify sites in the β coil domain, which direct the junctional intermediate down the productive pathway. Global suppressors of tsf mutants inhibit the pathway to inclusion bodies, rescuing the mutant chains. These mutants identify sites important for avoiding aggregation. Coat folding intermediates also partition to inclusion bodies as temperature is increased. Coat tsf mutants are suppressed by overexpression of the GroE chaperonin, indicating that the thermolabile intermediate is a physiological substrate for GroE. We suggest that many proteins are likely to have thermolabile intermediates in their intracellular folding pathways, which will be precursors to inclusion body formation at elevated temperatures and therefore substrates for heat shock chaperonins. PMID:8566549

  12. 42 CFR 438.702 - Types of intermediate sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of intermediate sanctions. 438.702 Section 438.702 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.702 Types of intermediate...

  13. Intermediate mass fragment production in central collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Bauer, W.; Craig, D.; Cronqvist, M.; Gualtieri, E.; Hannuschke, S.; Lacey, R.; Llope, W.J.; Reposeur, T.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Yee, J.; Yennello, S.J. ); Nadasen, A. ); Tickle, R.S. ); Norbeck, E. )

    1993-03-29

    We present [ital Z] distributions for fragments with 1[le][ital Z][le]12 from central collisions of [sup 40] Ar+[sup 45]Sc at incident energies ranging from 35 to 115 MeV/nucleon. We find that the [ital Z] distributions can be described by a power law or an exponential and steepen with increasing incident energy. Over the range of incident energies studied, the average number of intermediate mass fragments decreases while the average number of particles increases. When combined with previous results for the charge distributions, a minimum is observed in the extracted power-law parameter.

  14. Intermediate Filaments and Polarization in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Coch, Richard A.; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton provides a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. This is particularly apparent in the intestinal epithelium, in which the intermediate filament network is localized below the apical terminal web region and is anchored to the apical junction complex. This arrangement is conserved from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The review summarizes compositional, morphological and functional features of the polarized intermediate filament cytoskeleton in intestinal cells of nematodes and mammals. We emphasize the cross talk of intermediate filaments with the actin- and tubulin-based cytoskeleton. Possible links of the intermediate filament system to the distribution of apical membrane proteins and the cell polarity complex are highlighted. Finally, we discuss how these properties relate to the establishment and maintenance of polarity in the intestine. PMID:27429003

  15. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.

    PubMed

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance.

  16. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater.

  17. Soils characterisation along ecological forest zones in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Alois; Dhendup, Kuenzang; Bahadur Rai, Prem; Gratzer, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Elevational gradients are commonly used to characterise vegetation patterns and, to a lesser extent, also to describe soil development. Furthermore, interactions between vegetation cover and soil characteristics are repeatedly observed. Combining information on soil development and easily to distinguish forest zones along elevational gradients, creates an added value for forest management decisions especially in less studied mountain regions. For this purpose, soil profiles along elevational gradients in the temperate conifer forests of Western and Central Bhutan, ranging from 2600-4000m asl were investigated. Thereby, 82 soil profiles were recorded and classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Based on 19 representative profiles, genetic horizons were sampled and analysed. We aim to provide fundamental information on forest soil characteristics along these elevational transects. The results are presented with regard to ecological forest zones. The elevational distribution of the reference soil groups showed distinct distribution ranges for most of the soils. Cambisols were the most frequently recorded reference soil group with 58% of the sampled profiles, followed by Podzols in higher elevations, and Stagnosols, at intermediate elevations. Fluvisols occurred only at the lower end of the elevational transects and Phaeozems only at drier site conditions in the cool conifer dry forest zone. The humus layer thickness differs between forest zones and show a shift towards increased organic layer (O-layer) with increasing elevation. The reduced biomass productivity with increasing elevation and subsequently lower litter input compensates for the slow decomposition rates. The increasing O-layer thickness is an indicator of restrained intermixing of organic and mineral components by soil organisms at higher elevation. Overall, the soil types and soil characteristics along the elevational gradient showed a continuous and consistent change, instead

  18. Oyster resource zones of the Barataria and Terrebonne estuaries of Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, E.; Soniat, T.; Cheramie, V.; Dugas, R.; Barras, J.; Lagarde, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 1:100,000 scale map delineating the subtidal oyster resource zones within the Barataria and Terrebonne estuaries was developed. Strategies to accomplish the task included interviews with Louisiana oystermen and state biologists to develop a draft map, field sampling to document oyster (Crassostrea virginica), Dermo (Perkinsus marinus), and oyster drill (Stramonita haemastoma) abundances, use of historical salinity data to aid in map verification, and public meetings to allow comment on a draft before final map preparation. Four oyster resource zones were delineated on the final map: a dry zone where subtidal oysters may be found when salinities increase, a wet zone where subtidal oysters may be found when salinities are suppressed, a wet-dry zone where subtidal oysters may be consistently found due to favorable salinities, and a high-salinity zone where natural oyster populations are predominantly found in intertidal and shallow waters. The dry zone is largely coincident with the brackish-marsh habitat, with some intermediate-type marsh. The wet-dry zone is found at the interface of the brackish and saline marshes, but extends further seaward than up-estuary. The wet zone and the high salinity zones are areas of mostly open water fringed by salt marshes. The dry zone encompasses 91,775 hectares, of which 48,788 hectares are water (53%). The wet zone encompasses 83,525 hectares, of which 66,958 hectares are water (80%). The wet-dry zone encompasses 171,893 hectares, of which 104,733 hectares are water (61%). The high salinity zone encompasses 125,705 hectares, of which 113,369 hectares are water (90%). There is a clear trend of increasing water habitat in the four zones over the past 30 years, and oysters are now cultivated on bottoms that were once marsh. The map should be useful in managing the effects upon oysters of freshwater diversions into the estuaries. It provides a pre-diversion record of the location of oyster resource zones and should prove helpful in

  19. Intermediate Water Radiocarbon Anomalies During the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, S. P.; Lehman, S. J.; Marchitto, T. M.; Ninnemann, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Several recent reconstructions of intermediate water radiocarbon activities (Δ14C) have revealed intervals of very low Δ14C during the last deglaciation [Bryan et al., 2010; Marchitto et al., 2007; Thornalley et al., 2011]. Anomalously low Δ14C values coincided with increases in atmospheric CO2 and decreases in atmospheric Δ14C. As such, these Δ14C anomalies have been interpreted as the transfer of 14C-depleted carbon from the deep ocean to the upper ocean and atmosphere. An important component of this interpretation is the transport of low-Δ14C waters from the Southern Ocean, where they presumably upwelled from the deep ocean, northward to the core sites via intermediate waters. However, contrary to expectations, anomalously low Δ14C values have not been found at intermediate water sites closer to the Southern Ocean [e.g., De Pol-Holz et al., 2009; Rose et al., 2010]. In this talk, we will present new intermediate water Δ14C measurements from ~53°S along the Chile Margin, reconstructed using sediment core MD07-3128. Consistent with other intermediate water records from the Southern Hemisphere, these measurements do not show anomalously low Δ14C during the deglaciation. Instead, these results indicate lower Δ14C values during the Last Glacial Maximum and a rapid increase in Δ14C at the start of the deglaciation. We interpret this change as a shift in the boundary between Circumpolar Deep Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water. These results along with the previously published records provide strong evidence that low-Δ14C waters were not transported by an intermediate water mass analogous to modern Antarctic Intermediate Water. We synthesize the currently available deglacial intermediate water Δ14C records and discuss possible changes to Southern Ocean intermediate water formation, which could reconcile the available data.

  20. The Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Ethan; Clark, Martyn; Rasmussen, Roy; Arnold, Jeffrey; Brekke, Levi

    2015-04-01

    The high-resolution, non-hydrostatic atmospheric models often used for dynamical downscaling are extremely computationally expensive, and, for a certain class of problems, their complexity hinders our ability to ask key scientific questions, particularly those related to hydrology and climate change. For changes in precipitation in particular, an atmospheric model grid spacing capable of resolving the structure of mountain ranges is of critical importance, yet such simulations can not currently be performed with an advanced regional climate model for long time periods, over large areas, and forced by many climate models. Here we present the newly developed Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) capable of simulating critical atmospheric processes two to three orders of magnitude faster than a state of the art regional climate model. ICAR uses a simplified dynamical formulation based off of linear theory, combined with the circulation field from a low-resolution climate model. The resulting three-dimensional wind field is used to advect heat and moisture within the domain, while sub-grid physics (e.g. microphysics) are processed by standard and simplified physics schemes from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. ICAR is tested in comparison to WRF by downscaling a climate change scenario over the Colorado Rockies. Both atmospheric models predict increases in precipitation across the domain with a greater increase on the western half. In contrast, statistically downscaled precipitation using multiple common statistical methods predict decreases in precipitation over the western half of the domain. Finally, we apply ICAR to multiple CMIP5 climate models and scenarios with multiple parameterization options to investigate the importance of uncertainty in sub-grid physics as compared to the uncertainty in the large scale climate scenario. ICAR is a useful tool for climate change and weather forecast downscaling, particularly for orographic